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Sample records for spiny pocket mouse

  1. Characteristics and tolerances of the pocket mouse and incidence of disease. [CNS lesions during space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, R. G.; Kraft, L. M.; Simmonds, R. C.; Bailey, O. T.; Dunlap, W. A.; Haymaker, W.

    1975-01-01

    Studies carried out on the pocket mouse colony on Apollo XVII are reported. They revealed no serological evidence of viral disease, no pathogenic enterobacteria or respiratory Mycoplasma on culture, a 25% incidence of sarcosporidiosis, and a 2% incidence of chronic meningitis or meningoencephalitis. It is concluded that the pocket mouse is a highly adaptive animal and very well-suited to space flight.

  2. Effects of birth asphyxia on neonatal hippocampal structure and function in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiss, B; Coleman, H A; Castillo-Melendez, M; Ireland, Z; Walker, D W; Parkington, H C

    2011-11-01

    Studies of human neonates, and in animal experiments, suggest that birth asphyxia results in functional compromise of the hippocampus, even when structural damage is not observable or resolves in early postnatal life. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in hippocampal function occur in a model of birth asphyxia in the precocial spiny mouse where it is reported there is no major lesion or infarct. Further, to assess if, as in human infants, this functional deficit has a sex-dependent component. At 37 days gestation (term=39 days) spiny mice fetuses were either delivered immediately by caesarean section (control group) or exposed to 7.5min of in utero asphyxia causing systemic acidosis and hypoxia. At 5 days of age hippocampal function was assessed ex vivo in brain slices, or brains were collected for examination of structure or protein expression. This model of birth asphyxia did not cause infarct or cystic lesion in the postnatal day 5 (P5) hippocampus, and the number of proliferating or pyknotic cells in the hippocampus was unchanged, although neuronal density in the CA1 and CA3 was increased. Protein expression of synaptophysin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and the inositol trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP(3)R1) were all significantly increased after birth asphyxia, while long-term potentiation (LTP), paired pulse facilitation (PPF), and post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) were all reduced at P5 by birth asphyxia. In control P5 pups, PPF and synaptic fatigue were greater in female compared to male pups, and after birth asphyxia PPF and synaptic fatigue were reduced to a greater extent in female vs. male pups. In contrast, the asphyxia-induced increase in synaptophysin expression and neuronal density were greater in male pups. Thus, birth asphyxia in this precocial species causes functional deficits without major structural damage, and there is a sex-dependent effect on the hippocampus. This may be a clinically relevant model for assessing

  3. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  4. Effect of maternal administration of allopregnanolone before birth asphyxia on neonatal hippocampal function in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiss, Bobbi; Parkington, Helena C; Coleman, Harold A; Dickinson, Hayley; Yawno, Tamara; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Hirst, Jon J; Walker, David W

    2012-01-18

    Clinically, treatment options where fetal distress is anticipated or identified are limited. Allopregnanolone is an endogenous steroid, that positively modulates the GABA(A) receptor, and that has anti-apoptotic and anti-excitotoxic actions, reducing brain damage in adult animal models of brain injury. We sought to determine if prophylactic treatment of the pregnant female with a single dose of this steroid could reduce birth asphyxia-induced losses in hippocampal function at 5 days of age (P5) in spiny mouse neonates (Acomys cahirinus). At 37 days gestation (term=39 days) and 1h before inducing birth asphyxia, spiny mice dams were injected subcutaneously (0.2 ml) with either 3mg/kg allopregnanolone or 20% w/v β-cyclodextrin vehicle. One hour later, fetuses were either delivered immediately by caesarean section (control group) or exposed to 7.5 min of in utero asphyxia, causing acidosis and hypoxia. At P5, ex vivo hippocampal plasticity was assessed, or brains collected to determine cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PCNA) or calcium channel expression (inositol trisphosphate receptor type 1; IP(3)R1) using immunohistochemistry. Allopregnanolone partially prevented the decrease in long term potentiation at P5, and the asphyxia-induced increase in IP(3)R1 expression in CA1 pyramidal neurons. There was no effect of allopregnanolone on the asphyxia induced impairment of the input/output (I/O) curve and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF). In control birth pups, maternal allopregnanolone treatment caused significant changes in short term post-synaptic plasticity and also reduced hippocampal proliferation at P5. These findings show that allopregnanolone can modulate hippocampal development and synaptic function in a normoxic or hypoxic environment, possibly by modifying calcium metabolism. Best practice for treatment dose and timing of treatment will need to be carefully considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolic depression during warm torpor in the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) does not affect mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimpo, Kirsten; Kutschke, Maria; Kastl, Anja; Meyer, Carola W; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during daily torpor and hibernation to save energy. Recently, depression of mitochondrial substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria was observed and associated to hypothermic/hypometabolic states in Djungarian hamsters, mice and hibernators. We aimed to clarify whether hypothermia or hypometabolism causes mitochondrial depression during torpor by studying the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus), a desert rodent which performs daily torpor at high ambient temperatures of 32°C. Notably, metabolic rate but not body temperature is significantly decreased under these conditions. In isolated liver, heart, skeletal muscle or kidney mitochondria we found no depression of respiration. Moderate cold exposure lowered torpor body temperature but had minor effects on minimal metabolic rate in torpor. Neither decreased body temperature nor metabolic rate impacted mitochondrial respiration. Measurements of mitochondrial proton leak kinetics and determination of P/O ratio revealed no differences in mitochondrial efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide release from mitochondria was not affected. We conclude that interspecies differences of mitochondrial depression during torpor do not support a general relationship between mitochondrial respiration, body temperature and metabolic rate. In Golden spiny mice, reduction of metabolic rate at mild temperatures is not triggered by depression of substrate oxidation as found in liver mitochondria from other cold-exposed rodents. © 2013.

  6. Loss of Mitochondrial Ndufs4 in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons Mediates Progressive Motor Impairment in a Mouse Model of Leigh Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inability of mitochondria to generate energy leads to severe and often fatal myoencephalopathies. Among these, Leigh syndrome (LS is one of the most common childhood mitochondrial diseases; it is characterized by hypotonia, failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency and progressive mental and motor dysfunction, leading to early death. Basal ganglia nuclei, including the striatum, are affected in LS patients. However, neither the identity of the affected cell types in the striatum nor their contribution to the disease has been established. Here, we used a mouse model of LS lacking Ndufs4, a mitochondrial complex I subunit, to confirm that loss of complex I, but not complex II, alters respiration in the striatum. To assess the role of striatal dysfunction in the pathology, we selectively inactivated Ndufs4 in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs, which account for over 95% of striatal neurons. Our results show that lack of Ndufs4 in MSNs causes a non-fatal progressive motor impairment without affecting the cognitive function of mice. Furthermore, no inflammatory responses or neuronal loss were observed up to 6 months of age. Hence, complex I deficiency in MSNs contributes to the motor deficits observed in LS, but not to the neural degeneration, suggesting that other neuronal populations drive the plethora of clinical signs in LS.

  7. Differential changes in thalamic and cortical excitatory synapses onto striatal spiny projection neurons in a Huntington disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Karolina; Raymond, Lynn A

    2016-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansion in the gene encoding huntingtin, predominantly affects the striatum, especially the spiny projection neurons (SPN). The striatum receives excitatory input from cortex and thalamus, and the role of the former has been well-studied in HD. Here, we report that mutated huntingtin alters function of thalamostriatal connections. We used a novel thalamostriatal (T-S) coculture and an established corticostriatal (C-S) coculture, generated from YAC128 HD and WT (FVB/NJ background strain) mice, to investigate excitatory neurotransmission onto striatal SPN. SPN in T-S coculture from WT mice showed similar mini-excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency and amplitude as in C-S coculture; however, both the frequency and amplitude were significantly reduced in YAC128 T-S coculture. Further investigation in T-S coculture showed similar excitatory synapse density in WT and YAC128 SPN dendrites by immunostaining, suggesting changes in total dendritic length or probability of release as possible explanations for mEPSC frequency changes. Synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) current was similar, but extrasynaptic current, associated with cell death signaling, was enhanced in YAC128 SPN in T-S coculture. Employing optical stimulation of cortical versus thalamic afferents and recording from striatal SPN in brain slice, we found increased glutamate release probability and reduced AMPAR/NMDAR current ratios in thalamostriatal synapses, most prominently in YAC128. Enhanced extrasynaptic NMDAR current in YAC128 SPN was apparent with both cortical and thalamic stimulation. We conclude that thalamic afferents to the striatum are affected early, prior to an overt HD phenotype; however, changes in NMDAR localization in SPN are independent of the source of glutamatergic input. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy prevents acute and long-term deficits in skeletal muscle after birth asphyxia: a study of structure and function of hind limb muscle in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, Domenic A; Ellery, Stacey J; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-12-01

    Maternal antenatal creatine supplementation protects the brain, kidney, and diaphragm against the effects of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse. In this study, we examined creatine's potential to prevent damage to axial skeletal muscles. Pregnant spiny mice were fed a control or creatine-supplemented diet from mid-pregnancy, and 1 d before term (39 d), fetuses were delivered by c-section with or without 7.5 min of birth asphyxia. At 24 h or 33 ± 2 d after birth, gastrocnemius muscles were obtained for ex-vivo study of twitch-tension, muscle fatigue, and structural and histochemical analysis. Birth asphyxia significantly reduced cross-sectional area of all muscle fiber types (P birth protects the muscle from asphyxia-induced damage at birth.

  9. Metabarcoding of Fecal Samples to Determine Herbivore Diets: A Case Study of the Endangered Pacific Pocket Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Vandergast, Amy G; Cornman, Robert S; Adams, Cynthia R; Kohn, Joshua R; Fisher, Robert N; Brehme, Cheryl S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diet of an endangered species illuminates the animal's ecology, habitat requirements, and conservation needs. However, direct observation of diet can be difficult, particularly for small, nocturnal animals such as the Pacific pocket mouse (Heteromyidae: Perognathus longimembris pacificus). Very little is known of the dietary habits of this federally endangered rodent, hindering management and restoration efforts. We used a metabarcoding approach to identify source plants in fecal samples (N = 52) from the three remaining populations known. The internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of the nuclear ribosomal loci were sequenced following the Illumina MiSeq amplicon strategy and processed reads were mapped to reference databases. We evaluated a range of threshold mapping criteria and found the best-performing setting generally recovered two distinct mock communities in proportions similar to expectation. We tested our method on captive animals fed a known diet and recovered almost all plant sources, but found substantial heterogeneity among fecal pellets collected from the same individual at the same time. Observed richness did not increase with pooling of pellets from the same individual. In field-collected samples, we identified 4-14 plant genera in individual samples and 74 genera overall, but over 50 percent of reads mapped to just six species in five genera. We simulated the effects of sequencing error, variable read length, and chimera formation to infer taxon-specific rates of misassignment for the local flora, which were generally low with some exceptions. Richness at the species and genus levels did not reach a clear asymptote, suggesting that diet breadth remained underestimated in the current pool of samples. Large numbers of scat samples are therefore needed to make inferences about diet and resource selection in future studies of the Pacific pocket mouse. We conclude that our minimally invasive method is promising for determining herbivore

  10. Metabarcoding of Fecal Samples to Determine Herbivore Diets: A Case Study of the Endangered Pacific Pocket Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D Iwanowicz

    Full Text Available Understanding the diet of an endangered species illuminates the animal's ecology, habitat requirements, and conservation needs. However, direct observation of diet can be difficult, particularly for small, nocturnal animals such as the Pacific pocket mouse (Heteromyidae: Perognathus longimembris pacificus. Very little is known of the dietary habits of this federally endangered rodent, hindering management and restoration efforts. We used a metabarcoding approach to identify source plants in fecal samples (N = 52 from the three remaining populations known. The internal transcribed spacers (ITS of the nuclear ribosomal loci were sequenced following the Illumina MiSeq amplicon strategy and processed reads were mapped to reference databases. We evaluated a range of threshold mapping criteria and found the best-performing setting generally recovered two distinct mock communities in proportions similar to expectation. We tested our method on captive animals fed a known diet and recovered almost all plant sources, but found substantial heterogeneity among fecal pellets collected from the same individual at the same time. Observed richness did not increase with pooling of pellets from the same individual. In field-collected samples, we identified 4-14 plant genera in individual samples and 74 genera overall, but over 50 percent of reads mapped to just six species in five genera. We simulated the effects of sequencing error, variable read length, and chimera formation to infer taxon-specific rates of misassignment for the local flora, which were generally low with some exceptions. Richness at the species and genus levels did not reach a clear asymptote, suggesting that diet breadth remained underestimated in the current pool of samples. Large numbers of scat samples are therefore needed to make inferences about diet and resource selection in future studies of the Pacific pocket mouse. We conclude that our minimally invasive method is promising for

  11. Assessment of reproductive function in southern African spiny mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To provide the necessary tools in order to fill this gap, this study examined the suitability of two enzyme immunoassays for monitoring male and female reproductive function in the southern African spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus) based on faecal hormone analysis. Fourteen non-pregnant and one pregnant female and ...

  12. Design of pocket foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelec, Dejan

    2010-01-01

    Graduation thesis consists of three parts. The first part is theoretical. General facts about shallow and deep foundations are presented with an emphasis on shallow foundations. Pocket foundations are explained in detail. The calculation of stresses below footing slab under different types of loads is given. In the second part the procedure for design of pocket foundation is explained. Two examples of design of pocket foundations are presented: pocket foundation with flat inner surface of foo...

  13. Müllerian mimicry in aposematic spiny plants

    OpenAIRE

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2009-01-01

    Müllerian mimicry is common in aposematic animals but till recently, like other aspects of plant aposematism was almost unknown. Many thorny, spiny and prickly plants are considered aposematic because their sharp defensive structures are colorful and conspicuous. Many of these spiny plant species (e.g., cacti and Agave in North American deserts; Aloe, Euphorbia and acacias with white thorns in Africa; spiny plants in Ohio; and spiny members of the Asteraceae in the Mediterranean basin) have o...

  14. Macrophages are necessary for epimorphic regeneration in African spiny mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Jennifer; Gawriluk, Thomas R; Gensel, John C; Seifert, Ashley W

    2017-05-16

    How the immune system affects tissue regeneration is not well understood. In this study, we used an emerging mammalian model of epimorphic regeneration, the African spiny mouse, to examine cell-based inflammation and tested the hypothesis that macrophages are necessary for regeneration. By directly comparing inflammatory cell activation in a 4 mm ear injury during regeneration ( Acomys cahirinus ) and scarring ( Mus musculus ), we found that both species exhibited an acute inflammatory response, with scarring characterized by stronger myeloperoxidase activity. In contrast, ROS production was stronger and more persistent during regeneration. By depleting macrophages during injury, we demonstrate a functional requirement for these cells to stimulate regeneration. Importantly, the spatial distribution of activated macrophage subtypes was unique during regeneration with pro-inflammatory macrophages failing to infiltrate the regeneration blastema. Together, our results demonstrate an essential role for inflammatory cells to regulate a regenerative response.

  15. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Marshall R. Haferkamp

    1996-01-01

    Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined...

  16. The periodontal pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Nikolaos

    2018-02-01

    Periodontal disease is synonymous with the presence of periodontal pockets, and very often the clinical success of periodontal therapy is based on periodontal pocket depth reduction. Therefore, in the fields of periodontology and implant dentistry, significant research effort has been placed on the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of periodontal/peri-implant disease and as a consequence on pocket pathology. In this volume of Periodontology 2000, the in-depth reviews include topics ranging from preclinical models, anatomy and structure of tissues, and molecular and bacterial components, to treatments of pockets around teeth and implants. These reviews aim to provide the readers with current and future perspectives on the different areas of research into the periodontal pocket. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the ornate spiny ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cleotide repeat markers for the pacific Abalone (Haliotis Discus. Hannai). Conserv. Genet. Resour. 4, 939–941. Williams K. C. 2004 Spiny lobster ecology and exploitation in the South China Sea region. Australian Centre for International. Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Canberra, Australia. Williams K. C. 2009 Spiny Lobster ...

  18. Google Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Calishain, Tara; Adams, DJ

    2003-01-01

    Beneath its deceptively simple search form, Google is a remarkably powerful and flexible search engine that indexes billions of web pages, handling more than 150 million searches a day. You know that what you're looking for must be in there somewhere, but how do you make Google work for you? Crafted from our best-selling Google Hacks title, the Google Pocket Guide provides exactly the information you need to make your searches faster and more effective, right from the start. The Google Pocket Guide unleashes the power behind that blinking cursor by delivering: A thorough but concise tour o

  19. Newnes electrical pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, E A

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electrical Pocket Book, Twenty-first Edition, provides engineers with convenient access to various facts, tables, and formulae relating to the particular branch of engineering being dealt with. In the case of electrical engineering, it is essential that the engineer have a clear understanding of the methods by which the various formulae are derived to ensure that any particular formulae is applicable to the conditions being considered. The first section of the Pocket Book is devoted to the theoretical groundwork upon which all the practical applications are based. This covers symbols,

  20. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  1. Data communications pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Data Communications Pocket Book, Second Edition presents information relevant to data communication. The book provides tabulated reference materials with a brief description and diagrams. The coverage of the text includes abbreviations, terminal control codes, and conversion tables. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the interconnection of computer systems.

  2. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide to significant transportation statistics. All the previous seven sections plus a new Major Trends section are included. This year marks the 20th anniversary of the Pocket Guide, which ...

  3. Glutamine synthetase expression in perinatal spiny mouse liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Boon, L.; van Hemert, F. J.; Labruyère, W. T.; de Jong, P.; Ruijter, J. M.; Moorman, A. F.

    1999-01-01

    The pronounced increase in the protein/mRNA ratio of ammonia-metabolising enzymes in rat liver in the last prenatal week represents a clear example of a post-transcriptional level of control of gene expression. Both the underlying mechanism, namely an increase in translational efficiency of the mRNA

  4. SQL Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gennick, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    If you're a programmer or database administrator who uses SQL in your day-to-day work, this popular pocket guide is the ideal on-the-job reference. You'll find many examples that address the language's complexity, along with key aspects of SQL used in IBM DB2 Release 9.7, MySQL 5.1, Oracle Database 11g Release 2, PostgreSQL 9.0, and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Release 2. SQL Pocket Guide describes how these database systems implement SQL syntax for querying, managing transactions, and making changes to data. It also shows how the systems use SQL functions, regular expression syntax, and type c

  5. Software engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Software Engineer's Pocket Book provides a concise discussion on various aspects of software engineering. The book is comprised of six chapters that tackle various areas of concerns in software engineering. Chapter 1 discusses software development, and Chapter 2 covers programming languages. Chapter 3 deals with operating systems. The book also tackles discrete mathematics and numerical computation. Data structures and algorithms are also explained. The text will be of great use to individuals involved in the specification, design, development, implementation, testing, maintenance, and qualit

  6. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Updated for both Python 3.4 and 2.7, this convenient pocket guide is the perfect on-the-job quick reference. You’ll find concise, need-to-know information on Python types and statements, special method names, built-in functions and exceptions, commonly used standard library modules, and other prominent Python tools. The handy index lets you pinpoint exactly what you need.

  7. GDB Pocket Reference

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    Robbins, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The GNU debugger is valuable for testing, fixing, and retesting software because it allows you to see exactly what's going on inside of a program as it's executing. This new pocket reference shows you how to specify a target for debugging, perform a careful examination to find the cause of program failure, and make quick changes for further testing. The guide covers several popular programming languages.

  8. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  9. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  10. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  11. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A

    2007-01-01

    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  12. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  13. NUnit Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill

    2009-01-01

    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  14. Linux Desktop Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brickner, David

    2005-01-01

    While Mac OS X garners all the praise from pundits, and Windows XP attracts all the viruses, Linux is quietly being installed on millions of desktops every year. For programmers and system administrators, business users, and educators, desktop Linux is a breath of fresh air and a needed alternative to other operating systems. The Linux Desktop Pocket Guide is your introduction to using Linux on five of the most popular distributions: Fedora, Gentoo, Mandriva, SUSE, and Ubuntu. Despite what you may have heard, using Linux is not all that hard. Firefox and Konqueror can handle all your web bro

  15. Newnes microprocessor pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Money, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Newnes Microprocessor Pocket Book explains the basic hardware operation of a microprocessor and describes the actions of the various types of instruction that can be executed. A summary of the characteristics of many of the popular microprocessors is presented. Apart from the popular 8- and 16-bit microprocessors, some details are also given of the popular single chip microcomputers and of the reduced instruction set computer (RISC) type processors such as the Transputer, Novix FORTH processor, and Acorn ARM processor.Comprised of 15 chapters, this book discusses the principles involved in bot

  16. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  17. Electronics pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, E A

    1981-01-01

    Electronics Pocket Book, Fourth Edition is a nonmathematical presentation of the many varied topics covered by electronics. The book tackles electron physics, electronic components (i.e. resistors, capacitors, and conductors), integrated circuits, and the principles of a.c. and d.c. amplifiers. The text also discusses oscillators, digital circuits, digital computers, and optoelectronics (i.e., sensors, emitters, and devices that utilize light). Communications (such as line and radio communications, transmitters, receivers, and digital techniques); the principles and examples of servosystems; a

  18. Windows Powershell Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, Lee

    2009-01-01

    This portable reference to Windows PowerShell summarizes both the command shell and scripting language, and provides a concise reference to the major tasks that make PowerShell so successful. Written by Microsoft PowerShell team member Lee Holmes, and excerpted from his Windows PowerShell Cookbook, Windows PowerShell Pocket Reference offers up-to-date coverage of PowerShell's 1.0 release. It's an ideal on-the-job tool for Windows administrators who don't have time to plow through huge books or search online.

  19. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan

    2008-01-01

    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  20. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  1. RTF Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Rich Text Format, or RTF, is the internal markup language used by Microsoft Word and understood by dozens of other word processors. RTF is a universal file format that pervades practically every desktop. Because RTF is text, it's much easier to generate and process than binary .doc files. Any programmer working with word processing documents needs to learn enough RTF to get around, whether it's to format text for Word (or almost any other word processor), to make global changes to an existing document, or to convert Word files to (or from) another format. RTF Pocket Guide is a concise and e

  2. New rules governing synaptic plasticity in core nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xincai; Martin, Gilles E

    2012-12-01

    The nucleus accumbens is a forebrain region responsible for drug reward and goal-directed behaviors. It has long been believed that drugs of abuse exert their addictive properties on behavior by altering the strength of synaptic communication over long periods of time. To date, attempts at understanding the relationship between drugs of abuse and synaptic plasticity have relied on the high-frequency long-term potentiation model of T.V. Bliss & T. Lømo [(1973) Journal of Physiology, 232, 331-356]. We examined synaptic plasticity using spike-timing-dependent plasticity, a stimulation paradigm that reflects more closely the in vivo firing patterns of mouse core nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons and their afferents. In contrast to other brain regions, the same stimulation paradigm evoked bidirectional long-term plasticity. The magnitude of spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation (tLTP) changed with the delay between action potentials and excitatory post-synaptic potentials, and frequency, whereas that of spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (tLTD) remained unchanged. We showed that tLTP depended on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, whereas tLTD relied on action potentials. Importantly, the intracellular calcium signaling pathways mobilised during tLTP and tLTD were different. Thus, calcium-induced calcium release underlies tLTD but not tLTP. Finally, we found that the firing pattern of a subset of medium spiny neurons was strongly inhibited by dopamine receptor agonists. Surprisingly, these neurons were exclusively associated with tLTP but not with tLTD. Taken together, these data point to the existence of two subgroups of medium spiny neurons with distinct properties, each displaying unique abilities to undergo synaptic plasticity. © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Learning intrinsic excitability in medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    We present an unsupervised, local activation-dependent learning rule for intrinsic plasticity (IP) which affects the composition of ion channel conductances for single neurons in a use-dependent way. We use a single-compartment conductance-based model for medium spiny striatal neurons in order to show the effects of parameterization of individual ion channels on the neuronal membrane potential-curent relationship (activation function). We show that parameter changes within the physiological ranges are sufficient to create an ensemble of neurons with significantly different activation functions. We emphasize that the effects of intrinsic neuronal modulation on spiking behavior require a distributed mode of synaptic input and can be eliminated by strongly correlated input. We show how modulation and adaptivity in ion channel conductances can be utilized to store patterns without an additional contribution by synaptic plasticity (SP). The adaptation of the spike response may result in either "positive" or "negative" pattern learning. However, read-out of stored information depends on a distributed pattern of synaptic activity to let intrinsic modulation determine spike response. We briefly discuss the implications of this conditional memory on learning and addiction.

  4. Adaptive thermoregulation in golden spiny mice: the influence of season and food availability on body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of food supplementation during summer and winter in seminatural field conditions on thermoregulation of a desert rodent, the golden spiny mouse Acomys russatus. We hypothesized that (a) under natural food availability (control conditions), mice will use less precise thermoregulation (i.e., an increase in the variance of body temperature [T(b)]) during winter because of low ambient temperatures (T(a)'s) and low food availability and during summer because of low food and water availability; (b) food supplementation will result in more precise thermoregulation during winter, but the effect will be smaller during summer because variation in T(b) in summer is also driven by water availability during that period. We found that under natural food availability, spiny mice thermoregulated more precisely during summer than during winter. They spent more time torpid during summer than during winter even when food was supplemented (although summer nights are shorter), allowing them to conserve water. Supplementing food resulted in more precise thermoregulation in both seasons, and mice spent less time torpid. In summer, thermoregulation at high T(a)'s was less precise, resulting in higher maximum T(b)'s in summer than in winter and when food was supplemented, in accord with the expected effect of water shortage on thermoregulation. Our results suggest that as expected, precise thermoregulation is beneficial when possible and is abandoned only when the costs of homeothermy outweigh the benefits.

  5. Spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor filogenetic and genetic in Lombok waters, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranata B.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the phylogenetic spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor in Lombok waters, Indonesia and its association with P. versicolor spiny lobster from several regions of the Indian Ocean based on the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene. The researchers collected tissue samples from 13 P. versicolor spiny lobster in Lombok waters. 9 haplotypes were identified with haplotype diversity values (Hd and nucleotides (Pi respectively Hd = 0.859 and Pi = 0.00509. Research results exhibit P. versicolor spiny lobster population from the waters of Lombok is closely related to the spiny lobster population in some regions of the Indian Ocean. In general, P. versicolor spiny lobster population formed a monophyletic clone with spiny lobsters from several regions of the Indian Ocean with genetic distance values (P-distance from 0.001 to 0.004. The reconstruction of the haplotype network exhibited no genetic structure, which means that each population is not genetically isolated from others.

  6. Reproductive biology of spiny lobster Panulirus regius from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology of spiny lobster Panulirus regius from the northwestern Cape Verde Islands. R Freitas, A Medina, S Correira, M Castro. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Marine Science Vol.29(2) 2007: pp. 201-208. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  7. Eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the ornate spiny ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lobster population to decline (Musthaq et al. 2006). So far, the ornate spiny lobster is an important species under provin- cial protection and the artificial propagation technology has not yet been developed in China (Liang and He 2012). Microsatellite DNA (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) marker is currently one of the best ...

  8. An Assessment of the Spiny Lobster Panulirus homarus Fishery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus supports numerous traditional diving, trap and trammel net fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean. Commercial catches made in 2003 to 2005 in the Arabian Sea region of Oman (a coastline of ~1100 km, comprising Dhofar and. Al-Wusta) were sampled for length and sex ...

  9. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide that provides transportation statistics at your fingertips. It provides key information and highlights major trends on the U.S. transportation system. This year features a new and...

  10. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration produces the Pocket Guide to Transportation as a compact resource that provides snapshots of the U.S. transportation system and highlights major tr...

  11. Reasons not to ''pocket shoot''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarroll, K.A.; Fisher, D.R.; Cawthon, L.A.; Donovan, K.R.; Roszler, M.H.; Kling, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors' large population of intravenous drug abusers (IVDA) has increasingly resorted to supraclavicular central venous injection for vascular access. Few reports of complications associated with the practice of supraclavicular ''pocket'' injection have appeared in the radiologic literature. This exhibit demonstrates the complications associated with this practice, including pneumothorax, mycotic aneurysm, arteriovenous fistual, jugular vein thrombosis, cellulitis, foreign body and neck abscess. In addition, they show examples of sternoclavicular osteomyelities. The anatomy of the ''pocket'' and the pathophysiology and radiographic manifestations of these complications are reviewed

  12. Newnes electronics assembly pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Produced in association with the Engineering Training Authority with contributions from dozens of people in the electronics industry. The material covers common skills in electrical and electronic engineering and concentrates mainly on wiring and assembly. 'Newnes Electronics Assembly Pocket Book' is for electronics technicians, students and apprentices.

  13. Ecology-A Pocket Guide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 8. Ecology – A Pocket Guide. Renee M Borges. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 8 August 2000 pp 99-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/08/0099-0102. Author Affiliations.

  14. Mitogenomic phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography of South American spiny rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.

    2017-01-01

    Echimyidae is one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse rodent families in the world, occupying a wide range of habitats in the Neotropics. However, a resolved phylogeny at the genus-level is still lacking for these 22 genera of South American spiny rats, including the coypu (Myocastorinae...... and Euryzygomatomyinae. Biogeographical analyses involving higher-level taxa show that several vicariant and dispersal events impacted the evolutionary history of echimyids. The diversification history of Echimyidae seems to have been influenced by two major historical factors, namely (1) recurrent connections between...

  15. Newnes electronics engineers pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This book is packed with information and material which everyone involved in electronics will find indispensable. Now when you need to know a transistor's characteristics, or an integrated circuit's pinout details, simply look it up! The book is full of tables, symbols, formulae, conversions and illustrations.Promotion via the new Newnes Pocket Book catalogue to the electronics trade will drive sales into the book trade Covers component data; encapsulations; pin-outs; symbols & codings Extensive material on conversion factors, formulae; units and relationships

  16. JavaScript Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    1998-01-01

    JavaScript is a powerful, object-based scripting language that can be embedded directly in HTML pages. It allows you to create dynamic, interactive Web-based applications that run completely within a Web browser -- JavaScript is the language of choice for developing Dynamic HTML (DHTML) content. JavaScript can be integrated effectively with CGI and Java to produce sophisticated Web applications, although, in many cases, JavaScript eliminates the need for complex CGI scripts and Java applets altogether. The JavaScript Pocket Reference is a companion volume to JavaScript: The Definitive Guide

  17. Electrical engineering a pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt-Walter, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    This essential reference offers you a well-organized resource for accessing the basic electrical engineering knowledge you need for your work. Whether you're an experienced engineer who appreciates an occasional refresher in key areas, or a student preparing to enter the field, Electrical Engineering: A Pocket Reference provides quick and easy access to fundamental principles and their applications. You also find an extensive collection of time-saving equations that help simplify your daily projects.Supported with more than 500 diagrams and figures, 60 tables, and an extensive index, this uniq

  18. Windows Vista Administrator's Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William R

    2007-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows Vista. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether you're at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Install and configure Windows Vista-and optimize the user workspaceMaintain operating system components, hardware devices, and driversCreate user and group accounts-and control rights and permissionsAdminister group policy se

  19. Perl/Tk Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lidie, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    The Perl/Tk Pocket Reference is a companion volume to Learning Perl/Tk, an O'Reilly Animal Guide. Learning Perl/Tk is a tutorial for Perl/Tk, the extension to Perl for creating graphical user interfaces. With Tk, Perl programs can be window-based rather than command-line based, with buttons, entry fields, listboxes, menus, scrollbars, balloons, tables, dialogs, and more. And Perl/Tk programs run on UNIX and Windows-based computers. This small book is a handy reference guide geared toward the advanced Perl/Tk programmer. Novice Perl/Tk programmers will find that its compact size gives th

  20. Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Kreines, David

    2003-01-01

    If you work with Oracle, then you don't need to be told that the data dictionary is large and complex, and grows larger with each new Oracle release. It's one of the basic elements of the Oracle database you interact with regularly, but the sheer number of tables and views makes it difficult to remember which view you need, much less the name of the specific column. Want to make it simpler? The Oracle Data Dictionary Pocket Reference puts all the information you need right at your fingertips. Its handy and compact format lets you locate the table and view you need effortlessly without stoppin

  1. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  2. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Butler

    Full Text Available Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system.

  3. AFSC/ABL: NPRB project 1106 Improved aging estimates for spiny dogfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi, formerly Squalus acanthias, Ebert et al. 2010) is a small, long-lived and slow-growing shark, which is vulnerable to...

  4. Bilirubin metabolism in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, and the small skate, Raja erinacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Arias, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    1. The main bilirubin conjugate in bile of spiny dogfish (Squalus Acanthias) and small skate (Raja Erinacea) is bilirubin monoglucuronide. 2. Microsomal preparations from dogfish and small skate liver have similar bilirubin UDPglucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) activity and catalyze the conjugation of

  5. Clinical characteristics of the eardrum retraction pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ješić Snežana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of the eardrum retraction pocket, as pathologic finding, depends on Eustachian tube dysfunction, onset of the middle ear infection and site of development of retraction on the eardrum. The study is aimed at: 1. Determining the incidence of eardrum retraction pocket and cholesteatoma within it, as well as at the degree of eardrum retraction; 2. Determining of association between eardrum retraction pocket and changes of the eardrum mucosaand parstensa of the tympanic membrane; 3. Determining of onset and intensity of the bone destruction in eardrum retraction pocket; 4. Examining of Eustachian tube function based on time of mucocilliary transport according to the type of the eardrum retraction pocket. The study is based on the retrospective analysis of the results obtained from the patients treated at the Institute of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade for the diagnosis of the chronic suppurative otitis who underwent otosurgical procedures during the six-year period, from 1996-2001. In our series of 540 patients subjected to otosurgical treatment, the incidence of the retraction pocket of the eardrum was 11.23%. Onset of more severe degree of eardrum retraction was most frequent in the attic. Cholesteatoma was detected in 82.2% of patients of the group with the attic-retraction pocket of the eardrum, as well as in 25% of patients of the group of tensa-sinus retraction pocket of the eardrum. Atrophic changes of the tympanic membrane pars tensa were detected in almost all tensa-sinus retraction pockets of the eardrum. Approximately one half of the attic-retraction pockets of the eardrum were accompanied by eardrum atrophy. Bone destruction of the auditory ossicles was limited to the long process of incus and superior structures of stapes. Time of the mucocilliary transport was significantly longer (p<0.01 in attic-retraction pocket of the eardrum than in tensa-sinus retraction pocket of

  6. Different corticostriatal integration in spiny projection neurons from direct and indirect pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Flores-Barrera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the principal input structure of the basal ganglia (BG. Major glutamatergic afferents to the striatum come from the cerebral cortex and make monosynaptic contacts with medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs and interneurons. Despite differences in axonal projections, dopamine receptors expression and differences in excitability between MSNs from “direct” and “indirect” BG pathways, these neuronal classes have been thought as electrophysiologically very similar. Based on work with BAC transgenic mice, here it is shown that corticostriatal responses in D1- and D2-receptor expressing MSNs (D1- and D2-MSNs are radically different so as to establish an electrophysiological footprint that readily differentiates between them. Experiments in BAC mice allowed us to predict, with high probability (P>0.9, in rats or non-BAC mice, whether a recorded neuron, from rat or mouse, was going to be substance P or enkephalin immunoreactive. Responses are more prolonged and evoke more action potentials in D1-MSNs, while they are briefer and exhibit intrinsic autoregenerative responses in D2-MSNs. A main cause for these differences was the interaction of intrinsic properties with the inhibitory contribution in each response Inhibition always depressed corticostriatal depolarization in D2-MSNs, while it helped in sustaining prolonged depolarizations in D1-MSNs, in spite of depressing early discharge. Corticostriatal responses changed dramatically after striatal DA-depletion in 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA lesioned animals: a response reduction was seen in SP+ MSNs whereas an enhanced response was seen in ENK+ MSNs. The end result was that differences in the responses were greatly diminished after DA depletion.

  7. Developmental alterations in motor coordination and medium spiny neuron markers in mice lacking pgc-1α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth K Lucas

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in the pathophysiology of Huntington Disease (HD. Adult PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit striatal neurodegeneration, and reductions in the expression of PGC-1α have been observed in striatum and muscle of HD patients as well as in animal models of the disease. However, it is unknown whether decreased expression of PGC-1α alone is sufficient to lead to the motor phenotype and striatal pathology characteristic of HD. For the first time, we show that young PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit severe rotarod deficits, decreased rearing behavior, and increased occurrence of tremor in addition to the previously described hindlimb clasping. Motor impairment and striatal vacuolation are apparent in PGC-1α (-/- mice by four weeks of age and do not improve or decline by twelve weeks of age. The behavioral and pathological phenotype of PGC-1α (-/- mice can be completely recapitulated by conditional nervous system deletion of PGC-1α, indicating that peripheral effects are not responsible for the observed abnormalities. Evaluation of the transcriptional profile of PGC-1α (-/- striatal neuron populations and comparison to striatal neuron profiles of R6/2 HD mice revealed that PGC-1α deficiency alone is not sufficient to cause the transcriptional changes observed in this HD mouse model. In contrast to R6/2 HD mice, PGC-1α (-/- mice show increases in the expression of medium spiny neuron (MSN markers with age, suggesting that the observed behavioral and structural abnormalities are not primarily due to MSN loss, the defining pathological feature of HD. These results indicate that PGC-1α is required for the proper development of motor circuitry and transcriptional homeostasis in MSNs and that developmental disruption of PGC-1α leads to long-term alterations in motor functioning.

  8. Investigating the Importance of the Pocket-estimation Method in Pocket-based Approaches: An Illustration Using Pocket-ligand Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumes, Géraldine; Borrel, Alexandre; Abi Hussein, Hiba; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Regad, Leslie

    2017-09-01

    Small molecules interact with their protein target on surface cavities known as binding pockets. Pocket-based approaches are very useful in all of the phases of drug design. Their first step is estimating the binding pocket based on protein structure. The available pocket-estimation methods produce different pockets for the same target. The aim of this work is to investigate the effects of different pocket-estimation methods on the results of pocket-based approaches. We focused on the effect of three pocket-estimation methods on a pocket-ligand (PL) classification. This pocket-based approach is useful for understanding the correspondence between the pocket and ligand spaces and to develop pharmacological profiling models. We found pocket-estimation methods yield different binding pockets in terms of boundaries and properties. These differences are responsible for the variation in the PL classification results that can have an impact on the detected correspondence between pocket and ligand profiles. Thus, we highlighted the importance of the pocket-estimation method choice in pocket-based approaches. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. iMac pocket genius

    CERN Document Server

    Hart-Davis, Guy

    2010-01-01

    If you want to get the very most out of your iMac, put this savvy Portable Genius guide to work. Want to make the most of the new Magic Mouse and the latest iLife apps? Set up a wireless network using your iMac's AirPort card? Watch television on your iMac, or show iMac videos and movies on your television? You'll find cool and useful Genius tips, full-color screenshots, and pages of easy-to-access shortcuts and tools that will save you time and let you enjoy your iMac to the max.

  10. Pocket companion to PMI's PMBOK guide

    CERN Document Server

    Snijders, Paul; Zandhuis, Anton

    2010-01-01

    This pocket guide is based on the PMBOK Guide® Fourth Edition.This pocket guide supplies a summary of the PMBOK Guide® , to provide a quick introduction as well as a structured overview of this method for project management.This pocket guide deals with the key issues and themes within project management and PMBOK:A short overview of the activities of PMI Inc., The organization and its standards: PMBOK Guide®, Standard for Project Portfolio Management, Standard for Program Management, OPM3.The essentials of the Project Lifecycle and Organization.What are the key project management knowledge ar

  11. Macintosh Troubleshooting Pocket Guide for Mac OS

    CERN Document Server

    Lerner, David; Corporation, Tekserve

    2009-01-01

    The Macintosh Troubleshooting Pocket Guide covers the most common user hardware and software trouble. It's not just a book for Mac OS X (although it includes tips for OS X and Jaguar), it's for anyone who owns a Mac of any type-- there are software tips going back as far as OS 6. This slim guide distills the answers to the urgent questions that Tekserve's employee's answer every week into a handy guide that fits in your back pocket or alongside your keyboard.

  12. TOGAF version 9 a pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Josey, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This Pocket Guide is based on TOGAF Version 9 Enterprise Edition. It gives a concise introduction to TOGAF 9. What's more, it's authoritative, with material derived from The Open Group's TOGAF 9 documentation and contributions from members of The Open Group Architecture Forum. The audience for this Pocket Guide is enterprise architects, business architects, IT architects, data architects, systems architects, solutions architects, and senior managers seeking a ?rst introduction to TOGAF.

  13. MODE OF INHERITANCE OF POD SPININESS IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Hassan Ahmed Abdelmageed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The mode of inheritance of spininess in okra was investigated. Two okra cultivars, namely ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and the Indian cultivar ‘Pusa Sawani’ were used in this study. The two parents were self pollinated for three successive generations to fix the character under study. Crosses were made between ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and ‘Pusa Sawani’, and reciprocal F1’s, F2’s and all possible backcrosses were derived from the initial crosses. No reciprocal differences were found between F1 and F2 generation for pod spininess. Segregation in the crosses between the local cultivar ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and the Indian cultivar ‘Pusa Sawani’ indicated that the presence of spines on pods was controlled by single gene, with incomplete dominance.

  14. Eyes shut homolog is required for maintaining the ciliary pocket and survival of photoreceptors in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the extracellular matrix protein eyes shut homolog (EYS cause photoreceptor degeneration in patients with retinitis pigmentosa 25 (RP25. Functions of EYS remain poorly understood, due in part to the lack of an EYS gene in mouse. We investigated the localization of vertebrate EYS proteins and engineered loss-of-function alleles in zebrafish. Immunostaining indicated that EYS localized near the connecting cilium/transition zone in photoreceptors. EYS also strongly localized to the cone outer segments and weakly to the rod outer segments and cone terminals in primate retinas. Analysis of mutant EYS zebrafish revealed disruption of the ciliary pocket in cone photoreceptors, indicating that EYS is required for maintaining the integrity of the ciliary pocket lumen. Mutant zebrafish exhibited progressive loss of cone and rod photoreceptors. Our results indicate that EYS protein localization is species-dependent and that EYS is required for maintaining ciliary pocket morphology and survival of photoreceptors in zebrafish.

  15. 76 FR 82413 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral... Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 101217620-1788-03] RIN 0648-BA62 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plans of...

  16. Nine karyomorphs for spiny rats of the genus Proechimys (Echimyidae, Rodentia from North and Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Machado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiny rats of the genus Proechimys are morphologically diverse, widely distributed and have diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 14-16 to 2n = 62. In this paper we present cytogenetical data and brief comments on morphological and biogeographical issues related to spiny rats. In our sample of 42 spiny rats collected from 12 Brazilian Amazonian tropical rainforest and the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna sites we detected nine karyological entities: four different karyomorphs with 2n = 30, three with 2n = 28, one with 2n = 15 and one with 2n = 44. Based on qualitative morphological characters these karyomorphs can be allocated to five species within the goeldii, guyannensis and longicaudatus species groups.

  17. Impacts of onshore developments and tourism on the Kenya coastal fisheries: the artisanal spiny lobster fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Okechi, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the spiny lobster fishery landings from the Kenya coast from the period 1972-1991 indicate a stable fishery of 70 mt annually. The Lamu district contributes over 53% of the landings. The species Panulirus ornatus contributes over 90% of the lobster catch. Spiny lobsters are Kenya's most valuable seafood resource on a price per weight basis. The growth in the tourist industry on the Kenya coast has led to the construction of many beach hotels. As a result of the popularity of the lobst...

  18. Replantation of multi-level fingertip amputation using the pocket principle (palmar pocket method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, J; Ishikawa, K; Soeda, H; Kitayama, T

    2003-07-01

    Two cases of multi-level fingertip amputation are presented. In each case, replantation was achieved in a two-stage procedure, involving reattachment, de-epithelialisation and insertion into a palmar pocket in stage 1, followed by removal from the palmar pocket 16 days later. The cases are described and the technique is discussed.

  19. Review of Pocket Guide Megaliths [app

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney Harris

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Pocket Guide Megaliths app was developed by Senet Mobile UK in collaboration with The Megalithic Portal website. The app was released in 2016 and is currently available for iOS devices, such as iPhone and iPads. Pocket Guide Megaliths presents the Megalithic Portal's burgeoning worldwide database of ancient and prehistoric sites in a variety of innovative and engaging ways. It aims to act primarily as a guide to enjoying and exploring the rich prehistoric heritage of the world, though offers additional functionality for would-be monument explorers too.

  20. 76 FR 14644 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2011 Specifications for the Spiny Dogfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Copies of supporting... the spiny dogfish stock (U.S. commercial dead discards, recreational landings and discards, and.... commercial landings, removals (U.S. commercial dead discards, recreational landings and discards, and...

  1. 75 FR 16716 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2010 Specifications for the Spiny Dogfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Copies of supporting... update estimated that overfishing is not occurring. Total removals (U.S. commercial dead discards... the spiny dogfish stock (U.S. commercial dead discards, recreational landings and discards, and...

  2. 75 FR 26920 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Spiny Dogfish Amendment 3 Scoping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Management Plan (FMP). This notice announces a public process to solicit scoping comments on the two... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-AY12 Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Spiny Dogfish Amendment 3 Scoping Process AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  3. Effects of cattle and rabbit grazing on clonal expansion of spiny shrubs in wood-pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.; Bakker, E.S.; Apol, M.E.F.; Olff, H.

    2010-01-01

    Spiny shrubs protect non-defended plants against herbivores. Therefore, they play a role for the diversity in grazed ecosystems. While the importance of these keystone nurse shrubs is presently recognized, little is known about the factors controlling them. This knowledge is required to understand

  4. 77 FR 15991 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2012 Spiny Dogfish Fishery Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... in spiny dogfish biomass. The proposed action is expected to result in positive economic impacts for...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file... the other alternatives are positive. The proposed action is almost certain to result in greater...

  5. Diversity in Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity at Inhibitory Synapses of Striatal Spiny Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Mendoza, Ernesto; Hernandez, Ricardo; Aceves, Jose J.; Ibanez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Procedural memories and habits are posited to be stored in the basal ganglia, whose intrinsic circuitries possess important inhibitory connections arising from striatal spiny neurons. However, no information about long-term plasticity at these synapses is available. Therefore, this work describes a novel postsynaptically dependent long-term…

  6. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator pocket infection caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like any other foreign bodies, implanted cardiac devices can become infected. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphilococci are the most common causes of infections of pacemaker and defibrillator systems. In this case an implantable cardioverter defibrillator pocket infection caused by an extremely rare ...

  7. Dermal pocketing following distal finger replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhaindran, Mark E; Paavilainen, Pasi; Tan, David M K; Peng, Yeong Pin; Lim, Aymeric Y T

    2010-08-01

    Replantation is an ideal technique for reconstruction following fingertip amputation as it provides 'like for like' total reconstruction of the nail complex, bone pulp tissue and skin with no donor-site morbidity. However, fingertips are often not replanted because veins cannot be found or are thought to be too small to repair. Attempts at 'cap-plasty' or pocketing of replanted tips with and without microvascular anastomosis have been done in the past with varying degrees of success. We prospectively followed up a group of patients who underwent digital replantation and dermal pocketing in the palm to evaluate the outcome of this procedure. There were 10 patients with 14 amputated digits (two thumbs, five index, four middle, two ring and one little) who underwent dermal pocketing of the amputated digit following replantation. Among the 14 digits that were treated with dermal pocketing, 11 survived completely, one had partial atrophy and two were completely lost. Complications encountered included finger stiffness (two patients) and infection of the replanted fingertip with osteomyelitis of the distal phalanx (one patient). We believe that this technique can help increase the chance of survival for distal replantation with an acceptable salvage rate of 85% in our series. Copyright 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. E-mail security a pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Furnell, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This pocket guide will help businesses to address the most important issues. Its comprehensive approach covers both the technical and the managerial aspects of the subject, offering valuable insights for IT professionals, managers and executives, as well as for individual users of e-mail.

  9. Pocket Checklists of Indonesian timber trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prawira, Soewanda A.; Tantra, I.G.M.; Whitmore, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Indonesia as yet does not have a comprehensive account of the forest trees which reach timber size (35 cm dbh = 14 inch or 105 cm gbh = 42 inch). A project has been started in August 1983 by the Botany Section of the Forest Research Institute in Bogor, Indonesia, to prepare pocket checklists of the

  10. Fingertip replantation using the subdermal pocket procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Jeng, Seng-Feng; Chiang, Yuan-Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Restoration of finger length and function are the goals of replantation after fingertip amputation. Methods include microsurgical replantation and nonmicrosurgical replantation, such as composite graft techniques. To increase the survival rates for composite grafts, the subcutaneous pocket procedure has been used as a salvage procedure. The subdermal pocket procedure, which is a modification of the subcutaneous pocket procedure, was used for replantation of 17 fingertips in 16 consecutive patients. Eight fingertips experienced guillotine injuries and the other nine fingertips experienced crush injuries. Revascularization of one digital artery without available venous outflow was performed for six fingers, and composite graft techniques were used for the other 11 fingers. The success rate was 16 of 17 cases. The difference in success rates for guillotine versus crush injuries was statistically significant. Comparison of patients with arterial anastomoses and patients without arterial anastomoses also indicated a statistically significant difference. Thirteen fingertips survived completely. One finger, demonstrating complete loss and early termination of the pocketing procedure, was amputated on the eighth postoperative day. Two fingers were partially lost because of severe crushing injuries. One finger demonstrated partial loss of more than one quarter of the fingertip, which required secondary revision, because the patient was a heavy smoker. The pocketing period was 8 +/- 1 days (mean +/- SD, n = 6) for the fingers revascularized with one digital arterial anastomosis and 13.3 +/- 1.9 days (n = 10) for the fingers successfully replanted with composite graft techniques. The mean active range of motion of the interphalangeal joint of the three thumbs was 65 +/- 5 degrees, and that of the distal interphalangeal joint of the other 11 fingers was 51 +/- 11 degrees. The static two-point discrimination result was 6.4 +/- 1.0 mm (n = 14) after an average of 11 +/- 5 months

  11. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Xie, Feng; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness is a core problem in biodiversity theory. Spiny frogs of the subfamily Painae (Anura: Dicroglossidae) are widespread, but endemic to Asia. Using spiny frog distribution and body size data, and a digital elevation model data set we explored altitudinal patterns of spiny frog richness and quantified the effect of area on the richness pattern over a large altitudinal gradient from 0-5000 m a.s.l. We also tested two hypotheses: (i) the Rapoport's altitudinal effect is valid for the Painae, and (ii) Bergmann's clines are present in spiny frogs. The species richness of Painae across four different altitudinal band widths (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m) all showed hump-shaped patterns along altitudinal gradient. The altitudinal changes in species richness of the Paini and Quasipaini tribes further confirmed this finding, while the peak of Quasipaini species richness occurred at lower elevations than the maxima of Paini. The area did not explain a significant amount of variation in total, nor Paini species richness, but it did explain variation in Quasipaini. Five distinct groups across altitudinal gradient were found. Species altitudinal ranges did not expand with an increase in the midpoints of altitudinal ranges. A significant negative correlation between body size and elevation was exhibited. Our findings demonstrate that Rapoport's altitudinal rule is not a compulsory attribute of spiny frogs and also suggest that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to amphibians. The study highlights a need to explore the underlying mechanisms of species richness patterns, particularly for amphibians in macroecology.

  12. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Hu

    Full Text Available Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness is a core problem in biodiversity theory. Spiny frogs of the subfamily Painae (Anura: Dicroglossidae are widespread, but endemic to Asia. Using spiny frog distribution and body size data, and a digital elevation model data set we explored altitudinal patterns of spiny frog richness and quantified the effect of area on the richness pattern over a large altitudinal gradient from 0-5000 m a.s.l. We also tested two hypotheses: (i the Rapoport's altitudinal effect is valid for the Painae, and (ii Bergmann's clines are present in spiny frogs. The species richness of Painae across four different altitudinal band widths (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m all showed hump-shaped patterns along altitudinal gradient. The altitudinal changes in species richness of the Paini and Quasipaini tribes further confirmed this finding, while the peak of Quasipaini species richness occurred at lower elevations than the maxima of Paini. The area did not explain a significant amount of variation in total, nor Paini species richness, but it did explain variation in Quasipaini. Five distinct groups across altitudinal gradient were found. Species altitudinal ranges did not expand with an increase in the midpoints of altitudinal ranges. A significant negative correlation between body size and elevation was exhibited. Our findings demonstrate that Rapoport's altitudinal rule is not a compulsory attribute of spiny frogs and also suggest that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to amphibians. The study highlights a need to explore the underlying mechanisms of species richness patterns, particularly for amphibians in macroecology.

  13. Pengembangan Pocket Mobile Learning Berbasis Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasmo Dasmo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan media pembelajaran pocket mobile learning berbasis android. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan model pengembangan ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, dan Evaluation. Penelitian ini telah menghasilkan sebuah luaran berupa media pembelajaran pocket mobile learning berbasis android pada mata kuliah fisika. Media ini layak digunakan berdasarkan validasi dari ahli materi, ahli media dan respon mahasiswa terhadap media pembelajaran yang dibuat. Berdasarkan penilaian validasi ahli materi didapatkan rata-rata skor total sebesar 3,22 pada 14 butir pernyataan, dan termasuk pada kriteria “baik”. Sementara itu, berdasarkan validasi ahli media didapatkan rata-rata skor total sebesar 3,43 pada 15 butir pernyataan, dan termasuk pada kriteria “sangat baik”. Dan berdasarkan hasil analisis respon mahasiswa terhadap media pembelajaran diperoleh rata-rata skor total sebesar 4,0 atau 80%, dengan kategori “kuat”. Dengan demikian dapat disimpulkan bahwa media pembelajaran pocket mobile learning berbasis android layak untuk digunakan dan hampir semua mahasiswa menanggapi respon positif.The current research aims to develop the pocket mobile learning android based. It uses the Research and Development (R&D method with the ADDIE model (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluating. This research has resulted from an outcome of learning media pocket mobile android based on physics subject. This instructional media is feasible to be used based on validation from material experts, media experts, and student responses. Based on the assessment of material expert, the validation obtains an average total score of 3,22 at 14 statements and considered as "good" criteria. Meanwhile, based on the validation of media experts, the average total score reaches 3,43 at 15 statements and considered as "very good" criteria. And based on the analysis of students’ response to learning media, the

  14. Newnes radio and electronics engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Moorshead, H W; Perry, J

    1978-01-01

    Newnes Radio and Electronics Engineer's Pocket Book, Fifteenth Edition provides reference of the information relevant in radio and electronics engineering. The book presents tables, illustrations, and diagrams of various data used in radio and electronics engineering. The coverage of the text includes abbreviations and symbols, electrical equations, and code conversions. The text will be useful to engineers, technicians, and other professionals who require a reference about the different aspects of radio and electronics.

  15. ISO27001 / ISO27002 a pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Information is one of your organisation's most important resources. Keeping it secure is therefore vital to your business. This handy pocket guide is an essential overview of two key information security standards that cover the formal requirements (ISO27001:2013) for creating an Information Security Management System (ISMS), and the best-practice recommendations (ISO27002:2013) for those responsible for initiating, implementing or maintaining it.

  16. Windows® 7 Administrator's Pocket Consultant

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William

    2009-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers immediate answers for the day-to-day administration of Windows 7-from desktop configuration and management to networking and security issues. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks by using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the precise information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether at your desk or in the field!

  17. Populations of striatal medium spiny neurons encode vibrotactile frequency in rats: modulation by slow wave oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Thomas G; Gerdjikov, Todor V

    2013-01-01

    Dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is implicated in tactile perception and receives strong projections from somatosensory cortex. However, the sensory representations encoded by striatal projection neurons are not well understood. Here we characterized the contribution of DLS to the encoding of vibrotactile information in rats by assessing striatal responses to precise frequency stimuli delivered to a single vibrissa. We applied stimuli in a frequency range (45-90 Hz) that evokes discriminable percepts and carries most of the power of vibrissa vibration elicited by a range of complex fine textures. Both medium spiny neurons and evoked potentials showed tactile responses that were modulated by slow wave oscillations. Furthermore, medium spiny neuron population responses represented stimulus frequency on par with previously reported behavioral benchmarks. Our results suggest that striatum encodes frequency information of vibrotactile stimuli which is dynamically modulated by ongoing brain state.

  18. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  19. Conservation and variation in the feeding mechanism of the spiny dogfish squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga; Motta

    1998-05-01

    Changes in the feeding mechanism with feeding behavior were investigated using high-speed video and electromyography to examine the kinematics and motor pattern of prey capture, manipulation and transport in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias (Squalidae: Squaliformes). In this study, Squalus acanthias used both suction and ram behaviors to capture and manipulate prey, while only suction was used to transport prey. The basic kinematic feeding sequence observed in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates is conserved in the spiny dogfish. Prey capture, bite manipulation and suction transport events are characterized by a common pattern of head movements and motor activity, but are distinguishable by differences in duration and relative timing. In general, capture events are longer in duration than manipulation and transport events, as found in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates. Numerous individual effects were found, indicating that individual sharks are capable of varying head movements and motor activity among successful feeding events. Upper jaw protrusion in the spiny dogfish is not restricted by its orbitostylic jaw suspension; rather, the upper jaw is protruded by 30 % of its head length, considerably more than in the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae: Carcharhiniformes) (18 %) with its hyostylic jaw suspension. One function of upper jaw protrusion is to assist in jaw closure by protruding the upper jaw as well as elevating the lower jaw to close the gape, thus decreasing the time to jaw closure. The mechanism of upper jaw protrusion was found to differ between squaliform and carcharhiniform sharks. Whereas the levator palatoquadrati muscle assists in retracting the upper jaw in the spiny dogfish, it assists in protruding the upper jaw in the lemon shark. This study represents the first comprehensive electromyographic and kinematic analysis of the feeding mechanism in a squaliform shark.

  20. ALLO: A tool to discriminate and prioritize allosteric pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Rahmad; Helms, Volkhard

    2018-04-01

    Allosteric proteins make up a substantial proportion of human drug targets. Thus, rational design of small molecule binders that target these proteins requires the identification of putative allosteric pockets and an understanding of their potential activity. Here, we characterized allosteric pockets using a set of physicochemical descriptors and compared them to pockets that are found on the surface of a protein. Further, we trained predictive models capable of discriminating allosteric pockets from orthosteric pockets and models capable of prioritizing allosteric pockets in a set of pockets found on a given protein. Such models might be useful for identifying novel allosteric sites and in turn, potentially new allosteric drug targets. Datasets along with a Python program encapsulating the predictive models are available at http://github.com/fibonaccirabbits/allo. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. Results In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Conclusions Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs

  2. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Andreas; Gligor, Mark; Rakotondranary, S Jacques; Rosenkranz, David; Zupke, Oliver

    2011-10-11

    Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs in different environmental settings. This sheds light on the

  3. Pocket radiation dosimeter: dosimeter charger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, F.W.

    1982-03-17

    This invention is a novel pocket-type radiation dosimeter comprising an electrometric radiation dosimeter and a charging circuit therefor. The instrument is especially designed to be amenable to mass production, to have a long shelf life, and to be compact, lightweight, and usable by the layman. The dosimeter proper may be of conventional design. The charging circuit includes a shake-type electrostatic generator, a voltage doubler for integrating generator output voltages of one polarity, and a switch operated by an external permanent magnet.

  4. Pocket radiation dosimeter--dosimeter charger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Frank W.

    1984-01-01

    This invention is a novel pocket-type radiation dosimeter comprising an electrometric radiation dosimeter and a charging circuit therefor. The instrument is especially designed to be amenable to mass production, to have a long shelf life, and to be compact, lightweight, and usable by the layman. The dosimeter proper may be of conventional design. The charging circuit includes a shake-type electrostatic generator, a voltage doubler for integrating generator output voltages of one polarity, and a switch operated by an external permanent magnet.

  5. Python pocket reference, version 2.4

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Python is optimized for quality, productivity, portability, and integration. Hundreds of thousands of Python developers around the world rely on Python for general-purpose tasks, Internet scripting, systems programming, user interfaces, and product customization. Available on all major computing platforms, including commercial versions of Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X, Python is portable, powerful and remarkable easy to use. With its convenient, quick-reference format, Python Pocket Reference, 3rd Edition is the perfect on-the-job reference. More importantly, it's now been refreshed

  6. Newnes passive and discrete circuits pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    2000-01-01

    Newnes Passive and Discrete Circuits Pocket Book is aimed at all engineers, technicians, students and experimenters who can build a design directly from a circuit diagram. In a highly concise form Ray Marston presents a huge compendium of circuits that can be built as they appear, adapted or used as building blocks. The devices used have been carefully chosen for their ease of availability and reasonable price. The selection of devices has been thoroughly updated for the second edition, which has also been expanded to cover the latest ICs.The three sections of the book cover: Moder

  7. Mac OS X Snow Leopard pocket guide

    CERN Document Server

    Seiblod, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Whether you're new to the Mac or a longtime user, this handy book is the quickest way to get up to speed on Snow Leopard. Packed with concise information in an easy-to-read format, Mac OS X Snow Leopard Pocket Guide covers what you need to know and is an ideal resource for problem-solving on the fly. This book goes right to the heart of Snow Leopard, with details on system preferences, built-in applications, and utilities. You'll also find configuration tips, keyboard shortcuts, guides for troubleshooting, lots of step-by-step instructions, and more. Learn about new features and changes s

  8. Root Locus Algorithms for Programmable Pocket Calculators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Two algorithms are described which allow the plotting of individual points on a root locus diagram with or without time delay. The development was performed during the design of a continuous phase shifter used in the Baseband Antenna Combiner for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The algorithms, which are expected to be useful in similar DSN efforts, are simple enough to be implemented on a programmable pocket calculator. The coordinates of the open-loop zeros and poles, the gain constant K, and the time delay T are the data inputs.

  9. AIR for Javascript Developers Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Hoyt, Kevin; Georgita, Dragos

    2009-01-01

    This book is the official guide to Adobe ® AIR[TM], written by members of the AIR team. With Adobe AIR, web developers can use technologies like HTML and JavaScript to build and deploy web applications to the desktop. Packed with examples, this book explains how AIR works and features recipes for performing common runtime tasks. Part of the Adobe Developer Library, this concise pocket guide explains: What Adobe AIR is, and the problems this runtime aims to solveHow to set up your development environmentThe HTML and JavaScript environments within AIRHow to create your first AIR application

  10. Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven; Dawes, Chip

    2004-01-01

    While it's good to have a book with all the answers--like your trusty copy of Oracle PL/SQL Programming-- how often do you need all the answers? More likely, you just need a reminder, a quick answer to a problem you're up against. For these times, nothing's handier than the new edition of the Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference by PL/SQL experts Stephen Feuerstein, Bill Pribyl, and Chip Dawes. Newly updated for Oracle10g, this little book is always at the ready for the quick problem solving you need. The 3rd edition of this popular mini-reference boils down the most vital information fr

  11. Spiny Neurons of Amygdala, Striatum and Cortex Use Dendritic Plateau Potentials to Detect Network UP States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D Oikonomou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features: [1] they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area, [2] covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines, [3] possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and [4] experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.

  12. Spiny mice modulate eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio to achieve cryptic coloration in "evolution canyon," Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Singaravelan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coat coloration in mammals is an explicit adaptation through natural selection. Camouflaging with the environment is the foremost evolutionary drive in explaining overall coloration. Decades of enquiries on this topic have been limited to repetitive coat color measurements to correlate the morphs with background/habitat blending. This led to an overwhelming endorsement of concealing coloration as a local phenotypic adaptation in animals, primarily rodents to evade predators. However, most such studies overlooked how rodents actually achieve such cryptic coloration. Cryptic coloration could be attained only through optimization between the yellow- to brown-colored "pheomelanin" and gray to black-colored "eumelanin" in the hairs. However, no study has explored this conjecture yet. "Evolution Canyon" (EC in Israel is a natural microscale laboratory where the relationship between organism and environment can be explored. EC is comprised of an "African" slope (AS, which exhibits a yellow-brownish background habitat, and a "European" slope (ES, exhibiting a dark grayish habitat; both slopes harbor spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus. Here, we examine how hair melanin content of spiny mice living in the opposing slopes of EC evolves toward blending with their respective background habitat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured hair-melanin (both eumelanin and pheomelanin contents of 30 spiny mice from the EC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC that detects specific degradation products of eumelanin and pheomelanin. The melanin pattern of A. cahirinus approximates the background color of the slope on which they dwell. Pheomelanin is slightly (insignificantly higher in individuals found on the AS to match the brownish background, whereas individuals of the ES had significantly greater eumelanin content to mimic the dark grayish background. This is further substantiated by a significantly higher eumelanin and pheomelanin ratio on

  13. Susceptibility of spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus to Leishmania (Viannia panamensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BL Travi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of Proechimys semispinosus as reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia panamensis on the Colombian Pacific coast was experimentally evaluated. The susceptibility to L. chagasi also was assessed to determine the utility of this rodent as a model for studying reservoir characteristics in the laboratory. Wild-caught animals were screened for natural trypanosomatid infections, and negative individuals were inoculated intradermally (ID in the snout or feet with 10(7 promastigotes of L. panamensis. L. chagasi was inoculated intracardially (10(7 promastigotes or ID in the ear (10(8 promastigotes. PCR-hybridization showed that 15% of 33 spiny rats were naturally infected with L. Viannia sp. Animals experimentally infected with L. panamensis developed non-ulcerated lesions that disappeared by the 7th week post-infection (p.i. and became more resistant upon reinfection. Infectivity to sand flies was low (1/20-1/48 infected/fed flies and transient, and both culture and PCR-hybridization showed that L. panamensis was cleared by the 13th week p.i. Animals inoculated with L. chagasi became subclinically infected and were non-infective to sand flies. Transient infectivity to vectors of spiny rats infected with L. panamensis, combined with population characteristics, e.g., abundance, exploitation of degraded habitats and high reproductive rates, could make them epidemiologically suitable reservoirs.

  14. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  15. Pocket book of integrals and mathematical formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Tallarida, Ronald J

    2008-01-01

    Convenient Organization of Essential Material so You Can Look up Formulas Fast Containing a careful selection of standard and timely topics, the Pocket Book of Integrals and Mathematical Formulas, Fourth Edition presents many numerical and statistical tables, scores of worked examples, and the most useful mathematical formulas for engineering and scientific applications. This fourth edition of a bestseller provides even more comprehensive coverage with the inclusion of several additional topics, all while maintaining its accessible, clear style and handy size. New to the Fourth Edition           An expanded chapter on series that covers many fascinating properties of the natural numbers that follow from number theory           New applications such as geostationary satellite orbits and drug kinetics           An expanded statistics section that discusses nonlinear regression as well as the normal approximation of the binomial distribution           Revised f...

  16. Improvement of personal dosimetry - Digital pocket dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radalj, Z.; Cerovac, Z.; Cerovac, H.; Brumen, V.; Prlic, I.

    1996-01-01

    Physical dosimetric surveillance of professional groups working with various radiation sources is a regular procedure in Croatia, established almost 40 years ago. Data available point out that the majority of professionals under surveillance are those employed in medical facilities, most of them working with X-ray sources. Depending on the nature of professional activities, personnel occupationally exposed to radiation sources are obliged to wear either film badge, TLD or film+TLD badge. Unfortunately, due to the line of data processing, all standard dosemeters have the same disadvantage i.e. up to 40 days delay in dose reporting, regarding the time of actual exposure. The significance of such a delay raises in cases when radiation dose was received within the short time or when technical failure on the operating unit(s) is suspected. Bearing this in mind, the additional dosimetric monitoring becomes an imperative. Therefore, we decided to introduce a palette of digital pocket dosemeters, meant to be used in different workplaces in the radiation zone, each of them being adjusted to the specificities of a particular workplace

  17. 76 FR 68711 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    .... 101217620-1654-02] RIN 0648-BA62 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef... fisheries are managed under the FMP for Reef Fish and the FMP for Coral and Reef Associated Plants and... Amendment 6 to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S...

  18. 76 FR 59377 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-BA62 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and... within the Reef Fish FMP and the Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates FMP, revise the... alternatives to redefine the management of aquarium trade species within the Reef Fish FMP and within the Coral...

  19. 78 FR 15674 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2013-2015 Spiny Dogfish Fishery Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... positive economic impacts for the spiny dogfish fishery while maintaining the conservation objectives of... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Copies of the specifications document... quotas or possession limits are positive. The proposed action is expected to result in the most positive...

  20. Calibrations of pocket dosemeters using a comparison method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somarriba V, I.

    1996-01-01

    This monograph is dedicated mainly to the calibration of pocket dosemeters. Various types of radiation sources used in hospitals and different radiation detectors with emphasis on ionization chambers are briefly presented. Calibration methods based on the use of a reference dosemeter were developed to calibrate all pocket dosemeters existing at the Radiation Physics and Metrology Laboratory. Some of these dosemeters were used in personnel dosimetry at hospitals. Moreover, a study was realized about factors that affect the measurements with pocket dosemeters in the long term, such as discharges due to cosmic radiation. A DBASE IV program was developed to store the information included in the hospital's registry

  1. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in spiny dogfish and bamboo sharks during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-11-01

    A key feature of fish functional design is the presence of multiple fins that allow thrust vectoring and redirection of fluid momentum to contribute to both steady swimming and maneuvering. A number of previous studies have analyzed the function of dorsal fins in teleost fishes in this context, but the hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in freely swimming sharks has not been analyzed, despite the potential for differential functional roles between the anterior and posterior dorsal fins. Previous anatomical research has suggested a primarily stabilizing role for shark dorsal fins. We evaluated the generality of this hypothesis by using time-resolved particle image velocimetry to record water flow patterns in the wake of both the anterior and posterior dorsal fins in two species of freely swimming sharks: bamboo sharks ( Chiloscyllium plagiosum ) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias ). Cross-correlation analysis of consecutive images was used to calculate stroke-averaged mean longitudinal and lateral velocity components, and vorticity. In spiny dogfish, we observed a velocity deficit in the wake of the first dorsal fin and flow acceleration behind the second dorsal fin, indicating that the first dorsal fin experiences net drag while the second dorsal fin can aid in propulsion. In contrast, the wake of both dorsal fins in bamboo sharks displayed increased net flow velocity in the majority of trials, reflecting a thrust contribution to steady swimming. In bamboo sharks, fluid flow in the wake of the second dorsal fin had higher absolute average velocity than that for first dorsal fin, and this may result from a positive vortex interaction between the first and second dorsal fins. These data suggest that the first dorsal fin in spiny dogfish has primarily a stabilizing function, while the second dorsal fin has a propulsive function. In bamboo sharks, both dorsal fins can contribute thrust and should be considered as propulsive adjuncts to the body during steady

  2. Out of pocket spending for healthcare services: a study assessing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of pocket spending for healthcare services: a study assessing the relationship between payment methods and perceived satisfaction with the quality of care in a tertiary health facility in Delta State, Nigeria.

  3. Pocket facts 2008 : Swedish Road Administration, roads and traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Pocket Facts offers an overall picture of the road : transport system. Here you will find a selection of : brief facts about roads, road transports, vehicles and : people in traffic. In addition, it presents the functions : and organisation at the SR...

  4. Isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites for the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Truelove

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus using 454 pyrosequencing. Twenty-nine previously developed polymerase chain reaction primer pairs of Panulirus argus microsatellite loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in Panulirus guttatus. In total, eight consistently amplifying, and polymorphic loci were characterized for 57 individuals collected in the Florida Keys and Bermuda. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 20 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.409 to 0.958. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were found in one locus from Florida and three loci from Bermuda. Quality control testing indicated that all loci were easy to score, highly polymorphic and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Null alleles were detected in three loci with moderate frequencies ranging from (20% to 22%. These eight microsatellites provide novel molecular markers for future conservation genetics research of P. guttatus.

  5. A new karyotype for the spiny rat Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1909) (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Alexandra M R; Pagnozzi, Juliana M; Carmignotto, Ana Paula; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Flávio H G

    2012-01-01

    Clyomys Thomas, 1916 is a semifossorial rodent genus of spiny rats represented by only one species, Clyomys laticeps, which inhabits the tropical savannas and grasslands of central Brazil and eastern Paraguay. Here we describe a new karyotype of Clyomys laticeps found in populations of Emas National Park, Goiás state, Brazil. The four analyzed specimens had a diploid number (2n) of 32 and a fundamental autosome number (FN) of 54. Cytogenetic data include conventional staining, CBG and GTG-banding. The karyotype presents 12 meta/submetacentric pairs (1 to 12) and 3 pairs of acrocentrics (13 to 15) with gradual decrease in size. The X chromosome is a medium submetacentric and the Y is a medium acrocentric. The semifossorial habits together with habitat specificity could have contributed to the karyological variations found on this genus.

  6. Chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus (Crustacea : Decapoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Shabani, Shkelzen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2005-01-01

    most potent single compounds being ammonium, adenosine-5'-monophosphate, taurine, glutamate, and aspartate. Cluster analysis indicated that the neurons constitute a heterogeneous population that could be placed into seven groups linked according to their most excitatory compound. These neurons......We studied electrophysiological properties of single chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus to complement our growing understanding of the behavioral roles of mouthparts of decapod crustaceans. Food mixtures and 13 single compounds...... were used to characterize the response specificity, sensitivity, and time course of individual neurons in the endopods of maxilliped 2 and 3. Additional chemoreceptors were found in the mandibular palp and basis of maxilliped 1 but they were not characterized. Neurons were broadly tuned, with the five...

  7. Seasonal feeding ecology of ring-tailed lemurs: a comparison of spiny and gallery forest habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Marni; Sauther, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Although Lemur catta persists in many habitat types in southern Madagascar, its ecology has been primarily studied within gallery forests. We compare plant food selection and properties for ring-tailed lemurs in the spiny and gallery forests over the synchronized lactation period (September to March) that includes both the dry and wet seasons. We found no significant habitat-specific differences in the type of plant part consumed per month (i.e. flower, fruit, leaf) or between the intake of soluble carbohydrates. However, the presence and use of Tamarindus indica plants appear to elevate protein and fiber intake in the gallery forest lemurs' diets. Protein is especially important for reproductive females who incur the added metabolic costs associated with lactation; however, fiber can disrupt protein digestion. Future work should continue to investigate how variations of protein and fiber affect ring-tailed lemur dietary choice and nutrient acquisition. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The response of the Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) and two other species of commensal rodents to anticoagulant rodenticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, W; Redfern, R

    1981-06-01

    The response of Acomys cahirinus to three anticoagulant rodenticides was investigated in the laboratory. In contrast to the other commensal rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, this species appears to be naturally very resistant to warfarin, difenacoum and brodifacoum. It is considered unlikely that anticoagulant poisons would be effective in the field for the control of A. cahirinus.

  9. Free enthalpies of replacing water molecules in protein binding pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riniker, Sereina; Barandun, Luzi J; Diederich, François; Krämer, Oliver; Steffen, Andreas; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2012-12-01

    Water molecules in the binding pocket of a protein and their role in ligand binding have increasingly raised interest in recent years. Displacement of such water molecules by ligand atoms can be either favourable or unfavourable for ligand binding depending on the change in free enthalpy. In this study, we investigate the displacement of water molecules by an apolar probe in the binding pocket of two proteins, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and tRNA-guanine transglycosylase, using the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) to obtain free enthalpy differences. In both cases, a ligand core is placed inside the respective pocket and the remaining water molecules are converted to apolar probes, both individually and in pairs. The free enthalpy difference between a water molecule and a CH(3) group at the same location in the pocket in comparison to their presence in bulk solution calculated from EDS molecular dynamics simulations corresponds to the binding free enthalpy of CH(3) at this location. From the free enthalpy difference and the enthalpy difference, the entropic contribution of the displacement can be obtained too. The overlay of the resulting occupancy volumes of the water molecules with crystal structures of analogous ligands shows qualitative correlation between experimentally measured inhibition constants and the calculated free enthalpy differences. Thus, such an EDS analysis of the water molecules in the binding pocket may give valuable insight for potency optimization in drug design.

  10. Anatomy and muscle activity of the dorsal fins in bamboo sharks and spiny dogfish during turning maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2013-11-01

    Stability and procured instability characterize two opposing types of swimming, steady and maneuvering, respectively. Fins can be used to manipulate flow to adjust stability during swimming maneuvers either actively using muscle control or passively by structural control. The function of the dorsal fins during turning maneuvering in two shark species with different swimming modes is investigated here using musculoskeletal anatomy and muscle function. White-spotted bamboo sharks are a benthic species that inhabits complex reef habitats and thus have high requirements for maneuverability. Spiny dogfish occupy a variety of coastal and continental shelf habitats and spend relatively more time cruising in open water. These species differ in dorsal fin morphology and fin position along the body. Bamboo sharks have a larger second dorsal fin area and proportionally more muscle insertion into both dorsal fins. The basal and radial pterygiophores are plate-like structures in spiny dogfish and are nearly indistinguishable from one another. In contrast, bamboo sharks lack basal pterygiophores, while the radial pterygiophores form two rows of elongated rectangular elements that articulate with one another. The dorsal fin muscles are composed of a large muscle mass that extends over the ceratotrichia overlying the radials in spiny dogfish. However, in bamboo sharks, the muscle mass is divided into multiple distinct muscles that insert onto the ceratotrichia. During turning maneuvers, the dorsal fin muscles are active in both species with no differences in onset between fin sides. Spiny dogfish have longer burst durations on the outer fin side, which is consistent with opposing resistance to the medium. In bamboo sharks, bilateral activation of the dorsal in muscles could also be stiffening the fin throughout the turn. Thus, dogfish sharks passively stiffen the dorsal fin structurally and functionally, while bamboo sharks have more flexible dorsal fins, which result from a

  11. Sex Diversity Approach of Spiny Lobster (Panulirus spp) to Marine Oil Spill Pollution in Southern Waters of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, F. E. D.; Ambariyanto; Sulistyo, I.

    2018-02-01

    Coastal of southern Java waters is known as inhabit area of spiny lobster. Accumulation of hydrocarbon frequently occurs at the coastal waters as impact of oil pollution caused by oil leak from supplying ship of crude oil to Cilacap refinery. As shipping channel of oil, presence of oil spills is often detected at coastal areas of Cilacap. It can be indicated by range of sediment in the area which has risk levels in range of low to medium-low. It was, therefore, found that some locations suffered a greater impact on the ecological which giving high risk for marine organism life. Spiny lobster is one of many organism living at sea bed which threatened its life due to the presence of oil. Population of Spiny Lobster has to be protected because it has commercially valuable commodity for producing high nutrition. Considering the matters, it is therefore important to find a method for alleviating the problem. Investigation should be focused on biological aspect of spiny lobster in encountering extreme pollution at the coastal. For that purpose, a field research was conducted from January until July 2015. Using gillnet with 1 inch mesh size, the lobsters were randomly collected from southern Java districts waters. There were 1137 lobsters collected from six districts waters. Furthermore, the sample was morphologically identified and it was found that there were six species in the areas. In all area, P. homarus was found as dominant species, except in Gunung kidul district which was dominated by P. penicillatus. In term of sex diversity, there is statistically difference in number of female and male, each species no significant. Even though environment quality was very worse, there was found existence of ovigerous female in the research area as about 12% of the population. Those facts strongly indicated that the lobsters has a unique adaptation to survive in extremely low quality of environment due to marine oil spill.

  12. MOLECULAR DETECTION AND CLONING FOR RICKETTSIA-LIKE BACTERIA OF MILKY HAEMOLYMPH DISEASE OF SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Isti Koesharyani; Lila Gardenia; Ni Luh Anggra Lasmika

    2017-01-01

    Spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus) are important commodities for Indonesia. The aquaculture of lobster is susceptible for several diseases like parasite, fungi, bacteria, and virus. Among those diseases, milky haemolymph disease (MHD) is often seen as a symptom to mass mortality occurred at lobster farms in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok. The purpose of this study was to determine the lobster diseases on cage culture in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. The study was unde...

  13. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C, and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa. It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  14. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Wen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor) are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C), and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa). It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  15. Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia Is Related to Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neuron Excitotoxicity: A Hypothesis Based on an Unexpected Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A serendipitous pharmacogenetic finding links the vulnerability to developing levodopa-induced dyskinesia to the age of onset of Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease is caused by a polyglutamate expansion of the protein huntingtin. Aberrant huntingtin is less capable of binding to a member of membrane-associated guanylate kinase family (MAGUKs: postsynaptic density- (PSD- 95. This leaves more PSD-95 available to stabilize NR2B subunit carrying NMDA receptors in the synaptic membrane. This results in increased excitotoxicity for which particularly striatal medium spiny neurons from the indirect extrapyramidal pathway are sensitive. In Parkinson’s disease the sensitivity for excitotoxicity is related to increased oxidative stress due to genetically determined abnormal metabolism of dopamine or related products. This probably also increases the sensitivity of medium spiny neurons for exogenous levodopa. Particularly the combination of increased oxidative stress due to aberrant dopamine metabolism, increased vulnerability to NMDA induced excitotoxicity, and the particular sensitivity of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons for this excitotoxicity may explain the observed increased prevalence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

  16. Health assessment of a spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx spp.) population in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldo, Jesus L; Libanan, Nelson L; Samour, Jaime H

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the health status of the free-living spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx spp.) population at Wrsan, Al Ajban, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. A total of 90 spiny-tailed lizards, 61 males and 29 females, were examined from June to August 2006. Mean body weights were 1,564.4 g and 809.4 g for males and females, respectively. Mean body lengths were 62.1 cm and 49.4 cm for males and females, respectively. Fourteen lizards were found with abnormalities including abscesses, bite wounds, and deformed or missing tail ends, digits, or claws. Radiographic examination revealed osteomyelitis, arthritis, and healed fractures. Reference hematology and chemistry values were obtained from the 76 clinically normal lizards. Hemoparasitemia included possible new species of Karyolysus and Hepatozoon. The most common oropharyngeal organisms isolated were Escherichia coli, Providencia spp., and nonhemolytic Staphylococcus; and the most common cloacal organisms were E. coli, Proteus spp., Providencia spp., and nonhemolytic Staphylococcus. Ascarids were the only endoparasites found. This is the first biomedical data published for the spiny-tailed lizard.

  17. Settlement and juvenile habitat of the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae in the western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Díaz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Settlement characteristics, like timing, depth, microhabitat and density of European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas are described for the very first time. Regular SCUBA-diving surveys were conducted from July 1998 to January 2000 on rocky bottoms of three different geologic origins to assess substratum-dependent differences in recruitment density. Settlement of pueruli took place in June-July, a few weeks after sea surface temperature started to rise. The highest density of juveniles was found at 10-15 m depth. Most spiny lobsters settled in limestone rocks, into empty holes of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga, which provided daytime refuge. As they grew, individuals were increasingly found in larger holes and crevices of the rock surface. Sizes were estimated from photographs taken at night when the animals were actively foraging. The smallest observed individuals measured 7.5-8 mm carapace length (CL, but they reached 15-18 mm CL at the end of October. The consequences of our results for the management of the spiny lobster populations in the northwestern Mediterranean are summarily discussed.

  18. Unusual Treatment of Pacemaker Pocket Infection: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemisaeed

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pocket infection of a cardiac device is usually treated by removing the device and re-implanting it in a new site after complete treatment of the infection. This report illustrates a complicated case of pocket infection in the wake of the implantation of a permanent pacemaker (cardiac resynchronization therapy. The patient was treated conservatively through daily irrigation and dressing, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and debridement without the device being removed; the generator was kept out of the pocket for 5 weeks and then re-implanted in the same location successfully. The method of treatment presented herein can be of value, not least in the elderly population who might experience life-threatening events following the replacement of their cardiac devices.

  19. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  20. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  1. Divergence at the edges: peripatric isolation in the montane spiny throated reed frog complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Lucinda P; Bates, John M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2015-07-01

    Peripatric speciation and peripheral isolation have uncertain importance in species accumulation, and are largely overshadowed by assumed dominance of allopatric modes of speciation. Understanding the role of different speciation mechanisms within biodiversity hotspots is central to understanding the generation of biological diversity. Here, we use a phylogeographic analysis of the spiny-throated reed frogs and examine sister pairings with unbalanced current distributional ranges for characteristics of peripatric speciation. We further investigate whether forest/grassland mosaic adapted species are more likely created through peripatric speciation due to instability of this habitat type. We reconstructed a multi-locus molecular phylogeny of spiny-throated reed frogs which we then combined with comparative morphologic data to delimit species and analyze historical demographic change; identifying three new species. Three potential peripatric speciation events were identified along with one case of allopatric speciation. Peripatric speciation is supported through uneven potential and realized distributions and uneven population size estimates based on field collections. An associated climate shift was observed in most potentially peripatric splits. Morphological variation was highest in sexually dimorphic traits such as body size and gular shape, but this variation was not limited to peripatric species pairs as hypothesized. The potentially allopatric species pair showed no niche shifts and equivalent effective population sizes, ruling out peripatry in that speciation event. Two major ecological niche shifts were recovered within this radiation, possibly as adaptations to occupy areas of grassland that became more prevalent in the last 5 million years. Restricted and fluctuating grassland mosaics within forests might promote peripatric speciation in the Eastern Arc Biodiversity Hotspot (EABH). In our case study, peripatric speciation appears to be an important driver

  2. Out-of-Pocket Spending for Hospitalizations Among Nonelderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Emily R; Ryan, Andrew M; Seltzer, Amanda C; Chen, Lena M; Ayanian, John Z; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K

    2016-09-01

    Patients' out-of-pocket spending for major health care expenses, such as inpatient care, may result in substantial financial distress. Limited contemporary data exist on out-of-pocket spending among nonelderly adults. To evaluate out-of-pocket spending associated with hospitalizations and to assess how this spending varied over time and by patient characteristics, region, and type of insurance. A retrospective analysis of medical claims for 7.3 million hospitalizations using 2009-2013 data from Aetna, UnitedHealthcare, and Humana insurance companies representing approximately 50 million members was performed. Out-of-pocket spending was evaluated by age, sex, type of insurance, region, and principal diagnosis or procedure for hospitalized adults aged 18 to 64 years who were enrolled in employer-sponsored and individual-market health insurance plans from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013. The study was conducted between July 1, 2015, and March 1, 2016. Primary outcomes were total out-of-pocket spending and spending attributed to deductibles, copayments, and coinsurance for all hospitalizations. Other outcomes included out-of-pocket spending associated with 7 commonly occurring inpatient diagnoses and procedures: acute myocardial infarction, live birth, pneumonia, appendicitis, coronary artery bypass graft, total knee arthroplasty, and spinal fusion. From 2009 to 2013, total cost sharing per inpatient hospitalization increased by 37%, from $738 in 2009 (95% CI, $736-$740) to $1013 in 2013 (95% CI, $1011-$1016), after adjusting for inflation and case-mix differences. This rise was driven primarily by increases in the amount applied to deductibles, which grew by 86% from $145 in 2009 (95% CI, $144-$146) to $270 in 2013 (95% CI, $269-$271), and by increases in coinsurance, which grew by 33% over the study period from $518 in 2009 (95% CI, $516-$520) to $688 in 2013 (95% CI, $686-$690). In 2013, total cost sharing was highest for enrollees in individual market plans

  3. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    -up no relapses and two cases of new infections were noted (2.8%). CONCLUSIONS: CIED infection with systemic or pocket infection was difficult to distinguish in clinical presentation and outcome. Complete device removal and antibiotic treatment of long duration was safe and without relapses....... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...

  4. Apache 2 Pocket Reference For Apache Programmers & Administrators

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Even if you know the Apache web server inside and out, you still need an occasional on-the-job reminder -- especially if you're moving to the newer Apache 2.x. Apache 2 Pocket Reference gives you exactly what you need to get the job done without forcing you to plow through a cumbersome, doorstop-sized reference. This Book provides essential information to help you configure and maintain the server quickly, with brief explanations that get directly to the point. It covers Apache 2.x, giving web masters, web administrators, and programmers a quick and easy reference solution. This pocket r

  5. Why not to ''pocket shoot'': Radiology of intravenous drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarroll, K.A.; Fisher, D.R.; Cawthon, L.A.; Donovan, K.R.; Roszler, M.H.; Kling, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Our large population of intravenous drug abusers has increasingly resorted to supraclavicular central venous injection for vascular access. Few reports of complications associated with the practice of supraclavicular ''pocket'' injection have appeared in the radiologic literature. The authors describe the complications associated with this practice, including pneumothorax, mycotic aneurysm, arteriovenous fistula, jugular vein thrombosis, cellulitis, foreign body reaction, and neck abscess. In addition, the authors provide examples of sternoclavicular osteomyelitis. The anatomy of the ''pocket,'' and the pathophysiology and radiographic manifestations of these complications, are reviewed

  6. Canvas Pocket Reference Scripted Graphics for HTML5

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, David

    2010-01-01

    The Canvas element is a revolutionary feature of HTML5 that enables powerful graphics for rich Internet applications, and this pocket reference provides the essentials you need to put this element to work. If you have working knowledge of JavaScript, this book will help you create detailed, interactive, and animated graphics -- from charts to animations to video games -- whether you're a web designer or a programmer interested in graphics. Canvas Pocket Reference provides both a tutorial that covers all of the element's features with plenty of examples and a definitive reference to each of t

  7. Vibration Characteristics of Hydrodynamic Fluid Film Pocket Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Feng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analyses of hydrodynamic fluid film bearings with different bearing profiles rely on solutions of the Reynolds equation. This paper presents an approach used for analysing the so-called pocket bearings formed from a combination of offset circular bearing profiles. The results show that the variation of the dynamic bearing characteristics with different load inclinations for the pocket bearings is less than that for the elliptic bearing counterpart. It is shown that the natural frequencies as well as the critical speeds, and hence the vibrational behaviour, can also be significantly different for an industrial rotor supported by the different bearings.

  8. Tissue expander infections in children: look beyond the expander pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A C; Davison, S P; Manders, E K

    1999-11-01

    Infection of the expander pocket is the most common complication encountered with soft-tissue expansion. It is usually due to direct inoculation with skin flora either at the time of expander insertion or from extrusion of the device. The authors report two cases of infection of tissue expanders in which the children had concomitant infected sites distant from the prosthesis. Etiological bacteria of common pediatric infections like otitis media and pharyngitis were cultured from the infected expander pocket, raising suspicion that translocation of the organism to the expander had occurred. Aggressive antibiotic treatment, removal of the prosthesis, and flap advancement is advocated.

  9. Pocket radar guide key facts, equations, and data

    CERN Document Server

    Curry, G Richard

    2010-01-01

    ThePocket Radar Guideis a concise collection of key radar facts and important radar data that provides you with necessary radar information when you are away from your office or references. It includes statements and comments on radar design, operation, and performance; equations describing the characteristics and performance of radar systems and their components; and tables with data on radar characteristics and key performance issues.It is intended to supplement other radar information sources by providing a pocket companion to refresh memory and provide details whenever you need them such a

  10. UML 2.0 Pocket Reference UML Syntax and Usage

    CERN Document Server

    Pilone, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Globe-trotting travelers have long resorted to handy, pocket-size dictionaries as an aid to communicating across the language barrier. Dan Pilone's UML 2.0 Pocket Reference is just such an aid for on-the-go developers who need to converse in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Use this book to decipher the many UML diagrams you'll encounter on the path to delivering a modern software system. Updated to cover the very latest in UML, you'll find coverage of the following UML 2.0 diagram types: Class diagramsComponent diagrams*Sequence diagrams*Communication diagrams*Timing diagrams*Interactio

  11. Severely impaired learning and altered neuronal morphology in mice lacking NMDA receptors in medium spiny neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R Beutler

    Full Text Available The striatum is composed predominantly of medium spiny neurons (MSNs that integrate excitatory, glutamatergic inputs from the cortex and thalamus, and modulatory dopaminergic inputs from the ventral midbrain to influence behavior. Glutamatergic activation of AMPA, NMDA, and metabotropic receptors on MSNs is important for striatal development and function, but the roles of each of these receptor classes remain incompletely understood. Signaling through NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs in the striatum has been implicated in various motor and appetitive learning paradigms. In addition, signaling through NMDARs influences neuronal morphology, which could underlie their role in mediating learned behaviors. To study the role of NMDARs on MSNs in learning and in morphological development, we generated mice lacking the essential NR1 subunit, encoded by the Grin1 gene, selectively in MSNs. Although these knockout mice appear normal and display normal 24-hour locomotion, they have severe deficits in motor learning, operant conditioning and active avoidance. In addition, the MSNs from these knockout mice have smaller cell bodies and decreased dendritic length compared to littermate controls. We conclude that NMDAR signaling in MSNs is critical for normal MSN morphology and many forms of learning.

  12. Genealogy and palaeodrainage basins in Yunnan Province: phylogeography of the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis (Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Ru; Chen, Ming-Yong; Murphy, Robert W; Che, Jing; Pang, Jun-Feng; Hu, Jian-Sheng; Luo, Jing; Wu, Shan-Jin; Ye, Hui; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2010-08-01

    Historical drainage patterns adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau differed markedly from those of today. We examined the relationship between drainage history and geographic patterns of genetic variation in the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis, using approximately 981 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA partial sequences from protein-coding genes ND1 and ND2, and intervening areas including complete tRNA(Ile), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Met). Two null hypotheses were tested: (i) that genetic patterns do not correspond to the development of drainage systems and (ii) that populations had been stable and not experienced population expansion, bottlenecking and selection. Genealogical analyses identified three, major, well-supported maternal lineages, each of which had two sublineages. These divergent lineages were completely concordant with six geographical regions. Genetic structure and divergence were strongly congruent with historical rather than contemporary drainage patterns. Most lineages and sublineages were formed via population fragmentation during the rearrangement of paleodrainage basins in the Early Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. Sympatric lineages occurred only in localities at the boundaries of major drainages, likely reflecting secondary contact of previously allopatric populations. Extensive population expansion probably occurred early in the Middle Pleistocene accompanying dramatic climatic oscillations.

  13. The internal state of medium spiny neurons varies in response to different input signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Gary W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, Huntington's chorea and drug addiction are manifestations of malfunctioning neurons within the striatum region at the base of the human forebrain. A key component of these neurons is the protein DARPP-32, which receives and processes various types of dopamine and glutamate inputs and translates them into specific biochemical, cellular, physiological, and behavioral responses. DARPP-32's unique capacity of faithfully converting distinct neurotransmitter signals into appropriate responses is achieved through a complex phosphorylation-dephosphorylation system that evades intuition and predictability. Results To gain deeper insights into the functioning of the DARPP-32 signal transduction system, we developed a dynamic model that is robust and consistent with available clinical, pharmacological, and biological observations. Upon validation, the model was first used to explore how different input signal scenarios are processed by DARPP-32 and translated into distinct static and dynamic responses. Secondly, a comprehensive perturbation analysis identified the specific role of each component on the system's signal transduction ability. Conclusions Our study investigated the effects of various patterns of neurotransmission on signal integration and interpretation by DARPP-32 and showed that the DARPP-32 system has the capability of discerning surprisingly many neurotransmission scenarios. We also screened out potential mechanisms underlying this capability of the DARPP-32 system. This type of insight deepens our understanding of neuronal signal transduction in normal medium spiny neurons, sheds light on neurological disorders associated with the striatum, and might aid the search for intervention targets in neurological diseases and drug addiction.

  14. Microbial composition of spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis) across their geographic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Manuela Oliveira; Bueno, Odair Correa; Moreau, Corrie Saux

    2017-04-05

    Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics tools, this study explores the microbial community of >80 species of Polyrhachis distributed across the Old World and compares the microbiota of samples and related hosts across different biogeographic locations and in the context of their phylogenetic history. The predominant bacteria across samples were Enterobacteriaceae (Blochmannia - with likely many new strains), followed by Wolbachia (with multiple strains), Lactobacillus, Thiotrichaceae, Acinetobacter, Nocardia, Sodalis, and others. We recovered some exclusive strains of Enterobacteriaceae as specific to some subgenera of Polyrhachis, corroborating the idea of coevolution between host and bacteria for this bacterial group. Our correlation results (partial mantel and mantel tests) found that host phylogeny can influence the overall bacterial community, but that geographic location had no effect. Our work is revealing important aspects of the biology of hosts in structuring the diversity and abundance of these host-associated bacterial communities including the role of host phylogeny and shared evolutionary history.

  15. Out-of-pocket payment for health services: constraints and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study brings to the fore the fact that most government employees and their dependants in Abakaliki have difficulties in accessing quality health care services via paying for them out-of-pocket. Keywords: Health services, payment, constraints, government employees. African Health Sciences 2011; 11(3): 481 ...

  16. Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis serotypes to pocket epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierickx, K; Pauwels, M; Laine, ML; Van Eldere, J; Cassiman, JJ; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a key pathogen in periodontitis, is able to adhere to and invade the pocket epithelium. Different capsular antigens of P gingivalis have been identified (K-serotyping). These P gingivalis capsular types show differences in adhesion capacity to human cell lines

  17. Book Review: Nelson Mandela: A Jacana Pocket Biography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Nelson Mandela: A Jacana Pocket Biography. Author: Colin Bundy. Jacana: Auckland Park, 2015. 159 pp. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  18. Book Review: Chris Hani: A Jacana Pocket Biography | Smith | New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Chris Hani: A Jacana Pocket Biography. Author: Hugh Macmillan. Jacana: Auckland Park, 2014. 152 pp. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  19. Reynolds number scaling of pocket events in the viscous sublayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M.; Fershtut, A.; Kunkel, C.; Klewicki, J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent findings [X. Wu et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 114, E5292 (2017), 10.1073/pnas.1704671114] reinforce earlier assertions [e.g., R. Falco, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London A 336, 103 (1991), 10.1098/rsta.1991.0069] that the sublayer pocket motions play a distinctly important role in near-wall dynamics. In the present study, smoke visualization and axial velocity measurements are combined in order to establish the scaling behavior of pocket events in the viscous sublayer of the turbulent boundary layer. In doing so, an identical analysis methodology is employed over an extensive range of friction Reynolds numbers 388 ≤δ+≤2.2 ×105 . Both the pocket width W and time interval between pocket events T increase logarithmically with Reynolds number when normalized by viscous units. Normalization of W and T by the Taylor microscales evaluated at a wall-normal location of about 100 viscous units, however, appears to successfully remove this Reynolds-number dependence. The present results are discussed in the context of motion formation owing to the three dimensionalization of the near-wall vorticity field and, concomitantly, the recurring perturbation of the viscous sublayer.

  20. The Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries by Thai University Students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs) to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to ...

  1. Equity in out-of-pocket payment in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaca, Alicia Lorena Núñez; Chi, Chunhuei

    2017-05-04

    To assess the distribution of financial burden in Chile, with a focus on the burden and progressivity of out-of-pocket payment. Based on the principle of ability to pay, we explore factors that contribute to inequities in the health system finance and issues about the burden of out-of-pocket payment, as well as the progressivity and redistributive effect of out-of-pocket payment in Chile. Our analysis is based on data from the 2006 National Survey on Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payments. Results from this study indicate evidence of inequity, in spite of the progressivity of the healthcare system. Our analysis also identifies relevant policy variables such as education, insurance system, and method of payment that should be taken into consideration in the ongoing debates and research in improving the Chilean system. In order to reduce the detected disparities among income groups, healthcare priorities should target low-income groups. Furthermore, policies should explore changes in the access to education and its impact on equity.

  2. Resistance to starvation of first-stage juveniles of the Caribbean spiny lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Magaña, Alí; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The non-feeding postlarva (puerulus) of spiny lobsters actively swims from the open ocean to the coastal habitats where it settles and molts to the first-stage juvenile (JI). Because pueruli use much of their energy reserves swimming and preparing for the post-settlement molt, the survival of JIs presumably depends on resuming feeding as soon as possible. To test this hypothesis, the resistance to starvation of JIs of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus , was evaluated by measuring their point-of-no-return (PNR, minimum time of initial starvation preventing recovery after later feeding) and point-of-reserve-saturation (PRS, minimum time of initial feeding allowing for food-independent development through the rest of the molting cycle) in a warm and a cold season. Each experiment consisted of eight groups: a continuously fed control (FC) group, a continuously starved control (SC) group, and six groups subjected to differential periods of either initial starvation and subsequent feeding (PNR experiments) or initial feeding and subsequent starvation (PSR experiments). No JIs molted under continuous absence of food (SC). In both PNR experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.79 ± 0.07°C, mean ± 95% CI; in cold season: 25.63 ± 0.12°C) mortality increased sharply after 9 d of initial starvation and intermolt periods increased with period of initial starvation, but were longer in the cold season. The PNR 50 was longer in the warm season (12.1 ± 1.2 d, mean ± 95% CI) than in the cold season (9.5 ± 2.1 d). In PRS experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.54 ± 0.07 °C; in cold season: 26.20 ± 0.12 °C), JIs that molted did so near the end of the feeding period; all JIs initially fed for up to 6 d succumbed, and no JIs molted after 13 d of starvation despite having fed previously. The PRS 50 did not differ between the cold (13.1 ± 0.7 d) and warm seasons (12.1 ± 1.1 d). JIs of P. argus exhibit a remarkable resistance to starvation

  3. Resistance to starvation of first-stage juveniles of the Caribbean spiny lobster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alí Espinosa-Magaña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-feeding postlarva (puerulus of spiny lobsters actively swims from the open ocean to the coastal habitats where it settles and molts to the first-stage juvenile (JI. Because pueruli use much of their energy reserves swimming and preparing for the post-settlement molt, the survival of JIs presumably depends on resuming feeding as soon as possible. To test this hypothesis, the resistance to starvation of JIs of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, was evaluated by measuring their point-of-no-return (PNR, minimum time of initial starvation preventing recovery after later feeding and point-of-reserve-saturation (PRS, minimum time of initial feeding allowing for food-independent development through the rest of the molting cycle in a warm and a cold season. Each experiment consisted of eight groups: a continuously fed control (FC group, a continuously starved control (SC group, and six groups subjected to differential periods of either initial starvation and subsequent feeding (PNR experiments or initial feeding and subsequent starvation (PSR experiments. No JIs molted under continuous absence of food (SC. In both PNR experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.79 ± 0.07°C, mean ± 95% CI; in cold season: 25.63 ± 0.12°C mortality increased sharply after 9 d of initial starvation and intermolt periods increased with period of initial starvation, but were longer in the cold season. The PNR50 was longer in the warm season (12.1 ± 1.2 d, mean ± 95% CI than in the cold season (9.5 ± 2.1 d. In PRS experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.54 ± 0.07 °C; in cold season: 26.20 ± 0.12 °C, JIs that molted did so near the end of the feeding period; all JIs initially fed for up to 6 d succumbed, and no JIs molted after 13 d of starvation despite having fed previously. The PRS50 did not differ between the cold (13.1 ± 0.7 d and warm seasons (12.1 ± 1.1 d. JIs of P. argus exhibit a remarkable resistance to

  4. Subcellular Location of PKA Controls Striatal Plasticity: Stochastic Simulations in Spiny Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo F.; Kim, MyungSook; Blackwell, Kim T.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine release in the striatum has been implicated in various forms of reward dependent learning. Dopamine leads to production of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which are involved in striatal synaptic plasticity and learning. PKA and its protein targets are not diffusely located throughout the neuron, but are confined to various subcellular compartments by anchoring molecules such as A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs). Experiments have shown that blocking the interaction of PKA with AKAPs disrupts its subcellular location and prevents LTP in the hippocampus and striatum; however, these experiments have not revealed whether the critical function of anchoring is to locate PKA near the cAMP that activates it or near its targets, such as AMPA receptors located in the post-synaptic density. We have developed a large scale stochastic reaction-diffusion model of signaling pathways in a medium spiny projection neuron dendrite with spines, based on published biochemical measurements, to investigate this question and to evaluate whether dopamine signaling exhibits spatial specificity post-synaptically. The model was stimulated with dopamine pulses mimicking those recorded in response to reward. Simulations show that PKA colocalization with adenylate cyclase, either in the spine head or in the dendrite, leads to greater phosphorylation of DARPP-32 Thr34 and AMPA receptor GluA1 Ser845 than when PKA is anchored away from adenylate cyclase. Simulations further demonstrate that though cAMP exhibits a strong spatial gradient, diffusible DARPP-32 facilitates the spread of PKA activity, suggesting that additional inactivation mechanisms are required to produce spatial specificity of PKA activity. PMID:22346744

  5. Calcium dynamics predict direction of synaptic plasticity in striatal spiny projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejewska-Szmek, Joanna; Damodaran, Sriraman; Dorman, Daniel B; Blackwell, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    The striatum is a major site of learning and memory formation for sensorimotor and cognitive association. One of the mechanisms used by the brain for memory storage is synaptic plasticity - the long-lasting, activity-dependent change in synaptic strength. All forms of synaptic plasticity require an elevation in intracellular calcium, and a common hypothesis is that the amplitude and duration of calcium transients can determine the direction of synaptic plasticity. The utility of this hypothesis in the striatum is unclear in part because dopamine is required for striatal plasticity and in part because of the diversity in stimulation protocols. To test whether calcium can predict plasticity direction, we developed a calcium-based plasticity rule using a spiny projection neuron model with sophisticated calcium dynamics including calcium diffusion, buffering and pump extrusion. We utilized three spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) induction protocols, in which postsynaptic potentials are paired with precisely timed action potentials and the timing of such pairing determines whether potentiation or depression will occur. Results show that despite the variation in calcium dynamics, a single, calcium-based plasticity rule, which explicitly considers duration of calcium elevations, can explain the direction of synaptic weight change for all three STDP protocols. Additional simulations show that the plasticity rule correctly predicts the NMDA receptor dependence of long-term potentiation and the L-type channel dependence of long-term depression. By utilizing realistic calcium dynamics, the model reveals mechanisms controlling synaptic plasticity direction, and shows that the dynamics of calcium, not just calcium amplitude, are crucial for synaptic plasticity. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. GABAA Receptor Activity Shapes the Formation of Inhibitory Synapses between Developing Medium Spiny Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eArama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia play an essential role in motor coordination and cognitive functions. The GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs account for ~95 % of all the neurons in this brain region. Central to the normal functioning of MSNs is integration of synaptic activity arriving from the glutamatergic corticostriatal and thalamostriatal afferents, with synaptic inhibition mediated by local interneurons and MSN axon collaterals. In this study we have investigated how the specific types of GABAergic synapses between the MSNs develop over time, and how the activity of GABAA receptors (GABAARs influences this development. Isolated embryonic (E17 MSNs form a homogenous population in vitro and display spontaneous synaptic activity and functional properties similar to their in vivo counterparts. In dual whole-cell recordings of synaptically connected pairs of MSNs, action potential-activated synaptic events were detected between 7 and 14 days in vitro (DIV, which coincided with the shift in GABAAR operation from depolarization to hyperpolarization, as detected indirectly by intracellular calcium imaging. In parallel, the predominant subtypes of inhibitory synapses, which innervate dendrites of MSNs and contain GABAAR α1 or α2 subunits, underwent distinct changes in the size of postsynaptic clusters, with α1 becoming smaller and α2 larger over time, while both the percentage and the size of mixed α1/α2-postsynaptic clusters were increased. When activity of GABAARs was under chronic blockade between 4-7 DIV, the structural properties of these synapses remained unchanged. In contrast, chronic inhibition of GABAARs between7-14 DIV led to reduction in size of α1- and α1/α2-postsynaptic clusters and a concomitant increase in number and size of α2-postsynaptic clusters. Thus, the main subtypes of GABAergic synapses formed by MSNs are regulated by GABAAR activity, but in opposite directions, and thus appear to be driven by different molecular mechanisms.

  7. Ultraviolet light and heat source selection in captive spiny-tailed iguanas (Oplurus cuvieri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, H.C.; Fa, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three experimental manipulations were conducted to assess the influence of heat source selection and active thermoregulation on ultraviolet (UV) light exposure in captive spiny-tailed iguanas (Oplurus cuvieri) at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Four replicates per manipulation were conducted on six individual lizards. All animals were tested in a separate enclosure to which they were acclimated before observations. Data on choice of thermal sources were collected during the first 2 hr of light, when lizards were actively thermoregulating. Animals were allowed to choose between incandescent light, UV light and a non-light heat source (thermotube) in different combinations. Recorded temperatures close to the incandescent light (37°C) were always significantly higher than at the thermotube (33°C) and at the UV light (29°C). Manipulation 1 offered the animals a choice of an UV light and an incandescent light as thermal sources. Manipulation 2 presented animals with the thermal choices in Manipulation 1, but substrates under each source in Manipulation 1 were switched. In Manipulation 3, animals could choose between an incandescent light and the thermotube. All studied lizards were significantly more attracted to the incandescent light than to the UV light or thermotube. Incandescent light elicited a significantly higher proportion of basking behaviors in all individuals than the other sources. A high proportion of time basking was also spent in front of the thermotube but fewer individuals and less time were spent basking under the UV light. Heat source selection was generally found to be independent of substrate. Management applications of this preference are suggested for juvenile diurnal heliothermic iguanids. (author)

  8. A Quantitative Golgi Study of Dendritic Morphology in the Mice Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hladnik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups. The average neuronal soma surface was between 160 μm2 and 180 μm2, and the cells had 5–6 primary dendrites with close to 40 segments per neuron. Sholl analysis confirmed regular pattern of dendritic branching. The total length of dendrites was around 2100 μm with the average length of individual branching (intermediate segment around 22 μm and for the terminal segment around 100 μm. Even though each experimental group underwent the same strictly defined protocol in tissue preparation and Golgi staining, we found inconsistency in dendritic volume and soma surface. These changes could be methodologically influenced during the Golgi procedure, although without affecting the dendritic length and tree complexity. Since the neuronal activity affects the dendritic thickness, it could not be excluded that observed volume inconsistency was related with functional states of neurons prior to animal sacrifice. Comprehensive analyses of tree complexity and dendritic length provided here could serve as an additional tool for understanding morphological variability in the most numerous neuronal population of the striatum. As reference values they could provide basic ground for comparisons with the results obtained in studies that use various models of genetically modified mice in explaining different pathological conditions that

  9. 24 CFR 570.466 - Additional application submission requirements for Pockets of Poverty-employment opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for Pockets of Poverty-employment opportunities. 570.466 Section 570.466 Housing and Urban... application submission requirements for Pockets of Poverty—employment opportunities. Applicants for Action Grants under the Pockets of Poverty provision must describe the number and, to the extent possible, the...

  10. Health Promoting Pocket Parks in a Landscape Architectural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschardt, Karin Kragsig

    shown to have a positive influence on preventing lifestyle related diseases, although only limited research suggests how the various green spaces in the urban green infrastructure (UGI) can benefit health. Especially knowledge about the role of pocket parks is lacking. The study evaluates the health...... cities have become detached from nature and live most of their daily life indoors where sedentary work and physical inactivity characterise everyday life. It has been suggested that this inactivity has resulted in a rapid increase in a number of lifestyle diseases. Urban green spaces (UGS) have been......This thesis presents how the health potential of pocket parks can be improved through design from a landscape architectural perspective. In developed countries, the densification of cities is a wide-spread tendency which often results in a compact city planning structure. People who live in dense...

  11. Pocket PC-based portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamontip Ploykrachang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A portable gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Pocket PC has been developed. A 12-bit pipeline analog-to-digitalconverter (ADC associated with an implemented pulse height histogram function on field programmable gate array (FPGAoperating at 15 MHz is employed for pulse height analysis from built-in pulse amplifier. The system, which interfaces withthe Pocket PC via an enhanced RS-232 serial port under the microcontroller facilitation, is utilized for spectrum acquisition,display and analysis. The pulse height analysis capability of the system was tested and it was found that the ADC integralnonlinearity of ±0.45% was obtained with the throughput rate at 160 kcps. The overall system performance was tested usinga PIN photodiode-CsI(Tl crystal coupled scintillation detector and gamma standard radioactive sources of Cs-137 andCo-60. Low cost and the compact system size as a result of the implemented logical function are also discussed.

  12. Toothbrushing Behaviour and Periodontal Pocketing: An 11-year longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi S; Suominen AL; Knuuttila M; Bernabé E

    2018-01-01

    Aim To explore the association between toothbrushing behaviour and change in periodontal pocketing among adults. Methods We pooled data from 1,025 adults, aged 30–89 years, who participated in two national surveys in Finland (Health 2000 and Health 2011, BRIF8901) and reported their toothbrushing frequency. A cumulative measure of regular toothbrushing was created by counting the number of times participants reported brushing twice or more daily across the two surveys (ranging from ...

  13. Newnes circuit calculations pocket book with computer programs

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Circuit Calculations Pocket Book: With Computer Programs presents equations, examples, and problems in circuit calculations. The text includes 300 computer programs that help solve the problems presented. The book is comprised of 20 chapters that tackle different aspects of circuit calculation. The coverage of the text includes dc voltage, dc circuits, and network theorems. The book also covers oscillators, phasors, and transformers. The text will be useful to electrical engineers and other professionals whose work involves electronic circuitry.

  14. Toothbrushing behaviour and periodontal pocketing: An 11-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shriraksha; Suominen, Anna L; Knuuttila, Matti; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2018-02-01

    To explore the association between toothbrushing behaviour and change in periodontal pocketing among adults. We pooled data from 1,025 adults, aged 30-89 years, who participated in two national surveys in Finland (Health 2000 and Health 2011, BRIF8901) and reported their toothbrushing frequency. A cumulative measure of regular toothbrushing was created by counting the number of times participants reported brushing twice or more daily across the two surveys (ranging from 0 to 2). The association between toothbrushing behaviour and the number of teeth with periodontal pocket depth (PPD) ≥4 mm over 11 years was assessed in linear regression models adjusting for confounders. There was a clear dose-response relationship between toothbrushing frequency (either at baseline or follow-up) and change in number of teeth with PPD ≥ 4 mm. There was also evidence of a cumulative effect of regular toothbrushing on change in number of teeth with PPD ≥ 4 mm. Participants who reported brushing twice or more a day in both surveys developed 1.99 (95% CI: 1.02-2.95) fewer teeth with PPD ≥ 4 mm than those who did not report this behaviour in any survey. This 11-year prospective study showed that toothbrushing behaviour was associated with smaller increments in the number of teeth with periodontal pocketing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. On the benzodiazepine binding pocket in GABAA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhnoy, Dmytro; Nyfeler, Yves; Gonthier, Anne; Schwob, Hervé; Goeldner, Maurice; Sigel, Erwin

    2004-01-30

    Benzodiazepines are used for their sedative/hypnotic, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive effects. They exert their actions through a specific high affinity binding site on the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptor, the gamma-aminobutyric acid, type A (GABA(A)) receptor channel, where they act as positive allosteric modulators. To start to elucidate the relative positioning of benzodiazepine binding site ligands in their binding pocket, GABA(A) receptor residues thought to reside in the site were individually mutated to cysteine and combined with benzodiazepine analogs carrying substituents reactive to cysteine. Direct apposition of such reactive partners is expected to lead to an irreversible site-directed reaction. We describe here the covalent interaction of alpha(1)H101C with a reactive group attached to the C-7 position of diazepam. This interaction was studied at the level of radioactive ligand binding and at the functional level using electrophysiological methods. Covalent reaction occurs concomitantly with occupancy of the binding pocket. It stabilizes the receptor in its allosterically stimulated conformation. Covalent modification is not observed in wild type receptors or when using mutated alpha(1)H101C-containing receptors in combination with the reactive ligand pre-reacted with a sulfhydryl group, and the modification rate is reduced by the binding site ligand Ro15-1788. We present in addition evidence that gamma(2)Ala-79 is probably located in the access pathway of the ligand to its binding pocket.

  16. Temporal variation in the prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in three Czech spiny-cheek crayfish populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matasová K.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available North American crayfish species are natural hosts of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci. The spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, widespread in Central Europe, is the main reservoir of A. astaci in Czech Republic. We tested if there are temporal changes in the prevalence of infected individuals (i.e., the proportion of individuals in which the pathogen is detected in spiny-cheek crayfish populations. Crayfish from three populations shown previously to be infected to different extents (high, intermediate and low, were repeatedly sampled in different years (2004–2010 and seasons. The presence of A. astaci in the soft abdominal crayfish cuticle was tested by specific amplification of the pathogen DNA. There was no substantial temporal variation in pathogen prevalence in the highly and very lowly infected populations. However, a significant long-term as well as seasonal decrease was found in the intermediately infected population. This decline could be related to a decrease in population density over the studied years, and to crayfish seasonal moulting, respectively. A reliable estimate of pathogen prevalence in American crayfish populations thus requires repeated monitoring over years, preferably during the same season before the main period of crayfish moulting.

  17. Selective alterations of NMDAR function and plasticity in D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Maier, Esther Y; Buske, Tavanna R; Morrisett, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    A major mouse model widely adopted in recent years to induce pronounced ethanol intake is the ethanol vapor model known as "CIE" or "Chronic Intermittent Ethanol." One critical question concerning this model is whether the rapid induction of high blood ethanol levels for such short time periods is sufficient to induce alterations in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function which may contribute to excessive ethanol intake. In this study, we determined whether such short term intermittent ethanol exposure modulates NMDAR function as well as other prominent electrophysiological properties and the expression of plasticity in both D1 (D1+) and D2 (D1-) dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. To distinguish between the two subtypes of MSNs in the NAc we treated Drd1a-TdTomato transgenic mice with CIE vapor and electrophysiological recordings were conducted 24 h after the last vapor exposure. To investigate CIE induced alterations in plasticity, long-term depression (LTD) was induced by pairing low frequency stimulation (LFS) with post synaptic depolarization. In ethanol naïve mice, LFS induced synaptic depression (LTD) was apparent exclusively in D1+ MSNs. Whereas in slices prepared from CIE treated mice, LFS induced synaptic potentiation (LTP) in D1+ MSNs. Furthermore, following CIE exposure, LFS now produced LTD in D1- MSNs. We found that CIE exposure induced an increase in excitability in D1+ MSNs with no change in D1- MSNs. After CIE, we found a significant increase in spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) frequency in D1+ but not D1- MSNs suggesting alterations in baseline α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) mediated signaling. CIE induced changes in NMDAR function were measured using the NMDA/AMPA ratio and input-output curves of isolated NMDAR currents. We observed a significant increase in NMDAR function in D1+ MSNs and a decrease in D1- MSNs after ethanol vapor exposure. The

  18. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  19. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  20. Newnes audio and Hi-Fi engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Capel, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Audio and Hi-Fi Engineer's Pocket Book, Second Edition provides concise discussion of several audio topics. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that cover different audio equipment. The coverage of the text includes microphones, gramophones, compact discs, and tape recorders. The book also covers high-quality radio, amplifiers, and loudspeakers. The book then reviews the concepts of sound and acoustics, and presents some facts and formulas relevant to audio. The text will be useful to sound engineers and other professionals whose work involves sound systems.

  1. Windows® Small Business Server 2008 Administrator's Pocket Consultant

    CERN Document Server

    Zacker, Craig

    2009-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers ready answers for administering Windows Small Business Server 2008. Zero in on core support tasks and tools using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the focused information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether at your desk or in the field. Get fast facts to: Plan, install, and configure a small business network Navigate the Windows SBS Console toolCreate and administer user and group accounts Manage automatic updates, disk storage, and shared printersConfigure mail settings and customize inte

  2. Environment protection and occupational safety - pocket book 1993/94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The pocket book, which formerly bore the title ''Ecology and environmental engineering'', contains dates and data and above all addresses of journalists publicists, photographers, including those living in the new Laender, of publications and documentations such as daily and weekly newspapers, of the electronic media, business and industry, the parliaments, governments and ministries of the Federation and the Laender, institutions of science and education and of associations and organisations it serves as a guide for all those who have committed themselves either privately or professionally to the cause of ecology/environment/occupational safety. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Pocket atlas of head and neck MRI anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lufkin, R.B.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    This pocket atlas depicts the anatomy of the head and neck as seen in magnetic resonance (MR) images. The collection of 140 high-resolution images covers all major areas - neck, larynx, oropharynx, tongue, nasopharynx, skull base, sinuses, and temporal bone - displayed in sagittal, axial, and coronal MR image planes. The images show maximum fat/muscle contrast for better visualization of fascial planes. In certain areas of the anatomy, such as the neck and temporal bone, surface coils were used to achieve significant advantages in image quality over standard head or body coils.

  4. Windows® Group Policy Administrators Pocket Consultant

    CERN Document Server

    Stanek, William

    2009-01-01

    Portable and precise, this pocket-sized guide delivers ready answers for the day-to-day administration of Group Policy. Zero in on core support and maintenance tasks using quick-reference tables, instructions, and lists. You'll get the focused information you need to solve problems and get the job done-whether at your desk or in the field! Get fast facts to: Configure Local GPOs and Active Directory®-based GPOsManage policy preferences and settingsModel policy changes through the consoleMigrate and maintain the SYSVOLDiagnose and troubleshoot replication issuesKnow when to enforce, block,

  5. Contralateral Abdominal Pocketing in Salvation of Replanted Fingertips with Compromised Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Sup Shim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications.

  6. Contralateral Abdominal Pocketing in Salvation of Replanted Fingertips with Compromised Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hyung-Sup; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal pocketing is one of the most useful methods in salvation of compromised replanted fingertips. Abdominal pocketing has generally been performed in the ipsilateral lower abdominal quadrant, but we have also performed contralateral pocketing at our institute. To determine which approach is more beneficial, a total of 40 patients underwent an abdominal pocketing procedure in either the ipsilateral or contralateral lower abdominal quadrant after fingertip replantation. Dates of abdominal pocketing after initial replantation, detachment after abdominal pocketing, range of motion (ROM) before abdominal pocketing, and sequential ROM after the detachment operation and date of full ROM recovery and Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (DASH) score were recorded through medical chart review. Mean detachment date, mean abduction of shoulder after the detachment operation, and mean days to return to full ROM were not significantly different between the ipsilateral and contralateral pocketing groups. However, the mean DASH score was significantly lower in the contralateral group than the ipsilateral group. There were also fewer postoperative wound complications in the contralateral group than in the ipsilateral group. We, therefore, recommend contralateral abdominal pocketing rather than ipsilateral abdominal pocketing to increase patient comfort and reduce pain and complications. PMID:25379539

  7. Association between intensity of smoking and periodontal pockets among young university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A; Hilow, H; Khraisat, A; Smadi, L; Ryalat, S

    2008-06-01

    Smoking is known to be a risk factor for the progression of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to examine the association between intensity and duration of cigarette smoking with the presence of periodontal pockets at a young adult age in relation to oral hygiene practices. A comparative study was carried out on a systematically selected random sample of 357 Jordanian university students aged between 18-28 years. Subjects were interviewed about their smoking habits for the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the duration. Clinical examination was performed by a qualified periodontist for the detection of periodontal pockets (probing depth > or = 5 mm). Subjects were divided into four groups: Group A (smoker with pockets at many sites), Group B (smoker with no pockets), Group C (non-smoker with pockets), and group D (non-smoker with no pockets). Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Chi-square test of association, One-Way ANOVA, and Logistic Regression were performed (P periodontal pockets and smoking (P smoking, the more periodontal pockets were present (P periodontal pockets and patient's own oral hygiene practices was found among the four groups (p smoking and presence of periodontal pockets, especially with increased intensity and longer duration of smoking.

  8. GPCR crystal structures: Medicinal chemistry in the pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonberg, Jeremy; Kling, Ralf C; Gmeiner, Peter; Löber, Stefan

    2015-07-15

    Recent breakthroughs in GPCR structural biology have significantly increased our understanding of drug action at these therapeutically relevant receptors, and this will undoubtedly lead to the design of better therapeutics. In recent years, crystal structures of GPCRs from classes A, B, C and F have been solved, unveiling a precise snapshot of ligand-receptor interactions. Furthermore, some receptors have been crystallized in different functional states in complex with antagonists, partial agonists, full agonists, biased agonists and allosteric modulators, providing further insight into the mechanisms of ligand-induced GPCR activation. It is now obvious that there is enormous diversity in the size, shape and position of the ligand binding pockets in GPCRs. In this review, we summarise the current state of solved GPCR structures, with a particular focus on ligand-receptor interactions in the binding pocket, and how this can contribute to the design of GPCR ligands with better affinity, subtype selectivity or efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and Implementation of Accurate and Efficient Pocket Dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, S.A.; Abdelkhalek, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    It is so important in the field of radiation therapy and radiation protection to have dosimeters to determine the absorbed dose, which is transferred to human body by ionizing radiation. In this paper the design and implementation of a wide-range pocket dosimeter (PKD-1) with high accuracy to measure personal equivalent dose and dose rate of gamma radiation will be presented. This pocket dosimeter is micro controller-based and powered from 9 V rechargeable battery. The overall power consumption is significantly reduced by smart software and hardware design allowing longer time intervals between recharging. The integrated alphanumerical LCD displays not only of the accumulated dose and current dose rate, but also displays alarm messages such as low battery. For reasons of power saving the LCD is activated on demand by pressing the push button or automatically when an alarm occurs. Audible and visual alarms have been added to PKD-1 in order that they cannot be accidentally overlooked or ignored. PKD-1 can be connected to any PC through its serial port (RS232) and User Interface software has been developed for easy displaying and recording of radiation readings over any time period

  10. Neglected Esophageal Injury Presenting With Spontaneously Shrunken Retroesophageal Pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chih Chang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical stab wounds with a thoracic-inlet esophageal injury are extremely rare. A 30-year-old man presented with dysphagia and stridor. He had attempted suicide by stabbing his neck with a screwdriver followed by jumping from a building 10 days previously, when a cervical tracheal injury was found and surgically repaired. Physical examination was unremarkable. Lateral cervical radiography revealed an air-fluid level within an extensive retropharyngeal pocket. Follow-up radiography showed that the retropharyngeal lesion had shrunk spontaneously. Contrast esophagography demonstrated an extravasation at the thoracic inlet. The patient underwent surgical exploration of the esophagus via a lower neck incision. A thoracic-inlet esophageal slit was found and primary repair was performed. He resumed oral intake uneventfully on the 8th postoperative day. This was a rare case of esophageal injury secondary to cervical stabbing wounds, presenting with delayed occurrence and spontaneously shrunken retroesophageal pocket. Esophageal perforation can be easily missed if tracheal lesion is found. Both bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy are mandatory. In patients highly suspected to have esophageal injury but with a negative esophagoscopy result, contrast esophagography is indicated and can decrease the incidence of false-negative results.

  11. Detection of the amoeba Entamoeba gingivalis in periodontal pockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Mark; Amard, Véronique; Bar-Pinatel, Charlotte; Charpentier, Frédéric; Chatard, Jean-Michel; Desmuyck, Yvan; Ihler, Serge; Rochet, Jean-Pierre; Roux de La Tribouille, Véronique; Saladin, Luc; Verdy, Marion; Gironès, Núria; Fresno, Manuel; Santi-Rocca, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a public health issue, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. However, the aetiology of the disease is still unclear: genetics of patients cannot explain the dispersed or isolated localisation of gingival pockets, while bacteria-based models are insufficient to distinguish gingivitis and periodontitis. The possible role of parasites in the establishment of periodontitis has been poorly studied until now. The aim of this project was to study a potential link between colonisation of gingival crevices by the amoeba Entamoeba gingivalis and periodontitis. In eight different dental clinics in France, samples were taken in periodontal pockets (72) or healthy sites (33), and submitted to microscopic observation and molecular identification by PCR with a new set of primers designed to specifically detect E. gingivalis. This blind sample analysis showed the strong sensitivity of PCR compared with clinical diagnosis (58/72 = 81%), and microscopy (51/65 = 78%). The results of this work show that the parasites detected by microscopy mainly – if not exclusively – belong to the species E. gingivalis and that the presence of the parasite is correlated with periodontitis. PMID:24983705

  12. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  13. Reduced foraging in the presence of predator cues by the Black Spiny-tailed Iguana, Ctenosaura similis (Sauria: Iguanidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent R. Farallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a predator may have direct and indirect effects on the behavior of the prey. Although altered behavior may help prey avoid predators, it also can have a potential impact on critical activities such as foraging. Predator-prey interactions are routinely studied in laboratory-based experiments owing to theperceived difficulties of conducting such experiments in natural settings. We conducted an experimental study under field conditions in Palo Verde National Park in northwestern Costa Rica to assess behavioral responses of Black Spiny-tailed Iguanas (Ctenosaurasimilis to the presence of predators and predator cues. Free-roaming iguanas were offered mango in designated areas in the presence of a predator (Boa constrictor, a predator cue (B. constrictor feces, and a control (no predator or predator cue. Results indicate that iguanas reduced their foraging efforts in the presence of both a predator and its cue.

  14. Never judge an iguana by its spines: Systematics of the Yucatan spiny tailed iguana, Ctenosaura defensor (Cope, 1866).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Catherine L; Reynoso, Víctor Hugo; Buckley, Larry

    2017-10-01

    Spiny tailed iguanas are highly diverse clade of lizards in Mesoamerica, ranging from northern Mexico through Panama. Utilizing 2 regions of mitochondrial DNA (1948bp) and 4 nuclear loci (2232bp) we explored the relationships between these species and the phylogeographic history of the major clades. We discovered that the lineage endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula renders the genus Ctenosaura paraphyletic. To resolve this non-monophyly, we resurrect the taxon Cachryx Cope, 1866, and provide a new diagnosis for the genus. We also find that small body-size and highly spinose tails in the species previously referred to the subgenus Enyaliosaurus, have evolved independently 3 times. Cachryx were recovered as sister to the lineage of iguanines endemic to the Galapagos Islands, and we discuss biogeographic scenarios to explain this relationship as well as those among the primary clades of Ctenosaura in Mesoamerica. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of seismic air gun exposure on the haemolymph physiology and nutritional condition of spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Simon, Cedric J; Semmens, Jayson M

    2017-12-15

    There is a critical knowledge gap regarding the impacts of seismic air gun signals on the physiology of adult crustaceans. We conducted four controlled field experiments to examine the impact of seismic acoustic signals on spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Seismic air gun exposure suppressed total haemocyte count (THC) for up to 120days post-exposure, suggesting a chronic negative impact of immune competency. THC levels after 365days post-exposure, were elevated two fold, potentially indicating an immune response to infection. Haemolymph refractive index was reduced after 120days post exposure in one experiment, suggesting a chronic impairment of nutritional condition. There was no effect of air gun exposure on 24 haemolymph biochemical parameters, hepatopancreas index or survival. Collectively these results indicate that the biochemical haematological homeostasis of J. edwardsii is reasonably resilient to seismic acoustic signals, however, air gun exposure may negatively influence the lobster's nutritional condition and immunological capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanosensory Neurons With Bend- and Osmo-sensitivity in Mouthpart Setae From the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Derby, Charles D; Høeg, Jens T

    2004-01-01

    The mouthparts of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus hold primarily two types of setae--simple setae and cuspidate setae. Mechanosensory neurons from these setae were examined by electrophysiological recordings. The population of simple setae contained two types of mechanosensory neurons......: displacement-sensitive neurons, which responded to deflection at the setal base; and bend-sensitive neurons, which responded to bending of the setal shaft. Displacement-sensitive neurons, in general, responded phasically and only during actual displacement. Typically, their response changed with alteration...... of the direction, amplitude, and velocity/acceleration of the mechanical stimulus. Bend-sensitive neurons, in general, responded phaso-tonically and carried information on the direction and region of bending. This is the first experimental demonstration of bend sensitivity for arthropod setae. Cuspidate setae...

  17. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  18. The Striatal Balancing Act in Drug Addiction: Distinct Roles of Direct and Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kay eLobo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The striatum plays a key role in mediating the acute and chronic effects of addictive drugs, with drugs of abuse causing long-lasting molecular and cellular alterations in both dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum. Despite the wealth of research on the biological actions of abused drugs in striatum, until recently, the distinct roles of the striatum’s two major subtypes of medium spiny neuron (MSN in drug addiction remained elusive. Recent advances in cell-type specific technologies, including fluorescent reporter mice, transgenic or knockout mice, and viral-mediated gene transfer, have advanced the field toward a more comprehensive understanding of the two MSN subtypes in the long-term actions of drugs of abuse. Here we review progress in defining the distinct molecular and functional contributions of the two MSN subtypes in mediating addiction.

  19. A comparison of different parametrized pocket formulae to calculate fusion barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutt, Ishwar

    2013-04-01

    Using twelve different parametrized pocket formulae fusion barrier heights and positions are calculated and confronted with available experimental data. All different parametrized pocket formulae are able to reproduce fusion barrier heights and positions within ±10% and ±20%, respectively. Our detailed study investigate that the parametrized pocket formulae based on models such as Bass 1980, Winther 1995, Prox 1988, and Royer 2001 reproduce the barrier heights nicely as compared to other formulae available in the literature.

  20. The Six-Inch Lunar Atlas A Pocket Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Don

    2009-01-01

    The Six-Inch Lunar Atlas has been designed specifically for use in the field by lunar observers so it’s perfect for fitting into an observer’s pocket! The author’s own lunar photographs were taken with a 6-inch (150mm) telescope and CCD camera, and closely match the visual appearance of the Moon when viewed through 3-inch to 8-inch telescopes. Each picture is shown oriented "as the Moon really is" when viewed from the northern hemisphere, and is supplemented by exquisite computer sketches that list the main features. Two separate computer sketches are provided to go with each photograph, one oriented to appear as seen through an SCT telescope (e.g. the Meade and Celestron ranges), the other oriented for Newtonian and refracting telescopes. Observers using the various types telescopes will find it extremely helpful to identify lunar features as the human brain is very poor at making "mirror-image" visual translations.

  1. Psychologist in a pocket: towards depression screening on mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsch, Jó Ágila; Ramos, Roann; Ix, Tim; Ferrer-Cheng, Paula Glenda; Wehrle, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most prevalent clinical disorder and one of the main causes of disability. This makes early detection of depressive symptoms critical in its prevention and management. This paper presents and discusses the development of Psychologist in a Pocket (PiaP), a mental mHealth application for Android which screens and monitors for these symptoms, and-given the explicit permission of the user-alerts a trusted contact such as the mental health professional or a close friend, if it detects symptoms. All text inputted electronically-such as short message services, emails, social network posts-is analyzed based on keywords related to depression based on DSM-5 and ICD criteria as well as Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression and the Self-Focus Model. Data evaluation and collection happen in the background, on-device, without requiring any user involvement. Currently, the application is in an early prototype phase entering initial clinical validation.

  2. A pocket warning γ-dosimeter with numerical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1980-09-01

    A pocket warning dosimeter is described. It provides alarms (continuous tone and a flashing red light) when a presettable dose has been accumulated in the range .064 - 16.4 rads (0.64 - 164 μGy). This warning level can be selected in nine steps of 2 with a switch inside the dosimeter. The dose rate is indicated by a series of sound pulses whose repetition rate is proportional to the dose rate. At 1 rad/h (10 mGy/h) about 17 pluses/minute are emitted. The accumulated dose up to 20 rads (0.2 Gy) is displayed in steps of 1 mrad (10 μGy) with a liquid crystal display. A red LED lights before battery failure occurs. The effects of changes in temperature, battery voltage, dose rate and photon energy upon dosimeter sensitivity are presented. Finally, the applications of the dosimeter are discussed. (auth)

  3. A versatile pocket PIG ion source with permanent magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jinxiang; Ren Xiaotang; Song Zhizhong

    1996-01-01

    A versatile pocket PIG ion source with permanent magnet is described in this paper. The source can produce both gas or metal and some negative ion beams. Normally 1-2 mA gas ion beams can be extracted at 40 W discharge power. Using Ar as auxiliary gas, tens of μA of solid or metal ions from cathode material are produced by cathode sputtering. The negative ions of some elements with larger electron affinity can be extracted from the source directly, so far using LaB 6 as cathode, more than 50 μA of H - , 1-2 mA of O - and F - ion beams have been extracted at 15-20 kV extraction voltage, the power consumption are normally less than 40, 50 and 100 W, respectively. (orig.)

  4. MARTINDALE'S DRUGS RESTRICTED IN SPORT POCKET COMPANION 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Sweetman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Over 500 drugs restricted in sport presented in alphabetical order. To inform and alert the athlete about the potential problem of drug taking for any kind of reasons on and off during training and competition.A comprehensive index of drug names, synonyms, medical usage, single and multi-ingredient preparations and trade (on occasion street names of drugs from 40 countries worldwide (Martindale data. The classification of World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA is added to the explanation of drugs limitation in sport in and out of competition. A glossary of common medical terms is also included.This pocket publication is a must-have list of restricted drugs for athletes, trainers, sports medicine professionals, in short for anyone in exercise physiology and human performance fields.

  5. PockDrug-Server: a new web server for predicting pocket druggability on holo and apo proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hiba Abi; Borrel, Alexandre; Geneix, Colette; Petitjean, Michel; Regad, Leslie; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2015-07-01

    Predicting protein pocket's ability to bind drug-like molecules with high affinity, i.e. druggability, is of major interest in the target identification phase of drug discovery. Therefore, pocket druggability investigations represent a key step of compound clinical progression projects. Currently computational druggability prediction models are attached to one unique pocket estimation method despite pocket estimation uncertainties. In this paper, we propose 'PockDrug-Server' to predict pocket druggability, efficient on both (i) estimated pockets guided by the ligand proximity (extracted by proximity to a ligand from a holo protein structure) and (ii) estimated pockets based solely on protein structure information (based on amino atoms that form the surface of potential binding cavities). PockDrug-Server provides consistent druggability results using different pocket estimation methods. It is robust with respect to pocket boundary and estimation uncertainties, thus efficient using apo pockets that are challenging to estimate. It clearly distinguishes druggable from less druggable pockets using different estimation methods and outperformed recent druggability models for apo pockets. It can be carried out from one or a set of apo/holo proteins using different pocket estimation methods proposed by our web server or from any pocket previously estimated by the user. PockDrug-Server is publicly available at: http://pockdrug.rpbs.univ-paris-diderot.fr. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Decadal variability in growth of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Paniluridae in Cuban waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estela de León

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual von Bertalanffy growth parameters of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus in Cuban waters were estimated from a long term study (40 years by length-based methods ELEFAN and the new version of SLCA. Data of around 800 000 lobsters (with carapace length ranging 14 to 199mm were randomly sampled in artificial shelters (a non selective fishing gear very common in the lobster fishery, through the field monitory program established for this species since 1963 in 14 localities of southwestern Cuban shelf. The software ELEFAN showed problems to converge in an optimal combination of the instantaneous growth coefficient (K and the asymptotic length (L8 of the von Bertalanffy equation, whereas the new SLCA software produced value estimates of K between 0.20 and 0.27 year-1 and values of L8 between 177 and 190 mm carapace length, all within the range reported in the literature. The standardized anomalies of both parameters showed the presence of cycles along the analyzed time series. Decadal variability in growth parameters was revealed through the spectral analysis indicating cycles of 16 and 20 years for K and of 16 years for L8. The incidence of some factors such as biomass and temperature that modulate growth in this crustacean was explored, using a nonlinear multiple regression model. These combined factors explained 33% and 69% of the variability of K and L8 respectively. The growth coefficient appeared to be maximum with annual mean sea surface temperature of 28.1º C and the largest L 8is reached at a annual men biomass level of 23 000 t. These results should be the basis to understand the Cuban lobster population dynamics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 475-486. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Los parámetros de crecimiento anuales para la langosta espinosa del Caribe (Panulirus argus en aguas cubanas se estimaron para una serie de 40 años de datos de composición por longitud, a través de los métodos indirectos basados en la talla ELEFAN y el nuevo

  7. Dutch GPs' perceptions: the influence of out-of-pocket costs on prescribing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasje, W.N.; Timmer, J.W.; Boendermaker, P.M.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the impact of out-of-pocket costs on Dutch general practitioners' prescribing. A qualitative study using focus groups was conducted. An open-ended topic guide was used to elucidate the influence of out-of-pocket costs on decision making for the treatment of

  8. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis to study bacterial community structure in pockets of periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijnge, V.; Harmsen, H.J.M.; Kleinfelder, J.W.; Rest, M.E. van der; Degener, J.E.; Welling, G.W.

    Bacteria are involved in the onset and progression of periodontitis. A promising molecular technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), to study microbial population dynamics in the subgingival pocket is presented. Twenty-three samples were taken from the subgingival pockets of nine

  9. Towards Autonomous Navigation of Multiple Pocket-Drones in Real-World Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGuire, K.N.; Coppola, M.; de Wagter, C.; de Croon, G.C.H.E.

    2017-01-01

    Pocket-drones are inherently safe for flight near humans, and their small size allows maneuvering through narrow indoor environments. However, achieving autonomous flight of pocket-drones is challenging because of strict on-board hardware limitations. Further challenges arise when multiple

  10. A comprehensive survey of small-molecule binding pockets in proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Gao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many biological activities originate from interactions between small-molecule ligands and their protein targets. A detailed structural and physico-chemical characterization of these interactions could significantly deepen our understanding of protein function and facilitate drug design. Here, we present a large-scale study on a non-redundant set of about 20,000 known ligand-binding sites, or pockets, of proteins. We find that the structural space of protein pockets is crowded, likely complete, and may be represented by about 1,000 pocket shapes. Correspondingly, the growth rate of novel pockets deposited in the Protein Data Bank has been decreasing steadily over the recent years. Moreover, many protein pockets are promiscuous and interact with ligands of diverse scaffolds. Conversely, many ligands are promiscuous and interact with structurally different pockets. Through a physico-chemical and structural analysis, we provide insights into understanding both pocket promiscuity and ligand promiscuity. Finally, we discuss the implications of our study for the prediction of protein-ligand interactions based on pocket comparison.

  11. The Role of Electronic Pocket Dictionaries as an English Learning Tool among Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hua-Li; Sandnes, Frode Eika; Law, Kris M. Y.; Huang, Yo-Ping; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed the role of electronic pocket dictionaries as a language learning tool among university students in Hong Kong and Taiwan. The target groups included engineering and humanities students at both undergraduate and graduate level. Speed of reference was found to be the main motivator for using an electronic pocket dictionary.…

  12. Effect of azithromycin on acid reflux, hiatus hernia and proximal acid pocket in the postprandial period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, W. O.; Bennink, R. J.; de Ruigh, A. A.; Hirsch, D. P.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The risk for acidic reflux is mainly determined by the position of the gastric acid pocket. It was hypothesised that compounds affecting proximal stomach tone might reduce gastro-oesophageal reflux by changing the acid pocket position. Objective To study the effect of azithromycin (Azi)

  13. Proton pump inhibitors reduce the size and acidity of the acid pocket in the stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Bennink, Roelof J.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    The gastric acid pocket is believed to be the reservoir from which acid reflux events originate. Little is known about how changes in position, size, and acidity of the acid pocket contribute to the therapeutic effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

  14. The limited value of three pathogen species in predicting healing of periodontal pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewón, L; Karjalainen, S; Söderling, E; Hyyppä, T; Luukkala-Wardi, E; Mäkelä, M; Paunio, K; Varrela, T

    1999-10-01

    Baseline level of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans has been suggested as being predictive of periodontal treatment outcome. We analyzed the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia in 55 deep periodontal pockets of 29 patients (18 men, 11 women, 37-75 years) before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline and after treatment, 62% and 33%, respectively, of the subjects presented with 1, 2, or a combination of all 3 pathogens. The mean pocket depth of 6.6 mm (0.4 mm) before treatment decreased to 2.2 mm (0.4 mm) in response to treatment (Ptreatment plan of non-surgical or surgical treatment was based on pocket depths and tooth morphology only. No antimicrobial medications were used during the treatment. Eighty-two percent of the deep pockets healed satisfactorily to periodontal therapy. In conclusion, we found that the presence of the 3 periodontopathogen species had little or no value in predicting healing of periodontal pockets.

  15. Mercury concentrations in Northwest Atlantic winter-caught, male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias): A geographic mercury comparison and risk-reward framework for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Gelais, Adam T; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) contamination testing was conducted on winter-caught male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in southern New England and results compared to available data on Hg concentrations for this species. A limited risk-reward assessment for EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) lipid concentrations of spiny dogfish was completed in comparison with other commonly consumed marine fish. Mean Hg concentrations were 0.19 ppm (±0.30) wet weight. In comparison, mean Hg concentrations in S. acanthias varied geographically ranging from 0.05 ppm (Celtic Sea) to 2.07 ppm (Crete, Mediterranean Sea). A risk-reward assessment for Hg and DHA+EPA placed S. acanthias in both "low-risk, high-reward" and "high-risk, high-reward" categories for consumption dependent on locations of the catch. Our results are limited and are not intended as consumption advisories but serve to illustrate the need for making more nuanced, geo-specific, consumption guidance for spiny dogfish that is inclusive of seafood traceability and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Estefania Munoz

    2015-04-17

    Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian's position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care.

  17. The Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries by Thai University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atipat Boonmoh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to participate in the experiment. Observations and interviews were utilized to ascertain how the subjects used their PEDs. The findings showed superficial and partial reading of the dictionary entries. It also revealed several factors that may hinder dictionary look-up success. On the basis of this research, guidelines for buying PEDs and for teaching PED skills are proposed.

    OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van sak- elektroniese woordeboeke deur Thaise universiteitstudente. Hierdie artikel doen verslag van 'n kleinskaalse studie van Thaisprekende aanleerders wat sak- elektroniese woordeboeke (SEW's gebruik om 'n Engelse nuusartikel te lees. Dit ondersoek hoe die proefpersone hul SAW's gebruik vir leesbegrip. Nege-en-dertig voorgraadse studente het 'n vraelysopname voltooi. Uit hulle is vier gekies om aan die eksperiment deel te neem. Waarnemings en onderhoude is aangewend om te bepaal hoe die proefpersone hul SEW's gebruik het. Die bevindings het oppervlakkige en gedeeltelike lees van die woordeboekinskrywings getoon. Dit het ook verskeie faktore uitgewys wat woordeboekopsoeksukses mag belemmer. Op grond van hierdie navorsing word riglyne vir die koop van SEW's en vir die onderrig van SEWvaardighede voorgestel.

    Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIK, SAK- ELEKTRONIESE WOORDEBOEK, WOORDEBOEKRAADPLEGING, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK

  18. Inertial Pocket Navigation System: Unaided 3D Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefania Munoz Diaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inertial navigation systems use dead-reckoning to estimate the pedestrian’s position. There are two types of pedestrian dead-reckoning, the strapdown algorithm and the step-and-heading approach. Unlike the strapdown algorithm, which consists of the double integration of the three orthogonal accelerometer readings, the step-and-heading approach lacks the vertical displacement estimation. We propose the first step-and-heading approach based on unaided inertial data solving 3D positioning. We present a step detector for steps up and down and a novel vertical displacement estimator. Our navigation system uses the sensor introduced in the front pocket of the trousers, a likely location of a smartphone. The proposed algorithms are based on the opening angle of the leg or pitch angle. We analyzed our step detector and compared it with the state-of-the-art, as well as our already proposed step length estimator. Lastly, we assessed our vertical displacement estimator in a real-world scenario. We found that our algorithms outperform the literature step and heading algorithms and solve 3D positioning using unaided inertial data. Additionally, we found that with the pitch angle, five activities are distinguishable: standing, sitting, walking, walking up stairs and walking down stairs. This information complements the pedestrian location and is of interest for applications, such as elderly care.

  19. Sonographic assessment of predictors of depth of the corner pocket for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Prescanning of supraclavicular region for estimating depth of corner pocket should be done before choosing an appropriate size needle. Furthermore, the needle should not be advanced more than the predicted corner pocket depth.

  20. Displacement of disordered water molecules from hydrophobic pocket creates enthalpic signature: binding of phosphonamidate to the S₁'-pocket of thermolysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, L; Biela, A; Zayed, M; Heine, A; Hangauer, D; Klebe, G

    2010-11-01

    Prerequisite for the design of tight binding protein inhibitors and prediction of their properties is an in-depth understanding of the structural and thermodynamic details of the binding process. A series of closely related phosphonamidates was studied to elucidate the forces underlying their binding affinity to thermolysin. The investigated inhibitors are identical except for the parts penetrating into the hydrophobic S₁'-pocket. A correlation of structural, kinetic and thermodynamic data was carried out by X-ray crystallography, kinetic inhibition assay and isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding affinity increases with larger ligand hydrophobic P₁'-moieties accommodating the S₁'-pocket. Surprisingly, larger P₁'-side chain modifications are accompanied by an increase in the enthalpic contribution to binding. In agreement with other studies, it is suggested that the release of largely disordered waters from an imperfectly hydrated pocket results in an enthalpically favourable integration of these water molecules into bulk water upon inhibitor binding. This enthalpically favourable process contributes more strongly to the binding energetics than the entropy increase resulting from the release of water molecules from the S₁'-pocket or the formation of apolar interactions between protein and inhibitor. Displacement of highly disordered water molecules from a rather imperfectly hydrated and hydrophobic specificity pocket can reveal an enthalpic signature of inhibitor binding. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN ECONOMICS POCKET BOOK BERBASIS QUANTUM LEARNING UNTUK SISWA SEKOLAH MENENGAH ATAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Ayu Santi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to produce and know the quality of quantum learning based economics pocket book. In developing economics pocket book the research uses design based research. The result of study show that the matter experts, education and education practtioners provide ratings that economics is a very decent to be used without revision. Besides design experts provide decent ratings with the revition. The result of the field test showed positive responses from students with the acquistion of a persentage of 90% in addition to the field tes results II also earn a percentage of 87,4%.  Based on the result above, economics pocket book is very decend for be used without revision.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menghasilkan dan mengetahui kualitas economics pocket book berbasis quantum learning. Peneliti dalam mengembangkan economics pocket book menggunakan model pengembangan Design Based Research. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ahli materi, pendidikan dan praktisi pendidikan memberikan penilaian bahwa economics pocket book sangat layak digunakan tanpa revisi, selain itu ahli desain memberikan penilaian bahwa layak digunakan dengan revisi. Hasil dari uji lapangan I menunjukkan tanggapan positif dari siswa dengan perolehan persentase 90%, selain itu hasil uji lapangan II juga memperoleh persentase sebesar 87,4%. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut maka economics pocket book berbasis quantum learning termasuk kualifikasi sangat layak digunakan tanpa revisi.

  2. Placement Of Cardiac PacemaKEr Trial (POCKET) - rationale and design: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Peter; Wennström, Leo; Kastberg, Robert; Liv, Per

    2017-01-01

    A pacemaker system consists of one or two leads connected to a device that is implanted into a pocket formed just below the collarbone. This pocket is typically subcutaneous, that is, located just above the pectoral fascia. Even though the size of pacemakers has decreased markedly, complications due to superficial implants do occur. An alternative technique would be intramuscular placement of the pacemaker device, but there are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support this approach, which is the rationale for the Placement Of Cardiac PacemaKEr Trial (POCKET). The aim is to study if intramuscular is superior to subcutaneous placement of a pacemaker pocket. In October 2016, we started to enroll 200 consecutive patients with an indication for bradycardia pacemaker implantation. Patients are randomized to random block sizes, stratified by age group (cut-off: 65 years) and sex, and then randomized to either subcutaneous or intramuscular implant. A concealed allocation procedure is employed, using sequentially numbered, sealed envelopes. Pocket site is blinded to the patient and in all subsequent care. The primary endpoint is patient overall satisfaction with the pocket location at 24 months as measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) 0-10. Secondary endpoints are: complications, patient-reported satisfaction at 1, 12, and 24 months (overall satisfaction, pain, discomfort, degree of unsightly appearance, movement problems, and sleep problems due to device). POCKET is a prospective interventional RCT designed to evaluate if intramuscular is superior to subcutaneous placement of a bradycardia pacemaker during a two-year follow-up.

  3. Effect of copper on the characterization of proteins in the Spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus (Linnaeus,1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharajan Athisuyambulingam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is most toxic metal in marine organisms. Characterization of protein occurring in the metabolically active tissues of muscle (MU, hepatopancreas (HP and gills (GL of the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus on exposure to two sub-lethal doses (9.55 and 19.1 µg/l of copper were studied for 28 days of exposure (DoE. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle, hepatopancreas and gill proteins revealed 12, 8 and 8 slow moving bands (control. The number of bands decreased to 8 and 7, 6 and 5, 6 and 4 after 7 days of exposure to 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. After 28 days, the protein bands decreased to 7 and 6, 5 and 4, 4 and 4 at 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. Present study to indicate that to avoid the Cupro-Nickel coil in lobster holding centers in chiller plants used for cooling of water was found to be responsible for the mortality of lobsters during live transportation.

  4. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Citrus Spiny Whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Implications for the Phylogeny of Whiteflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Mu, Li-Xia; Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (15,220 bp) of the citrus spiny whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance), a well-known pest from the superfamily Aleyrodidae. The A. spiniferus mitogenome contains 36 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and a large non-coding region (control region, CR). Like most whiteflies, the A. spiniferus mitogenome had a large degree of rearrangement due to translocation of the nad3-trnG-cox3 gene cluster. The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN and generally terminated with TAA, although some used TAG or T as stop codons; atp6 showed the highest evolutionary rate, whereas cox2 appeared to have the lowest rate. The A. spiniferus mitogenome had 21 tRNAs with a typical cloverleaf secondary structure composed of four arms. Modeling of the two rRNA genes indicated that their secondary structure was similar to that of other insects. The CR of A. spiniferus was 920 bp and mapped between the nad3-trnG-cox3 and trnI-trnM gene clusters. One potential stem-loop structure and five tandem repeats were identified in the CR. Phylogenetic relationships of 11 species from the Aleyrodidae were analyzed based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the 13 PCGs and evolutionary characteristics were explored. Species with more genetic rearrangements were generally more evolved within the Aleyrodidae.

  5. Trace element distribution during the reproductive cycle of female and male spiny and Pacific scallops, with implications for biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norum, Ulrik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)]. E-mail: ulrik@biology.sdu.dk; Lai, Vivian W.-M. [Environmental Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Cullen, William R. [Environmental Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Trace element concentrations and contents in gills, gonad, kidneys, mantle, muscle and remainder during the reproductive cycle of female and male spiny and Pacific scallops, from the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada, were quantified by using ICPMS. The elements investigated were chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and mercury. For all ten elements, the tissue distribution was to some extent influenced by species, sex and reproductive status. The implications of the present study in relation to the design of biomonitoring programmes are: (1) care should be taken to ensure an equal/constant sex composition when making interannual comparisons of pooled samples. Preferably the sexes should be monitored separately. (2) the practice of obtaining pooled samples in the interspawn phase is applicable only to monitoring long-term trends in contaminant levels, while the reproductive status should be heeded when studying short-term changes. (3) the present study confirms that direct temporal or spatial comparisons of absolute accumulated element concentrations are only valid intraspecifically.

  6. Pollutant bioaccumulation in the California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) in San Diego Bay, California, and potential human health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loflen, Chad L; Buck, Travis; Bonnema, Autumn; Heim, Wesley A

    2018-03-01

    While the California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) is an important commercial and recreational fishery species in California, there is a lack of data on bioaccumulation for the species. This study examined pollutant tissue concentrations in lobsters from San Diego Bay, California. Observed lobster pollutant tissue concentrations in tail muscle were compared to State of California pollutant advisory levels. Concentrations were then used to conduct risk assessment using catch data from the California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Study results found little bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in tail tissue, likely due to low observed lipids. Mercury was present, predominantly in methyl form, at concentrations above advisory levels. Recreational catch data for San Diego Bay showed increased non-cancer risk for fishers at the 90th percentile or greater of reported annual catch. Further studies should focus on non-tail tissues, as exploratory whole lobster samples (n = 2) showed elevated organic pollutants and metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recombinant lines for less-spininess in steroid-bearing Solanum viarum using induced mutants as parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, R.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Subhas Chander, M.

    1988-01-01

    In the domestication of the wild, spinous and steroid-bearing Solanum viarum (syn. S. khasianum var. chatterjeeanum) induced mutations play a major role. The development of Glaxo and BARC mutants catalysed commercial cultivation of this species for its berries containing solasodine, used in steroid industries. The commercially more popular Glaxo mutant population consists predominantly of plants that are totally free of spines in aerial parts except lamina where few straight spines develop. The BARC mutant still possesses spines on aerial parts including the persistent calyx. However, the laminary spines of the BARC mutant are curved and vestigial. Comparative studies on morphology, growth behaviour and agronomic characters of the two mutants, their wild progenitor and their hybrid progenies showed that the three types differ only for spine character. In F 2 generation of a cross involving the Glaxo and BARC mutants, a double mutant recombinant was recovered. The recombinant is devoid of spines in aerial parts like its Glaxo mutant parent, but possesses laminary curved vestigial spines like the BARC parent. The spine characters of the recombinant are inherited double recessive. Three advanced lines of this recombinant type (IIHR 2n - 1,2 and 3) were tested in replicated trials 1985 and 1986. They showed parity in berry yield and solasodine content with the Glaxo mutant and three promising lines evolved elsewhere viz. 'RRL (Bhuhaneswar) Y-14', 'RRL (Jorhat)' and 'Pusa'. The results indicate gainful use of induced mutants in hybridization leading to development of superior less-spiny lines of steroid bearing Solanum viarum

  8. Mushroom spine dynamics in medium spiny neurons of dorsal striatum associated with memory of moderate and intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Medina, Paola C; Flores, Gonzalo; Quirarte, Gina L; McGaugh, James L; Prado Alcalá, Roberto A

    2016-10-18

    A growing body of evidence indicates that treatments that typically impair memory consolidation become ineffective when animals are given intense training. This effect has been obtained by treatments interfering with the neural activity of several brain structures, including the dorsal striatum. The mechanisms that mediate this phenomenon are unknown. One possibility is that intense training promotes the transfer of information derived from the enhanced training to a wider neuronal network. We now report that inhibitory avoidance (IA) induces mushroom spinogenesis in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the dorsal striatum in rats, which is dependent upon the intensity of the foot-shock used for training; that is, the effect is seen only when high-intensity foot-shock is used in training. We also found that the relative density of thin spines was reduced. These changes were evident at 6 h after training and persisted for at least 24 h afterward. Importantly, foot-shock alone did not increase spinogenesis. Spine density in MSNs in the accumbens was also increased, but the increase did not correlate with the associative process involved in IA; rather, it resulted from the administration of the aversive stimulation alone. These findings suggest that mushroom spines of MSNs of the dorsal striatum receive afferent information that is involved in the integrative activity necessary for memory consolidation, and that intense training facilitates transfer of information from the dorsal striatum to other brain regions through augmented spinogenesis.

  9. Species trees for spiny lizards (genus Sceloporus): identifying points of concordance and conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaché, Adam D

    2010-01-01

    Spiny lizards (genus Sceloporus) represent one of the most diverse and species rich clades of squamate reptiles in continental North America. Sceloporus contains 90+ species, which are partitioned into 21 species groups containing anywhere from one to 15 species. Despite substantial progress towards elucidating the phylogeographic patterns for many species of Sceloporus, efforts to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among the major species groups remain limited. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships of 53 species of Sceloporus, representing all 21 species groups, are estimated based on four nuclear genes (BDNF, PNN, R35, RAG-1; >3.3 kb) and contrasted with a new mitochondrial DNA genealogy based on six genes (12S, ND1, ND4, and the histidine, serine, and leucine tRNA genes; >2.5 kb). Species trees estimated from the nuclear loci using data concatenation or a coalescent-based inference method result in concordant topologies, but the coalescent approach provides lower resolution and support. When comparing nuclear versus mtDNA-based topologies for Sceloporus species groups, conflicting relationships outnumber concordant relationships. Incongruence is not restricted to weak or unresolved nodes as might be expected under a scenario of rapid diversification, but extends to conflicts involving strongly support clades. The points of concordance and conflict between the nuclear and mtDNA data are discussed, and arguments for preferring the species trees estimated from the multilocus nuclear data are presented.

  10. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 from a central western Mediterranean protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas were determined from 389 individuals (total tagged 5666 tag-recaptured inside a no-take area of the central western Mediterranean and its surrounding zone. High site association and limited movements in tagged lobsters was observed; 60.4% of lobsters moved less than 2 km from the centre of the area (site of release. No clear relationship between lobster movement pattern and sex or size was observed; however, it seemed that the largest males and females tended to be more resident, thus contributing to the rebuilding of the biomass of local lobsters. Most lobsters undertook migrations in the southwest direction. The increased availability of shelters and food towards the southwest could have contributed to the lobsters’ movement. The results of our research indicate that the small size of the protected area and the scale of the movement exhibited by tagged lobsters allows a proportion of the lobster population to move out of the protected area and become susceptible to capture in the adjacent fishery.

  11. Optogenetics reveals a role for accumbal medium spiny neurons expressingdopamine D2 receptors in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Sooyun eSong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-lasting, drug-induced adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc have beenproposed to contribute to drug-mediated addictive behaviors. Here we have used anoptogenetic approach to examine the role of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs expressingdopamine D2 receptors (D2R in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Adeno-associatedviral vectors coding channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 were delivered into the NAc of D2R-Cretransgenic mice. This allowed us to selectively photostimulate D2R-MSNs in NAc. D2RMSNsform local inhibitory circuits, because photostimulation of D2R-MSN evokedinhibitory postsynaptic currents in neighboring MSNs. Photostimulation of NAc D2R-MSNin vivo affected neither the initiation nor the expression of cocaine-induced behavioralsensitization. However, photostimulation during the drug withdrawal period attenuatedexpression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. These results show that D2R-MSNsof NAc play a key role in withdrawal-induced plasticity and may contribute to relapse aftercessation of drug abuse.

  12. Towards a Supertree of Arthropoda: A Species-Level Supertree of the Spiny, Slipper and Coral Lobsters (Decapoda: Achelata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E Davis

    Full Text Available While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs, invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.

  13. Towards a Supertree of Arthropoda: A Species-Level Supertree of the Spiny, Slipper and Coral Lobsters (Decapoda: Achelata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katie E; Hesketh, Thomas W; Delmer, Cyrille; Wills, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs), invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters) as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK) and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.

  14. Periodontal Pocket Depth, Hyperglycemia, and Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Feng; Yeh, Jih-Chen; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Liou, Jian-Chiun; Hsiung, Jing-Ru; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    No large epidemiological study has been conducted to investigate the interaction and joint effects of periodontal pocket depth and hyperglycemia on progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with periodontal diseases. Periodontal pocket depth was utilized for the grading severity of periodontal disease in 2831 patients from January 2002 to June 2013. Progression of chronic kidney disease was defined as progression of color intensity in glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria grid of updated Kidney Disease-Improving Global Outcomes guidelines. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) in various models were presented across different levels of periodontal pocket depth and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in forest plots and 3-dimensional histograms. During 7621 person-years of follow-up, periodontal pocket depth and HbA1C levels were robustly associated with incremental risks for progression of chronic kidney disease (aHR 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-4.6 for periodontal pocket depth >4.5 mm, and 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.4 for HbA1C >6.5%, respectively). The interaction between periodontal pocket depth and HbA1C on progression of chronic kidney disease was strong (P periodontal pocket depth (>4.5 mm) and higher HbA1C (>6.5%) had the greatest risk (aHR 4.2; 95% CI, 1.7-6.8) compared with the lowest aHR group (periodontal pocket depth ≤3.8 mm and HbA1C ≤6%). Our study identified combined periodontal pocket depth and HbA1C as a valuable predictor of progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with periodontal diseases. While considering the interaction between periodontal diseases and hyperglycemia, periodontal survey and optimizing glycemic control are warranted to minimize the risk of worsening renal function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pocket money, eating behaviors, and weight status among Chinese children : The Childhood Obesity Study in China mega-cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Miao; Xue, Hong; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Yaling; Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Both the obesity rate and pocket money are rising among children in China. This study examined family correlates of children's pocket money, associations of pocket money with eating behaviors and weight status, and how the associations may be modified by schools' unhealthy food restrictions in urban

  16. The minor binding pocket: a major player in 7TM receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette Marie; Benned-Jensen, Tau; Frimurer, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    From the deep part of the main ligand-binding crevice, a minor, often shallower pocket extends between the extracellular ends of transmembrane domains (TM)-I, II, III and VII of 7TM receptors. This minor binding pocket is defined by a highly conserved kink in TM-II that is induced by a proline...... residue located in one of two adjacent positions. Here we argue that this minor binding pocket is important for receptor activation. Functional coupling of the receptors seems to be mediated through the hydrogen bond network located between the intracellular segments of these TMs, with the allosteric...

  17. Out-of-pocket expenditure on institutional delivery in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Srivastava, Akanksha

    2013-05-01

    Though promotion of institutional delivery is used as a strategy to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality, about half of the deliveries in India are conducted at home without any medical care. Among women who deliver at home, one in four cites cost as barrier to facility-based care. The relative share of deliveries in private health centres has increased over time and the associated costs are often catastrophic for poor households. Though research has identified socio-economic, demographic and geographic barriers to the utilization of maternal care, little is known on the cost differentials in delivery care in India. The objective of this paper is to understand the regional pattern and socio-economic differentials in out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditure on institutional delivery by source of provider in India. The study utilizes unit data from the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), conducted in India during 2007-08. Descriptive statistics, principal component analyses and a two-part model are used in the analyses. During 2004-08, the mean OOP expenditure for a delivery in a public health centre in India was US$39 compared with US$139 in a private health centre. The predicted expenditure for a caesarean delivery was six times higher than for a normal delivery. With an increase in the economic status and educational attainment of mothers, the propensity and rate of OOP expenditure increases, linking higher OOP expenditure to quality of care. The OOP expenditure in public health centres, adjusting for inflation, has declined over time, possibly due to increased spending under the National Rural Health Mission. Based on these findings, we recommend that facilities in public health centres of poorly performing states are improved and that public-private partnership models are developed to reduce the economic burden for households of maternal care in India.

  18. A pocket device for high-throughput optofluidic holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandracchia, B.; Bianco, V.; Wang, Z.; Paturzo, M.; Bramanti, A.; Pioggia, G.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    Here we introduce a compact holographic microscope embedded onboard a Lab-on-a-Chip (LoC) platform. A wavefront division interferometer is realized by writing a polymer grating onto the channel to extract a reference wave from the object wave impinging the LoC. A portion of the beam reaches the samples flowing along the channel path, carrying their information content to the recording device, while one of the diffraction orders from the grating acts as an off-axis reference wave. Polymeric micro-lenses are delivered forward the chip by Pyro-ElectroHydroDynamic (Pyro-EHD) inkjet printing techniques. Thus, all the required optical components are embedded onboard a pocket device, and fast, non-iterative, reconstruction algorithms can be used. We use our device in combination with a novel high-throughput technique, named Space-Time Digital Holography (STDH). STDH exploits the samples motion inside microfluidic channels to obtain a synthetic hologram, mapped in a hybrid space-time domain, and with intrinsic useful features. Indeed, a single Linear Sensor Array (LSA) is sufficient to build up a synthetic representation of the entire experiment (i.e. the STDH) with unlimited Field of View (FoV) along the scanning direction, independently from the magnification factor. The throughput of the imaging system is dramatically increased as STDH provides unlimited FoV, refocusable imaging of samples inside the liquid volume with no need for hologram stitching. To test our embedded STDH microscopy module, we counted, imaged and tracked in 3D with high-throughput red blood cells moving inside the channel volume under non ideal flow conditions.

  19. Cellular Taxonomy of the Mouse Striatum as Revealed by Single-Cell RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgun Gokce

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The striatum contributes to many cognitive processes and disorders, but its cell types are incompletely characterized. We show that microfluidic and FACS-based single-cell RNA sequencing of mouse striatum provides a well-resolved classification of striatal cell type diversity. Transcriptome analysis revealed ten differentiated, distinct cell types, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal, immune, and vascular cells, and enabled the discovery of numerous marker genes. Furthermore, we identified two discrete subtypes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs that have specific markers and that overexpress genes linked to cognitive disorders and addiction. We also describe continuous cellular identities, which increase heterogeneity within discrete cell types. Finally, we identified cell type-specific transcription and splicing factors that shape cellular identities by regulating splicing and expression patterns. Our findings suggest that functional diversity within a complex tissue arises from a small number of discrete cell types, which can exist in a continuous spectrum of functional states.

  20. Alterations in Striatal Synaptic Transmission are Consistent across Genetic Mouse Models of Huntington's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian M Cummings

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the identification of the gene responsible for HD (Huntington's disease, many genetic mouse models have been generated. Each employs a unique approach for delivery of the mutated gene and has a different CAG repeat length and background strain. The resultant diversity in the genetic context and phenotypes of these models has led to extensive debate regarding the relevance of each model to the human disorder. Here, we compare and contrast the striatal synaptic phenotypes of two models of HD, namely the YAC128 mouse, which carries the full-length huntingtin gene on a yeast artificial chromosome, and the CAG140 KI*** (knock-in mouse, which carries a human/mouse chimaeric gene that is expressed in the context of the mouse genome, with our previously published data obtained from the R6/2 mouse, which is transgenic for exon 1 mutant huntingtin. We show that striatal MSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons in YAC128 and CAG140 KI mice have similar electrophysiological phenotypes to that of the R6/2 mouse. These include a progressive increase in membrane input resistance, a reduction in membrane capacitance, a lower frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents and a greater frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in a subpopulation of striatal neurons. Thus, despite differences in the context of the inserted gene between these three models of HD, the primary electrophysiological changes observed in striatal MSNs are consistent. The outcomes suggest that the changes are due to the expression of mutant huntingtin and such alterations can be extended to the human condition.

  1. 77 FR 73769 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Four Subspecies of Mazama Pocket Gopher...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ..., Cathlamet, and Olympic) is not warranted. These determinations fulfill our obligations under a settlement.... glacialis, Counties, WA. pugetensis, tumuli, yelmensis. Olympic pocket gopher Thomomys mazama Clallam County... data after taking into consideration economic, national [[Page 73771

  2. Is there foul play in the leaf pocket? The metagenome of floating fern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, L.W.; Brouwer, P.; Bolhuis, H.; Reichart, G.-J.; Koppers, N.; Huettel, B.; Bolger, A.M.; Li, F.-W.; Cheng, S.; Liu, X.; Wong, G.K.-S.; Pryer, K.; Weber, A.; Bräutigam, A.; Schluepmann, H.

    2018-01-01

    Dinitrogen fixation by Nostoc azollae residing in specialized leaf pockets supports prolificgrowth of the floating fern Azolla filiculoides. To evaluate contributions by further microorganisms,the A. filiculoides microbiome and nitrogen metabolism in bacteria persistently associatedwith Azolla ferns

  3. Catastrophic expenditure due to out-of-pocket health payments and its determinants in Colombian households

    OpenAIRE

    Amaya-Lara, Jeannette Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Background Out-of-pocket expenditure to pay for health services could result in financial catastrophe. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and determinants of catastrophic out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in Colombia. The underlying hypotheses are that low-income and non-insured population in Colombia, and households living in isolated and high level of rurality regions, are more likely to incur catastrophic healthcare expenses. Methods This study used data from the Q...

  4. Out-of-pocket expenses and their burden in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Frederick; Michaud, Kaleb

    2009-11-15

    To describe and understand the burden of out-of-pocket expenses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We studied out-of-pocket expenses and their burden in 8,545 US patients with RA. We determined direct medical costs, out-of-pocket expenses, the burden of out-of-pocket expenses, household income, and measures of RA severity and outcome. In addition, patients were classified into 3 groups based on the level of burden caused by out-of-pocket expenses: no or limited problem (I am able to pay the bills without much problem); moderate problem (paying the bills takes away some money I need for other activities); and a great problem (I can't purchase all of the medications or medical care that I need). A total of 43.6% of patients reported problems paying medical bills after insurance payments and 9.0% reported severe or great problems. Problems with expenses were associated with measures of RA severity, but also and particularly with lower household income and absence of health insurance. The proportion of household income that was consumed by out-of-pocket spending for the 3 groups was 2.4%, 7.2%, and 19.2%, respectively, and the percentage of patients meeting the 185% poverty level for these groups was 12.3%, 24.4%, and 51.3%, respectively. The out-of-pocket burden is substantial, particularly in those expenses exert their severity predominantly on those with the most severe RA who have the least ability to pay. Household income is the primary determinant of out-of-pocket burden, followed by RA severity, and type of health insurance.

  5. Why do the ithomiines (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) aggregate? Notes on a butterfly pocket in central Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro,Carlos E. G.; Medri,Ísis Meri; Salcedo,Ana Karina Moreyra

    2008-01-01

    This study provides information on the species composition and the number of butterflies in different phases of an ithomiine aggregation during the 2004 dry season in central Brazil, and tests some hypotheses concerning the pocket formation. The results obtained suggest that ithomiine pockets constitute primarily an adaptation of butterflies to the adverse climatic conditions of the dry season, such as high temperatures and low air relative humidity, rather than the occurrence of large concen...

  6. MySQL Pocket Reference SQL Statements, Functions, Utilities, and More

    CERN Document Server

    Reese, George

    2007-01-01

    This handy pocket reference gives you instant reminders on how to use important MySQL functions, especially in conjunction with key parts of the LAMP open source infrastructure. MySQL is so rich in features that no administrator or programmer can stay familiar with all of them. MySQL Pocket Reference is an ideal on-the-job companion, well organized to help you find and adapt the statements you need -- quickly

  7. Interplay between Magnetism, Superconductivity, and Orbital Order in 5-Pocket Model for Iron-Based Superconductors: Parquet Renormalization Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Laura; Xing, Rui-Qi; Khodas, Maxim; Chubukov, Andrey V

    2017-01-20

    We report the results of the parquet renormalization group (RG) analysis of the phase diagram of the most general 5-pocket model for Fe-based superconductors. We use as an input the orbital structure of excitations near the five pockets made out of d_{xz}, d_{yz}, and d_{xy} orbitals and argue that there are 40 different interactions between low-energy fermions in the orbital basis. All interactions flow under the RG, as one progressively integrates out fermions with higher energies. We find that the low-energy behavior is amazingly simple, despite the large number of interactions. Namely, at low energies the full 5-pocket model effectively reduces either to a 3-pocket model made of one d_{xy} hole pocket and two electron pockets or a 4-pocket model made of two d_{xz}/d_{yz} hole pockets and two electron pockets. The leading instability in the effective 4-pocket model is a spontaneous orbital (nematic) order, followed by s^{+-} superconductivity. In the effective 3-pocket model, orbital fluctuations are weaker, and the system develops either s^{+-} superconductivity or a stripe spin-density wave. In the latter case, nematicity is induced by composite spin fluctuations.

  8. Retiree out-of-pocket healthcare spending: a study of consumer expectations and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Allison K; Jackson, Howell E

    2013-01-01

    Even though most American retirees benefit from Medicare coverage, a mounting body of research predicts that many will face large and increasing out-of-pocket expenditures for healthcare costs in retirement and that many already struggle to finance these costs. It is unclear, however, whether the general population understands the likely magnitude of these out-of-pocket expenditures well enough to plan for them effectively. This study is the first comprehensive examination of Americans' expectations regarding their out-of-pocket spending on healthcare in retirement. We surveyed over 1700 near retirees and retirees to assess their expectations regarding their own spending and then compared their responses to experts' estimates. Our main findings are twofold. First, overall expectations of out-of-pocket spending are mixed. While a significant proportion of respondents estimated out-of-pocket costs in retirement at or above expert estimates of what the typical retiree will spend, a disproportionate number estimated their future spending substantially below what experts view as likely. Estimates by members of some demographic subgroups, including women and younger respondents, deviated relatively further from the experts' estimates. Second, respondents consistently misjudged spending uncertainty. In particular, respondents significantly underestimated how much individual health experience and changes in government policy can affect individual out-of-pocket spending. We discuss possible policy responses, including efforts to improve financial planning and ways to reduce unanticipated financial risk through reform of health insurance regulation.

  9. Treatment of fingertip amputation in adults by palmar pocketing of the amputated part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi Sun; Lim, Young Kook; Hong, Yong Taek; Kim, Hoon Nam

    2012-07-01

    First suggested by Brent in 1979, the pocket principle is an alternative method for patients for whom a microsurgical replantation is not feasible. We report the successful results of a modified palmar pocket method in adults. Between 2004 and 2008, we treated 10 patients by nonmicrosurgical replantation using palmar pocketing. All patients were adults who sustained a complete fingertip amputation from the tip to lunula in a digits. In all of these patients, the amputation occurred due to a crush or avulsion-type injury, and a microsurgical replantation was not feasible. We used the palmar pocketing method following a composite graft in these patients and prepared the pocket in the subcutaneous layer of the ipsilateral palm. Of a total of 10 cases, nine had complete survival of the replantation and one had 20% partial necrosis. All of the cases were managed to conserve the fingernails, which led to acceptable cosmetic results. A composite graft and palmar pocketing in adult cases of fingertip injury constitute a simple, reliable operation for digital amputation extending from the tip to the lunula. These methods had satisfactory results.

  10. Treatment of Fingertip Amputation in Adults by Palmar Pocketing of the Amputated Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun Jung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundFirst suggested by Brent in 1979, the pocket principle is an alternative method for patients for whom a microsurgical replantation is not feasible. We report the successful results of a modified palmar pocket method in adults.MethodsBetween 2004 and 2008, we treated 10 patients by nonmicrosurgical replantation using palmar pocketing. All patients were adults who sustained a complete fingertip amputation from the tip to lunula in a digits. In all of these patients, the amputation occurred due to a crush or avulsion-type injury, and a microsurgical replantation was not feasible. We used the palmar pocketing method following a composite graft in these patients and prepared the pocket in the subcutaneous layer of the ipsilateral palm.ResultsOf a total of 10 cases, nine had complete survival of the replantation and one had 20% partial necrosis. All of the cases were managed to conserve the fingernails, which led to acceptable cosmetic results.ConclusionsA composite graft and palmar pocketing in adult cases of fingertip injury constitute a simple, reliable operation for digital amputation extending from the tip to the lunula. These methods had satisfactory results.

  11. A Temporoparietal Fascia Pocket Method in Elevation of Reconstructed Auricle for Microtia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Takashi; Asato, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Yasutoshi; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Mitoma, Yoko

    2017-04-01

    In two-stage procedures for reconstruction of microtia, an axial flap of temporoparietal fascia is widely used to cover the costal cartilage blocks placed behind the framework. Although a temporoparietal fascia flap is undoubtedly reliable, use of the flap is associated with some morbidity and comes at the expense of the option for salvage surgery. The authors devised a simplified procedure for covering the cartilage blocks by creating a pocket in the postauricular temporoparietal fascia. In this procedure, the constructed auricle is elevated from the head superficially to the temporoparietal fascia, and a pocket is created under the temporoparietal fascia and the capsule of the auricle framework. Then, cartilage blocks are inserted into the pocket and fixed. A total of 38 reconstructed ears in 38 patients with microtia ranging in age from 9 to 19 years were elevated using the authors' method from 2002 to 2014 and followed for at least 5 months. To evaluate the long-term stability of the method, two-way analysis of variance (p fascia flap method versus a temporoparietal fascia pocket method) over long-term follow-up. Good projection of the auricles and creation of well-defined temporoauricular sulci were achieved. Furthermore, the sulci had a tendency to hold their steep profile over a long period. The temporoparietal fascia pocket method is simple but produces superior results. Moreover, pocket creation is less invasive and has the benefit of sparing temporoparietal fascia flap elevation. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayakar, Manjunath Mundoor; Shipilova, Anna; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a) Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b) Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Materials and Methods: Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Results: HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Conclusion: Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link. PMID:27143823

  13. The impact of out-of-pocket expense on IUD utilization among women with private insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, Aileen M; Simon, Erica J; Patel, Divya A; Creinin, Mitchell D; Schwarz, Eleanor B

    2011-12-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of out-of-pocket expense on intrauterine device (IUD) utilization among women with private insurance. We reviewed the records of all women with private insurance who requested an IUD for contraception from an urban academic gynecology practice from May 2007 through April 2008. For each patient, we determined the out-of-pocket expense that would be incurred and whether she ultimately had an IUD placed. The total charge for placement of a copper or levonorgestrel IUD (including the device) was $815. Ninety-five women requested an IUD during the study period. The distribution of out-of-pocket expense was bimodal: less than $50 for 35 (37%) women and greater than $500 for 52 (55%) women. Intrauterine device insertion occurred in 24 (25%) women, 19 of whom had an out-of-pocket expense less than $50. In univariate and multivariable analysis, women with insurance coverage that resulted in less than $50 out-of-pocket expense for the IUD were more likely to have an IUD placed than women required to pay $50 or more (adjusted odds ratio=11.4, 95% confidence interval=3.6-36.6). Women requesting an IUD for contraception are significantly more likely to have an IUD placed when out-of-pocket expense is less than $50. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of out-of-pocket expense on IUD utilization among women with private

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, Aileen M.; Simon, Erica J.; Patel, Divya A.; Creinin, Mitchell D.; Schwarz, Eleanor B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of out-of-pocket expense on intrauterine device (IUD) utilization among women with private insurance. Study Design We reviewed the records of all women with private insurance who requested an IUD for contraception from an urban academic gynecology practice from May 2007 through April 2008. For each patient, we determined the out-of-pocket expense that would be incurred, and whether she ultimately had an IUD placed. The total charge for placement of a copper or levonorgestrel IUD (including the device) was $815. Results Ninety-five women requested an IUD during the study period. The distribution of out-of-pocket expense was bimodal: less than $50 for 35 (37%) women and greater than $500 for 52 (55%) women. IUD insertion occurred in 24 (25%) women, 19 of whom had an out-of-pocket expense less than $50. In univariate and multivariable analysis, women with insurance coverage that resulted in less than $50 out-of-pocket expense for the IUD were more likely to have an IUD placed than women required to pay $50 or more (adjusted OR=11.4, 95% CI = 3.6, 36.6),. Conclusions Women requesting an IUD for contraception are significantly more likely to have an IUD placed when out-of-pocket expense is less than $50. PMID:22078204

  15. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Mundoor Dayakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Materials and Methods: Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Results: HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Conclusion: Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link.

  16. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayakar, Manjunath Mundoor; Shipilova, Anna; Gupta, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a) Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA) in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b) Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link.

  17. NEET Micro-Pocket Fission Detector. Final Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unruh, T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rempe, Joy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McGregor, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ugorowski, Philip [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reichenberger, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ito, Takashi [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Villard, J. -F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A collaboration between the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the Kansas State University (KSU), and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, (CEA), is funded by the Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program to develop and test Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFDs), which are compact fission chambers capable of simultaneously measuring thermal neutron flux, fast neutron flux and temperature within a single package. When deployed, these sensors will significantly advance flux detection capabilities for irradiation tests in US Material Test Reactors (MTRs). Ultimately, evaluations may lead to a more compact, more accurate, and longer lifetime flux sensor for critical mock-ups, and high performance reactors, allowing several Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs to obtain higher accuracy/higher resolution data from irradiation tests of candidate new fuels and materials. Specifically, deployment of MPFDs will address several challenges faced in irradiations performed at MTRs: Current fission chamber technologies do not offer the ability to measure fast flux, thermal flux and temperature within a single compact probe; MPFDs offer this option. MPFD construction is very different than current fission chamber construction; the use of high temperature materials allow MPFDs to be specifically tailored to survive harsh conditions encountered in-core of high performance MTRs. The higher accuracy, high fidelity data available from the compact MPFD will significantly enhance efforts to validate new high-fidelity reactor physics codes and new multi-scale, multi-physics codes. MPFDs can be built with variable sensitivities to survive the lifetime of an experiment or fuel assembly in some MTRs, allowing for more efficient and cost effective power monitoring. The small size of the MPFDs allows multiple sensors to be deployed, offering the potential to

  18. NEET Micro-Pocket Fission Detector -- FY 2012 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe; Douglas McGregor; Philip Ugorowski; Michael Reichenberger

    2012-09-01

    A research program has been initiated by the NEET program for developing and testing compact miniature fission chambers capable of simultaneously measuring thermal neutron flux, fast neutron flux and temperature within a single package. When implemented, these sensors will significantly advance flux detection capabilities for irradiation tests in US Materials Test Reactors (MTRs).Ultimately, evaluations may lead to a more compact, more accurate, and longer lifetime flux sensor for critical mock-ups, high performance reactors and commercial nuclear power plants. Deployment of Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFDs) in US DOE-NE program irradiation tests will address several challenges: Current fission chamber technologies do not offer the ability to measure fast flux, thermal flux and temperature within a single compact probe, MPFDs offer this option. MPFD construction is very different then current fission chamber construction; the use of high temperature materials allow MPFDs to be specifically tailored to survive harsh conditions in typical high performance MTR irradiation tests. New high-fidelity reactor physics codes will need a small, accurate, multipurpose in-core sensor to validate the codes without perturbing the validation experiment; MPFDs fill this requirement. MPFDs can be built with variable sensitivities to survive the lifetime of an experiment or fuel assembly in some MTRs; allowing for more efficient and cost effective power monitoring. The small size of the MPFDs allows multiple sensors to be simultaneously deployed; obtaining data required to visualize the reactor flux and temperature profiles. This report summarizes the research progress for year 1 of this 3 year project. An updated design of the MPFD has been developed, materials and tools to support the new design have been procured, construction methods to support the new design have been initiated at INL’s HTTL and KSU’s SMART Laboratory, plating methods are being updated at KSU, new

  19. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  20. Facilitation by a Spiny Shrub on a Rhizomatous Clonal Herbaceous in Thicketization-Grassland in Northern China: Increased Soil Resources or Shelter from Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saixiyala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of fertility islands by shrubs increases soil resources heterogeneity in thicketization-grasslands. Clonal plants, especially rhizomatous or stoloniferous clonal plants, can form large clonal networks and use heterogeneously distributed resources effectively. In addition, shrubs, especially spiny shrubs, may also provide herbaceous plants with protection from herbivores, acting as ‘shelters’. The interaction between pre-dominated clonal herbaceous plants and encroaching shrubs remains unclear in thicketization-grassland under grazing pressure. We hypothesized that clonal herbaceous plants can be facilitated by encroached shrubs as a ‘shelter from herbivores’ and/or as an ‘increased soil resources’ under grazing pressure. To test this hypothesis, a total of 60 quadrats were chosen in a thicket-grassland in northern China that was previously dominated by Leymus chinensis and was encroached upon by the spiny leguminous plant Caragana intermedia. The soil and plant traits beneath and outside the shrub canopies were sampled, investigated and contrasted with an enclosure. The soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen and soil water content were significantly higher in the soil beneath the shrub canopies than in the soil outside the canopies. L. chinensis beneath the shrub canopies had significantly higher plant height, single shoot biomass, leaf length and width than outside the shrub canopies. There were no significantly differences between plant growth in enclosure and outside the shrub canopies. These results suggested that under grazing pressure in a grassland undergoing thicketization, the growth of the rhizomatous clonal herbaceous plant L. chinensis was facilitated by the spiny shrub C. intermedia as a ‘shelter from herbivores’ more than through ‘increased soil resources’. We propose that future studies should focus on the community- and ecosystem-level impacts of plant clonality.

  1. Effects of glucose and insulin administration on glucose transporter expression in the North Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Courtney A; Gary Anderson, W; Walsh, Patrick J

    2017-06-01

    Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) are a primarily carnivorous group of fish, consuming few carbohydrates. Further, they tend to exhibit delayed responses to glucose and insulin administration in vivo relative to mammals, leading to a presumption of glucose-intolerance. To investigate the glucoregulatory capabilities of the spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), plasma glucose concentration, muscle and liver glycogen content, and glucose transporter (glut1 and 4) mRNA levels were measured following intra-arterial administration of bovine insulin (10ngkg -1 ) or an approximate doubling of fasting plasma glucose concentration. Within 6h, following glucose administration, approximately half of the introduced glucose load had been cleared, with control levels being restored by 24h post-injection. It was determined that plasma clearance was due in part to increased uptake by the tissues as muscle and liver glycogen content increased significantly, correlating with an upregulation of glut mRNA levels. Following administration of bovine insulin, plasma glucose steadily decreased through 18h before returning toward control levels. Observed decreases in plasma glucose following insulin injection were, however, relatively minor, and no increases in tissue glycogen content were observed. glut4 and glycogen synthase mRNA levels did significantly increase in the muscle in response to insulin, but no changes occurred in the liver. The responses observed mimic what occurs in mammals and teleosts, thus suggesting a conserved mechanism for glucose homeostasis in vertebrates and a high degree of glucose tolerance in these predominantly carnivorous fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pivotal role of early B-cell factor 1 in development of striatonigral medium spiny neurons in the matrix compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Mary Kay; Yeh, Christopher; Yang, X William

    2008-08-01

    The mammalian striatum plays a critical function in motor control, motor and reward learning, and cognition. Dysfunction and degeneration of the striatal neurons are implicated in major neurological and psychiatric disorders. The vast majority of striatal neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs). MSNs can be further subdivided into distinct subtypes based on their physical localization in the striatal patch vs. matrix compartments and based on their axonal projections and marker gene expression (i.e., striatonigral MSNs vs. striatopallidal MSNs). Despite our extensive knowledge on the striatal cytoarchitecture and circuitry, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of the MSN subtypes in the striatum. Early B-cell factor 1 (Ebf1) is a critical transcription factor implicated in striatal MSN development. One study shows that Ebf1 is critical for the differentiation of MSNs in the matrix, and our separate study demonstrates that Ebf1 is selectively expressed in the striatonigral MSNs and is essential for their postnatal differentiation. In the present study, we further validate the striatonigral MSN deficits in Ebf1(-/-) mice using multiple striatonigral MSN reporter mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that the striatonigral MSN deficits in these mice are restricted to those in the matrix, with relative sparing of those in the patch. Finally, we demonstrate that Ebf1 deficiency also results in reduced expression of another striatonigral-specific transcription factor, zinc finger binding protein 521 (Zfp521), which is a known Ebf1 functional partner. Overall, our study reveals that Ebf1 may play an essential role in controlling the differentiation of the striatonigral MSNs in the matrix compartment.

  3. Nicotine-induced and D1-receptor-dependent dendritic remodeling in a subset of dorsolateral striatum medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Daniel G; Burke, Julian C; McDonald, Craig G; Smith, Robert F; Bergstrom, Hadley C

    2017-07-25

    Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances known, targeting multiple memory systems, including the ventral and dorsal striatum. One form of neuroplasticity commonly associated with nicotine is dendrite remodeling. Nicotine-induced dendritic remodeling of ventral striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is well-documented. Whether MSN dendrites in the dorsal striatum undergo a similar pattern of nicotine-induced structural remodeling is unknown. A morphometric analysis of Golgi-stained MSNs in rat revealed a natural asymmetry in dendritic morphology across the mediolateral axis, with larger, more complex MSNs found in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). Chronic nicotine produced a lasting (at least 21day) expansion in the dendritic complexity of MSNs in the DLS, but not dorsomedial striatum (DMS). Given prior evidence that MSN subtypes can be distinguished based on dendritic morphology, MSNs were segregated into morphological subpopulations based on the number of primary dendrites. Analysis of these subpopulations revealed that DLS MSNs with more primary dendrites were selectively remodeled by chronic nicotine exposure and remodeling was specific to the distal-most portions of the dendritic arbor. Co-administration of the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist SCH23390 completely reversed the selective effects of nicotine on DLS MSN dendrite morphology, supporting a causal role for dopamine signaling at D1 receptors in nicotine-induced dendrite restructuring. Considering the functional importance of the DLS in shaping and expressing habitual behavior, these data support a model in which nicotine induces persistent and selective changes in the circuit connectivity of the DLS that may promote and sustain addiction-related behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MOLECULAR DETECTION AND CLONING FOR RICKETTSIA-LIKE BACTERIA OF MILKY HAEMOLYMPH DISEASE OF SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Koesharyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus are important commodities for Indonesia. The aquaculture of lobster is susceptible for several diseases like parasite, fungi, bacteria, and virus. Among those diseases, milky haemolymph disease (MHD is often seen as a symptom to mass mortality occurred at lobster farms in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok. The purpose of this study was to determine the lobster diseases on cage culture in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. The study was undertaken from January to March 2015. Diseases status was determined by application of molecular plat-form, polymerase chain reaction (PCR with designation of specific primer for MHD (254F/R, 254F: 5’-CGA-GGA-CCA-GAG-ATG-GAC-CTT-3’ and 254R: 5’-GCT-CAT-TGT-CAC-CGC-CAT-TGT-3’ with PCR size product of 254 bp. and for cloned the pathogen was used TA-cloning Invitrogen for the DNA plasmid as positive control for other analysis. Several tissue samples i.e hepatopancreas, haemolymph, part of muscle hepatopancreas P. homarus and P. ornatus were taken from cage culture farms at Gerupuk Bay then preserved on 90% ethanol for further analysis by PCR and then the amplificated DNA were cloned into pCR®2.1 plasmid and transformed into competent E. coli. The result showed that almost all lobster samples from Gerupuk Bay were positive infected by MHD, as the results of PCR amplification whereas the band appeared at 254bp. Also MHD plasmid has been successfully cloned and will be used for further examination. Histopathologically in hepatopancreas infection have seen necrosis that contain numerous of rickettsia-like bacteria.

  5. The Effects of Medium Spiny Neuron Morphologcial Changes on Basal Ganglia Network under External Electric Field: A Computational Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage of dopaminergic neurons that innervate the striatum has been considered to be the proximate cause of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the dopamine-denervated state, the loss of dendritic spines and the decrease of dendritic length may prevent medium spiny neuron (MSN from receiving too much excitatory stimuli from the cortex, thereby reducing the symptom of Parkinson's disease. However, the reduction in dendritic spine density obtained by different experiments is significantly different. We developed a biological-based network computational model to quantify the effect of dendritic spine loss and dendrites tree degeneration on basal ganglia (BG signal regulation. Through the introduction of error index (EI, which was used to measure the attenuation of the signal, we explored the amount of dendritic spine loss and dendritic trees degradation required to restore the normal regulatory function of the network, and found that there were two ranges of dendritic spine loss that could reduce EI to normal levels in the case of dopamine at a certain level, this was also true for dendritic trees. However, although these effects were the same, the mechanisms of these two cases were significant difference. Using the method of phase diagram analysis, we gained insight into the mechanism of signal degradation. Furthermore, we explored the role of cortex in MSN morphology changes dopamine depletion-induced and found that proper adjustments to cortical activity do stop the loss in dendritic spines induced by dopamine depleted. These results suggested that modifying cortical drive onto MSN might provide a new idea on clinical therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease.

  6. Biomechanical efficacy of collagen crosslinking in porcine cornea using a femtosecond laser pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollensak, Gregor; Hammer, Christian M; Spörl, Eberhard; Klenke, Jörg; Skerl, Katrin; Zhang, Yao; Sel, Saadettin

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the biomechanical efficacy of transepithelial collagen crosslinking using the femtosecond laser pocket technique compared with that using the standard crosslinking (CXL) technique. Forty ex vivo porcine eyes were divided into 4 groups with 10 samples each. Group 1 comprised the untreated controls. Group 2 was the standard CXL group with debridement, instillation of 0.1% riboflavin-dextran solution for 15 minutes before and every 5 minutes during the 30 minutes of irradiation with ultraviolet A (UVA) light of 370 nm and an irradiance of 3 mW/cm². Group 3 pertained to the femtolaser pocket control with an intrastromal pocket but without riboflavin/UVA. Group 4 was the femtolaser pocket CXL group with an intrastromal pocket of an 8-mm diameter at a 180-μm depth, riboflavin/dextran application for 15 minutes and subsequent exposure to UVA light for 30 minutes. Postoperatively, biomechanical stress-strain measurements were performed. In the standard CXL group, the stress at 10% strain was 207.8 ± 64.1 × 10 Pa (+79.45% vs. controls; P = 0.021) compared with 115.8 ± 20.8 × 10 Pa in the untreated control group; in the crosslinked femtolaser pocket group, it was 159.5 ± 30.4 × 10 Pa (+37.74%; P = 0.049), in the non-cross-linked femtolaser pocket group, it was 103.5 ± 17.3 × 10 Pa (-10.62%; P = 0.103). The Young modulus was 5.4 MPa (+100% vs. controls) in the standard CXL group, 3.7 MPa (+37.04%) in the crosslinked femtolaser pocket group, and 2.4 MPa (-11.12%) in the non-cross-linked femtolaser pocket group compared with 2.7 MPa in the untreated control group. The biomechanical effect of CXL using the femtolaser pocket technique is about 50% less pronounced than that after standard CXL. Future studies will show whether the efficacy of the technique can still be improved and whether the clinical effect is sufficient for stabilizing ectatic corneas.

  7. Placement Of Cardiac PacemaKEr Trial (POCKET – rationale and design: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Magnusson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pacemaker system consists of one or two leads connected to a device that is implanted into a pocket formed just below the collarbone. This pocket is typically subcutaneous, that is, located just above the pectoral fascia. Even though the size of pacemakers has decreased markedly, complications due to superficial implants do occur. An alternative technique would be intramuscular placement of the pacemaker device, but there are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs to support this approach, which is the rationale for the Placement Of Cardiac PacemaKEr Trial (POCKET. The aim is to study if intramuscular is superior to subcutaneous placement of a pacemaker pocket. Methods: In October 2016, we started to enroll 200 consecutive patients with an indication for bradycardia pacemaker implantation. Patients are randomized to random block sizes, stratified by age group (cut-off: 65 years and sex, and then randomized to either subcutaneous or intramuscular implant. A concealed allocation procedure is employed, using sequentially numbered, sealed envelopes. Pocket site is blinded to the patient and in all subsequent care. The primary endpoint is patient overall satisfaction with the pocket location at 24 months as measured using a visual analog scale (VAS 0-10. Secondary endpoints are: complications, patient-reported satisfaction at 1, 12, and 24 months (overall satisfaction, pain, discomfort, degree of unsightly appearance, movement problems, and sleep problems due to device. Conclusions: POCKET is a prospective interventional RCT designed to evaluate if intramuscular is superior to subcutaneous placement of a bradycardia pacemaker during a two-year follow-up.

  8. Placement Of Cardiac PacemaKEr Trial (POCKET – rationale and design: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Magnusson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA pacemaker system consists of one or two leads connected to a device that is implanted into a pocket formed just below the collarbone. This pocket is typically subcutaneous, that is, located just above the pectoral fascia. Even though the size of pacemakers has decreased markedly, complications due to superficial implants do occur. An alternative technique would be intramuscular placement of the pacemaker device, but there are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs to support this approach, which is the rationale for the Placement Of Cardiac PacemaKEr Trial (POCKET. The aim is to study if intramuscular is superior to subcutaneous placement of a pacemaker pocket.MethodsIn October 2016, we started to enroll 200 consecutive patients with an indication for bradycardia pacemaker implantation. Patients are randomized to random block sizes, stratified by age group (cut-off: 65 years and sex, and then randomized to either subcutaneous or intramuscular implant. A concealed allocation procedure is employed, using sequentially numbered, sealed envelopes. Pocket site is blinded to the patient and in all subsequent care. The primary endpoint is patient overall satisfaction with the pocket location at 24 months as measured using a visual analog scale (VAS 0-10. Secondary endpoints are: complications, patient-reported satisfaction at 1, 12, and 24 months (overall satisfaction, pain, discomfort, degree of unsightly appearance, movement problems, and sleep problems due to device.ConclusionsPOCKET is a prospective interventional RCT designed to evaluate if intramuscular is superior to subcutaneous placement of a bradycardia pacemaker during a two-year follow-up.

  9. Doubling the Size of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Ligand Binding Pocket by Deacylcortivazol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Chenghai; Tao, Yong-guang; Tolbert, W. David; Simons, Jr., S. Stoney; Xu, H. Eric (NIH)

    2010-03-08

    A common feature of nuclear receptor ligand binding domains (LBD) is a helical sandwich fold that nests a ligand binding pocket within the bottom half of the domain. Here we report that the ligand pocket of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) can be continuously extended into the top half of the LBD by binding to deacylcortivazol (DAC), an extremely potent glucocorticoid. It has been puzzling for decades why DAC, which contains a phenylpyrazole replacement at the conserved 3-ketone of steroid hormones that are normally required for activation of their cognate receptors, is a potent GR activator. The crystal structure of the GR LBD bound to DAC and the fourth LXXLL motif of steroid receptor coactivator 1 reveals that the GR ligand binding pocket is expanded to a size of 1,070 {angstrom}{sup 3}, effectively doubling the size of the GR dexamethasone-binding pocket of 540 {angstrom}{sup 3} and yet leaving the structure of the coactivator binding site intact. DAC occupies only {approx}50% of the space of the pocket but makes intricate interactions with the receptor around the phenylpyrazole group that accounts for the high-affinity binding of DAC. The dramatic expansion of the DAC-binding pocket thus highlights the conformational adaptability of GR to ligand binding. The new structure also allows docking of various nonsteroidal ligands that cannot be fitted into the previous structures, thus providing a new rational template for drug discovery of steroidal and nonsteroidal glucocorticoids that can be specifically designed to reach the unoccupied space of the expanded pocket.

  10. Out-of-pocket fertility patient expense: data from a multicenter prospective infertility cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Alex K; Odisho, Anobel Y; Washington, Samuel L; Katz, Patricia P; Smith, James F

    2014-02-01

    The high costs of fertility care may deter couples from seeking care. Urologists often are asked about the costs of these treatments. To our knowledge previous studies have not addressed the direct out-of-pocket costs to couples. We characterized these expenses in patients seeking fertility care. Couples were prospectively recruited from 8 community and academic reproductive endocrinology clinics. Each participating couple completed face-to-face or telephone interviews and cost diaries at study enrollment, and 4, 10 and 18 months of care. We determined overall out-of-pocket costs, in addition to relationships between out-of-pocket costs and treatment type, clinical outcomes and socioeconomic characteristics on multivariate linear regression analysis. A total of 332 couples completed cost diaries and had data available on treatment and outcomes. Average age was 36.8 and 35.6 years in men and women, respectively. Of this cohort 19% received noncycle based therapy, 4% used ovulation induction medication only, 22% underwent intrauterine insemination and 55% underwent in vitro fertilization. The median overall out-of-pocket expense was $5,338 (IQR 1,197-19,840). Couples using medication only had the lowest median out-of-pocket expenses at $912 while those using in vitro fertilization had the highest at $19,234. After multivariate adjustment the out-of-pocket expense was not significantly associated with successful pregnancy. On multivariate analysis couples treated with in vitro fertilization spent an average of $15,435 more than those treated with intrauterine insemination. Couples spent about $6,955 for each additional in vitro fertilization cycle. These data provide real-world estimates of out-of-pocket costs, which can be used to help couples plan for expenses that they may incur with treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Advantages and pitfalls of pocket ultrasound vs daily chest radiography in the coronary care unit: A single-user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Colin T; Manning, Warren J

    2017-05-01

    Pocket ultrasonography may enhance patient diagnosis and care. We sought to assess pocket ultrasound in detecting common conditions in the coronary care unit (CCU) compared to portable daily chest radiography (CXR) and conventional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). An experienced pocket ultrasound user performed a pocket ultrasound examination for interstitial edema, pneumonia, central line seen in the right ventricle, pleural and pericardial effusions, left atrial enlargement, and cardiomegaly. Data were blindly compared to the radiologist CXR interpretation and cardiologist TTE interpretation. A total of 102 CXR and pocket ultrasound examinations were performed in 66 patients. The most common CXR indication was "interval change" (37%) and finding central line (65%). Pocket ultrasound demonstrated overall good concordance with CXR ranging from 77% for pleural effusion to 92% for pneumonia. Additionally, the pocket ultrasound examination appeared to anticipate resolution of pulmonary edema prior to the CXR. Compared to TTE, pocket ultrasound had excellent sensitivity for cardiac findings with values ranging from 85% for left atrial enlargement to 100% for cardiomegaly, but limited specificity of cardiomegaly at just 51%. In the CCU, bedside pocket ultrasound reliably diagnoses common conditions identified by CXR with the advantage of lack of ionizing radiation and the suggestion of detecting the resolution of pulmonary edema prior to CXR. Pitfalls include only modest concordance for pleural effusions and limited specificity for cardiomegaly. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to determine whether pocket ultrasound can reduce routine daily CXR in the CCU and other intensive care settings. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Enceladus' near-surface CO2 gas pockets and surface frost deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Dennis L.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Johnson, Torrence V.; Combe, Jean-Philippe; McCord, Thomas B.; Radebaugh, Jani; Singh, Sandeep

    2018-03-01

    Solid CO2 surface deposits were reported in Enceladus' South Polar Region by Brown et al. (2006). They noted that such volatile deposits are temporary and posited ongoing replenishment. We present a model for this replenishment by expanding on the Matson et al. (2012) model of subsurface heat and chemical transport in Enceladus. Our model explains the distributions of both CO2 frost and complexed CO2 clathrate hydrate as seen in the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) data. We trace the journey of CO2 from a subsurface ocean. The ocean-water circulation model of Matson et al. (2012) brings water up to near the surface where gas exsolves to form bubbles. Some of the CO2 bubbles are trapped and form pockets of gas in recesses at the bottom of the uppermost ice layer. When fissures break open these pockets, the CO2 gas is vented. Gas pocket venting is episodic compared to the more or less continuous eruptive plumes, emanating from the "tiger stripes", that are supported by plume chambers. Two styles of gas pocket venting are considered: (1) seeps, and (2) blowouts. The presence of CO2 frost patches suggests that the pocket gas slowly seeped through fractured, cold ice and when some of the gas reached the surface it was cold enough to condense (i.e., T ∼70 to ∼119 K). If the fissure opening is large, a blowout occurs. The rapid escape of gas and drop in pocket pressure causes water in the pocket to boil and create many small aerosol droplets of seawater. These may be carried along by the erupting gas. Electrically charged droplets can couple to the magnetosphere, and be dragged away from Enceladus. Most of the CO2 blowout gas escapes from Enceladus and the remainder is distributed globally. However, CO2 trapped in a clathrate structure does not escape. It is much heavier and slower moving than the CO2 gas. Its motion is ballistic and has an average range of about 17 km. Thus, it contributes to deposits in the vicinity of the vent. Local heat

  13. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...... pointing was faster than mouse pointing, while maintaining a similar error rate. EMG and mouse-button selection had a comparable performance. From analyses of completion time, throughput and error rates, we concluded that the combination of gaze and facial EMG holds potential for outperforming the mouse....

  14. Past, current, and future trends of red spiny lobster based on PCA with MaxEnt model in Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Wladimir; Jacome, Gabriel; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2017-07-01

    In order to enhance in terms of accuracy and predict the modeling of the potential distribution of species, the integration of using principal components of environmental variables as input of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) has been proposed in this study. Principal components selected previously from the principal component analysis results performed in ArcGIS in the environmental variables was used as an input data of MaxEnt instead of raw data to model the potential distribution of red spiny lobster from the year 1997 to 2015 and for three different future scenarios 2020, 2050, and 2070. One set of six original environmental variables pertaining to the years 1997-2015 and one set of four variables for future scenarios were transformed independently into a single multiband raster in ArcGIS in order to select the variables whose eigenvalues explains more than 5% of the total variance with the purpose to use in the modeling prediction in MaxEnt. The years 1997 and 1998 were chosen to compare the accuracy of the model, showing better results using principal components instead of raw data in terms of area under the curve and partial receiver operating characteristic as well as better predictions of suitable areas. Using principal components as input of MaxEnt enhances the prediction of good habitat suitability for red spiny lobster; however, future scenarios suggest an adequate management by researches to elaborate appropriate guidelines for the conservation of the habitat for this valuable specie with face to the climate change.

  15. Cigarette smoking in Chinese adolescents: importance of controlling the amount of pocket money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Zhu, J; Li, N; He, Y; Cai, Y; Qiao, Y; Redmon, P; Wang, Z

    2013-07-01

    To estimate the proportion of smokers that could potentially have been prevented from smoking by limiting the amount of pocket money received by Chinese adolescents. Cross-sectional study. Current smoking, ever smoking and the amount of pocket money were determined through self-administered questionnaires among 12,708 adolescents (aged 12-18 years) from 21 schools in Shanghai, China. Adjusted odds ratios for current smoking ranged from 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-2.7] for adolescents receiving 200-399 Reminbin (RMB)/month as pocket money to 6.5 (95% CI 3.3-12.7) for those receiving ≥1000 RMB/month, compared with those receiving money (≥200 RMB/month) for current smoking was 50.4% (95% CI 42.2-57.4), and adjusted PAR% was 43.3% (95% CI 30.7-53.1). Approximately half of current smokers may have been prevented from smoking if pocket money was limited to money was reduced further. It is recommended that future intervention programmes should target parents to reduce the amount of pocket money in China. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of lifetime nursing home use and of out-of-pocket spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael D; Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Rohwedder, Susann

    2017-09-12

    Reliable estimates of the lifetime risk of using a nursing home and the associated out-of-pocket costs are important for the saving decisions by individuals and families, and for the purchase of long-term care insurance. We used data on up to 18 y of nursing home use and out-of-pocket costs drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal household survey representative of the older US population. We accumulated the use and spending by individuals over many years, and we developed and used an individual-level matching method to account for use before and after the observation period. In addition, for forecasting, we estimated a dynamic parametric model of nursing home use and spending. We found that 56% of persons aged 57-61 will stay at least one night in a nursing home during their lifetimes, but only 32% of the cohort will pay anything out of pocket. Averaged over all persons, total out-of-pocket expenditures looking forward from age 57 were approximately $7,300, discounted at 3% per year. However, the 95th percentile of spending was almost $47,000. We conclude that the percentage of people ever staying in nursing homes is substantially higher than previous estimates, at least partly due to an increase in nursing home episodes of short duration. Average lifetime out-of-pocket costs may be affordable, but some people will incur much higher costs.

  17. Novel and current rodenticides for pocket gopher Thomomys spp. management in vineyards: what works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Roger A; Meinerz, Ryan; Witmer, Gary W

    2017-01-01

    Rodenticides are often included as part of an integrated pest management approach for managing pocket gophers (Thomomys spp.) given that they are relatively quick and inexpensive to apply. Strychnine has historically been the most effective toxicant for pocket gophers, but its use is currently limited in the United States; alternative registered toxicants have not proven effective. Recent research with baits containing cholecalciferol plus anticoagulant toxicants proved effective against pocket gophers in a lab setting. Therefore, we established a field study to compare cholecalciferol plus anticoagulant combinations [0.03% cholecalciferol plus 0.005% diphacinone (C + D), 0.015% cholecalciferol plus 0.0025% brodifacoum (C + B1), 0.03% cholecalciferol plus 0.0025% brodifacoum (C + B2)] with strychnine (0.5%) for pocket gopher management. Strychnine treatments resulted in 100% efficacy after two treatment periods. Both C + D and C + B2 resulted in efficacy significantly greater than 70% after two treatment periods (83 and 75% respectively). Efficacy from C + B1 (85%) was not significantly greater than 70%, but did yield high overall efficacy as well. Although strychnine remains the most effective rodenticide for pocket gopher control, the cholecalciferol plus anticoagulant baits tested would be a good alternative when strychnine is unavailable. C + D may be the best option given that it uses a first-generation anticoagulant as the synergist. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Three Dimensional Flow and Pressure Patterns in a Single Pocket of a Hydrostatic Journal Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, M. Jack; Dzodzo, Milorad B.

    1996-01-01

    The flow in a hydrostatic pocket is described by a mathematical model that uses the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations written in terms of the primary variables, u, v, w, and p. Using a conservative formulation, a finite volume multi-block method is applied through a collocated, body fitted grid. The flow is simulated in a shallow pocket with a depth/length ratio of 0.02. The flow structures obtained and described by the authors in their previous two dimensional models are made visible in their three dimensional aspect for the Couette flow. It has been found that the flow regimes formed central and secondary vortical cells with three dimensional corkscrew-like structures that lead the fluid on an outward bound path in the axial direction of the pocket. The position of the central vortical cell center is at the exit region of the capillary restrictor feedline. It has also been determined that a fluid turn around zone occupies all the upstream space between the floor of the pocket and the runner, thus preventing any flow exit through the upstream port. The corresponding pressure distribution under the shaft presented as well. It was clearly established that for the Couette dominated case the pressure varies significantly in the pocket in the circumferential direction, while its variation is less pronounced axially.

  19. Functional importance of a peripheral pocket in mammalian cytochrome P450 2B enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Hee; Liu, Jingbao; Lee, Ga-Young; Halpert, James R; Wilderman, P Ross

    2015-10-15

    The functional importance of a peripheral pocket found in previously published X-ray crystal structures of CYP2B4 and CYP2B6 was probed using a biophysical approach. Introduction of tryptophan within the pocket of CYP2B4 at F202 or I241 leads to marked impairment of 7-ethoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin (7-EFC) or 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation efficiency; a similar substitution at F195, near the surface access to the pocket, does not affect these activities. The analogous CYP2B6 F202W mutant is inactive in the 7-EFC O-dealkylation assay. The stoichiometry of 7-EFC deethylation suggested that the decreased activity of F202W and I241W in CYP2B4 and lack of activity of F202W in CYP2B6 coincided with a sharp increase in the flux of reducing equivalents through the oxidase shunt to produce excess water. The results indicate that the chemical identity of residues within this peripheral pocket, but not at the mouth of the pocket, is important in substrate turnover and redox coupling, likely through effects on active site topology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic burden of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a Canadian study of out-of-pocket expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Matthew; Dharamshi, Celina; Zinman, Lorne

    2014-09-01

    This study quantifies the 'out-of-pocket' expenses incurred by individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and their families, explores cost-driving factors and describes the current state of financial support in a Canadian cohort. We performed structured cost-of-illness interviews with 50 consecutive ALS patients and family members detailing disease-specific factors, direct and indirect costs. Direct costs were divided into 'out-of-pocket' and 'government/non-profit organization (NPO) supported'. Results showed that the average annual direct cost per patient was $32,337, of which $19,574 (61%) was paid for out-of-pocket. The most significant direct cost was disease-related home renovations, which garnered minimal government or NPO support. The costs of mobility aids, medical expenses, and private personal support workers were also substantial. Higher out-of-pocket costs were associated with an ALS Functional Rating Scale gross motor subscore of ≤ 6 (p = 0.03), limb-predominant symptoms (p = 0.04) and > 4 h/week of personal support care (p = 0.005). Annual indirect costs (lost wages) for patients with ALS and family members providing care were $56,821. In conclusion, this study quantified the substantial personal economic impact of ALS as measured by non-reimbursed, out-of-pocket expenses. Mobilization of additional resources for ALS patients and families is required to soften the economic burden of this disabling disease.

  1. Out-of-pocket expenses for maternity care in rural Bangladesh: a public-private comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Moshiur; Rob, Ubaidur; Noor, Forhana Rahman; Bellows, Benjamin

    Out-of-pocket expenses incurred by women for availing maternal healthcare services at public and private health facilities in Bangladesh were examined using a baseline household survey evaluating the impact of demand side financing vouchers on utilization and service delivery for maternal healthcare. The survey was conducted in 2010 among 3,300 women who gave birth in the previous 12 months from the start of data collection. Information on costs incurred to receive antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care services was collected. Findings reveal that the majority of women reported paying out-of-pocket expenses for availing maternal healthcare services both at public and private health facilities. Out-of-pocket expenses include registration, consultation, laboratory examination, medicine, transportation, and other associated costs incurred for receiving maternal healthcare services. On average, women paid US$3.60 out-of-pocket expenses for receiving antenatal care at public health facilities and US$12.40 at private health facilities. Similarly, women paid one and half times more for normal (US$42.30) and cesarean deliveries (US$136.20) at private health facilities compared to public health facilities. On the other hand, costs for postnatal care services did not vary significantly between public and private health facilities. Utilization of maternal healthcare services can be improved if out-of-pocket expenses can be minimized. At the same time, effective demand generation strategies are necessary to encourage women to utilize health facilities.

  2. Treatment of Fingertip Amputation in Adults by Palmar Pocketing of the Amputated Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun Jung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background First suggested by Brent in 1979, the pocket principle is an alternative methodfor patients for whom a microsurgical replantation is not feasible. We report the successfulresults of a modified palmar pocket method in adults.Methods Between 2004 and 2008, we treated 10 patients by nonmicrosurgical replantationusing palmar pocketing. All patients were adults who sustained a complete fingertip amputationfrom the tip to lunula in a digits. In all of these patients, the amputation occurred due to a crushor avulsion-type injury, and a microsurgical replantation was not feasible. We used the palmarpocketing method following a composite graft in these patients and prepared the pocket in thesubcutaneous layer of the ipsilateral palm.Results Of a total of 10 cases, nine had complete survival of the replantation and one had20% partial necrosis. All of the cases were managed to conserve the fingernails, which led toacceptable cosmetic results.Conclusions A composite graft and palmar pocketing in adult cases of fingertip injuryconstitute a simple, reliable operation for digital amputation extending from the tip to thelunula. These methods had satisfactory results.

  3. Efficacy of a physicians' pocket guide about prenatal substance use: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midmer, Deana; Kahan, Meldon; Kim, Theresa; Ordean, Alice; Graves, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    A pocket guide on management of substance use during pregnancy was developed by a group of Canadian care providers. One hundred and fifteen family medicine residents in 6 Canadian teaching sites were randomized to receive either the pocket guide or a paper summary on similar clinical topics, based on UpToDate, a comprehensive Web-based resource. At baseline, both groups completed a survey containing questions on beliefs, attitudes, experience, and training on pregnancy and substance use. Participants then answered 28 multiple choice questions about substance use in pregnancy, using either the pocket guide or UpToDate. Finally participants were asked to rate ease of use for the 2 resources. The results showed that the pocket guide group had higher knowledge scores than the UpToDate group overall and at each study site (61.27% vs. 42.86%, P UpToDate (mean = 2.73 vs. 4.36, P UpToDate, P = .005). It is concluded that the pocket guide is a practical source of clinical information at point of care, particularly for "orphan" subjects such as substance use in pregnancy.

  4. Flexible Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting from Mouse Click Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsu Cha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study energy harvesting from the mouse click motions of a robot finger and a human index finger using a piezoelectric material. The feasibility of energy harvesting from mouse click motions is experimentally and theoretically assessed. The fingers wear a glove with a pocket for including the piezoelectric material. We model the energy harvesting system through the inverse kinematic framework of parallel joints in a finger and the electromechanical coupling equations of the piezoelectric material. The model is validated through energy harvesting experiments in the robot and human fingers with the systematically varying load resistance. We find that energy harvesting is maximized at the matched load resistance to the impedance of the piezoelectric material, and the harvested energy level is tens of nJ.

  5. Post-Eocene climate change across continental Australia and the diversification of Australasian spiny trapdoor spiders (Idiopidae: Arbanitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G; Cooper, Steven J B; Meusemann, Karen; Klopfstein, Seraina; Harrison, Sophie E; Harvey, Mark S; Austin, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    The formation and spread of the Australian arid zone during the Neogene was a profoundly transformative event in the biogeographic history of Australia, resulting in extinction or range contraction in lineages adapted to mesic habitats, as well as diversification and range expansion in arid-adapted taxa (most of which evolved from mesic ancestors). However, the geographic origins of the arid zone biota are still relatively poorly understood, especially among highly diverse invertebrate lineages, many of which are themselves poorly documented at the species level. Spiny trapdoor spiders (Idiopidae: Arbanitinae) are one such lineage, having mesic 'on-the-continent' Gondwanan origins, while also having experienced major arid zone radiations in select clades. In this study, we present new orthologous nuclear markers for the phylogenetic inference of mygalomorph spiders, and use them to infer the phylogeny of Australasian Idiopidae with a 12-gene parallel tagged amplicon next-generation sequencing approach. We use these data to test the mode and timing of diversification of arid-adapted idiopid lineages across mainland Australia, and employ a continent-wide sampling of the fauna's phylogenetic and geographic diversity to facilitate ancestral area inference. We further explore the evolution of phenotypic and behavioural characters associated with both arid and mesic environments, and test an 'out of south-western Australia' hypothesis for the origin of arid zone clades. Three lineages of Idiopidae are shown to have diversified in the arid zone during the Miocene, one (genus Euoplos) exclusively in Western Australia. Arid zone Blakistonia likely had their origins in South Australia, whereas in the most widespread genus Aganippe, a more complex scenario is evident, with likely range expansion from southern Western Australia to southern South Australia, from where the bulk of the arid zone fauna then originated. In Aganippe, remarkable adaptations to phragmotic burrow

  6. Pocket money, eating behaviors, and weight status among Chinese children: The Childhood Obesity Study in China mega-cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Xue, Hong; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Yaling; Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa

    2017-07-01

    Both the obesity rate and pocket money are rising among children in China. This study examined family correlates of children's pocket money, associations of pocket money with eating behaviors and weight status, and how the associations may be modified by schools' unhealthy food restrictions in urban China. Data were collected in 2015 from 1648 students in 16 primary and middle schools in four mega-cities in China (4 schools/city): Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Xi'an. Cluster robust negative binomial regression models were fit to assess family correlates of pocket money, associations of pocket money with child eating behaviors and weight outcomes, and possible modifying effects of schools' unhealthy food restrictions. Sixty-nine percent of students received pocket money weekly. Students received more pocket money if mothers frequently ate out of home (IRR=2.28 [1.76, 2.94]) and/or family rarely had dinner together (IRR=1.42, 95%=[1.01, 1.99]). Students got less pocket money if parents were concerned about child's future health due to unhealthy eating (IRR=0.56 [0.32,0.98]). Students with more pocket money more frequently consumed (by 25-89%) sugary beverages, snacks, fast food, or at street food stalls, and were 45-90% more likely to be overweight/obese. Associations of pocket money with unhealthy eating and overweight/obesity were weaker in schools with unhealthy food restrictions. Pocket money is a risk factor for unhealthy eating and obesity in urban China. School policies may buffer pocket money's negative influence on students' eating and weight status. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The PickPocket method for predicting binding specificities for receptors based on receptor pocket similarities: application to MHC-peptide binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, M.

    2009-01-01

    of the specificities of MHC molecules in this library weighted by the similarity of their pocket-residues to the query. This PickPocket method is demonstrated to accurately predict MHC-peptide binding for a broad range of MHC alleles, including human and non-human species. In contrast to neural network-based pan-specific......Motivation: Receptor-ligand interactions play an important role in controlling many biological systems. One prominent example is the binding of peptides to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules controlling the onset of cellular immune responses. Thousands of MHC allelic versions...... exist, making determination of the binding specificity for each variant experimentally infeasible. Here, we present a method that can extrapolate from variants with known binding specificity to those where no experimental data are available. Results: For each position in the peptide ligand, we extracted...

  8. Average Out-of-Pocket Expenses Across Different Drug Categories and Commercial Third-Party Payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderts, Susan; Kalali, Amir H

    2010-10-01

    In this Trend Watch, we look at retail pharmacy prescriptions for branded and generic attention deficit hyperactivity disorder treatments, atypical antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and analyze the average out-of-pocket costs incurred by patients who are covered by commercial third-party prescription plans (i.e., as opposed to patients covered by Medicaid or patients with no prescription coverage). Overall, patient out-of-pocket costs in commercial third-party plans are lower for generic prescriptions than they are for brand prescriptions by at least $19.02. Comparisons across the drug classes reveal that the average co-pay for brands and generics, as well as the difference between brand and generic out-of-pocket costs, differ by drug category.

  9. Trends in out-of-pocket spending by insured American workers, 1990-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, J R; Ginsburg, P B; Pickreign, J D; Reschovsky, J D

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines trends in out-of-pocket spending for insured workers from 1990 to 1997. Data are from the Consumer Expenditure Survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The survey collects detailed quarterly data on all consumer spending from logs kept each year by more than 10,000 households with job-based health insurance. During the study period, total out-of-pocket spending in constant dollars remained unchanged. Spending for medical expenses, drugs, and supplies declined by 23 percent, but this decline was offset by rising employee contributions for health insurance premiums. The shift to managed care, whose benefit structure requires less cost sharing, may have played a role in reducing out-of-pocket spending.

  10. Changes in out-of-pocket charges associated with obstetric care provided under Medicare in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Emily; Fox, Haylee

    2018-01-12

    Recent health reforms alongside unregulated provider fees have led to increased attention being given to out-of-pocket healthcare costs. This study utilised annual statistics published by the Department of Health for services provided under the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) from 1992/3 to 2016/17 to identify changes in out-of-pocket charges for obstetric items over time, and estimate the change in demand for obstetric items in response to price increases. Since 1992/3 out-of-pocket charges increased by 1035% for out-of-hospital items and 77% for in-hospital items. Demand for obstetric items has reduced with increasing charges. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. First characterisation of the populations and immune-related activities of hemocytes from two edible gastropod species, the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell, Turbo cornutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lambert, Christophe; Park, Heung-Sik; Shim, Won Joon; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-01-01

    The disk abalone Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell Turbo cornutus are edible gastropod species of high economic value, mainly in Asia. Mortality outbreaks and variations in worldwide stock abundance have been reported and suggested to be associated, at least in part, with pathogenic infections. Ecology, biology and immunology of both species are currently not well documented. The characterisation of the immune systems of these species is necessary to further assess the responses of H. discus discus and T. cornutus to environmental, chemical and disease stresses. In the present study, we investigated the morphology and immune-related activities of hemocytes in both species using light microscopy and flow cytometry. Two types of hemocytes were identified in the disk abalone hemolymph, blast-like cells and hyalinocytes; whereas four main hemocyte types were distinguished in the spiny top shell, blast-like cells, type I and II hyalinocytes, and granulocytes. Flow cytometric analysis also revealed differences between cell types in immune-related activities. Three subsets of hemocytes, defined by differing lysosomal characteristics, were observed in the hemolymph of the spiny top shell, and only one in the disk abalone. Phagocytic activity was higher in H. discus discus hemocytes than in T. cornutus hemocytes, and the kinetics of PMA-stimulated oxidative activity was different between hemocytes of the disk abalone and the spiny top shell. Finally our results suggest for the first time a predominant mitochondrial origin of oxidative activity in gastropod hemocytes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns and determinants of communal latrine usage in urban poverty pockets in Bhopal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, A; Jenkins, M W; Dabrase, P; Bhagwat, I

    2011-07-01

    To explore and explain patterns of use of communal latrine facilities in urban poverty pockets. Six poverty pockets with communal latrine facilities representing two management models (Sulabh and municipal) were selected. Sampling was random and stratified by poverty pocket population size. A seventh, community-managed facility was also included. Data were collected by exit interviews with facility users and by interviews with residents from a randomly selected representative sample of poverty pocket households, on social, economic and demographic characteristics of households, latrine ownership, defecation practices, costs of using the facility and distance from the house to the facility. A tally of facility users was kept for 1 day at each facility. Data were analysed using logistic regression modelling to identify determinants of communal latrine usage. Communal latrines differed in their facilities, conditions, management and operating characteristics, and rates of usage. Reported usage rates among non-latrine-owning households ranged from 15% to 100%. There was significant variation in wealth, occupation and household structure across the poverty pockets as well as in household latrine ownership. Households in pockets with municipal communal latrine facilities appeared poorer. Households in pockets with Sulabh-managed communal facilities were significantly more likely to own a household latrine. Determinants of communal facility usage among households without a latrine were access and convenience (distance and opening hours), facility age, cleanliness/upkeep and cost. The ratio of male to female users was 2:1 across all facilities for both adults and children. Provision of communal facilities reduces but does not end the problem of open defecation in poverty pockets. Women appear to be relatively poorly served by communal facilities and, cost is a barrier to use by poorer households. Results suggest improving facility convenience and access and modifying fee

  13. The befuddling nature of mouse lemur hands and feet at Bezà Mahafaly, SW Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Gina; Rasoazanabary, Emilienne; Godfrey, Laurie R

    2017-09-01

    The reddish-gray mouse lemur (Microcebus griseorufus) possesses striking phenotypic and behavioral variation. This project investigates differences in autopod proportions in neighboring populations of M. griseorufus from the Special Reserve at Bezà Mahafaly in southwest Madagascar. One population resides in an environment generally preferred by M. griseorufus-a spiny forest with large-trunked trees, vertically-oriented supports, and more open ground, while the other resides in a gallery forest with abundant small, often horizontal peripheral branches in high canopy. We demonstrate significant interpopulation differences in autopod morphophology despite no evidence of divergence in mitochondrial cytochrome b. We test two hypotheses regarding ultimate causation. The first, based on the Fine Branch Arborealism Hypothesis (FBAH), holds that autopod differences are related to different locomotor practices in the two environments, and the second, based on the Narrow Niche Hypothesis (NNH), holds that the observed differences reflect a relaxation (from ancestral to descendant conditions) of selective pressure for terrestrial locomotion and/or use of large, vertical supports combined with positive selection for locomoting in peripheral branch settings. Our data conform well to FBAH expectations and show some support for the NNH. Individuals from the gallery forest possess disproportionally long posterior digits that facilitate locomotion on small, flexible canopy supports while individuals from the spiny forest possess shorter posterior digits and a longer pollex/hallux that increase functional grasping diameter for large vertical supports and facilitate efficient ground locomotion. Focal individual data confirm differences in how often individuals descend to the ground and use vertical supports. We further show that predispersal juveniles, like adults, possess autopod morphologies suited to their natal forest. We explore two proximate mechanisms that could generate these

  14. The Knockout Mouse Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Christopher P; Battey, James F; Bradley, Allan; Bucan, Maja; Capecchi, Mario; Collins, Francis S; Dove, William F; Duyk, Geoffrey; Dymecki, Susan; Eppig, Janan T; Grieder, Franziska B; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hicks, Geoff; Insel, Thomas R; Joyner, Alexandra; Koller, Beverly H; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; Moore, Mark W; Nagy, Andras; Pollock, Jonathan D; Roses, Allen D; Sands, Arthur T; Seed, Brian; Skarnes, William C; Snoddy, Jay; Soriano, Philippe; Stewart, David J; Stewart, Francis; Stillman, Bruce; Varmus, Harold; Varticovski, Lyuba; Verma, Inder M; Vogt, Thomas F; von Melchner, Harald; Witkowski, Jan; Woychik, Richard P; Wurst, Wolfgang; Yancopoulos, George D; Young, Stephen G; Zambrowicz, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways, and many are not freely available to researchers. It is time to harness new technologies and efficiencies of production to mount a high-throughput international effort to produce and phenotype knockouts for all mouse genes, and place these resources into the public domain. PMID:15340423

  15. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  16. [Residual pocket depth after periodontal regenerative procedures. Clinical relevance and interpretation of meta-analyses data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Patrick R; Hauri, Dimitri; Krähenmann, Michael A; Puhan, Milo A; Attin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Meta-analyses allow to combine results systematically and to obtain more precise quantitative results on the efficacy of a therapy. For the clinician, the comparison of two therapy modalities is particularly of interest. Several meta-analyses exist in the field of periodontal regenerative procedures. The problem is that the results are difficult to interpret for the clinician. It is only the clinical effect that can indicate the superiority of a certain treatment modality, e.g. remaining periodontal pockets. The aim of the present systematic review was the re-evaluation of studies of existing meta-analyses and to determine the probability of remaining periodontal pockets of more than 3 respectively 5 mm after active therapy. The probability of remaining periodontal pockets over 3 respectively 5 mm was significantly higher after periodontal flap procedure without regenerative procedures, compared to guided tissue regeneration (GTR) or the use of enamel matrix derivatives. Moreover, the probability of remaining pockets over 3 mm was with GTR on average 57% and with the use of enamel maxtrix derivatives 74%. Using the cut-off value of 5 mm this probability was reduced to 8 and 17%, respectively. A new clinical attachment that was less than 50% of the original level was to be expected in 29% (GTR) and 15% using enamel matrix derivatives. This statistical interpretation permits not only the clinician, but also the patient to compare the efficacy of the different treatment modalities using the probability of primary clinical effect outcomes.

  17. Ultrasonic detection of knots, cross grain and bark pockets in wooden pallet parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed F. Kabir; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Mark E. Schafer

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates defect detection in wooden pallet parts using ultrasonic scanning. Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera, L.) deckboards were scanned using two rolling transducers in a pitch-catch arrangement to detect unsound and sound knots, bark pockets and cross grain. Data were collected, stored, and processed using LabView? software. Six ultrasonic...

  18. Pocket Money: Influence on Body Mass Index and Dental Caries among Urban Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, V C; Amudhan, A; Sivaprakasam, P; Rathnaprabhu, V

    2014-12-01

    To explore the influence of pocket money on Dental Caries and Body Mass Index. A cross-sectional study was conducted wherein urban adolescent schoolchildren of age 13-18(n=916) were selected by two stage random sampling technique. Dental caries was measured using the DMFT Index. The children's nutritional status was assessed by means of anthropometric measurements. Body Mass Index using weight and height of children was evaluated using the reference standard of the WHO 2007. RESULTS showed that 50% of children receive pocket money from parents. The average amount received was Rs. 360/month. There was a significant correlation between age and amount of money received (r=0.160, p=.001). The average amount received by male children was significantly higher (Rs. 400) when compared to female children (Rs. 303). It was observed that income of the family (>30,000 Rs./month) and socioeconomic status (Upper class) was significantly dependent on the amount of money received by children (pmoney or not. When BMI categories and pocket money were considered, statistically significant difference was seen among overweight and obese and normal weight children (pmoney from parents could influence their eating habits in turn affect general health. Parents and teachers should motivate children on healthy spending of their pocket money.

  19. Approaches for Identification of HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors Targeting gp41 Pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim K. Debnath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrophobic pocket in the HIV-1 gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR domain plays an important role in viral fusion and entry into the host cell, and serves as an attractive target for development of HIV-1 fusion/entry inhibitors. The peptide anti-HIV drug targeting gp41 NHR, T-20 (generic name: enfuvirtide; brand name: Fuzeon, was approved by the U.S. FDA in 2003 as the first HIV fusion/entry inhibitor for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients who fail to respond to the current antiretroviral drugs. However, because T20 lacks the pocket-binding domain (PBD, it exhibits low anti-HIV-1 activity and short half-life. Therefore, several next-generation HIV fusion inhibitory peptides with PBD have been developed. They possess longer half-life and more potent antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains, including the T-20-resistant variants. Nonetheless, the clinical application of these peptides is still limited by the lack of oral availability and the high cost of production. Thus, development of small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 pocket with oral availability has been promoted. This review describes the main approaches for identification of HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting the gp41 pocket and summarizes the latest progress in developing these inhibitors as a new class of anti-HIV drugs.

  20. How Medicaid Expansion Affected Out-of-Pocket Health Care Spending for Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Chakraborty, Ougni; Russo, Therese

    2017-08-01

    ISSUE. Prior research shows that low-income residents of states that expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act are less likely to experience financial barriers to health care access, but the impact on out-of-pocket spending has not yet been measured. GOAL. Assess how the Medicaid expansion affected out-of-pocket health care spending for low-income families compared to those in states that did not expand and consider whether effects differed in states that expanded under conventional Medicaid rules vs. waiver programs. METHODS. Analysis of the Consumer Expenditure Survey 2010–2015. KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS. Compared to families in nonexpansion states, low-income families in states that did expand Medicaid saved an average of $382 in annual spending on health care. In these states, low-income families were less like to report any out-of-pocket spending on insurance premiums or medical care than were similar families in nonexpansion states. For families that did have some out-of-pocket spending, spending levels were lower in states that expanded Medicaid. Low-income families in Medicaid expansion states were also much less likely to have catastrophically high spending levels. The form of coverage expansion — conventional Medicaid or waiver rules — did not have a statistically significant effect on these outcomes.

  1. Out-of-pocket health expenditure: a preliminary survey of impact on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients are often required to make direct out-of-pocket payments for medical care in hospitals in Nigeria. atients admitted into the Intensive Care Unit of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital from 1st July to 31st December 2008 recorded relationship to patient, payment pattern, household monthly ...

  2. Communication rights from the margins: politicising young refugees’ smartphone pocket archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, K.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Politicising the smartphone pocket archives and experiences of 16 young refugees living in the Netherlands, this explorative study re-conceptualises and empirically grounds communication rights. The focus is on the usage of social media among young refugees, who operate from the margins of society,

  3. Do Nurse-Led Skill Training Interventions Affect Informal Caregivers' Out-of-Pocket Expenditures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Thorpe, Joshua M.; Chestnutt, Deborah; Molloy, Margory; Boling, John C.; Davis, Linda Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This paper is a report of a study of the Assistance, Support, and Self-health Initiated through Skill Training (ASSIST) randomized control trial. The aim of this paper is to understand whether participating in ASSIST significantly changed the out-of-pocket (OOP) costs for family caregivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or…

  4. Influence of Lubricant Pocket Geometry upon Lubrication Mechanisms on Tool-Workpiece Interfaces in Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimizu, I; Martins, P.A.F.; Bay, Niels

    2004-01-01

    mechanisms, during upsetting and strip drawing, by means of a rigid viscoplastic finite element formulation. Special emphasis is placed on the effect of pocket geometry on the build up of hydrostatic pressure, which is responsible for the onset of micro lubrication mechanisms. A good agreement is found...... between the numerically predicted and the experimentally measured distributions of hydrostatic stress....

  5. Conformational dynamics and role of the acidic pocket in ASIC pH-dependent gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vullo, Sabrina; Bonifacio, Gaetano; Roy, Sophie; Johner, Niklaus; Bernèche, Simon; Kellenberger, Stephan

    2017-04-04

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-activated Na + channels expressed in the nervous system, where they are involved in learning, fear behaviors, neurodegeneration, and pain sensation. In this work, we study the role in pH sensing of two regions of the ectodomain enriched in acidic residues: the acidic pocket, which faces the outside of the protein and is the binding site of several animal toxins, and the palm, a central channel domain. Using voltage clamp fluorometry, we find that the acidic pocket undergoes conformational changes during both activation and desensitization. Concurrently, we find that, although proton sensing in the acidic pocket is not required for channel function, it does contribute to both activation and desensitization. Furthermore, protonation-mimicking mutations of acidic residues in the palm induce a dramatic acceleration of desensitization followed by the appearance of a sustained current. In summary, this work describes the roles of potential pH sensors in two extracellular domains, and it proposes a model of acidification-induced conformational changes occurring in the acidic pocket of ASIC1a.

  6. Solvent Clathrate Driven Dynamic Stereomutation of a Supramolecular Polymer with Molecular Pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chidambar; Korevaar, Peter A; Bejagam, Karteek K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W; George, Subi J

    2017-10-04

    Control over the helical organization of synthetic supramolecular systems is intensively pursued to manifest chirality in a wide range of applications ranging from electron spin filters to artificial enzymes. Typically, switching the helicity of supramolecular assemblies involves external stimuli or kinetic traps. However, efforts to achieve helix reversal under thermodynamic control and to understand the phenomena at a molecular level are scarce. Here we present a unique example of helix reversal (stereomutation) under thermodynamic control in the self-assembly of a coronene bisimide that has a 3,5-dialkoxy substitution on the imide phenyl groups (CBI-35CH), leading to "molecular pockets" in the assembly. The stereomutation was observed only if the CBI monomer possesses molecular pockets. Detailed chiroptical studies performed in alkane solvents with different molecular structures reveal that solvent molecules intercalate or form clathrates within the molecular pockets of CBI-35CH at low temperature (263 K), thereby triggering the stereomutation. The interplay among the helical assembly, molecular pockets, and solvent molecules is further unraveled by explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. Our results demonstrate how the molecular design of self-assembling building blocks can orchestrate the organization of surrounding solvent molecules, which in turn dictates the helical organization of the resulting supramolecular assembly.

  7. Proton NMR investigation of heme pocket mobility in hemoglobin via hydrogen isotope exchange kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic mobility of heme cavity, the active site of Hb, was investigated by analyzing the hydrogen isotope exchange kinetics of the proximal histidyl ring NH of various kinds of Hbs with the aid of the high field Fourier Transform 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The exchange reaction occurs faster in oxy or R-state Hb than in deoxy or T-state Hb and there exists a good correlation between the oxygen affinity of Hb and the heme pocket mobility reflected in the hydrogen exchange rate. The effect of pH on the exchange is dramatically different for the two subunits of Hb A. Studying the exchange characteristics of mutant Hbs and chemically modified Hbs not only showed the existence of three well-defined localized paths for transmission of conformational changes between different heme pockets through a 1 b 2 subunit interface, but also indicated that the heme pocket mobility is regulated by the quaternary state of Hb as well as by the ligation state of Hb. Finally, the effect of the quaternary state on the heme pocket mobility is separated from that of the ligation by following the exchange reactions in Hbs where only their quaternary structure transition can be achieved without changing their ligation states by adjusting experimental conditions such as adding inositol hexaphosphate

  8. Identifying Features of Pocket Parks that May Be Related to Health Promoting Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschardt, Karin K.; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    these uses. The relationship between the two types of use and the shape, size, noise level, greenness, as well as ‘elements’ (paved and unpaved trails, café, historical feature, table, other seating than benches, flowerbeds, view outside park, playground) in nine pocket parks in Copenhagen were analysed...

  9. Out-of-Pocket Net Price for College. Data Point. NCES 2014-902

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Laura; Paslov, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This Data Point uses data from four administrations of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:2000, NPSAS:04, NPSAS:08, and NPSAS:12) to briefly present trends in out-of-pocket net price for college, the amount that students and their families must pay to attend college after subtracting grants, loans, work-study, and all other…

  10. The proper calibration and use of pocket ionization chamber in personnel radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The PIC (pocket ionization chambers) has often been criticized for its lack of precision and accuracy and its tendency to produce false readings. The direct-reading PICs and other dosimeters have numerous characteristics which influence the dosimetric response in a radiation environment

  11. Optimal design of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings with High Pressure Injection Pockets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar

    2006-01-01

    A thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic(TEHD) model based on the Reynolds equation has been used to study the effect of oil injection pockets on the performance of tilting pad thrust bearings. The optimal position of the pivot both with respect to load carrying capacity and minimal power consumption is seen...

  12. E-dictionary Use under the Spotlight: Students' Use of Pocket ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on the utilisation of pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs) for writing by learners of English at a Thai university. It aims to enrich the study of dictionary use behaviour by investigating, through the use of combined research methods, exactly what happens when students use PEDs for production.

  13. The effect of boundary slip and cavitation on hydrodynamic pressure generation in pocket bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchammad, Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Pratomo, Ariawan Wahyu; Jamari, J.; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2016-04-01

    Surface texturing as well as boundary slip is an effective approach to increase the tribological performance, friction and load support of lubricated mechanical components. However, in a textured bearing with boundary slip, cavitation, which is generally neglected, is important, and it alters the flow behavior. Therefore, in this paper a novel analytical equation was proposed based on a modified Reynolds equation considering boundary slip and cavitation. The modified Reynolds equation was derived by following the general approach to deduce the Reynolds equation from the Navier-Stokes equation by assuming classical assumptions, except that boundary slip was present. A theoretical investigation was carried out to study the effect of boundary slip including cavitation on the pressure distribution of a pocket bearing. Different slip configurations (full slip, single slip and semi slip) were studied and compared to various pocket depths. The results indicated that the presence of boundary slip both on the leading edge of the contact and the pocket area (i.e. the "semi slip" case) could result in a significant improvement in the hydrodynamic pressure generation; thus, it causes an increased load support. The above improvement depends on the pocket depth of the bearing.

  14. 76 FR 30180 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Pocket Projectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... their production where the last substantial transformation occurs. Therefore, when the light engine... transformation occurs. Therefore, when the light engine module and PCBA main board module are assembled and... pocket projector is a 1.97'' x 0.59'' x 4.06'', four ounce, digital light processing (DLP) projector that...

  15. A review of MEMS micropropulsion technologies for CubeSats and PocketQubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Athayde Costa e Silva, Marsil A. C.; Cordeiro Guerrieri, D. C.; Cervone, A.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2018-01-01

    CubeSats have been extensively used in the past decade as scientific tools, technology demonstrators and for education. Recently, PocketQubes have emerged as an interesting and even smaller alternative to CubeSats. However, both satellite types often lack some key capabilities, such as

  16. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Constructing and Setting Pockets.] Module 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on constructing and setting pockets, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an…

  17. Hibernating little pocket mice show few seasonal changes in bone properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noellyn Pineda; Marjorie Owen; Claire Tucker; Samantha Wojda; Stanley Kitchen; Hal Black; Seth Donahue

    2017-01-01

    Periods of disuse or physical inactivity increases bone porosity and decreases bone mineral density, resulting in a loss of bone mechanical competence in many animals. Although large hibernators like bears and marmots prevent bone loss during hibernation, despite long periods of physical inactivity, some small hibernators do lose bone during hibernation. Little pocket...

  18. Dantrolene is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease transgenic mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the Huntingtin protein which results in the selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs. Our group has previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca2+ signaling is abnormal in MSNs from the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128. Moreover, we demonstrated that deranged intracellular Ca2+ signaling sensitizes YAC128 MSNs to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity when compared to wild type (WT MSNs. In previous studies we also observed abnormal neuronal Ca2+ signaling in neurons from spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2 and spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3 mouse models and demonstrated that treatment with dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and clinically relevant Ca2+ signaling stabilizer, was neuroprotective in experiments with these mouse models. The aim of the current study was to evaluate potential beneficial effects of dantrolene in experiments with YAC128 HD mouse model. Results The application of caffeine and glutamate resulted in increased Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in YAC128 MSN cultures when compared to WT MSN cultures. Pre-treatment with dantrolene protected YAC128 MSNs from glutamate excitotoxicty, with an effective concentration of 100 nM and above. Feeding dantrolene (5 mg/kg twice a week to YAC128 mice between 2 months and 11.5 months of age resulted in significantly improved performance in the beam-walking and gait-walking assays. Neuropathological analysis revealed that long-term dantrolene feeding to YAC128 mice significantly reduced the loss of NeuN-positive striatal neurons and reduced formation of Httexp nuclear aggregates. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that deranged Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in HD pathology. Our data also implicate the RyanRs as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HD and demonstrate that Ryan

  19. Early wound healing and refractive response of different pocket configurations following presbyopic inlay implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Konstantopoulos

    Full Text Available Presbyopic inlays have mostly been implanted under a corneal flap. Implantation in a pocket has advantages including less postoperative dry eye and neurotrophic effect, and better biomechanical corneal stability. This study investigated the effect of different pocket and flocket dimensions on corneal stability and refractive power after Raindrop™ implantation, and the associated wound healing response.Ten New Zealand White rabbits had bilateral pocket Raindrop™ implantation. Eyes were allocated to 4 groups: pockets with 4mm, 6mm, and 8mm diameters, and 8mm flocket. They were examined pre-operatively, at day 1, weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 post-surgery with anterior segment optical coherence tomography, corneal topography and in-vivo confocal microscopy. After euthanasia (week 4, CD11b, heat shock protein (HSP 47 and fibronectin corneal immunohistochemistry was performed.Corneal thickness (mean±SD increased from 360.0±16.2μm pre-operatively to 383.9±32.5, 409.4±79.3, 393.6±35.2, 396.4±50.7 and 405±20.3μm on day 1, weeks 1,2,3 and 4 respectively (p<0.008, all time-points. Corneal refractive power increased by 11.1±5.5, 7.5±2.5, 7.5±3.1, 7.0±3.6 and 6.3±2.9D (p<0.001. Corneal astigmatism increased from 1.1±0.3D to 2.3±1.6, 1.7±0.7, 1.8±1.0, 1.6±0.9 and 1.6±0.9D respectively (p = 0.033. CT, refractive power change and astigmatism were not different between groups. The 8mm pocket and 8mm flocket groups had the least stromal keratocyte reflectivity. CD11b, fibronectin or HSP47 weren't detected.Anatomical and refractive stability was achieved by 1 week; the outcomes were not affected by pocket or flocket configuration. No scarring or inflammation was identified. The 8mm pocket and flocket showed the least keratocyte activation, suggesting they might be the preferred configuration.

  20. Early wound healing and refractive response of different pocket configurations following presbyopic inlay implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Aris; Liu, Yu-Chi; Teo, Ericia Pei Wen; Lwin, Nyein Chan; Yam, Gary Hin Fai; Mehta, Jodhbir S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Presbyopic inlays have mostly been implanted under a corneal flap. Implantation in a pocket has advantages including less postoperative dry eye and neurotrophic effect, and better biomechanical corneal stability. This study investigated the effect of different pocket and flocket dimensions on corneal stability and refractive power after Raindrop™ implantation, and the associated wound healing response. Methodology Ten New Zealand White rabbits had bilateral pocket Raindrop™ implantation. Eyes were allocated to 4 groups: pockets with 4mm, 6mm, and 8mm diameters, and 8mm flocket. They were examined pre-operatively, at day 1, weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 post-surgery with anterior segment optical coherence tomography, corneal topography and in-vivo confocal microscopy. After euthanasia (week 4), CD11b, heat shock protein (HSP) 47 and fibronectin corneal immunohistochemistry was performed. Results Corneal thickness (mean±SD) increased from 360.0±16.2μm pre-operatively to 383.9±32.5, 409.4±79.3, 393.6±35.2, 396.4±50.7 and 405±20.3μm on day 1, weeks 1,2,3 and 4 respectively (p<0.008, all time-points). Corneal refractive power increased by 11.1±5.5, 7.5±2.5, 7.5±3.1, 7.0±3.6 and 6.3±2.9D (p<0.001). Corneal astigmatism increased from 1.1±0.3D to 2.3±1.6, 1.7±0.7, 1.8±1.0, 1.6±0.9 and 1.6±0.9D respectively (p = 0.033). CT, refractive power change and astigmatism were not different between groups. The 8mm pocket and 8mm flocket groups had the least stromal keratocyte reflectivity. CD11b, fibronectin or HSP47 weren’t detected. Conclusions Anatomical and refractive stability was achieved by 1 week; the outcomes were not affected by pocket or flocket configuration. No scarring or inflammation was identified. The 8mm pocket and flocket showed the least keratocyte activation, suggesting they might be the preferred configuration. PMID:28235010

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Fasted State Colonic Liquid Pockets in Healthy Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathryn; Hoad, Caroline L; Mudie, Deanna M; Wright, Jeff; Heissam, Khaled; Abrehart, Nichola; Pritchard, Susan E; Al Atwah, Salem; Gowland, Penny A; Garnett, Martin C; Amidon, Gregory E; Spiller, Robin C; Amidon, Gordon L; Marciani, Luca

    2017-08-07

    The rate and extent of drug dissolution and absorption from solid oral dosage forms is highly dependent on the volume of liquid in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, little is known about the time course of GIT liquid volumes after drinking a glass of water (8 oz), particularly in the colon, which is a targeted site for both locally and systemically acting drug products. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies offered novel insights on GIT liquid distribution in fasted humans in the stomach and small intestine, and showed that freely mobile liquid in the intestine collects in fairly distinct regions or "pockets". Based on this previous pilot data, we hypothesized that (1) it is possible to quantify the time course of the volume and number of liquid pockets in the undisturbed colon of fasted healthy humans following ingestion of 240 mL, using noninvasive MRI methods; (2) the amount of freely mobile water in the fasted human colon is of the order of only a few milliliters. Twelve healthy volunteers fasted overnight and underwent fasted abdominal MRI scans before drinking 240 mL (∼8 fluid ounces) of water. After ingesting the water they were scanned at frequent intervals for 2 h. The images were processed to quantify freely mobile water in the total and regional colon: ascending, transverse, and descending. The fasted colon contained (mean ± SEM) 11 ± 5 pockets of resting liquid with a total volume of 2 ± 1 mL (average). The colonic fluid peaked at 7 ± 4 mL 30 min after the water drink. This peak fluid was distributed in 17 ± 7 separate liquid pockets in the colon. The regional analysis showed that pockets of free fluid were found primarily in the ascending colon. The interindividual variability was very high; the subjects showed a range of number of colonic fluid pockets from 0 to 89 and total colonic freely mobile fluid volume from 0 to 49 mL. This is the first study measuring the time course of the number, regional location, and volume of

  2. Factors affecting growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis and Panulirus inflatus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Briones-Fourzán

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sex, injuries, season and site on the growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis, and P. inflatus, were studied through mark-recapture techniques in two sites with different ecological characteristics on the coast of Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis occurred in both sites, whereas P. inflatus occurred only in one site. All recaptured individuals were adults. Both species had similar intermolt periods, but P. gracilis had significantly higher growth rates (mm carapace length week -1 than P. inflatus as a result of a larger molt increment. Growth rates of males were higher than those of females in both species owing to larger molt increments and shorter intermolt periods in males. Injuries had no effect on growth rates in either species. Individuals of P. gracilis grew faster in site 1 than in site 2. Therefore, the effect of season on growth of P. gracilis was analyzed separately in each site. In site 2, growth rates of P. gracilis were similar in summer and in winter, whereas insite 1 both species had higher growth rates in winter than in summer. This could be due to spatial differences in processes related to changes in population density and food resources, which were documented in previous works. The overall results show that P. gracilis grows faster than P. inflatus, and that growth rates of both species are highly variable and are affected by environmental factors such as site and season, which should be taken into account when attempting to produce population growth curves for each species.Se analizaron, por medio de marcado-recaptura, los efectos del sexo, heridas, estación del año y localidad sobre el crecimiento de las langostas espinosas Panulirus gracilis Streets, 1871, y Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895 en dos localidades con diferentes características ecológicas en la costa de Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis se presentó en ambas localidades, mientras que P. inflatus sólo se encontró en una de

  3. Application of remote sensing to the study of the pelagic spiny lobster larval transport in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aguirre Góes Rudorff

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The connectivity of marine populations via larval dispersal is crucial for the maintenance of fisheries production and biodiversity. Because larval dispersion takes place on different spatial scales, global operational satellite data can be successfully used to investigate the connectivity of marine populations on different spatial and temporal scales. In fact, satellite data have long been used for the study of the large and mesoscale biological processes associated with ocean dynamics. This paper presents simulations of spiny lobster larvae transport in the Tropical Atlantic using the geostrophic currents, generated by altimetry that feeds an advection/diffusion model. Simulations were conducted over the Tropical Atlantic (20ºN to 15ºS, considering four larvae release areas: the Cape Verde Archipelago, the Ivory Coast, Ascension Island and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago. We used mean geostrophic current (MGC calculated from 2001 to 2005 to represent the mean circulation of the Tropical Atlantic. We also ran the model for the El Niño geostrophic current regime (ENGC using part of the MGC data, representing the El Niño 2002/2003 event. Results suggest that the intensification of the mesoscale ocean processes associated with El Niño events promotes the connectivity between populations, increasing the chances of a genetic flux among different stocks. We concluded that the altimetry geostrophic current data together with a relatively simple advection/diffusion model can provide useful information about the physical dynamics necessary to conduct studies on larval dispersion.A conectividade de populações marinhas através da dispersão larval é crucial para a manutenção da produção pesqueira e da biodiversidade. A dispersão de larvas ocorre em diferentes escalas espaciais e temporais, de forma que o recobrimento global e escala sinóptica fazem dos dados de satélite ferramentas importantes para esses estudos. O objetivo deste artigo

  4. Pairwise structure alignment specifically tuned for surface pockets and interaction interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-09-09

    To detect and evaluate the similarities between the three-dimensional (3D) structures of two molecules, various kinds of methods have been proposed for the pairwise structure alignment problem [6, 9, 7, 11]. The problem plays important roles when studying the function and the evolution of biological molecules. Recently, pairwise structure alignment methods have been extended and applied on surface pocket structures [10, 3, 5] and interaction interface structures [8, 4]. The results show that, even when there are no global similarities discovered between the global sequences and the global structures, biological molecules or complexes could share similar functions because of well conserved pockets and interfaces. Thus, pairwise pocket and interface structure alignments are promising to unveil such shared functions that cannot be discovered by the well-studied global sequence and global structure alignments. State-of-the-art methods for pairwise pocket and interface structure alignments [4, 5] are direct extensions of the classic pairwise protein structure alignment methods, and thus such methods share a few limitations. First, the goal of the classic protein structure alignment methods is to align single-chain protein structures (i.e., a single fragment of residues connected by peptide bonds). However, we observed that pockets and interfaces tend to consist of tens of extremely short backbone fragments (i.e., three or fewer residues connected by peptide bonds). Thus, existing pocket and interface alignment methods based on the protein structure alignment methods still rely on the existence of long-enough backbone fragments, and the fragmentation issue of pockets and interfaces rises the risk of missing the optimal alignments. Moreover, existing interface structure alignment methods focus on protein-protein interfaces, and require a "blackbox preprocessing" before aligning protein-DNA and protein-RNA interfaces. Therefore, we introduce the PROtein STucture Alignment

  5. HPLC-PAD-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS metabolite profiling of cytotoxic carotenoids from the echinoderm Marthasterias glacialis (spiny sea-star).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Pereira, David M; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Botelho, João; Mouga, Teresa; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-08-01

    An HPLC-PAD-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS metabolite profiling analysis was conducted on the marine echinoderm Marthasterias glacialis (spiny sea-star). Bio-guided purification of the methanolic extract led to the isolation of several carotenoids, namely zeaxanthin, astaxanthin and lutein. These compounds were characterized using both UV-Vis characteristics and MS spectra interpretation. No previous works addressed the MS analysis of carotenoids present in this organism. The purified carotenoid fraction displayed a strong cell proliferation inhibition against rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 (IC(25)=268 microg/mL) cancer cell line. Against healthy V79 (rat lung fibroblasts (IC(25)=411 microg/mL)) cell line, however, toxicity was lower, as it is desired for anti-cancer molecules. This study suggests that M. glacialis may constitute a good source of bioactive compounds that can be used as lead compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Replantation of fingertip amputation by using the pocket principle in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P K; Ahn, S T; Lim, P

    1999-04-01

    There are several treatment modalities for zone 1 or zone 2 fingertip amputations that cannot be replanted by using microsurgical techniques, such as delayed secondary healing, stump revision, skin graft, local flaps, distant flaps, and composite graft. Among these, composite graft of the amputated digit tip is the only possible means of achieving a full-length digit with a normal nail complex. The pocket principle can provide an extra blood supply for survival of the composite graft of the amputated finger by enlarging the area of vascular contact. The surgery was performed in two stages. The amputated digit was debrided, deepithelialized, and reattached to the proximal stump. The reattached finger was inserted into the abdominal pocket. About 3 weeks later, the finger was removed from the pocket and covered with a skin graft. We have consecutively replanted 29 fingers in 25 adult patients with fingertip amputations by using the pocket principle. All were complete amputations with crushing or avulsion injuries. Average age was 33.64 years, and men were predominant. The right hand, the dominant one, was more frequently injured, with the middle finger being the most commonly injured. Of the 29 fingers, 16 (55.2 percent) survived completely and 10 (34.5 percent) had partial necrosis less than one-quarter of the length of the amputated part. The results of the above 26 fingers were satisfactory from both functional and cosmetic aspects. Twenty of the 29 fingers, which had been followed up for more than 6 months (an average of 16 months), were included in a sensory evaluation. Fifteen of these 20 fingers (75 percent) were classified as "good" (static two-point discrimination of less than 8 mm and normal use). From the overall results and our experience, we suggest that the pocket principle is a safe and valuable method in replantation of zone 1 or zone 2 fingertip amputation, an alternative to microvascular replantation, even in adults.

  7. Analysis of ASTER data for mapping bauxite rich pockets within high altitude lateritic bauxite, Jharkhand, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Arindam; Singh, Vivek Kr.; Parveen, Reshma; Kumar, K. Vinod; Jeyaseelan, A. T.; Dhanamjaya Rao, E. N.

    2013-04-01

    Bauxite deposits of Jharkhand in India are resulted from the lateritization process and therefore are often associated with the laterites. In the present study, ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) image is processed to delineate bauxite rich pockets within the laterites. In this regard, spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples are analyzed in the laboratory with reference to the spectral features of gibbsite (main mineral constituent of bauxite) and goethite (main mineral constituent of laterite) in VNIR-SWIR (visible-near infrared and short wave infrared) electromagnetic domain. The analysis of spectral signatures of lateritic bauxite samples helps in understanding the differences in the spectral features of bauxites and laterites. Based on these differences; ASTER data based relative band depth and simple ratio images are derived for spatial mapping of the bauxites developed within the lateritic province. In order to integrate the complementary information of different index image, an index based principal component (IPC) image is derived to incorporate the correlative information of these indices to delineate bauxite rich pockets. The occurrences of bauxite rich pockets derived from density sliced IPC image are further delimited by the topographic controls as it has been observed that the major bauxite occurrences of the area are controlled by slope and altitude. In addition to above, IPC image is draped over the digital elevation model (DEM) to illustrate how bauxite rich pockets are distributed with reference to the topographic variability of the terrain. Bauxite rich pockets delineated in the IPC image are also validated based on the known mine occurrences and existing geological map of the bauxite. It is also conceptually validated based on the spectral similarity of the bauxite pixels delineated in the IPC image with the ASTER convolved laboratory spectra of bauxite samples.

  8. Long-term subregion-specific encoding of enhanced ethanol intake by D1DR medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Buske, Tavanna R; Morrisett, Richard A

    2018-03-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical component of the mesocorticolimbic system and is involved in mediating the motivational and reinforcing aspects of ethanol consumption. Chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure is a reliable model to induce ethanol dependence and increase volitional ethanol consumption in mice. Following a CIE-induced escalation of ethanol consumption, NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor)-dependent long-term depression in D1 dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons of the NAc shell was markedly altered with no changes in plasticity in D1 dopamine receptor medium spiny neurons from the NAc core. This disruption of plasticity persisted for up to 2 weeks after cessation of ethanol access. To determine if changes in AMPA receptor (AMPAR) composition contribute to this ethanol-induced neuroadaptation, we monitored the rectification of AMPAR excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). We observed a marked decrease in the rectification index in the NAc shell, suggesting the presence of GluA2-lacking AMPARs. There was no change in the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs), but there was a transient increase in sEPSC frequency in the NAc shell. Using the paired pulse ratio, we detected a similar transient increase in the probability of neurotransmitter release. With no change in sEPSC amplitude, the change in the rectification index suggests that GluA2-containing AMPARs are removed and replaced with GluA2-lacking AMPARs in the NAc shell. This CIE-induced alteration in AMPAR subunit composition may contribute to the loss of NMDAR-dependent long-term depression in the NAc shell and therefore may constitute a critical neuroadaptive response underlying the escalation of ethanol intake in the CIE model. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze po...

  10. Out-of-Pocket Spending and Premium Contributions After Implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Anna L; Woolhandler, Steffie; Himmelstein, David U; Bor, David H; McCormick, Danny

    2018-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was associated with a reduced number of Americans who reported being unable to afford medical care, but changes in actual health spending by households are not known. To estimate changes in household spending on health care nationwide after implementation of the ACA. Population-based data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from January 1, 2012, through December 31, 2015, and multivariable regression were used to examine changes in out-of-pocket spending, premium contributions, and total health spending (out-of-pocket plus premiums) after the ACA's coverage expansions on January 1, 2014. The study population included a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 18 to 64 years (n = 83 431). In addition, changes were assessed in the likelihood of exceeding affordability thresholds for each outcome and spending changes for income subgroups defined under the ACA to determine program eligibility at 138% or less, 139% to 250%, 251% to 400%, and greater than 400% of the federal poverty level (FPL). Implementation of the ACA's major insurance programs on January 1, 2014. Mean individual-level out-of-pocket spending and premium payments and the percentage of persons experiencing high-burden spending, defined as more than 10% of family income for out-of-pocket expenses, more than 9.5% for premium payments, and more than 19.5% for out-of-pocket plus premium payments. In this nationally representative survey of 83 431 adults (weighted frequency, 49.1% men and 50.9% women; median age, 40.3 years; interquartile range, 28.6-52.4 years), ACA implementation was associated with an 11.9% decrease (95% CI, -17.1% to -6.4%; P income group (≤138% of the FPL), an 18.5% decrease (95% CI, -27.0% to -9.0%; P income group (139%-250% of the FPL), and a 12.8% decrease (95% CI, -22.1% to -2.4%; P = .02) in the middle-income group (251%-400% of the FPL). Mean premium spending increased in the full sample (12.1%; 95% CI, 1

  11. Out-of-pocket healthcare payments on chronic conditions impoverish urban poor in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhojani Upendra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of chronic conditions is on the rise in India, necessitating long-term support from healthcare services. Healthcare, in India, is primarily financed through out-of-pocket payments by households. Considering scarce evidence available from India, our study investigates whether and how out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care affect individuals with chronic conditions. Methods A large census covering 9299 households was conducted in Bangalore, India. Of these, 3202 households that reported presence of chronic condition were further analysed. Data was collected using a structured household-level questionnaire. Out-of-pocket payments, catastrophic healthcare expenditure, and the resultant impoverishment were measured using a standard technique. Results The response rate for the census was 98.5%. Overall, 69.6% (95%CI=68.0-71.2 of households made out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care spending a median of 3.2% (95%CI=3.0-3.4 of their total income. Overall, 16% (95%CI=14.8-17.3 of households suffered financial catastrophe by spending more than 10% of household income on outpatient care. Occurrence and intensity of financial catastrophe were inequitably high among poor. Low household income, use of referral hospitals as place for consultation, and small household size were associated with a greater likelihood of incurring financial catastrophe. The out-of-pocket spending on chronic conditions doubled the number of people living below the poverty line in one month, with further deepening of their poverty. In order to cope, households borrowed money (4.2% instances, and sold or mortgaged their assets (0.4% instances. Conclusions This study provides evidence from India that the out-of-pocket payment for chronic conditions, even for outpatient care, pushes people into poverty. Our findings suggest that improving availability of affordable medications and diagnostics for chronic conditions, as well as strengthening the

  12. Out-of-pocket healthcare payments on chronic conditions impoverish urban poor in Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Thriveni, Bs; Devadasan, Roopa; Munegowda, Cm; Devadasan, Narayanan; Kolsteren, Patrick; Criel, Bart

    2012-11-16

    The burden of chronic conditions is on the rise in India, necessitating long-term support from healthcare services. Healthcare, in India, is primarily financed through out-of-pocket payments by households. Considering scarce evidence available from India, our study investigates whether and how out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care affect individuals with chronic conditions. A large census covering 9299 households was conducted in Bangalore, India. Of these, 3202 households that reported presence of chronic condition were further analysed. Data was collected using a structured household-level questionnaire. Out-of-pocket payments, catastrophic healthcare expenditure, and the resultant impoverishment were measured using a standard technique. The response rate for the census was 98.5%. Overall, 69.6% (95%CI=68.0-71.2) of households made out-of-pocket payments for outpatient care spending a median of 3.2% (95%CI=3.0-3.4) of their total income. Overall, 16% (95%CI=14.8-17.3) of households suffered financial catastrophe by spending more than 10% of household income on outpatient care. Occurrence and intensity of financial catastrophe were inequitably high among poor. Low household income, use of referral hospitals as place for consultation, and small household size were associated with a greater likelihood of incurring financial catastrophe.The out-of-pocket spending on chronic conditions doubled the number of people living below the poverty line in one month, with further deepening of their poverty. In order to cope, households borrowed money (4.2% instances), and sold or mortgaged their assets (0.4% instances). This study provides evidence from India that the out-of-pocket payment for chronic conditions, even for outpatient care, pushes people into poverty. Our findings suggest that improving availability of affordable medications and diagnostics for chronic conditions, as well as strengthening the gate keeping function of the primary care services are important

  13. The efficacy of a single pocket irrigation on subgingival microbial vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ohler, C; Weiger, R; Decker, E; Schlagenhauf, U; Brecx, M

    1998-06-01

    The object of this study was to monitor the proportion of vital bacteria (microbial vitality: VF in %) present in subgingival dental plaque following one single subgingival irrigation with saline (S), chlorhexidine (CHX) or povidone iodine (I2), but without any subgingival instrumentation. Its effect on the main composition of the microflora was also assessed. Seventeen patients with adult periodontitis took part in this investigation. In each patient four initially untreated pockets (pocket depth 5-11 mm) associated with bleeding were selected for the standardised pocket irrigation and plaque sampling at baseline (0 h) and after the following 1 h, 24 h, 7 days and 31 days. The subgingival irrigation was only performed once (0 h). One pocket per quadrant was irrigated using 0.9% prereduced S, 0.2% CHX or 0.05% I2 (Iso-Betadine Buccale). The remaining untreated pocket without any irrigation served as an additional control (C). Using an acrylic splint as a guide, paperpoints were inserted into the pocket precisely at the same site to collect subgingival plaque. The bleeding on sampling (BOS) was thereafter noted. The proportions of bacterial morphotypes were examined by darkfield microscopy. VF was evaluated using a vital fluorescence staining. The undisturbed subgingival dental plaque was composed of 86% (median value) vital bacteria. The sampling procedure alone and the saline irrigation led to a decrease in the number of spirochetes but had no influence on the vitality of the flora. Large variations in VF could be observed in the short-term (1 h, 24 h) irrigation effect of CHX and I2. The reduction of VF was still significant after 7 days (VF(CHX) 30-80%, VF(I2) 35-80%) but persisted up to 31 days only after I2 irrigation (VF(I2) 12-90%). The findings indicated that all single subgingival irrigations resulted in a temporary change of the subgingival microflora while povidone iodine produced the longest lasting antimicrobial effect. Any clinical advantage of this

  14. Suicide with One Cranial Gunshot by a .320 Caliber Pocket Revolver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tattoli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Suicide using a firearm is the most commonly used method of committing suicide for men and women. In this paper, we present and discuss a suicide case in which an 86-year-old man shot himself using a .320 caliber pocket revolver. Proper crime scene investigation, recovery of the weapon used, and precise interpretation of autopsy findings play a fundamental role in determining the exact cause and manner of death. Accurate analysis of the injuries and a thorough knowledge of weapons and ballistics are essential for an adequate investigation in these unusual cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cranial gunshot inflicted by a .320 caliber pocket revolver.

  15. Treatment of fingertip amputation: comparison of results between microsurgical replantation and pocket principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Tetsuji; Tsuda, Tomoyuki; Hirose, Shunsuke; Ozawa, Toshiyuki

    2012-05-01

    In this article, a comparison of replantation using microsurgical replantation (replantation) and the Brent method and its modification (pocket principle) in the treatment of fingertip amputation is reported. As a classification of amputation level, we used Ishikawa's subzone classification of fingertip amputation, and the cases of amputations only in subzone 2 were included in this study. Between these two groups, there was no statistical difference in survival rate, postoperative atrophy, or postoperative range of motion. In terms of sensory recovery, some records were lost and exact study was difficult. But there was no obvious difference between these cases. In our comparison of microsurgical replantation versus the pocket principle in treatment of subzone 2 fingertip amputation, there was no difference in postoperative results. Each method has pros and cons, and the surgeon should choose which technique to use based on his or her understanding of the characteristics of both methods. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Characterization of vertical strain silicon MOSFET incorporating dielectric pocket (SDP-VMOSFET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiah, Z. A. F. M.; Makhtar, N.; Othman, M. A.; Idris, M. I.; Arith, F.; Yasin, N. Y. M.; Taib, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    The vertical Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) leads to a double channel width that can increase the packaging density. The strained silicon MOSFET was introduced to modify the carrier transport properties of silicon in order to enhance transport of both electrons and holes within strained layer. Dielectric pocket was act to control encroachment of the drain doping into the channel and reduce short channel effects (SCE). SDP-VMOSFET which was a combination of those advantages was proposed to overcome the SCE in term of leakage current, threshold voltage roll-off also Drain Induce Barrier Lowering (DIBL). As a result, SDP-VMOSFET produces a better threshold voltage and DIBL compared to related structures. Meanwhile, it gives slightly increased for leakage current compared to Vertical MOSFET Incorporating Dielectric Pocket. The characteristics of the SDP-VMOSFET are analyzed in order to optimize the performance of the device and leading to the next generation of IC technology

  17. Out-of-pocket nonmedical expenses associated with out-patient treatment of common childhood illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga, Subhashchandra; Mhatre, Sameer; Dsouza, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Out-of-pocket expenses, medical and non-medical, have an impoverishing effect on the family. Determine non-medical out-of-pocket expenses incurred during out-patient attendance for primary care services. A descriptive survey was undertaken at a rural medical college using interviewer-administered questionnaire to parents of children 5 km, 36% attendance was for respiratory complaints, 27% with fever and as many as 86% for vaccination. Families in rural India have substantial costs incurred in OPD attendance, most of which is for preventive health care such as immunization. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Apparent negative magnetoresistance without independent Weyl pockets in the Weyl semimetal TaP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassinger, Elena; Arnold, Frank; Naumann, Marcel; Wu, Shu-Chun; Sun, Yan; Donizeth dos Reis, Ricardo; Ajeesh, Mukkattu O.; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schmidt, Marcus; Baenitz, Michael; Borrmann, Horst; Nicklas, Michael; Felser, Claudia [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Grushin, Adolfo; Bardarson, Jens [Max Planck Institute for Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany); Yan, Binghai [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Physics of Complex Systems, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the recently discovered Weyl semimetals, an unconventional negative longitudinal magnetoresistance is expected due to a phenomenon called chiral anomaly. An open question is, how close the Fermi energy needs to be to the Weyl nodes, in order to detect this phenomenon. This question can only be addressed by knowing the electronic bandstructure, i.e. the position of the Fermi energy, and the intrinsic longitudinal magnetoresistance precisely. Here, we report the detailed Fermi surface topology of the Weyl semimetal TaP determined via angle-resolved quantum oscillation spectra combined with band-structure calculations. The Fermi surface consists of an electron and a hole banana without independent pockets around the Weyl points. Although the absence of independent Fermi surface pockets around the Weyl points means that no chiral anomaly is expected, we detect a negative longitudinal magnetoresistance. We discuss possible origins.

  19. Experimental study of combustion characteristics of isolated pockets of hydrogen-air mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoubi, M.; LaFleche, M. [Univ. of Ottawa, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Liang, Z., E-mail: zhe.liang@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Radulescu, M. [Univ. of Ottawa, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    This paper examines the dynamics of unconfined hydrogen-air flames and the criterion for flame propagation between neighbouring pockets of reactive gas separated by air using the soap bubble technique. The combustion events were visualized using high-speed schlieren or large-scale shadowgraph systems. It was revealed that for sufficiently lean hydrogen-air mixtures characterized by low flame speeds, buoyancy effects become important at small scales. The critical radius of hemispherical flame that will rise due to buoyancy is highly sensitive to the hydrogen concentration. The test results demonstrate that for transition of a flame between neighbouring pockets, the separation distance between the bubbles is mainly determined by the expansion ratio for near stoichiometric mixture, but it becomes much smaller for leaner mixtures because the flame kernel rises due to buoyant effects before the flame can reach the second bubble, thus the separation distance is no longer governed by the expansion ratio. (author)

  20. Suppression of ambipolar current in tunnel FETs using drain-pocket: Proposal and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shelly; Saurabh, Sneh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of a drain-pocket (DP) adjacent to the drain region in Tunnel Field-Effect Transistors (TFETs) to effectively suppress the ambipolar current. Using calibrated two-dimensional device simulation, we examine the impact of DP in Double Gate TFET (DGTFET). We demonstrate the superiority of the DP technique over the existing techniques in controlling the ambipolar current. In particular, the addition of DP to a TFET is able to fully suppress the ambipolar current even when TFET is biased at high negative gate voltages and drain doping is kept as high as the source doping. Moreover, adding DP is complementary to the well-known technique of employ-ing source-pocket (SP) in a TFET since both need similar doping type and doping concentration.

  1. A review of MEMS micropropulsion technologies for CubeSats and PocketQubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marsil A. C.; Guerrieri, Daduí C.; Cervone, Angelo; Gill, Eberhard

    2018-02-01

    CubeSats have been extensively used in the past decade as scientific tools, technology demonstrators and for education. Recently, PocketQubes have emerged as an interesting and even smaller alternative to CubeSats. However, both satellite types often lack some key capabilities, such as micropropulsion, in order to further extend the range of applications of these small satellites. This paper reviews the current development status of micropropulsion systems fabricated with MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems) and silicon technology intended to be used in CubeSat or PocketQube missions and compares different technologies with respect to performance parameters such as thrust, specific impulse, and power as well as in terms of operational complexity. More than 30 different devices are analyzed and divided into 7 main categories according to the working principle. A specific outcome of the research is the identification of the current status of MEMS technologies for micropropulsion including key opportunities and challenges.

  2. The Influence of Injection Pockets on the Performance of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings: Part I – Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar

    2006-01-01

    ) analysis of tilting-pad thrust bearings to include the effects of high pressure injection and recesses in the bearing pad. The model is applied to the analysis of an existing bearing of large dimensions and the influence of the pocket is analyzed. It is shown that a shallow pocket positively influences......This is Part I of a two-part series of papers describing the effects of high pressure injection pockets on the operating conditions of tilting-pad thrust bearings. A numerical model based on the Reynolds equation is developed extending the three dimensional thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic (TEHD...

  3. Brief communication: evidence that B lymphocytes carry the nuclear pocket abnormality associated with bovine leukemia virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, K.A.; Paul, P.S.; Weber, A.F.; Sorensen, D.K.; Johnson, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from three cows with persistent lymphocytosis were separated on nylon wool columns into nylon wool adherent and nonadherent populations. The percentage of cells coated with surface immunoglobulin and the frequency of lymphocytic nuclear pockets in each subpopulation were then determined. In each case the adherent population consisted predominantly of B cells with an increased nuclear pocket frequency while the non-adherent cells were 98 to 99 percent surface immunoglobulin negative and contained essentially no nuclear pockets. These findings provide additional evidence that the B subpopulation of cells is highly involved in bovine leukemia oncogenesis.

  4. PoLi: A Virtual Screening Pipeline Based on Template Pocket and Ligand Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Ambrish; Srinivasan, Bharath; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2015-08-24

    Often in pharmaceutical research the goal is to identify small molecules that can interact with and appropriately modify the biological behavior of a new protein target. Unfortunately, most proteins lack both known structures and small molecule binders, prerequisites of many virtual screening, VS, approaches. For such proteins, ligand homology modeling, LHM, that copies ligands from homologous and perhaps evolutionarily distant template proteins, has been shown to be a powerful VS approach to identify possible binding ligands. However, if we want to target a specific pocket for which there is no homologous holo template protein structure, then LHM will not work. To address this issue, in a new pocket-based approach, PoLi, we generalize LHM by exploiting the fact that the number of distinct small molecule ligand-binding pockets in proteins is small. PoLi identifies similar ligand-binding pockets in a holo template protein library, selectively copies relevant parts of template ligands, and uses them for VS. In practice, PoLi is a hybrid structure and ligand-based VS algorithm that integrates 2D fingerprint-based and 3D shape-based similarity metrics for improved virtual screening performance. On standard DUD and DUD-E benchmark databases, using modeled receptor structures, PoLi achieves an average enrichment factor of 13.4 and 9.6, respectively, in the top 1% of the screened library. In contrast, traditional docking-based VS using AutoDock Vina and homology-based VS using FINDSITE(filt) have an average enrichment of 1.6 (3.0) and 9.0 (7.9) on the DUD (DUD-E) sets, respectively. Experimental validation of PoLi predictions on dihydrofolate reductase, DHFR, using differential scanning fluorimetry, DSF, identifies multiple ligands with diverse molecular scaffolds, thus demonstrating the advantage of PoLi over current state-of-the-art VS methods.

  5. Catastrophic expenditure due to out-of-pocket health payments and its determinants in Colombian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Lara, Jeannette Liliana

    2016-11-10

    Out-of-pocket expenditure to pay for health services could result in financial catastrophe. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and determinants of catastrophic out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in Colombia. The underlying hypotheses are that low-income and non-insured population in Colombia, and households living in isolated and high level of rurality regions, are more likely to incur catastrophic healthcare expenses. This study used data from the Quality of Life National Survey conducted in Colombia in 2011. The presence of catastrophic healthcare spending was calculated using the methodology proposed by the World Health Organization in 2005. Households were classified as having catastrophic health spending when their out-of-pocket health payments were over 20 % of their payment capacity. All other households were classified as not having catastrophic health spending. A probit model was estimated aimed at determining what factors influence the probability of catastrophic healthcare spending. Study findings show that 9.6 % of Colombian households had catastrophic expenditure. The incidence was higher in households in the Pacífica and Atlántica regions, extended and nuclear families, households with children or elderly adults, located in rural areas, and not insured under the healthcare system. The ratio of household members who work seems to reduce the risk of catastrophic healthcare spending, but the occurrence of any in-patient event increases it. So, there is no statistical evidence for rejecting the hypotheses under study. Results indicate the importance of establishing intervention mechanisms in order to improve equity in access and payment for health care, protect vulnerable groups against financial risk, and, consequently, reduce the incidence of catastrophic healthcare spending. For this, it is essential to achieve universal health coverage through standardized and improved health services packages for vulnerable age groups and

  6. [Identification of cell types in periodontal pockets with scanning electron microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Luxán, J; Martínez Ramírez, A; Sánchez Salgado, G; López Sánchez, A; Hernández Vallejo, G

    1989-10-01

    Sixteen teeth from patients with advanced periodontal disease were processed with the direct fixative technique for observation with a Scanning Electron Microscope in order to test the adequacy of this technique and to observe the components of the tooth wall of the periodontal pocket. Different cell populations are described emphasizing the appearance of intact neutrophils. The results suggest that this fixative method may be an improvement on the conventional techniques for SEM.

  7. Pulp temperature increase during photo-activated disinfection (PAD) of periodontal pockets: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazami, H; Zeinoun, Toni; Bou Saba, S; Lamard, L; Peremans, A; Limme, M; Geerts, S; Lamy, M; Nammour, S

    2010-09-01

    The capacity of photo-sensitizers, used in combination with laser light to kill micro-organisms has been demonstrated in different studies. Photo-activated disinfection (PAD) has been introduced in periodontology as an aid for disinfection of periodontal pockets. The aim of this study is to verify the harm for dental vitality of the use of PAD in periodontal pockets. Root canals of 24 freshly extracted human teeth where prepared using profiles up to a size of ISO #50 and filled with thermo-conductor paste. A silicon-based false gum was made in which a periodontal pocket was created and filled with photo-sensitizer phenothiazine chloride (phenothiazine-5-ium, 3.7-bis (dimethylamino)-, chloride). The external root surface was irradiated during 60 s with a 660-nm diode laser (output power: 20 mW; power density: 0.090 W/cm(2); Energy density: 5.46 J/cm(2)) using a periodontal tip with a diameter of 1 mm and a length of 7 mm. Temperatures were recorded inside the root canal using a thermocouple. Measurements were recorded every second, starting at 10 s before lasering, during the irradiation and were continued for 150 s after the end of irradiation, and six measurements were done per tooth. An average temperature increase of 0.48 +/- 0.11 degrees C was recorded. Our results demonstrated that pulp temperature increase was lower than 3 degrees C, which is considered to be harmless for pulp injury. Regarding pulp temperature increase, the use of PAD for disinfection of periodontal pockets can be considered as a safe procedure for dental vitality.

  8. Morphological adaptations for digging and climate-impacted soil properties define pocket gopher (Thomomys spp. distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel E Marcy

    Full Text Available Species ranges are mediated by physiology, environmental factors, and competition with other organisms. The allopatric distribution of five species of northern Californian pocket gophers (Thomomys spp. is hypothesized to result from competitive exclusion. The five species in this environmentally heterogeneous region separate into two subgenera, Thomomys or Megascapheus, which have divergent digging styles. While all pocket gophers dig with their claws, the tooth-digging adaptations of subgenus Megascapheus allow access to harder soils and climate-protected depths. In a Northern Californian locality, replacement of subgenus Thomomys with subgenus Megascapheus occurred gradually during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Concurrent climate change over this transition suggests that environmental factors--in addition to soil--define pocket gopher distributional limits. Here we show 1 that all pocket gophers occupy the subset of less energetically costly soils and 2 that subgenera sort by percent soil clay, bulk density, and shrink-swell capacity (a mineralogical attribute. While clay and bulk density (without major perturbations stay constant over decades to millennia, low precipitation and high temperatures can cause shrink-swell clays to crack and harden within days. The strong yet underappreciated interaction between soil and moisture on the distribution of vertebrates is rarely considered when projecting species responses to climatic change. Furthermore, increased precipitation alters the weathering processes that create shrink-swell minerals. Two projected outcomes of ongoing climate change--higher temperatures and precipitation--will dramatically impact hardness of soil with shrink-swell minerals. Current climate models do not include factors controlling soil hardness, despite its impact on all organisms that depend on a stable soil structure.

  9. Postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket and gastric pressure in patients after gastric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Herbella, F. A. M. [UNIFESP; Vicentine, F. P. P. [UNIFESP; Del Grande, J. C. [UNIFESP; Patti, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAn unbuffered postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket (PPGAP) has been demonstrated in normal individuals (NI) and patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). the role of gastric anatomy and gastric motility in the physiology of the PPGAP remains elusive. This study aims to analyze the correlation of PPGAP with proximal gastric pressure after gastric surgery.MethodsA total of 26 individuals were studied: eight patients after open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for morb...

  10. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  11. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  12. Characterization of a Novel Water Pocket Inside the Human Cx26 Hemichannel Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Secchi, Raul; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Kang, Seung-gu; Huynh, Tien; Bernardin, Alejandro; Escalona, Yerko; Garate, Jose-Antonio; Martínez, Agustin D.; García, Isaac E.; Sáez, Juan C.; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are a family of vertebrate proteins constituents of gap junction channels (GJCs) that connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells by the end-to-end docking of two Cx hemichannels. The intercellular transfer through GJCs occurs by passive diffusion allowing the exchange of water, ions, and small molecules. Despite the broad interest to understand, at the molecular level, the functional state of Cx-based channels, there are still many unanswered questions regarding structure-function relationships, perm-selectivity, and gating mechanisms. In particular, the ordering, structure, and dynamics of water inside Cx GJCs and hemichannels remains largely unexplored. In this work, we describe the identification and characterization of a believed novel water pocket—termed the IC pocket—located in-between the four transmembrane helices of each human Cx26 (hCx26) monomer at the intracellular (IC) side. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize hCx26 internal water structure and dynamics, six IC pockets were identified per hemichannel. A detailed characterization of the dynamics and ordering of water including conformational variability of residues forming the IC pockets, together with multiple sequence alignments, allowed us to propose a functional role for this cavity. An in vitro assessment of tracer uptake suggests that the IC pocket residue Arg-143 plays an essential role on the modulation of the hCx26 hemichannel permeability. PMID:25099799

  13. Spatial Decomposition of Translational Water–Water Correlation Entropy in Binding Pockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A number of computational tools available today compute the thermodynamic properties of water at surfaces and in binding pockets by using inhomogeneous solvation theory (IST) to analyze explicit-solvent simulations. Such methods enable qualitative spatial mappings of both energy and entropy around a solute of interest and can also be applied quantitatively. However, the entropy estimates of existing methods have, to date, been almost entirely limited to the first-order terms in the IST’s entropy expansion. These first-order terms account for localization and orientation of water molecules in the field of the solute but not for the modification of water–water correlations by the solute. Here, we present an extension of the Grid Inhomogeneous Solvation Theory (GIST) approach which accounts for water–water translational correlations. The method involves rewriting the two-point density of water in terms of a conditional density and utilizes the efficient nearest-neighbor entropy estimation approach. Spatial maps of this second order term, for water in and around the synthetic host cucurbit[7]uril and in the binding pocket of the enzyme Factor Xa, reveal mainly negative contributions, indicating solute-induced water–water correlations relative to bulk water; particularly strong signals are obtained for sites at the entrances of cavities or pockets. This second-order term thus enters with the same, negative, sign as the first order translational and orientational terms. Numerical and convergence properties of the methodology are examined. PMID:26636620

  14. Out-of-pocket cost of drug abuse consequences: results from Iranian National Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Hefazi, Mitra; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Motevalian, Abbas; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin

    2017-05-01

    Drug abuse has significant cost to the individual, the family and the society. This study aimed to assess out of-pocket costs of consequences of drug use disorder. Data were drawn from the Iranian Mental Health Survey (IranMHS) through face-to-face interviews with 7841 respondents aged 15-64 years. We used a bottom-up cost-ofillness method for economic analysis. Out-of-pocket costs for treatment of mental and drug problems, treatment of medical illnesses, as well as costs of crimes were assessed. The average of total annual expense was US$ 2120.6 for those with drug use disorder, which was 23.5% of annual income of an average Iranian family in the year 2011. The average of total out-of-pocket cost was US$ 674.6 for those with other mental disorder and US$ 421.9 for those with no mental disorder. Catastrophic payment was reported in 47.6% of the patients with drug use disorder and 14.4% of those with other mental disorder. Thus, considerable amount of family resources are spent on the consequences of drug use.

  15. Targeting the Central Pocket in Human Transcription Factor TEAD as a Potential Cancer Therapeutic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobbati, Ajaybabu V; Han, Xiao; Hung, Alvin W; Weiguang, Seetoh; Huda, Nur; Chen, Guo-Ying; Kang, CongBao; Chia, Cheng San Brian; Luo, Xuelian; Hong, Wanjin; Poulsen, Anders

    2015-11-03

    The human TEAD family of transcription factors (TEAD1-4) is required for YAP-mediated transcription in the Hippo pathway. Hyperactivation of TEAD's co-activator YAP contributes to tissue overgrowth and human cancers, suggesting that pharmacological interference of TEAD-YAP activity may be an effective strategy for anticancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a central pocket in the YAP-binding domain (YBD) of TEAD that is targetable by small-molecule inhibitors. Our X-ray crystallography studies reveal that flufenamic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), binds to the central pocket of TEAD2 YBD. Our biochemical and functional analyses further demonstrate that binding of NSAIDs to TEAD inhibits TEAD-YAP-dependent transcription, cell migration, and proliferation, indicating that the central pocket is important for TEAD function. Therefore, our studies discover a novel way of targeting TEAD transcription factors and set the stage for therapeutic development of specific TEAD-YAP inhibitors against human cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Palatal erythema in patients using Listerine Cool Mint PocketPaks Oral Care Strips: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Chris L; Wood, A Jeffrey; Lambert, Michael B; Carpenter, William

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to present 2 cases of similar erythematous lesions in patients using Listerine Cool Mint PocketPaks Oral Care Strips. The first case, a 44-year-old female presented with an erythematous, well-defined, macular lesion centrally located on the midhard palatal gingiva. The second case involved a healthy 7-year-old Hispanic female who presented with a similar lesion and the same clinical presentation. Both presented as solitary lesions involving the height of the palate, with bilateral congruency to the mid-palatal suture line. The lesions were square in shape, with 3 sides being distinctly demarcated. The fourth side feathered anteriorly, gradually disappearing as it approached the anterior third of the palate. On verbal questioning in both cases, no discomfort or irritation was indicated in the medical history or by the patient. Both patients indicated regular use of Listerine Cool Mint PocketPaks Oral Care Strips. Treatment consisted of a: (1) recommendation that the strips be discontinued; and (2) re-evaluation of the lesions at the follow-up appointments to make assessments for any possible changes in lesion color, size, or shape. Following discontinuance of the Oral Care Strips, the lesions disappeared. Follow-up appointments suggest an allergic contact focal erythema caused by prolonged contact with the irritant, in this case due to use of Listerine Cool Mint PocketPaks Oral Care Strips.

  17. Investigation of tool engagement and cutting performance in machining a pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesta, E. Y. T.; Hamidon, R.; Riza, M.; Alrashidi, R. F. F. A.; Alazemi, A. F. F. S.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the variation of tool engagement for different profile of cutting. In addition, behavior of cutting force and cutting temperature for different tool engagements for machining a pocket also been explored. Initially, simple tool engagement models were developed for peripheral and slot cutting for different types of corner. Based on these models, the tool engagements for contour and zig zag tool path strategies for a rectangular shape pocket with dimension 80 mm x 60 mm were analyzed. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tool engagements on cutting force and cutting temperature for the machining of a pocket of AISI H13 material. The cutting parameters used were 150m/min cutting speed, 0.05mm/tooth feed, and 0.1mm depth of cut. Based on the results obtained, the changes of cutting force and cutting temperature performance there exist a relationship between cutting force, cutting temperature and tool engagement. A higher cutting force and cutting temperature is obtained when the cutting tool goes through up milling and when the cutting tool makes a full engagement with the workpiece.

  18. Out-Of-Pocket Expenditure on Institutional Delivery in Rural Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shukla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: Promotion of reproductive health through institutional delivery has been adopted by government as a strategy for reducing maternal mortality rate but still about half of the deliveries have been conducted at home. Cost barrier is one of the major cause for preferring home delivery instead of institutional delivery. Not only the direct costs responsible for low institutional delivery but also indirect costs too accountable for less number of institutional births in the country. Aims & Objectives: To estimate the out of pocket expenditure incurred by households during delivery and its determinants. Materials and methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted during which a total 272 households having women who had recently delivered in government institutions were interviewed. Result: The mean out of pocket expenditure was found to be Rs. 1406.04 ± 103.27 including spending’s on drugs, travel, pathological tests and unofficial payments. Low socioeconomic class, residence outside the catchment area of delivery point, tertiary and secondary health care facilities as place of delivery and low literacy status of head of the family below high school  were found to be significantly associated with out of pocket expenditure bivariate analysis (p<0.05. On multivariate analysis low socioeconomic (OR 22.40; 95% CI 9.44-53.15; p = 0.01   and residence (OR 13.07; 95% CI (1.58-116.55; p = 0.03  outside the catchment area of delivery point were found to be independent predictors of catastrophic out of pocket expenditure during delivery. Conclusions: Although government has been running lot of schemes for availing free of cost health services but still one has to pay from their pocket as medical expenses. In order to bear these expenses, they have to borrow money, sell their assets and securities due to which households suffer a lot. In the present study, unofficial payment was found prevalent in public institutions

  19. Best Cutting Conditions for Pocket Milling in Aluminium Alloy Body Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Grubyy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, new constructive solutions, among which there are such as application of highstrength aluminum alloys for large-size case parts with the wafer design of the shell (WDS characterize modern and perspective products of the missile and space equipment (MSE. To define optimum strategy of WDS pocket treatment, the paper presents a strategy analysis of penetration and treatment in CAID "ADEM". Based on the performed optimization a combination "spiral" and penetration "spiral on a contour" has been accepted as a strategy of the pocket treatment.To optimize the cutting modes, taking into consideration an elimination of the WDS element deformations, are calculated the hard-alloy mill forces, temperatures, wear rate, size of wear, and tool life, when milling a pocket as a standard element of WDS. A calculation technique which distinctive feature is to take into account the forces and pressure from the face edge of a mill tooth is used. In particular, there is functional relationship between the wear rate of a back surface of the tool and the generalized parameter, i.e. the cutting speed relation to hardness of the wearing tool surface as a function of the cutting temperature for milling conditions of aluminum alloys on the modern CN equipment.The paper presents a sequence of formulas implemented as a calculating algorithm and appropriate calculating program. It shows power and polynomial equations obtained to establish relations of the tool life and a torque of cutting with the variable parameters, i.e. the speed, depth, feed, mill diameter and width.Modeling and optimization results show that for rough treatment of grooves, a technological restriction is machine spindle power. With fine finish and penetration a feed of the tool has to be restricted to prevent deformation of a pocket bottom.During treatment of pockets in large-size parts with WDS a lag effect of the linear drives of equipment has to be taken into consideration, when feeding

  20. The Influence of Injection Pockets on the Performance of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings - Part I: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar; Fuerst, Axel

    2007-01-01

    ) analysis of tilting-pad thrust bearings to include the effects of high-pressure injection and recesses in the bearing pads. The model is applied to the analysis of an existing bearing of large dimensions and the influence of the pocket is analyzed. In the analysis, the high-pressure oil injection used......This is Part I of a two-part series of papers describing the effects of high-pressure injection pockets on the operating conditions of tilting-pad thrust bearings. In Part I a numerical model based on the Reynolds equation is developed extending the threedimensional thermoelastohydrodynamic (TEHD...... for hydrostatic jacking is turned off (i.e., only the effect of the pocket is studied). It is shown that a shallow pocket positively influences the performance of the bearing because it has characteristics similar to those of a Rayleigh-step bearing. In Part II of the paper (Heinrichson, N., Fuerst, A...

  1. Exploring a pocket for polycycloaliphatic groups in the CXCR3 receptor with the aid of a modular synthetic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtmans, Maikel; Verzijl, Dennis; van Dam, Cindy M E; Bosch, Leontien; Smit, Martine J; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2009-04-15

    A CXCR3 pocket capable of accommodating polycycloaliphatics was explored using a modular synthetic strategy. The systematic studies reveal that the tricyclic 2-adamantane and bicyclic (iso)bornyl group are efficiently recognized by CXCR3.

  2. Neuronal Dysfunction in iPSC-Derived Medium Spiny Neurons from Chorea-Acanthocytosis Patients Is Reversed by Src Kinase Inhibition and F-Actin Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanslowsky, Nancy; Reinhardt, Peter; Glass, Hannes; Kalmbach, Norman; Naujock, Maximilian; Hensel, Niko; Lübben, Verena; Pal, Arun; Venneri, Anna; Lupo, Francesca; De Franceschi, Lucia; Claus, Peter; Sterneckert, Jared; Storch, Alexander; Hermann, Andreas; Wegner, Florian

    2016-11-23

    Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by red blood cell acanthocytes and striatal neurodegeneration. Recently, severe cell membrane disturbances based on depolymerized cortical actin and an elevated Lyn kinase activity in erythrocytes from ChAc patients were identified. How this contributes to the mechanism of neurodegeneration is still unknown. To gain insight into the pathophysiology, we established a ChAc patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell model and an efficient differentiation protocol providing a large population of human striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the main target of neurodegeneration in ChAc. Patient-derived MSNs displayed enhanced neurite outgrowth and ramification, whereas synaptic density was similar to controls. Electrophysiological analysis revealed a pathologically elevated synaptic activity in ChAc MSNs. Treatment with the F-actin stabilizer phallacidin or the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 resulted in the significant reduction of disinhibited synaptic currents to healthy control levels, suggesting a Src kinase- and actin-dependent mechanism. This was underlined by increased G/F-actin ratios and elevated Lyn kinase activity in patient-derived MSNs. These data indicate that F-actin stabilization and Src kinase inhibition represent potential therapeutic targets in ChAc that may restore neuronal function. Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease without a known cure. To gain pathophysiological insight, we newly established a human in vitro model using skin biopsies from ChAc patients to generate disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and developed an efficient iPSC differentiation protocol providing striatal medium spiny neurons. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology, we detected a pathologically enhanced synaptic activity in ChAc neurons. Healthy control levels of synaptic activity could be restored by treatment of ChAc neurons with the F-actin stabilizer

  3. Use of an active fixation lead and a subpectoral pacemaker pocket may not avoid Twiddler′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris E A Udink ten Cate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of a pacemaker with consequent malfunction of the device has been called Twiddler′s syndrome. Use of active-fixation leads and subpectoral pacemaker pockets has been considered to help in avoiding this problem. We describe a child in whom twiddling was not prevented despite implantation of a lumenless atrial lead and insertion of the pacemaker generator in a subpectoral pocket.

  4. Medicare Beneficiaries Face Growing Out-Of-Pocket Burden For Specialty Drugs While In Catastrophic Coverage Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trish, Erin; Xu, Jianhui; Joyce, Geoffrey

    2016-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes provisions to reduce Medicare beneficiaries' out-of-pocket spending for prescription drugs by gradually closing the coverage gap between the initial coverage limit and the catastrophic coverage threshold (known as the doughnut hole) beginning in 2011. However, Medicare beneficiaries who take specialty pharmaceuticals could still face a large out-of-pocket burden because of uncapped cost sharing in the catastrophic coverage phase. Using 2008-12 pharmacy claims data from a 20 percent sample of Medicare beneficiaries, we analyzed trends in total and out-of-pocket spending among Medicare beneficiaries who take at least one high-cost specialty drug from the top eight specialty drug classes in terms of spending. Annual total drug spending per specialty drug user studied increased considerably during the study period, from $18,335 to $33,301, and the proportion of expenditures incurred while in the catastrophic coverage phase increased from 70 percent to 80 percent. We observed a 26 percent decrease in mean annual out-of-pocket expenditures incurred below the catastrophic coverage threshold, likely attributable to the ACA's doughnut hole cost-sharing reductions, but increases in mean annual out-of-pocket expenditures incurred while in the catastrophic coverage phase offset these reductions almost entirely. Policy makers should consider implementing limits on patients' out-of-pocket burden. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. mouseTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquet, Nicolas; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Faure, Philippe; Bourgeron, Thomas; Ey, Elodie

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic vocalisation is a broadly used proxy to evaluate social communication in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders. The efficacy and robustness of testing these models suffer from limited knowledge of the structure and functions of these vocalisations as well as of the way to analyse the data. We created mouseTube , an open database with a web interface, to facilitate sharing and comparison of ultrasonic vocalisations data and metadata attached to a recording file. Metadata describe 1) the acquisition procedure, e.g ., hardware, software, sampling frequency, bit depth; 2) the biological protocol used to elicit ultrasonic vocalisations; 3) the characteristics of the individual emitting ultrasonic vocalisations ( e.g. , strain, sex, age). To promote open science and enable reproducibility, data are made freely available. The website provides searching functions to facilitate the retrieval of recording files of interest. It is designed to enable comparisons of ultrasonic vocalisation emission between strains, protocols or laboratories, as well as to test different analysis algorithms and to search for protocols established to elicit mouse ultrasonic vocalisations. Over the long term, users will be able to download and compare different analysis results for each data file. Such application will boost the knowledge on mouse ultrasonic communication and stimulate sharing and comparison of automatic analysis methods to refine phenotyping techniques in mouse models of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Immunostimulatory mouse granuloma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, E; Fauve, R M; Hevin, B; Jusforgues, H

    1983-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that from subcutaneous talc-induced granuloma in mice, a fraction could be extracted that fully protected mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Using standard biochemical procedures--i.e., ammonium sulfate fractionation, preparative electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--we have now purified an active factor to homogeneity. A single band was obtained in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel with an apparent Mr of 55,000. It migrated with alpha 1-globulins and the isoelectric point was 5 +/- 0.1. The biological activity was destroyed with Pronase but not with trypsin and a monospecific polyclonal rabbit antiserum was obtained. The intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of this "mouse granuloma protein" fully protects mice against a lethal inoculum of L. monocytogenes. Moreover, after their incubation with 10 nM mouse granuloma protein, mouse peritoneal cells became cytostatic against Lewis carcinoma cells.

  7. Accumulation of 210 Po by spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) and red gurnard (Chelodonichthys kumu) in New Zealand shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Bellamy, P.; Hunter, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of the natural radionuclide 210 Po in the livers of 81 individual specimens of three fish species collected from waters of the Otago continental shelf, New Zealand, have been measured: spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), 4.2 ± 1.8 Bq kg -1 wet weight (mean ± standard deviation, n = 48); elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii), 136 ± 39 Bq kg -1 (n = 7); and red gurnard (Chelodonichthys kumu), 38 ± 13 Bq kg -1 (n = 26). Separate measurements showed that only a negligible fraction of the 210 Po was supported by decay of the 210 Pb parent ( 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios were 15, 134 and 5.9 respectively for the three species), indicating that direct uptake of 210 Po into the liver balances losses from excretion and radioactive decay. The radiation dose from 210 Po in the livers accounted for between 88% and 99% of the total internal absorbed dose received by the fish species. The activity of 210 Po in sea water from the study area was 0.9-2.2 mBq L -1 , yielding concentration factors for 210 Po in liver tissue in the range 3 x 103 to 100 x 103. No significant monophasic relationships were observed between the 210 Po results and the measured concentrations of the elements Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb, except that Pb and 210 Po were correlated (r = 0.511) in C. kumu. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Ecological observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 were undertaken in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India during the monsoons (July following quadrat sampling that was time-constrained. The study revealed that the area is one of the preferable habitats for the species. A population analysis showed that the relative abundance of the subadults was higher, followed by juveniles and adults during the study period. The beginning of activity of the lizards was found to vary over the study period depending on prevailing weather conditions. The activity pattern was bimodal, except across rain events. The study revealed two important ecological findings about these lizards; complete sealing of burrow during rains which differed from partial sealing on normal days and complete diurnal cycle of body colour changes during the monsoon. Feeding was the predominant activity of this lizard followed by basking, resting and chasing each other. The adult lizards were found to be strictly herbivorous, in spite of an abundance of insects available in the area during the period. Subadults and juveniles were found to eat both plant parts, as well as insects. Microhabitat use such as inside grass clumps was found to be higher followed by barren ground, under shade and on stones.

  9. Prolonged Consumption of Sucrose in a Binge-Like Manner, Alters the Morphology of Medium Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Klenowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern diet has become highly sweetened, resulting in unprecedented levels of sugar consumption, particularly among adolescents. While chronic long-term sugar intake is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, little is known regarding the direct consequences of long-term, binge-like sugar consumption on the brain. Because sugar can cause the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc similarly to drugs of abuse, we investigated changes in the morphology of neurons in this brain region following short- (4 weeks and long-term (12 weeks binge-like sucrose consumption using an intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm. We used Golgi-Cox staining to impregnate medium spiny neurons (MSNs from the NAc core and shell of short- and long-term sucrose consuming rats and compared these to age matched water controls. We show that prolonged binge-like sucrose consumption significantly decreased the total dendritic length of NAc shell MSNs compared to age-matched control rats. We also found that the restructuring of these neurons resulted primarily from reduced distal dendritic complexity. Conversely, we observed increased spine densities at the distal branch orders of NAc shell MSNs from long-term sucrose consuming rats. Combined, these results highlight the neuronal effects of prolonged binge-like intake of sucrose on NAc shell MSN morphology.

  10. Renal dysfunction in early adulthood following birth asphyxia in male spiny mice, and its amelioration by maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; LaRosa, Domenic A; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Brown, Russell D; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Kett, Michelle M; Dickinson, Hayley

    2017-04-01

    Acute kidney injury affects ~70% of asphyxiated newborns, and increases their risk of developing chronic kidney disease later in life. Acute kidney injury is driven by renal oxygen deprivation during asphyxia, thus we hypothesized that creatine administered antenatally would protect the kidney from the long-term effects of birth asphyxia. Pregnant spiny mice were fed standard chow or chow supplemented with 5% creatine from 20-d gestation (midgestation). One day prior to term (37-d gestation), pups were delivered by caesarean or subjected to intrauterine asphyxia. Litters were allocated to one of two time-points. Kidneys were collected at 1 mo of age to estimate nephron number (stereology). Renal function (excretory profile and glomerular filtration rate) was measured at 3 mo of age, and kidneys then collected for assessment of glomerulosclerosis. Compared with controls, at 1 mo of age male (but not female) birth-asphyxia offspring had 20% fewer nephrons (P birth-asphyxia offspring had 31% lower glomerular filtration rate (P birth asphyxia. Maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy may be an effective prophylactic to prevent birth asphyxia induced acute kidney injury and the emergence of chronic kidney disease.

  11. Spatiotemporal bioeconomic performance of artificial shelters in a small-scale, rights-based managed Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Headley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a bioeconomic analysis of artificial shelter performance in a fishery targeting a spiny lobster meta-population, with spatially allocated, individual exclusive benthic property rights for shelter introduction and harvest of species. Insights into fishers’ short-run decisions and fishing strategies are also provided. Spatiotemporal bioeconomic performance of shelters located in ten fishing areas during four seasons was compared using two-way ANOVAs and Pearson correlations. Results show that there was spatiotemporal heterogeneity in bioeconomic variables among fishing areas, with mean catch per unit effort (CPUE, kg shelter–1 ranging from 0.42 kg to 1.3 kg per trip, mean quasi-profits of variable costs per shelter harvested ranging from USD6.00 to USD19.57 per trip, and mean quasi-profits of variable costs ranging from USD338 to USD1069 per trip. Positive moderate correlations between shelter density and CPUE (kg shelter–1 km–2 were found. Bioeconomic performance of the shelters was influenced by spatiotemporal resource abundance and distribution, fishing area location in relation to the port, shelter density, heterogeneous fishing strategies and the management system. The results provide empirical information on the spatiotemporal performance of shelters and fishing strategies and can contribute to management at the local-scale of a meta-population distributed throughout the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Learning intrinsic excitability in medium spiny neurons [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/30b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Scheler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We present an unsupervised, local activation-dependent learning rule for intrinsic plasticity (IP which affects the composition of ion channel conductances for single neurons in a use-dependent way. We use a single-compartment conductance-based model for medium spiny striatal neurons in order to show the effects of parameterization of individual ion channels on the neuronal membrane potential-curent relationship (activation function. We show that parameter changes within the physiological ranges are sufficient to create an ensemble of neurons with significantly different activation functions. We emphasize that the effects of intrinsic neuronal modulation on spiking behavior require a distributed mode of synaptic input and can be eliminated by strongly correlated input. We show how modulation and adaptivity in ion channel conductances can be utilized to store patterns without an additional contribution by synaptic plasticity (SP. The adaptation of the spike response may result in either "positive" or "negative" pattern learning. However, read-out of stored information depends on a distributed pattern of synaptic activity to let intrinsic modulation determine spike response. We briefly discuss the implications of this conditional memory on learning and addiction.

  13. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Spiny-Cheek Crayfish (Orconectes limosus) from Lake Gopło: Effect of Age and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Magdalena; Dąbrowski, Janusz; Różański, Szymon; Janicki, Bogdan; Długosz, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the concentrations of metals in the abdominal muscle and exoskeleton of 3-year-old males and 4-year-old females and males of spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) collected from Lake Gopło. A total of 93 males and 35 females were collected in autumn (October 2014). The analyzes of heavy metals were conducted by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy with a PU9100X spectrometer. The content of mercury was determined using AMA 254 mercury analyser. As analyses indicated heavy metals accumulated in the muscle and exoskeleton in the following sequence: Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ni > Hg and Mn > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu > Hg, respectively. Statistically significant differences between 3- and 4-year-old males were found for all analyzed metals. Gender dependent differences were calculated only for Ni in the muscle tissue and for Mn and Hg in the exoskeleton. In comparison with the study carried out 2 years ago notably higher concentrations of Pb were found in the muscle and a higher content of Zn, Pb, Mn and Ni was determined in the exoskeleton.

  14. Microbial colonization of the periodontal pocket and its significance for periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombelli, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate strategies for periodontal therapy from the perspective of periodontal disease being a consequence of microbial colonization of the periodontal pocket environment. In classic bacterial infections the diversity of the microbiota decreases as the disease develops. In most cases of periodontitis, however, the diversity of the flora increases. Most incriminating bacteria are thought to harm tissues significantly only if present in high numbers over prolonged periods of time. Clinical trials have repeatedly demonstrated that scaling and root planing, a procedure that aims to remove subgingival bacterial deposits by scraping on the tooth surface within the periodontal pocket, is effective. At present, for the therapy of any form of periodontal disease, there exists no protocol with proven superiority, in terms of efficiency or effectiveness, over scaling and root planing plus systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole. Some exponents advocate rationing these drugs for patients with a specific microbial profile. However, the evidence for any benefit of bacteriology-assisted clinical protocols is unsatisfactory. Treated sites are subject to recolonization with a microbiota similar to that present before therapy. The degree and speed of recolonization depends on the treatment protocol, the distribution patterns of periodontal microorganisms elsewhere in the oral cavity and the quality of the patient's oral hygiene. To limit the use of antibiotics and to avoid accumulation of harmful effects by repeated therapy, further efforts must be made to optimize procedures addressing the microbial colonization and recolonization of the periodontal pocket. © 2017 The Authors. Periodontology 2000 published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Analysis of gingival pocket microflora and biochemical blood parameters in dogs suffering from periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowska, Izabela; Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Gołyńska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases in dogs are caused by bacteria colonising the oral cavity. The presence of plaque comprising accumulations of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria leads to the development of periodontitis. Due to the fact that in a large percentage of cases periodontal diseases remain undiagnosed, and consequently untreated, they tend to acquire a chronic character, lead to bacteraemia and negatively impact the health of internal organs. The aim of the present study was to perform a qualitative microbiological analysis of gingival pockets and determine the correlations between selected morphological and biochemical blood parameters and the extent periodontal diseases. Twenty-one dogs treated for periodontal diseases were qualified for the study and subsequently divided into two groups: with 3rd and 4th stage of periodontal disease. Swabs from the patients' gingival pockets were taken for bacteriological testing. Blood was tested for parameters including erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit values and leukocyte count. Blood serum was analyzed with respect to the concentrations of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AspAT/AST) and urea. The microbiological analysis of gingival pockets indicated the presence of numerous pathogens with a growth tendency in bacterial cultures observed in dogs with advanced-stage periodontal disease. The concentration of biochemical blood markers was significantly higher in dogs with 4th stage of periodontal disease, to compared to the 3rd-stage group. Morphological parameters were not significantly different with the exception of haemoglobin concentration, which was lower in dogs with 4th stage disease. In both groups, elevated leukocyte counts were observed. By conducting a detailed microbiological examination, it is possible to provide a better prognosis, plan adequate treatment and monitor dogs treated for peridontopathy. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G

  16. Indirect, out-of-pocket and medical costs from influenza-related illness in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Sanchez, Ismael R; Molinari, Noelle-Angelique M; Fairbrother, Gerry; Szilagyi, Peter G; Edwards, Kathryn M; Griffin, Marie R; Cassedy, Amy; Poehling, Katherine A; Bridges, Carolyn; Staat, Mary Allen

    2012-06-13

    Studies have documented direct medical costs of influenza-related illness in young children, however little is known about the out-of-pocket and indirect costs (e.g., missed work time) incurred by caregivers of children with medically attended influenza. To determine the indirect, out-of-pocket (OOP), and direct medical costs of laboratory-confirmed medically attended influenza illness among young children. Using a population-based surveillance network, we evaluated a representative group of children aged accounting databases, and follow-up interviews with caregivers. Outcome measures included work time missed, OOP expenses (e.g., over-the-counter medicines, travel expenses), and direct medical costs. Costs were estimated (in 2009 US Dollars) and comparisons were made among children with and without high risk conditions for influenza-related complications. Data were obtained from 67 inpatients, 121 ED patients and 92 outpatients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Caregivers of hospitalized children missed an average of 73 work hours (estimated cost $1456); caregivers of children seen in the ED and outpatient clinics missed 19 ($383) and 11 work hours ($222), respectively. Average OOP expenses were $178, $125 and $52 for inpatients, ED-patients and outpatients, respectively. OOP and indirect costs were similar between those with and without high risk conditions (p>0.10). Medical costs totaled $3990 for inpatients and $730 for ED-patients. Out-of-pocket and indirect costs of laboratory-confirmed and medically attended influenza in young children are substantial and support the benefits of vaccination. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Management of a Periodontal Pocket Using a Removable Orthodontic Appliance and Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Köseoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. As documented in the literature, bony defects can be managed by an orthodontic approach. Methods. This case report describes the treatment of a bony defect caused by orthodontic malposition through phase I periodontal therapy and a simple removable orthodontic appliance used for the first time in a 20-year-old girl. Results. The periodontal pocket was reduced from 8 mm to 3 mm shortly after treatment. Conclusion. This case report concludes that orthodontic therapy can be used successfully in treatment of bony defects caused by mesially tilted molars.

  18. Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition.

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzi, E; Tramontano, A; Tomei, L; La Monica, N; Failla, C; Sardana, M; Wood, T; De Francesco, R

    1994-01-01

    We have built a model of the specificity pocket of the protease of hepatitis C virus on the basis of the known structures of trypsin-like serine proteases and of the conservation pattern of the protease sequences among various hepatitis C strains. The model allowed us to predict that the substrate of this protease should have a cysteine residue in position P1. This hypothesis was subsequently proved by N-terminal sequencing of two products of the protease. The success of this "blind" test inc...

  19. Reversal of negative charges on the surface of Escherichia coli thioredoxin: pockets versus protrusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancusso, Romina; Cruz, Eduardo; Cataldi, Marcela; Mendoza, Carla; Fuchs, James; Wang, Hsin; Yang, Xiaomin; Tasayco, María Luisa

    2004-04-06

    Recent studies of proteins with reversed charged residues have demonstrated that electrostatic interactions on the surface can contribute significantly to protein stability. We have used the approach of reversing negatively charged residues using Arg to evaluate the effect of the electrostatics context on the transition temperature (T(m)), the unfolding Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG), and the unfolding enthalpy change (DeltaH). We have reversed negatively charged residues at a pocket (Asp9) and protrusions (Asp10, Asp20, Glu85), all located in interconnecting segments between elements of secondary structure on the surface of Arg73Ala Escherichia coli thioredoxin. DSC measurements indicate that reversal of Asp in a pocket (Asp9Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -7.3 degrees C) produces a larger effect in thermal stability than reversal at protrusions: Asp10Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -3.1 degrees C, Asp20Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = 2.0 degrees C, Glu85Arg/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = 3.9 degrees ). The 3D structure of thioredoxin indicates that Asp20 and Glu85 have no nearby charges within 8 A, while Asp9 does not only have Asp10 as sequential neighbor, but it also forms a 5-A long-range ion pair with the solvent-exposed Lys69. Further DSC measurements indicate that neutralization of the individual charges of the ion pair Asp9-Lys69 with nonpolar residues produces a significant decrease in stability in both cases: Asp9Ala/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -3.7 degrees C, Asp9Met/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -5.5 degrees C, Lys69Leu/Arg73Ala, DeltaT(m) = -5.1 degrees C. However, thermodynamic analysis shows that reversal or neutralization of Asp9 produces a 9-15% decrease in DeltaH, while both reversal of Asp at protrusions and neutralization of Lys69 produce negligible changes. These results correlate well with the NMR analysis, which demonstrates that only the substitution of Asp9 produces extensive conformational changes and these changes occur in the surroundings of Lys69. Our results led us to

  20. Management of a Periodontal Pocket Using a Removable Orthodontic Appliance and Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Köseoğlu, Serhat; Fidancıoğlu, Ahmet; Sağlam, Mehmet; Savran, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. As documented in the literature, bony defects can be managed by an orthodontic approach. Methods. This case report describes the treatment of a bony defect caused by orthodontic malposition through phase I periodontal therapy and a simple removable orthodontic appliance used for the first time in a 20-year-old girl. Results. The periodontal pocket was reduced from 8 mm to 3 mm shortly after treatment. Conclusion. This case report concludes that orthodontic therapy can be used success...

  1. Management of a Periodontal Pocket Using a Removable Orthodontic Appliance and Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoğlu, Serhat; Fidancıoğlu, Ahmet; Sağlam, Mehmet; Savran, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. As documented in the literature, bony defects can be managed by an orthodontic approach. Methods. This case report describes the treatment of a bony defect caused by orthodontic malposition through phase I periodontal therapy and a simple removable orthodontic appliance used for the first time in a 20-year-old girl. Results. The periodontal pocket was reduced from 8 mm to 3 mm shortly after treatment. Conclusion. This case report concludes that orthodontic therapy can be used successfully in treatment of bony defects caused by mesially tilted molars.

  2. vi and Vim Editors Pocket Reference Support for every text editing task

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Many Unix, Linux, and Mac OS X geeks enjoy using the powerful, platform-agnostic text editors vi and Vim, but there are far too many commands for anyone to remember. Author Arnold Robbins has chosen the most valuable commands for vi, Vim, and vi's main clones-vile, elvis, and nvi-and packed them into this easy-to-browse pocket reference. You'll find commands for all kinds of editing tasks, such as programming, modifying system files, and writing and marking up articles. This second edition includes: Command-line optionsvi commands and set optionsInput mode shortcutsSubstitution and regular e

  3. Targeting the Central Pocket in Human Transcription Factor TEAD as a Potential Cancer Therapeutic Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Pobbati, Ajaybabu V.; Han, Xiao; Hung, Alvin W.; Weiguang, Seetoh; Huda, Nur; Chen, Guo-Ying; Kang, CongBao; Chia, Cheng San Brian; Luo, Xuelian; Hong, Wanjin; Poulsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The human TEAD family of transcription factors (TEAD1-4) is required for YAP-mediated transcription in the Hippo pathway. Hyperactivation of TEAD’s co-activator YAP contributes to tissue overgrowth and human cancers, suggesting that pharmacological interference of TEAD-YAP activity may be an effective strategy for anticancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a central pocket in the YAP-binding domain (YBD) of TEAD that is targetable by small molecule inhibitors. Our X-ray crystallograp...

  4. An integrated YAC-overlap and 'cosmid-pocket' map of the human chromosome 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizetić, D; Gellen, L; Hamvas, R M; Mott, R; Grigoriev, A; Vatcheva, R; Zehetner, G; Yaspo, M L; Dutriaux, A; Lopes, C

    1994-05-01

    We describe here the construction of an ordered clone map of human chromosome 21, based on the identification of ordered sets of YAC clones covering > 90% of the chromosome, and their use to identify groups of cosmid clones (cosmid pockets) localised to subregions defined by the YAC clone map. This is to our knowledge the highest resolution map of one human chromosome to date, localising 530 YAC clones covering both arms of the chromosome, spanning > 36 Mbp, and localising more than 6300 cosmids to 145 intervals on both arms of the chromosome. The YAC contigs have been formed by hybridising a 6.1 equivalents chromosome 21 enriched YAC collection displayed on arrayed nylon membranes to a series of 115 DNA markers and Alu-PCR products from YACs. Forty eight mega-YACs from the previously published CEPH-Genethon map of sequence tagged sites (STS) have also been included in the contig building experiments. A YAC tiling path was then size-measured and confirmed by gel-fingerprinting. A minimal tiling path of 70 YACs were then used as probes against the 7.5 genome equivalents flow sorted chromosome 21 cosmid library in order to identify the lists of cosmids mapping to alternating shared--non-shared intervals between overlapping YACs ('cosmid pockets'). For approximately 1/5 of the minimal tiling path of YACs, locations and non-chimaerism have been confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), and approximately 1/5 of all cosmid pocket assignments have independent, confirmatory marker hybridizations in the ICRF cosmid reference library system. We also demonstrate that 'pockets' contain overlapping sets of cosmids (cosmid contigs). In addition to being an important logical intermediate step between the YAC maps published so far and a future map of completely ordered cosmids, this map provides immediately available low-complexity cosmid material for high resolution FISH mapping of chromosomal aberrations on interphase nuclei, and for rapid positional isolation of

  5. An integrated strategy for improving contrast, durability, and portability of a Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Lam

    Full Text Available We have previously developed a portable Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited settings. In this manuscript we report two different strategies (cross-polarization and an integrated reflector to improve image contrast levels achieved with the Pocket Colposcope and evaluate the merits of each strategy compared to a standard-of-care digital colposcope. The desired outcomes included reduced specular reflection (glare, increased illumination beam pattern uniformity, and reduced electrical power budget. In addition, anti-fogging and waterproofing features were incorporated to prevent the Pocket Colposcope from fogging in the vaginal canal and to enable rapid disinfection by submersion in chemical agents.Cross-polarization (Generation 3 Pocket Colposcope and a new reflector design (Generation 4 Pocket Colposcope were used to reduce glare and improve contrast. The reflector design (including the angle and height of the reflector sidewalls was optimized through ray-tracing simulations. Both systems were characterized with a series of bench tests to assess specular reflection, beam pattern uniformity, and image contrast. A pilot clinical study was conducted to compare the Generation 3 and 4 Pocket Colposcopes to a standard-of-care colposcope (Leisegang Optik 2. Specifically, paired images of cervices were collected from the standard-of-care colposcope and either the Generation 3 (n = 24 patients or the Generation 4 (n = 32 patients Pocket Colposcopes. The paired images were blinded by device, randomized, and sent to an expert physician who provided a diagnosis for each image. Corresponding pathology was obtained for all image pairs. The primary outcome measures were the level of agreement (% and κ (kappa statistic between the standard-of-care colposcope and each Pocket Colposcope (Generation 3 and Generation 4.Both generations of Pocket Colposcope had significantly higher image contrast when compared to the standard

  6. An integrated strategy for improving contrast, durability, and portability of a Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christopher T; Mueller, Jenna; Asma, Betsy; Asiedu, Mercy; Krieger, Marlee S; Chitalia, Rhea; Dahl, Denali; Taylor, Peyton; Schmitt, John W; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2018-01-01

    We have previously developed a portable Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited settings. In this manuscript we report two different strategies (cross-polarization and an integrated reflector) to improve image contrast levels achieved with the Pocket Colposcope and evaluate the merits of each strategy compared to a standard-of-care digital colposcope. The desired outcomes included reduced specular reflection (glare), increased illumination beam pattern uniformity, and reduced electrical power budget. In addition, anti-fogging and waterproofing features were incorporated to prevent the Pocket Colposcope from fogging in the vaginal canal and to enable rapid disinfection by submersion in chemical agents. Cross-polarization (Generation 3 Pocket Colposcope) and a new reflector design (Generation 4 Pocket Colposcope) were used to reduce glare and improve contrast. The reflector design (including the angle and height of the reflector sidewalls) was optimized through ray-tracing simulations. Both systems were characterized with a series of bench tests to assess specular reflection, beam pattern uniformity, and image contrast. A pilot clinical study was conducted to compare the Generation 3 and 4 Pocket Colposcopes to a standard-of-care colposcope (Leisegang Optik 2). Specifically, paired images of cervices were collected from the standard-of-care colposcope and either the Generation 3 (n = 24 patients) or the Generation 4 (n = 32 patients) Pocket Colposcopes. The paired images were blinded by device, randomized, and sent to an expert physician who provided a diagnosis for each image. Corresponding pathology was obtained for all image pairs. The primary outcome measures were the level of agreement (%) and κ (kappa) statistic between the standard-of-care colposcope and each Pocket Colposcope (Generation 3 and Generation 4). Both generations of Pocket Colposcope had significantly higher image contrast when compared to the standard

  7. An integrated strategy for improving contrast, durability, and portability of a Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jenna; Asma, Betsy; Asiedu, Mercy; Krieger, Marlee S.; Chitalia, Rhea; Dahl, Denali; Taylor, Peyton; Schmitt, John W.; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2018-01-01

    Introduction We have previously developed a portable Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited settings. In this manuscript we report two different strategies (cross-polarization and an integrated reflector) to improve image contrast levels achieved with the Pocket Colposcope and evaluate the merits of each strategy compared to a standard-of-care digital colposcope. The desired outcomes included reduced specular reflection (glare), increased illumination beam pattern uniformity, and reduced electrical power budget. In addition, anti-fogging and waterproofing features were incorporated to prevent the Pocket Colposcope from fogging in the vaginal canal and to enable rapid disinfection by submersion in chemical agents. Methods Cross-polarization (Generation 3 Pocket Colposcope) and a new reflector design (Generation 4 Pocket Colposcope) were used to reduce glare and improve contrast. The reflector design (including the angle and height of the reflector sidewalls) was optimized through ray-tracing simulations. Both systems were characterized with a series of bench tests to assess specular reflection, beam pattern uniformity, and image contrast. A pilot clinical study was conducted to compare the Generation 3 and 4 Pocket Colposcopes to a standard-of-care colposcope (Leisegang Optik 2). Specifically, paired images of cervices were collected from the standard-of-care colposcope and either the Generation 3 (n = 24 patients) or the Generation 4 (n = 32 patients) Pocket Colposcopes. The paired images were blinded by device, randomized, and sent to an expert physician who provided a diagnosis for each image. Corresponding pathology was obtained for all image pairs. The primary outcome measures were the level of agreement (%) and κ (kappa) statistic between the standard-of-care colposcope and each Pocket Colposcope (Generation 3 and Generation 4). Results Both generations of Pocket Colposcope had significantly higher image contrast when compared to

  8. Mouse models of cataract

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... Mutations affecting the mouse lens can be identified easily by visual inspection, and a remarkable number of mutant lines ..... out mutants do not show an ocular phenotype, the two Bfsp genes are important for lens ... The more severe mutants have in addition to the ocular symptoms some more clinical ...

  9. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  10. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  11. Consumer out-of-pocket spending for pharmaceuticals in Kazakhstan: implications for sectoral reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, N; Langenbrunner, J C

    2001-12-01

    What do consumers pay for pharmaceuticals in a transition economy, and who is hit hardest? Kazakhstan is in the midst of emerging from a Soviet Union state to a market economy. It has seen a significant dip in Gross Domestic Product and available revenues for health as a result. New sources of revenues, such as out-of-pocket payments, both formal and informal, have become widespread. In this paper we use the results of a 1996 Living Standards survey jointly sponsored by the World Bank and the Kazakhstan Government to examine patterns of prescribed pharmaceutical spending. We use a two-part regression model that is utilized to adjust for the skewness of non-spenders and heavy utilizers. Results suggest that upper-income groups spend more in absolute terms, but low-income groups pay a higher share of their income for pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical expenditure is positively related to poor health status, chronic illness and rural area residence. Our estimates suggest that on average people in rural areas spend 16% more than people in urban areas. The analysis shows that certain types of illnesses impose significant out-of-pocket burden for consumers - gynaecologic as well as intestinal and cardiac. The findings can be used for developing and designing a new 10-year World Bank-financed programme for restructuring the health sector. They also suggest the need for prioritizing rural care, as well as covering pharmaceuticals for specific types of care interventions and certain demographic groups.

  12. Nonmicrosurgical replantation using a subcutaneous pocket for salvage of the amputated fingertip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneuchi, Gan; Kurokawa, Masato; Igawa, Kazuhiko; Hamamoto, Yusuke; Igawa, Hiroharu H

    2005-05-01

    The pocket principle suggested by Brent in 1979 is an alternative method for use when microsurgical replantation is not feasible. The application and the amputation level for which the method is available, however, have not been well examined. Between 1999 and 2003 we treated 6 patients (7 fingers) by nonmicrosurgical replantation using a subcutaneous pocket (the Brent technique). All patients had sustained complete fingertip amputations across or proximal to the lunula in digits other than the thumb. In every case the amputation was a crush or avulsion-type injury and microsurgical replantation was not feasible; however, cosmetic symmetry was desired strongly by the patient. Of the 7 fingers only one survived completely but became atrophic after 4 months. One finger developed necrosis involving less than half of the replant but a hooked nail deformity developed. Two fingers developed partial necrosis involving more than half of the replant but both fingers were missing the fingernail and the cosmetic results were not acceptable. Three fingers developed total necrosis. In addition a slight flexion contracture not improved with therapy in the digits was noted in 4 patients. The Brent technique should be performed scrupulously for fingertip amputation across or proximal to the lunula because of the poor survival rate and the possibility of contracture in the digits or other proximal joints.

  13. Radial-firing optical fiber tip containing conical-shaped air-pocket for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ho; Ryu, Yong-Tak; Son, Dong Hoon; Jeong, Seongmook; Kim, Youngwoong; Ju, Seongmin; Kim, Bok Hyeon; Han, Won-Taek

    2015-08-10

    We report a novel radial-firing optical fiber tip containing a conical-shaped air-pocket fabricated by deforming a hollow optical fiber using electric arc-discharge process. The hollow optical fiber was fusion spliced with a conventional optical fiber, simultaneously deforming into the intagliated conical-shaped region along the longitudinal fiber-axis of the fiber due to the gradual collapse of the cavity of the hollow optical fiber. Then the distal-end of the hollow optical fiber was sealed by the additional arc-discharge in order to obstruct the inflow of an external bio-substance or liquid to the inner air surface during the surgical operations, resulting in the formation of encased air-pocket in the silica glass fiber. Due to the total internal reflection of the laser beam at the conical-shaped air surface, the laser beam (λ = 632.8 nm) was deflected to the circumferential direction up to 87 degree with respect to the fiber-axis.

  14. Water-pocket endoscopic submucosal dissection for superficial gastric neoplasms (with video).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hideaki; Murakami, Daisuke; Suehiro, Satoshi; Nakahara, Ryotaro; Ujihara, Tetsuro; Sagami, Ryota; Katsuyama, Yasushi; Hayasaka, Kenji; Amano, Yuji

    2018-04-13

    During endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), a clear view is essential for precise dissection of the appropriate submucosal layer. Some advantages have been reported for underwater techniques of endoscopic resection in comparison with the gas insufflation method. We have developed a new ESD method with the creation of a local water-pocket that provides a clear view in the dissection field. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the feasibility and safety of water-pocket ESD (WP-ESD) for superficial gastric neoplasms. We prospectively recruited 50 patients with gastric neoplasms (early gastric cancer or gastric adenomas) between April 2017 and December 2017. Among them, 48 patients were treated with the WP-ESD technique. The patients undergoing WP-ESD were compared with 48 patients treated with standard ESD (S-ESD) who were selected by propensity score matching. The primary outcome was the ESD procedure time. Total procedure time was significantly shorter in the WP-ESD group than in the S-ESD group (median [IQR], 27.5 [19-45] min vs 41 [29.8-69] min; P 0.99). There were no perforations in either group. WP-ESD was associated with a shorter procedure time than S-ESD. WP-ESD may provide an alternative method for resection of superficial gastric neoplasms. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Screening Analogs of β-OG Pocket Binder as Fusion Inhibitor of Dengue Virus 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambunan, Usman Sf; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Parikesit, Arli A; Idrus, Syarifuddin; Kerami, Djati

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV) and transmitted between human hosts by mosquitoes. Recently, Indonesia was listed as a country with the highest cases of dengue by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The current treatment for dengue disease is supportive therapy; there is no antiviral drug available in the market against dengue. Therefore, a research on antiviral drug against dengue is very important, especially to prevent outbreak explosion. In this research, the development of dengue antiviral is performed through the inhibition of n-octyl-β-D-glucoside (β-OG) binding pocket on envelope protein of DENV by using analogs of β-OG pocket binder. There are 828 compounds used in this study, and all of them were screened based on the analysis of molecular docking, pharmacological character prediction of the compounds, and molecular dynamics simulation. The result of these analyses revealed that the compound that can be used as an antiviral candidate against DENV is 5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-[2-(p-tolyl) benzotriazol-5-yl]furan-2-carboxamide.

  16. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, G E; Timmerman, M F; Veldkamp, I; Van Winkelhoff, A J; Van der Velden, U

    2006-01-01

    To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at one deep pocket in 22 patients (11 smokers and 11 non-smokers). Immediately after initial therapy, experimental sites, under strict plaque control, were instrumented subgingivally. Microbiological evaluation was performed at pre-instrumentation, immediate post-instrumentation and 1 and 2 weeks post-instrumentation. Mean total anaerobic colony forming units (CFUs) dropped from 3.9 x 10(6) before to 0.09 x 10(6) immediately following instrumentation. Significant reductions were found for Tannerella forsythia, Micromonas micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum and spirochetes. Significant reductions were not observed for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Except for spirochetes, no reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria was found immediately after instrumentation. During follow-up, mean total CFU tended to increase. Prevalence of periodontal bacteria further reduced. No effect of smoking was found. Results indicate that subgingival mechanical cleaning in itself, has a limited effect, in actually removing bacteria. The subsequent reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria shows that it is apparently difficult for these species to survive in treated pockets.

  17. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, Frederico José Neves, E-mail: frederico.mancuso@grupofleury.com.br [Disciplina de Cardiologia - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Disciplina de Medicina de Urgência - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Siqueira, Vicente Nicoliello; Moisés, Valdir Ambrósio [Disciplina de Cardiologia - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gois, Aécio Flavio Teixeira [Disciplina de Medicina de Urgência - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Paola, Angelo Amato Vincenzo de; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Camargo; Campos, Orlando [Disciplina de Cardiologia - Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.

  18. Compare local pocket and global protein structure models by small structure patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-09-09

    Researchers proposed several criteria to assess the quality of predicted protein structures because it is one of the essential tasks in the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) competitions. Popular criteria include root mean squared deviation (RMSD), MaxSub score, TM-score, GDT-TS and GDT-HA scores. All these criteria require calculation of rigid transformations to superimpose the the predicted protein structure to the native protein structure. Yet, how to obtain the rigid transformations is unknown or with high time complexity, and, hence, heuristic algorithms were proposed. In this work, we carefully design various small structure patterns, including the ones specifically tuned for local pockets. Such structure patterns are biologically meaningful, and address the issue of relying on a sufficient number of backbone residue fragments for existing methods. We sample the rigid transformations from these small structure patterns; and the optimal superpositions yield by these small structures are refined and reported. As a result, among 11; 669 pairs of predicted and native local protein pocket models from the CASP10 dataset, the GDT-TS scores calculated by our method are significantly higher than those calculated by LGA. Moreover, our program is computationally much more efficient. Source codes and executables are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/prosta/

  19. Identification of potential small molecule binding pockets on Rho family GTPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ortiz-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Rho GTPases are conformational switches that control a wide variety of signaling pathways critical for eukaryotic cell development and proliferation. They represent attractive targets for drug design as their aberrant function and deregulated activity is associated with many human diseases including cancer. Extensive high-resolution structures (>100 and recent mutagenesis studies have laid the foundation for the design of new structure-based chemotherapeutic strategies. Although the inhibition of Rho signaling with drug-like compounds is an active area of current research, very little attention has been devoted to directly inhibiting Rho by targeting potential allosteric non-nucleotide binding sites. By avoiding the nucleotide binding site, compounds may minimize the potential for undesirable off-target interactions with other ubiquitous GTP and ATP binding proteins. Here we describe the application of molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, sequence conservation analysis, and ensemble small-molecule fragment mapping to provide an extensive mapping of potential small-molecule binding pockets on Rho family members. Characterized sites include novel pockets in the vicinity of the conformationaly responsive switch regions as well as distal sites that appear to be related to the conformations of the nucleotide binding region. Furthermore the use of accelerated molecular dynamics simulation, an advanced sampling method that extends the accessible time-scale of conventional simulations, is found to enhance the characterization of novel binding sites when conformational changes are important for the protein mechanism.

  20. Broadly neutralizing human antibody that recognizes the receptor-binding pocket of influenza virus hemagglutinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittle, James R.R.; Zhang, Ruijun; Khurana, Surender; King, Lisa R.; Manischewitz, Jody; Golding, Hana; Dormitzer, Philip R.; Haynes, Barton F.; Walter, Emmanuel B.; Moody, M. Anthony; Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Harrison, Stephen C. (Harvard-Med); (Novartis); (US-FDA); (Duke)

    2011-09-20

    Seasonal antigenic drift of circulating influenza virus leads to a requirement for frequent changes in vaccine composition, because exposure or vaccination elicits human antibodies with limited cross-neutralization of drifted strains. We describe a human monoclonal antibody, CH65, obtained by isolating rearranged heavy- and light-chain genes from sorted single plasma cells, coming from a subject immunized with the 2007 trivalent influenza vaccine. The crystal structure of a complex of the hemagglutinin (HA) from H1N1 strain A/Solomon Islands/3/2006 with the Fab of CH65 shows that the tip of the CH65 heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) inserts into the receptor binding pocket on HA1, mimicking in many respects the interaction of the physiological receptor, sialic acid. CH65 neutralizes infectivity of 30 out of 36 H1N1 strains tested. The resistant strains have a single-residue insertion near the rim of the sialic-acid pocket. We conclude that broad neutralization of influenza virus can be achieved by antibodies with contacts that mimic those of the receptor.

  1. Assessing the structural conservation of protein pockets to study functional and allosteric sites: implications for drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daura Xavier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the classical, active-site oriented drug-development approach reaching its limits, protein ligand-binding sites in general and allosteric sites in particular are increasingly attracting the interest of medicinal chemists in the search for new types of targets and strategies to drug development. Given that allostery represents one of the most common and powerful means to regulate protein function, the traditional drug discovery approach of targeting active sites can be extended by targeting allosteric or regulatory protein pockets that may allow the discovery of not only novel drug-like inhibitors, but activators as well. The wealth of available protein structural data can be exploited to further increase our understanding of allosterism, which in turn may have therapeutic applications. A first step in this direction is to identify and characterize putative effector sites that may be present in already available structural data. Results We performed a large-scale study of protein cavities as potential allosteric and functional sites, by integrating publicly available information on protein sequences, structures and active sites for more than a thousand protein families. By identifying common pockets across different structures of the same protein family we developed a method to measure the pocket's structural conservation. The method was first parameterized using known active sites. We characterized the predicted pockets in terms of sequence and structural conservation, backbone flexibility and electrostatic potential. Although these different measures do not tend to correlate, their combination is useful in selecting functional and regulatory sites, as a detailed analysis of a handful of protein families shows. We finally estimated the numbers of potential allosteric or regulatory pockets that may be present in the data set, finding that pockets with putative functional and effector characteristics are widespread across

  2. Structural insight into maintenance methylation by mouse DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Kohei; Suetake, Isao; Yamashita, Eiki; Suga, Michihiro; Narita, Hirotaka; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Tajima, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine in DNA plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. The DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 is responsible for the propagation of methylation patterns to the next generation via its preferential methylation of hemimethylated CpG sites in the genome; however, how Dnmt1 maintains methylation patterns is not fully understood. Here we report the crystal structure of the large fragment (291–1620) of mouse Dnmt1 and its complexes with cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine and its product S-adenosyl-L-homocystein. Notably, in the absence of DNA, the N-terminal domain responsible for targeting Dnmt1 to replication foci is inserted into the DNA-binding pocket, indicating that this domain must be removed for methylation to occur. Upon binding of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, the catalytic cysteine residue undergoes a conformation transition to a catalytically competent position. For the recognition of hemimethylated DNA, Dnmt1 is expected to utilize a target recognition domain that overhangs the putative DNA-binding pocket. Taking into considerations the recent report of a shorter fragment structure of Dnmt1 that the CXXC motif positions itself in the catalytic pocket and prevents aberrant de novo methylation, we propose that maintenance methylation is a multistep process accompanied by structural changes. PMID:21518897

  3. Study Of Physician And Patient Communication Identifies Missed Opportunities To Help Reduce Patients' Out-Of-Pocket Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubel, Peter A; Zhang, Cecilia J; Hesson, Ashley; Davis, J Kelly; Kirby, Christine; Barnett, Jamison; Hunter, Wynn G

    2016-04-01

    Some experts contend that requiring patients to pay out of pocket for a portion of their care will bring consumer discipline to health care markets. But are physicians prepared to help patients factor out-of-pocket expenses into medical decisions? In this qualitative study of audiorecorded clinical encounters, we identified physician behaviors that stand in the way of helping patients navigate out-of-pocket spending. Some behaviors reflected a failure to fully engage with patients' financial concerns, from never acknowledging such concerns to dismissing them too quickly. Other behaviors reflected a failure to resolve uncertainty about out-of-pocket expenses or reliance on temporary solutions without making long-term plans to reduce spending. Many of these failures resulted from systemic barriers to health care spending conversations, such as a lack of price transparency. For consumer health care markets to work as intended, physicians need to be prepared to help patients navigate out-of-pocket expenses when financial concerns arise during clinical encounters. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Women Saw Large Decrease In Out-Of-Pocket Spending For Contraceptives After ACA Mandate Removed Cost Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Nora V; Polsky, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act mandates that private health insurance plans cover prescription contraceptives with no consumer cost sharing. The positive financial impact of this new provision on consumers who purchase contraceptives could be substantial, but it has not yet been estimated. Using a large administrative claims data set from a national insurer, we estimated out-of-pocket spending before and after the mandate. We found that mean and median per prescription out-of-pocket expenses have decreased for almost all reversible contraceptive methods on the market. The average percentages of out-of-pocket spending for oral contraceptive pill prescriptions and intrauterine device insertions by women using those methods both dropped by 20 percentage points after implementation of the ACA mandate. We estimated average out-of-pocket savings per contraceptive user to be $248 for the intrauterine device and $255 annually for the oral contraceptive pill. Our results suggest that the mandate has led to large reductions in total out-of-pocket spending on contraceptives and that these price changes are likely to be salient for women with private health insurance. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Impact of the federal contraceptive coverage guarantee on out-of-pocket payments for contraceptives: 2014 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonfield, Adam; Tapales, Athena; Jones, Rachel K; Finer, Lawrence B

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act requires most private health plans to cover contraceptive methods, services and counseling, without any out-of-pocket costs to patients; that requirement took effect for millions of Americans in January 2013. Data for this study come from a subset of the 1842 women aged 18-39 years who responded to all four waves of a national longitudinal survey. This analysis focuses on the 892 women who had private health insurance and who used a prescription contraceptive method during any of the four study periods. Women were asked about the amount they paid out of pocket in an average month for their method of choice. Between fall 2012 and spring 2014, the proportion of privately insured women paying zero dollars out of pocket for oral contraceptives increased substantially, from 15% to 67%. Similar changes occurred among privately insured women using injectable contraception, the vaginal ring and the intrauterine device. The implementation of the federal contraceptive coverage requirement appears to have had a notable impact on the out-of-pocket costs paid by privately insured women, and that impact has increased over time. This study measures the out-of-pocket costs for women with private insurance prior to the federal contraceptive coverage requirement and after it took effect; in doing so, it highlights areas of progress in eliminating these costs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nature and determinants of out-of-pocket health expenditure among older people in a rural Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinda, E M; Rajkumar, A P; Enemark, U; Prince, M; Jacob, K S

    2012-10-01

    Increasing out-of-pocket health expenditure among older people worsens the inequitable access to essential health services in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We investigated various socioeconomic and health factors associated with out-of-pocket and catastrophic health expenditures among rural older people in India. We recruited 1,000 participants aged above 65 years from Kaniyambadi block, Vellore, India. We assessed their out-of-pocket health expenditure, health service utilization, socioeconomic profiles, disability, cognition, and health status by standard instruments. We employed appropriate multivariate statistics evaluating these determinants. Male gender, poor sanitation, diabetes, tuberculosis, malaria, respiratory ailments, gastrointestinal diseases, dementia, depression, and disability were associated with higher out-of-pocket expenditures. Illiteracy, tuberculosis, diabetes, and dementia increased the risk for catastrophic health expenditures, while pension schemes protected against it. Income inequalities were associated with inequities on education, disease prevalence, and access to safe water, sanitation, and nutrition. Interactions between determinants of out-of-pocket health expenditure, economic inequality, and inequities on essential health care delivery to older people are complex. We highlight the need for equitable health services and policies, focusing on both medical and social determinants.

  7. Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

    2011-07-01

    Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (∼36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. KRAS G12C Drug Development: Discrimination between Switch II Pocket Configurations Using Hydrogen/Deuterium-Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jia; Harrison, Rane A.; Li, Lianbo; Zeng, Mei; Gondi, Sudershan; Scott, David; Gray, Nathanael S.; Engen, John R.; Westover, Kenneth D. (NEU); (DFCI); (UTSMC); (Harvard-Med)

    2017-09-01

    KRAS G12C, the most common RAS mutation found in non-small-cell lung cancer, has been the subject of multiple recent covalent small-molecule inhibitor campaigns including efforts directed at the guanine nucleotide pocket and separate work focused on an inducible pocket adjacent to the switch motifs. Multiple conformations of switch II have been observed, suggesting that switch II pocket (SIIP) binders may be capable of engaging a range of KRAS conformations. Here we report the use of hydrogen/deuterium-exchange mass spectrometry (HDX MS) to discriminate between conformations of switch II induced by two chemical classes of SIIP binders. We investigated the structural basis for differences in HDX MS using X-ray crystallography and discovered a new SIIP configuration in response to binding of a quinazoline chemotype. These results have implications for structure-guided drug design targeting the RAS SIIP.

  9. Exploring the water-binding pocket of the type II dehydroquinase enzyme in the structure-based design of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Beatriz; Sedes, Antía; Peón, Antonio; Otero, José M; van Raaij, Mark J; Thompson, Paul; Hawkins, Alastair R; González-Bello, Concepción

    2014-04-24

    Structural and computational studies to explore the WAT1 binding pocket in the structure-based design of inhibitors against the type II dehydroquinase (DHQ2) enzyme are reported. The crystal structures of DHQ2 from M. tuberculosis in complex with four of the reported compounds are described. The electrostatic interaction observed between the guanidinium group of the essential arginine and the carboxylate group of one of the inhibitors in the reported crystal structures supports the recently suggested role of this arginine as the residue that triggers the release of the product from the active site. The results of the structural and molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed that the inhibitory potency is favored by promoting interactions with WAT1 and the residues located within this pocket and, more importantly, by avoiding situations where the ligands occupy the WAT1 binding pocket. The new insights can be used to advantage in the structure-based design of inhibitors.

  10. The influence of Injection Pockets on the Performance of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings: Part I - Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar; Fuerst, Axel

    2006-01-01

    This is Part I of a two-part series of papers describing the effects of high pressure injection pockets on the operating conditions of tilting-pad thrust bearings. A numerical model based on the Reynolds equation is developed extending the three dimensional thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic (TEHD......) analysis of tilting-pad thrust bearings to include the effects of high pressure injection and recesses in the bearing pad. The model is applied to the analysis of an existing bearing of large dimensions and the influence of the pocket is analyzed. It is shown that a shallow pocket positively influences...... the performance of the bearing as it has characteristics similar to those of a parallel step bearing....

  11. Biological and Histological Studies on The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland of Female Spiny Bollworm Earias Insulana Boisd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohhamed, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of sex pheromone extraction and bioassay production male attractiveness to alive females on male response and the histological structure of pheromone glands in normal and irradiated females of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. with 100 and 150 Gy. Reproduction of adults irradiated as moths less than 24 hours old or three days was also investigated. Sex pheromone extracts from 1 day old females were less active than those from 3 day old females. The percentage of male moths response to alive female moths at 1 day old was lower than at 3 days old. The sex pheromone production by females was increased as the females became older (from 3 days old to up). The gland of normal female moths is found between 8th and 9th abdominal segments travelling deep inside the body cavity and has large, darkly stained and well defined epithelial cells. The scent gland is of the well developed, tubular and closed ring shaped type. In parental females less than 24 hours old irradiated with 100 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells became loose, rupture, disappeared, shrink, irregular, abnormal or broken and were separated from each other and their nuclei were not clear. The scales were abnormal or loose and there are many vacuoles. The histological effects following gamma irradiation were also noticed in case of parental moths irradiated with 150 Gy. The glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape with the appearance of some vacuoles between them, broken and disappeared in another place and also many secretory cells disappeared and the glands showed increasing. The effects of radiation were continued among females of F1 , generation moths less than 24 hours old descendant of irradiated parental male with 100 and 150 Gy and decreased the fecundity and egg hatch ability significantly. The effect was dose dependent

  12. Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eGarcia-Calero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs, segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+ MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird: the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order. We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail, but also between close vocal learner bird families.

  13. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not in adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Maust, Joel D; Corthell, John T; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-03-01

    Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. We examined differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity and basal differences in striatal neuron function in adult and in adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on "junk-food" diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine-induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In rats that became obese after eating junk-food, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ∼60 % at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals, and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats.

  14. Cell and molecular biology of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias and little skate Leucoraja erinacea: insights from in vitro cultured cells.

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    Barnes, D W

    2012-04-01

    Two of the most commonly used elasmobranch experimental model species are the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias and the little skate Leucoraja erinacea. Comparative biology and genomics with these species have provided useful information in physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, immunology, evolutionary developmental biology and genetics. A wealth of information has been obtained using in vitro approaches to study isolated cells and tissues from these organisms under circumstances in which the extracellular environment can be controlled. In addition to classical work with primary cell cultures, continuously proliferating cell lines have been derived recently, representing the first cell lines from cartilaginous fishes. These lines have proved to be valuable tools with which to explore functional genomic and biological questions and to test hypotheses at the molecular level. In genomic experiments, complementary (c)DNA libraries have been constructed, and c. 8000 unique transcripts identified, with over 3000 representing previously unknown gene sequences. A sub-set of messenger (m)RNAs has been detected for which the 3' untranslated regions show elements that are remarkably well conserved evolutionarily, representing novel, potentially regulatory gene sequences. The cell culture systems provide physiologically valid tools to study functional roles of these sequences and other aspects of elasmobranch molecular cell biology and physiology. Information derived from the use of in vitro cell cultures is valuable in revealing gene diversity and information for genomic sequence assembly, as well as for identification of new genes and molecular markers, construction of gene-array probes and acquisition of full-length cDNA sequences. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference and its inhibition by previous social interaction preferentially affect D1-medium spiny neurons in the accumbens corridor

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    Janine Maria Prast

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated if counterconditioning with dyadic (i.e., one-to-one social interaction, a strong inhibitor of the subsequent reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP, differentially modulates the activity of the diverse brain regions oriented along a mediolateral corridor reaching from the interhemispheric sulcus to the anterior commissure, i.e., the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band, the medial septal nucleus, the major island of Calleja, the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus, and the medial accumbens shell and core. We also investigated the involvement of the lateral accumbens core and the dorsal caudate putamen. The anterior cingulate 1 (Cg1 region served as a negative control. Contrary to our expectations, we found that all regions of the accumbens corridor showed increased expression of the early growth response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268 in rats 2 h after reacquisition of CPP for cocaine after a history of cocaine CPP acquisition and extinction. Previous counterconditioning with dyadic social interaction inhibited both the reacquisition of cocaine CPP and the activation of the whole accumbens corridor. EGR1 activation was predominantly found in dynorphin-labeled cells, i.e., presumably D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs, with D2-MSNs (immunolabeled with an anti-DRD2 antibody being less affected. Cholinergic interneurons or GABAergic interneurons positive for parvalbumin, neuropeptide Y or calretinin were not involved in these CPP-related EGR1 changes. Glial cells did not show any EGR1 expression either. The present findings could be of relevance for the therapy of impaired social interaction in substance use disorders, depression, psychosis, and autism spectrum disorders.

  16. The phylogenetic intrarelationships of spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha, Teleostei, Actinopterygii: fossil taxa increase the congruence of morphology with molecular data

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    Donald Davesne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acanthomorpha (spiny-rayed fishes is a clade of teleosts that includes more than 15 000 extant species. Their deep phylogenetic intrarelationships, first reconstructed using morphological characters, have been extensively revised with molecular data. Moreover, the deep branches of the acanthomorph tree are still largely unresolved, with strong disagreement between studies. Here, we review the historical propositions for acanthomorph deep intrarelationships and attempt to resolve their earliest branching patterns using a new morphological data matrix compiling and revising characters from previous studies. The taxon sampling we use constitutes a first attempt to test all previous hypotheses (molecular and morphological alike with morphological data only. Our sampling also includes Late Cretaceous fossil taxa, which yield new character state combinations that are absent in extant taxa. Analysis of the complete morphological data matrix yields a new topology that shows remarkable congruence with the well-supported molecular results. Lampridiformes (oarfishes and allies are the sister to all other acanthomorphs. Gadiformes (cods and allies and Zeiformes (dories form a clade with Percopsiformes (trout-perches and the enigmatic Polymixia (beardfish and Stylephorus (tube-eye. Ophidiiformes (cusk-eels and allies and Batrachoidiformes (toadfishes are nested within Percomorpha, the clade that includes most of modern acanthomorph diversity. These results provide morphological synapomorphies and independent corroboration of clades previously only recovered from molecular data, thereby suggesting the emergence of a congruent picture of acanthomorph deep intrarelationships. Fossil taxa play a critical role in achieving this congruence, since a very different topology is found when they are excluded from the analysis.

  17. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

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    Igor eSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  18. Vibrio panuliri sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus and transfer of Vibrio ponticus from Scophthalmi clade to the newly proposed Ponticus clade.

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    Kumari, Prabla; Poddar, Abhijit; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2014-12-01

    A novel marine bacterium, strain LBS2(T) was isolated from eggs carried on pleopods of the spiny lobster collected from Andaman Sea. Heterotrophic growth occurred at 1-7% NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity revealed the strain LBS2(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and showed above 97% similarity with eight type strains of the genus Vibrio. Multilocus analysis based on ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH recA, rpoA, and topA revealed LBS2(T) formed a separate cluster with Vibrio ponticus DSM 16217(T) with 89.8% multilocus gene sequence similarity. However, strain LBS2(T) is distantly related with other members of the Scophthalmi clade in terms of 16S rRNA signatures, phenotypic variations and multilocus gene sequence similarity, for which we propose LBS2(T) belongs to a new clade i.e. Ponticus clade with V. ponticus DSM 16217(T) as the representative type strain of the clade. DNA-DNA homologies between strain LBS2(T) and closely related strains were well below 70%. DNA G + C content was 45.3 mol%. On the basis of our polyphasic study, strain LBS2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS2(T) (= JCM 19500(T) = DSM 27724(T) = LMG 27902(T)). Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug-Primed Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Mice: Increased Excitability of Medium-Sized Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens

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    Yao-Ying Ma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanisms of drug relapse, we first established a model for cocaine IVSA (intravenous self-administration in mice, and subsequently examined electrophysiological alterations of MSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons in the NAc (nucleus accumbens before and after acute application of cocaine in slices. Three groups were included: master mice trained by AL (active lever pressings followed by IV (intravenous cocaine delivery, yoked mice that received passive IV cocaine administration initiated by paired master mice, and saline controls. MSNs recorded in the NAc shell in master mice exhibited higher membrane input resistances but lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes of sEPSCs (spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents compared with neurons recorded from saline control mice, whereas cells in the NAc core had higher sEPSCs frequencies and larger amplitudes. Furthermore, sEPSCs in MSNs of the shell compartment displayed longer decay times, suggesting that both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms were involved. After acute re-exposure to a low-dose of cocaine in vitro, an AP (action potential-dependent, persistent increase in sEPSC frequency was observed in both NAc shell and core MSNs from master, but not yoked or saline control mice. Furthermore, re-exposure to cocaine induced membrane hyperpolarization, but concomitantly increased excitability of MSNs from master mice, as evidenced by increased membrane input resistance, decreased depolarizing current to generate APs, and a more negative Thr (threshold for firing. These data demonstrate functional differences in NAc MSNs after chronic contingent versus non-contingent IV cocaine administration in mice, as well as synaptic adaptations of MSNs before and after acute re-exposure to cocaine. Reversing these functional alterations in NAc could represent a rational target for the treatment of some reward-related behaviors, including drug addiction.

  20. Drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in mice: increased excitability of medium-sized spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens

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    Ma, Yao-Ying; Henley, Sandy M.; Toll, Jeff; Jentsch, James D.; Evans, Christopher J.; Levine, Michael S.; Cepeda, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    To examine the mechanisms of drug relapse, we first established a model for cocaine IVSA (intravenous self-administration) in mice, and subsequently examined electrophysiological alterations of MSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons) in the NAc (nucleus accumbens) before and after acute application of cocaine in slices. Three groups were included: master mice trained by AL (active lever) pressings followed by IV (intravenous) cocaine delivery, yoked mice that received passive IV cocaine administration initiated by paired master mice, and saline controls. MSNs recorded in the NAc shell in master mice exhibited higher membrane input resistances but lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes of sEPSCs (spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents) compared with neurons recorded from saline control mice, whereas cells in the NAc core had higher sEPSCs frequencies and larger amplitudes. Furthermore, sEPSCs in MSNs of the shell compartment displayed longer decay times, suggesting that both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms were involved. After acute re-exposure to a low-dose of cocaine in vitro, an AP (action potential)-dependent, persistent increase in sEPSC frequency was observed in both NAc shell and core MSNs from master, but not yoked or saline control mice. Furthermore, re-exposure to cocaine induced membrane hyperpolarization, but concomitantly increased excitability of MSNs from master mice, as evidenced by increased membrane input resistance, decreased depolarizing current to generate APs, and a more negative Thr (threshold) for firing. These data demonstrate functional differences in NAc MSNs after chronic contingent versus non-contingent IV cocaine administration in mice, as well as synaptic adaptations of MSNs before and after acute re-exposure to cocaine. Reversing these functional alterations in NAc could represent a rational target for the treatment of some reward-related behaviors, including drug addiction. PMID:24000958

  1. A new species of Carcinonemertes, Carcinonemertes conanobrieni sp. nov. (Nemertea: Carcinonemertidae, an egg predator of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus.

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    Lunden Alice Simpson

    Full Text Available A new species of nemertean worm belonging to the genus Carcinonemertes is described from egg masses of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus from the Florida Keys, Florida, USA. This is the first species of Carcinonemertes reported to infect P. argus or any other lobster species in the greater Caribbean and western Atlantic Ocean. Carcinonemertes conanobrieni sp. nov. varies in body color from a translucent white to a pale orange, with males ranging in total body length from 2.35 to 12.71 mm and females ranging from 0.292 to 16.73 mm. Among the traits that separate this new species from previously described species in the genus Carcinonemertes are a relatively wide stylet basis, minimal sexual size dimorphism, and a unique mucus sheath decorated with external hooks. Also, juvenile worms were found to encyst themselves next to lobster embryos and female worms lay both long strings of eggs wound throughout the lobster's setae as well as spherical cases that are attached to lobster embryos. The stylet length and stylet basis remain unchanged throughout ontogeny for both male and female worms. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses separated this newly described species from all other species of Carcinonemertes with available COI sequences. Carcinonemertes spp. are voracious egg predators and have been tied to the collapse of various crustacean fisheries. The formal description of this new species represents the first step to understand putative impacts of this worm on the population health of one of the most lucrative yet already depressed crustacean fisheries.

  2. Experimental Rearing of Spiny Lobster, Panulirus homarus (Palinuridae in Land-Based Tanks at Mirbat Station (Sultanate of Oman in 2009-2010

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    Mohammed Balkhair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments on the rearing of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus were conducted in land-based tanks at Mirbat Aquaculture Unit from June to December 2009 and January-December 2010. In the first experiment 14 lobsters with an average size of 64.9±7.4 mm CL and weight of 297.8±98.0 g were reared to an average of 71.7±7.2 mm CL and weight of 384.0±114.8 g over 187 days. In the second experiment 45 lobsters were reared from an initial length of 45.4±4.6 mm CL and weight of 118.9 g to a length 66.0±7.1 mm CL and a weight of 304.1 g over 335 days. Total length increment was 45.8% and weight increment 155.1%. The daily food ration was 3.0-8.8%. The survival rate in the first experiment was 92.9%, in the second experiment it was also high (86.7% during the first six months. In both experiments males grew faster than females. While the water temperature, pH, salinity and dissolved oxygen reflected the ambient condition of the Arabian Sea, these were not optimal levels for lobsters culture. The salinity was higher (37.5 ppt, while the water temperature was low (<20oC during the summer monsoon. The study demonstrated the possibility of cultivating sub-adult lobsters in Oman from 40–45 mm CL and 100 g to maturity stage, obtaining the legal size of 70 mm CL and a weight of about 350 g over a year. It is recommended that the next experiment be conducted in floating sea cages from October to June.

  3. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from in vitro cell lines of elasmobranchs: Spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and little skate (Leucoraja erinacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J; Barnes, David W

    2010-09-01

    Elasmobranchs are the most commonly used experimental models among the jawed, cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). Previously we developed cell lines from embryos of two elasmobranchs, Squalus acanthias the spiny dogfish shark (SAE line), and Leucoraja erinacea the little skate (LEE-1 line). From these lines cDNA libraries were derived and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated. From the SAE cell line 4303 unique transcripts were identified, with 1848 of these representing unknown sequences (showing no BLASTX identification). From the LEE-1 cell line, 3660 unique transcripts were identified, and unknown, unique sequences totaled 1333. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation showed that GO assignments for the two cell lines were in general similar. These results suggest that the procedures used to derive the cell lines led to isolation of cell types of the same general embryonic origin from both species. The LEE-1 transcripts included GO categories "envelope" and "oxidoreductase activity" but the SAE transcripts did not. GO analysis of SAE transcripts identified the category "anatomical structure formation" that was not present in LEE-1 cells. Increased organelle compartments may exist within LEE-1 cells compared to SAE cells, and the higher oxidoreductase activity in LEE-1 cells may indicate a role for these cells in responses associated with innate immunity or in steroidogenesis. These EST libraries from elasmobranch cell lines provide information for assembly of genomic sequences and are useful in revealing gene diversity, new genes and molecular markers, as well as in providing means for elucidation of full-length cDNAs and probes for gene array analyses. This is the first study of this type with members of the Chondrichthyes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F.; Maust, Joel D.; Corthell, John T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. Objectives We determined whether there are differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity, and basal differences in the striatal neuron function in adult and adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on “junk-food” diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Results In rats that became obese after eating “junk-food”, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ~60% at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Conclusions Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals; and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats. PMID:26612617

  5. Improved cardiovascular diagnostic accuracy by pocket size imaging device in non-cardiologic outpatients: the NaUSiCa (Naples Ultrasound Stethoscope in Cardiology study

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    Schiattarella Pier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Miniaturization has evolved in the creation of a pocket-size imaging device which can be utilized as an ultrasound stethoscope. This study assessed the additional diagnostic power of pocket size device by both experts operators and trainees in comparison with physical examination and its appropriateness of use in comparison with standard echo machine in a non-cardiologic population. Three hundred four consecutive non cardiologic outpatients underwent a sequential assessment including physical examination, pocket size imaging device and standard Doppler-echo exam. Pocket size device was used by both expert operators and trainees (who received specific training before the beginning of the study. All the operators were requested to give only visual, qualitative insights on specific issues. All standard Doppler-echo exams were performed by expert operators. One hundred two pocket size device exams were performed by experts and two hundred two by trainees. The time duration of the pocket size device exam was 304 ± 117 sec. Diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities was made in 38.2% of cases by physical examination and in 69.7% of cases by physical examination + pocket size device (additional diagnostic power = 31.5%, p In conclusion, pocket size device showed a relevant additional diagnostic value in comparison with physical examination. Sensitivity and specificity were good in experts and suboptimal in trainees. Specificity was particularly influenced by the level of experience. Training programs are needed for pocket size device users.

  6. Burden of out-of-pocket expenditure for road traffic injuries in urban India

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    Kumar G

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTI are an increasing public health problem in India where out-of-pocket (OOP expenditures on health are among the highest in the world. We estimated the OOP expenses for RTI in a large city in India. Methods Information on medical and non-medical expenditure was documented for RTI cases of all ages that reported alive or dead to the emergency departments of two public hospitals and a large private hospital in Hyderabad. Differential risk of catastrophic OOP total expenditure (COPE-T and medical expenditure (COPE-M, and distress financing was assessed for 723 RTI cases that arrived alive at the study hospitals with multiple logistic regression. Catastrophic expenditure was defined as expenditure > 25% of the RTI patient’s annual household income. Variation in intensity of COPE-M in RTI was assessed using multiple classification analysis (MCA. Results The median OOP medical and non-medical expenditure was USD 169 and USD 163, respectively. The prevalence of COPE-M and COPE-T was 21.9% (95% CI 18.8-24.9 and 46% (95% CI 42–49.3, respectively. Only 22% had access to medical insurance. Being admitted to a private hospital (OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.7–9.9 and not having access to insurance (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.9–7.6 were significantly associated with risk of having COPE – M. Similar results were seen for COPE - T. MCA analysis showed that the burden of OOP medical expenditure was mainly associated with in-patient days in hospital (Eta =0.191. Prevalence of distress financing was 69% (95% CI 65.5-72.3 with it being significantly higher for those reporting to the public hospitals (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.7-4.6, those belonging to the lowest per capita annual household income quartile (OR 7.0, 95% CI 3.7-13.3, and for those without insurance access (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.0-5.7. Conclusions This paper has outlined the high burden of out-of-pocket medical and total expenditure associated with RTI in India. These data

  7. Burden of out-of-pocket expenditure for road traffic injuries in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Anil; Dilip, T Ramachandran; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi

    2012-08-28

    Road traffic injuries (RTI) are an increasing public health problem in India where out-of-pocket (OOP) expenditures on health are among the highest in the world. We estimated the OOP expenses for RTI in a large city in India. Information on medical and non-medical expenditure was documented for RTI cases of all ages that reported alive or dead to the emergency departments of two public hospitals and a large private hospital in Hyderabad. Differential risk of catastrophic OOP total expenditure (COPE-T) and medical expenditure (COPE-M), and distress financing was assessed for 723 RTI cases that arrived alive at the study hospitals with multiple logistic regression. Catastrophic expenditure was defined as expenditure > 25% of the RTI patient's annual household income. Variation in intensity of COPE-M in RTI was assessed using multiple classification analysis (MCA). The median OOP medical and non-medical expenditure was USD 169 and USD 163, respectively. The prevalence of COPE-M and COPE-T was 21.9% (95% CI 18.8-24.9) and 46% (95% CI 42-49.3), respectively. Only 22% had access to medical insurance. Being admitted to a private hospital (OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.7-9.9) and not having access to insurance (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.9-7.6) were significantly associated with risk of having COPE - M. Similar results were seen for COPE - T. MCA analysis showed that the burden of OOP medical expenditure was mainly associated with in-patient days in hospital (Eta =0.191). Prevalence of distress financing was 69% (95% CI 65.5-72.3) with it being significantly higher for those reporting to the public hospitals (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.7-4.6), those belonging to the lowest per capita annual household income quartile (OR 7.0, 95% CI 3.7-13.3), and for those without insurance access (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.0-5.7). This paper has outlined the high burden of out-of-pocket medical and total expenditure associated with RTI in India. These data reinforce the need for implementing more effective financial

  8. Out-of-pocket expenses incurred by patients obtaining free breast cancer care in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kathleen M; Mandigo, Morgan; Pyda, Jordan; Nazaire, Yolande; Greenberg, Sarah L M; Gillies, Rowan; Damuse, Ruth

    2015-04-27

    Women with breast cancer in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) account for 51% of cases globally and often present with advanced disease. Fear of costs contributes to delay in seeking care, as health expenditures are financially catastrophic for families worldwide. Despite efforts to improve affordability of health care in LMICs, the financial burden of indirect costs (eg, transportation and lost wages) is often overlooked. We aimed to identify and quantify the expenditures of patients seeking breast cancer care in a LMIC. Patients receiving breast cancer care free of charge at Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais (HUM) in Haiti were interviewed to quantify their costs and assess the effect of these costs on patients and families. These costs included expenses for food, lodging, transportation, childcare, medical costs at other institutions, and lost wages. 61 patients were interviewed during diagnostic, chemotherapy, and surgical visits between March 1, and May 12, 2014. Institutional review board exemption was granted from Boston Children's Hospital and Partners in Health/Zanmi Lasante. The median non-medical out-of-pockent expenses incurred by breast cancer patients at HUM were US$233 (95% CI 170-304) for diagnostic visits, US$259 (95% CI 200-533) for chemotherapy, and US$38 (95% CI 23-140) for surgery. The median total out-of-pockent expense (including medical costs) was US$717 (95% CI 619-1171). These costs forced 52% of participants into debt and 20% to sell possessions. The median percentage of potential individual income spent on out-of-pocket costs was 60%. The median sum of out-of-pocket costs and lost wages was US$2996 (95% CI 1676-5179). In Haiti, 74% of people earn less than US$2 per day. Even when breast cancer treatment is provided for free, out-of-pocket expenses could account for more than 91% of annual earnings at this income level. This financial burden is an overwhelming obstacle for Haiti's poorest citizens, and probably for many

  9. Out-of-pocket payments for health care services in Bulgaria: financial burden and barrier to access.

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    Atanasova, Elka; Pavlova, Milena; Moutafova, Emanuela; Rechel, Bernd; Groot, Wim

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, Bulgaria has increasingly relied on out-of-pocket payments as one of the main sources of health care financing. However, it is largely unknown whether the official patient charges, combined with informal payments, are affordable for the population. Our study aimed to explore the scale of out-of-pocket payments for health care services and their affordability. Data were collected in two nationally representative surveys, conducted in Bulgaria in 2010 and 2011, using face-to-face interviews based on a standardized questionnaire. To select respondents, a multi-stage random probability method was used. The questionnaire included questions on the out-of-pocket payments for health care services used by the respondent during the preceding 12 months. In total, 75.7% (2010) and 84.0% (2011) of outpatient service users reported to have paid out-of-pocket, with 12.6% (2010) and 9.7% (2011) of users reporting informal payments. Of those who had used inpatient services, 66.5% (2010) and 63.1% (2011) reported to have made out-of-pocket payments, with 31.8% (2010) and 18.3% (2011) reporting to have paid informally. We found large inability to pay indicated by the need to borrow money and/or forego services. Regression analysis showed that the inability to pay is especially pronounced among those with poor health status and chronic diseases and those on low household incomes. The high level of both formal and informal out-of-pocket payments for health care services in Bulgaria poses a considerable burden for households and undermines access to health services for poorer parts of the population.

  10. Parallel pocket incision: Less invasive surgical intervention for the treatment of intractable pressure ulcer with wound edge undermining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Hayashi, Akitatsu; Koshima, Isao

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of deep pressure ulcer with a wide wound edge undermining (pocket) is challenging, especially when conservative treatments are ineffective. As most patients with a pressure ulcer suffer from systemic comorbidities, invasive surgery cannot be performed on all patients, and less invasive treatment is required. Less invasive surgical intervention to a deep pressure ulcer, parallel pocket incision (PPI), was performed on 10 patients with intractable pressure ulcers with a pocket formation. In PPI procedures, two parallel skin incisions were made to open up the deepest fold of the pocket and to preserve the skin overlying the pocket lesion; through the created incisions, the necrotic tissues around the deepest fold of the undermining could be easily removed, which facilitated spontaneous wound healing. Postoperative results and complications were evaluated. All PPI procedures were safely performed under local infiltration anesthesia without major postoperative complication; minor bleeding was seen intraoperatively in three patients, which could be easily controlled with electric cautery coagulation. Nine of 10 ulcers were cured after PPI, and one could not be followed up due to the patient's death non-related to the pressure ulcer. For the nine cured patients, the average time for cure was 14.9 weeks, and no recurrence was observed at postoperative 6 months. PPI is a simple, technically easy, and less invasive surgical intervention to an intractable pressure ulcer with a pocket, which can be safely performed under local infiltration anesthesia even on a patient with severe systemic comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabrication and Testing of a Modular Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Instrumentation System for Test Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nichols, Daniel M.; Stevenson, Sarah R.; Swope, Tanner M.; Hilger, Caden W.; Roberts, Jeremy A.; Unruh, Troy C.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2018-01-01

    Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Measurement of the neutron-flux distribution within the reactor core provides a more complete understanding of the operating conditions in the reactor than typical ex-core sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors have been developed and tested previously but have been limited to single-node operation and have utilized highly specialized designs. The development of a widely deployable, multi-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector assembly will enhance nuclear research capabilities. A modular, four-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was designed, fabricated, and tested at Kansas State University. The array was constructed from materials that do not significantly perturb the neutron flux in the reactor core. All four sensor nodes were equally spaced axially in the array to span the fuel-region of the reactor core. The array was filled with neon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors. The modular design of the instrument facilitates the testing and deployment of numerous sensor arrays. The unified design drastically improved device ruggedness and simplified construction from previous designs. Five 8-mm penetrations in the upper grid plate of the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor were utilized to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been specially developed to support pulse-mode operation. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array composed of four sensors was used to monitor local neutron flux at a constant reactor power of 100 kWth at different axial locations simultaneously. The array was positioned at five different radial locations within the core to emulate the deployment of multiple arrays and develop a 2-dimensional measurement of

  12. Design of a Novel Low Cost Point of Care Tampon (POCkeT) Colposcope for Use in Resource Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christopher T.; Krieger, Marlee S.; Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Asma, Betsy; Muasher, Lisa C.; Schmitt, John W.; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Current guidelines by WHO for cervical cancer screening in low- and middle-income countries involves visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) of the cervix, followed by treatment during the same visit or a subsequent visit with cryotherapy if a suspicious lesion is found. Implementation of these guidelines is hampered by a lack of: trained health workers, reliable technology, and access to screening facilities. A low cost ultra-portable Point of Care Tampon based digital colposcope (POCkeT Colposcope) for use at the community level setting, which has the unique form factor of a tampon, can be inserted into the vagina to capture images of the cervix, which are on par with that of a state of the art colposcope, at a fraction of the cost. A repository of images to be compiled that can be used to empower front line workers to become more effective through virtual dynamic training. By task shifting to the community setting, this technology could potentially provide significantly greater cervical screening access to where the most vulnerable women live. The POCkeT Colposcope’s concentric LED ring provides comparable white and green field illumination at a fraction of the electrical power required in commercial colposcopes. Evaluation with standard optical imaging targets to assess the POCkeT Colposcope against the state of the art digital colposcope and other VIAM technologies. Results Our POCkeT Colposcope has comparable resolving power, color reproduction accuracy, minimal lens distortion, and illumination when compared to commercially available colposcopes. In vitro and pilot in vivo imaging results are promising with our POCkeT Colposcope capturing comparable quality images to commercial systems. Conclusion The POCkeT Colposcope is capable of capturing images suitable for cervical lesion analysis. Our portable low cost system could potentially increase access to cervical cancer screening in limited resource settings through task shifting to community

  13. Recent trends in the probability of high out-of-pocket medical expenses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Katherine E

    2016-01-01

    This article measures the probability that out-of-pocket expenses in the United States exceed a threshold share of income. It calculates this probability separately by individuals' health condition, income, and elderly status and estimates changes occurring in these probabilities between 2010 and 2013. This article uses nationally representative household survey data on 344,000 individuals. Logistic regressions estimate the probabilities that out-of-pocket expenses exceed 5% and alternatively 10% of income in the two study years. These probabilities are calculated for individuals based on their income, health status, and elderly status. Despite favorable changes in both health policy and the economy, large numbers of Americans continue to be exposed to high out-of-pocket expenditures. For instance, the results indicate that in 2013 over a quarter of nonelderly low-income citizens in poor health spent 10% or more of their income on out-of-pocket expenses, and over 40% of this group spent more than 5%. Moreover, for Americans as a whole, the probability of spending in excess of 5% of income on out-of-pocket costs increased by 1.4 percentage points between 2010 and 2013, with the largest increases occurring among low-income Americans; the probability of Americans spending more than 10% of income grew from 9.3% to 9.6%, with the largest increases also occurring among the poor. The magnitude of out-of-pocket's financial burden and the most recent upward trends in it underscore a need to develop good measures of the degree to which health care policy exposes individuals to financial risk, and to closely monitor the Affordable Care Act's success in reducing Americans' exposure to large medical bills.

  14. Fabrication and Testing of a Modular Micro-Pocket Fission Detector Instrumentation System for Test Nuclear Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichenberger Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Measurement of the neutron-flux distribution within the reactor core provides a more complete understanding of the operating conditions in the reactor than typical ex-core sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors have been developed and tested previously but have been limited to single-node operation and have utilized highly specialized designs. The development of a widely deployable, multi-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector assembly will enhance nuclear research capabilities. A modular, four-node Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was designed, fabricated, and tested at Kansas State University. The array was constructed from materials that do not significantly perturb the neutron flux in the reactor core. All four sensor nodes were equally spaced axially in the array to span the fuel-region of the reactor core. The array was filled with neon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors. The modular design of the instrument facilitates the testing and deployment of numerous sensor arrays. The unified design drastically improved device ruggedness and simplified construction from previous designs. Five 8-mm penetrations in the upper grid plate of the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor were utilized to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been specially developed to support pulse-mode operation. The Micro-Pocket Fission Detector array composed of four sensors was used to monitor local neutron flux at a constant reactor power of 100 kWth at different axial locations simultaneously. The array was positioned at five different radial locations within the core to emulate the deployment of multiple arrays and develop a 2-dimensional

  15. Dissecting functions of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor and the related pocket proteins by integrating genetic, cell biology, and electrophoretic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Lukas, J; Holm, K

    1999-01-01

    The members of the 'pocket protein' family, comprising the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRB) and its relatives, p107 and p130, negatively regulate cell proliferation and modulate fundamental biological processes including embryonic development, differentiation, homeostatic tissue renewal......, and defense against cancer. The large, multidomain pocket proteins act by binding a plethora of cell fate-determining and growth-stimulatory proteins, the most prominent of which are the E2F/DP transcription factors. These protein-protein interactions are in turn regulated by carefully orchestrated...

  16. Complex Home Care: Part II-Family Annual Income, Insurance Premium and Out-of- Pocket Expenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Ross, Vicki M.; Smith, Carol E.; Clements, Faye; Williams, Arthur R.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to provide data on the annual family income and payment for health insurance coverage and out-of-pocket expenses that are not reimbursed by third-party payers for managing complex home care. Costs reported for annual insurance premiums varied widely as did costs of deductibles, co-payments, non-reimbursed supplies, travel, or child care. The mean total out-of-pocket non-reimbursed expenses averaged $17, 923 per year per family. This series of articles presents these financial costs in relation to complex home care outcomes. PMID:21158253

  17. RIKEN mouse genome encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    We have been working to establish the comprehensive mouse full-length cDNA collection and sequence database to cover as many genes as we can, named Riken mouse genome encyclopedia. Recently we are constructing higher-level annotation (Functional ANnoTation Of Mouse cDNA; FANTOM) not only with homology search based annotation but also with expression data profile, mapping information and protein-protein database. More than 1,000,000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced to classify into 159,789 clusters and 60,770 representative clones were fully sequenced. As a conclusion, the 60,770 sequences contained 33,409 unique. The next generation of life science is clearly based on all of the genome information and resources. Based on our cDNA clones we developed the additional system to explore gene function. We developed cDNA microarray system to print all of these cDNA clones, protein-protein interaction screening system, protein-DNA interaction screening system and so on. The integrated database of all the information is very useful not only for analysis of gene transcriptional network and for the connection of gene to phenotype to facilitate positional candidate approach. In this talk, the prospect of the application of these genome resourced should be discussed. More information is available at the web page: http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/.

  18. T4 RIA precision profiles automatically computed using a small programmable pocket calculator HP-41 CV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditu, M.; Waud, J.M.; Hamilton, R.G.; Wagner, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    Precision profiles as useful tool for assurance of assay quality in 10 independent T4 RIAs have been automatically obtained using a small programmable pocket calculator HP-41 CV. For each T4 assay batch, the within-assay coefficient of variation varied from 7 to 11% in the hormone concentration range of 2 to 20μg/dl. The difference in coefficient of variation for all the 10 successive assay batches of T4 never exceeded 1% in the same hormone concentrations regions. All the above findings demonstrate that the precision profile can be used as a powerful tool for assessing the assay quality and consistency of overall random error between successive assay batches [fr

  19. Cross-finger dermal pocketing to augment venous outflow for distal fingertip replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Valerie H; Murugan, Arul; Foo, Tun-Lin; Puhaindran, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Venous anastomosis in distal fingertip replantations is not always possible, and venous congestion is recognized as a potential cause of failure. Methods previously described to address this problem include amputate deepithelization and dermal pocketing postarterial anastomosis to augment venous outflow. However, attachment of the digit to the palm or abdomen resulted in finger stiffness. We describe a modification of the previous methods by utilizing dermal flaps raised from the adjacent digit in the form of a cross-finger flap. The key differences are the partial deepithelization of the replanted fingertip and subsequent replacement of the dermal flap to the donor digit to minimize donor site morbidity. During the period where the 2 digits are attached, interphalangeal joint mobilization is permitted to maintain joint mobility.

  20. Influence of Micropolar Lubrication on the Performance of 4-Pocket Capillary Compensated Conical Hybrid Journal Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish C. Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with a theoretical analysis of 4-pocket capillary compensated conical hybrid journal bearing system operating with micropolar lubricant. The modified Reynolds equation for a conical journal bearing system operating with micropolar lubricant has been derived. In the present study, Eringen's micropolar theory has been used to model micropolar lubrication in cylindrical coordinate system. The study has been carried out for the different values of micropolar parameters, that is, characteristic length ( and coupling number (. The conical bearing configurations having semicone angle 10∘, 20∘, 30∘, and 40∘ have been studied. The study suggests that micropolar lubricant offers better performance vis- á-vis Newtonian lubricant for bearing configurations having values of semicone angle 10∘and 20∘.

  1. Approaching an organic semimetal: Electron pockets at the Fermi level for a p-benzoquinonemonoimine zwitterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Luis G.; Velev, Julian [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico, Humacao (United States); Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhang, Zhengzheng [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, San Juan (United States); Alvira, Jose; Vega, Omar; Diaz, Gerson [Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Puerto Rico, Humacao (United States); Routaboul, Lucie; Braunstein, Pierre [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, Institut de Chimie (UMR 7177 CNRS), Universite de Strasbourg (France); Doudin, Bernard [Institut de Physique, Applique de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, Universite Louis Pasteur Strasbourg (France); Losovyj, Yaroslav B. [Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (United States); J. Bennett Johnston Sr. Center for Advanced Microstructures and Devices, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Dowben, Peter A. [Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan (United States)

    2012-08-15

    There is compelling evidence of electron pockets, at the Fermi level, in the band structure for an organic zwitterion molecule of the p-benzoquinonemonoimine type. The electronic structure of the zwitterion molecular film has a definite, although small, density of states evident at the Fermi level as well as a nonzero inner potential and thus is very different from a true insulator. In spite of a small Brillouin zone, significant band width is observed in the intermolecular band dispersion. The results demonstrate that Bloch's theorem applies to the wave vector dependence of the electronic band structure formed from the molecular orbitals of adjacent molecules in a molecular thin film of a p-benzoquinonemonoimine type zwitterion. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, E; Tramontano, A; Tomei, L; La Monica, N; Failla, C; Sardana, M; Wood, T; De Francesco, R

    1994-02-01

    We have built a model of the specificity pocket of the protease of hepatitis C virus on the basis of the known structures of trypsin-like serine proteases and of the conservation pattern of the protease sequences among various hepatitis C strains. The model allowed us to predict that the substrate of this protease should have a cysteine residue in position P1. This hypothesis was subsequently proved by N-terminal sequencing of two products of the protease. The success of this "blind" test increases our confidence in the overall correctness of our proposed alignment of the enzyme sequence with those of other proteases of known structure and constitutes a first step in the construction of a complete model of the viral protease domain.

  3. Non-medical out-of-pocket expenses incurred by families during their child's hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFazio, Rachel L; Vessey, Judith A

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the nonmedical out of pocket expenses (NOOPEs) incurred by families of hospitalized children. The purpose of this study is to help nurses, other healthcare providers, hospital administrators, and policymakers better understand the NOOPEs incurred by families during their child's hospitalization. Parents of children (n = 50) who underwent orthopedic surgery at a major tertiary-care children's hospital reported all NOOPEs incurred during their child's hospitalization. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The total NOOPEs ranged from $17.00 to $4745.00 (M = $736.21) per hospitalization, with 2096 missed hours from work. Length of stay, gross family income, distance from the hospital, and Hollingshead score are significant predictors of expenses (F-ratio = 732.88, p expenses to families.

  4. SambVca 2. A Web Tool for Analyzing Catalytic Pockets with Topographic Steric Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2016-06-27

    Developing more efficient catalysts remains one of the primary targets of organometallic chemists. To accelerate reaching this goal, effective molecular descriptors and visualization tools can represent a remarkable aid. Here, we present a Web application for analyzing the catalytic pocket of metal complexes using topographic steric maps as a general and unbiased descriptor that is suitable for every class of catalysts. To show the broad applicability of our approach, we first compared the steric map of a series of transition metal complexes presenting popular mono-, di-, and tetracoordinated ligands and three classic zirconocenes. This comparative analysis highlighted similarities and differences between totally unrelated ligands. Then, we focused on a recently developed Fe(II) catalyst that is active in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones and imines. Finally, we expand the scope of these tools to rationalize the inversion of enantioselectivity in enzymatic catalysis, achieved by point mutation of three amino acids of mononuclear p-hydroxymandelate synthase.

  5. Protected nodal electron pocket from multiple-Q ordering in underdoped high temperature superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, N; Sebastian, S E

    2011-06-03

    A multiple wave vector (Q) reconstruction of the Fermi surface is shown to yield a profoundly different electronic structure to that characteristic of single wave vector reconstruction, despite their proximity in energy. We consider the specific case in which ordering is generated by Q(x)=[2πa,0] and Q(y)=[0,2πb] (in which a=b=1/4)-similar to those identified in neutron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments-and more generally show that an isolated pocket adjacent to the nodal point k(nodal)=[±π/2,±π/2] is a protected feature of such a multiple-Q model, potentially corresponding to the nodal "Fermi arcs" observed in photoemission and the small size of the electronic heat capacity found in high magnetic fields-importantly, containing electron carriers which can yield negative Hall and Seebeck coefficients observed in high magnetic fields.

  6. Organometallic myoglobins: Formation of Fe-carbon bonds and distal pocket effects on aryl ligand conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Thomas, Leonard M; Richter-Addo, George B

    2016-11-01

    Bioorganometallic Fe-C bonds are biologically relevant species that may result from the metabolism of natural or synthetic hydrazines. The molecular structures of four new sperm whale mutant myoglobin derivatives with Fe-aryl moieties, namely H64A-tolyl-m, H64A-chlorophenyl-p, H64Q-tolyl-m, and H64Q-chlorophenyl-p, have been determined at 1.7-1.9Å resolution. The structures reveal conformational preferences for the substituted aryls resulting from attachment of the aryl ligands to Fe at the site of net -NHNH 2 release from the precursor hydrazines, and show distal pocket changes that readily accommodate these bulky ligands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pocket pathologist: A mobile application for rapid diagnostic surgical pathology consultation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Hartman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Telepathology allows the digital transmission of images for rapid access to pathology experts. Recent technologic advances in smartphones have allowed them to be used to acquire and transmit digital images of the glass slide, representing cost savings and efficiency gains over traditional forms of telepathology. We report our experience with developing an iPhone application (App - Pocket Pathologist to facilitate rapid diagnostic pathology teleconsultation utilizing a smartphone. Materials and Methods: A secure, web-based portal (http://pathconsult.upmc.com/ was created to facilitate remote transmission of digital images for teleconsultation. The App augments functionality of the web-based portal and allows the user to quickly and easily upload digital images for teleconsultation. Image quality of smartphone cameras was evaluated by capturing images using different adapters that directly attach phones to a microscope ocular lens. Results: The App was launched in August 2013. The App facilitated easy submission of cases for teleconsultation by limiting the number of data entry fields for users and enabling uploading of images from their smartphone′s gallery wirelessly. Smartphone cameras properly attached to a microscope create static digital images of similar quality to a commercial digital microscope camera. Conclusion: Smartphones have great potential to support telepathology because they are portable, provide ubiquitous internet connectivity, contain excellent digital cameras, and can be easily attached to a microscope. The Pocket Pathologist App represents a significant reduction in the cost of creating digital images and submitting them for teleconsultation. The iPhone App provides an easy solution for global users to submit digital pathology images to pathology experts for consultation.

  8. Estimating Client Out-of-Pocket Costs for Accessing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Tchuenche

    Full Text Available In 2010, South Africa launched a countrywide effort to scale up its voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC program on the basis of compelling evidence that circumcision reduces men's risk of acquiring HIV through heterosexual intercourse. Even though VMMC is free there, clients can incur indirect out-of-pocket costs (for example transportation cost or foregone income. Because these costs can be barriers to increasing the uptake of VMMC services, we assessed them from a client perspective, to inform VMMC demand creation policies. Costs (calculated using a bottom-up approach and demographic data were systematically collected through 190 interviews conducted in 2015 with VMMC clients or (for minors their caregivers at 25 VMMC facilities supported by the government and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in eight of South Africa's nine provinces. The average age of VMMC clients was 22 years and nearly 92% were under 35 years of age. The largest reported out-of-pocket expenditure was transportation, at an average of US$9.20 (R 100. Only eight clients (4% reported lost days of work. Indirect expenditures were childcare costs (one client and miscellaneous items such as food or medicine (20 clients. Given competing household expense priorities, spending US$9.20 (R100 per person on transportation to access VMMC services could be a significant burden on clients and households, and a barrier to South Africa's efforts to create demand for VMMC. Thus, we recommend a more focused analysis of clients' transportation costs to access VMMC services.

  9. A new strategy of fingertip reattachment: sequential use of microsurgical technique and pocketing of composite graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K S; Eo, S R; Kim, D Y; Lee, S Y; Cho, B H

    2001-01-01

    Many methods have been used to reattach amputated fingertips. Of these methods, microsurgery has been accepted as the procedure of choice because the defining characteristic of a microsurgically replanted finger is that its surival in the recipient bed is predicated on functioning intravascular circulation. Although considerable progress has been made in the techniques for microvascular replantation of amputated fingers, the replantation of an amputated fingertip is difficult because digital arteries branch into small arteries. This is in addition to digital veins that run from both sides of the nail bed to the median dorsal sides, which are difficult to separate from the immobile soft tissue. Furthermore, even with the most technically skilled microsurgeon, replantation failure often occurs, especially in severe injury cases. Therefore, the technique is not the only protection against failure, and a new strategy of fingertip reattachment is needed. From March of 1997 to December of 1999, 12 fingers of 11 patients with zone 1 or zone 2 fingertip amputations that were reattached microsurgically but were compromised were deepithelialized, reattached, and then inserted into the abdominal pocket. All had been complete amputations with crushing injuries. Approximately 3 weeks later, the fingers were depocketed and covered with a skin graft. Of the 12 fingers, 7 survived completely and 3 had partial necrosis on less than one-third the volume of the amputated part. The complete survival rate was approximately 58 percent. The results of the above 10 fingers were satisfactory from both functional and cosmetic aspects. The authors believe that this high success rate was achieved because the deepithelialized finger pulp was placed in direct contact with the deep abdominal fascia, which was equipped with plentiful vascularity, not subcutaneous fat. In addition, the pocketing was performed promptly before necrosis of the compromised fingertip occurred. From the results of this

  10. Development of Pocket Vision Screener and its effectiveness at screening visual acuity deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Raja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to construct a visual acuity chart and find its effectiveness at screening visual acuity deficits. Materials and Methods: Two phases were involved in this study.Construction of the screener: Ten Sloan letters (C, D, H, K, N, O, R, S, V, and Z were selected and the letters were constructed and reduced to 0.2 logMAR acuity size (6.92 mm for viewing at 3 m. The screener contains three lines with seven letters in each. Few combinations of the seven letter sequences were chosen based on the row legibility scores. Three seven letter combinations close to the median of all combinations were selected, such that maximum difficulty score difference between the lines are <1%. Finding the effectiveness of the screener: 100 literate subjects with unaided visual acuity better than or equal to 6/60 were recruited for the study. Unaided visual acuity was tested using both the newly constructed Pocket Vision Screener and a logMAR visual acuity chart and the time taken to measure the visual acuity using both the charts was noted. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 43 ± 17 years. Subjects were classified as normal or deficient based on the logMAR visual acuity measurement. The screener was found to have 81% sensitivity, 94% specificity. The positive and negative predictive values were found to be 91% and 87%, respectively. A significant difference (P < 0.001 was found in the time taken to record visual acuity using both the charts. Conclusion: The Pocket Vision Screener can be used as a quick and accurate tool to screen subjects for visual acuity deficits, being highly sensitive, specific, and cost-effective.

  11. The same pocket in menin binds both MLL and JUND but has opposite effects on transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jing; Gurung, Buddha; Wan, Bingbing; Matkar, Smita; Veniaminova, Natalia A.; Wan, Ke; Merchant, Juanita L.; Hua, Xianxin; Lei, Ming (Michigan); (Michigan-Med); (UPENN-MED)

    2013-04-08

    Menin is a tumour suppressor protein whose loss or inactivation causes multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1), a hereditary autosomal dominant tumour syndrome that is characterized by tumorigenesis in multiple endocrine organs. Menin interacts with many proteins and is involved in a variety of cellular processes. Menin binds the JUN family transcription factor JUND and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Several MEN1 missense mutations disrupt the menin-JUND interaction, suggesting a correlation between the tumour-suppressor function of menin and its suppression of JUND-activated transcription. Menin also interacts with mixed lineage leukaemia protein 1 (MLL1), a histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferase, and functions as an oncogenic cofactor to upregulate gene transcription and promote MLL1-fusion-protein-induced leukaemogenesis. A recent report on the tethering of MLL1 to chromatin binding factor lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF) by menin indicates that menin is a molecular adaptor coordinating the functions of multiple proteins. Despite its importance, how menin interacts with many distinct partners and regulates their functions remains poorly understood. Here we present the crystal structures of human menin in its free form and in complexes with MLL1 or with JUND, or with an MLL1-LEDGF heterodimer. These structures show that menin contains a deep pocket that binds short peptides of MLL1 or JUND in the same manner, but that it can have opposite effects on transcription. The menin-JUND interaction blocks JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated JUND phosphorylation and suppresses JUND-induced transcription. In contrast, menin promotes gene transcription by binding the transcription activator MLL1 through the peptide pocket while still interacting with the chromatin-anchoring protein LEDGF at a distinct surface formed by both menin and MLL1.

  12. Out-of-Pocket Spending and Financial Burden Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Amol K; Nicholas, Lauren Hersch

    2017-06-01

    Medicare beneficiaries with cancer are at risk for financial hardship given increasingly expensive cancer care and significant cost sharing by beneficiaries. To measure out-of-pocket (OOP) costs incurred by Medicare beneficiaries with cancer and identify which factors and services contribute to high OOP costs. We prospectively collected survey data from 18 166 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries, including 1409 individuals who were diagnosed with cancer during the study period, who participated in the January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2012, waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study of US residents older than 50 years. Data analysis was performed from July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015. Out-of-pocket medical spending and financial burden (OOP expenditures divided by total household income). Among the 1409 participants (median age, 73 years [interquartile range, 69-79 years]; 46.4% female and 53.6% male) diagnosed with cancer during the study period, the type of supplementary insurance was significantly associated with mean annual OOP costs incurred after a cancer diagnosis ($2116 among those insured by Medicaid, $2367 among those insured by the Veterans Health Administration, $5976 among those insured by a Medicare health maintenance organization, $5492 among those with employer-sponsored insurance, $5670 among those with Medigap insurance coverage, and $8115 among those insured by traditional fee-for-service Medicare but without supplemental insurance coverage). A new diagnosis of cancer or common chronic noncancer condition was associated with increased odds of incurring costs in the highest decile of OOP expenditures (cancer: adjusted odds ratio, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.55-2.23; P services and incorporate an OOP maximum may help alleviate financial burden, as can interventions that reduce hospitalization in this population.

  13. Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Using a Pocket-Size Device in the Emergency Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico José Neves Mancuso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular urgencies are frequent reasons for seeking medical care. Prompt and accurate medical diagnosis is critical to reduce the morbidity and mortality of these conditions. Objective: To evaluate the use of a pocket-size echocardiography in addition to clinical history and physical exam in a tertiary medical emergency care. Methods: One hundred adult patients without known cardiac or lung diseases who sought emergency care with cardiac complaints were included. Patients with ischemic changes in the electrocardiography or fever were excluded. A focused echocardiography with GE Vscan equipment was performed after the initial evaluation in the emergency room. Cardiac chambers dimensions, left and right ventricular systolic function, intracardiac flows with color, pericardium, and aorta were evaluated. Results: The mean age was 61 ± 17 years old. The patient complaint was chest pain in 51 patients, dyspnea in 32 patients, arrhythmia to evaluate the left ventricular function in ten patients, hypotension/dizziness in five patients and edema in one patient. In 28 patients, the focused echocardiography allowed to confirm the initial diagnosis: 19 patients with heart failure, five with acute coronary syndrome, two with pulmonary embolism and two patients with cardiac tamponade. In 17 patients, the echocardiography changed the diagnosis: ten with suspicious of heart failure, two with pulmonary embolism suspicious, two with hypotension without cause, one suspicious of acute coronary syndrome, one of cardiac tamponade and one of aortic dissection. Conclusion: The focused echocardiography with pocket-size equipment in the emergency care may allow a prompt diagnosis and, consequently, an earlier initiation of the therapy.

  14. Pneumatic Multi-Pocket Elastomer Actuators for Metacarpophalangeal Joint Flexion and Abduction-Adduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio Veli Juhani Tarvainen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, interest has been rising towards developing fluidic fiber-reinforced elastomer actuators for wearable soft robotics used in hand rehabilitation and power-assist. However, they do not enable finger abduction-adduction, which plays an important role in activities of daily living, when grasping larger objects. Furthermore, the developed gloves often do not have separate control of joints, which is important for doing various common rehabilitation motions. The main obstacle for the development of a fully-assisting glove is moving a joint with multiple degrees of freedom. If the functions are built into the same structure, they are naturally coupled and affect each other, which makes them more difficult to design and complex to control than a simple flexion-extension actuator. In this study, we explored the key design elements and fabrication of pneumatic multi-pocket elastomer actuators for a soft rehabilitation glove. The goal was to gain more control over the metacarpophalangeal joint’s response by increasing the degree of actuation. Three main functional designs were tested for achieving both flexion and abduction-adduction. Five prototypes, with four different actuator geometries and four different reinforcement types, were designed and fabricated. They were evaluated by recording their free motion with motion capture and measuring their torque output using a dummy finger. Results showed the strengths and weaknesses of each design in separating the control of the two functions. We discuss the different improvements that are needed in order to make each design plausible for developing an actuator that meets the requirements for full assist of the hand’s motions. In conclusion, we show that it is possible to produce multi-pocket actuators for assisting MCP joint motion in both flexion and abduction-adduction, although coupling between the separate functions is still problematic and should be considered further.

  15. Mitogen requirement for cell cycle progression in the absence of pocket protein activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foijer, Floris; Wolthuis, Rob M F; Doodeman, Valerie; Medema, René H; te Riele, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking expression of all three retinoblastoma protein family members (TKO MEFs) have lost the G1 restriction point. However, in the absence of mitogens these cells become highly sensitive to apoptosis. Here, we show that TKO MEFs that survive serum depletion pass

  16. Impacts of chronic non-communicable diseases on households' out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallegedara, Asankha

    2018-01-10

    This article examines the effects of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on households' out-of-pocket health expenditures in Sri Lanka. We explore the disease specific impacts on out-of-pocket health care expenses from chronic NCDs such as heart diseases, hypertension, cancer, diabetics and asthma. We use nationwide cross-sectional household income and expenditure survey 2012/2013 data compiled by the department of census and statistics of Sri Lanka. Employing propensity score matching method to account for selectivity bias, we find that chronic NCD affected households appear to spend significantly higher out-of-pocket health care expenditures and encounter grater economic burden than matched control group despite having universal public health care policy in Sri Lanka. The results also suggest that out-of-pocket expenses on medicines and other pharmaceutical products as well as expenses on medical laboratory tests and other ancillary services are particularly higher for households with chronic NCD patients. The findings underline the importance of protecting households against the financial burden due to NCDs.

  17. Effectiveness of Several NDE Technologies in Detecting Moisture Pockets and: Artificial Defects in Sawn Timber and Glulam

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Christopher Adam Senalik; Xiping Wang; Frank Jalinoos

    2016-01-01

    Several nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies were studied to determine their efficacy as scanning devices to detect internal moisture and artificial decay pockets. Large bridge-sized test specimens, including sawn timber and glued-laminated timber members, were fabricated with various internal defects. NDE Technologies evaluated in this research were ground...

  18. A phosphoserine/threonine-binding pocket in AGC kinases and PDK1 mediates activation by hydrophobic motif phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, Morten; Antal, Torben L; Dümmler, Bettina A

    2002-01-01

    docking site that recruits and activates PDK1, which then phosphorylates the activation loop. Here, we discover a pocket in the kinase domain of PDK1 that recognizes the phosphoserine/phosphothreonine in the hydrophobic motif by identifying two oppositely positioned arginine and lysine residues that bind...

  19. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes : Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes

  20. Burden of common multiple-morbidity constellations on out-of-pocket medical expenditures among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Kim, Hyungsoo; Edwards, William; Fleming, Steven T

    2007-08-01

    On average, adults aged 60 years or older have 2.2 chronic diseases, contributing to the over 60 million Americans with multiple morbidities. We aimed to understand the financial implications of the most frequent multiple morbidities among older adults. We analyzed Health and Retirement Study data, determining out-of-pocket medical expenses from 1998 and 2002 separately and examining differences in the impact of multiple-morbidity constellations on these expenses. We paid particular attention to the most common disease constellations - hypertension, arthritis, and heart disease. An increasing prevalence of multiple morbidity (58% compared with 70% of adults had two or more chronic conditions in 1998 and 2002, respectively) was accompanied by escalating out-of-pocket expenditures (2,164 dollars in 1998, increasing by 104% to 3,748 dollars in 2002). Individuals with two, three, and four chronic conditions had health care expenditure increases of 41%, 85%, and 100%, respectively, over 4 years. Such patterns were particularly noticeable among the oldest old, those with higher educational attainment, and women, although having supplementary health insurance or Medicaid mitigated these expenses. Finally, there were significant differences in out-of-pocket expenditure levels among the multiple-morbidity combinations. Increasing rates of multiple morbidities in conjunction with escalating health care costs and stable or declining incomes among elders warrant creative attention from providers, researchers, and policy makers. Further understanding how specific multiple-morbidity constellations impact out-of-pocket spending moves us closer to effective interventions to support vulnerable elders.

  1. Does health insurance coverage or improved quality protect better against out-of-pocket payments? Experimental evidence from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Natascha; Quimbo, Stella; Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John

    2018-03-17

    This paper explores whether health insurance coverage or improved quality at the hospital level protect better against out-of-pocket payments. Using data from a randomized policy experiment in the Philippines, we found that interventions to expand insurance coverage and improve provider quality both had an impact on out-of-pocket payments. The sample consists of 3121 child-patient patient observations across 30 hospitals either at baseline in 2003/04 or at the follow-up in 2007/08. Compared to controls, interventions that expanded insurance and provided performance-based provider payments to improve quality both resulted in a decline in out-of-pocket spending (21% decline, p-value = 0.061; and 24% decline, p-value = 0.017, respectively). With lower out-of-pocket payments for hospital care, monthly household spending on personal hygiene rose by 0.9 (p-value = 0.026) and 0.6 US$ (p-value = 0.098) under the expanded insurance and provider payment interventions, respectively, amounting to roughly a 40-60% increase relative to the controls. With the current surge for health insurance expansion in developing countries, our study suggests paying increased and possibly, equal attention to supply-side interventions will have similar impacts with operational simplicity and greater provider accountability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influences of lubricant pocket geometry and working conditions upon micro lubrication mechanisms in upsetting and strip drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shimizu, Ichiro; Martins, P. A. F.; Bay, Niels

    2010-01-01

    , during upsetting and strip drawing, by means of a rigid-viscoplastic finite-element formulation. Special emphasis is placed on the effect of pocket geometry on the build-up of hydrostatic pressure, which is responsible for the onset of micro-lubrication mechanisms. A good agreement is found between...... the numerically predicted and the experimentally measured distributions of hydrostatic stress....

  3. Impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus on prescription medication burden and out-of-pocket healthcare expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodbard, Helena W; Green, Andrew J; Fox, Kathleen M; Grandy, Susan

    2010-03-01

    The number of prescription medications and out-of-pocket expenses of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were evaluated to assess the economic burden of diabetes. The self-reported number of prescription medications and out-of-pocket healthcare expenses were evaluated from respondents of the United States SHIELD study with and without a diagnosis of T2DM. Medications included monotherapy and combination therapy; combination tablets were counted as one agent. Analysis of variance and multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, gender, prescription insurance coverage, and household income. Of the T2DM respondents (n=3551), 40% were on 1 prescription antidiabetic agent (7% insulin alone), 26% were on 2 agents, 8% were on >or=3 agents, with a mean of 1.3 antidiabetic agents. After adjusting for age, gender, insurance coverage, and income, respondents with T2DM had a significantly larger total number of prescriptions (6.2) and higher out-of-pocket expenses for both annual medical ($1158) and monthly prescription ($144) expenses, compared with respondents without T2DM (n=8686) (4.1 prescriptions, $925 annual medical, $118 monthly prescription) (p<0.01). Increased out-of-pocket medical and medication costs in T2DM are due to the use of both antidiabetic agents and other medications for treatment of comorbid conditions.

  4. An alginate-antacid formulation localizes to the acid pocket to reduce acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Bennink, Roel J.; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Thomas, Edward; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2013-01-01

    Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an

  5. [Out-of-pocket expenditure by elderly adults enrolled in a public health insurance programme in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavón-León, Patricia; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Martínez, Armando J; Méndez-Maín, Silvia María; Gogeascoechea-Trejo, María Del Carmen; Blázquez-Morales, María Sobeida L

    To identify the association between various sociodemographic variables and out-of-pocket expenditure on health by elderly people enrolled in Seguro Popular (SP). Analytical cross-sectional study. An in-person survey was administered to users of three outpatient clinics in the state of Veracruz: a health centre (first level), regional hospital (second level) and highly specialised hospital. The out-of-pocket expenditure on health was analysed using a generalised linear model. The sample consisted of 1,049 beneficiaries of SP over age 60 with a response rate of 97.7%. The monthly out-of-pocket expenditure on health was $64.80 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 59.90-69.80). The highest expense category was drugs that are included in the SP ($28.80; 95% CI: 25.80-31.70) and drugs that are not covered by the SP ($8.00; 95% CI: 6.70-9.20). People over age 60 enrolled in SP pay out of their pocket to meet their health needs, despite having public health insurance. This represents an inequity in access, especially for the most vulnerable such as the rural population. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection of targeted GFP-Hox gene fusions during mouse embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, A R; Stadler, H S; Nakamura, K; Capecchi, M R

    1998-10-27

    The ability to use a vital cell marker to study mouse embryogenesis will open new avenues of experimental research. Recently, the use of transgenic mice, containing multiple copies of the jellyfish gene encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP), has begun to realize this potential. Here, we show that the fluorescent signals produced by single-copy, targeted GFP in-frame fusions with two different murine Hox genes, Hoxa1 and Hoxc13, are readily detectable by using confocal microscopy. Since Hoxa1 is expressed early and Hoxc13 is expressed late in mouse embryogenesis, this study shows that single-copy GFP gene fusions can be used through most of mouse embryogenesis. Previously, targeted lacZ gene fusions have been very useful for analyzing mouse mutants. Use of GFP gene fusions extends the benefits of targeted lacZ gene fusions by providing the additional utility of a vital marker. Our analysis of the Hoxc13(GFPneo) embryos reveals GFP expression in each of the sites expected from analysis of Hoxc13(lacZneo) embryos. Similarly, Hoxa1(GFPneo) expression was detected in all of the sites predicted from RNA in situ analysis. GFP expression in the foregut pocket of Hoxa1(GFPneo) embryos suggests a role for Hoxa1 in foregut-mediated differentiation of the cardiogenic mesoderm.

  7. The financial burden of out-of-pocket patient payments in the European Union and accession countries: Results of a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, K.; Pavlova, M.; Groot, W.

    2014-01-01

    A major issue for public health policy is to reduce the poverty and catastrophic effects of out-of-pocket payments. This paper reviews empirical studies that analyze the financial burden of out-of-pocket payments and factors that are associated with this burden for households in the EU and accession

  8. A transgenic mouse line for collecting ribosome-bound mRNA using the tetracycline transactivator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel eDrane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring the gene expression profiles of specific neuronal cell-types is important for understanding their molecular identities. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of genetically defined cell-types can be acquired by collecting and sequencing mRNA that is bound to epitope-tagged ribosomes (TRAP; Translating Ribosome Affinity Purification. Here, we introduce a transgenic mouse model that combines the TRAP technique with the tetracycline transactivator (tTA system by expressing EGFP-tagged ribosomal protein L10a (EGFP-L10a under control of the tetracycline response element (tetO-TRAP. This allows both spatial control of EGFP-L10a expression through cell-type specific tTA expression, as well as temporal regulation by inhibiting transgene expression through the administration of doxycycline. We show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic mice expressing tTA under the Camk2a promoter (Camk2a-tTA results in offspring with cell-type specific expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed that EGFP-L10a integrates into a functional ribosomal complex. In addition, collection of ribosome-bound mRNA from the hippocampus yielded the expected enrichment of genes expressed in CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as a depletion of genes expressed in other hippocampal cell-types. Finally, we show that crossing tetO-TRAP mice with transgenic Fos-tTA mice enables the expression of EGFP-L10a in CA1 pyramidal neurons that are activated during a fear conditioning trial. The tetO-TRAP mouse can be combined with other tTA mouse lines to enable gene expression profiling of a variety of different cell-types.

  9. Mental health care and out-of-pocket expenditures in Europe: results from the ESEMeD project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Dedieu, Christine; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Gilbert, Fabien; Vilagut, Gemma; Koenig, Hans-Helmut; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Haro, Josep Maria; Alonso, Jordi

    2011-06-01

    Most published data on out-of-pocket spending on mental health originate from the United States, where insurance payments for mental health have traditionally been much less generous than benefits for other health care services. Given the difference in the structure of health care funding in Europe, it is clearly important to obtain similar information on out-of-pocket expenditure in different European countries. To estimate out-of-pocket costs paid by people who receive mental health care in six European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Spain). Of the 8,796 participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in these six European countries, 1,128 reported having consulted a professional for a mental health problem in the year preceding the interview and provided information on how many times in the past year they consulted each type of provider, and the money they and their family members had paid out-of-pocket for their mental health care. In addition to sociodemographic characteristics, information on mental health status was collected using the CIDI 3.0. Descriptive statistics on out-of-pocket expenditure and share of income across countries were generated. Two-part models were employed to identify the relationship between the different covariates, notably the types of providers consulted, and out-of-pocket expenditure. Overall, 41.0% of those who used services for a mental health problem paid something for the care they received. This represented a minority of respondents in all countries except Belgium (87.9%) and Italy (61.7%). The financial burden of these costs relative to income was found to be low (1.2%), ranging from 0.4% in Germany to 2.3% in France. Out-of-pocket expenditure differed according to the type of providers consulted, with non-physician health professionals and medical specialists being more often associated with significant expenditure. Although the study is limited principally by data collection from self

  10. Inhibition of TLR2 signaling by small molecule inhibitors targeting a pocket within the TLR2 TIR domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Pragnesh; Laird, Michelle H. W.; Schwarz, Ryan S.; Greene, Shannon; Dyson, Tristan; Snyder, Greg A.; Xiao, Tsan Sam; Chauhan, Jay; Fletcher, Steven; Toshchakov, Vladimir Y.; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Vogel, Stefanie N.

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is initiated by dimerization of intracellular Toll/IL-1 receptor resistance (TIR) domains. For all TLRs except TLR3, recruitment of the adapter, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), to TLR TIR domains results in downstream signaling culminating in proinflammatory cytokine production. Therefore, blocking TLR TIR dimerization may ameliorate TLR2-mediated hyperinflammatory states. The BB loop within the TLR TIR domain is critical for mediating certain protein–protein interactions. Examination of the human TLR2 TIR domain crystal structure revealed a pocket adjacent to the highly conserved P681 and G682 BB loop residues. Using computer-aided drug design (CADD), we sought to identify a small molecule inhibitor(s) that would fit within this pocket and potentially disrupt TLR2 signaling. In silico screening identified 149 compounds and 20 US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs based on their predicted ability to bind in the BB loop pocket. These compounds were screened in HEK293T-TLR2 transfectants for the ability to inhibit TLR2-mediated IL-8 mRNA. C16H15NO4 (C29) was identified as a potential TLR2 inhibitor. C29, and its derivative, ortho-vanillin (o-vanillin), inhibited TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 signaling induced by synthetic and bacterial TLR2 agonists in human HEK-TLR2 and THP-1 cells, but only TLR2/1 signaling in murine macrophages. C29 failed to inhibit signaling induced by other TLR agonists and TNF-α. Mutagenesis of BB loop pocket residues revealed an indispensable role for TLR2/1, but not TLR2/6, signaling, suggesting divergent roles. Mice treated with o-vanillin exhibited reduced TLR2-induced inflammation. Our data provide proof of principle that targeting the BB loop pocket is an effective approach for identification of TLR2 signaling inhibitors. PMID:25870276

  11. Recent trends in the probability of high out-of-pocket medical expenses in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Baird

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article measures the probability that out-of-pocket expenses in the United States exceed a threshold share of income. It calculates this probability separately by individuals’ health condition, income, and elderly status and estimates changes occurring in these probabilities between 2010 and 2013. Data and Method: This article uses nationally representative household survey data on 344,000 individuals. Logistic regressions estimate the probabilities that out-of-pocket expenses exceed 5% and alternatively 10% of income in the two study years. These probabilities are calculated for individuals based on their income, health status, and elderly status. Results: Despite favorable changes in both health policy and the economy, large numbers of Americans continue to be exposed to high out-of-pocket expenditures. For instance, the results indicate that in 2013 over a quarter of nonelderly low-income citizens in poor health spent 10% or more of their income on out-of-pocket expenses, and over 40% of this group spent more than 5%. Moreover, for Americans as a whole, the probability of spending in excess of 5% of income on out-of-pocket costs increased by 1.4 percentage points between 2010 and 2013, with the largest increases occurring among low-income Americans; the probability of Americans spending more than 10% of income grew from 9.3% to 9.6%, with the largest increases also occurring among the poor. Conclusion: The magnitude of out-of-pocket’s financial burden and the most recent upward trends in it underscore a need to develop good measures of the degree to which health care policy exposes individuals to financial risk, and to closely monitor the Affordable Care Act’s success in reducing Americans’ exposure to large medical bills.

  12. A Single Amino Acid Difference between Mouse and Human 5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein (FLAP) Explains the Speciation and Differential Pharmacology of Novel FLAP Inhibitors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevitt, Jonathan M.; Hack, Michael D.; Herman, Krystal; Chang, Leon; Keith, John M.; Mirzadegan, Tara; Rao, Navin L.; Lebsack, Alec D.; Milla, Marcos E.

    2016-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) plays a critical role in the metabolism of arachidonic acid to leukotriene A4, the precursor to the potent pro-inflammatory mediators leukotriene B4 and leukotriene C4. Studies with small molecule inhibitors of FLAP have led to the discovery of a drug binding pocket on the protein surface, and several pharmaceutical companies have developed compounds and performed clinical trials. Crystallographic studies and mutational analyses have contributed to a general understanding of compound binding modes. During our own efforts, we identified two unique chemical series. One series demonstrated strong inhibition of human FLAP but differential pharmacology across species and was completely inactive in assays with mouse or rat FLAP. The other series was active across rodent FLAP, as well as human and dog FLAP. Comparison of rodent and human FLAP amino acid sequences together with an analysis of a published crystal structure led to the identification of amino acid residue 24 in the floor of the putative binding pocket as a likely candidate for the observed speciation. On that basis, we tested compounds for binding to human G24A and mouse A24G FLAP mutant variants and compared the data to that generated for wild type human and mouse FLAP. These studies confirmed that a single amino acid mutation was sufficient to reverse the speciation observed in wild type FLAP. In addition, a PK/PD method was established in canines to enable preclinical profiling of mouse-inactive compounds. PMID:27129215

  13. Out-of-pocket cost of managing sick newborns in Enugu, southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekwochi U

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uchenna Ekwochi,1 D Chidiebere Osuorah,3 Ikenna K Ndu,1 Osita U Ezenwosu,2 Ogechukwu F Amadi,1 Ikenna C Nwokoye,1 O Israel Odetunde2 1Department of Pediatrics, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Parklane, Nigeria; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 3Child Survival Unit, Medical Research Council (UK, The Gambia unit, Fajara, The Gambia Background: Neonatal illnesses usually require long hospital stays and specialized care and/or facilities, which usually results in huge medical bills. With more than 70% of people in Nigeria living on less than US$2 per day, these bills are not affordable to many families' livelihoods. Aim: This study aims to determine the average cost of managing neonatal illnesses in Enugu in southeast Nigeria and the proportion of family income spent on these illnesses. It further seeks to ascertain the cost of various components in the management of neonatal diseases. Methods: This is a longitudinal and descriptive study involving 106 newborns admitted to the sick baby unit of the Enugu State University Teaching Hospital and the out-of-pocket medical expenditure in the management of their illnesses. Results: A hundred and six newborns participated in the study. All (100% medical bills were out-of-pocket payments, and 103 (97.2% of these were catastrophic health expenditure (more than 10% of total family monthly income. The average duration of hospital stay and cost of managing a neonatal illness was 12.86±8.81 days and ₦36,382±19,389.72 (US$223±119, respectively. This expenditure amounted to 157%, 71%, and 25% of total monthly family income for the low, middle, and upper socioeconomic class families, respectively, with a mean percentage of 85%. Families with a total monthly income of less than ₦10,000 (US$61, ₦10,000–49,999 (US$61–306, and ₦50,000–100,000 (US$306–612 and more than ₦100,000 (US$612 on average spent 683%, 108%, 54%, and 20% of their

  14. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  15. Rasp21 sequences opposite the nucleotide binding pocket are required for GRF-mediated nucleotide release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonardsen, L; DeClue, J E; Lybaek, H

    1996-01-01

    The substrate requirements for the catalytic activity of the mouse Cdc25 homolog Guanine nucleotide Release Factor, GRF, were determined using the catalytic domain of GRF expressed in insect cells and E. coli expressed H-Ras mutants. We found a requirement for the loop 7 residues in Ras (amino ac...... and the human Ras like proteins RhoA, Rap1A, Rac1 and G25K revealed a strict Ras specificity; of these only S. pombe Ras was GRF sensitive....

  16. Burial duration, depth and air pocket explain avalanche survival patterns in Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Emily; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Dal Cappello, Tomas; Zweifel, Benjamin; Würtele, Andreas; Renner, Andreas; Falk, Markus; Brugger, Hermann

    2016-08-01

    To calculate the first Austrian avalanche survival curve and update a Swiss survival curve to explore survival patterns in the Alps. Avalanche accidents occurring between 2005/06 and 2012/13 in Austria and Switzerland were collected. Completely buried victims (i.e. burial of the head and chest) in open terrain with known outcome (survived or not survived) were included in the analysis. Extrication and survival curves were calculated using the Turnbull algorithm, as in previous studies. 633 of the 796 completely buried victims were included (Austria n=333, Switzerland n=300). Overall survival was 56% (Austria 59%; Switzerland 52%; p=0.065). Time to extrication was shorter in Austria for victims buried ≤60min (p15min. The survival curves resembled those previously published and support the idea that underlying survival patterns are reproducible. The results are in accordance with current recommendations for management of avalanche victims and serve as a reminder that expedient companion rescue within a few minutes is critical for survival. An air pocket was shown to be a positive prognostic factor for survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care in Kyrgyzstan, 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkingham, Jane; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Baschieri, Angela

    2010-09-01

    Within the countries of the former Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has been a pioneer in reforming the system of health care finance. Since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, the country has gradually moved from subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services through the 'single payer' of the health insurance fund. In 2002 the government introduced a new co-payment for inpatients along with a basic benefit package. A key objective of the reforms has been to replace the burgeoning system of unofficial informal payments for health care with a transparent official co-payment, thereby reducing the financial burden of health care spending for the poor. This article investigates trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care using the results of a series of nationally representative household surveys conducted over the period 2001-2007, when the reforms were being rolled out. The analysis shows that there has been a significant improvement in financial access to health care amongst the population. The proportion paying state providers for consultations fell between 2004 and 2007. As a result of the introduction of co-payments for hospital care, fewer inpatients report making payments to medical personnel, but when they are made, payments are high, especially to surgeons and anaesthetists. However, although financial access for outpatient care has improved, the burden of health care payments amongst the poor remains significant.

  18. Comparative study of three types of civil defense high-range pocket dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskel, R.L.; Sims, C.S.; Swaja, R.

    1987-01-01

    Civil defense shelters are stocked with high-range (0- to 200-R) CDV-742 pocket dosimeters. These dosimeters are intended for use by people that must leave the shelter when the environmental radiation level is either high or unknown. A total of 67 CDV-742 dosimeters were obtained and studied during the summer of 1986 at Oak Ridge National Lab. Health Physics Research Reactor (HPRR). Three different types of dosimeters (27 Bendix, 20 Landsverk-Gold, and 20 Landsverk-Yellow) in various combinations were exposed to 14 separate pulse operations of the HPRR. It can be concluded that the CDV-742 type dosimeters were not suitable for use in a neutron or mixed radiation field unless the spectra is known and correction factors determined in this study are properly applied. Further study is needed to determine the accuracy of these dosimeters in a pure gamma field and to determine their precision at the extreme ends of the dosimeter range. Furthermore, because of their failure rates, shelter occupants should consider exposure data from the Bendix and Landsverk-Yellow dosimeters to be highly unreliable unless sufficient evidence exists to support the exposure readings

  19. Financial catastrophe and poverty impacts of out-of-pocket health payments in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgen Narcı, Hacer; Şahin, İsmet; Yıldırım, Hasan Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of catastrophic health payments, examine the determinants of catastrophic expenditures, and assess the poverty impact of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. Data came from the 2004 to 2010 Household Budget Survey. Catastrophic health spending was defined by health payments as percentage of household consumption expenditures and capacity to pay at a set of thresholds. The poverty impact was evaluated by poverty head counts and poverty gaps before and after OOP health payments. The percentage of households that catastrophically spent their consumption expenditure and capacity to pay increased from 2004 to 2010, regardless of the threshold used. Households with a share of more than 40% health spending in both consumption expenditure and capacity to pay accounted for less than 1% across years. However, when a series of potential confounders were taken into account, the study found statistically significantly increased risk for the lowest threshold and decreased risk for the highest threshold in 2010 relative to the base year. Household income, size, education, senior and under 5-year-old members, health insurance, disabled members, payment for inpatient care and settlement were also statistically significant predictors of catastrophic health spending. Overall, poverty head counts were below 1%. Poverty gaps reached a maximum of 0.098%, with an overall increase in 2010 compared to 2004. Catastrophe and poverty increased from 2004 to 2010. However, given that the realization of some recent policies will affect the financial burden of OOP payments on households, the findings of this study need to be replicated.

  20. The Application of the Logo Language for Future Astronomical PocketQubes and CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, J. Garrett

    2014-06-01

    The PocketQube T-LogoQube was a successful test of a Logo based system for future astronomical CubeSats. The flight and ground software for T-LogoQube is based on the Logo programing language. This flight software is the first use of the Logo language for the control of any satellite. The T-LogoQube team is compised of ~50 people (professional mentors, faculty, and students). The T-LogoQube uLogo based flight system acheived the following goals:(1) Transmission of fours types of packet data with the RFM22B transceiver.(2) Ability to control T-LogoQube with a "one line uLogo program".(3) The uLogo VM includes a unigue time stamp for all data.(4) Past beacon packets are telemetered for a history of T-LogoQube.(5) Realtime flight analysis of the Magnetometer to measure spin rate on orbit(6) Ability to upload new uLogo code to extend the on orbit operation.(7) Single torque coil to point the T-LogoQube spin axis in any direction(8) Detection and ability to correct SEUsWe will present evolution of Logo for future CubeSats for space based astronomy projects.

  1. Communication rights from the margins: politicising young refugees' smartphone pocket archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leurs, Koen

    2017-11-01

    Politicising the smartphone pocket archives and experiences of 16 young refugees living in the Netherlands, this explorative study re-conceptualises and empirically grounds communication rights. The focus is on the usage of social media among young refugees, who operate from the margins of society, human rights discourse and technology. I focus on digital performativity as a means to address unjust communicative power relations and human right violations. Methodologically, I draw on empirical data gathered through a mixed-methods, participatory action fieldwork research approach. The empirical section details how digital practices may invoke human right ideals including the human right to self-determination, the right to self-expression, the right to information, the right to family life and the right to cultural identity. The digital performativity of communication rights becomes meaningful when fundamentally situated within hierarchical and intersectional power relations of gender, race, nationality among others, and as inherently related to material conditions and other basic human rights including access to shelter, food, well-being and education.

  2. Heading Estimation for Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Using a Smartphone in the Pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-An Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Heading estimation is a central problem for indoor pedestrian navigation using the pervasively available smartphone. For smartphones placed in a pocket, one of the most popular device positions, the essential challenges in heading estimation are the changing device coordinate system and the severe indoor magnetic perturbations. To address these challenges, we propose a novel heading estimation approach based on a rotation matrix and principal component analysis (PCA. Firstly, through a related rotation matrix, we project the acceleration signals into a reference coordinate system (RCS, where a more accurate estimation of the horizontal plane of the acceleration signal is obtained. Then, we utilize PCA over the horizontal plane of acceleration signals for local walking direction extraction. Finally, in order to translate the local walking direction into the global one, we develop a calibration process without requiring noisy compass readings. Besides, a turn detection algorithm is proposed to improve the heading estimation accuracy. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the traditional uDirect and PCA-based approaches in terms of accuracy and feasibility.

  3. Effects of high frequency electromagnetic field emitted from digital cellular telephones on electronic pocket dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuhiko, Deji; Kunihide, Nishizawa

    2002-01-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from digital cellular telephones (cell phones) occasionally cause abnormally high values (wrong dosages) on electronic pocket dosimeters (EPD). Electric field strength distribution around the cell phone transmitting 1.5GHz band with a maximum power of 0.8 W was analyzed by using an isotropic probe with tri-axial dipole antennas. Five kinds of EPDs were exposed to the fields for 50s under four kinds of configurations relative to the cell phone. The electric field distribution expanded around the antenna and had a maximum strength level of 36.5 ± 0.30 V/m. The cell phone gave rise to a wrong dosage of four EPDs out of five. The electromagnetic susceptibility of the EPD was higher in the section where the semiconductor detector or electric circuit boards were implanted. The maximum value of wrong dosage was 1283μ Sv. The distance preventing electromagnetic interference differed in each EPD and ranged from 2.0cm to 21.0cm. The electromagnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were distributed from 9.2V/m to a value greater than 35V/m. The EPDs displayed wrong dosage during exposure, while they recovered their normal performance after the cell phone ceased transmitting. The electromagnetic immunity levels of the EPDs were either equal to or greater than the IEC-standard. The immunity levels should be enhanced greater than the IEC-standard from the standpoint of radiation protection

  4. HLA-DM focuses on conformational flexibility around P1 pocket to catalyze peptide exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liusong eYin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII molecules to CD4+ T cells play a central role in the initiation of adaptive immunity. This antigen presentation process is characterized by the proteolytic cleavage of foreign and self proteins, and loading of the resultant peptides onto MHCII molecules. Loading and exchange of antigenic peptides is catalyzed by a non-classical MHCII molecule, HLA-DM. The impact of HLA-DM on epitope selection has been appreciated for a long time. However, the molecular mechanism by which HLA-DM mediates peptide exchange remains elusive. Here, we review recent efforts in elucidating how HLA-DM works, highlighted by two recently solved co-structures of HLA-DM bound to HLA-DO (a natural inhibitor of HLA-DM, or to HLA-DR1 (a common MHCII. In light of these efforts, a model for HLA-DM action in which HLA-DM utilizes conformational flexibility around the P1 pocket of the MHCII-peptide complex to catalyze peptide exchange is proposed.

  5. Identification of the Tolfenamic Acid Binding Pocket in PrbP from Liberibacter asiaticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In Liberibacter asiaticus, PrbP is an important transcriptional accessory protein that was found to regulate gene expression through interactions with the RNA polymerase β-subunit and a specific sequence on the promoter region. It was found that inactivation of PrbP, using the inhibitor tolfenamic acid, resulted in a significant decrease in the overall transcriptional activity of L. asiaticus, and the suppression of L. asiaticus infection in HLB symptomatic citrus seedlings. The molecular interactions between PrbP and tolfenamic acid, however, were yet to be elucidated. In this study, we modeled the structure of PrbP and identified a ligand binding pocket, TaP, located at the interface of the predicted RNA polymerase interaction domain (N-terminus and the DNA binding domain (C-terminus. The molecular interactions of PrbP with tolfenamic acid were predicted using in silico docking. Site-directed mutagenesis of specific amino acids was followed by electrophoresis mobility shift assays and in vitro transcription assays, where residues N107, G109, and E148 were identified as the primary amino acids involved in interactions with tolfenamic acid. These results provide insight into the binding mechanism of PrbP to a small inhibitory molecule, and a starting scaffold for the identification and development of therapeutics targeting PrbP and other homologs in the CarD_CdnL_TRCF family.

  6. The financial burden of out of pocket prescription drug expenses in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldbick, Sam; Wu, Xiaojing; Lynch, Tom; Al-Khatib, Naser; Andkhoie, Mustafa; Farag, Marwa

    2015-09-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditures account for approximately 15.9 % of total health expenditures in Canada. Unlike hospital and physician services, in which costs are universally covered, most pharmacological therapy does not fall under the umbrella of 'medically necessary' services set out by the Canada Health Act, and therefore is funded through a mix of public and private plans. Little is known about the actual financial burden experienced by Canadians from out-of-pocket drug expenditures (OOPDE). This paper examines the burden of OOPDE in Canada. 1.1 % of Canadian households exceed our catastrophic threshold (9 %) of the drug budget share. Additionally, 2.6 and 8.2 % of households exceed lower thresholds of 6 and 3 % respectively. We find an inverse relationship between household income and the burden of OPPDE. Low-income households have the highest likelihood of being in the 'catastrophic' drug expenditure category. This finding suggests that a vulnerable population of 'working poor' are likely to be experiencing disproportionate financial burden because they are not eligible for public assistance programs. Seniors experience the highest burden of OPPDE when compared to other age groups. We also find that there is significant interprovincial variation in the burden of OOPDE, which partly reflects different provincial government drug coverage policies.

  7. Trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care in Kyrgyzstan, 2001–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkingham, Jane; Akkazieva, Baktygul; Baschieri, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Within the countries of the former Soviet Union, the Kyrgyz Republic has been a pioneer in reforming the system of health care finance. Since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, the country has gradually moved from subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services through the ‘single payer’ of the health insurance fund. In 2002 the government introduced a new co-payment for inpatients along with a basic benefit package. A key objective of the reforms has been to replace the burgeoning system of unofficial informal payments for health care with a transparent official co-payment, thereby reducing the financial burden of health care spending for the poor. This article investigates trends in out-of-pocket payments for health care using the results of a series of nationally representative household surveys conducted over the period 2001–2007, when the reforms were being rolled out. The analysis shows that there has been a significant improvement in financial access to health care amongst the population. The proportion paying state providers for consultations fell between 2004 and 2007. As a result of the introduction of co-payments for hospital care, fewer inpatients report making payments to medical personnel, but when they are made, payments are high, especially to surgeons and anaesthetists. However, although financial access for outpatient care has improved, the burden of health care payments amongst the poor remains significant. PMID:20332252

  8. A High Performance Pocket-Size System for Evaluations in Acoustic Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeger Gerhard H

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Custom-made hardware is attractive for sophisticated signal processing in wearable electroacoustic devices, but has a high initial cost overhead. Thus, signal processing algorithms should be tested thoroughly in real application environments by potential end users prior to the hardware implementation. In addition, the algorithms should be easily alterable during this test phase. A wearable system which meets these requirements has been developed and built. The system is based on the high performance signal processor Motorola DSP56309. This device also includes high quality stereo analog-to-digital-(ADC- and digital-to-analog-(DAC-converters with 20 bit word length each. The available dynamic range exceeds 88 dB. The input and output gains can be adjusted by digitally controlled potentiometers. The housing of the unit is small enough to carry it in a pocket (dimensions 150 × 80 × 25 mm. Software tools have been developed to ease the development of new algorithms. A set of configurable Assembler code modules implements all hardware dependent software routines and gives easy access to the peripherals and interfaces. A comfortable fitting interface allows easy control of the signal processing unit from a PC, even by assistant personnel. The device has proven to be a helpful means for development and field evaluations of advanced new hearing aid algorithms, within interdisciplinary research projects. Now it is offered to the scientific community.

  9. New Watermarking Scheme for Security and Transmission of Medical Images for PocketNeuro Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Bouhlel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new Watermarking system of medical information security and terminal mobile phone adaptation for PocketNeuro project. The later term refers to a Project created for the service of neurological diseases. It consists of transmitting information about patients "Desk of Patients" to a doctor's mobile phone when he is visiting or examining his patient. This system is capable of embedding medical information inside diagnostic images for security purposes. Our system applies JPEG Compression to Watermarked images to adapt them to the doctor's mobile phone. Experiments performed on a database of 30-256x256 pixel-sized neuronal images show that our Watermarking scheme for image security is robust against JPEG Compression. For the purpose of increasing the image Watermarking robustness against attacks for an image transmission and to perform a large data payload, we encode with Turbo-Code image-embedded bits information. Fidelity is improved by incorporation of the Relative Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (RPSNR as a perceptual metric to measure image degradation.

  10. Pocket atlas of sectional anatomy: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Vol. 3. Spine, extremities, joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E. [Caritas Hospital, Dillingen (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2007-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the musculoskeletal system is an established and important component in the diagnosis of diseases of the joints, soft tissues, bones, and bone marrow. We are therefore pleased to collect together images of the joints and the spinal column in a separate volume on the musculoskeletal system. Demonstrating the growing importance of new developments in MRI in recent years, with ever-increasing resolution, many images were acquired with 3-tesla units. We are deeply grateful to the manufacturers, Siemens and Philips, for making this possible. We believe that colored atlases are the ideal medium to represent the highly detailed images achieved nowadays with improved resolution techniques. Volume 3 of the Pocket Atlas of Sectional Anatomay provides a color illustration facing each magnetic resonance image, as in the preceding volumes on the skull, thorax, and abdomen. To ensure the greatest possible precision in details, we still produce these illustrations ourselves. Each is accompanied by a sectional image and an orientation aid. Uniform color schemes ensure optimal clarity, as similar structures, such as arteries, veins, nerves, tendons, etc., are consistently represented in the same color. Individual muscle groups are represented uniformly, but differentiated from other muscle groups, so that classification is possible even when numerous groups of muscles are shown in the same image. Maximal lucidity prevails even in highly detailed representations. This is made possible by the high quality of the production and printing process that are characteristic of Thieme International. (orig.)

  11. Specificity of anion-binding in the substrate-pocket ofbacteriorhodopsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facciotti, Marc T.; Cheung, Vincent S.; Lunde, Christopher S.; Rouhani, Shahab; Baliga, Nitin S.; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2003-08-30

    The structure of the D85S mutant of bacteriorhodopsin with a nitrate anion bound in the Schiff-base binding site, and the structure of the anion-free protein have been obtained in the same crystal form. Together with the previously solved structures of this anion pump, in both the anion-free state and bromide-bound state, these new structures provide insight into how this mutant of bacteriorhodopsin is able to bind a variety of different anions in the same binding pocket. The structural analysis reveals that the main structural change that accommodates different anions is the repositioning of the polar side-chain of S85. On the basis of these x-ray crystal structures, the prediction is then made that the D85S/D212N double mutant might bind similar anions and do so over a broader pH range than does the single mutant. Experimental comparison of the dissociation constants, K{sub d}, for a variety of anions confirms this prediction and demonstrates, in addition, that the binding affinity is dramatically improved by the D212N substitution.

  12. Risk of cardiac pacemaker pocket infection in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaswinder Singh Gill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk of pacemaker pocket infections (PPIs is rare with good antisepsis techniques and use of advanced antibiotics. However, injudicious antibiotic usage leads to the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria, which may cause PPI. Few reports exist about the microbial spectrum of the PPI from our country, prompting us to study the same. Methods: We conducted this retrospective observational study for 3 years (January 2013–February 2016 from all the patients with PPI. We collected the relevant clinical samples (blood and pus for the microbial culture using a standard protocol. We included 100 samples collected from the medical staff and the hospital environment as a control sample. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods and a P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Our data showed that 17 out of 160 (10.6% patients had PPI. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus sp. was isolated in 7 (41.2% patients, followed by Staphylococcus aureus in 4 patients (23.5%. Other isolated bacteria include multidrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia (n = 3, Mycobacterium abscessus (n = 2 and polymicrobial infection in a single patient. One out of hundred surveillance samples grew B. cepacia. Conclusion: Our data revealed a high incidence of Gram-positive cocci causing PPI. Every hospital should formulate their antibiotic policy based on the pattern of the hospital flora and their drug sensitivity.

  13. Association of Medicare Part D medication out-of-pocket costs with utilization of statin medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Swenson, Tami; Abraham, Jean M; Kane, Robert L

    2013-08-01

    To examine the association between statin out-of-pocket (OOP) costs and utilization among the Medicare Part D population. 2006-2008 administrative claims and enrollment data for the 5 percent Medicare sample. Sample included 346,583 beneficiary-year observations of statin users enrolled in stand-alone prescription drug plans, excluding low-income subsidy recipients. We estimated the association between a plan's OOP statin costs and statin utilization using an instrumental variable approach to account for potential bias due to plan selection. Adherence was defined as percentage of days covered (PDC) of at least 80 percent. Plan OOP costs were constructed for a representative market basket of statin medications. Analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, cardiovascular disease risk, co-morbidity presence, and regional characteristics. About 67 percent of the sample had a PDC of at least 80 percent. An increase in annual statin OOP from $200 (50th percentile) to $240 (75th percentile) was associated with a reduction in the rate of adherent beneficiaries from 67 percent to 56 percent (p < .001). Greater OOP costs for statins are associated with reductions in statin utilization. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  14. Communication rights from the margins: politicising young refugees’ smartphone pocket archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Politicising the smartphone pocket archives and experiences of 16 young refugees living in the Netherlands, this explorative study re-conceptualises and empirically grounds communication rights. The focus is on the usage of social media among young refugees, who operate from the margins of society, human rights discourse and technology. I focus on digital performativity as a means to address unjust communicative power relations and human right violations. Methodologically, I draw on empirical data gathered through a mixed-methods, participatory action fieldwork research approach. The empirical section details how digital practices may invoke human right ideals including the human right to self-determination, the right to self-expression, the right to information, the right to family life and the right to cultural identity. The digital performativity of communication rights becomes meaningful when fundamentally situated within hierarchical and intersectional power relations of gender, race, nationality among others, and as inherently related to material conditions and other basic human rights including access to shelter, food, well-being and education. PMID:29278239

  15. AcrB drug-binding pocket substitution confers clinically relevant resistance and altered substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jessica M A; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Ricci, Vito; Modi, Niraj; Cacciotto, Pierpaolo; Kleinekathӧfer, Ulrich; Ruggerone, Paolo; Vargiu, Attilio V; Baylay, Alison J; Smith, Helen E; Brandon, Yvonne; Galloway, David; Piddock, Laura J V

    2015-03-17

    The incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infections is increasing globally and the need to understand the underlying mechanisms is paramount to discover new therapeutics. The efflux pumps of Gram-negative bacteria have a broad substrate range and transport antibiotics out of the bacterium, conferring intrinsic multidrug resistance (MDR). The genomes of pre- and posttherapy MDR clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhimurium from a patient that failed antibacterial therapy and died were sequenced. In the posttherapy isolate we identified a novel G288D substitution in AcrB, the resistance-nodulation division transporter in the AcrAB-TolC tripartite MDR efflux pump system. Computational structural analysis suggested that G288D in AcrB heavily affects the structure, dynamics, and hydration properties of the distal binding pocket altering specificity for antibacterial drugs. Consistent with this hypothesis, recreation of the mutation in standard Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains showed that G288D AcrB altered substrate specificity, conferring decreased susceptibility to the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin by increased efflux. At the same time, the substitution increased susceptibility to other drugs by decreased efflux. Information about drug transport is vital for the discovery of new antibacterials; the finding that one amino acid change can cause resistance to some drugs, while conferring increased susceptibility to others, could provide a basis for new drug development and treatment strategies.

  16. The Characteristics of Postprandial Proximal Gastric Acid Pocket in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Liu, Dong; Feng, Cheng; Luo, Yumei; Nian, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xueqin; Zhang, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Background Postprandial proximal gastric acid pocket (PPGAP) plays important roles in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of PPGAP in GERD. Material/Methods There were 17 normal participants and 20 GERD patients who completed a gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire (GerdQ) and underwent a gastroscopy, a high-resolution manometry, an esophageal 24-hour pH monitoring, and a station pull-through pH monitoring to assess their symptomatic degree, endoscopic change, acid exposure, and PPGAP. Results PPGAP was present in all participants. Compared with normal participants, the PPGAP in GERD patients was significantly different, thus the disappearing time was significantly later (pGERD patients was positively correlated with GerdQ score (pGERD patients was positively correlated with the DeMeester score (pGERD patients was negatively correlated with the DeMeester score (pGERD patients had characteristics of long time period, long length, and high acidity. Its length was positively correlated with subjective symptomatic degree. Its period, length, and acidity were positively correlated with the objective acid exposure. PPGAP seems to be the originator of acid reflux events and plays important roles in GERD. PMID:29309401

  17. High Out-of-Pocket Medical Spending among the Poor and Elderly in Nine Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Katherine

    2016-08-01

    The design of health insurance, and the role out-of-pocket (OOP) payments play in it, is a key policy issue as rising health costs have encouraged greater cost-sharing measures. This paper compares the percentage of Americans spending large amounts OOP to meet their health needs with percentages in eight other developed countries. By disaggregating by age and income, the paper focuses on the poor and elderly populations within each. The study uses nationally representative household survey data made available through the Luxembourg Income Study. It includes nations with high, medium, and low levels of OOP spending. Households have high medical spending when their OOP expenditures exceed a threshold share of income. I calculate the share of each nation's population, as well as subpopulations within it, with high OOP expenditures. The United States is not alone in exposing large numbers of citizens to high OOP expenses. In six of the other eight countries, one-quarter or more of low-income citizens devoted at least 5 percent of their income to OOP expenses, and in all but two countries, more than 1 in 10 elderly citizens had high medical expenses. For some populations in the sample nations, health insurance does not provide adequate financial protection and likely contributes to inequities in health care delivery and outcomes. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. A micro-scale investigation of melt production and extraction in the upper mantle based on silicate melt pockets in ultramafic xenoliths from the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bali, Eniko; Zanetti, A.; Szabo, C.

    2008-01-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Neogene alkali basalts of the Bakony-Balaton Highland Volcanic Field (Western Hungary) frequently have melt pockets that contain silicate minerals, glass, and often carbonate globules. Textural, geochemical and thermobarometric data indicate that the melt pockets formed...

  19. SU-F-J-05: The Effect of Air Pockets in the Urinary Bladder During Bladder Hyperthermia Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooneveldt, G.; Kok, H.P.; Bakker, A.; Geijsen, E.D.; Reijke, T.M. de; Crezee, J. [Academisch Medisch Centrum / Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Hyperthermia combined with Mitomycin C is used for the treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), using a phased array system of microwave antennas for bladder heating. Often some air is present in the bladder, which effectively blocks the microwave radiation, potentially preventing proper treatment of that part of the bladder. Air can be a relevant fraction of the bladder content and large air pockets are expected to have a noticeable influence on achieved temperatures. Methods: We analysed 14 NMIBC patients treated at our institute with our AMC-4 hyperthermia device with four 70MHz antennas around the pelvis. A CT scan was made after treatment and a physician delineated the bladder on the CT scan. On the same scan, the amount of air present in the bladder was delineated. Using our in-house developed hyperthermia treatment planning system, we simulated the treatment using the clinically applied device settings. We did this once with the air pocket delineated on the CT scan, and once with the same volume filled with bladder tissue. Results: The patients had on average 4.2ml (range 0.8–10.1ml) air in the bladder. The bladder volume was delineated by the physician, that is including air pocket and bladder wall, was on average 253ml (range 93–452ml). The average volume in which changes exceeded 0.25°C was 22ml (range 0–108 ml), with the bladder being up to 2°C cooler when an air pocket was present. Except for extreme cases, there was no evident relation between the quantity of air and the difference in temperature. Conclusion: The effect of an air pocket in the bladder during bladder hyperthermia treatment varies strongly between patients. Generally, this leads to lower temperatures in the bladder, potentially affecting treatment quality, and suggesting that care need be taken to minimise the size of air pockets during hyperthermia treatments. The KWF Dutch Cancer Society financially supported this work, grant UVA 2012-5539.

  20. A randomised crossover comparison of mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation by surf lifeguards in a manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelborg, K; Bjørnshave, K; Mortensen, M B; Espeseth, E; Wolff, A; Løfgren, B

    2014-07-01

    Thirty surf lifeguards (mean (SD) age: 25.1 (4.8) years; 21 male, 9 female) were randomly assigned to perform 2 × 3 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a manikin using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (AMBU LifeKey) and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (Laerdal Pocket Mask). Interruptions in chest compressions, effective ventilation (visible chest rise) ratio, tidal volume and inspiratory time were recorded. Interruptions in chest compressions per cycle were increased with mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 8.6 (1.7) s) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (6.9 (1.2) s, p < 0.0001). The proportion of effective ventilations was less using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (199/242 (82%)) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (239/240 (100%), p = 0.0002). Tidal volume was lower using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 0.36 (0.20) l) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (0.45 (0.20) l, p = 0.006). No differences in inspiratory times were observed between mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. In conclusion, mouth-to-face-shield ventilation increases interruptions in chest compressions, reduces the proportion of effective ventilations and decreases delivered tidal volumes compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.