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Sample records for spiny loaches cobitis

  1. Spawning marks in spined loaches (Cobitis taenia; Cobitidae; Teleostei)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 168-171 ISSN 0139-7893. [International Conference Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : freshwater fish * reproduction * autecology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008

  2. Spawning habitat in the spined loach, Cobitis taenia (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 1 (2003), s. 98-101 ISSN 1341-8998 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : cobitis taenia * spawning substrate * habitat preference Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.575, year: 2003

  3. Quantitative PCR assays for detecting loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph C. Dysthe; Kellie J. Carim; Yvette M. Paroz; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Young; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Loach minnow (Rhinichthys cobitis) and spikedace (Meda fulgida) are legally protected with the status of Endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and are endemic to the Gila River basin of Arizona and New Mexico. Efficient and sensitive methods for monitoring these species’ distributions are critical for prioritizing conservation efforts. We developed...

  4. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of spined loaches (genus Cobitis) in Croatia based on mtDNA and allozyme analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buj, I.; Podnar, M.; Mrakovčić, M.; Choleva, Lukáš; Šlechtová, Věra; Tvrtković, N.; Ćaleta, M.; Mustafić, P.; Marčić, Z.; Zanella, D.; Brigić, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 71-82 ISSN 0139-7893. [International Conference Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586; GA ČR GA206/06/1763; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:UK Praha(CZ) 187/2005 B BIO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cobitidae loaches * Danube watershed * Adriatic watershed Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008

  5. Repeatability of standard metabolic rate (SMR) in a small fish, the spined loach (Cobitis taenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciak, Sebastian; Konarzewski, Marek

    2010-10-01

    Significant repeatability of a trait of interest is an essential assumption for undertaking studies of phenotypic variability. It is especially important in studies on highly variable traits, such as metabolic rates. Recent publications suggest that resting/basal metabolic rate of homeotherms is repeatable across wide range of species. In contrast, studies on the consistency of standard metabolic rate (SMR) in ectotherms, particularly fish, are scarce. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of several important technical aspects of body mass-corrected SMR measurements and its repeatability in a small (average weight approximately 3g) fish, the spined loach (Cobitis taenia). First we demonstrated that release of oxygen from the walls of metabolic chambers exposed to hypoxic conditions did not confound SMR measurements. Next, using principle of propagation of measurement uncertainties we demonstrated that in aquatic systems, measurement error is significantly higher in open than closed respirometry setups. The measurement error for SMR of a small fish determined in a closed aquatic system is comparable to that obtainable using top-notch open-flow systems used for air-breathing terrestrial animals. Using a closed respirometer we demonstrated that body mass-corrected SMR in spined loaches was repeatable under both normoxia and hypoxia over a 5-month period (Pearson correlation r=0.68 and r=0.73, respectively) as well as across both conditions (intraclass correlation coefficient tau=0.30). In these analyses we accounted for possible effect of oxygen consumption of the oxygen electrode on repeatability of SMR. Significant SMR consistency was accompanied by significant repeatability of body mass (intraclass correlation coefficient tau=0.86). To our knowledge, this is the first study showing long-term repeatability of body mass and SMR in a small fish, and is consistent with the existence of heritable variation of these two traits. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of nine polymorphic microsatellite loci in the spined loach, Cobitis taenia, and cross-species amplification in the related species C. elongatoides, C. taurica and C. tanaitica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Gelas, K.; Janko, Karel; Volckaert, F. A. M.; De Charleroy, D.; Van Houdt, J. K. J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2008), s. 1001-1003 ISSN 1755-098X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/1763 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cobitis * FIASCO protocol * loach complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. Genetic differentiation of two diploid-polyploid complexes of spined loach, genus Cobitis (Cobitidae), in the Czech Republic, involving C. taenia, C. elongatoides and C. spp.: allozyme interpopulation and interspecific differences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlechtová, Věra; Lusková, Věra; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Bohlen, Jörg

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 49, Suppl. 1 (2000), s. 67-78 ISSN 0139-7893. [Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Brno, 31.05.1999-03.06.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/97/0684; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK2005601 Keywords : Cobitis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2000

  8. Evolutionary history of asexual hybrid loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei) inferred from phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Kotlík, Petr; Ráb, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2003), s. 1280-1287 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA ČR GA206/01/0989; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : asexual vertebrates * Cobitis * maternal ancestry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.010, year: 2003

  9. Combining morphology and genetics in resolving taxonomy--a systematic revision of spined loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii in the Adriatic watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available Taxonomic investigation of spined loaches from Dalmatia and Herzegovina was conducted on specimens from 14 localities. The results of the detailed morphological investigations were combined with genetic data (based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in order to resolve the taxonomic status of each Cobitis population. Among the investigated features of external morphology, the appearance of spots on the caudal fin base turned out to have the greatest diagnostic value. Furthermore, the number of branched fin rays enabled the discrimination of several species. No morphometric character alone could ensure determination of any Cobitis species. Nevertheless, groups of populations that are more similar in their body shapes correspond to mitochondrial phylogenetic lineages. Based on molecular genetic markers, Dalmatian and Herzegovinian spined loaches form independent lineages inside the Adriatic phylogenetic group. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic reconstruction revealed six monophyletic lineages, corresponding to six species distributed in the investigated area. The population distributed in Mostarsko blato karstic field in Bosnia and Herzegovina is described as a new species based on a unique combination of morphological characters: a single triangular Canestrini scale; usually 51/2 branched anal fin rays, 61/2 branched dorsal fin rays, 14 branched caudal fin rays; no spots in the surface pigmentation layer on the caudal fin base; scales on the body very small.

  10. Different Histories, Different Destinies‒Impact of Evolutionary History and Population Genetic Structure on Extinction Risk of the Adriatic Spined Loaches (Genus Cobitis; Cypriniformes, Actinopterygii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Buj

    Full Text Available The region of Balkans is often considered as an ichthyologic "hot spot", with a great number of species and high portion of endemics living in fresh waters in a relatively small area. The Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Herzegovina is inhabited by six spined loach species (genus Cobitis whose extinction risk estimations were based solely on their extent of occurrence (and/or area of occupancy and its fragmentation, and conservation proposals do not consider diversity below species level. In this investigation we employed molecular genetic methods to describe present genetic structure of the Adriatic spined loaches and reveal their demographic history. The divergence of the Adriatic lineages inside the genus Cobitis started in Miocene and lasted until Pleistocene epoch. Geological events responsible for shaping recent diversity of spined loaches in the Adriatic basin are: the Dinarid Mountains upwelling, the evolution of Dinaric Lake system, local tectonic activity, river connections during glaciations and differences in sea level. Even though all the investigated species inhabit karstic rivers located in the same geographic area and that were subject of similar geological events, the results obtained reveal great differences in their genetic diversity and structure and point out the necessity of different conservation measures to ensure their future viability. High level of genetic polymorphism is characteristic for species located more to the south. Two species comprised of more than one population have completely different intraspecific structure; populations of C. illyrica are genetically distinct and represent separate evolutionary significant units, whereas intraspecific structure of C. narentana corresponds to metapopulational pattern. Without population genetic data, evolutionary significant units could be easily misidentified. Furthermore, the obtained results affirm that population genetic measurements are able to detect differences

  11. The occurrence and status of species of the genera Cobitis, Sabanejewia, and Misgurnus in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koščo, J.; Lusk, Stanislav; Pekárik, L.; Košuthová, L.; Lusková, Věra; Košuth, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 26-34 ISSN 0139-7893. [Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera /3./. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/2360/05; VEGA(SK) 1/2406/05; VEGA(SK) 1/0352/08; INTERREG III(XE) A 141-52-002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Danubian spined loach * weather loach * Balcan spiny loach * occurrence * Tisza basin * Danube basin * devastating factors Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/1-2/026-034_MS1424.pdf

  12. Genetic differentiation of the two hybrid diploid-polyploid complexes of loaches, genus Cobitis (Cobitidae) involving C. taenia, C. elongatoides and C. spp. in the Czech Republic: Karyotypes and cytogenetic diversity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Bohlen, Jörg; Lusk, Stanislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2000), s. 55-66 ISSN 0139-7893. [Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Brno, 31.05.1999-03.06.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/97/0684; GA AV ČR IAA6045704; GA AV ČR KSK2052601 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2000

  13. Can spawning marks on females of the spined loach (Cobitis sp., Teleostei) be caused by scratches from males during mating?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Vetešník, Lukáš; Mendel, Jan; Papoušek, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2010), s. 329-331 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/2D4/55/07 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200930901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Cobitis elongatoides * epidermis * spawning Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2010

  14. Diversity of European spined loaches (genus Cobitis L.): an update of the geographic distribution of the Cobitis taenia hybrid complex with a description of new molecular tools for species determination

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Flajšhans, Martin; Choleva, Lukáš; Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Rábová, Marie; Lajbner, Zdeněk; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Ivanova, P.; Dobrovolov, I.; Culling, M.; Persat, H.; Kotusz, J.; Ráb, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2007), s. 387-408 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586; GA ČR GA206/06/1763; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Program:SM Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : biogeography * Cobitis * hybridization Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.404, year: 2007

  15. A newly discovered population of the Balkan spiny loach Sabanejewia balcanica (Karaman, 1922) in the River Jihlava, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Muška, Milan; Mendel, Jan; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 163-166 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : loaches * rare native species * sequence analysis * NATURA 2000 Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EG - Zoology (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Zoology; Zoology (BC-A) Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  16. Ice age cloning-comparison of the Quaternary evolutionary histories of sexual and clonal forms of spiny loaches (Cobitis; Teleostei) using the analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Culling, M.; Ráb, Petr; Kotlík, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2005), s. 2991-3004 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Grant - others:GA FRVŠ(CZ) FRVŠ 41-202766; Karlova Univerzita(CZ) 123/2003/B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : asexuality Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.301, year: 2005

  17. Potential species identification by allozyme/protein markers in European spined loaches

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šlechtová, Věra; Lusková, Věra; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Lusk, Stanislav; Pivoňková, Hana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 51, Supplement (2003), s. 43-47 ISSN 0015-5497. [International conference on loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera /2./. Olsztyn, 00.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/0668 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917; CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : Cobitis * species identification * isozymes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.286, year: 2003

  18. Genetic and morphological analyses of 50-chromosome spined loaches (Cobitis, Cobitidae, Pisces) from the Black Sea basin that are morphologically similar to C. taenia, with the description of a new species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Vasil'ev, P.; Ráb, Petr; Rábová, Marie; Šlechtová, Věra; Vasil'eva, D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 4 (2005), s. 405-420 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586 Grant - others:Russian Academy of Science(RU) 151/200404-068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cobitis taenia complex * karyotype * nuclear and mtDNA markers Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.585, year: 2005

  19. Genetic diversity of Cobitis spp. (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) from different drainage areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papoušek, Ivo; Lusková, Věra; Koščo, J.; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Povž, M.; Šumer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 83-89 ISSN 0139-7893. [Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera /3./. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Danubian spined loach * population diversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/1-2/083-089_MS1291.pdf

  20. Sex ratio and body size in Cobitis elongatoides and Sabanejewia balcanica (Cypriniformes; Cobitidae) from a thermal spring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Freyhof, J.; Nolte, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 191-197 ISSN 0139-7893. [International Conference Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : environmental sex determination * Fish er's principle * cobitine loach Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008

  1. First report on the spawning behaviour of a golden spined loach, Sabanejewia vallachica (Teleostei: Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 139-146 ISSN 0139-7893. [International Conference Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : ecology * reproduction * freshwater fish Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008

  2. Feeding ecology of Cobitis paludica and Cobitis calderoni in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladolid, Maria; Przybylski, Miroslaw

    2003-01-01

    In total, 253 specimens of Cobitis paludica and 163 Cobitis calderoni were collected in the Lozoya River (Madrid, Spain) in April, May, July, September and December 1990. Both species showed high percentages of empty guts in all months. C. paludica fed mainly on detritus and invertebrates while Cobitis calderoni fed on invertebrates and unicellular algae. Preferred prey items were the larvae of Dipterans (Chironomidae, Simuliidae) and micro crustaceans, with Ephemeroptera (Caenis) in summer. Cobitis calderoni fed on the most abundant prey except in April and July, when it selected invertebrates. C. paludica selected invertebrates throughout all the months. Diet overlapping (Horn's Index) was complete except in September, when the abundance of invertebrates in both diets was similar. For the remaining months, food type (invertebrates, unicellular algae and detritus) abundance differed, minimizing the interspecific competition.

  3. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  4. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Majtánová

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  5. Status of populations of the genus Cobitis in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusková, Věra; Koščo, J.; Halačka, Karel; Stráňai, I.; Lusk, Stanislav; Flajšhans, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2004), s. 621-626 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Cobitis * taxonomy * hybrid complex Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.207, year: 2004 http://biologia.savba.sk/59_5_04/Luskova_V.pdf

  6. European colonization by the spined loach (Cobitis taenia) from Ponto-Caspian refugia based on mitochondrial DNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Culling, M.; Janko, Karel; Boron, A.; Vasiljev, V. P.; Cote, I. M.; Hewitt, G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1 (2006), s. 173-190 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586; GA AV ČR IBS5045111 Grant - others:RFBR 02-04-48354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : colonization * glacial refugia * mitochondrial DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.825, year: 2006

  7. Genetic variation of Japanese loach inferred from restriction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loop region in the mitochondrial DNA including the part of 12s RNA and cytochrome b genes was made to clarify genetic variations and relations and relationships among eleven populations of Japanese loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.

  8. Ken Loach y la familia esquizafrenógena. Family Life, Ken Loach, 1971

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Anacleto

    2010-01-01

    Family Life, del director británico Kenneth Loach, fue una de las películas que más llamaron la atención dentro de las carteleras europeas de los años 72-74, por tratarse de la primera incursión del cine en el controvertido campo de la antipsiquiatría. Presentada en la Quincena de Realizadores del Festival de Cannes de 1972, pronto adquirió una dimensión pública que superaba los márgenes estrictos del ámbito cinematográfico, contribuyendo a popularizar sobre todo entre...

  9. Elovl4 can effectively elongate C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids in loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Liang, Xiao; Cui, Yun; Cao, Xiaojuan; Gao, Jian

    2018-01-22

    In this study, full-length cDNA sequences of elovl4a and elovl4b from loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus were cloned. The full-length cDNAs of loach elovl4a and elovl4b were 2423 and 2054bp, encoding 315 and 300 amino acids, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of elovl4a and elovl4b in loach both shared the highest identity with those of Danio rerio, whereas lower identity score between loach elovl4a and elovl4b was present. Temporal expression and tissue expression of loach elovl4a and elovl4b were studied by reverse transcriptase PCR. Results of the tissue expression analyses suggested different functions of loach elovl4a and elovl4b. Functional characterizations of loach elovl4a and elovl4b on synthesis of fatty acids, especially elongating C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to longer-chain fatty acids, were studied by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Loach elovl4a and elvol4b enzymes were able to elongate all fatty acids tested including 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 18:3n-6, 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3. At last, expression levels of the two elovl4 genes of loach fin cells incubated with 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 of different concentrations were measured. Expressions of elovl4a and elovl4b of loach fin cells were significantly up-regulated by 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. The results obtained here indicated that loach elovl4 could effectively elongate C18 PUFAs. This was a systematic report of elovl4's elongating functions towards C18 and provided an alternative pathway for C20 biosynthesis in fish species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth differences in different biotypes of the hybrid complex of Cobitis elongatoides x Cobitis tanaitica (Actinopterygii: Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) in the Okna River (Danube River basin), Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorčák, J.; Koščo, J.; Halačka, Karel; Manko, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 125-132 ISSN 0137-1592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : annulus * back-calculated length * loach * clone * polyploidy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.670, year: 2016

  11. Description of skeletal structure and cranial myology of Cobitis keyvani (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariya Jalili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cobitis keyvani is recently described from the sourhern Caspian Sea basin. Limited information is available about morphological features of C. keyvani, therefore this study was conducted to provide osteological characteristics and cranial myology of this species. For this purpose, nine specimens of C. keyvani were collected from the Talar River. The specimens were cleared and stained with alizarin red S and alcian blue for osteological examinations. The detailed skeletal structure and cranial muscles of C. keyvani were provided. Based on the results, C. keyvani can be distinguished from other members of the genus Cobitis by a contact between sphenotic and supraoccipital and a contact between pterosphenoid, parasphenoid, prootic and sphenotic in terms of osteological features.

  12. Extensive polymorphism and chromosomal characteristics of ribosomal DNA in a loach fish, Cobitis vardarensis (Ostariophysi, Cobitidae) detected by different banding techniques and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr; Ozouf-Costaz, C.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 111, - (2001), s. 413-422 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IAA6045704; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : chromosome banding * cytotaxonomy * fish Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.916, year: 2001

  13. The gynogenetic reproduction of diploid and triploid hybrid spined loaches (Cobitis: Teleostei), and their ability to establish successful clonal lineages - on the evolution of polyploidy in asexual vertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Bohlen, Jörg; Lamatsch, D.; Flajšhans, Martin; Epplen, J. T.; Ráb, Petr; Kotlík, Petr; Šlechtová, Věra

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 131, - (2007), s. 185-194 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586 Grant - others:EU Marie Curie Research amd Training Network(EU) MCRTN-CT-2004-512492; German Research Foundation(DE) SFB 567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : asexual reproduction * evolution of polyploidy * hybridisation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.396, year: 2007

  14. Species and hybrid richness in spined loaches of the genus Cobitis (Teleostei:Cobitidae), with a checklist of European forms and suggestions for conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Ráb, Petr

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2001), s. 75-89 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : biodiversity * unisexual fish * conservation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.249, year: 2001

  15. Temperature and oxygen requirements of early life stages of the endangered spined loach, Cobitis taenia L.(teleostei, Cobitidae) with implications for the management of natural populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 2 (2003), s. 195-212 ISSN 0003-9136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : autecology * physiological adaptation * microhabitat Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.261, year: 2003

  16. Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Ovarian Tissues from Diploid and Tetraploid Loaches Misgurnus anguillicaudatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Luo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RNA sequencing and short-read assembly was utilized to produce a transcriptome of ovarian tissues from three-year-old diploid and tetraploid loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. A total of 28,369 unigenes were obtained, comprising 10,546 unigenes with length longer than 1000 bp. More than 73% of the unigenes were annotated through sequence comparison with databases. The RNA-seq data revealed that 2253 genes were differentially expressed between diploid and tetraploid loaches, including 1263 up-regulated and 990 down-regulated genes in tetraploid loach. Some differentially expressed genes, such as vitellogenin (Vtg, gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor type A (GnRHRA, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR, mitogen-activated protein kinase 14a (MAPK14a, ATP synthase subunit alpha (atp5a, and synaptonemal complex protein 1 (Scp1, were involved in regulation of cell proliferation, division, gene transcription, ovarian development and energy metabolism, suggesting that these genes were related to egg diameter of the loach. Results of transcriptome profiling here were validated using real time quantitative PCR in ten selected genes. The present study provided insights into the transcriptome profile of ovarian tissues from diploid and tetraploid loaches Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, which was made available to the research community for functional genomics, comparative genomics, polyploidy evolution and molecular breeding of this loach and other related species.

  17. Müllerian mimicry in aposematic spiny plants

    OpenAIRE

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2009-01-01

    Müllerian mimicry is common in aposematic animals but till recently, like other aspects of plant aposematism was almost unknown. Many thorny, spiny and prickly plants are considered aposematic because their sharp defensive structures are colorful and conspicuous. Many of these spiny plant species (e.g., cacti and Agave in North American deserts; Aloe, Euphorbia and acacias with white thorns in Africa; spiny plants in Ohio; and spiny members of the Asteraceae in the Mediterranean basin) have o...

  18. Molecular characteristics of mitochondrial DNA and phylogenetic analysis of the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) from the Poyang Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liugen; Wang, Junhua; Sheng, Junqing; Gu, Qing; Hong, Yijiang

    2012-06-01

    The goal of our study was to investigate the molecular characteristics of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and phylogenetic construction of the weather loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) in Poyang Lake. The complete mitochondrial genome was 16,634 bp, and the gene order was identical to that of teleost fishes. Compared with the previous reported weather loach in China, there were numerous nucleotide substitutions and length polymorphisms on the structural genes of mitochondrial DNA in the loach from the Poyang Lake. The Phylogenetic tree indicated that the loach had its own molecular characteristics and was somewhat different from those in other regions of China. Fourteen unique haplotypes of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene were obtained from 300 weather loaches. The Phylogenetic tree based on the cyt b gene showed that the loaches were substructured into two different populations in The Poyang Lake. Results indicated that the loaches in Poyang Lake not only showed the same phylogeny as the loaches in other areas of China, but also generated its own unique phylogenetic relationships.

  19. Spiny hopsage fruit and seed morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy L. Shaw; Emerenciana G. Hurd; Marshall R. Haferkamp

    1996-01-01

    Rangeland seedings of spiny hopsage (Gruyia spinosa [Hook.] Moq.) may be made with either bracted utricles or seeds. Problems have resulted from inconsistent use of terminology describing these 2 structures and the fact their germination and seedling emergence is not the same with similar environmental conditions and seeding techniques. We examined...

  20. Gonad Maturation of Clown Loach (Botia macracanthus in Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzal Effendi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to know the gonad maturation of clown loach {Botia macracanthus reared in pond. Two groups contain 4 female broodstock; I carried and II non-carried egg broodstock were reared in two separated hapas which placed in pond. Each hapa was also stocked nine males. The fish were fed pellet (32,33% protein 10% biomass, daily in three times. After 20 days, the broodstocks were implanted by LHRH-a 100 u.g/kg of body weight. In the group I, diameter of egg in gonad were developed from 1,028 mm at the beginning of implantation to 1,071 and 1,106 mm at day of 15 and 30 after implantation respectively. In the group II, only one female has developed her gonad successfully. The egg was developed to 0,937 and 1,026 mm after 15 and 30 day implantation respectively. Key words : Gonad maturation, clown loach, Botia macracanthus, pond   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pematangan gonad induk ikan botia (Botia macracanthus yang dipelihara di kolam. Dua kelompok induk betina; I sudah mengandung telur dan II belum mengandung telur masing-masing sebanyak 4 ekor dipelihara masing-masing dalam 2 hapa. Ke dalam setiap hapa juga ditempatkan induk jantan sebanyak 9 ekor. Induk diberi pakan berupa pelet (protein, 32,33% sebanyak 10% dari bobot biomasa per hari, 3 kali sehari, dan diberi LHRH-a dengan dosis 100 ng/kg bobot tubuh secara implantasi pada hari ke 20 pemeliharaan. Induk dalam kelompok pertama telurnya berkembang dari rata-rata 1,028 pada saat pemberian LHRH-a menjadi rata-rata 1,071 dan 1,106 mm masing-masing pada hari ke 15 dan 30 setelah pemberian. Pada kelompok kedua hanya satu ekor induk yang berkembang gonadnya setelah diberi LHRH-a. telur induk ikan tersebut berkembang dari 0,937 menjadi 1,026 mm masing pada hari ke 15 dan 30 setelah implantasi. Kata kunci : Pematangan gonad, ikan botia, Botia macracanthus, kolam

  1. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, a new subterranean loach from Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei; Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F

    2016-10-04

    Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.

  2. THE UTILIZATION OF THE KINDS OF LIVE FOOD ON CLOWN LOACH FISH JUVENILES (Chromobotia macracanthus Bleeker)

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Meilisza; Rina Hirnawati; Sulasy Rohmy; Agus Priyadi; Jacques Slembrouck

    2011-01-01

    Domestication and mass production technology of clown loaches fish have been developed by the Research Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture, Depok and the Institute de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD). In the process, some constraints has been found and one of them was the cost of production and sustainable supply of Artemia as the only one of live food which used for clown loaches post-larvae until 2-3 months old juvenile. To solve this constraints, the use of other live feed as a subs...

  3. Chromosomal study of two fish species: Cobitis (C. taenia, Nemachilus tigris and Gambusia Affinis in the Orontes river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roukbi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research was done during the period (October 2009 to September 2010, aiming to identify two species of Cobitis (Cobitis taenia and Nemachilus tigris belonging to Cobitidae and Gambusia affnis by using karyotype examination. Fish specimens were caught alive from the river Orontes drainage and its tributaries in Idlib and Hama departments by routine fishing gears, and submitted Colchcine treatment in Aleppo agricultural research center, General commission for Scientific Agricultural research which included an incubating in Colchicine medium (0.06% for 2.5 -3 hours. Fishes were chopped and placed in hypotonic 0.4% KCl solution for 30 min. Afterwards, tissues were fixed in fresh Carnoy solution (3 parts methanol: 1 part glacial acetic acid. Cell suspension was dropped onto slides, dried and then stained in 4% Giemsa solution. Chromosome spreads on microscope slides were examined and several metaphase plates were selected and photographed. Chromosomes of fish studied were grouping into series, i. e., meta-submetacentric and subtelocentric-acrocentric elements, and aligned serially from the larger to smaller, karyograms were constructed and chromosomal formulas and the number of arms were established, as following: Cobitis taenia: 2n=50=14m/sm+36t/st (NF=64, Nemachilus tigris: 2n=50=12m/sm+38t/st (NF=62, Gambusia affinis (female: 2n=48=1m+2sm+45t/st(NF=51, Gambusia affinis(males: 2n=48=2m+46t (NF=50(. A

  4. Schistura kampucheensis, a new species of loach from Cambodia (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Petrtýl, M.; Chaloupková, P.; Borin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2016), s. 353-362 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Schistura kampucheensis * loach Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.953, year: 2016

  5. Assessment of factors affecting metal burden in the stone loach (Noemacheilus barbatulus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douben, P.E.T.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with exposure of stone loach ( Noemacheilus barbatulus L.), a fairly common fish in British rivers, to cadmium and lead. The work described in this thesis was performed to assess the relative importance of different routes of entry

  6. Microhabitat preferences of triploid Cobitis fish and diploid progenitors in two streams in Slovakia (Danube River Basin)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fedorčák, J.; Pekárik, L.; Halačka, Karel; Šmiga, Ľ.; Manko, P.; Hajdú, J.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Koščo, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 69, March (2018), s. 59-66 ISSN 0075-9511 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Spined loach * Polyploidy * Niche * Clone * Coexistence * Sex Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2016

  7. Eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the ornate spiny ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cleotide repeat markers for the pacific Abalone (Haliotis Discus. Hannai). Conserv. Genet. Resour. 4, 939–941. Williams K. C. 2004 Spiny lobster ecology and exploitation in the South China Sea region. Australian Centre for International. Agricultural Research (ACIAR), Canberra, Australia. Williams K. C. 2009 Spiny Lobster ...

  8. Enantioselective toxicokinetics study of the bioaccumulation and elimination of α-hexachlorocyclohexane in loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) and its environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui-xue; Liu, Dong-hui; Qu, Han; Zhou, Gao-xin; Zhou, Zhi-qiang; Wang, Peng

    2013-02-01

    The enantioselective bioaccumulation and elimination of α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) in loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) were studied for the first time. Valid chiral residue analysis methods for α-HCH enantiomers in water and loach samples were established using gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector and a BGB-172 chiral column. A rapid accumulation process was found during the 39-d bioaccumulation experiment. The α-HCH in loaches reached its maximum on the fourth day, after which it fluctuated slightly, reflecting a balance between elimination and reuptake. The maximum bioaccumulation factor was 728 at the 10 μg L(-1) exposure level. The enantiomeric fraction (EF) values showed that the bioaccumulation was enantioselective with enantioenrichment of (+)-α-HCH in the loaches. The elimination experiment indicated that the degradation kinetics of α-HCH fitted a typical first-order kinetics model, and the half-life was about 5 d. Significant enantioselectivity was observed during the elimination process, with the EFs declining from higher than 0.5-0.39, suggesting (+)-α-HCH is preferentially biotransformed than (-)-α-HCH in loaches. The results reveal a high capacity for α-HCH bioconcentration by loaches and that biotransformation is the main route of decontamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular differentiation of three loach species (Pisces, Cobitidae) based on the nuclear 5S rDNA marker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirtiklis, L.; Boron, A.; Ptasznik, P.; Lusková, Věra; Lusk, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, 3-4 (2011), s. 141-145 ISSN 0015-5497 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Cobitis * PCR-RFLP * Sabanejewia * species identification * 5S rDNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.657, year: 2011

  10. Modified Method of Metaphase Plates Obtaining for Polyploid Fish Genera Carassius and Cobitis Karyotyping (Actinopterygii, Cypriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhtayevych P. P.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ото- браны и апробированы современные методики получения метафазных пластинок соматических клеток рыб, дающих наибольший эффект при исследовании полиплоидных видов. На основании эмпирических данных в отношении представителей родов Carassius и Cobitis рекомендуется ме- тодика с использованием CoCl2 и колхицина. В статье приведено подробное описание модифи- цированной методики и полученные в результате её применения метафазные пластинки Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, Carassius carassius Linnaeus, 1758 и триплоидной формы Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758.

  11. Elevational diversity gradients of Tibetan loaches: The relative roles of ecological and evolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenguang; Wu, Yongjie; Tian, Fei; Tong, Chao; Tang, Yongtao; Zhang, Renyi; Li, Guogang; Zhao, Kai

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that species richness patterns (SRPs) are shaped by both ecological and evolutionary processes. However, the relative roles of these processes remain unclear, especially for aquatic organisms. In this study, we integrated ecological and evolutionary measures to tease apart the relative influences of these factors on the SRP of Tibetan loaches along an extensive elevational gradient. We found that the Tibetan loaches displayed a richness pattern that peaked at midelevations. The mean annual temperature (MAT), mid-domain effect (MDE), and summed age of colonization (SAC, complex of colonization age and colonization frequency) were the main drivers, accounting for 85%, 51%, and 88% of the variations in the SRP, respectively. The three predictors had very high combined effects (MAT-MDE-SAC, MAT-SAC, and MDE-SAC were 44%, 38%, and 6%, respectively). Our analyses suggested that energy input, time-for-speciation, and species dispersal may directly guide the SRP or mediate it by geometric constraints. Conclusively, the SRP of the Tibetan loaches with elevation is the outcome of interactions between biogeographical processes and regional ecological conditions.

  12. Stone loaches of Choman River system, Kurdistan, Iran (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamangar, Barzan Bahrami; Prokofiev, Artem M; Ghaderi, Edris; Nalbant, Theodore T

    2014-01-20

    For the first time, we present data on species composition and distributions of nemacheilid loaches in the Choman River basin of Kurdistan province, Iran. Two genera and four species are recorded from the area, of which three species are new for science: Oxynoemacheilus kurdistanicus, O. zagrosensis, O. chomanicus spp. nov., and Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi Băn. et Nalb. Detailed and illustrated morphological descriptions and univariate and multivariate analysis of morphometric and meristic features are for each of these species. Forty morphometric and eleven meristic characters were used in multivariate analysis to select characters that could discriminate between the four loach species. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that sixteen morphometric measures and five meristic characters have the most variability between the loach species. The dendrograms based on cluster analysis of Mahalanobis distances of morphometrics and a combination of both characters confirmed two distinct groups: Oxynoemacheilus spp. and T. kosswigi. Within Oxynoemacheilus, O. zagrosensis and O. chomanicus are more similar to one other rather to either is to O. kurdistanicus.

  13. THE UTILIZATION OF THE KINDS OF LIVE FOOD ON CLOWN LOACH FISH JUVENILES (Chromobotia macracanthus Bleeker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Meilisza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestication and mass production technology of clown loaches fish have been developed by the Research Institute for Ornamental Fish Culture, Depok and the Institute de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD. In the process, some constraints has been found and one of them was the cost of production and sustainable supply of Artemia as the only one of live food which used for clown loaches post-larvae until 2-3 months old juvenile. To solve this constraints, the use of other live feed as a substitute or replacement of Artemia should be applied, caused by it research of the utilization of the kinds of live food on clown loach juvenile need to be done. This research aims to determine the kinds of live food which be recommended for the substitution of Artemia on clown loaches fish juvenile (Chromobotia macracanthus Bleeker. Research carried out using 1 month old clown loach juveniles designed into the Complete Randomized Design in two factors namely are class of fish size S (35-50 mg, M (55-70 mg, L (75-90 mg and the kinds of live food in the form of Artemia as a control, Moina, mini maggot, blood worms (Chironomus, and silk worms (Tubifex. Three levels treatment by class of fish size factor and five levels treatment by the kinds of live food factor produce 15 kinds of interactions with duplications. The research was conducted at recirculation system for 8 weeks to 3 months old juveniles. Observations were carried and measuring the growth parameters including weight, total length of fish, as well as survival rate parameters based on the number of fish that live at the end of the research. The support is done by measuring the water quality of pH, DO, temperature, ammonia, conductivity, and nitrites, proximate analysis of feed also performed. The two of research step analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance and continued by Tukey test.

  14. Learning intrinsic excitability in medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    We present an unsupervised, local activation-dependent learning rule for intrinsic plasticity (IP) which affects the composition of ion channel conductances for single neurons in a use-dependent way. We use a single-compartment conductance-based model for medium spiny striatal neurons in order to show the effects of parameterization of individual ion channels on the neuronal membrane potential-curent relationship (activation function). We show that parameter changes within the physiological ranges are sufficient to create an ensemble of neurons with significantly different activation functions. We emphasize that the effects of intrinsic neuronal modulation on spiking behavior require a distributed mode of synaptic input and can be eliminated by strongly correlated input. We show how modulation and adaptivity in ion channel conductances can be utilized to store patterns without an additional contribution by synaptic plasticity (SP). The adaptation of the spike response may result in either "positive" or "negative" pattern learning. However, read-out of stored information depends on a distributed pattern of synaptic activity to let intrinsic modulation determine spike response. We briefly discuss the implications of this conditional memory on learning and addiction.

  15. The contributions of the music of George Fenton to the fi lms of Ken Loach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía López Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ken Loach is a high profile British film director. Since the mid 1960’s, he has made numerous films for cinema and television. There is already a lot written about his way of filming and yet very little is written about the music for his films. To be able to get inside the music of Ken Loach’s films, we must first talk about George Fenton as he has been Loach’s usual composer since 1994. The object of this article is to fill this gap: to discover what musical characteristics Fenton contributes to Loach’s cinema.

  16. Characterization and expression profiles of aquaporins (AQPs 1a and 3a in mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis after experimental challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Yoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two distinct cDNAs encoding aquaporins (mmAQPs 1a and 3a were isolated and characterized from mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis. The identified mud loach AQP cDNAs encode for polypeptides of 260 and 302 amino acids. Topology predictions confirmed six putative membrane-spanning domains connected by five loops and the N- and C-terminal domains being cytoplasmic. The mud loach AQPs 1a and 3a showed broad distribution in multiple tissues including immune-responsive tissues as well as osmoregulatory tissues. Hence, the diversity of AQP distribution and expression possibly indicated its differential functions in the regulation of fluid movement in response to environmental stimuli. The transcription of mmAQP genes was differentially modulated by immune challenges. In particular, the mmAQP3a expression level in the liver was more responsive to immune challenges than that of mmAQP1a. Taken together, fish stimulation or infection resulted in significant modulation of mud loach AQP genes, suggesting potential functional roles of these proteins in piscine pathophysiological process.

  17. The complete mitochondrial transcript of the red tail loach Yasuhikotakia modesta as assembled from RNAseq (Teleostei: Botiidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grau, J. H.; Hilgers, L.; Altmüller, J.; Šlechtová, Vendula; Bohlen, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2017), s. 46-47 ISSN 2380-2359 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Yasuhikotakia modesta * loach * Botiidae Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Gene tics and heredity (medical gene tics to be 3)

  18. Dynamic formation of asexual diploid and polyploid lineages: multilocus analysis of Cobitis reveals the mechanisms maintaining the diversity of clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Janko

    Full Text Available Given the hybrid genomic constitutions and increased ploidy of many asexual animals, the identification of processes governing the origin and maintenance of clonal diversity provides useful information about the evolutionary consequences of interspecific hybridization, asexuality and polyploidy. In order to understand the processes driving observed diversity of biotypes and clones in the Cobitis taenia hybrid complex, we performed fine-scale genetic analysis of Central European hybrid zone between two sexual species using microsatellite genotyping and mtDNA sequencing. We found that the hybrid zone is populated by an assemblage of clonally (gynogenetically reproducing di-, tri- and tetraploid hybrid lineages and that successful clones, which are able of spatial expansion, recruit from two ploidy levels, i.e. diploid and triploid. We further compared the distribution of observed estimates of clonal ages to theoretical distributions simulated under various assumptions and showed that new clones are most likely continuously recruited from ancestral populations. This suggests that the clonal diversity is maintained by dynamic equilibrium between origination and extinction of clonal lineages. On the other hand, an interclonal selection is implied by nonrandom spatial distribution of individual clones with respect to the coexisting sexual species. Importantly, there was no evidence for sexually reproducing hybrids or clonally reproducing non-hybrid forms. Together with previous successful laboratory synthesis of clonal Cobitis hybrids, our data thus provide the most compelling evidence that 1 the origin of asexuality is causally linked to interspecific hybridization; 2 successful establishment of clones is not restricted to one specific ploidy level and 3 the initiation of clonality and polyploidy may be dynamic and continuous in asexual complexes.

  19. Distinguishing between incomplete lineage sorting and genomic introgressions: complete fixation of allospecific mitochondrial DNA in a sexually reproducing fish (Cobitis; Teleostei, despite clonal reproduction of hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Choleva

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between hybrid introgression and incomplete lineage sorting causing incongruence among gene trees in that they exhibit topological differences requires application of statistical approaches that are based on biologically relevant models. Such study is especially challenging in hybrid systems, where usual vectors mediating interspecific gene transfers--hybrids with Mendelian heredity--are absent or unknown. Here we study a complex of hybridizing species, which are known to produce clonal hybrids, to discover how one of the species, Cobitis tanaitica, has achieved a pattern of mito-nuclear mosaic genome over the whole geographic range. We appplied three distinct methods, including the method using solely the information on gene tree topologies, and found that the contrasting mito-nuclear signal might not have resulted from the retention of ancestral polymorphism. Instead, we found two signs of hybridization events related to C. tanaitica; one concerning nuclear gene flow and the other suggested mitochondrial capture. Interestingly, clonal inheritance (gynogenesis of contemporary hybrids prevents genomic introgressions and non-clonal hybrids are either absent or too rare to be detected among European Cobitis. Our analyses therefore suggest that introgressive hybridizations are rather old episodes, mediated by previously existing hybrids whose inheritance was not entirely clonal. Cobitis complex thus supports the view that the type of resulting hybrids depends on a level of genomic divergence between sexual species.

  20. Spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor filogenetic and genetic in Lombok waters, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranata B.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the phylogenetic spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor in Lombok waters, Indonesia and its association with P. versicolor spiny lobster from several regions of the Indian Ocean based on the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene. The researchers collected tissue samples from 13 P. versicolor spiny lobster in Lombok waters. 9 haplotypes were identified with haplotype diversity values (Hd and nucleotides (Pi respectively Hd = 0.859 and Pi = 0.00509. Research results exhibit P. versicolor spiny lobster population from the waters of Lombok is closely related to the spiny lobster population in some regions of the Indian Ocean. In general, P. versicolor spiny lobster population formed a monophyletic clone with spiny lobsters from several regions of the Indian Ocean with genetic distance values (P-distance from 0.001 to 0.004. The reconstruction of the haplotype network exhibited no genetic structure, which means that each population is not genetically isolated from others.

  1. Reproductive biology of spiny lobster Panulirus regius from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive biology of spiny lobster Panulirus regius from the northwestern Cape Verde Islands. R Freitas, A Medina, S Correira, M Castro. Abstract. No Abstract. African Journal of Marine Science Vol.29(2) 2007: pp. 201-208. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  2. Eleven novel polymorphic microsatellite loci in the ornate spiny ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lobster population to decline (Musthaq et al. 2006). So far, the ornate spiny lobster is an important species under provin- cial protection and the artificial propagation technology has not yet been developed in China (Liang and He 2012). Microsatellite DNA (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) marker is currently one of the best ...

  3. An Assessment of the Spiny Lobster Panulirus homarus Fishery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus supports numerous traditional diving, trap and trammel net fisheries in the Western Indian Ocean. Commercial catches made in 2003 to 2005 in the Arabian Sea region of Oman (a coastline of ~1100 km, comprising Dhofar and. Al-Wusta) were sampled for length and sex ...

  4. Assessment of reproductive function in southern African spiny mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To provide the necessary tools in order to fill this gap, this study examined the suitability of two enzyme immunoassays for monitoring male and female reproductive function in the southern African spiny mouse (Acomys spinosissimus) based on faecal hormone analysis. Fourteen non-pregnant and one pregnant female and ...

  5. Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, a new loach from the Lesser Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhof, Jörg; Geiger, Matthias

    2017-06-02

    Oxynoemacheilus zarzianus, new species, is described from the Lesser Zab River drainage, a tributary of the lower Tigris. It is distinguished from other Oxynoemacheilus species in the Tigris drainage by having a slightly emarginate caudal fin, no suborbital groove in males, a complete lateral line, the posterior process of the bony air-bladder capsule directed posteriorly, the flank and posterior part of back covered by scales, short barbels and a deep caudal peduncle. It is the fourth Oxynoemacheilus species known from the Lesser Zab drainage, where such loaches seem to be highly isolated in headwaters. Oxynoemacheilus species diversity in the Euphrates and Tigris drainage is exceptional high. Today 22 species are known from the entire Euphrates and Tigris drainage and 15 from the Tigris drainage alone.

  6. The Rearing of Clown Loach (Chromobotia macracanthus Larvae by Using Enriched Live Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Chumaidi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The enrichment of natural live  food with unsaturated fatty acid can increase survival and growth rate of fish larvae. The purpose of  this experiment was to know the effect of various natural live food with or without nutrient enrichment on survival and growth rate of clown loach (Chromobotia macracanthus larvae.  The experiment was done indoor by using plastic jars filled 5 L water and aerated continuously.  Twenty clown loach larvae of four days old, 5.58 ± 0.12   mm in average length,  were stocked in plastic jars and  were reared for 28 days. The treatment were: a Artemia nauplii as control;  b rotifer without enrichment;  c enriched rotifer, d Moina nauplii without enrichment, and e enriched Moina nauplii.  As enrichment agent, we used 200 mg of tuna eggs powder and 200 mg of baker's yeast which dissolved and  aerated in 2 L of water for one hour.  Proximate analysis for amino  and fatty acids content were done before the treatment, at 5 days old and at 32 days old (juvenile.  The result showed that higher survival (80.00% and growth rate (average body length 12.80±1.85 mm could be achieved by feeding clown loach larvae with enriched Moina nauplii. Keywords: clown loach larvae,  live feed, nutrient enrichment   ABSTRAK Pengkayaan asam lemak tak jenuh dari pakan hidup dapat meningkatkan sintasan dan pertumbuhan larva ikan.  Penelitian dilakukan bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pakan hidup dengan atau  tanpa diperkaya nutrisinya terhadap sintasan dan pertumbuhan larva ikan botia (Chromobotia macracanthus.  Penelitian dilaksanakan di dalam ruangan tertutup menggunakan wadah plastik yang berisi media air 5 L serta diaerasi terus menerus.  Larva umur empat hari dengan panjang rata-rata 5,58 ± 0,12 mm ditebar sebanyak 20 ekor per wadah.  Pemeliharaan larva dilakukan selama 28 hari. Perlakuan perbedaan jenis pakan hidup dengan atau tanpa diperkaya, yaitu : a naplii Artemia (kontrol, b rotifer tanpa diperkaya nutrisinya

  7. Biology and culture of the clown loach Chromobotia macracanthus (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae) : 4- Thermal biology of embryos and larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Baras, Etienne; Ginanjar, R.; Ahmad, M.; Permana, A.; Priyadi, A.; Legendre, Marc; Pouyaud, Laurent; Slembrouck, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The knowledge of how fish survive and grow at different temperatures, and how these traits vary between life stages, is essential to evaluate the effects of climate change on wild fish and implement effective strategies in aquaculture. These issues are addressed in this study through a series of experiments that evaluate the effect of temperature (23-34 degrees C) on the embryos and larvae of clown loach, Chromobotia macracanthus. This species is endemic to the rivers ...

  8. Microsatellite diversity of Kessler’s loach, Paraschistura kessleri (Nemacheilidae, Gunther, 1889 in Khorasan Razavi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shabani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To study genetic structure of Paraschistura kessleri, a freshwater endemic species of Iran, 84 samples were collected from Kardeh, Zavin and Radkan rivers in Razavi Khorasan province and investigated with six microsatellite loci. Results indicated that Kessler's loach have proper allelic diversity (average: 9.16 and heterozygosity (average: 0.65 in studied regions. Only 4 of 18 loci-population tests were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The values of Fst and Rst as genetic differentiation indices were obtained 0.034 and 0.061, respectively. In this regard, the relatively high rate of gene flow, Nm: 7.28 could be considered as an important factor involved in low genetic differentiation obtained among the samples of investigated rivers. Also, the observed gene flow could be related to some factors including pollution, floods and life history of Kessler's loach. Results from analysis of molecular variance showed the majority of observed diversity is within populations. The highest genetic identity and distance values were observed among the samples of Radkan with Kardeh and Zavin with Radkan, respectively. Also, UPGMA dendrogram based on genetic distance showed that there are probably two separate populations of Kessler's loach in the investigated regions as Zavin was in a branch separate from Kardeh and Radkan.

  9. Distinguishing between Incomplete Lineage Sorting and Genomic Introgressions: Complete Fixation of Allospecific Mitochondrial DNA in a Sexually Reproducing Fish (Cobitis; Teleostei), despite Clonal Reproduction of Hybrids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choleva, Lukáš; Musilová, Zuzana; Kohoutová-Šedivá, Alena; Pačes, Jan; Ráb, Petr; Janko, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 6 (2014), e80641-e80641 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1155; GA ČR GPP506/12/P857 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Cobitis * gene flow * coalescence * incomplete lineage sorting * asexual * gynogenesis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080641

  10. Role of parasite load and differential habitat preferences in maintaining the coexistence of sexual and asexual competitors in fish of the Cobitis taenia hybrid complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotusz, J.; Popiolek, M.; Drozd, P.; de Gelas, K.; Šlechtová, V.; Janko, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 220-235 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : diploid-polyploid complexes * European distribution * habitat partitioning * niche shift * parasite-mediated coexistence * Red Queen hypothesis * spined loach * unisexuality Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  11. Evidence for Adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau Inferred from Tibetan Loach Transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Liandong; Zhou, Kun; Zhang, Yanping; Song, Zhaobin; He, Shunping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Triplophysa fishes are the primary component of the fish fauna on the Tibetan Plateau and are well adapted to the high-altitude environment. Despite the importance of Triplophysa fishes on the plateau, the genetic mechanisms of the adaptations of these fishes to this high-altitude environment remain poorly understood. In this study, we generated the transcriptome sequences for three Triplophysa fishes, that is, Triplophysa siluroides, Triplophysa scleroptera, and Triplophysa dalaica, and used these and the previously available transcriptome and genome sequences from fishes living at low altitudes to identify potential genetic mechanisms for the high-altitude adaptations in Triplophysa fishes. An analysis of 2,269 orthologous genes among cave fish (Astyanax mexicanus), zebrafish (Danio rerio), large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus), and Triplophysa fishes revealed that each of the terminal branches of the Triplophysa fishes had a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions than that of the branches of the fishes from low altitudes, which provided consistent evidence for genome-wide rapid evolution in the Triplophysa genus. Many of the GO (Gene Ontology) categories associated with energy metabolism and hypoxia response exhibited accelerated evolution in the Triplophysa fishes compared with the large-scale loach. The genes that exhibited signs of positive selection and rapid evolution in the Triplophysa fishes were also significantly enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories. Our analysis identified widespread Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the fast evolving genes and positively selected genes. Moreover, we detected significant evidence of positive selection in the HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1A and HIF-2B genes in Triplophysa fishes and found that the Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the HIF-1A and HIF-2B genes were associated with functional changes. Overall, our study

  12. Evidence for Adaptation to the Tibetan Plateau Inferred from Tibetan Loach Transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Liandong; Zhou, Kun; Zhang, Yanping; Song, Zhaobin; He, Shunping

    2015-10-09

    Triplophysa fishes are the primary component of the fish fauna on the Tibetan Plateau and are well adapted to the high-altitude environment. Despite the importance of Triplophysa fishes on the plateau, the genetic mechanisms of the adaptations of these fishes to this high-altitude environment remain poorly understood. In this study, we generated the transcriptome sequences for three Triplophysa fishes, that is, Triplophysa siluroides, Triplophysa scleroptera, and Triplophysa dalaica, and used these and the previously available transcriptome and genome sequences from fishes living at low altitudes to identify potential genetic mechanisms for the high-altitude adaptations in Triplophysa fishes. An analysis of 2,269 orthologous genes among cave fish (Astyanax mexicanus), zebrafish (Danio rerio), large-scale loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus), and Triplophysa fishes revealed that each of the terminal branches of the Triplophysa fishes had a significantly higher ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions than that of the branches of the fishes from low altitudes, which provided consistent evidence for genome-wide rapid evolution in the Triplophysa genus. Many of the GO (Gene Ontology) categories associated with energy metabolism and hypoxia response exhibited accelerated evolution in the Triplophysa fishes compared with the large-scale loach. The genes that exhibited signs of positive selection and rapid evolution in the Triplophysa fishes were also significantly enriched in energy metabolism and hypoxia response categories. Our analysis identified widespread Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the fast evolving genes and positively selected genes. Moreover, we detected significant evidence of positive selection in the HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1A and HIF-2B genes in Triplophysa fishes and found that the Triplophysa-specific nonsynonymous mutations in the HIF-1A and HIF-2B genes were associated with functional changes. Overall, our study provides

  13. Comparative and variance analysis of activity of glutation dependent enzymes in loach Misgurnus fossilis L. embryos under the influence of flurenizyd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. О. Боднарчук

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work was to study the influence of flurenizyd (antimicrobial, antituberculosis, antichlamydia, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory medicine on the antioxidant homoeostasis of loach embryos (Misgurnus fossilis L. during early embryogenesis. Glutathioneperoxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was studied under the action of flurenizyd in concentrations 0.01; 0.05; 0.15; 1; 5; 15 mM, at the embryos of loach on the stage of development of the first (2 blastodmeres, fourth (16 blastodmeres, sixth (64 blastodmeres, eighth (256 blastodmeres, tenth (1024 blastodmeres division of zygote (before the stage of de-synchronization. The two-factor analysis of variance was conducted to figure out the degree of flurenizyd influence, time of development and miscellaneous factors on activity of the enzymes of cell’s glutathione antioxidant defence system. It was shown that flurenizyd violates work of glutathioneperoxidase on all stages of development of loach embryos  in particular predetermines the increase of their activity on the stage of development of 2, 16 and 256 blastomeres. The investigated antibiotic violates work of glutathione-S-transferase in the process of early embryogenesis of loach embryos Misgurnus fossilis L. In a maximal concentration (15 мМ flurenizyd decreases activity of enzyme, starting from the initial stages of development of loach embryos. Two-factor analysis of variance indicated, that on glutathioneperoxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activity of loach embryos considerable influence is made by the miscellaneous factors, like external factors affecting the development of embryos. Time of development, in a greater degree, influences the work of glutathioneperoxidase during early embryogenesis, compared to flurenizyd that indicates indirect influence of the investigated antibiotic on glutathioneperoxidase. Considerable influence of flurenizyd on glutathione-S-transferase activity

  14. Vicariance, colonization, and fast local speciation in Asia Minor and the Balkans as revealed from the phylogeny of spined loaches (Osteichthyes; Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Percides, A.; Doadrio, I.; Economidis, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, 2 (2006), s. 552-561 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IBS5045111; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : zoogeography * freshwater fishes * cobitis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.528, year: 2006

  15. Mitogenomic phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography of South American spiny rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.

    2017-01-01

    Echimyidae is one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse rodent families in the world, occupying a wide range of habitats in the Neotropics. However, a resolved phylogeny at the genus-level is still lacking for these 22 genera of South American spiny rats, including the coypu (Myocastorinae...... and Euryzygomatomyinae. Biogeographical analyses involving higher-level taxa show that several vicariant and dispersal events impacted the evolutionary history of echimyids. The diversification history of Echimyidae seems to have been influenced by two major historical factors, namely (1) recurrent connections between...

  16. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis Provides Evidence of Local Thermal Adaptation in Three Loaches (Genus: Misgurnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokui Yi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of three Misgurnus species, M. anguillicaudatus, M. bipartitus, and M. mohoity, displays a specific pattern in China, coincident with temperature zones. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of these three species and used the sequences to investigate the lineage-specific adaptations within the genus Misgurnus. In total, 51 orphan genes (19 in M. anguillicaudatus, 18 in M. bipartitus, and 14 in M. mohoity that may contribute to the species-specific adaptations were identified. An analysis of 1392 one-to-one orthologous genes revealed significantly higher ratios of nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitutions in the M. mohoity lineage than in M. anguillicaudatus. The genes displaying signatures of positive selection and rapid evolution in Misgurnus were involved in four function categories, (1 energy metabolism; (2 signal transduction; (3 membrane; and (4 cell proliferation or apoptosis, implying that these candidate genes play critical roles in the thermal adaptation of the fish to their living environments. We also detected more than five positively selected sites in cldn15lb and isca1, which function as important factors in paracellular Na+ transport and Fe/S cluster assembly, respectively. Overall, our study provides valuable insights into the adaptive evolution of loaches from different temperature zones in China and is a foundation for future studies to clarify the genetic basis of temperature adaptation in fishes.

  17. La inmigración y la ciudadanía según Ken Loach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomando como referencia una producción cinematográfica particular, la del cineasta británico Ken Loach (Nuneaton, 1936, se aborda en este artículo el tema de la inmigración reflejado en dos de sus películas: Pan y Rosas (2000 y Solo un beso (2004. Cuestiones como la inmigración ilegal, las segundas generaciones inmigrantes, la multiculturalidad, la adaptación y el mestizaje (dentro de un contexto anglosajón son algunos de los temas que se tratan en estos filmes y que sacan a relucir la problemática que conlleva el concepto de ciudadanía en la actualidad. Desde una perspectiva fundamentalmente (aunque no solo económica en Pan y Rosas y cultural en Solo un beso, se observan los mecanismos de inclusión y exclusión que configuran la posición del inmigrante en la sociedad contemporánea. El análisis detallado de las escenas, diálogos y personajes de las citadas películas intentará recoger el discurso crítico de este realizador, prestando atención a las cuestiones más significativas desde un punto de vista sociológico. 

  18. [The activity of prooxidant-antioxidant system in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaremchuk, M M; Dyka, M V; Sanahurs'kyĭ, D I

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) affects biological organisms, primarily on the cellular level. However, the effects of EMR at low-intensity exposure on animals and state of metabolic systems are not fully defined yet. Thus, research of microwave radiation influence on the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection system is important for understanding the mechanisms of EMR action on the cell, in particular, and organism development on the whole. The content of lipid peroxidation products--lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation (GSM-900 MHz, SAR = 1.1 Vt/kg) lasting 1; 5; 10 and 20 min during early embryogenesis were studied. It has been found that content of lipid peroxidation products in germ cells undergoes significant changes under the action of low-intensity EMR. The effect of microwave radiation (1, 5, 10 min) leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity, nevertheless, 20 min exposure decreased this index to the level of control values as it is shown. It has been established that EMR at frequencies used for mobile communications reduce the activity of antioxidant protection system components, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The growth of catalase activity at the 10-cell stage of blastomere division (P microwave radiation factor causes the large part of all observable modifications.

  19. The activity of prooxidant-antioxidant system in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Yaremchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic radiation (EMR affects biological organisms, primarily on the cellular level. However, the effects of EMR at low-intensity exposure on animals and state of metabolic systems are not fully defined yet. Thus, research of microwave radiation influence on the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection system is important for understanding the mechanisms of EMR action on the cell, in particular, and organism development on the whole. The content of lipid peroxidation products – lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation (GSM-900 MHz, SAR = 1.1 Vt/kg lasting 1; 5; 10 and 20 min during early embryogenesis were studied. It has been found that content of lipid peroxidation products in germ cells undergoes significant changes under the action of low-intensity EMR. The effect of microwave radiation (1, 5, 10 min leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity, nevertheless, 20 min exposure decreased this index to the level of control values as it is shown. It has been established that EMR at frequencies used for mobile communications reduce the activity of antioxidant protection system components, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The growth of catalase activity at the 10-cell stage of blastomere division (P < 0.05 is an exception. The results of two-way analysis of variance attest that microwave radiation factor causes the large part of all observable modifications.

  20. GROWTH RESPONSE OF CLOWN LOACH (Chromobotia macracanthus Bleeker 1852 JUVENILES IMMERSED IN WATER CONTAINING RECOMBINANT GROWTH HORMONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Permana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem in the culture of clown loach (Chromobotia macracanthus is the slow growth rate, which takes about six months to reach its market size (two inches total body length. Slow growth eventually cause a long production time and increase the production costs. An alternative solution can be proposed in order to enhance the growth is by using recombinant growth hormone. The aim of this study was to determine the immersion dose of recombinant Epinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH which can generate the highest growth in clown loach. Larvae at seven day after hatching were hyperosmotic treated with NaCl 2.0% for one minute, then immersed for one hour in water containing 0.3% NaCl, 0.01% bovine serum albumin (BSA, and different doses of rElGH, namely: 0.12 (treatment A, 1.2 (B, 12 (C, and 120 mg/L (D. As control, fish were immersed in water without rElGH and NaCl (control-1, water containing 0.3% NaCl and 0.01% BSA (control-2, and 0.3% NaCl water (control-3. Each treatment was replicated three times. The results showed that clown loach juveniles in treatment B, C, and D had longer total body length (P0.05. In addition, the percentage of large size juveniles increased approximately 5% in treatment B, almost the same as in the medium size, while the small size were decrease compared to the control-1. Thus, the best immersion dose of rElGH was 1.2 mg/L water.

  1. Macrophages are necessary for epimorphic regeneration in African spiny mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Jennifer; Gawriluk, Thomas R; Gensel, John C; Seifert, Ashley W

    2017-05-16

    How the immune system affects tissue regeneration is not well understood. In this study, we used an emerging mammalian model of epimorphic regeneration, the African spiny mouse, to examine cell-based inflammation and tested the hypothesis that macrophages are necessary for regeneration. By directly comparing inflammatory cell activation in a 4 mm ear injury during regeneration ( Acomys cahirinus ) and scarring ( Mus musculus ), we found that both species exhibited an acute inflammatory response, with scarring characterized by stronger myeloperoxidase activity. In contrast, ROS production was stronger and more persistent during regeneration. By depleting macrophages during injury, we demonstrate a functional requirement for these cells to stimulate regeneration. Importantly, the spatial distribution of activated macrophage subtypes was unique during regeneration with pro-inflammatory macrophages failing to infiltrate the regeneration blastema. Together, our results demonstrate an essential role for inflammatory cells to regulate a regenerative response.

  2. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Butler

    Full Text Available Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system.

  3. AFSC/ABL: NPRB project 1106 Improved aging estimates for spiny dogfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi, formerly Squalus acanthias, Ebert et al. 2010) is a small, long-lived and slow-growing shark, which is vulnerable to...

  4. Bilirubin metabolism in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, and the small skate, Raja erinacea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Arias, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    1. The main bilirubin conjugate in bile of spiny dogfish (Squalus Acanthias) and small skate (Raja Erinacea) is bilirubin monoglucuronide. 2. Microsomal preparations from dogfish and small skate liver have similar bilirubin UDPglucuronyltransferase (UDPGT) activity and catalyze the conjugation of

  5. Cold-shock eliminates female nucleus in fertilized eggs to induce androgenesis in the loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, a teleost fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morishima Kagayaki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgenesis (all-male inheritance is generally induced by means of irradiating the eggs to inactivate the maternal genome, followed by fertilization with normal sperm. In fish, the conventional technique for induced androgenesis has been applied for rapid fixation to traits, recovery of cryopreserved genotypes, sex-control, etc. A new method of androgenesis that eliminates the need to irradiate the egg was proposed using the loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (a teleost fish. Results When the eggs of wild-type females were fertilized with sperm of albino or orange phenotype males and cold-shocked at 0 to 3°C for 60 min duration just after fertilization, generally more than 30% (with a peak of 100% of the hatched progeny were androgenotes. While a few of them were the normal diploid, most of them turned out to be abnormal haploid. All-male inheritance was verified by the expression of the recessive color trait (albino or orange and microsatellite genotypes comprising only paternally derived alleles. Nuclear behavior after the cold-shock treatment was traced by microscopic observation of DAPI (4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained samples and hematoxylin-eosin stained histological sections, and the extrusion of egg (maternal nucleus was observed in eggs treated in the optimum timing. Conclusion In this paper, we demonstrate that cold-shock treatment (at 0 and 3°C of loach eggs for 60 min just after fertilization successfully induces androgenetic haploid development. The most likely mechanism of cold-shock induced androgenesis is an elimination of the egg nucleus together along with the second polar body and subsequent development of a decondensed sperm nucleus or male pronucleus.

  6. MODE OF INHERITANCE OF POD SPININESS IN OKRA (Abelmoschus esculentus (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Hassan Ahmed Abdelmageed

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The mode of inheritance of spininess in okra was investigated. Two okra cultivars, namely ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and the Indian cultivar ‘Pusa Sawani’ were used in this study. The two parents were self pollinated for three successive generations to fix the character under study. Crosses were made between ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and ‘Pusa Sawani’, and reciprocal F1’s, F2’s and all possible backcrosses were derived from the initial crosses. No reciprocal differences were found between F1 and F2 generation for pod spininess. Segregation in the crosses between the local cultivar ‘Khartoumia spiny’ and the Indian cultivar ‘Pusa Sawani’ indicated that the presence of spines on pods was controlled by single gene, with incomplete dominance.

  7. 76 FR 82413 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral... Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 101217620-1788-03] RIN 0648-BA62 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management Plans of...

  8. Nine karyomorphs for spiny rats of the genus Proechimys (Echimyidae, Rodentia from North and Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Machado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiny rats of the genus Proechimys are morphologically diverse, widely distributed and have diploid numbers ranging from 2n = 14-16 to 2n = 62. In this paper we present cytogenetical data and brief comments on morphological and biogeographical issues related to spiny rats. In our sample of 42 spiny rats collected from 12 Brazilian Amazonian tropical rainforest and the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna sites we detected nine karyological entities: four different karyomorphs with 2n = 30, three with 2n = 28, one with 2n = 15 and one with 2n = 44. Based on qualitative morphological characters these karyomorphs can be allocated to five species within the goeldii, guyannensis and longicaudatus species groups.

  9. Impacts of onshore developments and tourism on the Kenya coastal fisheries: the artisanal spiny lobster fishery

    OpenAIRE

    Okechi, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Data on the spiny lobster fishery landings from the Kenya coast from the period 1972-1991 indicate a stable fishery of 70 mt annually. The Lamu district contributes over 53% of the landings. The species Panulirus ornatus contributes over 90% of the lobster catch. Spiny lobsters are Kenya's most valuable seafood resource on a price per weight basis. The growth in the tourist industry on the Kenya coast has led to the construction of many beach hotels. As a result of the popularity of the lobst...

  10. 76 FR 14644 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2011 Specifications for the Spiny Dogfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Copies of supporting... the spiny dogfish stock (U.S. commercial dead discards, recreational landings and discards, and.... commercial landings, removals (U.S. commercial dead discards, recreational landings and discards, and...

  11. 75 FR 16716 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2010 Specifications for the Spiny Dogfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Copies of supporting... update estimated that overfishing is not occurring. Total removals (U.S. commercial dead discards... the spiny dogfish stock (U.S. commercial dead discards, recreational landings and discards, and...

  12. 75 FR 26920 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Spiny Dogfish Amendment 3 Scoping Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Management Plan (FMP). This notice announces a public process to solicit scoping comments on the two... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-AY12 Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Spiny Dogfish Amendment 3 Scoping Process AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National...

  13. Effects of cattle and rabbit grazing on clonal expansion of spiny shrubs in wood-pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.; Bakker, E.S.; Apol, M.E.F.; Olff, H.

    2010-01-01

    Spiny shrubs protect non-defended plants against herbivores. Therefore, they play a role for the diversity in grazed ecosystems. While the importance of these keystone nurse shrubs is presently recognized, little is known about the factors controlling them. This knowledge is required to understand

  14. 77 FR 15991 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2012 Spiny Dogfish Fishery Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... in spiny dogfish biomass. The proposed action is expected to result in positive economic impacts for...). Attachments to electronic comments will be accepted in Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file... the other alternatives are positive. The proposed action is almost certain to result in greater...

  15. Diversity in Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity at Inhibitory Synapses of Striatal Spiny Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Orozco, Pavel E.; Mendoza, Ernesto; Hernandez, Ricardo; Aceves, Jose J.; Ibanez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Procedural memories and habits are posited to be stored in the basal ganglia, whose intrinsic circuitries possess important inhibitory connections arising from striatal spiny neurons. However, no information about long-term plasticity at these synapses is available. Therefore, this work describes a novel postsynaptically dependent long-term…

  16. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Xie, Feng; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness is a core problem in biodiversity theory. Spiny frogs of the subfamily Painae (Anura: Dicroglossidae) are widespread, but endemic to Asia. Using spiny frog distribution and body size data, and a digital elevation model data set we explored altitudinal patterns of spiny frog richness and quantified the effect of area on the richness pattern over a large altitudinal gradient from 0-5000 m a.s.l. We also tested two hypotheses: (i) the Rapoport's altitudinal effect is valid for the Painae, and (ii) Bergmann's clines are present in spiny frogs. The species richness of Painae across four different altitudinal band widths (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m) all showed hump-shaped patterns along altitudinal gradient. The altitudinal changes in species richness of the Paini and Quasipaini tribes further confirmed this finding, while the peak of Quasipaini species richness occurred at lower elevations than the maxima of Paini. The area did not explain a significant amount of variation in total, nor Paini species richness, but it did explain variation in Quasipaini. Five distinct groups across altitudinal gradient were found. Species altitudinal ranges did not expand with an increase in the midpoints of altitudinal ranges. A significant negative correlation between body size and elevation was exhibited. Our findings demonstrate that Rapoport's altitudinal rule is not a compulsory attribute of spiny frogs and also suggest that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to amphibians. The study highlights a need to explore the underlying mechanisms of species richness patterns, particularly for amphibians in macroecology.

  17. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Hu

    Full Text Available Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness is a core problem in biodiversity theory. Spiny frogs of the subfamily Painae (Anura: Dicroglossidae are widespread, but endemic to Asia. Using spiny frog distribution and body size data, and a digital elevation model data set we explored altitudinal patterns of spiny frog richness and quantified the effect of area on the richness pattern over a large altitudinal gradient from 0-5000 m a.s.l. We also tested two hypotheses: (i the Rapoport's altitudinal effect is valid for the Painae, and (ii Bergmann's clines are present in spiny frogs. The species richness of Painae across four different altitudinal band widths (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m all showed hump-shaped patterns along altitudinal gradient. The altitudinal changes in species richness of the Paini and Quasipaini tribes further confirmed this finding, while the peak of Quasipaini species richness occurred at lower elevations than the maxima of Paini. The area did not explain a significant amount of variation in total, nor Paini species richness, but it did explain variation in Quasipaini. Five distinct groups across altitudinal gradient were found. Species altitudinal ranges did not expand with an increase in the midpoints of altitudinal ranges. A significant negative correlation between body size and elevation was exhibited. Our findings demonstrate that Rapoport's altitudinal rule is not a compulsory attribute of spiny frogs and also suggest that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to amphibians. The study highlights a need to explore the underlying mechanisms of species richness patterns, particularly for amphibians in macroecology.

  18. Genomic replacement of native Cobitis lutheri with introduced C. tetralineata through a hybrid swarm following the artificial connection of river systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Ye-Seul; Ko, Myeong-Hun; Won, Yong-Jin

    2014-04-01

    River connections via artificial canals will bring about secondary contacts between previously isolated fish species. Here, we present a genetic consequence of such a secondary contact between Cobitis fish species, C. lutheri in the Dongjin River, and C. tetralineata in the Seomjin River in Korea. The construction of water canals about 80 years ago has unidirectionally introduced C. tetralineata into the native habitat of C. lutheri, and then these species have hybridized in the main stream section of the Dongjin River. According to the divergence population genetic analyses of DNA sequence data, the two species diverged about 3.3 million years ago, which is interestingly coincident with the unprecedented paleoceanographic change that caused isolations of the paleo-river systems in northeast Asia due to sea-level changes around the late Pliocene. Multilocus genotypic data of nine microsatellites and three nuclear loci revealed an extensively admixed structure in the hybrid zone with a high proportion of various post-F1 hybrids. Surprisingly, pure native C. lutheri was absent in the hybrid zone in contrast to the 7% of pure C. tetralineata. Such a biased proportion must have resulted from the dominant influence of continually introducing C. tetralineata on the native C. lutheri which has no supply of natives from other tributaries to the hybrid zone due to numerous low-head dams. In addition, mating experiments indicated that there is no discernible reproductive isolation between them. All the results suggest that the gene pool of native C. lutheri is being rapidly replaced by that of continually introducing C. tetralineata through a hybrid swarm for the last 80 years, which will ultimately lead to the genomic extinction of natives in this hybrid zone.

  19. Comparison of spermatozoa parameters, fine structures, and energy-related factors among tetraploid, hyper-tetraploid, and hyper-triploid loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Saito, Taiju; Pšenička, Martin; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of ploidy elevation and aneuploidy on spermatozoa in the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, we investigated some parameters (motility, concentration, and viability), fine structures (gross morphology, head size, and flagellum length), and energy-related biochemical factors (volume of mitochondrial mass per cell and ATP content) in diploid, hyper-diploid, and hexaploid-range spermatozoa produced in natural tetraploid, hyper-tetraploid, and hyper-triploid male loaches, respectively. Diploid spermatozoa exhibited vigorous movement and sufficient duration of motility similar to those in haploid spermatozoa. They had longer flagella, higher numbers and larger volume of mitochondria, and higher ATP content than haploid spermatozoa of wild-type diploids. No differences were observed in parameters and morphological characteristics between diploid and hyper-diploid spermatozoa. In contrast, the hexaploid-range spermatozoa of hyper-triploid males exhibited poor progressive motility in spite of a higher ATP content of spermatozoa. Spermatozoa with no flagella (36.0%) or multiple flagella (18.6%) were also observed in hyper-triploids. Ratios of head to flagellum length in hexaploid-range spermatozoa were significantly different from those of haploid spermatozoa. In addition to the normal 9+2 microtubule structure of the flagellum, an abnormal 9+1 microtubule structure was also observed in the spermatozoa of hyper-triploids. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Populations of striatal medium spiny neurons encode vibrotactile frequency in rats: modulation by slow wave oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Thomas G; Gerdjikov, Todor V

    2013-01-01

    Dorsolateral striatum (DLS) is implicated in tactile perception and receives strong projections from somatosensory cortex. However, the sensory representations encoded by striatal projection neurons are not well understood. Here we characterized the contribution of DLS to the encoding of vibrotactile information in rats by assessing striatal responses to precise frequency stimuli delivered to a single vibrissa. We applied stimuli in a frequency range (45-90 Hz) that evokes discriminable percepts and carries most of the power of vibrissa vibration elicited by a range of complex fine textures. Both medium spiny neurons and evoked potentials showed tactile responses that were modulated by slow wave oscillations. Furthermore, medium spiny neuron population responses represented stimulus frequency on par with previously reported behavioral benchmarks. Our results suggest that striatum encodes frequency information of vibrotactile stimuli which is dynamically modulated by ongoing brain state.

  1. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water, Central Pacific (CP(Hawaii and Tuamotu and the Western Pacific (WP(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP. No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific, with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY.

  2. Conservation and variation in the feeding mechanism of the spiny dogfish squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga; Motta

    1998-05-01

    Changes in the feeding mechanism with feeding behavior were investigated using high-speed video and electromyography to examine the kinematics and motor pattern of prey capture, manipulation and transport in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias (Squalidae: Squaliformes). In this study, Squalus acanthias used both suction and ram behaviors to capture and manipulate prey, while only suction was used to transport prey. The basic kinematic feeding sequence observed in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates is conserved in the spiny dogfish. Prey capture, bite manipulation and suction transport events are characterized by a common pattern of head movements and motor activity, but are distinguishable by differences in duration and relative timing. In general, capture events are longer in duration than manipulation and transport events, as found in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates. Numerous individual effects were found, indicating that individual sharks are capable of varying head movements and motor activity among successful feeding events. Upper jaw protrusion in the spiny dogfish is not restricted by its orbitostylic jaw suspension; rather, the upper jaw is protruded by 30 % of its head length, considerably more than in the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae: Carcharhiniformes) (18 %) with its hyostylic jaw suspension. One function of upper jaw protrusion is to assist in jaw closure by protruding the upper jaw as well as elevating the lower jaw to close the gape, thus decreasing the time to jaw closure. The mechanism of upper jaw protrusion was found to differ between squaliform and carcharhiniform sharks. Whereas the levator palatoquadrati muscle assists in retracting the upper jaw in the spiny dogfish, it assists in protruding the upper jaw in the lemon shark. This study represents the first comprehensive electromyographic and kinematic analysis of the feeding mechanism in a squaliform shark.

  3. Observational comparisons of intestinal microbiota characterizations, immune enzyme activities, and muscle amino acid compositions of loach in paddy fields and ponds in Sichuan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Duan, Yuanliang; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Ya; Du, Jun; Zhao, Liulan; Du, Zongjun; Han, Shuaishuai

    2017-06-01

    A balanced intestinal microbial ecosystem is crucial for the growth and health of animals because it can influence the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the intestine. Different culture conditions may change the ecology of microbial in intestine and thus affect the overall growth performance of an animal. In this study, we compared intestinal morphologies, microbiota characterizations, immune enzyme activities, and muscle amino acid compositions of loach cultured in paddy fields and ponds. The fish were fed with the same diets from May 5 to November 5 (2015) in three paddy or ponds. Fish samples were collected for analysis in the August (summer season) and November (fall season) during the feeding trial. In both culture conditions, results based on microscopy observation showed that the intestinal perimeter, fold height, fold radical, and total absorption of the gut were significantly higher in the foregut than that found in the midgut and hindgut (P fish was similar between the two culture conditions (P > 0.05). The percentage of carcass weight to whole loach weight for samples collected from paddy field (91.6 ± 1.1) was significantly higher than the index measured for loach from pond (87.3 ± 3.4, P fish from summer to fall. The sequencing results of bands indicated that the predominant microorganisms are Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria in the intestine of fish being cultured in both cultures. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP, in two culture conditions) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, in paddy field) presented a gradual decrease trend from foregut to hindgut of fish. The activities of acid phosphatase (ACP, in midgut), AKP (in midgut and hindgut), SOD (in foregut), and lysozyme (LZM, in midgut) were significantly higher in fish cultured in paddy than those in pond (P amino acids (valine, methionine, and phenylalanine) based on total amino acids in muscle was significantly higher in fish cultured in paddies than in ponds. In

  4. Schistura megalodon species nova, a new river loach from the Irra-waddy basin in Dehong, Yunnan, China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endruweit, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A new species of river loach, Schistura megalodon sp. nov., is described from the Irrawaddy basin in Yingjiang County, Dehong Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. The following combination of diagnostic characters serve to distinguish it from all other congeners in the given zoogeographical region: a large processus dentiformes in the upper jaw, a short pre-anus length of 65.4%-66.3% of SL, long paired fins (pectoral: 20.8%-24.2% of SL; pelvic: 17.9%-20.6% of SL), a wide body of 9.7%-11.3% of SL at anal fin origin, an incomplete lateral line, the absence of an orbital lobe, and a oad and distinct basicaudal bar with forward extensions.

  5. New rules governing synaptic plasticity in core nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xincai; Martin, Gilles E

    2012-12-01

    The nucleus accumbens is a forebrain region responsible for drug reward and goal-directed behaviors. It has long been believed that drugs of abuse exert their addictive properties on behavior by altering the strength of synaptic communication over long periods of time. To date, attempts at understanding the relationship between drugs of abuse and synaptic plasticity have relied on the high-frequency long-term potentiation model of T.V. Bliss & T. Lømo [(1973) Journal of Physiology, 232, 331-356]. We examined synaptic plasticity using spike-timing-dependent plasticity, a stimulation paradigm that reflects more closely the in vivo firing patterns of mouse core nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons and their afferents. In contrast to other brain regions, the same stimulation paradigm evoked bidirectional long-term plasticity. The magnitude of spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation (tLTP) changed with the delay between action potentials and excitatory post-synaptic potentials, and frequency, whereas that of spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (tLTD) remained unchanged. We showed that tLTP depended on N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, whereas tLTD relied on action potentials. Importantly, the intracellular calcium signaling pathways mobilised during tLTP and tLTD were different. Thus, calcium-induced calcium release underlies tLTD but not tLTP. Finally, we found that the firing pattern of a subset of medium spiny neurons was strongly inhibited by dopamine receptor agonists. Surprisingly, these neurons were exclusively associated with tLTP but not with tLTD. Taken together, these data point to the existence of two subgroups of medium spiny neurons with distinct properties, each displaying unique abilities to undergo synaptic plasticity. © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Spiny Neurons of Amygdala, Striatum and Cortex Use Dendritic Plateau Potentials to Detect Network UP States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina D Oikonomou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spiny neurons of amygdala, striatum, and cerebral cortex share four interesting features: [1] they are the most abundant cell type within their respective brain area, [2] covered by thousands of thorny protrusions (dendritic spines, [3] possess high levels of dendritic NMDA conductances, and [4] experience sustained somatic depolarizations in vivo and in vitro (UP states. In all spiny neurons of the forebrain, adequate glutamatergic inputs generate dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states characterized by (i fast rise, (ii plateau phase lasting several hundred milliseconds and (iii abrupt decline at the end of the plateau phase. The dendritic plateau potential propagates towards the cell body decrementally to induce a long-lasting (longer than 100 ms, most often 200 – 800 ms steady depolarization (~20 mV amplitude, which resembles a neuronal UP state. Based on voltage-sensitive dye imaging, the plateau depolarization in the soma is precisely time-locked to the regenerative plateau potential taking place in the dendrite. The somatic plateau rises after the onset of the dendritic voltage transient and collapses with the breakdown of the dendritic plateau depolarization. We hypothesize that neuronal UP states in vivo reflect the occurrence of dendritic plateau potentials (dendritic UP states. We propose that the somatic voltage waveform during a neuronal UP state is determined by dendritic plateau potentials. A mammalian spiny neuron uses dendritic plateau potentials to detect and transform coherent network activity into a ubiquitous neuronal UP state. The biophysical properties of dendritic plateau potentials allow neurons to quickly attune to the ongoing network activity, as well as secure the stable amplitudes of successive UP states.

  7. Spiny mice modulate eumelanin to pheomelanin ratio to achieve cryptic coloration in "evolution canyon," Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan Singaravelan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coat coloration in mammals is an explicit adaptation through natural selection. Camouflaging with the environment is the foremost evolutionary drive in explaining overall coloration. Decades of enquiries on this topic have been limited to repetitive coat color measurements to correlate the morphs with background/habitat blending. This led to an overwhelming endorsement of concealing coloration as a local phenotypic adaptation in animals, primarily rodents to evade predators. However, most such studies overlooked how rodents actually achieve such cryptic coloration. Cryptic coloration could be attained only through optimization between the yellow- to brown-colored "pheomelanin" and gray to black-colored "eumelanin" in the hairs. However, no study has explored this conjecture yet. "Evolution Canyon" (EC in Israel is a natural microscale laboratory where the relationship between organism and environment can be explored. EC is comprised of an "African" slope (AS, which exhibits a yellow-brownish background habitat, and a "European" slope (ES, exhibiting a dark grayish habitat; both slopes harbor spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus. Here, we examine how hair melanin content of spiny mice living in the opposing slopes of EC evolves toward blending with their respective background habitat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured hair-melanin (both eumelanin and pheomelanin contents of 30 spiny mice from the EC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC that detects specific degradation products of eumelanin and pheomelanin. The melanin pattern of A. cahirinus approximates the background color of the slope on which they dwell. Pheomelanin is slightly (insignificantly higher in individuals found on the AS to match the brownish background, whereas individuals of the ES had significantly greater eumelanin content to mimic the dark grayish background. This is further substantiated by a significantly higher eumelanin and pheomelanin ratio on

  8. Studies on the toxicity of dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, methanol and glycerol to loach (Misgurnus fossilis) sperm and the effect on subsequent embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeika, J; Kopeika, E; Zhang, T; Rawson, D M

    2003-01-01

    The process of sperm cryopreservation consists of several steps: equilibration of sperm in cryoprotectant medium, freezing of sperm to subzero temperatures, low temperature storage and thawing of the sperm suspension. It has been shown that cryopreservation can cause some damage to the genetic material of cells although the mechanism and significance of these changes are still unknown. The aim of this work was to study the effect of cryoprotectant equilibration process on genetic damage of Loach (Misgurnus fossilis) sperm, using embryo survival as an indicator. Decrease in embryo survival after the 20th stage is generally believed to result from the failure in the genome function of embryos. In the first set of the experiments, Loach sperm were equilibrated in cryoprotectants Me2SO, ethylene glycol, methanol and glycerol (0.6, 1.2, 2.5 M) for 60 min at 10 degree C. The effect of cryoprotectant equilibration on sperm was evaluated based on the survival of embryos derived from cryoprotectant treated sperm. Embryo survival was evaluated at the following stages: 7th, 14th, 17th, 20th, 23rd, 26th, 31st, 34th, 35th, 36th and 37th. Cryoprotectants at concentrations greater than 1.2 M had significant effect on the survival of the embryos after the 20th stage. The effect of glycerol was the most significant with 64.8 +/- 2.4% of embryos survival compared to 77.0 +/- 2.4% for control. Me2SO treatment also effects embryo survival significantly. Possible mechanisms of the genetic instability of cryoprotectants are discussed.

  9. Susceptibility of spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus to Leishmania (Viannia panamensis and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BL Travi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of Proechimys semispinosus as reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia panamensis on the Colombian Pacific coast was experimentally evaluated. The susceptibility to L. chagasi also was assessed to determine the utility of this rodent as a model for studying reservoir characteristics in the laboratory. Wild-caught animals were screened for natural trypanosomatid infections, and negative individuals were inoculated intradermally (ID in the snout or feet with 10(7 promastigotes of L. panamensis. L. chagasi was inoculated intracardially (10(7 promastigotes or ID in the ear (10(8 promastigotes. PCR-hybridization showed that 15% of 33 spiny rats were naturally infected with L. Viannia sp. Animals experimentally infected with L. panamensis developed non-ulcerated lesions that disappeared by the 7th week post-infection (p.i. and became more resistant upon reinfection. Infectivity to sand flies was low (1/20-1/48 infected/fed flies and transient, and both culture and PCR-hybridization showed that L. panamensis was cleared by the 13th week p.i. Animals inoculated with L. chagasi became subclinically infected and were non-infective to sand flies. Transient infectivity to vectors of spiny rats infected with L. panamensis, combined with population characteristics, e.g., abundance, exploitation of degraded habitats and high reproductive rates, could make them epidemiologically suitable reservoirs.

  10. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  11. Adaptive thermoregulation in golden spiny mice: the influence of season and food availability on body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofir; Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effect of food supplementation during summer and winter in seminatural field conditions on thermoregulation of a desert rodent, the golden spiny mouse Acomys russatus. We hypothesized that (a) under natural food availability (control conditions), mice will use less precise thermoregulation (i.e., an increase in the variance of body temperature [T(b)]) during winter because of low ambient temperatures (T(a)'s) and low food availability and during summer because of low food and water availability; (b) food supplementation will result in more precise thermoregulation during winter, but the effect will be smaller during summer because variation in T(b) in summer is also driven by water availability during that period. We found that under natural food availability, spiny mice thermoregulated more precisely during summer than during winter. They spent more time torpid during summer than during winter even when food was supplemented (although summer nights are shorter), allowing them to conserve water. Supplementing food resulted in more precise thermoregulation in both seasons, and mice spent less time torpid. In summer, thermoregulation at high T(a)'s was less precise, resulting in higher maximum T(b)'s in summer than in winter and when food was supplemented, in accord with the expected effect of water shortage on thermoregulation. Our results suggest that as expected, precise thermoregulation is beneficial when possible and is abandoned only when the costs of homeothermy outweigh the benefits.

  12. Susceptibility of various Japanese freshwater fish species to an isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) genotype IVb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ito, Takafumi; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    fish Oryzias latipes and yoshinobori Rhinogobius sp., respectively. No mortality was observed in honmoroko Gnathopogon caerulescens, akaza Liobagrus reini or Japanese striped loach Cobitis biwae. VHSV was detected by RT-PCR from samples of kidney, spleen, and brain from all dead fish, and virus re...

  13. 76 FR 68711 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    .... 101217620-1654-02] RIN 0648-BA62 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef... fisheries are managed under the FMP for Reef Fish and the FMP for Coral and Reef Associated Plants and... Amendment 6 to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S...

  14. 76 FR 59377 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...-BA62 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and... within the Reef Fish FMP and the Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates FMP, revise the... alternatives to redefine the management of aquarium trade species within the Reef Fish FMP and within the Coral...

  15. 78 FR 15674 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Proposed 2013-2015 Spiny Dogfish Fishery Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... positive economic impacts for the spiny dogfish fishery while maintaining the conservation objectives of... accepted in Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. Copies of the specifications document... quotas or possession limits are positive. The proposed action is expected to result in the most positive...

  16. Hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in spiny dogfish and bamboo sharks during steady swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Lauder, George V; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2017-11-01

    A key feature of fish functional design is the presence of multiple fins that allow thrust vectoring and redirection of fluid momentum to contribute to both steady swimming and maneuvering. A number of previous studies have analyzed the function of dorsal fins in teleost fishes in this context, but the hydrodynamic function of dorsal fins in freely swimming sharks has not been analyzed, despite the potential for differential functional roles between the anterior and posterior dorsal fins. Previous anatomical research has suggested a primarily stabilizing role for shark dorsal fins. We evaluated the generality of this hypothesis by using time-resolved particle image velocimetry to record water flow patterns in the wake of both the anterior and posterior dorsal fins in two species of freely swimming sharks: bamboo sharks ( Chiloscyllium plagiosum ) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias ). Cross-correlation analysis of consecutive images was used to calculate stroke-averaged mean longitudinal and lateral velocity components, and vorticity. In spiny dogfish, we observed a velocity deficit in the wake of the first dorsal fin and flow acceleration behind the second dorsal fin, indicating that the first dorsal fin experiences net drag while the second dorsal fin can aid in propulsion. In contrast, the wake of both dorsal fins in bamboo sharks displayed increased net flow velocity in the majority of trials, reflecting a thrust contribution to steady swimming. In bamboo sharks, fluid flow in the wake of the second dorsal fin had higher absolute average velocity than that for first dorsal fin, and this may result from a positive vortex interaction between the first and second dorsal fins. These data suggest that the first dorsal fin in spiny dogfish has primarily a stabilizing function, while the second dorsal fin has a propulsive function. In bamboo sharks, both dorsal fins can contribute thrust and should be considered as propulsive adjuncts to the body during steady

  17. Isolation and characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellites for the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Truelove

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite sequences were isolated from enriched genomic libraries of the spotted spiny lobster, Panulirus guttatus using 454 pyrosequencing. Twenty-nine previously developed polymerase chain reaction primer pairs of Panulirus argus microsatellite loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in Panulirus guttatus. In total, eight consistently amplifying, and polymorphic loci were characterized for 57 individuals collected in the Florida Keys and Bermuda. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 20 and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.409 to 0.958. Significant deviations from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were found in one locus from Florida and three loci from Bermuda. Quality control testing indicated that all loci were easy to score, highly polymorphic and showed no evidence of linkage disequilibrium. Null alleles were detected in three loci with moderate frequencies ranging from (20% to 22%. These eight microsatellites provide novel molecular markers for future conservation genetics research of P. guttatus.

  18. A new karyotype for the spiny rat Clyomys laticeps (Thomas, 1909) (Rodentia, Echimyidae) from Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Alexandra M R; Pagnozzi, Juliana M; Carmignotto, Ana Paula; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Flávio H G

    2012-01-01

    Clyomys Thomas, 1916 is a semifossorial rodent genus of spiny rats represented by only one species, Clyomys laticeps, which inhabits the tropical savannas and grasslands of central Brazil and eastern Paraguay. Here we describe a new karyotype of Clyomys laticeps found in populations of Emas National Park, Goiás state, Brazil. The four analyzed specimens had a diploid number (2n) of 32 and a fundamental autosome number (FN) of 54. Cytogenetic data include conventional staining, CBG and GTG-banding. The karyotype presents 12 meta/submetacentric pairs (1 to 12) and 3 pairs of acrocentrics (13 to 15) with gradual decrease in size. The X chromosome is a medium submetacentric and the Y is a medium acrocentric. The semifossorial habits together with habitat specificity could have contributed to the karyological variations found on this genus.

  19. Chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus (Crustacea : Decapoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Shabani, Shkelzen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2005-01-01

    most potent single compounds being ammonium, adenosine-5'-monophosphate, taurine, glutamate, and aspartate. Cluster analysis indicated that the neurons constitute a heterogeneous population that could be placed into seven groups linked according to their most excitatory compound. These neurons......We studied electrophysiological properties of single chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus to complement our growing understanding of the behavioral roles of mouthparts of decapod crustaceans. Food mixtures and 13 single compounds...... were used to characterize the response specificity, sensitivity, and time course of individual neurons in the endopods of maxilliped 2 and 3. Additional chemoreceptors were found in the mandibular palp and basis of maxilliped 1 but they were not characterized. Neurons were broadly tuned, with the five...

  20. Seasonal feeding ecology of ring-tailed lemurs: a comparison of spiny and gallery forest habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Marni; Sauther, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Although Lemur catta persists in many habitat types in southern Madagascar, its ecology has been primarily studied within gallery forests. We compare plant food selection and properties for ring-tailed lemurs in the spiny and gallery forests over the synchronized lactation period (September to March) that includes both the dry and wet seasons. We found no significant habitat-specific differences in the type of plant part consumed per month (i.e. flower, fruit, leaf) or between the intake of soluble carbohydrates. However, the presence and use of Tamarindus indica plants appear to elevate protein and fiber intake in the gallery forest lemurs' diets. Protein is especially important for reproductive females who incur the added metabolic costs associated with lactation; however, fiber can disrupt protein digestion. Future work should continue to investigate how variations of protein and fiber affect ring-tailed lemur dietary choice and nutrient acquisition. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Anatomy and muscle activity of the dorsal fins in bamboo sharks and spiny dogfish during turning maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Anabela; Wilga, Cheryl D

    2013-11-01

    Stability and procured instability characterize two opposing types of swimming, steady and maneuvering, respectively. Fins can be used to manipulate flow to adjust stability during swimming maneuvers either actively using muscle control or passively by structural control. The function of the dorsal fins during turning maneuvering in two shark species with different swimming modes is investigated here using musculoskeletal anatomy and muscle function. White-spotted bamboo sharks are a benthic species that inhabits complex reef habitats and thus have high requirements for maneuverability. Spiny dogfish occupy a variety of coastal and continental shelf habitats and spend relatively more time cruising in open water. These species differ in dorsal fin morphology and fin position along the body. Bamboo sharks have a larger second dorsal fin area and proportionally more muscle insertion into both dorsal fins. The basal and radial pterygiophores are plate-like structures in spiny dogfish and are nearly indistinguishable from one another. In contrast, bamboo sharks lack basal pterygiophores, while the radial pterygiophores form two rows of elongated rectangular elements that articulate with one another. The dorsal fin muscles are composed of a large muscle mass that extends over the ceratotrichia overlying the radials in spiny dogfish. However, in bamboo sharks, the muscle mass is divided into multiple distinct muscles that insert onto the ceratotrichia. During turning maneuvers, the dorsal fin muscles are active in both species with no differences in onset between fin sides. Spiny dogfish have longer burst durations on the outer fin side, which is consistent with opposing resistance to the medium. In bamboo sharks, bilateral activation of the dorsal in muscles could also be stiffening the fin throughout the turn. Thus, dogfish sharks passively stiffen the dorsal fin structurally and functionally, while bamboo sharks have more flexible dorsal fins, which result from a

  2. Sex Diversity Approach of Spiny Lobster (Panulirus spp) to Marine Oil Spill Pollution in Southern Waters of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryono, F. E. D.; Ambariyanto; Sulistyo, I.

    2018-02-01

    Coastal of southern Java waters is known as inhabit area of spiny lobster. Accumulation of hydrocarbon frequently occurs at the coastal waters as impact of oil pollution caused by oil leak from supplying ship of crude oil to Cilacap refinery. As shipping channel of oil, presence of oil spills is often detected at coastal areas of Cilacap. It can be indicated by range of sediment in the area which has risk levels in range of low to medium-low. It was, therefore, found that some locations suffered a greater impact on the ecological which giving high risk for marine organism life. Spiny lobster is one of many organism living at sea bed which threatened its life due to the presence of oil. Population of Spiny Lobster has to be protected because it has commercially valuable commodity for producing high nutrition. Considering the matters, it is therefore important to find a method for alleviating the problem. Investigation should be focused on biological aspect of spiny lobster in encountering extreme pollution at the coastal. For that purpose, a field research was conducted from January until July 2015. Using gillnet with 1 inch mesh size, the lobsters were randomly collected from southern Java districts waters. There were 1137 lobsters collected from six districts waters. Furthermore, the sample was morphologically identified and it was found that there were six species in the areas. In all area, P. homarus was found as dominant species, except in Gunung kidul district which was dominated by P. penicillatus. In term of sex diversity, there is statistically difference in number of female and male, each species no significant. Even though environment quality was very worse, there was found existence of ovigerous female in the research area as about 12% of the population. Those facts strongly indicated that the lobsters has a unique adaptation to survive in extremely low quality of environment due to marine oil spill.

  3. MOLECULAR DETECTION AND CLONING FOR RICKETTSIA-LIKE BACTERIA OF MILKY HAEMOLYMPH DISEASE OF SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Isti Koesharyani; Lila Gardenia; Ni Luh Anggra Lasmika

    2017-01-01

    Spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus) are important commodities for Indonesia. The aquaculture of lobster is susceptible for several diseases like parasite, fungi, bacteria, and virus. Among those diseases, milky haemolymph disease (MHD) is often seen as a symptom to mass mortality occurred at lobster farms in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok. The purpose of this study was to determine the lobster diseases on cage culture in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. The study was unde...

  4. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

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    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C, and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa. It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  5. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Wen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor) are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C), and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa). It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  6. Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia Is Related to Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neuron Excitotoxicity: A Hypothesis Based on an Unexpected Finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A serendipitous pharmacogenetic finding links the vulnerability to developing levodopa-induced dyskinesia to the age of onset of Huntington’s disease. Huntington’s disease is caused by a polyglutamate expansion of the protein huntingtin. Aberrant huntingtin is less capable of binding to a member of membrane-associated guanylate kinase family (MAGUKs: postsynaptic density- (PSD- 95. This leaves more PSD-95 available to stabilize NR2B subunit carrying NMDA receptors in the synaptic membrane. This results in increased excitotoxicity for which particularly striatal medium spiny neurons from the indirect extrapyramidal pathway are sensitive. In Parkinson’s disease the sensitivity for excitotoxicity is related to increased oxidative stress due to genetically determined abnormal metabolism of dopamine or related products. This probably also increases the sensitivity of medium spiny neurons for exogenous levodopa. Particularly the combination of increased oxidative stress due to aberrant dopamine metabolism, increased vulnerability to NMDA induced excitotoxicity, and the particular sensitivity of indirect pathway medium spiny neurons for this excitotoxicity may explain the observed increased prevalence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

  7. Health assessment of a spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx spp.) population in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldo, Jesus L; Libanan, Nelson L; Samour, Jaime H

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the health status of the free-living spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx spp.) population at Wrsan, Al Ajban, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. A total of 90 spiny-tailed lizards, 61 males and 29 females, were examined from June to August 2006. Mean body weights were 1,564.4 g and 809.4 g for males and females, respectively. Mean body lengths were 62.1 cm and 49.4 cm for males and females, respectively. Fourteen lizards were found with abnormalities including abscesses, bite wounds, and deformed or missing tail ends, digits, or claws. Radiographic examination revealed osteomyelitis, arthritis, and healed fractures. Reference hematology and chemistry values were obtained from the 76 clinically normal lizards. Hemoparasitemia included possible new species of Karyolysus and Hepatozoon. The most common oropharyngeal organisms isolated were Escherichia coli, Providencia spp., and nonhemolytic Staphylococcus; and the most common cloacal organisms were E. coli, Proteus spp., Providencia spp., and nonhemolytic Staphylococcus. Ascarids were the only endoparasites found. This is the first biomedical data published for the spiny-tailed lizard.

  8. Settlement and juvenile habitat of the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae in the western Mediterranean Sea

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    David Díaz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Settlement characteristics, like timing, depth, microhabitat and density of European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas are described for the very first time. Regular SCUBA-diving surveys were conducted from July 1998 to January 2000 on rocky bottoms of three different geologic origins to assess substratum-dependent differences in recruitment density. Settlement of pueruli took place in June-July, a few weeks after sea surface temperature started to rise. The highest density of juveniles was found at 10-15 m depth. Most spiny lobsters settled in limestone rocks, into empty holes of the date mussel Lithophaga lithophaga, which provided daytime refuge. As they grew, individuals were increasingly found in larger holes and crevices of the rock surface. Sizes were estimated from photographs taken at night when the animals were actively foraging. The smallest observed individuals measured 7.5-8 mm carapace length (CL, but they reached 15-18 mm CL at the end of October. The consequences of our results for the management of the spiny lobster populations in the northwestern Mediterranean are summarily discussed.

  9. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae), in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioja, Tamara; Carrillo-Reyes, Arturo; Espinoza-Medinilla, Eduardo; López-Mendoza, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We census-tracked a population in the South ofNiltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove) by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha) and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha) were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808). Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23 +/- 0.32 (n=30) in Nanchal, 2.11 +/- 0.30 (n=9) in grassland, 1.90 +/- 0.56 (n=54) in dry forest, 1.91 +/- 0.28 (n=9) in mangrove and 2.30 +/- 0.37 (n=6) in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal); C. alata (grassland); Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest); G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation); and C. erecta (mangrove). Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area

  10. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  11. Divergence at the edges: peripatric isolation in the montane spiny throated reed frog complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Lucinda P; Bates, John M; Menegon, Michele; Loader, Simon P

    2015-07-01

    Peripatric speciation and peripheral isolation have uncertain importance in species accumulation, and are largely overshadowed by assumed dominance of allopatric modes of speciation. Understanding the role of different speciation mechanisms within biodiversity hotspots is central to understanding the generation of biological diversity. Here, we use a phylogeographic analysis of the spiny-throated reed frogs and examine sister pairings with unbalanced current distributional ranges for characteristics of peripatric speciation. We further investigate whether forest/grassland mosaic adapted species are more likely created through peripatric speciation due to instability of this habitat type. We reconstructed a multi-locus molecular phylogeny of spiny-throated reed frogs which we then combined with comparative morphologic data to delimit species and analyze historical demographic change; identifying three new species. Three potential peripatric speciation events were identified along with one case of allopatric speciation. Peripatric speciation is supported through uneven potential and realized distributions and uneven population size estimates based on field collections. An associated climate shift was observed in most potentially peripatric splits. Morphological variation was highest in sexually dimorphic traits such as body size and gular shape, but this variation was not limited to peripatric species pairs as hypothesized. The potentially allopatric species pair showed no niche shifts and equivalent effective population sizes, ruling out peripatry in that speciation event. Two major ecological niche shifts were recovered within this radiation, possibly as adaptations to occupy areas of grassland that became more prevalent in the last 5 million years. Restricted and fluctuating grassland mosaics within forests might promote peripatric speciation in the Eastern Arc Biodiversity Hotspot (EABH). In our case study, peripatric speciation appears to be an important driver

  12. Effects of birth asphyxia on neonatal hippocampal structure and function in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiss, B; Coleman, H A; Castillo-Melendez, M; Ireland, Z; Walker, D W; Parkington, H C

    2011-11-01

    Studies of human neonates, and in animal experiments, suggest that birth asphyxia results in functional compromise of the hippocampus, even when structural damage is not observable or resolves in early postnatal life. The aim of this study was to determine if changes in hippocampal function occur in a model of birth asphyxia in the precocial spiny mouse where it is reported there is no major lesion or infarct. Further, to assess if, as in human infants, this functional deficit has a sex-dependent component. At 37 days gestation (term=39 days) spiny mice fetuses were either delivered immediately by caesarean section (control group) or exposed to 7.5min of in utero asphyxia causing systemic acidosis and hypoxia. At 5 days of age hippocampal function was assessed ex vivo in brain slices, or brains were collected for examination of structure or protein expression. This model of birth asphyxia did not cause infarct or cystic lesion in the postnatal day 5 (P5) hippocampus, and the number of proliferating or pyknotic cells in the hippocampus was unchanged, although neuronal density in the CA1 and CA3 was increased. Protein expression of synaptophysin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and the inositol trisphosphate receptor 1 (IP(3)R1) were all significantly increased after birth asphyxia, while long-term potentiation (LTP), paired pulse facilitation (PPF), and post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) were all reduced at P5 by birth asphyxia. In control P5 pups, PPF and synaptic fatigue were greater in female compared to male pups, and after birth asphyxia PPF and synaptic fatigue were reduced to a greater extent in female vs. male pups. In contrast, the asphyxia-induced increase in synaptophysin expression and neuronal density were greater in male pups. Thus, birth asphyxia in this precocial species causes functional deficits without major structural damage, and there is a sex-dependent effect on the hippocampus. This may be a clinically relevant model for assessing

  13. Severely impaired learning and altered neuronal morphology in mice lacking NMDA receptors in medium spiny neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa R Beutler

    Full Text Available The striatum is composed predominantly of medium spiny neurons (MSNs that integrate excitatory, glutamatergic inputs from the cortex and thalamus, and modulatory dopaminergic inputs from the ventral midbrain to influence behavior. Glutamatergic activation of AMPA, NMDA, and metabotropic receptors on MSNs is important for striatal development and function, but the roles of each of these receptor classes remain incompletely understood. Signaling through NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs in the striatum has been implicated in various motor and appetitive learning paradigms. In addition, signaling through NMDARs influences neuronal morphology, which could underlie their role in mediating learned behaviors. To study the role of NMDARs on MSNs in learning and in morphological development, we generated mice lacking the essential NR1 subunit, encoded by the Grin1 gene, selectively in MSNs. Although these knockout mice appear normal and display normal 24-hour locomotion, they have severe deficits in motor learning, operant conditioning and active avoidance. In addition, the MSNs from these knockout mice have smaller cell bodies and decreased dendritic length compared to littermate controls. We conclude that NMDAR signaling in MSNs is critical for normal MSN morphology and many forms of learning.

  14. Genealogy and palaeodrainage basins in Yunnan Province: phylogeography of the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis (Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Ru; Chen, Ming-Yong; Murphy, Robert W; Che, Jing; Pang, Jun-Feng; Hu, Jian-Sheng; Luo, Jing; Wu, Shan-Jin; Ye, Hui; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2010-08-01

    Historical drainage patterns adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau differed markedly from those of today. We examined the relationship between drainage history and geographic patterns of genetic variation in the Yunnan spiny frog, Nanorana yunnanensis, using approximately 981 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA partial sequences from protein-coding genes ND1 and ND2, and intervening areas including complete tRNA(Ile), tRNA(Gln) and tRNA(Met). Two null hypotheses were tested: (i) that genetic patterns do not correspond to the development of drainage systems and (ii) that populations had been stable and not experienced population expansion, bottlenecking and selection. Genealogical analyses identified three, major, well-supported maternal lineages, each of which had two sublineages. These divergent lineages were completely concordant with six geographical regions. Genetic structure and divergence were strongly congruent with historical rather than contemporary drainage patterns. Most lineages and sublineages were formed via population fragmentation during the rearrangement of paleodrainage basins in the Early Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. Sympatric lineages occurred only in localities at the boundaries of major drainages, likely reflecting secondary contact of previously allopatric populations. Extensive population expansion probably occurred early in the Middle Pleistocene accompanying dramatic climatic oscillations.

  15. The internal state of medium spiny neurons varies in response to different input signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Gary W

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, Huntington's chorea and drug addiction are manifestations of malfunctioning neurons within the striatum region at the base of the human forebrain. A key component of these neurons is the protein DARPP-32, which receives and processes various types of dopamine and glutamate inputs and translates them into specific biochemical, cellular, physiological, and behavioral responses. DARPP-32's unique capacity of faithfully converting distinct neurotransmitter signals into appropriate responses is achieved through a complex phosphorylation-dephosphorylation system that evades intuition and predictability. Results To gain deeper insights into the functioning of the DARPP-32 signal transduction system, we developed a dynamic model that is robust and consistent with available clinical, pharmacological, and biological observations. Upon validation, the model was first used to explore how different input signal scenarios are processed by DARPP-32 and translated into distinct static and dynamic responses. Secondly, a comprehensive perturbation analysis identified the specific role of each component on the system's signal transduction ability. Conclusions Our study investigated the effects of various patterns of neurotransmission on signal integration and interpretation by DARPP-32 and showed that the DARPP-32 system has the capability of discerning surprisingly many neurotransmission scenarios. We also screened out potential mechanisms underlying this capability of the DARPP-32 system. This type of insight deepens our understanding of neuronal signal transduction in normal medium spiny neurons, sheds light on neurological disorders associated with the striatum, and might aid the search for intervention targets in neurological diseases and drug addiction.

  16. Microbial composition of spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis) across their geographic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Manuela Oliveira; Bueno, Odair Correa; Moreau, Corrie Saux

    2017-04-05

    Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics tools, this study explores the microbial community of >80 species of Polyrhachis distributed across the Old World and compares the microbiota of samples and related hosts across different biogeographic locations and in the context of their phylogenetic history. The predominant bacteria across samples were Enterobacteriaceae (Blochmannia - with likely many new strains), followed by Wolbachia (with multiple strains), Lactobacillus, Thiotrichaceae, Acinetobacter, Nocardia, Sodalis, and others. We recovered some exclusive strains of Enterobacteriaceae as specific to some subgenera of Polyrhachis, corroborating the idea of coevolution between host and bacteria for this bacterial group. Our correlation results (partial mantel and mantel tests) found that host phylogeny can influence the overall bacterial community, but that geographic location had no effect. Our work is revealing important aspects of the biology of hosts in structuring the diversity and abundance of these host-associated bacterial communities including the role of host phylogeny and shared evolutionary history.

  17. El cine como verdad rev(belada: Ken Loach; una reflexión sobre los años que forjaron el discurso naturalista del cineasta/ Cinema as rev(bealed truth: Ken Loach; a reflection over the years that forged the filmmaker’s naturalist speech

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    Mercedes Miguel Borrás

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La sabiduría que se desprende al contemplar el cine de Ken Loach, su depurado estilo naturalista, es fruto de un largo recorrido caracterizado por la coherencia y honestidad. Un cineasta que lleva más de medio siglo dejando huellas de su humanismo, dando voz a los desheredados. ¿De dónde procede su mirada? ¿Cuál es la sustancia expresiva de la que se nutre su discurso? Detenemos nuestra atención en los filmes realizados en la primera etapa de su carrera (1964-1990, pues es cuando se percibe con mayor fuerza el deseo de Loach de penetrar en la realidad con un lenguaje tan riguroso que el pensamiento parece inscribirse en la película, “un cine de confesión, de ensayo”. Una mirada, que se rebela contra un orden y una sociedad injustos, y engendra emociones insospechadas, convocando a la ternura, pero al mismo tiempo hace que nos cuestionemos lo que se nos está contando. Un cine puro, directo, sin concesiones, que reduce al mínimo los recursos. Una verdad a la que se accede de forma natural, una verdad revelada. En el calidoscopio de realidades presentes en un mismo acontecimiento, que el cine (por su naturaleza indicial e icónica es capaz de mostrar, radica esa sustancia expresiva. The Wisdom that emerges when we watch Ken Loach’s films, his refined naturalistic style, is the result of a long journey marked by consistency and honesty. A filmmaker who spend more than half a century leaving traces of their humanism, giving voice to the dispossessed. Where is the origin of the way of his looking? What is the expressive substance that nourishes his speech? We hold our attention on the films made in the first stage of his career (1964-1990, as it is when we perceive the desire of the filmmaker to penetrate in the reality with such a rigorous language that the thinking seems to enroll in the film... a cinema of confession and essay. A look, that always rebels against an order and a inherently and unjust society, and generates unexpected

  18. Resistance to starvation of first-stage juveniles of the Caribbean spiny lobster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Magaña, Alí; Lozano-Álvarez, Enrique; Briones-Fourzán, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The non-feeding postlarva (puerulus) of spiny lobsters actively swims from the open ocean to the coastal habitats where it settles and molts to the first-stage juvenile (JI). Because pueruli use much of their energy reserves swimming and preparing for the post-settlement molt, the survival of JIs presumably depends on resuming feeding as soon as possible. To test this hypothesis, the resistance to starvation of JIs of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus , was evaluated by measuring their point-of-no-return (PNR, minimum time of initial starvation preventing recovery after later feeding) and point-of-reserve-saturation (PRS, minimum time of initial feeding allowing for food-independent development through the rest of the molting cycle) in a warm and a cold season. Each experiment consisted of eight groups: a continuously fed control (FC) group, a continuously starved control (SC) group, and six groups subjected to differential periods of either initial starvation and subsequent feeding (PNR experiments) or initial feeding and subsequent starvation (PSR experiments). No JIs molted under continuous absence of food (SC). In both PNR experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.79 ± 0.07°C, mean ± 95% CI; in cold season: 25.63 ± 0.12°C) mortality increased sharply after 9 d of initial starvation and intermolt periods increased with period of initial starvation, but were longer in the cold season. The PNR 50 was longer in the warm season (12.1 ± 1.2 d, mean ± 95% CI) than in the cold season (9.5 ± 2.1 d). In PRS experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.54 ± 0.07 °C; in cold season: 26.20 ± 0.12 °C), JIs that molted did so near the end of the feeding period; all JIs initially fed for up to 6 d succumbed, and no JIs molted after 13 d of starvation despite having fed previously. The PRS 50 did not differ between the cold (13.1 ± 0.7 d) and warm seasons (12.1 ± 1.1 d). JIs of P. argus exhibit a remarkable resistance to starvation

  19. Resistance to starvation of first-stage juveniles of the Caribbean spiny lobster

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    Alí Espinosa-Magaña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-feeding postlarva (puerulus of spiny lobsters actively swims from the open ocean to the coastal habitats where it settles and molts to the first-stage juvenile (JI. Because pueruli use much of their energy reserves swimming and preparing for the post-settlement molt, the survival of JIs presumably depends on resuming feeding as soon as possible. To test this hypothesis, the resistance to starvation of JIs of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, was evaluated by measuring their point-of-no-return (PNR, minimum time of initial starvation preventing recovery after later feeding and point-of-reserve-saturation (PRS, minimum time of initial feeding allowing for food-independent development through the rest of the molting cycle in a warm and a cold season. Each experiment consisted of eight groups: a continuously fed control (FC group, a continuously starved control (SC group, and six groups subjected to differential periods of either initial starvation and subsequent feeding (PNR experiments or initial feeding and subsequent starvation (PSR experiments. No JIs molted under continuous absence of food (SC. In both PNR experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.79 ± 0.07°C, mean ± 95% CI; in cold season: 25.63 ± 0.12°C mortality increased sharply after 9 d of initial starvation and intermolt periods increased with period of initial starvation, but were longer in the cold season. The PNR50 was longer in the warm season (12.1 ± 1.2 d, mean ± 95% CI than in the cold season (9.5 ± 2.1 d. In PRS experiments (temperature in warm season: 29.54 ± 0.07 °C; in cold season: 26.20 ± 0.12 °C, JIs that molted did so near the end of the feeding period; all JIs initially fed for up to 6 d succumbed, and no JIs molted after 13 d of starvation despite having fed previously. The PRS50 did not differ between the cold (13.1 ± 0.7 d and warm seasons (12.1 ± 1.1 d. JIs of P. argus exhibit a remarkable resistance to

  20. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

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    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  1. Subcellular Location of PKA Controls Striatal Plasticity: Stochastic Simulations in Spiny Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo F.; Kim, MyungSook; Blackwell, Kim T.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine release in the striatum has been implicated in various forms of reward dependent learning. Dopamine leads to production of cAMP and activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which are involved in striatal synaptic plasticity and learning. PKA and its protein targets are not diffusely located throughout the neuron, but are confined to various subcellular compartments by anchoring molecules such as A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins (AKAPs). Experiments have shown that blocking the interaction of PKA with AKAPs disrupts its subcellular location and prevents LTP in the hippocampus and striatum; however, these experiments have not revealed whether the critical function of anchoring is to locate PKA near the cAMP that activates it or near its targets, such as AMPA receptors located in the post-synaptic density. We have developed a large scale stochastic reaction-diffusion model of signaling pathways in a medium spiny projection neuron dendrite with spines, based on published biochemical measurements, to investigate this question and to evaluate whether dopamine signaling exhibits spatial specificity post-synaptically. The model was stimulated with dopamine pulses mimicking those recorded in response to reward. Simulations show that PKA colocalization with adenylate cyclase, either in the spine head or in the dendrite, leads to greater phosphorylation of DARPP-32 Thr34 and AMPA receptor GluA1 Ser845 than when PKA is anchored away from adenylate cyclase. Simulations further demonstrate that though cAMP exhibits a strong spatial gradient, diffusible DARPP-32 facilitates the spread of PKA activity, suggesting that additional inactivation mechanisms are required to produce spatial specificity of PKA activity. PMID:22346744

  2. Calcium dynamics predict direction of synaptic plasticity in striatal spiny projection neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jędrzejewska-Szmek, Joanna; Damodaran, Sriraman; Dorman, Daniel B; Blackwell, Kim T

    2017-04-01

    The striatum is a major site of learning and memory formation for sensorimotor and cognitive association. One of the mechanisms used by the brain for memory storage is synaptic plasticity - the long-lasting, activity-dependent change in synaptic strength. All forms of synaptic plasticity require an elevation in intracellular calcium, and a common hypothesis is that the amplitude and duration of calcium transients can determine the direction of synaptic plasticity. The utility of this hypothesis in the striatum is unclear in part because dopamine is required for striatal plasticity and in part because of the diversity in stimulation protocols. To test whether calcium can predict plasticity direction, we developed a calcium-based plasticity rule using a spiny projection neuron model with sophisticated calcium dynamics including calcium diffusion, buffering and pump extrusion. We utilized three spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) induction protocols, in which postsynaptic potentials are paired with precisely timed action potentials and the timing of such pairing determines whether potentiation or depression will occur. Results show that despite the variation in calcium dynamics, a single, calcium-based plasticity rule, which explicitly considers duration of calcium elevations, can explain the direction of synaptic weight change for all three STDP protocols. Additional simulations show that the plasticity rule correctly predicts the NMDA receptor dependence of long-term potentiation and the L-type channel dependence of long-term depression. By utilizing realistic calcium dynamics, the model reveals mechanisms controlling synaptic plasticity direction, and shows that the dynamics of calcium, not just calcium amplitude, are crucial for synaptic plasticity. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Different corticostriatal integration in spiny projection neurons from direct and indirect pathways

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    Edén Flores-Barrera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the principal input structure of the basal ganglia (BG. Major glutamatergic afferents to the striatum come from the cerebral cortex and make monosynaptic contacts with medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs and interneurons. Despite differences in axonal projections, dopamine receptors expression and differences in excitability between MSNs from “direct” and “indirect” BG pathways, these neuronal classes have been thought as electrophysiologically very similar. Based on work with BAC transgenic mice, here it is shown that corticostriatal responses in D1- and D2-receptor expressing MSNs (D1- and D2-MSNs are radically different so as to establish an electrophysiological footprint that readily differentiates between them. Experiments in BAC mice allowed us to predict, with high probability (P>0.9, in rats or non-BAC mice, whether a recorded neuron, from rat or mouse, was going to be substance P or enkephalin immunoreactive. Responses are more prolonged and evoke more action potentials in D1-MSNs, while they are briefer and exhibit intrinsic autoregenerative responses in D2-MSNs. A main cause for these differences was the interaction of intrinsic properties with the inhibitory contribution in each response Inhibition always depressed corticostriatal depolarization in D2-MSNs, while it helped in sustaining prolonged depolarizations in D1-MSNs, in spite of depressing early discharge. Corticostriatal responses changed dramatically after striatal DA-depletion in 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA lesioned animals: a response reduction was seen in SP+ MSNs whereas an enhanced response was seen in ENK+ MSNs. The end result was that differences in the responses were greatly diminished after DA depletion.

  4. GABAA Receptor Activity Shapes the Formation of Inhibitory Synapses between Developing Medium Spiny Neurons

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    Jessica eArama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia play an essential role in motor coordination and cognitive functions. The GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs account for ~95 % of all the neurons in this brain region. Central to the normal functioning of MSNs is integration of synaptic activity arriving from the glutamatergic corticostriatal and thalamostriatal afferents, with synaptic inhibition mediated by local interneurons and MSN axon collaterals. In this study we have investigated how the specific types of GABAergic synapses between the MSNs develop over time, and how the activity of GABAA receptors (GABAARs influences this development. Isolated embryonic (E17 MSNs form a homogenous population in vitro and display spontaneous synaptic activity and functional properties similar to their in vivo counterparts. In dual whole-cell recordings of synaptically connected pairs of MSNs, action potential-activated synaptic events were detected between 7 and 14 days in vitro (DIV, which coincided with the shift in GABAAR operation from depolarization to hyperpolarization, as detected indirectly by intracellular calcium imaging. In parallel, the predominant subtypes of inhibitory synapses, which innervate dendrites of MSNs and contain GABAAR α1 or α2 subunits, underwent distinct changes in the size of postsynaptic clusters, with α1 becoming smaller and α2 larger over time, while both the percentage and the size of mixed α1/α2-postsynaptic clusters were increased. When activity of GABAARs was under chronic blockade between 4-7 DIV, the structural properties of these synapses remained unchanged. In contrast, chronic inhibition of GABAARs between7-14 DIV led to reduction in size of α1- and α1/α2-postsynaptic clusters and a concomitant increase in number and size of α2-postsynaptic clusters. Thus, the main subtypes of GABAergic synapses formed by MSNs are regulated by GABAAR activity, but in opposite directions, and thus appear to be driven by different molecular mechanisms.

  5. Developmental alterations in motor coordination and medium spiny neuron markers in mice lacking pgc-1α.

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    Elizabeth K Lucas

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in the pathophysiology of Huntington Disease (HD. Adult PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit striatal neurodegeneration, and reductions in the expression of PGC-1α have been observed in striatum and muscle of HD patients as well as in animal models of the disease. However, it is unknown whether decreased expression of PGC-1α alone is sufficient to lead to the motor phenotype and striatal pathology characteristic of HD. For the first time, we show that young PGC-1α (-/- mice exhibit severe rotarod deficits, decreased rearing behavior, and increased occurrence of tremor in addition to the previously described hindlimb clasping. Motor impairment and striatal vacuolation are apparent in PGC-1α (-/- mice by four weeks of age and do not improve or decline by twelve weeks of age. The behavioral and pathological phenotype of PGC-1α (-/- mice can be completely recapitulated by conditional nervous system deletion of PGC-1α, indicating that peripheral effects are not responsible for the observed abnormalities. Evaluation of the transcriptional profile of PGC-1α (-/- striatal neuron populations and comparison to striatal neuron profiles of R6/2 HD mice revealed that PGC-1α deficiency alone is not sufficient to cause the transcriptional changes observed in this HD mouse model. In contrast to R6/2 HD mice, PGC-1α (-/- mice show increases in the expression of medium spiny neuron (MSN markers with age, suggesting that the observed behavioral and structural abnormalities are not primarily due to MSN loss, the defining pathological feature of HD. These results indicate that PGC-1α is required for the proper development of motor circuitry and transcriptional homeostasis in MSNs and that developmental disruption of PGC-1α leads to long-term alterations in motor functioning.

  6. Ultraviolet light and heat source selection in captive spiny-tailed iguanas (Oplurus cuvieri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, H.C.; Fa, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Three experimental manipulations were conducted to assess the influence of heat source selection and active thermoregulation on ultraviolet (UV) light exposure in captive spiny-tailed iguanas (Oplurus cuvieri) at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. Four replicates per manipulation were conducted on six individual lizards. All animals were tested in a separate enclosure to which they were acclimated before observations. Data on choice of thermal sources were collected during the first 2 hr of light, when lizards were actively thermoregulating. Animals were allowed to choose between incandescent light, UV light and a non-light heat source (thermotube) in different combinations. Recorded temperatures close to the incandescent light (37°C) were always significantly higher than at the thermotube (33°C) and at the UV light (29°C). Manipulation 1 offered the animals a choice of an UV light and an incandescent light as thermal sources. Manipulation 2 presented animals with the thermal choices in Manipulation 1, but substrates under each source in Manipulation 1 were switched. In Manipulation 3, animals could choose between an incandescent light and the thermotube. All studied lizards were significantly more attracted to the incandescent light than to the UV light or thermotube. Incandescent light elicited a significantly higher proportion of basking behaviors in all individuals than the other sources. A high proportion of time basking was also spent in front of the thermotube but fewer individuals and less time were spent basking under the UV light. Heat source selection was generally found to be independent of substrate. Management applications of this preference are suggested for juvenile diurnal heliothermic iguanids. (author)

  7. A Quantitative Golgi Study of Dendritic Morphology in the Mice Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

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    Ana Hladnik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups. The average neuronal soma surface was between 160 μm2 and 180 μm2, and the cells had 5–6 primary dendrites with close to 40 segments per neuron. Sholl analysis confirmed regular pattern of dendritic branching. The total length of dendrites was around 2100 μm with the average length of individual branching (intermediate segment around 22 μm and for the terminal segment around 100 μm. Even though each experimental group underwent the same strictly defined protocol in tissue preparation and Golgi staining, we found inconsistency in dendritic volume and soma surface. These changes could be methodologically influenced during the Golgi procedure, although without affecting the dendritic length and tree complexity. Since the neuronal activity affects the dendritic thickness, it could not be excluded that observed volume inconsistency was related with functional states of neurons prior to animal sacrifice. Comprehensive analyses of tree complexity and dendritic length provided here could serve as an additional tool for understanding morphological variability in the most numerous neuronal population of the striatum. As reference values they could provide basic ground for comparisons with the results obtained in studies that use various models of genetically modified mice in explaining different pathological conditions that

  8. Temporal variation in the prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in three Czech spiny-cheek crayfish populations

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    Matasová K.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available North American crayfish species are natural hosts of the crayfish plague pathogen Aphanomyces astaci. The spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, widespread in Central Europe, is the main reservoir of A. astaci in Czech Republic. We tested if there are temporal changes in the prevalence of infected individuals (i.e., the proportion of individuals in which the pathogen is detected in spiny-cheek crayfish populations. Crayfish from three populations shown previously to be infected to different extents (high, intermediate and low, were repeatedly sampled in different years (2004–2010 and seasons. The presence of A. astaci in the soft abdominal crayfish cuticle was tested by specific amplification of the pathogen DNA. There was no substantial temporal variation in pathogen prevalence in the highly and very lowly infected populations. However, a significant long-term as well as seasonal decrease was found in the intermediately infected population. This decline could be related to a decrease in population density over the studied years, and to crayfish seasonal moulting, respectively. A reliable estimate of pathogen prevalence in American crayfish populations thus requires repeated monitoring over years, preferably during the same season before the main period of crayfish moulting.

  9. Basic ecology of the Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana (Squamata: Iguanidae, in Oaxaca, Mexico

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    Tamara Rioja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana Ctenosaura oaxacana is a restricted species to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico. This reptile is one of the less known iguanid species. We censustracked a population in the South of Niltepec, Oaxaca, Mexico from May 2010 to April 2011. Throughout one year, a total of 10 line transects were situated and recorded in the study area to determine relative abundance and density, and habitat type use (dry forest, Nanchal, grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangrove by the species. This study reports a new C. oaxacana population on the Southeastern limit of species range. Although this species has a very restricted distribution and is in danger of extinction, C. oaxacana has a high population density when compared to other Ctenosaura species. A total of 108 individuals were recorded throughout the study. Dry forest (33.75ind/ha and Nanchal (18.75ind/ha were the habitats with higher densities. Comparisons between habitat types showed no significant differences between dry forest and Nanchal (W=15, p=0.0808. Results between seasons were similar. The Oaxacan Spiny tailed Iguana preferred first the dry forest, and then Nanchal, while avoided grassland, riparian vegetation, and mangroves. There was no difference in habitat use between males and females. Mean perch heights were 1.23±0.32 (n=30 in Nanchal, 2.11±0.30 (n=9 in grassland, 1.90±0.56 (n=54 in dry forest, 1.91±0.28 (n=9 in mangrove and 2.30±0.37 (n=6 in riparian vegetation. Species observed as refuge and perch were B. crassifolia (Nanchal; C. alata (grassland; Tabebuia sp., Genipa americana, G. sepium, Acacia sp., Ficus sp. and Haematoxylon sp. (dry forest; G. sepium, Acacia sp. and Guazuma ulmifolia (riparian vegetation; and C. erecta (mangrove. Live trees hollows and branches were used by species. Main threats to the species are excessive hunting and habitat loss. Furthermore, grassland fires are still common in the study area during the

  10. Genetic diversity and taxonomy of Sabanejewia balcanica (Osteichthyes: Cobitidae) in the waters of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoňová, Eva; Papoušek, Ivo; Lusková, Věra; Koščo, J.; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Švátora, M.; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 60-70 ISSN 0139-7893. [Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera /3./. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 1/2360/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Balcan spined loach * conservation * cytochrome b * mitochondrial marker Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/1-2/060-070_MS1279.pdf

  11. Reduced foraging in the presence of predator cues by the Black Spiny-tailed Iguana, Ctenosaura similis (Sauria: Iguanidae

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    Vincent R. Farallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a predator may have direct and indirect effects on the behavior of the prey. Although altered behavior may help prey avoid predators, it also can have a potential impact on critical activities such as foraging. Predator-prey interactions are routinely studied in laboratory-based experiments owing to theperceived difficulties of conducting such experiments in natural settings. We conducted an experimental study under field conditions in Palo Verde National Park in northwestern Costa Rica to assess behavioral responses of Black Spiny-tailed Iguanas (Ctenosaurasimilis to the presence of predators and predator cues. Free-roaming iguanas were offered mango in designated areas in the presence of a predator (Boa constrictor, a predator cue (B. constrictor feces, and a control (no predator or predator cue. Results indicate that iguanas reduced their foraging efforts in the presence of both a predator and its cue.

  12. Never judge an iguana by its spines: Systematics of the Yucatan spiny tailed iguana, Ctenosaura defensor (Cope, 1866).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Catherine L; Reynoso, Víctor Hugo; Buckley, Larry

    2017-10-01

    Spiny tailed iguanas are highly diverse clade of lizards in Mesoamerica, ranging from northern Mexico through Panama. Utilizing 2 regions of mitochondrial DNA (1948bp) and 4 nuclear loci (2232bp) we explored the relationships between these species and the phylogeographic history of the major clades. We discovered that the lineage endemic to the Yucatan Peninsula renders the genus Ctenosaura paraphyletic. To resolve this non-monophyly, we resurrect the taxon Cachryx Cope, 1866, and provide a new diagnosis for the genus. We also find that small body-size and highly spinose tails in the species previously referred to the subgenus Enyaliosaurus, have evolved independently 3 times. Cachryx were recovered as sister to the lineage of iguanines endemic to the Galapagos Islands, and we discuss biogeographic scenarios to explain this relationship as well as those among the primary clades of Ctenosaura in Mesoamerica. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of seismic air gun exposure on the haemolymph physiology and nutritional condition of spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Quinn P; Day, Ryan D; McCauley, Robert D; Simon, Cedric J; Semmens, Jayson M

    2017-12-15

    There is a critical knowledge gap regarding the impacts of seismic air gun signals on the physiology of adult crustaceans. We conducted four controlled field experiments to examine the impact of seismic acoustic signals on spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Seismic air gun exposure suppressed total haemocyte count (THC) for up to 120days post-exposure, suggesting a chronic negative impact of immune competency. THC levels after 365days post-exposure, were elevated two fold, potentially indicating an immune response to infection. Haemolymph refractive index was reduced after 120days post exposure in one experiment, suggesting a chronic impairment of nutritional condition. There was no effect of air gun exposure on 24 haemolymph biochemical parameters, hepatopancreas index or survival. Collectively these results indicate that the biochemical haematological homeostasis of J. edwardsii is reasonably resilient to seismic acoustic signals, however, air gun exposure may negatively influence the lobster's nutritional condition and immunological capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mechanosensory Neurons With Bend- and Osmo-sensitivity in Mouthpart Setae From the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Derby, Charles D; Høeg, Jens T

    2004-01-01

    The mouthparts of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus hold primarily two types of setae--simple setae and cuspidate setae. Mechanosensory neurons from these setae were examined by electrophysiological recordings. The population of simple setae contained two types of mechanosensory neurons......: displacement-sensitive neurons, which responded to deflection at the setal base; and bend-sensitive neurons, which responded to bending of the setal shaft. Displacement-sensitive neurons, in general, responded phasically and only during actual displacement. Typically, their response changed with alteration...... of the direction, amplitude, and velocity/acceleration of the mechanical stimulus. Bend-sensitive neurons, in general, responded phaso-tonically and carried information on the direction and region of bending. This is the first experimental demonstration of bend sensitivity for arthropod setae. Cuspidate setae...

  15. Genetic Isolation among the Northwestern, Southwestern and Central-Eastern Indian Ocean Populations of the Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

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    Muhamad Fadry Abdullah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus is a highly valuable species which is widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific and Eastern Pacific regions. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences (566–571 bp were determined to investigate the population genetic structure of this species in the Indian Ocean. In total, 236 adult individuals of Panulirus penicillatus were collected from five locations in the Indian Ocean region. Almost all individuals had a unique haplotype. Intrapopulation haplotype (h and nucleotide (π diversities were high for each locality, ranging from h = 0.9986–1.0000 and π = 0.031593–0.043441. We observed distinct genetic isolation of population located at the northwestern and southwestern edge of the species range. Gene flow was found within localities in the central and eastern region of the Indian Ocean, probably resulting from an extended planktonic larval stage and prevailing ocean currents.

  16. The Striatal Balancing Act in Drug Addiction: Distinct Roles of Direct and Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kay eLobo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The striatum plays a key role in mediating the acute and chronic effects of addictive drugs, with drugs of abuse causing long-lasting molecular and cellular alterations in both dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum. Despite the wealth of research on the biological actions of abused drugs in striatum, until recently, the distinct roles of the striatum’s two major subtypes of medium spiny neuron (MSN in drug addiction remained elusive. Recent advances in cell-type specific technologies, including fluorescent reporter mice, transgenic or knockout mice, and viral-mediated gene transfer, have advanced the field toward a more comprehensive understanding of the two MSN subtypes in the long-term actions of drugs of abuse. Here we review progress in defining the distinct molecular and functional contributions of the two MSN subtypes in mediating addiction.

  17. Effect of maternal administration of allopregnanolone before birth asphyxia on neonatal hippocampal function in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiss, Bobbi; Parkington, Helena C; Coleman, Harold A; Dickinson, Hayley; Yawno, Tamara; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Hirst, Jon J; Walker, David W

    2012-01-18

    Clinically, treatment options where fetal distress is anticipated or identified are limited. Allopregnanolone is an endogenous steroid, that positively modulates the GABA(A) receptor, and that has anti-apoptotic and anti-excitotoxic actions, reducing brain damage in adult animal models of brain injury. We sought to determine if prophylactic treatment of the pregnant female with a single dose of this steroid could reduce birth asphyxia-induced losses in hippocampal function at 5 days of age (P5) in spiny mouse neonates (Acomys cahirinus). At 37 days gestation (term=39 days) and 1h before inducing birth asphyxia, spiny mice dams were injected subcutaneously (0.2 ml) with either 3mg/kg allopregnanolone or 20% w/v β-cyclodextrin vehicle. One hour later, fetuses were either delivered immediately by caesarean section (control group) or exposed to 7.5 min of in utero asphyxia, causing acidosis and hypoxia. At P5, ex vivo hippocampal plasticity was assessed, or brains collected to determine cell proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PCNA) or calcium channel expression (inositol trisphosphate receptor type 1; IP(3)R1) using immunohistochemistry. Allopregnanolone partially prevented the decrease in long term potentiation at P5, and the asphyxia-induced increase in IP(3)R1 expression in CA1 pyramidal neurons. There was no effect of allopregnanolone on the asphyxia induced impairment of the input/output (I/O) curve and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF). In control birth pups, maternal allopregnanolone treatment caused significant changes in short term post-synaptic plasticity and also reduced hippocampal proliferation at P5. These findings show that allopregnanolone can modulate hippocampal development and synaptic function in a normoxic or hypoxic environment, possibly by modifying calcium metabolism. Best practice for treatment dose and timing of treatment will need to be carefully considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Do clones degenerate over time? Explaining the genetic variability of asexuals through population genetic models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Drozd, P.; Eisner, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 17 (2011), s. 1-25 ISSN 1745-6150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586; GA ČR GA206/09/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA VARIATION * MULLERS RATCHET * LOACHES COBITIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.017, year: 2011

  19. Hybrid asexuality as a primary postzygotic barrier between nascent species: on the interconnection between asexuality, hybridization and speciation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, K.; Pačes, J.; Wilkinson-Herbots, H.; Costa, R. J.; Roslein, Jan; Drozd, P.; Iakovenko, N.; Rídl, J.; Hroudová, M.; Kočí, J.; Reifová, R.; Šlechtová, V.; Choleva, L.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2018), s. 248-263 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : pairwise nucleotide differences * mitochondrial- dna variation * multilocus genotype data * reproductive isolation * maximum-likelihood * loaches cobitis * migration model * gene flow * phylogenetic constraints * coalescence time * balance hypothesis * coalescence * evolution of asexuality * hybridization * phylogeography * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  20. Decadal variability in growth of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Paniluridae in Cuban waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estela de León

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual von Bertalanffy growth parameters of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus in Cuban waters were estimated from a long term study (40 years by length-based methods ELEFAN and the new version of SLCA. Data of around 800 000 lobsters (with carapace length ranging 14 to 199mm were randomly sampled in artificial shelters (a non selective fishing gear very common in the lobster fishery, through the field monitory program established for this species since 1963 in 14 localities of southwestern Cuban shelf. The software ELEFAN showed problems to converge in an optimal combination of the instantaneous growth coefficient (K and the asymptotic length (L8 of the von Bertalanffy equation, whereas the new SLCA software produced value estimates of K between 0.20 and 0.27 year-1 and values of L8 between 177 and 190 mm carapace length, all within the range reported in the literature. The standardized anomalies of both parameters showed the presence of cycles along the analyzed time series. Decadal variability in growth parameters was revealed through the spectral analysis indicating cycles of 16 and 20 years for K and of 16 years for L8. The incidence of some factors such as biomass and temperature that modulate growth in this crustacean was explored, using a nonlinear multiple regression model. These combined factors explained 33% and 69% of the variability of K and L8 respectively. The growth coefficient appeared to be maximum with annual mean sea surface temperature of 28.1º C and the largest L 8is reached at a annual men biomass level of 23 000 t. These results should be the basis to understand the Cuban lobster population dynamics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 475-486. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Los parámetros de crecimiento anuales para la langosta espinosa del Caribe (Panulirus argus en aguas cubanas se estimaron para una serie de 40 años de datos de composición por longitud, a través de los métodos indirectos basados en la talla ELEFAN y el nuevo

  1. Mercury concentrations in Northwest Atlantic winter-caught, male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias): A geographic mercury comparison and risk-reward framework for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Gelais, Adam T; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2016-01-15

    Mercury (Hg) contamination testing was conducted on winter-caught male spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in southern New England and results compared to available data on Hg concentrations for this species. A limited risk-reward assessment for EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) lipid concentrations of spiny dogfish was completed in comparison with other commonly consumed marine fish. Mean Hg concentrations were 0.19 ppm (±0.30) wet weight. In comparison, mean Hg concentrations in S. acanthias varied geographically ranging from 0.05 ppm (Celtic Sea) to 2.07 ppm (Crete, Mediterranean Sea). A risk-reward assessment for Hg and DHA+EPA placed S. acanthias in both "low-risk, high-reward" and "high-risk, high-reward" categories for consumption dependent on locations of the catch. Our results are limited and are not intended as consumption advisories but serve to illustrate the need for making more nuanced, geo-specific, consumption guidance for spiny dogfish that is inclusive of seafood traceability and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of copper on the characterization of proteins in the Spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus (Linnaeus,1758

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    Maharajan Athisuyambulingam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper is most toxic metal in marine organisms. Characterization of protein occurring in the metabolically active tissues of muscle (MU, hepatopancreas (HP and gills (GL of the spiny lobster, Panulirus homarus homarus on exposure to two sub-lethal doses (9.55 and 19.1 µg/l of copper were studied for 28 days of exposure (DoE. The electrophoretic pattern of muscle, hepatopancreas and gill proteins revealed 12, 8 and 8 slow moving bands (control. The number of bands decreased to 8 and 7, 6 and 5, 6 and 4 after 7 days of exposure to 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. After 28 days, the protein bands decreased to 7 and 6, 5 and 4, 4 and 4 at 9.55 µg/l and 19.1 µg/l concentrations of copper, respectively. Present study to indicate that to avoid the Cupro-Nickel coil in lobster holding centers in chiller plants used for cooling of water was found to be responsible for the mortality of lobsters during live transportation.

  3. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Citrus Spiny Whitefly Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Implications for the Phylogeny of Whiteflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Teng; Mu, Li-Xia; Wang, Ji-Rui; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (15,220 bp) of the citrus spiny whitefly, Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance), a well-known pest from the superfamily Aleyrodidae. The A. spiniferus mitogenome contains 36 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and a large non-coding region (control region, CR). Like most whiteflies, the A. spiniferus mitogenome had a large degree of rearrangement due to translocation of the nad3-trnG-cox3 gene cluster. The 13 PCGs initiated with ATN and generally terminated with TAA, although some used TAG or T as stop codons; atp6 showed the highest evolutionary rate, whereas cox2 appeared to have the lowest rate. The A. spiniferus mitogenome had 21 tRNAs with a typical cloverleaf secondary structure composed of four arms. Modeling of the two rRNA genes indicated that their secondary structure was similar to that of other insects. The CR of A. spiniferus was 920 bp and mapped between the nad3-trnG-cox3 and trnI-trnM gene clusters. One potential stem-loop structure and five tandem repeats were identified in the CR. Phylogenetic relationships of 11 species from the Aleyrodidae were analyzed based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the 13 PCGs and evolutionary characteristics were explored. Species with more genetic rearrangements were generally more evolved within the Aleyrodidae.

  4. Trace element distribution during the reproductive cycle of female and male spiny and Pacific scallops, with implications for biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norum, Ulrik [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)]. E-mail: ulrik@biology.sdu.dk; Lai, Vivian W.-M. [Environmental Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Cullen, William R. [Environmental Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, 2036 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Trace element concentrations and contents in gills, gonad, kidneys, mantle, muscle and remainder during the reproductive cycle of female and male spiny and Pacific scallops, from the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada, were quantified by using ICPMS. The elements investigated were chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin and mercury. For all ten elements, the tissue distribution was to some extent influenced by species, sex and reproductive status. The implications of the present study in relation to the design of biomonitoring programmes are: (1) care should be taken to ensure an equal/constant sex composition when making interannual comparisons of pooled samples. Preferably the sexes should be monitored separately. (2) the practice of obtaining pooled samples in the interspawn phase is applicable only to monitoring long-term trends in contaminant levels, while the reproductive status should be heeded when studying short-term changes. (3) the present study confirms that direct temporal or spatial comparisons of absolute accumulated element concentrations are only valid intraspecifically.

  5. Pollutant bioaccumulation in the California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) in San Diego Bay, California, and potential human health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loflen, Chad L; Buck, Travis; Bonnema, Autumn; Heim, Wesley A

    2018-03-01

    While the California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) is an important commercial and recreational fishery species in California, there is a lack of data on bioaccumulation for the species. This study examined pollutant tissue concentrations in lobsters from San Diego Bay, California. Observed lobster pollutant tissue concentrations in tail muscle were compared to State of California pollutant advisory levels. Concentrations were then used to conduct risk assessment using catch data from the California Department of Fish and Wildlife. Study results found little bioaccumulation of organic pollutants in tail tissue, likely due to low observed lipids. Mercury was present, predominantly in methyl form, at concentrations above advisory levels. Recreational catch data for San Diego Bay showed increased non-cancer risk for fishers at the 90th percentile or greater of reported annual catch. Further studies should focus on non-tail tissues, as exploratory whole lobster samples (n = 2) showed elevated organic pollutants and metals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recombinant lines for less-spininess in steroid-bearing Solanum viarum using induced mutants as parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, R.; Nanda Kumar, D.; Subhas Chander, M.

    1988-01-01

    In the domestication of the wild, spinous and steroid-bearing Solanum viarum (syn. S. khasianum var. chatterjeeanum) induced mutations play a major role. The development of Glaxo and BARC mutants catalysed commercial cultivation of this species for its berries containing solasodine, used in steroid industries. The commercially more popular Glaxo mutant population consists predominantly of plants that are totally free of spines in aerial parts except lamina where few straight spines develop. The BARC mutant still possesses spines on aerial parts including the persistent calyx. However, the laminary spines of the BARC mutant are curved and vestigial. Comparative studies on morphology, growth behaviour and agronomic characters of the two mutants, their wild progenitor and their hybrid progenies showed that the three types differ only for spine character. In F 2 generation of a cross involving the Glaxo and BARC mutants, a double mutant recombinant was recovered. The recombinant is devoid of spines in aerial parts like its Glaxo mutant parent, but possesses laminary curved vestigial spines like the BARC parent. The spine characters of the recombinant are inherited double recessive. Three advanced lines of this recombinant type (IIHR 2n - 1,2 and 3) were tested in replicated trials 1985 and 1986. They showed parity in berry yield and solasodine content with the Glaxo mutant and three promising lines evolved elsewhere viz. 'RRL (Bhuhaneswar) Y-14', 'RRL (Jorhat)' and 'Pusa'. The results indicate gainful use of induced mutants in hybridization leading to development of superior less-spiny lines of steroid bearing Solanum viarum

  7. Mushroom spine dynamics in medium spiny neurons of dorsal striatum associated with memory of moderate and intense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Medina, Paola C; Flores, Gonzalo; Quirarte, Gina L; McGaugh, James L; Prado Alcalá, Roberto A

    2016-10-18

    A growing body of evidence indicates that treatments that typically impair memory consolidation become ineffective when animals are given intense training. This effect has been obtained by treatments interfering with the neural activity of several brain structures, including the dorsal striatum. The mechanisms that mediate this phenomenon are unknown. One possibility is that intense training promotes the transfer of information derived from the enhanced training to a wider neuronal network. We now report that inhibitory avoidance (IA) induces mushroom spinogenesis in the medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the dorsal striatum in rats, which is dependent upon the intensity of the foot-shock used for training; that is, the effect is seen only when high-intensity foot-shock is used in training. We also found that the relative density of thin spines was reduced. These changes were evident at 6 h after training and persisted for at least 24 h afterward. Importantly, foot-shock alone did not increase spinogenesis. Spine density in MSNs in the accumbens was also increased, but the increase did not correlate with the associative process involved in IA; rather, it resulted from the administration of the aversive stimulation alone. These findings suggest that mushroom spines of MSNs of the dorsal striatum receive afferent information that is involved in the integrative activity necessary for memory consolidation, and that intense training facilitates transfer of information from the dorsal striatum to other brain regions through augmented spinogenesis.

  8. Species trees for spiny lizards (genus Sceloporus): identifying points of concordance and conflict between nuclear and mitochondrial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaché, Adam D

    2010-01-01

    Spiny lizards (genus Sceloporus) represent one of the most diverse and species rich clades of squamate reptiles in continental North America. Sceloporus contains 90+ species, which are partitioned into 21 species groups containing anywhere from one to 15 species. Despite substantial progress towards elucidating the phylogeographic patterns for many species of Sceloporus, efforts to resolve the phylogenetic relationships among the major species groups remain limited. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships of 53 species of Sceloporus, representing all 21 species groups, are estimated based on four nuclear genes (BDNF, PNN, R35, RAG-1; >3.3 kb) and contrasted with a new mitochondrial DNA genealogy based on six genes (12S, ND1, ND4, and the histidine, serine, and leucine tRNA genes; >2.5 kb). Species trees estimated from the nuclear loci using data concatenation or a coalescent-based inference method result in concordant topologies, but the coalescent approach provides lower resolution and support. When comparing nuclear versus mtDNA-based topologies for Sceloporus species groups, conflicting relationships outnumber concordant relationships. Incongruence is not restricted to weak or unresolved nodes as might be expected under a scenario of rapid diversification, but extends to conflicts involving strongly support clades. The points of concordance and conflict between the nuclear and mtDNA data are discussed, and arguments for preferring the species trees estimated from the multilocus nuclear data are presented.

  9. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 from a central western Mediterranean protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas were determined from 389 individuals (total tagged 5666 tag-recaptured inside a no-take area of the central western Mediterranean and its surrounding zone. High site association and limited movements in tagged lobsters was observed; 60.4% of lobsters moved less than 2 km from the centre of the area (site of release. No clear relationship between lobster movement pattern and sex or size was observed; however, it seemed that the largest males and females tended to be more resident, thus contributing to the rebuilding of the biomass of local lobsters. Most lobsters undertook migrations in the southwest direction. The increased availability of shelters and food towards the southwest could have contributed to the lobsters’ movement. The results of our research indicate that the small size of the protected area and the scale of the movement exhibited by tagged lobsters allows a proportion of the lobster population to move out of the protected area and become susceptible to capture in the adjacent fishery.

  10. Optogenetics reveals a role for accumbal medium spiny neurons expressingdopamine D2 receptors in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Sooyun eSong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-lasting, drug-induced adaptations within the nucleus accumbens (NAc have beenproposed to contribute to drug-mediated addictive behaviors. Here we have used anoptogenetic approach to examine the role of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs expressingdopamine D2 receptors (D2R in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Adeno-associatedviral vectors coding channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 were delivered into the NAc of D2R-Cretransgenic mice. This allowed us to selectively photostimulate D2R-MSNs in NAc. D2RMSNsform local inhibitory circuits, because photostimulation of D2R-MSN evokedinhibitory postsynaptic currents in neighboring MSNs. Photostimulation of NAc D2R-MSNin vivo affected neither the initiation nor the expression of cocaine-induced behavioralsensitization. However, photostimulation during the drug withdrawal period attenuatedexpression of cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. These results show that D2R-MSNsof NAc play a key role in withdrawal-induced plasticity and may contribute to relapse aftercessation of drug abuse.

  11. Towards a Supertree of Arthropoda: A Species-Level Supertree of the Spiny, Slipper and Coral Lobsters (Decapoda: Achelata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E Davis

    Full Text Available While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs, invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.

  12. Towards a Supertree of Arthropoda: A Species-Level Supertree of the Spiny, Slipper and Coral Lobsters (Decapoda: Achelata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katie E; Hesketh, Thomas W; Delmer, Cyrille; Wills, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    While supertrees have been built for many vertebrate groups (notably birds, mammals and dinosaurs), invertebrates have attracted relatively little attention. The paucity of supertrees of arthropods is particularly surprising given their economic and ecological importance, as well as their overwhelming contribution to biodiversity. The absence of comprehensive archives of machine-readable source trees, coupled with the need for software implementing repeatable protocols for managing them, has undoubtedly impeded progress. Here we present a supertree of Achelata (spiny, slipper and coral lobsters) as a proof of concept, constructed using new supertree specific software (the Supertree Toolkit; STK) and following a published protocol. We also introduce a new resource for archiving and managing published source trees. Our supertree of Achelata is synthesised from morphological and molecular source trees, and represents the most complete species-level tree of the group to date. Our findings are consistent with recent taxonomic treatments, confirming the validity of just two families: Palinuridae and Scyllaridae; Synaxidae were resolved within Palinuridae. Monophyletic Silentes and Stridentes lineages are recovered within Palinuridae, and all sub-families within Scyllaridae are found to be monophyletic with the exception of Ibacinae. We demonstrate the feasibility of building larger supertrees of arthropods, with the ultimate objective of building a complete species-level phylogeny for the entire phylum using a divide and conquer strategy.

  13. Facilitation by a Spiny Shrub on a Rhizomatous Clonal Herbaceous in Thicketization-Grassland in Northern China: Increased Soil Resources or Shelter from Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saixiyala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of fertility islands by shrubs increases soil resources heterogeneity in thicketization-grasslands. Clonal plants, especially rhizomatous or stoloniferous clonal plants, can form large clonal networks and use heterogeneously distributed resources effectively. In addition, shrubs, especially spiny shrubs, may also provide herbaceous plants with protection from herbivores, acting as ‘shelters’. The interaction between pre-dominated clonal herbaceous plants and encroaching shrubs remains unclear in thicketization-grassland under grazing pressure. We hypothesized that clonal herbaceous plants can be facilitated by encroached shrubs as a ‘shelter from herbivores’ and/or as an ‘increased soil resources’ under grazing pressure. To test this hypothesis, a total of 60 quadrats were chosen in a thicket-grassland in northern China that was previously dominated by Leymus chinensis and was encroached upon by the spiny leguminous plant Caragana intermedia. The soil and plant traits beneath and outside the shrub canopies were sampled, investigated and contrasted with an enclosure. The soil organic matter, soil total nitrogen and soil water content were significantly higher in the soil beneath the shrub canopies than in the soil outside the canopies. L. chinensis beneath the shrub canopies had significantly higher plant height, single shoot biomass, leaf length and width than outside the shrub canopies. There were no significantly differences between plant growth in enclosure and outside the shrub canopies. These results suggested that under grazing pressure in a grassland undergoing thicketization, the growth of the rhizomatous clonal herbaceous plant L. chinensis was facilitated by the spiny shrub C. intermedia as a ‘shelter from herbivores’ more than through ‘increased soil resources’. We propose that future studies should focus on the community- and ecosystem-level impacts of plant clonality.

  14. Effects of glucose and insulin administration on glucose transporter expression in the North Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, Courtney A; Gary Anderson, W; Walsh, Patrick J

    2017-06-01

    Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) are a primarily carnivorous group of fish, consuming few carbohydrates. Further, they tend to exhibit delayed responses to glucose and insulin administration in vivo relative to mammals, leading to a presumption of glucose-intolerance. To investigate the glucoregulatory capabilities of the spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi), plasma glucose concentration, muscle and liver glycogen content, and glucose transporter (glut1 and 4) mRNA levels were measured following intra-arterial administration of bovine insulin (10ngkg -1 ) or an approximate doubling of fasting plasma glucose concentration. Within 6h, following glucose administration, approximately half of the introduced glucose load had been cleared, with control levels being restored by 24h post-injection. It was determined that plasma clearance was due in part to increased uptake by the tissues as muscle and liver glycogen content increased significantly, correlating with an upregulation of glut mRNA levels. Following administration of bovine insulin, plasma glucose steadily decreased through 18h before returning toward control levels. Observed decreases in plasma glucose following insulin injection were, however, relatively minor, and no increases in tissue glycogen content were observed. glut4 and glycogen synthase mRNA levels did significantly increase in the muscle in response to insulin, but no changes occurred in the liver. The responses observed mimic what occurs in mammals and teleosts, thus suggesting a conserved mechanism for glucose homeostasis in vertebrates and a high degree of glucose tolerance in these predominantly carnivorous fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pivotal role of early B-cell factor 1 in development of striatonigral medium spiny neurons in the matrix compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Mary Kay; Yeh, Christopher; Yang, X William

    2008-08-01

    The mammalian striatum plays a critical function in motor control, motor and reward learning, and cognition. Dysfunction and degeneration of the striatal neurons are implicated in major neurological and psychiatric disorders. The vast majority of striatal neurons are medium spiny neurons (MSNs). MSNs can be further subdivided into distinct subtypes based on their physical localization in the striatal patch vs. matrix compartments and based on their axonal projections and marker gene expression (i.e., striatonigral MSNs vs. striatopallidal MSNs). Despite our extensive knowledge on the striatal cytoarchitecture and circuitry, little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling the development of the MSN subtypes in the striatum. Early B-cell factor 1 (Ebf1) is a critical transcription factor implicated in striatal MSN development. One study shows that Ebf1 is critical for the differentiation of MSNs in the matrix, and our separate study demonstrates that Ebf1 is selectively expressed in the striatonigral MSNs and is essential for their postnatal differentiation. In the present study, we further validate the striatonigral MSN deficits in Ebf1(-/-) mice using multiple striatonigral MSN reporter mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that the striatonigral MSN deficits in these mice are restricted to those in the matrix, with relative sparing of those in the patch. Finally, we demonstrate that Ebf1 deficiency also results in reduced expression of another striatonigral-specific transcription factor, zinc finger binding protein 521 (Zfp521), which is a known Ebf1 functional partner. Overall, our study reveals that Ebf1 may play an essential role in controlling the differentiation of the striatonigral MSNs in the matrix compartment.

  16. Nicotine-induced and D1-receptor-dependent dendritic remodeling in a subset of dorsolateral striatum medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Daniel G; Burke, Julian C; McDonald, Craig G; Smith, Robert F; Bergstrom, Hadley C

    2017-07-25

    Nicotine is one of the most addictive substances known, targeting multiple memory systems, including the ventral and dorsal striatum. One form of neuroplasticity commonly associated with nicotine is dendrite remodeling. Nicotine-induced dendritic remodeling of ventral striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) is well-documented. Whether MSN dendrites in the dorsal striatum undergo a similar pattern of nicotine-induced structural remodeling is unknown. A morphometric analysis of Golgi-stained MSNs in rat revealed a natural asymmetry in dendritic morphology across the mediolateral axis, with larger, more complex MSNs found in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). Chronic nicotine produced a lasting (at least 21day) expansion in the dendritic complexity of MSNs in the DLS, but not dorsomedial striatum (DMS). Given prior evidence that MSN subtypes can be distinguished based on dendritic morphology, MSNs were segregated into morphological subpopulations based on the number of primary dendrites. Analysis of these subpopulations revealed that DLS MSNs with more primary dendrites were selectively remodeled by chronic nicotine exposure and remodeling was specific to the distal-most portions of the dendritic arbor. Co-administration of the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist SCH23390 completely reversed the selective effects of nicotine on DLS MSN dendrite morphology, supporting a causal role for dopamine signaling at D1 receptors in nicotine-induced dendrite restructuring. Considering the functional importance of the DLS in shaping and expressing habitual behavior, these data support a model in which nicotine induces persistent and selective changes in the circuit connectivity of the DLS that may promote and sustain addiction-related behavior. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MOLECULAR DETECTION AND CLONING FOR RICKETTSIA-LIKE BACTERIA OF MILKY HAEMOLYMPH DISEASE OF SPINY LOBSTER Panulirus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isti Koesharyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus and Panulirus ornatus are important commodities for Indonesia. The aquaculture of lobster is susceptible for several diseases like parasite, fungi, bacteria, and virus. Among those diseases, milky haemolymph disease (MHD is often seen as a symptom to mass mortality occurred at lobster farms in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok. The purpose of this study was to determine the lobster diseases on cage culture in Gerupuk Bay of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara. The study was undertaken from January to March 2015. Diseases status was determined by application of molecular plat-form, polymerase chain reaction (PCR with designation of specific primer for MHD (254F/R, 254F: 5’-CGA-GGA-CCA-GAG-ATG-GAC-CTT-3’ and 254R: 5’-GCT-CAT-TGT-CAC-CGC-CAT-TGT-3’ with PCR size product of 254 bp. and for cloned the pathogen was used TA-cloning Invitrogen for the DNA plasmid as positive control for other analysis. Several tissue samples i.e hepatopancreas, haemolymph, part of muscle hepatopancreas P. homarus and P. ornatus were taken from cage culture farms at Gerupuk Bay then preserved on 90% ethanol for further analysis by PCR and then the amplificated DNA were cloned into pCR®2.1 plasmid and transformed into competent E. coli. The result showed that almost all lobster samples from Gerupuk Bay were positive infected by MHD, as the results of PCR amplification whereas the band appeared at 254bp. Also MHD plasmid has been successfully cloned and will be used for further examination. Histopathologically in hepatopancreas infection have seen necrosis that contain numerous of rickettsia-like bacteria.

  18. Differential changes in thalamic and cortical excitatory synapses onto striatal spiny projection neurons in a Huntington disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Karolina; Raymond, Lynn A

    2016-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder caused by CAG repeat expansion in the gene encoding huntingtin, predominantly affects the striatum, especially the spiny projection neurons (SPN). The striatum receives excitatory input from cortex and thalamus, and the role of the former has been well-studied in HD. Here, we report that mutated huntingtin alters function of thalamostriatal connections. We used a novel thalamostriatal (T-S) coculture and an established corticostriatal (C-S) coculture, generated from YAC128 HD and WT (FVB/NJ background strain) mice, to investigate excitatory neurotransmission onto striatal SPN. SPN in T-S coculture from WT mice showed similar mini-excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency and amplitude as in C-S coculture; however, both the frequency and amplitude were significantly reduced in YAC128 T-S coculture. Further investigation in T-S coculture showed similar excitatory synapse density in WT and YAC128 SPN dendrites by immunostaining, suggesting changes in total dendritic length or probability of release as possible explanations for mEPSC frequency changes. Synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) current was similar, but extrasynaptic current, associated with cell death signaling, was enhanced in YAC128 SPN in T-S coculture. Employing optical stimulation of cortical versus thalamic afferents and recording from striatal SPN in brain slice, we found increased glutamate release probability and reduced AMPAR/NMDAR current ratios in thalamostriatal synapses, most prominently in YAC128. Enhanced extrasynaptic NMDAR current in YAC128 SPN was apparent with both cortical and thalamic stimulation. We conclude that thalamic afferents to the striatum are affected early, prior to an overt HD phenotype; however, changes in NMDAR localization in SPN are independent of the source of glutamatergic input. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effects of Medium Spiny Neuron Morphologcial Changes on Basal Ganglia Network under External Electric Field: A Computational Modeling Study

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    Xiaohan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The damage of dopaminergic neurons that innervate the striatum has been considered to be the proximate cause of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the dopamine-denervated state, the loss of dendritic spines and the decrease of dendritic length may prevent medium spiny neuron (MSN from receiving too much excitatory stimuli from the cortex, thereby reducing the symptom of Parkinson's disease. However, the reduction in dendritic spine density obtained by different experiments is significantly different. We developed a biological-based network computational model to quantify the effect of dendritic spine loss and dendrites tree degeneration on basal ganglia (BG signal regulation. Through the introduction of error index (EI, which was used to measure the attenuation of the signal, we explored the amount of dendritic spine loss and dendritic trees degradation required to restore the normal regulatory function of the network, and found that there were two ranges of dendritic spine loss that could reduce EI to normal levels in the case of dopamine at a certain level, this was also true for dendritic trees. However, although these effects were the same, the mechanisms of these two cases were significant difference. Using the method of phase diagram analysis, we gained insight into the mechanism of signal degradation. Furthermore, we explored the role of cortex in MSN morphology changes dopamine depletion-induced and found that proper adjustments to cortical activity do stop the loss in dendritic spines induced by dopamine depleted. These results suggested that modifying cortical drive onto MSN might provide a new idea on clinical therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease.

  20. Metabolic depression during warm torpor in the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) does not affect mitochondrial respiration and hydrogen peroxide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimpo, Kirsten; Kutschke, Maria; Kastl, Anja; Meyer, Carola W; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Exner, Cornelia; Jastroch, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Small mammals actively decrease metabolism during daily torpor and hibernation to save energy. Recently, depression of mitochondrial substrate oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria was observed and associated to hypothermic/hypometabolic states in Djungarian hamsters, mice and hibernators. We aimed to clarify whether hypothermia or hypometabolism causes mitochondrial depression during torpor by studying the Golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus), a desert rodent which performs daily torpor at high ambient temperatures of 32°C. Notably, metabolic rate but not body temperature is significantly decreased under these conditions. In isolated liver, heart, skeletal muscle or kidney mitochondria we found no depression of respiration. Moderate cold exposure lowered torpor body temperature but had minor effects on minimal metabolic rate in torpor. Neither decreased body temperature nor metabolic rate impacted mitochondrial respiration. Measurements of mitochondrial proton leak kinetics and determination of P/O ratio revealed no differences in mitochondrial efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide release from mitochondria was not affected. We conclude that interspecies differences of mitochondrial depression during torpor do not support a general relationship between mitochondrial respiration, body temperature and metabolic rate. In Golden spiny mice, reduction of metabolic rate at mild temperatures is not triggered by depression of substrate oxidation as found in liver mitochondria from other cold-exposed rodents. © 2013.

  1. Past, current, and future trends of red spiny lobster based on PCA with MaxEnt model in Galapagos Islands, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Wladimir; Jacome, Gabriel; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2017-07-01

    In order to enhance in terms of accuracy and predict the modeling of the potential distribution of species, the integration of using principal components of environmental variables as input of maximum entropy (MaxEnt) has been proposed in this study. Principal components selected previously from the principal component analysis results performed in ArcGIS in the environmental variables was used as an input data of MaxEnt instead of raw data to model the potential distribution of red spiny lobster from the year 1997 to 2015 and for three different future scenarios 2020, 2050, and 2070. One set of six original environmental variables pertaining to the years 1997-2015 and one set of four variables for future scenarios were transformed independently into a single multiband raster in ArcGIS in order to select the variables whose eigenvalues explains more than 5% of the total variance with the purpose to use in the modeling prediction in MaxEnt. The years 1997 and 1998 were chosen to compare the accuracy of the model, showing better results using principal components instead of raw data in terms of area under the curve and partial receiver operating characteristic as well as better predictions of suitable areas. Using principal components as input of MaxEnt enhances the prediction of good habitat suitability for red spiny lobster; however, future scenarios suggest an adequate management by researches to elaborate appropriate guidelines for the conservation of the habitat for this valuable specie with face to the climate change.

  2. Post-Eocene climate change across continental Australia and the diversification of Australasian spiny trapdoor spiders (Idiopidae: Arbanitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G; Cooper, Steven J B; Meusemann, Karen; Klopfstein, Seraina; Harrison, Sophie E; Harvey, Mark S; Austin, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    The formation and spread of the Australian arid zone during the Neogene was a profoundly transformative event in the biogeographic history of Australia, resulting in extinction or range contraction in lineages adapted to mesic habitats, as well as diversification and range expansion in arid-adapted taxa (most of which evolved from mesic ancestors). However, the geographic origins of the arid zone biota are still relatively poorly understood, especially among highly diverse invertebrate lineages, many of which are themselves poorly documented at the species level. Spiny trapdoor spiders (Idiopidae: Arbanitinae) are one such lineage, having mesic 'on-the-continent' Gondwanan origins, while also having experienced major arid zone radiations in select clades. In this study, we present new orthologous nuclear markers for the phylogenetic inference of mygalomorph spiders, and use them to infer the phylogeny of Australasian Idiopidae with a 12-gene parallel tagged amplicon next-generation sequencing approach. We use these data to test the mode and timing of diversification of arid-adapted idiopid lineages across mainland Australia, and employ a continent-wide sampling of the fauna's phylogenetic and geographic diversity to facilitate ancestral area inference. We further explore the evolution of phenotypic and behavioural characters associated with both arid and mesic environments, and test an 'out of south-western Australia' hypothesis for the origin of arid zone clades. Three lineages of Idiopidae are shown to have diversified in the arid zone during the Miocene, one (genus Euoplos) exclusively in Western Australia. Arid zone Blakistonia likely had their origins in South Australia, whereas in the most widespread genus Aganippe, a more complex scenario is evident, with likely range expansion from southern Western Australia to southern South Australia, from where the bulk of the arid zone fauna then originated. In Aganippe, remarkable adaptations to phragmotic burrow

  3. First characterisation of the populations and immune-related activities of hemocytes from two edible gastropod species, the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell, Turbo cornutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lambert, Christophe; Park, Heung-Sik; Shim, Won Joon; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-01-01

    The disk abalone Haliotis discus discus and the spiny top shell Turbo cornutus are edible gastropod species of high economic value, mainly in Asia. Mortality outbreaks and variations in worldwide stock abundance have been reported and suggested to be associated, at least in part, with pathogenic infections. Ecology, biology and immunology of both species are currently not well documented. The characterisation of the immune systems of these species is necessary to further assess the responses of H. discus discus and T. cornutus to environmental, chemical and disease stresses. In the present study, we investigated the morphology and immune-related activities of hemocytes in both species using light microscopy and flow cytometry. Two types of hemocytes were identified in the disk abalone hemolymph, blast-like cells and hyalinocytes; whereas four main hemocyte types were distinguished in the spiny top shell, blast-like cells, type I and II hyalinocytes, and granulocytes. Flow cytometric analysis also revealed differences between cell types in immune-related activities. Three subsets of hemocytes, defined by differing lysosomal characteristics, were observed in the hemolymph of the spiny top shell, and only one in the disk abalone. Phagocytic activity was higher in H. discus discus hemocytes than in T. cornutus hemocytes, and the kinetics of PMA-stimulated oxidative activity was different between hemocytes of the disk abalone and the spiny top shell. Finally our results suggest for the first time a predominant mitochondrial origin of oxidative activity in gastropod hemocytes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors affecting growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis and Panulirus inflatus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Guerrero, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Briones-Fourzán

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sex, injuries, season and site on the growth of the spiny lobsters Panulirus gracilis, and P. inflatus, were studied through mark-recapture techniques in two sites with different ecological characteristics on the coast of Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis occurred in both sites, whereas P. inflatus occurred only in one site. All recaptured individuals were adults. Both species had similar intermolt periods, but P. gracilis had significantly higher growth rates (mm carapace length week -1 than P. inflatus as a result of a larger molt increment. Growth rates of males were higher than those of females in both species owing to larger molt increments and shorter intermolt periods in males. Injuries had no effect on growth rates in either species. Individuals of P. gracilis grew faster in site 1 than in site 2. Therefore, the effect of season on growth of P. gracilis was analyzed separately in each site. In site 2, growth rates of P. gracilis were similar in summer and in winter, whereas insite 1 both species had higher growth rates in winter than in summer. This could be due to spatial differences in processes related to changes in population density and food resources, which were documented in previous works. The overall results show that P. gracilis grows faster than P. inflatus, and that growth rates of both species are highly variable and are affected by environmental factors such as site and season, which should be taken into account when attempting to produce population growth curves for each species.Se analizaron, por medio de marcado-recaptura, los efectos del sexo, heridas, estación del año y localidad sobre el crecimiento de las langostas espinosas Panulirus gracilis Streets, 1871, y Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895 en dos localidades con diferentes características ecológicas en la costa de Guerrero, México. Panulirus gracilis se presentó en ambas localidades, mientras que P. inflatus sólo se encontró en una de

  5. Application of remote sensing to the study of the pelagic spiny lobster larval transport in the Tropical Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Aguirre Góes Rudorff

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The connectivity of marine populations via larval dispersal is crucial for the maintenance of fisheries production and biodiversity. Because larval dispersion takes place on different spatial scales, global operational satellite data can be successfully used to investigate the connectivity of marine populations on different spatial and temporal scales. In fact, satellite data have long been used for the study of the large and mesoscale biological processes associated with ocean dynamics. This paper presents simulations of spiny lobster larvae transport in the Tropical Atlantic using the geostrophic currents, generated by altimetry that feeds an advection/diffusion model. Simulations were conducted over the Tropical Atlantic (20ºN to 15ºS, considering four larvae release areas: the Cape Verde Archipelago, the Ivory Coast, Ascension Island and Fernando de Noronha Archipelago. We used mean geostrophic current (MGC calculated from 2001 to 2005 to represent the mean circulation of the Tropical Atlantic. We also ran the model for the El Niño geostrophic current regime (ENGC using part of the MGC data, representing the El Niño 2002/2003 event. Results suggest that the intensification of the mesoscale ocean processes associated with El Niño events promotes the connectivity between populations, increasing the chances of a genetic flux among different stocks. We concluded that the altimetry geostrophic current data together with a relatively simple advection/diffusion model can provide useful information about the physical dynamics necessary to conduct studies on larval dispersion.A conectividade de populações marinhas através da dispersão larval é crucial para a manutenção da produção pesqueira e da biodiversidade. A dispersão de larvas ocorre em diferentes escalas espaciais e temporais, de forma que o recobrimento global e escala sinóptica fazem dos dados de satélite ferramentas importantes para esses estudos. O objetivo deste artigo

  6. HPLC-PAD-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS metabolite profiling of cytotoxic carotenoids from the echinoderm Marthasterias glacialis (spiny sea-star).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Pereira, David M; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Valentão, Patrícia; Botelho, João; Mouga, Teresa; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-08-01

    An HPLC-PAD-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-MS metabolite profiling analysis was conducted on the marine echinoderm Marthasterias glacialis (spiny sea-star). Bio-guided purification of the methanolic extract led to the isolation of several carotenoids, namely zeaxanthin, astaxanthin and lutein. These compounds were characterized using both UV-Vis characteristics and MS spectra interpretation. No previous works addressed the MS analysis of carotenoids present in this organism. The purified carotenoid fraction displayed a strong cell proliferation inhibition against rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 (IC(25)=268 microg/mL) cancer cell line. Against healthy V79 (rat lung fibroblasts (IC(25)=411 microg/mL)) cell line, however, toxicity was lower, as it is desired for anti-cancer molecules. This study suggests that M. glacialis may constitute a good source of bioactive compounds that can be used as lead compounds for the pharmaceutical industry.

  7. Long-term subregion-specific encoding of enhanced ethanol intake by D1DR medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Buske, Tavanna R; Morrisett, Richard A

    2018-03-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a critical component of the mesocorticolimbic system and is involved in mediating the motivational and reinforcing aspects of ethanol consumption. Chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure is a reliable model to induce ethanol dependence and increase volitional ethanol consumption in mice. Following a CIE-induced escalation of ethanol consumption, NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor)-dependent long-term depression in D1 dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons of the NAc shell was markedly altered with no changes in plasticity in D1 dopamine receptor medium spiny neurons from the NAc core. This disruption of plasticity persisted for up to 2 weeks after cessation of ethanol access. To determine if changes in AMPA receptor (AMPAR) composition contribute to this ethanol-induced neuroadaptation, we monitored the rectification of AMPAR excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). We observed a marked decrease in the rectification index in the NAc shell, suggesting the presence of GluA2-lacking AMPARs. There was no change in the amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs), but there was a transient increase in sEPSC frequency in the NAc shell. Using the paired pulse ratio, we detected a similar transient increase in the probability of neurotransmitter release. With no change in sEPSC amplitude, the change in the rectification index suggests that GluA2-containing AMPARs are removed and replaced with GluA2-lacking AMPARs in the NAc shell. This CIE-induced alteration in AMPAR subunit composition may contribute to the loss of NMDAR-dependent long-term depression in the NAc shell and therefore may constitute a critical neuroadaptive response underlying the escalation of ethanol intake in the CIE model. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy prevents acute and long-term deficits in skeletal muscle after birth asphyxia: a study of structure and function of hind limb muscle in the spiny mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, Domenic A; Ellery, Stacey J; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Dickinson, Hayley

    2016-12-01

    Maternal antenatal creatine supplementation protects the brain, kidney, and diaphragm against the effects of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse. In this study, we examined creatine's potential to prevent damage to axial skeletal muscles. Pregnant spiny mice were fed a control or creatine-supplemented diet from mid-pregnancy, and 1 d before term (39 d), fetuses were delivered by c-section with or without 7.5 min of birth asphyxia. At 24 h or 33 ± 2 d after birth, gastrocnemius muscles were obtained for ex-vivo study of twitch-tension, muscle fatigue, and structural and histochemical analysis. Birth asphyxia significantly reduced cross-sectional area of all muscle fiber types (P birth protects the muscle from asphyxia-induced damage at birth.

  9. Neuronal Dysfunction in iPSC-Derived Medium Spiny Neurons from Chorea-Acanthocytosis Patients Is Reversed by Src Kinase Inhibition and F-Actin Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanslowsky, Nancy; Reinhardt, Peter; Glass, Hannes; Kalmbach, Norman; Naujock, Maximilian; Hensel, Niko; Lübben, Verena; Pal, Arun; Venneri, Anna; Lupo, Francesca; De Franceschi, Lucia; Claus, Peter; Sterneckert, Jared; Storch, Alexander; Hermann, Andreas; Wegner, Florian

    2016-11-23

    Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by red blood cell acanthocytes and striatal neurodegeneration. Recently, severe cell membrane disturbances based on depolymerized cortical actin and an elevated Lyn kinase activity in erythrocytes from ChAc patients were identified. How this contributes to the mechanism of neurodegeneration is still unknown. To gain insight into the pathophysiology, we established a ChAc patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell model and an efficient differentiation protocol providing a large population of human striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), the main target of neurodegeneration in ChAc. Patient-derived MSNs displayed enhanced neurite outgrowth and ramification, whereas synaptic density was similar to controls. Electrophysiological analysis revealed a pathologically elevated synaptic activity in ChAc MSNs. Treatment with the F-actin stabilizer phallacidin or the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 resulted in the significant reduction of disinhibited synaptic currents to healthy control levels, suggesting a Src kinase- and actin-dependent mechanism. This was underlined by increased G/F-actin ratios and elevated Lyn kinase activity in patient-derived MSNs. These data indicate that F-actin stabilization and Src kinase inhibition represent potential therapeutic targets in ChAc that may restore neuronal function. Chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease without a known cure. To gain pathophysiological insight, we newly established a human in vitro model using skin biopsies from ChAc patients to generate disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and developed an efficient iPSC differentiation protocol providing striatal medium spiny neurons. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology, we detected a pathologically enhanced synaptic activity in ChAc neurons. Healthy control levels of synaptic activity could be restored by treatment of ChAc neurons with the F-actin stabilizer

  10. SYNTHESIS OF CLONALITY AND POLYPLOIDY IN VERTEBRATE ANIMALS BY HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN TWO SEXUAL SPECIES

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choleva, Lukáš; Janko, Karel; Gelas de, K.; Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Věra; Rábová, Marie; Ráb, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 7 (2012), s. 2191-2203 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600450902; GA ČR GA206/06/1763; GA ČR GA206/09/1298; GA ČR GA206/09/1154; GA ČR GA523/08/0824; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA VARIATION * SPINED LOACHES COBITIS * FORMERLY MORABA VIRGO Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.864, year: 2012

  11. Accumulation of 210 Po by spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii) and red gurnard (Chelodonichthys kumu) in New Zealand shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Bellamy, P.; Hunter, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of the natural radionuclide 210 Po in the livers of 81 individual specimens of three fish species collected from waters of the Otago continental shelf, New Zealand, have been measured: spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), 4.2 ± 1.8 Bq kg -1 wet weight (mean ± standard deviation, n = 48); elephant fish (Callorhinchus milii), 136 ± 39 Bq kg -1 (n = 7); and red gurnard (Chelodonichthys kumu), 38 ± 13 Bq kg -1 (n = 26). Separate measurements showed that only a negligible fraction of the 210 Po was supported by decay of the 210 Pb parent ( 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios were 15, 134 and 5.9 respectively for the three species), indicating that direct uptake of 210 Po into the liver balances losses from excretion and radioactive decay. The radiation dose from 210 Po in the livers accounted for between 88% and 99% of the total internal absorbed dose received by the fish species. The activity of 210 Po in sea water from the study area was 0.9-2.2 mBq L -1 , yielding concentration factors for 210 Po in liver tissue in the range 3 x 103 to 100 x 103. No significant monophasic relationships were observed between the 210 Po results and the measured concentrations of the elements Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn and Pb, except that Pb and 210 Po were correlated (r = 0.511) in C. kumu. 33 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Ecological observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations on the Indian Spiny-tailed Lizard Saara hardwickii (Gray, 1827 were undertaken in Tal Chhapar Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India during the monsoons (July following quadrat sampling that was time-constrained. The study revealed that the area is one of the preferable habitats for the species. A population analysis showed that the relative abundance of the subadults was higher, followed by juveniles and adults during the study period. The beginning of activity of the lizards was found to vary over the study period depending on prevailing weather conditions. The activity pattern was bimodal, except across rain events. The study revealed two important ecological findings about these lizards; complete sealing of burrow during rains which differed from partial sealing on normal days and complete diurnal cycle of body colour changes during the monsoon. Feeding was the predominant activity of this lizard followed by basking, resting and chasing each other. The adult lizards were found to be strictly herbivorous, in spite of an abundance of insects available in the area during the period. Subadults and juveniles were found to eat both plant parts, as well as insects. Microhabitat use such as inside grass clumps was found to be higher followed by barren ground, under shade and on stones.

  13. Prolonged Consumption of Sucrose in a Binge-Like Manner, Alters the Morphology of Medium Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Klenowski

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern diet has become highly sweetened, resulting in unprecedented levels of sugar consumption, particularly among adolescents. While chronic long-term sugar intake is known to contribute to the development of metabolic disorders including obesity and type II diabetes, little is known regarding the direct consequences of long-term, binge-like sugar consumption on the brain. Because sugar can cause the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc similarly to drugs of abuse, we investigated changes in the morphology of neurons in this brain region following short- (4 weeks and long-term (12 weeks binge-like sucrose consumption using an intermittent two-bottle choice paradigm. We used Golgi-Cox staining to impregnate medium spiny neurons (MSNs from the NAc core and shell of short- and long-term sucrose consuming rats and compared these to age matched water controls. We show that prolonged binge-like sucrose consumption significantly decreased the total dendritic length of NAc shell MSNs compared to age-matched control rats. We also found that the restructuring of these neurons resulted primarily from reduced distal dendritic complexity. Conversely, we observed increased spine densities at the distal branch orders of NAc shell MSNs from long-term sucrose consuming rats. Combined, these results highlight the neuronal effects of prolonged binge-like intake of sucrose on NAc shell MSN morphology.

  14. Renal dysfunction in early adulthood following birth asphyxia in male spiny mice, and its amelioration by maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Stacey J; LaRosa, Domenic A; Cullen-McEwen, Luise A; Brown, Russell D; Snow, Rod J; Walker, David W; Kett, Michelle M; Dickinson, Hayley

    2017-04-01

    Acute kidney injury affects ~70% of asphyxiated newborns, and increases their risk of developing chronic kidney disease later in life. Acute kidney injury is driven by renal oxygen deprivation during asphyxia, thus we hypothesized that creatine administered antenatally would protect the kidney from the long-term effects of birth asphyxia. Pregnant spiny mice were fed standard chow or chow supplemented with 5% creatine from 20-d gestation (midgestation). One day prior to term (37-d gestation), pups were delivered by caesarean or subjected to intrauterine asphyxia. Litters were allocated to one of two time-points. Kidneys were collected at 1 mo of age to estimate nephron number (stereology). Renal function (excretory profile and glomerular filtration rate) was measured at 3 mo of age, and kidneys then collected for assessment of glomerulosclerosis. Compared with controls, at 1 mo of age male (but not female) birth-asphyxia offspring had 20% fewer nephrons (P birth-asphyxia offspring had 31% lower glomerular filtration rate (P birth asphyxia. Maternal creatine supplementation during pregnancy may be an effective prophylactic to prevent birth asphyxia induced acute kidney injury and the emergence of chronic kidney disease.

  15. Loss of Mitochondrial Ndufs4 in Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons Mediates Progressive Motor Impairment in a Mouse Model of Leigh Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inability of mitochondria to generate energy leads to severe and often fatal myoencephalopathies. Among these, Leigh syndrome (LS is one of the most common childhood mitochondrial diseases; it is characterized by hypotonia, failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency and progressive mental and motor dysfunction, leading to early death. Basal ganglia nuclei, including the striatum, are affected in LS patients. However, neither the identity of the affected cell types in the striatum nor their contribution to the disease has been established. Here, we used a mouse model of LS lacking Ndufs4, a mitochondrial complex I subunit, to confirm that loss of complex I, but not complex II, alters respiration in the striatum. To assess the role of striatal dysfunction in the pathology, we selectively inactivated Ndufs4 in the striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs, which account for over 95% of striatal neurons. Our results show that lack of Ndufs4 in MSNs causes a non-fatal progressive motor impairment without affecting the cognitive function of mice. Furthermore, no inflammatory responses or neuronal loss were observed up to 6 months of age. Hence, complex I deficiency in MSNs contributes to the motor deficits observed in LS, but not to the neural degeneration, suggesting that other neuronal populations drive the plethora of clinical signs in LS.

  16. Spatiotemporal bioeconomic performance of artificial shelters in a small-scale, rights-based managed Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Headley

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a bioeconomic analysis of artificial shelter performance in a fishery targeting a spiny lobster meta-population, with spatially allocated, individual exclusive benthic property rights for shelter introduction and harvest of species. Insights into fishers’ short-run decisions and fishing strategies are also provided. Spatiotemporal bioeconomic performance of shelters located in ten fishing areas during four seasons was compared using two-way ANOVAs and Pearson correlations. Results show that there was spatiotemporal heterogeneity in bioeconomic variables among fishing areas, with mean catch per unit effort (CPUE, kg shelter–1 ranging from 0.42 kg to 1.3 kg per trip, mean quasi-profits of variable costs per shelter harvested ranging from USD6.00 to USD19.57 per trip, and mean quasi-profits of variable costs ranging from USD338 to USD1069 per trip. Positive moderate correlations between shelter density and CPUE (kg shelter–1 km–2 were found. Bioeconomic performance of the shelters was influenced by spatiotemporal resource abundance and distribution, fishing area location in relation to the port, shelter density, heterogeneous fishing strategies and the management system. The results provide empirical information on the spatiotemporal performance of shelters and fishing strategies and can contribute to management at the local-scale of a meta-population distributed throughout the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico.

  17. Learning intrinsic excitability in medium spiny neurons [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/30b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Scheler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We present an unsupervised, local activation-dependent learning rule for intrinsic plasticity (IP which affects the composition of ion channel conductances for single neurons in a use-dependent way. We use a single-compartment conductance-based model for medium spiny striatal neurons in order to show the effects of parameterization of individual ion channels on the neuronal membrane potential-curent relationship (activation function. We show that parameter changes within the physiological ranges are sufficient to create an ensemble of neurons with significantly different activation functions. We emphasize that the effects of intrinsic neuronal modulation on spiking behavior require a distributed mode of synaptic input and can be eliminated by strongly correlated input. We show how modulation and adaptivity in ion channel conductances can be utilized to store patterns without an additional contribution by synaptic plasticity (SP. The adaptation of the spike response may result in either "positive" or "negative" pattern learning. However, read-out of stored information depends on a distributed pattern of synaptic activity to let intrinsic modulation determine spike response. We briefly discuss the implications of this conditional memory on learning and addiction.

  18. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation in Tissues of Spiny-Cheek Crayfish (Orconectes limosus) from Lake Gopło: Effect of Age and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Magdalena; Dąbrowski, Janusz; Różański, Szymon; Janicki, Bogdan; Długosz, Jacek

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the concentrations of metals in the abdominal muscle and exoskeleton of 3-year-old males and 4-year-old females and males of spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus) collected from Lake Gopło. A total of 93 males and 35 females were collected in autumn (October 2014). The analyzes of heavy metals were conducted by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy with a PU9100X spectrometer. The content of mercury was determined using AMA 254 mercury analyser. As analyses indicated heavy metals accumulated in the muscle and exoskeleton in the following sequence: Zn > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ni > Hg and Mn > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu > Hg, respectively. Statistically significant differences between 3- and 4-year-old males were found for all analyzed metals. Gender dependent differences were calculated only for Ni in the muscle tissue and for Mn and Hg in the exoskeleton. In comparison with the study carried out 2 years ago notably higher concentrations of Pb were found in the muscle and a higher content of Zn, Pb, Mn and Ni was determined in the exoskeleton.

  19. Genetic diversity of Misgurnus fossilis populations from the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mendel, Jan; Lusk, Stanislav; Koščo, J.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Papoušek, Ivo

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, 1-2 (2008), s. 90-99 ISSN 0139-7893. [Loaches of the genus Cobitis and related genera /3./. Šibenik, 24.09.2006-29.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Grant - others:IHPP-ARI(XE) HPRI-CT-2001-00180 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : weather loach * control region * microsatellites Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2008 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/57/1-2/090-099_MS1290.pdf

  20. Feeding behavior and nutrient intake in spiny forest-dwelling ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods: compensating in a harsh environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Lisa; Power, Michael L; Ellwanger, Nicholas; Rambeloarivony, Hajamanitra

    2011-07-01

    Strong resource seasonality in Madagascar has led to the evolution of female feeding priority and weaning synchrony in most lemur species. For these taxa, pregnancy/early lactation periods coincide with low food availability, and weaning of infants is timed with increased resources at the onset of the rainy season. Reproductive females experience high metabolic requirements, which they must accommodate, particularly when food resources are scarce. Female ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) residing in spiny forest habitat must deal with resource scarcity, high temperatures (∼36-40°C) and little shade in early to mid-lactation periods. Considered "income breeders," these females must use resources obtained from the environment instead of relying on fat stores; thus, we expected they would differ from same-sized males in time spent on feeding and in the intake of food and nutrients. We investigated these variables in two groups (N = 11 and 12) of Lemur catta residing in spiny forest habitat during early gestation and early to mid-lactation periods. Focal animal data and food plant samples were collected, and plants were analyzed for protein, kcal, and fiber. We found no sex differences for any feeding or nutrient intake variable for the top five food species consumed. Females in early gestation spent more time feeding compared with early/mid-lactation. Physiological compensation for spiny forest-dwelling females may be tied to greater time spent resting compared with gallery forest conspecifics, consuming foods high in protein, calories, and water, reduced home range defense in a sparsely populated habitat, and for Lemur catta females in general, production of relatively dilute milk compared with many strepsirrhines. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Biological and Histological Studies on The Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Sex Pheromone Gland of Female Spiny Bollworm Earias Insulana Boisd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohhamed, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of sex pheromone extraction and bioassay production male attractiveness to alive females on male response and the histological structure of pheromone glands in normal and irradiated females of the spiny bollworm, Earias insulana Boisd. with 100 and 150 Gy. Reproduction of adults irradiated as moths less than 24 hours old or three days was also investigated. Sex pheromone extracts from 1 day old females were less active than those from 3 day old females. The percentage of male moths response to alive female moths at 1 day old was lower than at 3 days old. The sex pheromone production by females was increased as the females became older (from 3 days old to up). The gland of normal female moths is found between 8th and 9th abdominal segments travelling deep inside the body cavity and has large, darkly stained and well defined epithelial cells. The scent gland is of the well developed, tubular and closed ring shaped type. In parental females less than 24 hours old irradiated with 100 Gy, the glandular epithelial cells became loose, rupture, disappeared, shrink, irregular, abnormal or broken and were separated from each other and their nuclei were not clear. The scales were abnormal or loose and there are many vacuoles. The histological effects following gamma irradiation were also noticed in case of parental moths irradiated with 150 Gy. The glandular epithelial cells lost their peculiar shape with the appearance of some vacuoles between them, broken and disappeared in another place and also many secretory cells disappeared and the glands showed increasing. The effects of radiation were continued among females of F1 , generation moths less than 24 hours old descendant of irradiated parental male with 100 and 150 Gy and decreased the fecundity and egg hatch ability significantly. The effect was dose dependent

  2. Differences in number and distribution of striatal calbindin medium spiny neurons between a vocal-learner (Melopsittacus undulatus and a non-vocal learner bird (Colinus virginianus

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    Elena eGarcia-Calero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Striatal projecting neurons, known as medium spiny neurons (MSNs, segregate into two compartments called matrix and striosome in the mammalian striatum. The matrix domain is characterized by the presence of calbindin immunopositive (CB+ MSNs, not observed in the striosome subdivision. The existence of a similar CB+ MSN population has recently been described in two striatal structures in male zebra finch (a vocal learner bird: the striatal capsule and the Area X, a nucleus implicated in song learning. Female zebra finches show a similar pattern of CB+ MSNs than males in the developing striatum but loose these cells in juveniles and adult stages. In the present work we analyzed the existence and allocation of CB+MSNs in the striatal domain of the vocal learner bird budgerigar (representative of psittaciformes order and the non-vocal learner bird quail (representative of galliformes order. We studied the co-localization of CB protein with FoxP1, a transcription factor expressed in vertebrate striatal MSNs. We observed CB+ MSNs in the medial striatal domain of adult male and female budgerigars, although this cell type was missing in the potentially homologous nucleus for Area X in budgerigar. In quail, we observed CB+ cells in the striatal domain at developmental and adult stages but they did not co-localize with the MSN marker FoxP1. We also described the existence of the CB+ striatal capsule in budgerigar and quail and compared these results with the CB+ striatal capsule observed in juvenile zebra finches. Together, these results point out important differences in CB+MSN distribution between two representative species of vocal learner and non-vocal learner avian orders (respectively the budgerigar and the quail, but also between close vocal learner bird families.

  3. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not in adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Maust, Joel D; Corthell, John T; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-03-01

    Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. We examined differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity and basal differences in striatal neuron function in adult and in adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on "junk-food" diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine-induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). In rats that became obese after eating junk-food, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ∼60 % at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals, and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats.

  4. Cell and molecular biology of the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias and little skate Leucoraja erinacea: insights from in vitro cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D W

    2012-04-01

    Two of the most commonly used elasmobranch experimental model species are the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias and the little skate Leucoraja erinacea. Comparative biology and genomics with these species have provided useful information in physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, immunology, evolutionary developmental biology and genetics. A wealth of information has been obtained using in vitro approaches to study isolated cells and tissues from these organisms under circumstances in which the extracellular environment can be controlled. In addition to classical work with primary cell cultures, continuously proliferating cell lines have been derived recently, representing the first cell lines from cartilaginous fishes. These lines have proved to be valuable tools with which to explore functional genomic and biological questions and to test hypotheses at the molecular level. In genomic experiments, complementary (c)DNA libraries have been constructed, and c. 8000 unique transcripts identified, with over 3000 representing previously unknown gene sequences. A sub-set of messenger (m)RNAs has been detected for which the 3' untranslated regions show elements that are remarkably well conserved evolutionarily, representing novel, potentially regulatory gene sequences. The cell culture systems provide physiologically valid tools to study functional roles of these sequences and other aspects of elasmobranch molecular cell biology and physiology. Information derived from the use of in vitro cell cultures is valuable in revealing gene diversity and information for genomic sequence assembly, as well as for identification of new genes and molecular markers, construction of gene-array probes and acquisition of full-length cDNA sequences. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference and its inhibition by previous social interaction preferentially affect D1-medium spiny neurons in the accumbens corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Maria Prast

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated if counterconditioning with dyadic (i.e., one-to-one social interaction, a strong inhibitor of the subsequent reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP, differentially modulates the activity of the diverse brain regions oriented along a mediolateral corridor reaching from the interhemispheric sulcus to the anterior commissure, i.e., the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band, the medial septal nucleus, the major island of Calleja, the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus, and the medial accumbens shell and core. We also investigated the involvement of the lateral accumbens core and the dorsal caudate putamen. The anterior cingulate 1 (Cg1 region served as a negative control. Contrary to our expectations, we found that all regions of the accumbens corridor showed increased expression of the early growth response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268 in rats 2 h after reacquisition of CPP for cocaine after a history of cocaine CPP acquisition and extinction. Previous counterconditioning with dyadic social interaction inhibited both the reacquisition of cocaine CPP and the activation of the whole accumbens corridor. EGR1 activation was predominantly found in dynorphin-labeled cells, i.e., presumably D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs, with D2-MSNs (immunolabeled with an anti-DRD2 antibody being less affected. Cholinergic interneurons or GABAergic interneurons positive for parvalbumin, neuropeptide Y or calretinin were not involved in these CPP-related EGR1 changes. Glial cells did not show any EGR1 expression either. The present findings could be of relevance for the therapy of impaired social interaction in substance use disorders, depression, psychosis, and autism spectrum disorders.

  6. The phylogenetic intrarelationships of spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha, Teleostei, Actinopterygii: fossil taxa increase the congruence of morphology with molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Davesne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acanthomorpha (spiny-rayed fishes is a clade of teleosts that includes more than 15 000 extant species. Their deep phylogenetic intrarelationships, first reconstructed using morphological characters, have been extensively revised with molecular data. Moreover, the deep branches of the acanthomorph tree are still largely unresolved, with strong disagreement between studies. Here, we review the historical propositions for acanthomorph deep intrarelationships and attempt to resolve their earliest branching patterns using a new morphological data matrix compiling and revising characters from previous studies. The taxon sampling we use constitutes a first attempt to test all previous hypotheses (molecular and morphological alike with morphological data only. Our sampling also includes Late Cretaceous fossil taxa, which yield new character state combinations that are absent in extant taxa. Analysis of the complete morphological data matrix yields a new topology that shows remarkable congruence with the well-supported molecular results. Lampridiformes (oarfishes and allies are the sister to all other acanthomorphs. Gadiformes (cods and allies and Zeiformes (dories form a clade with Percopsiformes (trout-perches and the enigmatic Polymixia (beardfish and Stylephorus (tube-eye. Ophidiiformes (cusk-eels and allies and Batrachoidiformes (toadfishes are nested within Percomorpha, the clade that includes most of modern acanthomorph diversity. These results provide morphological synapomorphies and independent corroboration of clades previously only recovered from molecular data, thereby suggesting the emergence of a congruent picture of acanthomorph deep intrarelationships. Fossil taxa play a critical role in achieving this congruence, since a very different topology is found when they are excluded from the analysis.

  7. Long-lasting alterations in membrane properties, K+ currents and glutamatergic synaptic currents of nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons in a rat model of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor eSpigelman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol exposure causes marked changes in reinforcement mechanisms and motivational state that are thought to contribute to the development of cravings and relapse during protracted withdrawal. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc is a key structure of the mesolimbic dopaminergic reward system. Although the NAcc plays an important role in mediating alcohol-seeking behaviors, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced neuroadaptive changes in NAcc function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE treatment, a rat model of alcohol withdrawal and dependence, on intrinsic electrical membrane properties and glutamatergic synaptic transmission of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the NAcc core during protracted withdrawal. We show that CIE treatment followed by prolonged withdrawal increased the inward rectification of MSNs observed at hyperpolarized potentials. In addition, MSNs from CIE-treated animals displayed a lower input resistance, faster action potentials (APs and larger fast afterhyperpolarizations (fAHPs than MSNs from vehicle-treated animals, all suggestive of increases in K+-channel conductances. Significant increases in the Cs+-sensitive inwardly-rectifying K+-current accounted for the increased input resistance, while increases in the A-type K+-current accounted for the faster APs and increased fAHPs in MSNs from CIE rats. We also show that the amplitude and the conductance of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR-mediated mEPSCs were enhanced in CIE-treated animals due to an increase in a small fraction of functional postsynaptic GluA2-lacking AMPARs. These long-lasting modifications of excitability and excitatory synaptic receptor function of MSNs in the NAcc core could play a critical role in the neuroadaptive changes underlying alcohol withdrawal and dependence.

  8. Vibrio panuliri sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus and transfer of Vibrio ponticus from Scophthalmi clade to the newly proposed Ponticus clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Prabla; Poddar, Abhijit; Schumann, Peter; Das, Subrata K

    2014-12-01

    A novel marine bacterium, strain LBS2(T) was isolated from eggs carried on pleopods of the spiny lobster collected from Andaman Sea. Heterotrophic growth occurred at 1-7% NaCl. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity revealed the strain LBS2(T) belonged to the genus Vibrio and showed above 97% similarity with eight type strains of the genus Vibrio. Multilocus analysis based on ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH recA, rpoA, and topA revealed LBS2(T) formed a separate cluster with Vibrio ponticus DSM 16217(T) with 89.8% multilocus gene sequence similarity. However, strain LBS2(T) is distantly related with other members of the Scophthalmi clade in terms of 16S rRNA signatures, phenotypic variations and multilocus gene sequence similarity, for which we propose LBS2(T) belongs to a new clade i.e. Ponticus clade with V. ponticus DSM 16217(T) as the representative type strain of the clade. DNA-DNA homologies between strain LBS2(T) and closely related strains were well below 70%. DNA G + C content was 45.3 mol%. On the basis of our polyphasic study, strain LBS2(T) represents a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio panuliri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LBS2(T) (= JCM 19500(T) = DSM 27724(T) = LMG 27902(T)). Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Drug-Primed Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Mice: Increased Excitability of Medium-Sized Spiny Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ying Ma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the mechanisms of drug relapse, we first established a model for cocaine IVSA (intravenous self-administration in mice, and subsequently examined electrophysiological alterations of MSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons in the NAc (nucleus accumbens before and after acute application of cocaine in slices. Three groups were included: master mice trained by AL (active lever pressings followed by IV (intravenous cocaine delivery, yoked mice that received passive IV cocaine administration initiated by paired master mice, and saline controls. MSNs recorded in the NAc shell in master mice exhibited higher membrane input resistances but lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes of sEPSCs (spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents compared with neurons recorded from saline control mice, whereas cells in the NAc core had higher sEPSCs frequencies and larger amplitudes. Furthermore, sEPSCs in MSNs of the shell compartment displayed longer decay times, suggesting that both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms were involved. After acute re-exposure to a low-dose of cocaine in vitro, an AP (action potential-dependent, persistent increase in sEPSC frequency was observed in both NAc shell and core MSNs from master, but not yoked or saline control mice. Furthermore, re-exposure to cocaine induced membrane hyperpolarization, but concomitantly increased excitability of MSNs from master mice, as evidenced by increased membrane input resistance, decreased depolarizing current to generate APs, and a more negative Thr (threshold for firing. These data demonstrate functional differences in NAc MSNs after chronic contingent versus non-contingent IV cocaine administration in mice, as well as synaptic adaptations of MSNs before and after acute re-exposure to cocaine. Reversing these functional alterations in NAc could represent a rational target for the treatment of some reward-related behaviors, including drug addiction.

  10. Drug-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in mice: increased excitability of medium-sized spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yao-Ying; Henley, Sandy M.; Toll, Jeff; Jentsch, James D.; Evans, Christopher J.; Levine, Michael S.; Cepeda, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    To examine the mechanisms of drug relapse, we first established a model for cocaine IVSA (intravenous self-administration) in mice, and subsequently examined electrophysiological alterations of MSNs (medium-sized spiny neurons) in the NAc (nucleus accumbens) before and after acute application of cocaine in slices. Three groups were included: master mice trained by AL (active lever) pressings followed by IV (intravenous) cocaine delivery, yoked mice that received passive IV cocaine administration initiated by paired master mice, and saline controls. MSNs recorded in the NAc shell in master mice exhibited higher membrane input resistances but lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes of sEPSCs (spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents) compared with neurons recorded from saline control mice, whereas cells in the NAc core had higher sEPSCs frequencies and larger amplitudes. Furthermore, sEPSCs in MSNs of the shell compartment displayed longer decay times, suggesting that both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms were involved. After acute re-exposure to a low-dose of cocaine in vitro, an AP (action potential)-dependent, persistent increase in sEPSC frequency was observed in both NAc shell and core MSNs from master, but not yoked or saline control mice. Furthermore, re-exposure to cocaine induced membrane hyperpolarization, but concomitantly increased excitability of MSNs from master mice, as evidenced by increased membrane input resistance, decreased depolarizing current to generate APs, and a more negative Thr (threshold) for firing. These data demonstrate functional differences in NAc MSNs after chronic contingent versus non-contingent IV cocaine administration in mice, as well as synaptic adaptations of MSNs before and after acute re-exposure to cocaine. Reversing these functional alterations in NAc could represent a rational target for the treatment of some reward-related behaviors, including drug addiction. PMID:24000958

  11. A new species of Carcinonemertes, Carcinonemertes conanobrieni sp. nov. (Nemertea: Carcinonemertidae, an egg predator of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus.

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    Lunden Alice Simpson

    Full Text Available A new species of nemertean worm belonging to the genus Carcinonemertes is described from egg masses of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus from the Florida Keys, Florida, USA. This is the first species of Carcinonemertes reported to infect P. argus or any other lobster species in the greater Caribbean and western Atlantic Ocean. Carcinonemertes conanobrieni sp. nov. varies in body color from a translucent white to a pale orange, with males ranging in total body length from 2.35 to 12.71 mm and females ranging from 0.292 to 16.73 mm. Among the traits that separate this new species from previously described species in the genus Carcinonemertes are a relatively wide stylet basis, minimal sexual size dimorphism, and a unique mucus sheath decorated with external hooks. Also, juvenile worms were found to encyst themselves next to lobster embryos and female worms lay both long strings of eggs wound throughout the lobster's setae as well as spherical cases that are attached to lobster embryos. The stylet length and stylet basis remain unchanged throughout ontogeny for both male and female worms. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses separated this newly described species from all other species of Carcinonemertes with available COI sequences. Carcinonemertes spp. are voracious egg predators and have been tied to the collapse of various crustacean fisheries. The formal description of this new species represents the first step to understand putative impacts of this worm on the population health of one of the most lucrative yet already depressed crustacean fisheries.

  12. Experimental Rearing of Spiny Lobster, Panulirus homarus (Palinuridae in Land-Based Tanks at Mirbat Station (Sultanate of Oman in 2009-2010

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    Mohammed Balkhair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments on the rearing of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus were conducted in land-based tanks at Mirbat Aquaculture Unit from June to December 2009 and January-December 2010. In the first experiment 14 lobsters with an average size of 64.9±7.4 mm CL and weight of 297.8±98.0 g were reared to an average of 71.7±7.2 mm CL and weight of 384.0±114.8 g over 187 days. In the second experiment 45 lobsters were reared from an initial length of 45.4±4.6 mm CL and weight of 118.9 g to a length 66.0±7.1 mm CL and a weight of 304.1 g over 335 days. Total length increment was 45.8% and weight increment 155.1%. The daily food ration was 3.0-8.8%. The survival rate in the first experiment was 92.9%, in the second experiment it was also high (86.7% during the first six months. In both experiments males grew faster than females. While the water temperature, pH, salinity and dissolved oxygen reflected the ambient condition of the Arabian Sea, these were not optimal levels for lobsters culture. The salinity was higher (37.5 ppt, while the water temperature was low (<20oC during the summer monsoon. The study demonstrated the possibility of cultivating sub-adult lobsters in Oman from 40–45 mm CL and 100 g to maturity stage, obtaining the legal size of 70 mm CL and a weight of about 350 g over a year. It is recommended that the next experiment be conducted in floating sea cages from October to June.

  13. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from in vitro cell lines of elasmobranchs: Spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and little skate (Leucoraja erinacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J; Barnes, David W

    2010-09-01

    Elasmobranchs are the most commonly used experimental models among the jawed, cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). Previously we developed cell lines from embryos of two elasmobranchs, Squalus acanthias the spiny dogfish shark (SAE line), and Leucoraja erinacea the little skate (LEE-1 line). From these lines cDNA libraries were derived and expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generated. From the SAE cell line 4303 unique transcripts were identified, with 1848 of these representing unknown sequences (showing no BLASTX identification). From the LEE-1 cell line, 3660 unique transcripts were identified, and unknown, unique sequences totaled 1333. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation showed that GO assignments for the two cell lines were in general similar. These results suggest that the procedures used to derive the cell lines led to isolation of cell types of the same general embryonic origin from both species. The LEE-1 transcripts included GO categories "envelope" and "oxidoreductase activity" but the SAE transcripts did not. GO analysis of SAE transcripts identified the category "anatomical structure formation" that was not present in LEE-1 cells. Increased organelle compartments may exist within LEE-1 cells compared to SAE cells, and the higher oxidoreductase activity in LEE-1 cells may indicate a role for these cells in responses associated with innate immunity or in steroidogenesis. These EST libraries from elasmobranch cell lines provide information for assembly of genomic sequences and are useful in revealing gene diversity, new genes and molecular markers, as well as in providing means for elucidation of full-length cDNAs and probes for gene array analyses. This is the first study of this type with members of the Chondrichthyes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and intrinsic excitability of NAc medium spiny neurons in adult but not adolescent rats susceptible to diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F.; Maust, Joel D.; Corthell, John T.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Basal and diet-induced differences in mesolimbic function, particularly within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), may contribute to human obesity; these differences may be more pronounced in susceptible populations. Objectives We determined whether there are differences in cocaine-induced behavioral plasticity in rats that are susceptible vs. resistant to diet-induced obesity, and basal differences in the striatal neuron function in adult and adolescent obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats. Methods Susceptible and resistant outbred rats were identified based on “junk-food” diet-induced obesity. Then, the induction and expression of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization, which is mediated by enhanced striatal function and is associated with increased motivation for rewards and reward-paired cues, were evaluated. Basal differences in mesolimbic function were examined in selectively bred obesity-prone and obesity-resistant rats (P70-80 and P30-40) using both cocaine induced locomotion and whole-cell patch clamping approaches in NAc core medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Results In rats that became obese after eating “junk-food”, the expression of locomotor sensitization was enhanced compared to non-obese rats, with similarly strong responses to 7.5 and 15 mg/kg cocaine. Without diet manipulation, obesity-prone rats were hyper-responsive to the acute locomotor-activating effects of cocaine, and the intrinsic excitability of NAc core MSNs was enhanced by ~60% at positive and negative potentials. These differences were present in adult, but not adolescent rats. Post-synaptic glutamatergic transmission was similar between groups. Conclusions Mesolimbic systems, particularly NAc MSNs, are hyper-responsive in obesity-prone individuals; and interactions between predisposition and experience influence neurobehavioral plasticity in ways that may promote weight gain and hamper weight loss in susceptible rats. PMID:26612617

  15. Selective alterations of NMDAR function and plasticity in D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens shell following chronic intermittent ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria, Rafael; Maier, Esther Y; Buske, Tavanna R; Morrisett, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    A major mouse model widely adopted in recent years to induce pronounced ethanol intake is the ethanol vapor model known as "CIE" or "Chronic Intermittent Ethanol." One critical question concerning this model is whether the rapid induction of high blood ethanol levels for such short time periods is sufficient to induce alterations in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function which may contribute to excessive ethanol intake. In this study, we determined whether such short term intermittent ethanol exposure modulates NMDAR function as well as other prominent electrophysiological properties and the expression of plasticity in both D1 (D1+) and D2 (D1-) dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell. To distinguish between the two subtypes of MSNs in the NAc we treated Drd1a-TdTomato transgenic mice with CIE vapor and electrophysiological recordings were conducted 24 h after the last vapor exposure. To investigate CIE induced alterations in plasticity, long-term depression (LTD) was induced by pairing low frequency stimulation (LFS) with post synaptic depolarization. In ethanol naïve mice, LFS induced synaptic depression (LTD) was apparent exclusively in D1+ MSNs. Whereas in slices prepared from CIE treated mice, LFS induced synaptic potentiation (LTP) in D1+ MSNs. Furthermore, following CIE exposure, LFS now produced LTD in D1- MSNs. We found that CIE exposure induced an increase in excitability in D1+ MSNs with no change in D1- MSNs. After CIE, we found a significant increase in spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) frequency in D1+ but not D1- MSNs suggesting alterations in baseline α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) mediated signaling. CIE induced changes in NMDAR function were measured using the NMDA/AMPA ratio and input-output curves of isolated NMDAR currents. We observed a significant increase in NMDAR function in D1+ MSNs and a decrease in D1- MSNs after ethanol vapor exposure. The

  16. Microcobitis, a new genus name for Cobitis misgurnoides (Teleostei: Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Harant, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2010), s. 295-300 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cypriniformes * fish * guangxi Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.828, year: 2010

  17. How biophysical interactions associated with sub- and mesoscale structures and migration behavior affect planktonic larvae of the spiny lobster in the Juan Fernández Ridge: A modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel, Carolina; Parada, Carolina; Morales, Carmen E.; Pizarro, Oscar; Ernst, Billy; Conejero, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    The Juan Fernández Ridge (JFR) is a chain of topographical elevations in the eastern South Pacific (∼33-35°S, 76-81.5°W). Rich in endemic marine species, this ridge is frequently affected by the arrival of mesoscale eddies originating in the coastal upwelling zone off central-southern Chile. The impacts of these interactions on the structure and dynamics of the JFR pelagic system have, however, not been addressed yet. The present model-based study is focused on the coupled influence of mesoscale-submesoscale processes and biological behavior (i.e., diel vertical migration) on the horizontal distribution of planktonic larvae of the spiny lobster (Jasus frontalis) around the JFR waters. Two case studies were selected from a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modeling System to characterize mesoscale and submesoscale structures and an Individual-based model (IBM) to simulate diel vertical migration (DVM) and its impact on the horizontal distribution and the patchiness level. DVM behavior of these larvae has not been clearly characterized, therefore, three types of vertical mechanisms were assessed on the IBM: (1) no migration (LG), (2) a short migration (0-50 m depth, DVM1), and (3) a long migration (10-200 m depth, DVM2). The influence of physical properties (eddy kinetic energy, stretching deformation and divergence) on larval aggregation within meso and submesoscale features was quantified. The patchiness index assessed for mesoscale and submesoscale structures showed higher values in the mesoscale than in the submesoscale. However, submesoscale structures revealed a higher accumulation of particles by unit of area. Both vertical migration mechanisms produced larger patchiness indices compared to the no migration experiment. DVM2 was the one that showed by far the largest aggregation of almost all the aggregation zones. Larval concentrations were highest in the submesoscale structures; these zones were characterized by low eddy kinetic energy, negative stretching

  18. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoc Tan Dao

    Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  19. About rats and jackfruit trees: modeling the carrying capacity of a Brazilian Atlantic Forest spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus (Günther, 1877 – Rodentia, Echimyidae – population with varying jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus L. abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHF Mello

    Full Text Available We carried out a six-year study aimed at evaluating if and how a Brazilian Atlantic Forest small mammal community responded to the presence of the invasive exotic species Artocarpus heterophyllus, the jackfruit tree. In the surroundings of Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, RJ, 18 grids were established, 10 where the jackfruit tree was present and eight were it was absent. Previous results indicated that the composition and abundance of this small mammal community were altered by the presence and density of A. heterophyllus. One observed effect was the increased population size of the spiny-rat Trinomys dimidiatus within the grids where the jackfruit trees were present. Therefore we decided to create a mathematical model for this species, based on the Verhulst-Pearl logistic equation. Our objectives were i to calculate the carrying capacity K based on real data of the involved species and the environment; ii propose and evaluate a mathematical model to estimate the population size of T. dimidiatus based on the monthly seed production of jackfruit tree, Artocarpus heterophyllus and iii determinate the minimum jackfruit tree seed production to maintain at least two T. dimidiatus individuals in one study grid. Our results indicated that the predicted values by the model for the carrying capacity K were significantly correlated with real data. The best fit was found considering 20~35% energy transfer efficiency between trophic levels. Within the scope of assumed premises, our model showed itself to be an adequate simulator for Trinomys dimidiatus populations where the invasive jackfruit tree is present.

  20. Loaches and the environment in two provinces in Northern Vietnam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrtýl, M.; Bohlen, Jörg; Kalous, L.; Bui, A.T.; Chaloupková, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2011), 368-374 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Grant - others:MZe(CZ) 29/Mze/B/08-10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : biodiversity * conservation * Teleostei Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.554, year: 2011

  1. Gene expression profiles of fin regeneration in loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; He, Jingya; Wang, Linlin; Chen, Weihua; Chang, Zhongjie

    2017-11-01

    Teleost fins can regenerate accurate position-matched structure and function after amputation. However, we still lack systematic transcriptional profiling and methodologies to understand the molecular basis of fin regeneration. After histological analysis, we established a suppression subtraction hybridization library containing 418 distinct sequences expressed differentially during the process of blastema formation and differentiation in caudal fin regeneration. Genome ontology and comparative analysis of differential distribution of our data and the reference zebrafish genome showed notable subcategories, including multi-organism processes, response to stimuli, extracellular matrix, antioxidant activity, and cell junction function. KEGG pathway analysis allowed the effective identification of relevant genes in those pathways involved in tissue morphogenesis and regeneration, including tight junction, cell adhesion molecules, mTOR and Jak-STAT signaling pathway. From relevant function subcategories and signaling pathways, 78 clones were examined for further Southern-blot hybridization. Then, 17 genes were chosen and characterized using semi-quantitative PCR. Then 4 candidate genes were identified, including F11r, Mmp9, Agr2 and one without a match to any database. After real-time quantitative PCR, the results showed obvious expression changes in different periods of caudal fin regeneration. We can assume that the 4 candidates, likely valuable genes associated with fin regeneration, deserve additional attention. Thus, our study demonstrated how to investigate the transcript profiles with an emphasis on bioinformatics intervention and how to identify potential genes related to fin regeneration processes. The results also provide a foundation or knowledge for further research into genes and molecular mechanisms of fin regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Schistura udomritthiruji, a new loach from southern Thailand (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 4 (2009), s. 319-324 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cypriniformes * Nemacheilidae * Schistura udomritthuji Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.940, year: 2009

  3. Advances in tecnological development and present status of the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus from egg to commecial size / Avanços no desenvolvimento tecnológico e status atual do cultivo de lagostas (Panulirus argus do ovo ao tamanho comercial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Igarashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to sumarize the studies on culture of Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus. Spiny lobster became a highly valued marine organism, since then, have had a manifold increase over the years in Brazil. However, most fisheries are fully exploited, and one of the few ways to increase production is through aquaculture. Keeping the larval spiny lobster alive in the laboratory through these delicate stages is very difficult. The first complete culture of Caribbean spiny lobster from hatch to puerulus stage occurred in 2006 at Mie Prefectural Fisheries Station in Japan. This result reflects the increasing availability of information on optimal culturing conditions, such as optimal environmental parameters, feeding, and tank design. Still, there are significant problems to overcome in the establishment of large-scale culture of phyllosoma. These further challenges include the control of bacterial diseases and excessive aggregation of larvae, the use of prepared diets such as artificial foods, and the reduction of high operating costs. In addition possibilities for the present are exploitation of juveniles from densely populated areas and utilization of natural food resources as feed for the lobster. In conclusion it is possible farming juvenile spiny lobsters in growout system.A proposta desta revisão é resumir as informações sobre os estudos do cultivo de lagosta vermelha (Panulirus argus. As lagostas espinhosas tornaram-se, desde o início de sua exploração, um produto marinho de relevante importância econômica para o Brasil. No entanto, é notória a ocorrência da sobrepesca e, para efeito de minimizar essa situação uma das soluções é o seu cultivo. A larvicultura de lagostas em condições laboratoriais é sobremodo difícil, devido ao alto grau de sensibilidade da larva. O primeiro cultivo completo da lagosta vermelha desde a eclosão até o estágio de puerulus ocorreu em 2006 na Estação de Pesca na

  4. Postlarval settlement of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae, at the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica Asentamiento postlarval en la langosta espinosa, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobster fishery (Panulirus argus forms an important part of the fishing activities along the Caribbean coast of Central America. The present study provides information regarding the seasonal abundance and distribution of postlarval P. argus in Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. During the study period (March 2004-February 2005, a total of 1907 pueruli were obtained from GuSi collectors. Postlarvae were present during all months, with a pronounced peak in January-February 2005 (CPUE of 21.82 and 22.18, pueruli/collector/month, respectively, and minor peaks in May and October 2004. The abundance of postlarval P. argus in the study area was comparable to locations which support important lobster fisheries, e.g. Mexico. A majority of the postlarvae (1027 ind. was collected during the first quarter moon, the remaining pueruli (880 ind. during new moon; these results are in general agreement with similar findings for P. argus in the Caribbean area. Based upon our results, we recommend introducing a local or regional monitoring program, studying spiny lobster migration and distribution patterns, and evaluate the introduction of artificial shelters for P. argus.Las capturas de langosta (Panulirus argus son de gran importancia en la actividad pesquera a lo largo de las costas del Caribe de Centroamérica. El presente estudio proporciona información relevante de la abundancia temporal y la distribución de postlarvas de P. argus en el Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. Durante el periodo de estudio (Marzo 2004-Febrero 2005, un total de 1907 puérulos fueron obtenidos del colector GuSi. Las postlarvas fueron colectadas durante todos los meses, con máximos en enero-febrero 2005 (CPUE de 21.82 y 22.18, puérulos/colector/mes, respectivamente, y mínimos en mayo y octubre de 2004. La abundancia de postlarvas de P. argus en el estudio es comparada con áreas que soportan importantes pesquerías, p. ej. México. La mayoría de las postlarvas (1027 ind

  5. A new genus and two new species of loaches (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from Myanmar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2011), 1-10 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Schist ore callidora * Myanmar Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.900, year: 2011

  6. Molecular Evidence for Multiple Origins of the European Spined Loaches (Teleostei, Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Percides, A.; Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Doadrio, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), e0144628-e0144628 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mitochondrial DNA sequences * cytochrome b gene * phylogenetic relationship Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  7. Nemacheilus Paucimaculatus, a new species of loach from the Southern Malay Peninsula (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), 201-204 ISSN 0217-2445 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Cobitoidea * Malaysia * Johor Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.467, year: 2011

  8. Schistura hypsiura, a new species of loach (Cobitoidea: Nemacheilidae) from South-West Myanmar

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Udomritthiruj, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 1 (2014), s. 21-27 ISSN 0217-2445 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Rakhine State * Burma * caudal peduncle Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.024, year: 2014

  9. Schistura shuensis, a new species of loach from Myanmar (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2014), s. 217-223 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Schistura shuensis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.400, year: 2014

  10. Leptobotia micra, a new species of loach (Teleostei: Botiidae) from Guilin, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2017-04-03

    Leptobotia micra, new species, is described from the upper Li River (Pearl River basin) around Guilin in Guangxi province, southern China. The new species is evidently the smallest species of Leptobotia, with females of 45‒46 mm SL bearing oocytes. It can be distinguished from all other species of Leptobotia by a combination of the following characters: no dark bars or dorsal saddles on body, a row of white dots along dorsal midline, 4+34 vertebrae, a predorsal distance of 58.1‒59.0% SL, eye diameter 1.8‒2.0 % SL, pelvic fins not reaching anus, an emarginated caudal fin (length of median rays 1.3‒1.4 times in length of lower lobe) and the anus positioned distinctly closer to anal-fin origin than to pelvic-fin base.

  11. Leptobotia micra, a new species of loach (Teleostei: Botiidae) from Guilin, southern China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4250, č. 1 (2017), s. 90-100 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Cypriniformes * Cobitoidea * taxonomy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  12. Schistura puncticeps, a new species of loach from Myanmar (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2013), s. 85-92 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Teleostei Nemacheilidae * basin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2013

  13. Numerical simulation of fractional Cable equation of spiny neuronal dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. Sweilam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, numerical study for the fractional Cable equation which is fundamental equations for modeling neuronal dynamics is introduced by using weighted average of finite difference methods. The stability analysis of the proposed methods is given by a recently proposed procedure similar to the standard John von Neumann stability analysis. A simple and an accurate stability criterion valid for different discretization schemes of the fractional derivative and arbitrary weight factor is introduced and checked numerically. Numerical results, figures, and comparisons have been presented to confirm the theoretical results and efficiency of the proposed method.

  14. Glutamine synthetase expression in perinatal spiny mouse liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Boon, L.; van Hemert, F. J.; Labruyère, W. T.; de Jong, P.; Ruijter, J. M.; Moorman, A. F.

    1999-01-01

    The pronounced increase in the protein/mRNA ratio of ammonia-metabolising enzymes in rat liver in the last prenatal week represents a clear example of a post-transcriptional level of control of gene expression. Both the underlying mechanism, namely an increase in translational efficiency of the mRNA

  15. An Assessment of the Spiny Lobster Panulirus homarus Fishery in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact on lobsters 80 mm. The spawning biomass ratio (Bsp/B) of <25% is sensitive to increases in fishing mortality. Existing regulations are not regularly enforced, and the situation in Oman appears to be typical of lobster fisheries in the northwestern Indian Ocean, ...

  16. Genetic variation among spiny-footed lizards in the Acanthodactylus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... A. mechriguensis there is no support and it is suggested that it should be synonymized with A. maculatus. More data are clearly needed for other forms. Complex microevolutionary patterns due to the recent contraction/ expansion phases of the Sahara Desert probably are related with the phylogenetic patterns observed.

  17. The breeding period of the ocellated spiny eel Mastacembelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In late October 1990, Mastacembelus vanderwaali was found to be breeding in the Zambezi River in the Batoka Gorge in protected areas along a rocky shoreline during the low water period prior to the start of the November rains. Two size classes were found together, one of 15–60 mm SL, the other 85–130 mm SL, the ...

  18. Growth of spiny lobster palinurus gilchristi (decapoda: palinuridae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth models based on moult increment-at-size and intermoult period-at-size gave realistic descriptions of growth, but Von Bertalanffy L ∞ ‡ parameters underestimated observed maximum carapace lengths. It is suggested that regional variations in the growth of P. gilchristi result from intraspecific competition for food, ...

  19. Age and growth of the shortnose spiny dogfish squalus Megalops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimates suggest a high biomass of S. megalops on the Agulhas Bank, possibly making it appropriate for exploitation. However, its life-history characteristics necessitate a cautious management approach should it become a target species, particularly because it is already taken as a bycatch of the trawlfishery. A feasibility ...

  20. Mechanical basis of morphogenesis and convergent evolution of spiny seashells

    KAUST Repository

    Chirat, R.

    2013-03-25

    Convergent evolution is a phenomenon whereby similar traits evolved independently in not closely related species, and is often interpreted in functional terms. Spines in mollusk seashells are classically interpreted as having repeatedly evolved as a defense in response to shell-crushing predators. Here we consider the morphogenetic process that shapes these structures and underlies their repeated emergence. We develop a mathematical model for spine morphogenesis based on the mechanical interaction between the secreting mantle edge and the calcified shell edge to which the mantle adheres during shell growth. It is demonstrated that a large diversity of spine structures can be accounted for through small variations in control parameters of this natural mechanical process. This physical mechanism suggests that convergent evolution of spines can be understood through a generic morphogenetic process, and provides unique perspectives in understanding the phenotypic evolution of this second largest phylum in the animal kingdom.

  1. Size at onset of maturity of spiny lobsters Panulirus homarus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and male second leg length can be used as cost-effective methods to estimate size at functional maturity of P. homarus homarus in Kenyan waters, and that these indices can augment estimates based on the presence of external eggs and ovigerous setae. Keywords: allometry, Kenya, Panulirus homarus, sexual maturity

  2. Evaluating the use of spiny pigweed (Amaranthus Spinosus) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Non-Hydrocarbons and Hydrocarbons are the major sum of chemical constituents found in crude oil. Hydrocarbons include alkanes which are either cyclic, straight or branched. Benzenes and naphthalene are examples of aromatics found in hydrocarbons. Some compounds containing metals, sulphur, nitrogen and others ...

  3. Dynamic Formation of Asexual Diploid and Polyploid Lineages: Multilocus Analysis of Cobitis Reveals the Mechanisms Maintaining the Diversity of Clones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janko, Karel; Kotusz, J.; de Gelas, K.; Šlechtová, Věra; Opoldusová, Zuzana; Drozd, P.; Choleva, Lukáš; Popiolek, M.; Baláž, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), s. 1-14 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1298 Grant - others:University of Wroclav(PL) 10/19/S/MP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : asexual lineages Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  4. RARE COMPONENT OF THE FISH FAUNA OF THE 'SULINSKY' NATIONAL LANDSCAPE RESERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ja. Rudik-Leuska

    2014-06-01

    authorities should focus attention on their protection and restoration of abundance. Keywords: Sulinsky Reserve, Sula Bay, conservation lists, sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus L., Crucian carp (Carassius carassius L., Common dace (Leuciscus leuciscus L., Wels catfish (Silurus glanis L., Asp (Aspius aspius L., Bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus Pall., Spined loach (Cobitis taenia L..

  5. Low mitochondrial divergence indicates a rapid postglacial expansion across Europe in the weather loach, Misgurnus fossilis (L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Doadrio, I.; Ráb, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 71, Suppl B (2007), s. 186-194 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR IBS5045111; GA AV ČR IAA600450508 Grant - others:GA MŽP SM/6/3/05 Program:SM Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : colonization * fresh water * glaciations Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.404, year: 2007

  6. A Ploidy Difference Represents an Impassable Barrier for Hybridisation in Animals. Is There an Exception among Botiid Loaches (Teleostei: Botiidae)?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Šlechtová, Věra; Sember, Alexandr; Ráb, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), e0159311-e0159311 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : molecular phylogeny * genetic data Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  7. Leptobotia bellacauda, a new species of loach from the lower Yangtze basin in China (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Botiidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4205, č. 1 (2016), s. 65-72 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37277S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : morphology * taxonomy * Anhui Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  8. Seasonal dynamics of Proteocephalus sagittus in the stone loach Barbatula barbatula from the Haná River, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jarkovský, J.; Koubková, B.; Scholz, Tomáš; Prokeš, Miroslav; Baruš, Vlastimil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2004), s. 225-229 ISSN 0022-149X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/01/1314; GA AV ČR IAA6093104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Cestoda * Proteocephalus sagittus * seasonal dynamics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.676, year: 2004

  9. Proteocephalid tapeworms (Cestoda: Onchoproteocephalidea) of loaches (Cobitoidea): Evidence for monophyly and high endemism of parasites in the Far East

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; de Chambrier, A.; Shimazu, T.; Ermolenko, A.; Waeschenbach, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2017), s. 871-883 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : taxonomy * morphology * 16S rDNA * 18S rDNA * 28S rDNA * coxl * Proteocephalidae * Nemacheilidae * Cobitidae * Palaearctic Region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2016

  10. Standard Metabolic Rate (SMR) is inversely related to erythrocyte and genome size in allopolyploid fish of the Cobitis taenia hybrid complex

    OpenAIRE

    Maciak, S.; Janko, K. (Karel); Kotusz, J.; Choleva, L. (Lukáš); Boron, A.; Juchno, D.; Kujawa, R.; Kozlowski, J.; Konarzewski, M.

    2011-01-01

    As a first approximation, whole-body metabolic rate can be considered as the sum of metabolic rates of constituent cells. Yet, among several current explanations of metabolic rate scaling, only two explicitly invoke cell architecture of organisms: (1) the Metabolic Theory of Ecology, which predicts size invariance of metabolically active cells, such as erythrocytes and (2) the cell metabolism hypothesis postulating partial dependence of metabolic scaling on the cell size (CS), which is mediat...

  11. Length-weight relationship of Cobitis elongatoides Heckel & Kner, 1858 from a pure diploid population in the Nová Říše Reservoir, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halačka, Karel; Pekárik, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2015), s. 562-564 ISSN 0175-8659 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : growth * reproduction * biology * stream * fishes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.783, year: 2015

  12. Making it on their own: sperm-dependent hybrid fishes (Cobitis) switch the sexual hosts and expand beyond the ranges of their original sperm donors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choleva, Lukáš; Apostolou, A.; Ráb, Petr; Janko, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 363, - (2008), s. 2911-2919 ISSN 0962-8436 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP206/05/P586; GA ČR GA206/06/1763; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA MŽP(CZ) SM/6/3/05 Program:SM Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : hybridization * gynogenesis * polyploidy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 5.556, year: 2008

  13. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, J.; Pekárik, L.; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2016), e0146872-e0146872 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/1155; GA ČR GPP506/12/P857; GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : in-situ hybridization * fresh water fish * unisexual salamanders Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  14. Standard Metabolic Rate (SMR) is inversely related to erythrocyte and genome size in allopolyploid fish of the Cobitis taenia hybrid complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maciak, S.; Janko, Karel; Kotusz, J.; Choleva, Lukáš; Boron, A.; Juchno, D.; Kujawa, R.; Kozlowski, J.; Konarzewski, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2011), s. 1072-1078 ISSN 0269-8463 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600450902; GA ČR GA206/09/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : CELL-SIZE * C-VALUE * PASSERINE BIRDS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.567, year: 2011

  15. Role of parasite load and differential habitat preferences in maintaining the coexistence of sexual and asexual competitors in fish of the Cobitis taenia hybrid complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotusz, J.; Popiolek, M.; Drozd, P.; de Gelas, K.; Šlechtová, Věra; Janko, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 220-235 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1298; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112; GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : diploid * polyploid complexes * European distribution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2014

  16. Two new non-spiny Solanum species from the Bolivian Andes (Morelloid Clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Sarkinen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new Bolivian species are described from the Morelloid clade of Solanum (section Solanum in the traditional sense. Solanum alliariifolium M.Nee & Särkinen, sp. nov. is found in montane forests between 1,900 and 3,200 m and is morphologically most similar to S. leptocaulon Van Heurck & Müll.Arg., also from montane forests in southern Peru and Bolivia. Solanum rhizomatum Särkinen & M.Nee, sp. nov. is found in seasonally dry forests and matorral vegetation in lower elevations between 1,300 and 2,900 m and is most similar to S. pygmaeum Cav., a species native to sub-tropical Argentina but introduced in subtropical and temperate areas worldwide.

  17. Evaluation of different marking methods for spiny-cheek crayfish (Orconectes limosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buřič M.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Different methods of marking were evaluated for Orconectes limosus (CL = carapace length, 12–37 mm under laboratory conditions: the use of passive integrated transponders, visible implant elastomers, visible implant alphanumeric tags, and cauterization. High survival (> 90% was obtained with all methods tested. Tag retention and readability were evaluated immediately after marking, before and after ecdysis, with moult increments and number of moults been recorded. Marking using cauterization negatively affects the percent moult increment (PMI of crayfish. The average PMI of 15 ± 0.88% did not differ between males (15 ± 1.41 mm and females (15 ± 1.12 mm. It was found that PMI gradually decreased with an increase in CL. Sixty-one moults were observed, with 12 crayfish (6 juveniles and 6 adults presenting two moults. Time between moults varied from 3 to 7 weeks. CL was increased with over 28 ± 2.68% due to two moults. Three females moulted twice after successful hatching and carrying of juveniles.

  18. New insights on early evolution of spiny-rayed fishes (Teleostei: Acanthomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jen eChen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Acanthomorpha is the largest group of teleost fishes with about one third of extant vertebrate species. In the course of its evolution this lineage experienced several episodes of radiation, leading to a large number of descendant lineages differing profoundly in morphology, ecology, distribution and behavior. Although Acanthomorpha was recognized decades ago, we are only now beginning to decipher its large-scale, time-calibrated phylogeny, a prerequisite to test various evolutionary hypotheses explaining the tremendous diversity of this group. In this study, we provide new insights into the early evolution of the acanthomorphs and the euteleost allies based on the phylogenetic analysis of a newly developed dataset combining nine nuclear and mitochondrial gene markers. Our inferred tree is time-calibrated using 15 fossils, some of which have not been used before. While our phylogeny strongly supports a monophyletic Neoteleostei, Ctenosquamata (i.e., Acanthomorpha plus Myctophiformes, and Acanthopterygii, we find weak support (bootstrap value < 48% for the traditionally defined Acanthomorpha, as well as evidence of non-monophyly for the traditional Paracanthopterygii, Beryciformes, and Percomorpha. We corroborate the new Paracanthopterygii sensu Miya et al. (2005 including Polymixiiformes, Zeiformes, Gadiformes, Percopsiformes, and likely the enigmatic Stylephorus chordatus. Our timetree largely agrees with other recent studies based on nuclear loci in inferring an Early Cretaceous origin for the acanthomorphs followed by a Late Cretaceous/Early Paleogene radiation of major lineages. This is in contrast to mitogenomic studies mostly inferring Jurassic or even Triassic ages for the origin of the acanthomorphs. We compare our results to those of previous studies, and attempt to address some of the issues that may have led to incongruence between the fossil record and the molecular clock studies, as well as between the different molecular timetrees.

  19. Invasive black spiny-tailed iguanas (Ctenosaura similis) on Gasparilla Island, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Michael L; Tillman, Eric A; Spurfeld, Conny; Engeman, Richard M; Maciejewski, Kelin P; Brown, Jessica D; Fetzer, Emily A

    2014-11-01

    The native range of Ctenosaura similis extends from southern Mexico through Panama. From an initial introduction of 3 animals in 1979, the species now numbers in the thousands on Gasparilla Island in southwest Florida. In response to complaints of property damage from residents and threats to native species, local officials and the US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services began a removal program in 2008. Through 2011, trappers removed 9467 ctenosaurs. The number removed declined from 32 iguanas/day in 2008 to 1.9 iguanas/day in 2011 despite no easing of the control effort. We necropsied 2757 ctenosaurs to document aspects of their natural history. Females outnumbered males overall, although the largest size class (>300 mm snout-vent length) included 32 males and just 2 females. Reproduction was seasonal. We found oviducal eggs in females from early Apr to early Jun, approximately 2 months later than C. similis in its native range. We trapped hatchlings from late Jul to early Oct coincident with the summer rainy season. Clutch size increased with female body size, with 62 being the largest clutch size recorded. In general, the biology of the invasive population on Gasparilla Island resembles native C. similis populations in Central America, except for the lack of large individuals. We suggest that shorter day length and colder temperatures create environmental conditions that are suboptimal for individual growth compared to those in the native range. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Escape Behavior and Predation Risk of Mainland and Island Spiny-tailed Iguanas (Ctenosaura hemilopha)

    OpenAIRE

    Blázquez, M.C.; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Delibes, M.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between predator avoidance behavior and predation risk by comparing the wariness of iguanas (Ctenosaura hemilopha) belonging to an island population with few predators with that of iguanas belonging to a mainland population under high predation pressure. We predicted that island iguanas would be less wary than mainland ones. Island iguanas allowed the closer approach of potential predators before their first reaction and fleeing. The responses of both sexes d...

  1. 75 FR 36012 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; 2010 Specifications for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... a constant catch management approach and anticipates that the 15- million-lb (6,803.89 mt) quota for... supported increasing the FY 2010 commercial quota to a level that employs a constant catch management approach and avoids dramatic fluctuations in annual quota levels. In addition, there are still a number of...

  2. The deep-water spiny lobster Palinurus gilchristi is one of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    lobster fishing grounds: Agulhas. Bank, St Francis, Port Elizabeth and Port Alfred. Table I: Date of each tagging experiment for the four study areas, and the numbers of P. gilchristi tagged and recaptured for which growth data were available.

  3. Collaborative assessment of California spiny lobster population and fishery responses to a marine reserve network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Matthew C; Lenihan, Hunter S; Guenther, Carla M; Wilson, Jono R; Miller, Christopher J; Shrout, Samuel W

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of the conservation and fisheries effects of marine reserves typically focus on single reserves where sampling occurs over narrow spatiotemporal scales. A strategy for broadening the collection and interpretation of data is collaborative fisheries research (CFR). Here we report results of a CFR program formed in part to test whether reserves at the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, USA, influenced lobster size and trap yield, and whether abundance changes in reserves led to spillover that influenced trap yield and effort distribution near reserve borders. Industry training of scientists allowed us to sample reserves with fishery relevant metrics that we compared with pre-reserve fishing records, a concurrent port sampling program, fishery effort patterns, the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen, and fishery-independent visual surveys of lobster abundance. After six years of reserve protection, there was a four- to eightfold increase in trap yield, a 5-10% increase in the mean size (carapace length) of legal sized lobsters, and larger size structure of lobsters trapped inside vs. outside of three replicate reserves. Patterns in trap data were corroborated by visual scuba surveys that indicated a four- to sixfold increase in lobster density inside reserves. Population increases within reserves did not lead to increased trap yields or effort concentrations (fishing the line) immediately outside reserve borders. The absence of these catch and effort trends, which are indicative of spillover, may be due to moderate total mortality (Z = 0.59 for legal sized lobsters outside reserves), which was estimated from analysis of growth and length frequency data collected as part of our CFR program. Spillover at the Channel Islands reserves may be occurring but at levels that are insufficient to influence the fishery dynamics that we measured. Future increases in fishing effort (outside reserves) and lobster biomass (inside reserves) are likely and may lead to increased spillover, and CFR provides an ideal platform for continued assessment of fishery-reserve interactions.

  4. Spiny Prey, Fortunate Prey. Dorsal Spines Are an Asset in Intraguild Interactions among Lady Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Hautier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Multicolored Asian Ladybird, Harmonia axyridis, is an extremely successful invasive species. Here we suggest that, in addition to many other traits, the dorsal spines of its larvae contribute to their success, as suggested by behavioral observations of agonistic interactions between H. axyridis and European coccinellids. In coccinellids, the role of dorsal spines in these interactions has been poorly studied and they could be a physical protection against intraguild predators. Dorsal spines of second instar H. axyridis larvae were removed with micro-scissors, which resulted in spineless larvae after molting (spineless group. These larvae were then exposed to starved Coccinella septempunctata larvae. Two control categories were also submitted to interactions: H. axyridis larvae with all their spines (control group and with their spines, but injured by pin stings (injured group. Spine removal at the second instar did not hamper H. axyridis development. The bite rate by C. septempunctata was significantly higher on the spineless H. axyridis and more dorsally located compared to the control and injured groups, while no bite rate difference was observed between the injured and the control group. Our results suggest that in addition to behavioral and chemical defenses, the dorsal spines play a significant protective role against bites. Therefore, spines in ladybirds could be considered as a morphological defense against intraguild predation. In H. axyridis, these defenses might contribute to its success in food resources already exploited by other guild members and thus further facilitate the invasion of new areas.

  5. Phylogeny of the Asian spiny frog tribe Paini (Family Dicroglossidae) sensu Dubois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jing; Hu, Jian-sheng; Zhou, Wei-wei; Murphy, Robert W; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Chen, Ming-yong; Rao, Ding-qi; Li, Pi-peng; Zhang, Ya-ping

    2009-01-01

    The anuran tribe Paini, family Dicroglossidae, is known in this group only from Asia. The phylogenetic relationships and often the taxonomic recognition of species are controversial. In order to stabilize the classification, we used approximately 2100 bp of nuclear (rhodopsin, tyrosinase) and mitochondrial (12S, 16S rRNA) DNA sequence data to infer the phylogenetic relationships of these frogs. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony methods supported a monophyletic tribe Paini. Two distinct groups (I,II) were recovered with the mtDNA alone and the total concatenated data (mtDNA+nuDNA). The recognition of two genera, Quasipaa and Nanorana, was supported. Group I, Quasipaa, is widespread east of the Hengduan Mountain Ranges and consists of taxa from relatively low elevations in southern China, Vietnam and Laos. Group II, Nanorana, contains a mix of species occurring from high to low elevation predominantly in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Hengduan Mountain Ranges. The occurrence of frogs at high elevations appears to be a derived ecological condition. The composition of some major species groups based on morphological characteristics strongly conflicts with the molecular analysis. Some possible cryptic species are indicated by the molecular analyses. The incorporation of genetic data from type localities helped to resolve some of the taxonomic problems, although further combined analyses of morphological data from type specimens are required. The two nuDNA gene segments proved to be very informative for resolving higher phylogenetic relationships and more nuclear data should be explored to be more confident in the relationships.

  6. Spiny frogs (Paini) illuminate the history of the Himalayan region and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jing; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Hu, Jian-Sheng; Yan, Fang; Papenfuss, Theodore J; Wake, David B; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2010-08-03

    Asian frogs of the tribe Paini (Anura: Dicroglossidae) range across several first-order tectono-morphological domains of the Cenozoic Indo-Asian collision that include the Tibetan Plateau, the Himalayas, and Indochina. We show how the tectonic events induced by the Indo-Asian collision affected the regional biota and, in turn, how the geological history of the earth can be viewed from a biological perspective. Our analysis of a concatenated dataset comprising four nuclear gene sequences of Paini revealed two main radiations, corresponding to the genera Nanorana (I) and Quasipaa (II). Five distinct clades are recognized: Tibetan plateau clade (I-1), Himalaya clade (I-2), environs of Himalaya-Tibetan plateau clade (I-3), South China clade (II-1), and Indochina clade (II-2). This pattern of relationships highlights the significance of geography in shaping evolutionary history. Building on our molecular dating, ancestral region reconstruction, and distributional patterns, we hypothesize a distinct geographic and climatic transition in Asia beginning in the Oligocene and intensifying in the Miocene; this stimulated rapid diversification of Paini. Vicariance explains species formation among major lineages within Nanorana. Dispersal, in contrast, plays an important role among Quasipaa, with the southern Chinese taxa originating from Indochina. Our results support the tectonic hypothesis that an uplift in the Himalaya-Tibetan plateau region resulting from crustal thickening and lateral extrusion of Indochina occurred synchronously during the transition between Oligocene and Miocene in reaction to the Indo-Asian collision. The phylogenetic history of Paini illuminates critical aspects of the timing of geological events responsible for the current geography of Southeast Asia.

  7. Deep-sea spiny lobster, Puerulus sewelli Ramadan: Its commercial potentialities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.V.; George, M.J.

    of these operations, studies on the fishing ground and the assessment of the potential resources together with some apsects of the biology of the species have been made The possibility of better exploitation of the resource by employing special gears is stressed...

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Ye's spiny-vented frog Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhai, Xiaofei; Zhu, Yanjun; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae) is the only one species in the genus Yerana and the taxonomy of the Y. yei remains unresolved and controversial. The complete mitochondrial genome of Yerana yei (Anura: Dicroglossidae) was sequenced in the present study, and it is a circular molecule of 17,072 bp in length and contains the 38 genes typically found in other anurans: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 23 transfer RNA genes (including an extra copy of tRNA(Met)). The order and orientation of the genes is the same as that found in other Paini species. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 58% (T, 29.4%; C, 27.3%; A, 28.6%; G, 14.7%) and the length of control region is 1580 bp with 67% A + T content.

  9. 75 FR 11129 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Atlantic Mackerel, Butterfish, Atlantic Bluefish, Spiny...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to assess potential effects on the human environment of alternative measures to... an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to an EA. In addition, this supplement announces an... with NEPA to assess potential effects on the human environment of alternative measures to address the...

  10. Molecular evidence of cryptic diversity in Paracaryophyllaeus (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), parasites of loaches (Cobitidae) in Eurasia, including description of P. vladkae n. sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholz, Tomáš; Oros, M.; Bazsalovicsová, E.; Brabec, Jan; Waeschenbach, A.; Xi, B. W.; Aydoğdu, A.; Besprozvannykh, V. V.; Shimazu, T.; Kraľová-Hromadová, I.; Littlewood, D. T. J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 6 (2014), s. 841-850 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Taxonomy * Molecular phylogeny * Caryophyllidea * Species complex * Freshwater fishes * Eurasia Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.859, year: 2014

  11. Dentirumai philippinensis n. gen., n. sp (Nematoda: Philometridae), a new tissue-infecting philometrid nematode from the loach goby Rhyacichthys aspro (Valenciennes) (Rhyacichthyidae) in the Philippines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Quiazon, K.M.A.; Moravec, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2013), s. 59-65 ISSN 0022-149X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Philometridae * Phillipine Archipelago * Parasitic nematode Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.303, year: 2013

  12. Karyotype differentiation in 19 species of river loach fishes (Nemacheilidae, Teleostei): extensive variability associated with rDNA and heterochromatin distribution and its phylogenetic and ecological interpretation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sember, Alexandr; Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Altmanová, M.; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 251 (2015) ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : fish cytotaxonomy * karyotype variability vs. 2n uniformity * FISH Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.406, year: 2015

  13. Changes of ammonia, urea contents and transaminase activity in the body during aerial exposure and ammonia loading in Chinese loach Paramisgurnus dabryanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Long; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Ling-Yu; Gu, Bei-Yi; Fan, Qi-Xue

    2017-04-01

    The Paramisgurnus dabryanus was exposed to 30 mmol L -1 NH 4 Cl solution and air to assessing the change of body ammonia and urea contents and the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). After 48 h of ammonia exposure, ammonia concentration in the plasma, brain, liver and muscle were 3.3-fold, 5.6-fold, 3.5-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively, those of the control values. Plasma, brain, liver and muscle ammonia concentrations increased to 2.2-fold, 3.3-fold, 2.5-fold and 2.9-fold, respectively, those of control values in response to 48 h of aerial exposure. Within the given treatment (ammonia or aerial exposure), there was no change in plasma, brain and liver urea concentrations between exposure durations. The plasma ALT activity was significantly affected by exposure time during aerial exposure, while the liver ALT activity was not affected by ammonia or aerial exposure. Exposure to NH 4 Cl or air had no effect on either plasma or liver AST activity. Our results suggested that P. dabryanus could accumulate quite high level of internal ammonia because of the high ammonia tolerance in its cells and tissues, and NH 3 volatilization would be a possible ammonia detoxification strategy in P. dabryanus. Urea synthesis was not an effective mechanism to deal with environmental or internal ammonia problem. The significant increase of ALT activity in plasma during aerial exposure, indicating that alanine synthesis through certain amino acid catabolism may be subsistent in P. dabryanus.

  14. The response of the Egyptian spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) and two other species of commensal rodents to anticoagulant rodenticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, W; Redfern, R

    1981-06-01

    The response of Acomys cahirinus to three anticoagulant rodenticides was investigated in the laboratory. In contrast to the other commensal rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, this species appears to be naturally very resistant to warfarin, difenacoum and brodifacoum. It is considered unlikely that anticoagulant poisons would be effective in the field for the control of A. cahirinus.

  15. Spiny dogfish data - Movement and habitat use patterns of top predators and keystone species in the benthic food web

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We have been using and continue to use acoustic telemetry methods to monitor the movement behavior and define habitat use of groundfish species in and out of Puget...

  16. Spiny trapdoor spiders (Euoplos) of eastern Australia: Broadly sympatric clades are differentiated by burrow architecture and male morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeremy D; Hughes, Jane M; Raven, Robert J; Rix, Michael G; Schmidt, Daniel J

    2018-05-01

    Spiders of the infraorder Mygalomorphae are fast becoming model organisms for the study of biogeography and speciation. However, these spiders can be difficult to study in the absence of fundamental life history information. In particular, their cryptic nature hinders comprehensive sampling, and linking males with conspecific females can be challenging. Recently discovered differences in burrow entrance architecture and male morphology indicated that these challenges may have impeded our understanding of the trapdoor spider genus Euoplos in Australia's eastern mesic zone. We investigated the evolutionary significance of these discoveries using a multi-locus phylogenetic approach. Our results revealed the existence of a second, previously undocumented, lineage of Euoplos in the eastern mesic zone. This new lineage occurs in sympatry with a lineage previously known from the region, and the two are consistently divergent in their burrow entrance architecture and male morphology, revealing the suitability of these characters for use in phylogenetic studies. Divergent burrow entrance architecture and observed differences in microhabitat preferences are suggested to facilitate sympatry and syntopy between the lineages. Finally, by investigating male morphology and plotting it onto the phylogeny, we revealed that the majority of Euoplos species remain undescribed, and that males of an unnamed species from the newly discovered lineage had historically been linked, erroneously, to a described species from the opposite lineage. This paper clarifies the evolutionary relationships underlying life history diversity in the Euoplos of eastern Australia, and provides a foundation for urgently needed taxonomic revision of this genus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of the "IUCN vulnerable" spiny rat Clyomys bishopi (Rodentia: Echimyidae) with palm trees and armadillo burrows in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Adriana A; Lapenta, Marina J; Oliveira, Fátima; Motta-Junior, José C

    2004-12-01

    The globally vulnerable Clyomys bishopi, a semi-fossorial and colonial rodent, is apparently limited to cerrado (savannah-like vegetation) physiognomies in São Paulo State, Brazil. The aim of the study was to verify whether the presence of C. bishopi is associated to the occurrence of palm trees (Attalea gearensis, Syagrus loefgrenii) and armadillo burrows. Thirty six quadrats were placed in different physiognomies of cerrado vegetation at Itirapina Ecological Station, southeastern Brazil to survey the number of C. bishopi burrows of individuals of palm trees and burrows of armadillos. There was a strong dependence and association between the number of C. bishopi burrows and all measured variables (Contingency tables and Spearman rank correlations). It is suggested that this rodent can be found in great numbers where palm trees are abundant. The use of armadillo burrows possibly makes the movement of the rodents easier inside their own galleries.

  18. Association of the "IUCN vulnerable "spiny rat Clyomys bishopi (Rodentia:Echimyidaewith palm trees and armadillo burrows in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A Bueno

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The globally vulnerable Clyomys bishopi ,a semi-fossorial and colonial rodent,is apparently limited to cerrado (savannah-like vegetationphysiognomies in São Paulo State,Brazil.The aim of the study was to verify whether the presence of C.bishopi is associated to the occurrence of palm trees (Attalea gearensis, Syagrus loefgrenii and armadillo burrows.Thirty six quadrats were placed in different physiognomies of cerrado vegetation at Itirapina Ecological Station,southeastern Brazil to survey the number of C.bishopi burrows of individuals of palm trees and burrows of armadillos.There was a strong dependence and association between the number of C.bishopi burrows and all measured variables (Contingency tables and Spearman rank correlations.It is suggested that this rodent can be found in great numbers where palm trees are abundant.The use of armadillo burrows possibly makes the movement of the rodents easier inside their own galleries.Rev.Biol. Trop. 52(4:1009-1011.Epub 2005 Jun 24.El roedor colonial Clyomys bishopi está aparentemente limitado a vegetación de semi-sabana (cerradoen el estado de São Paulo,Brasil.El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si la presencia de C.bishopi está asociada a la individuos de las palmeras Attalea gearensis,Syagrus loefgrenii y madrigueras de armadillos.El estudio fue realizado en la Estación Ecológica de Itirapina,en el sureste de Brasil.Treinta y seis cuadrantes fueron dispuestos en diferentes fisionomías del la vegetación del cerrado para encuestar el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi, árboles individuales de palma y madrigueras de armadillos.Se calcularon tablas de contingencia y correlaciones de Sperman para evaluar, respectivamente, la dependencia y asociación entre el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi y las otras variables.Se encontró una fuerte dependencia y asociación entre el número de madrigueras de C.bishopi y todas las variables medidas.Esto sugiere que este roedor alcanza grandes poblaciones cuando hay palmeras en abundancia. El uso de madrigueras de armadillos posiblemente facilita el movimiento de los roedores dentro de sus propias galerías.

  19. Isolation of anti-toxin single domain antibodies from a semi-synthetic spiny dogfish shark display library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Ellen R

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shark heavy chain antibody, also called new antigen receptor (NAR, consists of one single Variable domain (VH, containing only two complementarity-determining regions (CDRs. The antigen binding affinity and specificity are mainly determined by these two CDRs. The good solubility, excellent thermal stability and complex sequence variation of small single domain antibodies (sdAbs make them attractive alternatives to conventional antibodies. In this report, we construct and characterize a diversity enhanced semi-synthetic NAR V display library based on naturally occurring NAR V sequences. Results A semi-synthetic shark sdAb display library with a complexity close to 1e9 was constructed. This was achieved by introducing size and sequence variations in CDR3 using randomized CDR3 primers of three different lengths. Binders against three toxins, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB, ricin, and botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A complex toxoid, were isolated from panning the display library. Soluble sdAbs from selected binders were purified and evaluated using direct binding and thermal stability assays on the Luminex 100. In addition, sandwich assays using sdAb as the reporter element were developed to demonstrate their utility for future sensor applications. Conclusion We demonstrated the utility of a newly created hyper diversified shark NAR displayed library to serve as a source of thermal stable sdAbs against a variety of toxins.

  20. Temporal variation in the prevalence of the crayfish plague pathogen, Aphanomyces astaci, in three Czech spiny-cheek crayfish populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matasová, K.; Kozubíková, E.; Svoboda, J.; Jarošík, Vojtěch; Petrusek, A.

    -, č. 401 (2011), s. 1-9 ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : crayfish plague * molecular methosd * dominance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.520, year: 2011

  1. Spiny mice of the Zambezian bioregion – phylogeny, biogeography and ecological differentiation within the Acomys spinosissimus complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petružela, Jan; Šumbera, R.; Aghová, Tatiana; Bryjová, Anna; Katakweba, A. S.; Sabuni, C. A.; Chitaukali, W. N.; Bryja, Josef

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 91, July (2018), s. 79-90 ISSN 1616-5047 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-20229S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : phylogeography * Plio-Pleistocene climate change * Rodentia * savannah * tropical Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.429, year: 2016

  2. The early phyllosoma stages of spiny lobster Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Decapoda: Palinuridae reared in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA. Abrunhosa

    Full Text Available The early stages of the Panulirus echinatus were hatched and reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat and carefully transported to the laboratory. Larvae were transferred in a recirculation water tank at a density of 10 larvae.L-1. The larvae were fed on Artemia and gonads of mussel Brachydonts sp. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added at a concentration of 150 x 10(4 cell.mL-1. Larvae and exuviae of each zoeal stage were preserved in an alcohol 70% + glycerin (1:1 solution. The phyllosomas moulted eight times; the intermoulting period of each instar averaged about 7 to 10 days. The main morphological changes of each appendage were described in detail, illustrated and compared with previous reports.

  3. Phylogeographic analyses strongly suggest cryptic speciation in the giant spiny frog (Dicroglossidae: Paa spinosa) and interspecies hybridization in Paa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shupei; Huang, Hua; Zheng, Rongquan; Zhang, Jiayong; Yang, Guang; Xu, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    Species identification is one of the most basic yet crucial issues in biology with potentially far-reaching implications for fields such as conservation, population ecology, and epidemiology. The widely distributed but threatened frog Paa spinosa has been speculated to represent a complex of multiple species. In this study, 254 individuals representing species of the genus Paa were investigated along the entire range of P. spinosa: 196 specimens of P. spinosa, 8 specimens of P. jiulongensis, 5 specimens of P. boulengeri, 20 specimens of P. exilispinosa, and 25 specimens of P. shini. Approximately 1333 bp of mtDNA sequence data (genes 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) were used. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Results suggest that P. spinosa can be divided into three distinct major lineages. Each major lineage totally corresponds to geographical regions, revealing the presence of three candidate cryptic species. Isolation and differentiation among lineages are further supported by the great genetic distances between the lineages. The bifurcating phylogenetic pattern also suggests an east-west dispersal trend during historic cryptic speciation. Dating analysis estimates that P. spinosa from Western China split from the remaining P. spinosa populations in the Miocene and that P. spinosa from Eastern China diverged from Central China in the Pliocene. We also found that P. exilispinosa from Mainland China and Hong Kong might have a complex of multiple species. After identifying cryptic lineages, we then determine the discrepancy between the mtDNA and the morphotypes in several individuals. This discrepancy may have been caused by introgressive hybridization between P. spinosa and P. shini.

  4. Interspecies introgressive hybridization in spiny frogsQuasipaa(Family Dicroglossidae) revealed by analyses on multiple mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Peng; Hu, Wen-Fang; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Kong, Shen-Shen; Liu, Zhi-Fang; Zheng, Rong-Quan

    2018-01-01

    Introgression may lead to discordant patterns of variation among loci and traits. For example, previous phylogeographic studies on the genus Quasipaa detected signs of genetic introgression from genetically and morphologically divergent Quasipaa shini or Quasipaa spinosa . In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to verify the widespread introgressive hybridization in the closely related species of the genus Quasipaa , evaluate the level of genetic diversity, and reveal the formation mechanism of introgressive hybridization. In Longsheng, Guangxi Province, signs of asymmetrical nuclear introgression were detected between Quasipaa boulengeri and Q. shini . Unidirectional mitochondrial introgression was revealed from Q. spinosa to Q. shini . By contrast, bidirectional mitochondrial gene introgression was detected between Q. spinosa and Q. shini in Lushan, Jiangxi Province. Our study also detected ancient hybridizations between a female Q. spinosa and a male Q. jiulongensis in Zhejiang Province. Analyses on mitochondrial and nuclear genes verified three candidate cryptic species in Q. spinosa , and a cryptic species may also exist in Q. boulengeri . However, no evidence of introgressive hybridization was found between Q. spinosa and Q. boulengeri . Quasipaa exilispinosa from all the sampling localities appeared to be deeply divergent from other communities. Our results suggest widespread introgressive hybridization in closely related species of Quasipaa and provide a fundamental basis for illumination of the forming mechanism of introgressive hybridization, classification of species, and biodiversity assessment in Quasipaa .

  5. Phylogeographic analyses strongly suggest cryptic speciation in the giant spiny frog (Dicroglossidae: Paa spinosa and interspecies hybridization in Paa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shupei Ye

    Full Text Available Species identification is one of the most basic yet crucial issues in biology with potentially far-reaching implications for fields such as conservation, population ecology, and epidemiology. The widely distributed but threatened frog Paa spinosa has been speculated to represent a complex of multiple species. In this study, 254 individuals representing species of the genus Paa were investigated along the entire range of P. spinosa: 196 specimens of P. spinosa, 8 specimens of P. jiulongensis, 5 specimens of P. boulengeri, 20 specimens of P. exilispinosa, and 25 specimens of P. shini. Approximately 1333 bp of mtDNA sequence data (genes 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA were used. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Results suggest that P. spinosa can be divided into three distinct major lineages. Each major lineage totally corresponds to geographical regions, revealing the presence of three candidate cryptic species. Isolation and differentiation among lineages are further supported by the great genetic distances between the lineages. The bifurcating phylogenetic pattern also suggests an east-west dispersal trend during historic cryptic speciation. Dating analysis estimates that P. spinosa from Western China split from the remaining P. spinosa populations in the Miocene and that P. spinosa from Eastern China diverged from Central China in the Pliocene. We also found that P. exilispinosa from Mainland China and Hong Kong might have a complex of multiple species. After identifying cryptic lineages, we then determine the discrepancy between the mtDNA and the morphotypes in several individuals. This discrepancy may have been caused by introgressive hybridization between P. spinosa and P. shini.

  6. Interspecies introgressive hybridization in spiny frogs Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) revealed by analyses on multiple mitochondrial and nuclear genes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi‐Peng; Hu, Wen‐Fang; Zhou, Ting‐Ting; Kong, Shen‐Shen; Liu, Zhi‐Fang; Zheng, Rong‐Quan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introgression may lead to discordant patterns of variation among loci and traits. For example, previous phylogeographic studies on the genus Quasipaa detected signs of genetic introgression from genetically and morphologically divergent Quasipaa shini or Quasipaa spinosa. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data to verify the widespread introgressive hybridization in the closely related species of the genus Quasipaa, evaluate the level of genetic diversity, ...

  7. AFSC/ABL: Electronic archival tag returns for sablefish, shortspine thornyhead (SST), Greenland turbots, spiny dogfish, and ling cod

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conventional spaghetti tags have been implanted on juvenile sablefish in Southeast Alaska, primarily in Saint John Baptist Bay, near Sitka for over 25 years. These...

  8. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  9. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  10. Two new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae from the Gran Chaco Americano and a key for the herbaceous glandular-pubescent solanums from the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Sarkinen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gran Chaco Americano is a major savanna woodland system in South America that harbours great plant and animal diversity. Two new herbaceous species of the Morelloid clade of Solanum (largely corresponding to the traditional Solanum section Solanum are described here from the Bolivian Chaco. Both species are morphologically similar to a group of related species with glandular pubescence and enlarged, foliaceous calyces that includes S. atriplicifolium Gillies ex Nees, S. nitidibaccatum Bitter, S. physalifolium Rusby, S. sarrachoides Sendtn. and S. tweedianum Hook. Solanum woodii Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is unusual in the Morelloid clade in having tapering anthers on short filaments, and is superficially similar to the unrelated S. anomalostemon S.Knapp & M.Nee from dry forests in Peru. Solanum michaelis Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is distinct in its enlarged calyx with a short tube and long lobes that apparently reflex at fruit maturity. Both new taxa are illustrated, their conservation status assessed, and their distributions mapped. We also provide a key to the glandular-pubescent herbaceous Solanum species of the Chaco vegetation to aid in identification of these taxa.

  11. Euastacus morgani sp. n., a new spiny crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae from the highland rainforests of eastern New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Coughran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Euastacus morgani sp. n., is described from a highland, rainforest site in Bindarri National Park, in eastern New South Wales, Australia. Euastacus morgani is found living sympatrically with two more common species, E. dangadi Morgan, 1997 and E. neohirsutus Riek, 1956. Systematically, the species belongs in the ‘simplex’ complex of the genus that includes E. simplex Riek, 1956, E. clarkae Morgan, 1997, E. maccai McCormack and Coughran 2008 and E. morgani. This new species differs from its nearest congenor, E. simplex, inthree mesial carpal spines. A key to the ‘simplex’ complex is presented.

  12. Msh2 acts in medium-spiny striatal neurons as an enhancer of CAG instability and mutant huntingtin phenotypes in Huntington's disease knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kovalenko

    Full Text Available The CAG trinucleotide repeat mutation in the Huntington's disease gene (HTT exhibits age-dependent tissue-specific expansion that correlates with disease onset in patients, implicating somatic expansion as a disease modifier and potential therapeutic target. Somatic HTT CAG expansion is critically dependent on proteins in the mismatch repair (MMR pathway. To gain further insight into mechanisms of somatic expansion and the relationship of somatic expansion to the disease process in selectively vulnerable MSNs we have crossed HTT CAG knock-in mice (HdhQ111 with mice carrying a conditional (floxed Msh2 allele and D9-Cre transgenic mice, in which Cre recombinase is expressed specifically in MSNs within the striatum. Deletion of Msh2 in MSNs eliminated Msh2 protein in those neurons. We demonstrate that MSN-specific deletion of Msh2 was sufficient to eliminate the vast majority of striatal HTT CAG expansions in HdhQ111 mice. Furthermore, MSN-specific deletion of Msh2 modified two mutant huntingtin phenotypes: the early nuclear localization of diffusely immunostaining mutant huntingtin was slowed; and the later development of intranuclear huntingtin inclusions was dramatically inhibited. Therefore, Msh2 acts within MSNs as a genetic enhancer both of somatic HTT CAG expansions and of HTT CAG-dependent phenotypes in mice. These data suggest that the selective vulnerability of MSNs may be at least in part contributed by the propensity for somatic expansion in these neurons, and imply that intervening in the expansion process is likely to have therapeutic benefit.

  13. Including Fossils in Phylogenetic Climate Reconstructions: A Deep Time Perspective on the Climatic Niche Evolution and Diversification of Spiny Lizards (Sceloporus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, A Michelle; Polly, P David; Hews, Diana K; Martins, Emília P

    2016-08-01

    Fossils and other paleontological information can improve phylogenetic comparative method estimates of phenotypic evolution and generate hypotheses related to species diversification. Here, we use fossil information to calibrate ancestral reconstructions of suitable climate for Sceloporus lizards in North America. Integrating data from the fossil record, general circulation models of paleoclimate during the Miocene, climate envelope modeling, and phylogenetic comparative methods provides a geographically and temporally explicit species distribution model of Sceloporus-suitable habitat through time. We provide evidence to support the historic biogeographic hypothesis of Sceloporus diversification in warm North American deserts and suggest a relatively recent Sceloporus invasion into Mexico around 6 Ma. We use a physiological model to map extinction risk. We suggest that the number of hours of restriction to a thermal refuge limited Sceloporus from inhabiting Mexico until the climate cooled enough to provide suitable habitat at approximately 6 Ma. If the future climate returns to the hotter climates of the past, Mexico, the place of highest modern Sceloporus richness, will no longer provide suitable habitats for Sceloporus to survive and reproduce.

  14. Cathemerality in wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) in the spiny forest of Tsimanampetsotsa National Park: camera trap data and preliminary behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Marni; Sauther, Michelle; Cuozzo, Frank; Yamashita, Nayuta; Jacky Youssouf, Ibrahim Antho; Bender, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Cathemerality consists of discrete periods of activity during both the day and night. Though uncommon within Primates, cathemerality is prevalent in some lemur genera, such as Eulemur, Hapalemur, and Prolemur. Several researchers have also reported nighttime activity in Lemur catta, yet these lemurs are generally considered "strictly diurnal". We used behavioral observations and camera traps to examine cathemerality of L. catta at the Tsimanampetsotsa National Park, Madagascar. Nighttime activity occurred throughout the study period (September 2010-April 2011), and correlated with warm overnight temperatures but not daytime temperatures. Animals spent 25% of their daytime active behaviors on the ground, but appeared to avoid the ground at night, with only 5% of their time on the ground. Furthermore, at night, animals spent the majority of their active time feeding (53% nighttime, 43% daytime). These findings imply that both thermoregulation and diet play a role in the adaptive significance of cathemerality. Additionally, predator avoidance may have influenced cathemerality here, in that L. catta may limit nighttime activity as a result of predation threat by forest cats (Felis sp.) or fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). Further data are needed on cathemeral lemurs generally, but particularly in L. catta if we are to fully understand the evolutionary mechanisms of cathemerality in the Lemuridae.

  15. Agrobacterium pRi TL-DNA rolB and TR-DNA Opine Genes Transferred to the Spiny Amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus L., A Nutraceutical Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajantaa Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro rhizogenesis occurred with a characteristic pattern typical of transformed roots following explant (internode/leaf inoculation of Amaranthus spinosus L. with four different wild type Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains. The extent of rhizogenesis varied considerably with the explant type and source, and with the Agrobacterium strains employed; internodal segments performed better than leaves. Of the strains employed for cocultivation, A. rhizogenes LBA 9402 carrying pRi 1855 was the most virulent and infectious, causing hairy root induction in the maximum number of explants regardless of their type. Individual root clones (rhizoclones were maintained on Murashige and Skoog's basal medium without growth regulators. The physical presence of the rolB gene in the TL-DNA segment of the Ri plasmid of the infecting Agrobacterium in leaf tissues of plants regenerated from selected rhizoclones was confirmed by a positive PCR amplification. The ability of the genetically transformed plants to harbour and express TR-DNA specific opine synthase genes (man2 and ags was substantiated by PCR and opine assay respectively, demonstrating the production of characteristic opines. Such findings are implicated in the context of pharmaceutical exploitation of transformed root cultures of A. spinosus and also towards protecting this nutraceutically important crop, amaranth, against biotic stress challenges via transgenic manipulations.

  16. Quantitative high-throughput gene expression profiling of human striatal development to screen stem cell–derived medium spiny neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Straccia

    Full Text Available A systematic characterization of the spatio-temporal gene expression during human neurodevelopment is essential to understand brain function in both physiological and pathological conditions. In recent years, stem cell technology has provided an in vitro tool to recapitulate human development, permitting also the generation of human models for many diseases. The correct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC into specific cell types should be evaluated by comparison with specific cells/tissue profiles from the equivalent adult in vivo organ. Here, we define by a quantitative high-throughput gene expression analysis the subset of specific genes of the whole ganglionic eminence (WGE and adult human striatum. Our results demonstrate that not only the number of specific genes is crucial but also their relative expression levels between brain areas. We next used these gene profiles to characterize the differentiation of hPSCs. Our findings demonstrate a temporal progression of gene expression during striatal differentiation of hPSCs from a WGE toward an adult striatum identity. Present results establish a gene expression profile to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the telencephalic hPSC-derived progenitors eventually used for transplantation and mature striatal neurons for disease modeling and drug-screening.

  17. Nitrogen metabolism, acid-base regulation, and molecular responses to ammonia and acid infusions in the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, C Michele; Walsh, Patrick J; Wood, Chris M

    2015-07-01

    Although they are ureotelic, marine elasmobranchs express Rh glycoproteins, putative ammonia channels. To address questions raised by a recent study on high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure, dogfish were intravascularly infused for 24 h at 3 ml kg(-1) h(-1) with isosmotic NaCl (500 mmol l(-1), control), NH4HCO3 (500 mmol l(-1)), NH4Cl (500 mmol l(-1)), or HCl (as 125 mmol l(-1) HCl + 375 mmol l(-1) NaCl). While NaCl had no effect on arterial acid-base status, NH4HCO3 caused mild alkalosis, NH4Cl caused strong acidosis, and HCl caused lesser acidosis, all predominantly metabolic in nature. Total plasma ammonia (T(Amm)) and excretion rates of ammonia (J(Amm)) and urea-N (J(Urea-N)) were unaffected by NaCl or HCl. However, despite equal loading rates, plasma T(Amm) increased to a greater extent with NH4Cl, while J(Amm) increased to a greater extent with NH4HCO3 due to much greater increases in blood-to-water PNH3 gradients. As with HEA, both treatments caused large (90%) elevations of J(Urea-N), indicating that urea-N synthesis by the ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) is driven primarily by ammonia rather than HCO3(-). Branchial mRNA expressions of Rhbg and Rhp2 were unaffected by NH4HCO3 or NH4Cl, but v-type H(+)-ATPase was down-regulated by both treatments, and Rhbg and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE2 were up-regulated by HCl. In the kidney, Rhbg was unresponsive to all treatments, but Rhp2 was up-regulated by HCl, and the urea transporter UT was up-regulated by HCl and NH4Cl. These responses are discussed in the context of current ideas about branchial, renal, and OUC function in this nitrogen-limited predator.

  18. Diversification within the Spiny Throated Reed Frog complex (H. tanneri and H. minutissimus, H. spinigularis): untangling evolutionary history among closely related lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super-species complexes, where lineages are morphological similarity but evolutionary divergent, are a particularly interesting biological phenomena in terms of understanding the process of diversification. The signal of selection is less swamped by secondary divergence and spatial relocation than i...

  19. Integrated water quality, emergy and economic evaluation of three bioremediation treatment systems for eutrophic water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was targeted at finding one or more environmentally efficient, economically feasible and ecologically sustainable bioremediation treatment modes for eutrophic water. Three biological species, i.e. water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica), loach (Misgurus anguillicaudatus) and ...

  20. Effects of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Cipangopaludina cathayensis on Pollutant Removal and Microbial Community in Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic animals play an important role in the energy flow and matter cycling in the wetland ecosystem. However, little is known about their effects on pollutant removal performance and microbial community in constructed wetlands. This work presents an initial attempt to investigate the effects of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (loach and Cipangopaludina cathayensis (snail on nutrient removal performance and microbial community of constructed wetlands (CWs. Compared with a control group, CW microcosms with aquatic animals exhibited better pollutant removal performance. The removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP in the loach group were 13.1% higher than in the control group, and snails increased the ammonium removal most effectively. Moreover, the concentration of total organic carbon (TOC and TP in sediment significantly reduced with the addition of loaches and snails (p < 0.05, whereas the concentration of total nitrogen (TN showed an obvious increase with the addition of loaches. High-throughput sequencing showed a microbial community structure change. Loaches and snails in wetlands changed the microbial diversity, especially in the Proteobacteria and denitrifying community. Results suggested that benthic aquatic animals might play an important role in CW ecosystems.

  1. Catch composition of the spiny lobster Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae off the western coast of Mexico Composición de la captura de la langosta espinosa Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa oeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Pérez-González

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The lobster fishery in the Gulf of California and the south-central region of the western coast of Mexico consists of small-scale artisanal activity supported by Panulirus gracilis and P. inflatus, with an annual average catch of 132 ton. The present study analyzes the landing composition of this fishery and the population structure of P. gracilis. Carapace lengths (CL for this species ranged from 35 to 125 mm, and the most frequent sizes were between 60 and 85 mm. The size distribution was approximately normal. This implies that the fishery is composed of several size classes, with annual recruitment to the fishing areas. For the 1989-1990 and 1990-1991 fishing seasons, the mean monthly sizes of males were between 70.18 ± 11.74 and 81.11 ± 6.76 mm CL, whereas females averaged from 73.60 ± 8.95 to 80.28 ± 7.53 mm CL. Power-law relationships between carapace length (CL in mm and total weight (TW in g were determined, resulting in the following equations: PT = 0.0021 CL27689 for males and PT = 0.0009 CL³ 0038 for females. During certain periods of the year, males dominated the catch; however, the overall annual male:female ratio was near 1:1.La pesquería de langosta en el golfo de California y en el centro-sur de la costa occidental de México es una actividad artesanal a pequeña escala y es sostenida por Panulirus gracilis y P. inflatus, con una captura promedio anual de 132 ton. En este estudio se analiza la composición de los desembarques de esta pesquería y la estructura de la población de P. gracilis. El intervalo de talla de esta especie fue de 35 a 125 mm de longitud del cefalotórax (LC y el más frecuente se encontró entre 60 y 85 mm. La distribución de tallas fue aproximadamente normal. Esto implica que la pesquería está compuesta por varias clases de tallas, con un reclutamiento anual a las áreas de pesca. La talla media mensual de machos fue entre 70,18 ± 11,74 y 81,11 ± 6,76 mm LC y en hembras de 73,60 ± 8,95 a 80,28 ± 7,53 mm LC, durante las temporadas de pesca 1989-1990 y 1990-1991. Se determinó la relación entre la LC (en mm y el peso total (PT, en g, obteniéndose las siguientes ecuaciones: PT = 0.0021 LC2.7689 en machos y PT = 0.0009LC3.0038 en hembras. Durante ciertos períodos del año los machos son dominantes en las capturas, pero la proporción machos:hembras durante todo el año es cercana a 1:1.

  2. Multi-tissue RNA-seq and transcriptome characterisation of the spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) provides a molecular tool for biological research and reveals new genes involved in osmoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chana Munoz, Andres; Jendroszek, Agnieszka; Sønnichsen, Malene

    2017-01-01

    dogfish by utilizing the novel gene and protein annotations to investigate a set of genes involved in urea synthesis and urea, ammonia and water transport, all of them crucial in osmoregulation. We describe the presence of different gene copies and isoforms of key enzymes involved in this process......, including arginases and transporters of urea and ammonia, for which sequence information is currently absent in the databases for this model species. The transcriptome assemblies and the derived annotations generated in this study will support the ongoing research for this particular animal model...

  3. Seasonal feeding habits of fishes in the river Bolshaya Uya (bas. Onega Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shustov Yury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the seasonal feeding habits of five fish species (young trout, mustached loach , bullhead - sculpin , stickleback and minnow in one of the numerous tributaries of the Onega lake, also inhabited by trout. The results of investigation showed that not all the environmental situation are favorable for fish feeding. During the summer droughty period mustached loach limps in search of food due to the low water level. As a result, the intensity of fish feeding is extremely low, and more than half of them (60% even have empty stomach. In summer feeding period the potential food competitors of juvenile trout may be virtually all river fishes: minnow - for " air " fraction, that is imaginal and subimaginal stages of amphibiotic, airial and terrestrial insects, and mustached loach, bullhead-sculpin, stickleback - for "water "fraction, that is larvae and nymphs of amphibiotic invertebrates.

  4. 76 FR 21345 - Environmental Impacts Statements;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Accountability Measures for Caribbean Spiny Lobster, Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Regions, Comment Period... Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project, To Restore Connectivity, Biodiversity, and Natural Production of...

  5. Two new species of Schistura from Myanmar (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2013), s. 21-30 ISSN 0936-9902 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : loach * basin * drainage Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.275, year: 2013

  6. Sekavčík balkánský (Sabanejewia balcanica) v České republice – minulost, současnost a budoucnost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lusk, S.; Halačka, Karel; Májsky, J.; Vetešník, Lukáš; Mendel, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2017), s. 90-102 ISSN 1212-1312 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Balcan Golden Loach * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology

  7. Examining the Role of Manipulatives and Metacognition on Engagement, Learning, and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Daniel M.; Nokes, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    How does the type of learning material impact what is learned? The current research investigates the nature of students' learning of math concepts when using manipulatives (Uttal, Scudder, & DeLoache, 1997). We examined how the type of manipulative (concrete, abstract, none) and problem-solving prompt (metacognitive or problem-focused) affect…

  8. Cannes : seks ja revolutsioon / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2006-01-01

    Cannes'i filmifestival. Nähtud filmidest : Ron Howardi "Da Vinci kood"("The Code Da Vinci"), hiinlase Lou Ye "Suvepalee", inglase Ken Loach'i "Tuul, mis sasib odrapõldu" ("The Wind that Shakes the Barely"), ungarlase Györgi Palfi "Taksidermia"

  9. Cannes'i klassikud - tuntud headuses / Jaak Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Jaak

    2006-01-01

    Cannes'i filmifestival. Nähtud filmidest : soomlase Aki Kaurismäki "Agulituled" ("Laitakaupungin valot"), hispaanlase Pedro Almodovari "Volver" ("Naasta"), inglase Ken Loach'i "Kesva heljutab tuul" ("The Wind that Shakes the Barely"), ameeriklase Richard Linklateri "Rämpstoidu rahvas" ("Fast Food Nation")

  10. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... applications concerning computer aided accountancy and business correspondence. Key Words: (CASE tools, programming technique, accounting applications). INTRODUCTION. One of the main features of ... investigations of object-oriented modeling languages (Eliëns,2000, DeLoach,2000) and many.

  11. Küünikute frustratsioon, europeldikute kassikuld ja alkohooliku elukibedus / Tarmo Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Tarmo, 1958-

    1999-01-01

    II Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme : "Ülestegemata voodid" ("Unmade Beds") : režissöör Nicholas Barker, "Ettevaatust, uksed sulguvad!" ("Sliding Doors") : režissöör Peter Howitt ja "Minu nimi on Joe" ("My Name Is Joe") : režissöör Ken Loach

  12. Pimedad ööd kutsuvad häid filme vaatama / Kaido Soom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soom, Kaido

    2008-01-01

    12. Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali filmidest, mis jätsid sügavama mulje artikli autorile - Taani mängufilm "Mine rahus, Jamil" (rezh. Omar Shargawi), Suurbritannia -Itaalia - Saksamaa - Hispaania - Poola koostööfilm "See on vaba maailm" (rezh. Ken Loach) ja Šveitsi dokumentaalfilm "Tagane, saatan" (rezh. Peter Entell)

  13. The potential for using acoustic tracking to monitor the movement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although acoustic tracking has been used to study the movement of several species of clawed and spiny lobsters, only recent technological advances have provided sufficiently small transmitters to examine the utility of using acoustic tracking as a means to analyse the movement of relatively small spiny lobsters, such as ...

  14. 50 CFR 640.21 - Harvest limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 640.21 Harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) spiny lobster or slipper...) Undersized attractants. A live spiny lobster under the minimum size limit specified in paragraph (b)(1) of... future use as an attractant in a trap provided it is held in a live well aboard the vessel. No more than...

  15. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C). PMID:22754699

  16. Supercritical SC-CO(2) and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Jrad, Amel; Barth, Danielle; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-01-01

    The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form) were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny) and 8.91% (thornless) against 3.4% (spiny) and 1.94% (thornless) by SC-CO(2) extract (T = 40°C, P = 180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO(2) flow rate = 15 mL·s(-1)). Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO(2): 57.60% (spiny), 59.98% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny), 60.66% (thornless), followed by oleic acid, SC-CO(2): 22.31% (spiny), 22.40% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny), 20.58% (thornless) and palmitic acid, SC-CO(2): 14.3% (spiny), 12.92% (thornless), soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny), 13.08% (thornless). The SC-CO(2) profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C(20:1), C(20:2), and C(22).The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44-5.25), and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C) and 4.13 (T = 70°C).

  17. Supercritical SC-CO2 and Soxhlet n-Hexane Extract of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica Seeds and Fatty Acids Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Yeddes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acids profiles of Tunisian Opuntia ficus indica seeds (spiny and thornless form were investigated. Results of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 and soxhlet n-hexane extract were compared. Quantitatively, the better yield was obtained through soxhlet n-hexane: 10.32% (spiny and 8.91% (thornless against 3.4% (spiny and 1.94% (thornless by SC-CO2 extract (T = 40°C, P=180 bar, time = 135 mn, CO2 flow rate = 15 mL·s−1. Qualitatively, the main fatty acids components were the same for the two types of extraction. Linoleic acid was the major compound, SC-CO2: 57.60% (spiny, 59.98% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 57.54% (spiny, 60.66% (thornless, followed by oleic acid, SC-CO2: 22.31% (spiny, 22.40% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 25.28% (spiny, 20.58% (thornless and palmitic acid, SC-CO2: 14.3% (spiny, 12.92% (thornless, soxhlet n-hexane: 11.33% (spiny, 13.08% (thornless. The SC-CO2 profiles fatty acids showed a richness with other minority compounds such as C20:1, C20:2, and C22.The seeds oil was highly unsaturated (US = 4.44–5.25, and the rising temperatures donot affect the selectivity of fatty acids extract by SC-CO2: US = 4.44 (T = 40°C and 4.13 (T = 70°C.

  18. Azolla as a component of the space diet during habitation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kishida, Yoshiro; Liu, Chung-Chu; Watanabe, Iwao; Wada, Hidenori; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We evaluate a candidate diet and specify its space agricultural requirements for habitation on Mars. Rice, soybean, sweet potato and a green-yellow vegetable have been selected as the basic vegetarian menu. The addition of silkworm pupa, loach, and Azolla to that basic menu was found to meet human nutritional requirements. Co-culture of rice, Azolla, and loach is proposed for developing bio-regenerative life support capability with high efficiency of the usage of habitation and agriculture area. Agriculture designed under the severe constraints of limited materials resources in space would make a positive contribution toward solving the food shortages and environmental problems facing humans on Earth, and may provide an effective sustainable solution for our civilization.

  19. Cine-Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine-Club

    2013-01-01

    Thursday 12 September 2013 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Raining Stones Directed by Ken Loach (UK, 1993) Original version English; French subtitles; 90 minutes This Ken Loach film tells the story of a man devoted to his family and his religion. Proud, though poor, Bob wants his little girl to have a beautiful and costly brand-new dress for her First Communion. His stubbornness and determination get him into trouble as he turns to more and more questionable measures, in his desperation to raise the needed money. This tragic flaw leads him to risk all that he loves and values, his beloved family, indeed even his immortal soul and salvation, in blind pursuit of that goal. http://cineclub.web.cern.ch/Cineclub/

  20. Enobarbus is a synonym of Lepidocephalichthys (Osteichthyes, Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Harant, R.; Bohlen, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 10 (2010), s. 2443-2453 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA AV ČR IAA600450508; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Chennai * loach * Madras Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.330, year: 2010

  1. A Study About Biacetabulum appendiculatum Szidat, 1937 (Cestoda: Caryophllaeidea) on Barbus plebejus escherichi Steindachner, 1864

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Koyun

    2010-01-01

    In this research, the parasitic infections of some fish species were studied and identified. During the study, six fish species have been recorded in Enne Dam Lake, namely; Alburnus alburnus (bleak), Carassius carassius (Crucian carp), Carassius auratus (golden carp), Barbus plebejus escherichi (barb), Leuscius cephalus (chub) and Nemacheilus sp. (loach). From all this fish, Biacetabulum appendiculatum Szidat, 1937 was recorded only on barb. This cestode (tapeworm) species that is B. appendic...

  2. Bioturbation/bioirrigation effect on thallium released from reservoir sediment by different organism types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Men, Bin; Yang, Xiaofang; Wang, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    Bioturbation can remobilize heavy metal in the sediments and may pose a risk for aquatic biota. The effects of bioturbation/bioirrigation by three different riverine organism types (Tubificid, Chironomid larvae, and Loach) on thallium release from contaminated sediment (10.0 ± 1.1 mg Tl/kg sediment, dry wt.) were evaluated in this study. The bioturbation by the epibenthos clearly caused an increased turbidity in the overlying water, and the effect was in the order of Loach > Chironomid larvae > Tubificid. A significant release of Tl into the water column via the resuspended sediment particles was observed, especially for Loach. During the first few days, the leaching of dissolved Tl from sediment into water was fast, and the dissolved Tl under bioturbation/bioirrigation was much higher than the control group. However, after 14 days, the bioturbation/bioirrigation process seemed to suppress the release of Tl from the sediment particles to water, especially for sediment with Loach. This may partly be due to the sorption or coprecipitation of Tl simultaneous with the formation of iron and manganese hydrous oxides with increased pH values as a consequence of phytoplankton growth. Linear regression analysis confirmed that both the total and particulate Tl concentrations had good correlations with particulate Fe and Mn concentrations as well as turbidity in the overlying water. Additionally, planktonic bacteria may oxidize the Tl(I) to Tl(III), resulting in a reduced solubility of Tl by which Tl(OH)3 becomes the predominant form of Tl. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining the Role of Manipulatives and Metacognition on Engagement, Learning, and Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Belenky, Daniel M.; Nokes, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    How does the type of learning material impact what is learned? The current research investigates the nature of students’ learning of math concepts when using manipulatives (Uttal, Scudder, & DeLoache, 1997). We examined how the type of manipulative (concrete, abstract, none) and problem-solving prompt (metacognitive or problem-focused) affect student learning, engagement, and knowledge transfer. Students who were given concrete manipulatives with metacognitive prompts showed better transfer o...

  4. Threatened fishes of the world: Paracobitis vignai Nalbant and Bianco, 1998 (Nemacheilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mousavi-Sabet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Paracobitis vignai is a Nemacheilid loach endemic to the Sistan basin. It occurs in Helmand River and its related reservoirs in Sistan-va-Baluchistan Province in southeastern Iran and probably in Afghanistan. This species is currently endangered due to habitat loss or degradation, damming and droughts. Therefore, this paper reviews the available data on taxonomy and distribution of P. vignai, provides its morphometric features, and recommends actions for its conservation.

  5. Phylogeny of the Southeast Asian freshwater fish genus Pangio (Cypriniformes, Cobitidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohlen, Jörg; Šlechtová, Vendula; Tan, H. H.; Britz, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2011), s. 854-865 ISSN 1055-7903 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/2556; GA ČR GA206/08/0637; GA AV ČR IAA600450508; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : pangio * eel loaches * phylogeny Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.609, year: 2011

  6. Mehhiko filmikunst toob Cannes'i värskeid tuuli / Annika Koppel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koppel, Annika

    2006-01-01

    Cannes'i filmifestival. Nähtud filmidest : soomlase Aki Kaurismäki "Äärelinna tuled" ("Laitakaupungin valot"), hispaanlase Pedro Almodovari "Volver" ("Tagasitulek"), inglase Ken Loach'i "Tuul sasib odrapõldu" ("The Wind that Shakes the Barely"), türklase Nuri Bilge Ceylani "Kliima", itaallase Nanni Moretti "Kaiman" ("The Caiman"), mehhiklase Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu USA mängufilm Brad Pitt'iga peaosas "Paabel" ("Babel")

  7. THREATENED FISHES OF THE WORLD: Paracobitis rhadinaeus (Regan, 1906 (NEMACHEILIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mousavi-Sabet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracobitis rhadinaeus is an endemic Nemacheiline loach in the Sistan basin, southeast Iran. The population is declining probably due to habitat loss or degradation, damming, drought and poaching. Urgent habitat protection with bans on further regulation of the Hamoun wetland and related reservoirs is suggested. Captive breeding of the fish should be initiated. Fishing activities should be forbidden or limited. A detailed study of current population status, biology and ecology of P. rhadinaeus is required.

  8. A survey on infection of Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi, first record of the genus Procamallanus (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    TAJBAKHSH, Fatemeh; GOLZARIANPOUR, Kiavash; ABDOLI, Asghar

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to identify the parasitic infection of the nemacheilid loach, Turcinoemacheilus kosswigi, in 5 rivers of the Tigris basin in Iran, from July 2007 to August 2008. Extracted from 43 fish specimens were 3 parasitic species: metacercaria of Posthodiplostomum cuticola (Digenea: Diplostomatidae) in the skin, fins, gills, and muscles; Allocreadium sp. (Digenea: Allocreadidae) and Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda: Camallanidae) in the intestine. Prevalence and mean intensit...

  9. Proximal Gut Mucosal Epithelial Homeostasis in Aged IL-1 Type I Receptor Knockout Mice After Starvation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    L , Loach D, Tannock G, Haller D. Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 transiently activates intestinal epithelial cells of mice that have a complex...Rondeau V, Dequae-Merchadou L , Salles-Montaudon N, Emeriau JP, Manciet G, Dartigues JF. A multi-center trial of the effects of oral nutritional...supplementation during acute illness. Am J Med. 2006; 119:693. [PubMed: 16887416] 9. Howard L , Malone M. Clinical outcome of geriatric patients in the

  10. An Analysis of a Joint and Expeditionary Mindset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    NUMBER 2511 Jefferson David Highway Contractor Report 2007-05 Arlington, VA 22202-3926 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release...Culture Gap, School of Advanced Military Studies, US Army Command and General Staff College, May 2004. DeLoache, J. S., Sugarman , S., & Brown, A. L...2004. Petraeus, LTG David H. Learning Counterinsurgency: Observations from Soldering in Iraq. Military Review, January-February 2006. Retrieved from http

  11. Variation in parental investment and relative clutch mass of the spiny-tail iguana, Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae in central México Variación en la inversión parental y masa relativa de la nidada en la iguana de cola espinosa Ctenosaura pectinata (Squamata: Iguanidae en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Castro-Franco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We measured the length, width, volume, and weight of 871 freshly laid eggs of 28 clutches of Ctenosaura pectinata. The iguanas were obtained from a tropical dry forest area in central Mexico. The relative clutch mass was related positively to the average egg weight but not to average egg volume. Unlike what usually occurs in lizards, where the body length strongly predicts egg production, in C. pectinata clutch size and egg size were not correlated with female weight or snout-vent length. Observed differences revealed variation in the weight-size of the egg within an individual clutch. Therefore, there is not an optimization of the egg in the studied population of Ctenosaura, as usually occurs in small lizards. This variation associated with reproduction takes place in the middle of the dry season, and may be interpreted as an adaptation to facilitate the adjustment of different phenotypes in environments with extreme drought.Medimos la longitud, amplitud, volumen, y peso de 871 huevos recién puestos de 28 nidadas de Ctenosaura pectinata. Las iguanas fueron obtenidas en un área de bosque tropical seco en el centro de México. La masa relativa de la nidada estuvo relacionada positivamente con el peso promedio de los huevos pero no con el volumen promedio del huevo. A diferencia de lo que ocurre usualmente en lagartijas, donde la longitud del cuerpo determina la producción de huevos, en C. pectinata el tamaño de la puesta y el tamaño del huevo no se correlacionan con el peso y tamaño de las hembras. Las diferencias observadas revelan variación en el tamaño y peso de los huevos dentro de las puestas individuales. En consecuencia, no hay una optimización del huevo en la población estudiada de Ctenosaura, como usualmente ocurre en lagartijas de tamaño pequeño. Esta variación asociada con la reproducción tiene lugar a mitad de la estación seca, y puede ser interpretada como una adaptación para facilitar el ajuste de diferentes fenotipos en ambientes con sequía extrema.

  12. Indigenous fish species in the modern ichthyofauna of the Balkhash basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Shamilevich Mamilov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous fish fauna of the Balkhash basin was mostly formed in the postglacial period and consists of 10 species from Cyprinidae family, 5 from Balitoridae, and 1 from Percidae. More than 20 alien fish species were introduced here during XXth century that led to eradication of indigenous fishes from the Balkhash Lake and the Ili River. Our investigations of the fish fauna during last 25 years revealed permanent shortage of living area of indigenous fishes. Nowadays fish communities from only indigenous fish species exist in some remote and isolated water bodies. Areas of all indigenous fish species are become disconnected. Reduction of habitats goes relatively slow for naked osman Gymnodiptychus dybowskii (Kessler, 1874, spotted thicklip loach Triplophysa strauchii (Kessler, 1874, and gray loach Triplophysa dorsalis (Kessler, 1872. Drastic reductions of areas were revealed for Ili marinka Schizothorax pseudoaksaiensis Herzenstein 1889, Balkhash marinka Schizothorax argentatus Kessler 1874, Severtsov’s loach Triplophysa sewerzowii (G.Nikolskii, 1938, Seven River’s minnow Phoxinus brachyurus Berg 1912, Balkhsh minnow Rhynchocypris poljakowii Kessler 1879, and Balkhash perch Perca schrenkii Kessler 1874. Marinkas, osmans and perch often become victims of overfishing and poaching of local people. In that region water resources usually are used by wasteful way and loaded with pollutants. Many indigenous fish species are able to bear relatively high level of environment pollution. Hence, the main threats for indigenous fishes are introductions of trout and sander, habitats lose and unstable hydrological regimen.

  13. Punicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer, C.A.

    1948-01-01

    Shrubs or small trees, usually spiny. Leaves opposite, alternate or fascicled, exstipulate, simple, entire, penninerved, small. Flowers terminal and subterminal, sessile or nearly so, rather large, ♀, actinomorphic. Calyx thickly coriaceous, coloured, gamophyllous; tube campanulate-urceolate, adnate

  14. Weaning and establishment of pineapple (Ananas Comosus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -vitro propagation). The paper reports on establishment after treatment with two different auxins in-vitro. About ninety-nine (99) percent of the transported plantlets successfully established in compost. Spiny individuals increased with higher ...

  15. Sigmodontinae, Rodentia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wagner) and O. mamorae (Thomas). Am. Mus. Novit. 3661, 1–32. Catzeflis F. and Tilak M. 2009 Molecular systematic of Neotropi- cal spiny mice (Neacomys: Sigmodontinae, Rodentia) from the. Guianan Region. Mammalia 73, 239–247.

  16. Age at weaning, immunocompetence and ectoparasite performance in a precocial desert rodent

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlugosz, E. M.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Khokhlova, I. S.; Degen, A. A.; Pinshow, B.; Krasnov, B. R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 17 (2014), s. 3078-3084 ISSN 0022-0949 Institutional support : RVO:68081766 Keywords : Fleas * PHA response * Weaning * Spiny mouse Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.897, year: 2014

  17. Measurements and Counts for Notacanthidae Specimens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taxonomic data were collected for specimens of deep-sea spiny eels (Notacanthidae) from the Hawaiian Ridge by Bruce C. Mundy. Specimens were collected off the north...

  18. 76 FR 35577 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... that consideration be given to the amount of spiny dogfish taken in Canada. To accommodate this... close the ] Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) when semi-annual commercial landings quotas are reached. The...

  19. ZOOPLANKTON LIFE CYCLES: DIRECT DOCUMENTATION OF PELAGIC BIRTHS AND DEATHS RELATIVE TO DIAPAUSING EGG PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full-season demographics (pelagic births and deaths, diapause egg production) provide valuable insights into species persistence and dispersal success. The spiny cladoceran (Bythotrephes) possesses morphological adaptations (spines and thick-walled diapause eggs) that lessen impa...

  20. 76 FR 54737 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Southeast Region Gear Identification Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... floats; spiny lobster traps; black sea bass pots; and buoy gear. This request is for a revision of a... through the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Comments...

  1. Lobster Logbook Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NWHI lobster trap fishery, which commenced in the mid-1970s, is a multispecies fishery and primarily targets the Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panuliris marginatus)...

  2. An Electrophoretic Taxonomic Study on Sarcoplasmic Proteins of Some Balithorid and Cobitid Fishes Habitated in Kars Stream, Turkey.

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Muhittin; ILDES, Erhan; ALAS, Ali; KOC, Evren

    2018-01-01

    Bu çalışma da, Orthrias tigris, Orthrias angorae bureschi, Orthrias panthera ve Cobitis taenia’nın sarkoplazmikproteinleri Sodyum dodesil sülfat- poliakrilamid jel elektroforezine (SDS-PAGE) uygulandı. Elde edilenelektroforegramda, Orthrias angorae bureschi ve Orthrias panthera’da 13 sarkoplazmik protein bandı elde edildi. Bununyanısıra, bu balıkların 5 sarkoplazmik protein bandının aynı moleküler ağırlıkta olduğu bulundu ve benzerlik katsayısı(SC): 0.384 olarak bulundu. Orthrias tigris’te 8 ...

  3. First record of Calma gobioophaga Calado and Urgorri, 2002 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. PRKIC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the nudibranch genus Calma were observed under stones at two Croatian localities while feeding on gobiid eggs. Some ambiguous morphological features compared with the original descriptions of the known species of the genus, C. glaucoides and C. gobioophaga, hampered an easy identification. Genetic data (COI and 16S sequences confirmed the distinction between the two species of the genus Calma, and allowed to unambiguously identify the Croatian specimens as Calma gobioophaga. This is the first record of this species for the Mediterranean and extends remarkably its distribution range. Finally, the eggs fed by the Croatian specimens have been taxonomically identified by using the 12S rDNA marker as Gobius cobitis.

  4. Особенности биологии кедрового стланика (Pinus pumila) на севере Забайкалья

    OpenAIRE

    ФИЛИППОВА ЕЛЕНА ВЛАДИМИРОВНА; БОБРИНЕВ ВИКТОР ПЕТРОВИЧ; ПАК ЛАРИСА НИКОЛАЕВНА

    2015-01-01

    The Pinus pumila in Transbaikalie occupies the space more than 1,5 million hectares from which 1,1 million hectares and is concentrated in the Kalarsky area. Plantings of Pinus pumila have low productivity, middle class of site class V and age of about 60 years. The Pinus pumila grows in continuous thickets and rare open plantings with completeness 0,1.0,2 in pre-loaches belt up to border of wood distribution. Average stock of Pinus pumila is 20.30 m 3/ha. The Pinus pumila grows slowly on 5.6...

  5. Effects of dietary chitosan on growth, lipid metabolism, immune response and antioxidant-related gene expression in Misgurnus anguillicaudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J; Guo, C; Dawood, M A O; Gao, J

    2017-05-30

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of dietary chitosan supplementation on growth performance, lipid metabolism, gut microbial, antioxidant status and immune responses of juvenile loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). Five experimental diets were formulated to contain graded levels of chitosan (0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2 and 5% CHI) for 50 days. Results of the present study showed that body weight gain was significantly higher in fish fed chitosan supplemented diets in dose dependent manner than control group. Increasing dietary chitosan levels reduced gut lipid content. Meanwhile the mRNA expression levels of intestine lipoprotein lipase and fatty acid binding protein 2 were significantly reduced with incremental dietary chitosan level. The percentages of total monounsaturated fatty acid decreased, while polyunsaturated fatty acid increased with dietary chitosan. The fish fed 0.5% CHI had higher mucus lysozyme activity (LZM) than those fed 0% CHI, but the LZM activity was significantly decreased with advancing chitosan supplement. The expression levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase revealed a similar trend, where the highest expressions were found in fish fed 5% CHI diet. In the term of intestine microbiota between 0 and 1% CHI groups, the proportion of bacteria in the phylum Bacteroidetes increased, whereas the proportion of bacteria in the phylum Firmicutes decreased as the fish supplemented chitosan. In conclusion, supplementation of chitosan improved growth performance, antioxidant status and immunological responses in loach.

  6. Investigation of heavy metals release from sediment with bioturbation/bioirrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; Men, Bin; Yang, Xiaofang; Li, Yaxuan; Xu, Hui; Wang, Dongsheng

    2017-10-01

    Bioturbation/bioirrigation can affect the remobilization of metals from sediments. In this study, experiments were performed to examine the effect of bioturbation/bioirrigation by different organisms on cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) releasing from the spiked sediment. The diffusive gradient in thin films technique (DGT) revealed that at the end of exposure time, the labile heavy metals concentrations in the pore water for all metal and organisms combinations except Cu and chironomid larvae were much lower than that in the control group. However, the concentrations of heavy metals detected by the DGT were virtually indistinguishable among the treatments with tubificid, chironomid larvae and loach. The correlation analysis of heavy metals with iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) suggested that Cd, Zn and Pb were most likely bound as Fe-Mn oxidation form in the pore water, but Cu was in other forms. After 28 d of exposure, bioturbation/bioirrigation produced a significant release of particulate heavy metals into the overlying water, especially in the treatment with loach. The bioturbation/bioirrigation impact on the Pb remobilization was less than the other three heavy metals. The effects of bioturbaiton/bioirrigation on the heavy metals remobilization in the sediment were complex that with studying the heavy metals remobilization in the sediment and water interface, the biological indicators should be recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 59304 - Technical Amendment; Updates to Titles of Officials, Office Names, and References

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Names, and References AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... lobster'' as well as ``spiny lobster.'' This rule updates reference to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery... fax number in 50 CFR 300.154(b)(2) resulting from this shift. In 50 CFR part 600, references to...

  8. 76 FR 66041 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... public, and will be conducted in English. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Embassy Suites Hotel... following agenda: November 15, 2011--9 a.m. --Call to order --Discuss the legal responsibility of the SSC... not overfished (NOAA Legal Counsel) --Revisit spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) recommendations for OFL...

  9. 78 FR 37186 - Plan for Periodic Review of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Management Area; closure of two deep-sea canyon areas to all gears when fishing under the monkfish days-at..., Atlantic deep-sea red crab, tilefish, Atlantic bluefish, skate, and/or spiny dogfish fisheries. This action..., implemented new notification requirements for Category 1 herring vessels, and removed the net limit for Trip...

  10. 76 FR 61321 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Biology The Mojave fringe-toed lizard is in the North American spiny lizard family (Phrynosomatidae). This...). Phylogenetics is the study of the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms, such as families... evolutionary history (Ballard and Whitlock 2004, p. 734; Zink and Barrowclough 2008, p. 2108). For most animal...

  11. Passifloraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1972-01-01

    Mostly climbing herbs or lianas with axillary tendrils, rarely erect herbs, shrubs or small trees, glabrous or hairy, in Mal. not spiny. Branching usually by a supraaxillary serial bud. Leaves (mostly) spirally arranged, simple or compound, pinninerved or palminerved, entire or lobed; petiole or

  12. African Journal of Marine Science - Vol 27, No 3 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Marine Science. ... Food habits of some deep-sea fish off South Africa's west coast. 2. Eels and spiny eels (Anguilliformes and ... Maintenance mechanisms of plankton populations in frontal zones in the Benguela and Angola Current systems: a preface · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  13. A robust and well-resolved phylogeny of Bactridinae (Arecaceae) based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe; Asmussen-Lange, Conny

    Bactridinae include about 150 species of spiny Neotropical palms in five genera that are important in several vegetation types such as open woodlands (Acrocomia), lowland rainforest (Astrocaryum, Bactris) and montane forest (Aiphanes). The subtribe also includes the only lianescent palm genus in ...

  14. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    These animals, however, lack the aggregation of the cortical layer IV cell bodies into clusters that would, in wild-type or heterozygous mice (mGluR5+/–), exclusively represent each vibrissa. In addition, it was found that. mGluR5-null mice exhibit a striking mis-alignment of the dendritic fields of spiny stellate neurons, which.

  15. Food habits of some deep-sea fish off South Africa's west coast. 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The food habits of five species of eels and one species of spiny eel collected from the upper continental slope off the Cape west coast and Agulhas Bank, South Africa, are described. All are members of a defined demersal micro- or mesocarnivore feeding guild except Simenchelys parasitica, a scavenger. Two congrids ...

  16. Socioeconomic Root Causes of Biodiversity Loss in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitry N. Ratsifandrihamanana; Dawn Montanye; Sarah Christiansen; Sheila O' Connor

    2006-01-01

    In 2000 and 2001 a root cause analysis was conducted for the Spiny Forest Ecoregion in Madagascar, identifying the local level root causes of biodiversity loss in the ecoregion as well as the policy and institutional issues at the national and international levels that contribute to them. Most of the research was conducted in and around Tulear and Fort Dauphin....

  17. Partnership in practice: making conservation work at Bezà Mahafaly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bezà Mahafaly has been the site of a partnership for conservation since 1975, long before the idea of community - based conservation became widely accepted in Madagascar or elsewhere in the world. Today, the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve protects 4,600 ha of riverine, transitional and spiny forest with a rich endemic ...

  18. 9 CFR 2.1 - Requirements and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... animals, such as dogs, cats, birds, rabbits, hamsters, guinea pigs, gophers, domestic ferrets, chinchilla... animals, dogs, or cats, and who derives no more than $500 gross income from the sale of such animals to a... dogs, cats, and/or small exotic or wild mammals, such as hedgehogs, degus, spiny mice, prairie dogs...

  19. Stephanospora michoacanensis (Stephanosporaceae, Agaricales), a novel sequestrate truffle from North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero; Ivone Baez-Alvarado; Victor M. Gomez-Reyes; Michael Castellano

    2015-01-01

    Stephanospora michoacanensis is presented as a new species from North America. This angiocarpic species is recognized by its yellowcream peridial surface color, and broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, spiny or crested, inamyloid spores with a distinct, complete or nearly complete corona at its base. Stephanospora michoacanensis is similar to S. caroticolor, but S....

  20. Rattans of Vietnam: ecology, demography and harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, My Binh

    2009-01-01

    Rattans are spiny climbing palms belonging to the Arecaceae family. Rattans may be single-stemmed or multi-stemmed in which stems (ramet) are clustered in a clump (genet). Rattan is an important non-timber forest product (NTFP) in almost all Southeast Asian countries. As demand for rattan products

  1. Tachykinin-immunoreactive neurons in developing feline neostriatum: somatodendritic morphogenesis demonstrated by combined immunohistochemistry/Golgi impregnation-gold toning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robin; Boylan, Marea

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was designed to survey and characterize the development of a key link between chemically mediated neurotransmission and neuronal cytoarchitecture in mammalian basal ganglia. Peroxidase immunohistochemical and Golgi impregnation/gold toning methods were combined to doubly label the tachykinin neuromodulator signature and somatodendritic structure of neostriatal neurons in late fetal, postnatal and adult cats. The results supported 3 conclusions of considerable significance. (1) Colocalization of immunohistochemical and Golgi impregnation/gold toning labels is a feasible, rational and productive means to identify and determine the somatodendritic morphogenesis of tachykinin neurons. (2) The application of this method to developing feline neostriatum demonstrates directly that the principal tachykinin cells are medium-sized spiny neurons, which undergo progressive growth and elaboration of cell bodies, dendritic arbors and dendritic spines during the late fetal and postnatal periods. (3) There is a strong but incomplete concordance between tachykinin and medium-sized spiny neuronal phenotypes, because a minor variant of medium-sized spiny neurons and rare subgroups of medium- and large-sized sparse spiny neurons also show the tachykinin neuromodulator signature. Taken together, these results suggest that neostriatal neurons show an early commitment to heterogeneous tachykinin phenotypes, although the full and final expression of their somatodendritic characteristics coincides with synaptogenesis. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. 75 FR 32375 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Council (Council) will hold a three-day Council meeting on Tuesday through Thursday, June 22-24, 2010, to... Scallop Committee. The afternoon session will begin with an overview of the status of spiny dogfish by the... on progress to date concerning its ABC control rules, five-year research priorities and an ecosystem...

  3. Modulation of synaptic potentials and cell excitability by dendritic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical structure of the brain reward circuit, is implicated in normal goal-directed behaviour and learning as well as pathological conditions like schizophrenia and addiction. Its major cellular substrates, the medium spiny (MS) neurons, possess a wide variety of dendritic active conductances ...

  4. 77 FR 1914 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-12

    ... Region manages the U.S. fisheries of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the South Atlantic, Caribbean... aquacultured live rock; golden crab traps; mackerel gillnet floats; spiny lobster traps; black sea bass pots... proposed information collection should be sent within 30 days of publication of this notice to OIRA...

  5. New Solanum species from Tanzanian coastal forests may already ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unusually long inflorescences with a dense covering of long straight prickles on the rachis distinguish S. ruvu from all other African species of spiny Solanum. Its likely affinities lie with another coastal forest species, S. zanzibarense, which exhibits a similar scandent habit, subentire leaves, thin stems, and prickles that ...

  6. MEDICINAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... and bromelain, a proteolytic enzyme that breaks down protein. It is also low in sodium and rich in ... comosus have a wide cylindrical shape, a scaly green, brown or yellow skin and a regal crown of spiny, blue- ..... variation in Total leaf protein amino acid compositions of monocotyledonous plants. Journal of.

  7. De Novo Mutations in PDE10A Cause Childhood-Onset Chorea with Bilateral Striatal Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mencacci, N.E.; Kamsteeg, E.J.; Nakashima, K.; R'Bibo, L.; Lynch, D.S.; Balint, B.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Adams, M.E.; Wiethoff, S.; Suzuki, K.; Davies, C.H.; Ng, J.; Meyer, E.; Veneziano, L.; Giunti, P.; Hughes, D.; Raymond, F.L.; Carecchio, M.; Zorzi, G.; Nardocci, N.; Barzaghi, C.; Garavaglia, B.; Salpietro, V.; Hardy, J.; Pittman, A.M.; Houlden, H.; Kurian, M.A.; Kimura, H.; Vissers, L.E.L.M.; Wood, N.W.; Bhatia, K.P.

    2016-01-01

    Chorea is a hyperkinetic movement disorder resulting from dysfunction of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which form the main output projections from the basal ganglia. Here, we used whole-exome sequencing to unravel the underlying genetic cause in three unrelated individuals with a very

  8. Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D2-Receptor Expressing Neurons Control Behavioral Flexibility in a Place Discrimination Task in the IntelliCage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Tom; Morita, Makiko; Wang, Yanyan; Sasaoka, Toshikuni; Sawa, Akira; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence has demonstrated a critical role for the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the acquisition and flexibility of behavioral strategies. These processes are guided by the activity of two discrete neuron types, dopamine D1- or D2-receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs). Here we used the IntelliCage, an automated…

  9. Smokes and Obscurants: A Guidebook of Environmental Assessment. Volume 2. A Sample Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-04

    area are composed of Paleozoic sea-bed sediments consisting of lime tone, dolomite, quartzite, shale, and conglomerates (Figs. 8 and 9). During the...Gambelia) wislizenii Leopard Lizard Crotophytus collaris Collared Lizard Sceloporus magister Desert Spiny Lizard Uto stansburiana Side- Blotched Lizard

  10. Paraconcinnum leirsi n.sp. (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) from rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trematode Paraconcinnum leirsi n.sp. (Dicrocoeliidae) is described from two rodent species, the African gerbil, Gerbilliscus vicinus, and the spiny mouse, Acomys spinosissimus, from Tanzania. It differs from the description of P. hylomisci found in the Stella wood mouse, Hylomyscus stella, in the Democratic Republic of ...

  11. Action Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straits, William; Stone, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    With upper-elementary students, using the skeletal system can be a productive first step in learning about the various systems in the human body. Of all the systems, the skeletal system seems to be the most familiar to students. This lesson, which helps students understand joints and their role in how our bodies bend, twist, and spin--is always a…

  12. Modulation of synaptic potentials and cell excitability by dendritic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Its major cellular substrates, the medium spiny (MS) neurons, possess a wide variety of dendritic active conductances that may modulate the excitatory post synaptic potentials (EPSPs) and cell excitability. We examine this issue using a biophysically detailed 189-compartment stylized model of the NAc MS neuron, ...

  13. Lobster trap detection at the Saba Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van I.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    According to previous studies and anecdotal evidence there are a lot of lost lobster traps at the Saba Bank. One study estimated the loss to be between 210 and 795 lobster traps per year. The Saba Bank is an approximately 2,200 km2 submerged area and spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is one of the

  14. 77 FR 64305 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-BC50 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Exempted Fishery for the Cape Cod Spiny Dogfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  15. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Cynara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Emanuel et al. Trop J Pharm Res, December 2011;10 (6): 778. INTRODUCTION. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a species of perennial thistle, originating from the. Mediterranean region, cultivated for the fleshy laminae in its bud as well as the edible thalami. It is a plant with large spiny leaves and a tall stem of up to 1.50 m.

  16. observ ations on the life histories and behaviour of some small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At eight days the young were fully furred and their eyes opened and soon after two weeks they were able to fend for themselves. Like most spiny mice, this species does not seem to build a nest for the young although one individual, taken at Muheza, Tanzania was observed to shred a weaver bird's nest completely in order.

  17. Bounds on Biomass Estimates and Energetic Consequences of Ctenophora in the Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous descriptions have noted that the stomach samples of spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, showed a major increase in the overall occurrence and hence implied abundance of Ctenophora. This apparent and persistent gelatinous zooplankton outbreak is increasingly more common in the world’s oceans. We briefly explore the energetic ramifications of ctenophores in the spiny dogfish diet, inferring that the presence of gelatinous zooplankton represents an ambient feeding strategy. Relative to other prey, ctenophores are not a high energy density prey item. However, given varying assumptions of the amount of ctenophores consumed, they may be an important staple in the diet of spiny dogfish. We also examine the utility of using spiny dogfish as a gelatinous zooplankton sampling device. Using five calculation methodologies, we provide bounds on potential abundance and biomass estimates of ctenophores in the Northeast U.S. shelf ecosystem. We then contextualize these findings relative to the implications for the Northeast U.S. and any large marine ecosystem.

  18. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Great Plans Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    virginiana), cedar elm ( Ulmus crassifolia), desert yaupon (Schaefferia cuneifolia), and spiny hackberry (Celtis ehrenbergiana) (USDA Natural Resources...blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), American elm ( Ulmus americana), cottonwood, hackberry (Celtis occidentalis), and pecan (Carya illinoensis) in the...component. They often contain several minor components or inclusions of soils with properties that may be similar to or quite different from the major

  19. Environmental Assessment of Installation Development at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Spiny Lobster in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs of the Gulf of Mexico. Tampa, FL: Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management...Air 627-2660 Waste 627-26t0 WeUands 627-2630 ERM 627-2650 Lab 272-5157 SUBJECT: EPC REVIEW OF SAl: FU00608032659q DRAFr ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENf

  20. Modulation of synaptic potentials and cell excitability by dendritic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Modulation of synaptic potentials and cell excitability by dendritic. KIR and KAs channels in nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons: A computational study. JESSY JOHN* and ROHIT MANCHANDA. Biomedical Engineering group, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology. Bombay ...

  1. Habitat-specific variation and performance trade-offs in shell armature of New Zealand mudsnails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holomuzki, Joseph R; Biggs, Barry J F

    2006-04-01

    Studies documenting phenotypic variation among populations show that ecological performance in one activity is sometimes traded off against another. Identifying environment-specific costs and benefits associated with performance trade-offs is fundamental to knowing how conflicting selection pressures shape phenotype-environment matching in populations. We studied phenotypic variation in shell armature (spininess) of the New Zealand mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray), and explored how this variability relates to performance trade-offs between flow resistance and predator deterrence. Smooth- and spiny-shell morphotypes exist in populations in New Zealand streams and lakes, but the patterns and correlates of spatial variation of these phenotypes, and the possible hydrodynamical constraints and antipredatory benefits associated with spiny shell armature, are unknown. Samples from 11 rivers and nine lakes on the South Island showed that, on average, nearly 70% of snails in streams were smooth-shelled, whereas >80% of snails in lakes were spiny, suggesting dissimilar selective pressures between habitats. A laboratory flume experiment revealed that spines collected seston (i.e., suspended algae) at current speeds trade-offs between risk of flow-induced dislodgment and risk of fish predation affect shell armature frequencies of Potamopyrgus in freshwater habitats.

  2. Dioscoreaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkill, I.H.

    1948-01-01

    Rhizomes (rarely spiny) producing annual, mostly twining shoots, in Malaysia twining either to the right (fig. 4c) or the left (fig. 4a). Stems consisting of a main stem and sterile branches, both bearing leafless flowering axes. Leaves petiolate, generally cordate, simple and entire or palmately

  3. Puncturevine seed response to postemergence herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) continues to plague growers, vegetation managers, and home gardeners. Puncturevine is a summer annual weed with spiny fruits that split into five segments, each containing one to four seeds. The seed nearest the pointed end of the bur is the largest and usually ge...

  4. First record of larvae of Arnoglossus imperialis (Rafinesque, 1810) (Bothidae, Pieces) Atlantic species from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Stephen, R.

    Larvae ranging from 7.7 mm NL to 12.2 mm SL were found in zooplankton from the Agulhas Bank. The long leaf-like larval body, the presence of spiny discoid scutes distributed along the bases of median fin rays, cleithra urohyal, posterior...

  5. Natural vegetation at the proposed Reference Repository Location in southeastern Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.

    1988-02-01

    The dominant shrubs were sagebrush and spiny hopsage; the herbs were dominated by cheatgrass and Sandberg bluegrass. Spiny hopsage appeared to be vulnerable to burning and also to damage by off-road vehicular traffic. It appears to have little or no ability to reproduce through seedlings; once the existing plants are killed they are not likely to be replaced, even if seed-producing plants are nearby. The only pure stand of spiny hopsage known to exist on the Hanford Site is on and near study plot 2H. Sagebrush, like spiny hopsage, is killed by burning and by heavy vehicles. Sagebrush is capable of reproducing via seeds, indicating that it is an inherently aggressive species with a capacity to reestablish itself if parent plants are in the vicinity to act as seed sources. Alien, annual plants, especially cheatgrass, were a major contributor to the herbaceous canopy cover in plots 3S, 4S, and 5S. However, native perennial grasses, especially Sandberg bluegrass, were a major contributor to the canopy cover in plots 1S and 2H. These differences are probably caused by differences in soil properties (e.g., water retention capacity), rather than to historical disturbances such as livestock grazing or wildfire. Specimens of Sandwort, Arenaria franklinii, growing near the Reference Repository Location were collected for examination by taxonomists to determine if the specimens are of the variety A. f. thompsonii, a taxon currently listed as threatened in the state of Washington. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  6. A human case of Echinostoma hortense (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) infection diagnosed by gastroduodenal endoscopy in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang-Min; Tak, Won-Young; Kweon, Young-Oh; Kim, Sung-Kook; Choi, Yong-Hwan; Kong, Hyun-Hee

    2003-01-01

    A human Echinostoma hortense infection was diagnosed by gastroduodenoscopy. An 81-year-old Korean male, living in Yeongcheon-shi, Gyeongsangbuk-do and with epigastric discomfort of several days duration, was subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. He was in the habit of eating fresh water fish. Two live worms were found in the duodenal bulb area and were removed using an endoscopic forcep. Based on their morphological characteristics, the worms were identified as E. hortense. The patient was treated with praziquantel 10 mg/kg as a single dose. The source of the infection in this case remains unclear, but the fresh water fish consumed, including the loach, may have been the source. This is the second case of E. hortense infection diagnosed by endoscopy in Korea. PMID:12815324

  7. Photon emission and quantum signalling in biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayburov S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-weak, non-termal photon emission is universal feature of living organisms and plants. In our experiment the fine structure of optical radiation emitted by the loach fish eggs is studied. It was shown earlier that such radiation performs the signaling between the distant fish egg samples, which result in significant correlations of their growth. The optical radiation of biological sample was measured by the cooled photomultiplier in photocurrent regime, it was found that the main bulk of radiation is produced in form of short-time quasi-periodic bursts. The analysis of radiation temporal structure indicates that the information about egg age and growth is encoded via the values of time intervals between neighbor bursts with the height higher than some fixed level. The applications of such biological radiation in medical diagnostics and biotechnology are considered.

  8. Diets Alter the Gut Microbiome of Crocodile Lizards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Ying Jiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The crocodile lizard is a critically endangered reptile, and serious diseases have been found in this species in recent years, especially in captive lizards. Whether these diseases are caused by changes in the gut microbiota and the effect of captivity on disease remains to be determined. Here, we examined the relationship between the gut microbiota and diet and disease by comparing the fecal microbiota of wild lizards with those of sick and healthy lizards in captivity. The gut microbiota in wild crocodile lizards was consistently dominated by Proteobacteria (∼56.4% and Bacteroidetes (∼19.1%. However, the abundance of Firmicutes (∼2.6% in the intestine of the wild crocodile lizards was distinctly lower than that in other vertebrates. In addition, the wild samples from Guangdong Luokeng Shinisaurus crocodilurus National Nature Reserve also had a high abundance of Deinococcus–Thermus while the wild samples from Guangxi Daguishan Crocodile Lizard National Nature Reserve had a high abundance of Tenericutes. The gut microbial community in loach-fed crocodile lizards was significantly different from the gut microbial community in the earthworm-fed and wild lizards. In addition, significant differences in specific bacteria were detected among groups. Notably, in the gut microbiota, the captive lizards fed earthworms resulted in enrichment of Fusobacterium, and the captive lizards fed loaches had higher abundances of Elizabethkingia, Halomonas, Morganella, and Salmonella, all of which are pathogens or opportunistic pathogens in human or other animals. However, there is no sufficient evidence that the gut microbiota contributes to either disease A or disease B. These results provide a reference for the conservation of endangered crocodile lizards and the first insight into the relationship between disease and the gut microbiota in lizards.

  9. Yuvarlakçay (Köyceğiz, Muğla'ın Balık Faunası

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Balık

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada Köyceğiz Gölü havzasında, bölgenin önemli akarsularından biri olan Yuvarlakçay’ın balık faunasının saptanması amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla, Yuvarlakçay üzerinde belirlenen 5 farklı istasyondan balık örnekleri toplanmış ve değerlendirilmiştir. Değerlendirmeler sonucunda Anguilla anguilla, Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus plebejus escherichi, Capoeta capoeta angorae, Leuciscus borysthenicus, Ladigesocypris ghigii ghigii, Cobitis vardarensis kurui, Gambusia affinis, Mugil cephalus, Atherina boyeri, Tilapia zillii, Blennius fluviatilis ve Knipowithschia caucasica olmak üzere 9 familya kapsamında13 takson saptanmıştır. Saptanan taksonlardan Leuciscus borysthenicus Yuvarlakçay için ilk kez verilmektedir. Ayrıca, yine saptanan taksonlardan Mugil cephalus, Atherina boyeri ve Knipowithschia caucasica türleri daha önce Köyceğiz Gölü’nden bildirilmiş olmalarına rağmen çalışmamızda 5 nolu nehirağzı istasyonundan elde edilmişlerdir

  10. Length-weight relationship and condition factor of seven fish species of Totkabon River (southern Caspian Sea basin, Guilan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazaher Zamani Faradonbeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Length-weight relationship and condition factor were investigated in seven fish species, including Barbus cyri, Capoeta gracilis, Alburnoides eichwaldi, Acanthalbarnus microlepis, Ponticola cyrius, Cobitis keyvani and Oxynemacheilus bergianus from Totkabon River. A total of 570 specimens ranging from 25.90 to 146.97 mm in total length and 0.1 to 260.3 g in total weight were collected. Based on the results, growth coefficient values “b” ranged from 2.429 (A. microlpis to 3.71 (C. keyvani. All length-weight relationships were significant (P<0.05, with r2 greater than 0.856. The four species viz. A. microlepis, C. gracilis, P. cyrius and C. keyvani showed allometric (b<3

  11. The Bermuda Triangle of Cocaine-Induced Neuroadaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marina E.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of medium spiny neurons (MSN) of the nucleus accumbens is critical for goal-directed behaviors including cocaine seeking. Studies in cocaine-experienced rodents have revealed three major categories of neuroadaptations that influence the ability of glutamate inputs to activate MSN: changes in synaptic AMPA receptor levels, changes in extracellular non-synaptic glutamate levels, and changes in MSN intrinsic membrane excitability. Most studies have focused on one of these adaptations....

  12. Cortico-Striatal Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity After Activation of Subcortical Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Jan M.; Redgrave, Peter; Reynolds, John N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Cortico-striatal spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is modulated by dopamine in vitro. The present study investigated STDP in vivo using alternative procedures for modulating dopaminergic inputs. Postsynaptic potentials (PSP) were evoked in intracellularly recorded spiny neurons by electrical stimulation of the contralateral motor cortex. PSPs often consisted of up to three distinct components, likely representing distinct cortico-striatal pathways. After baseline recording, bicucullin...

  13. Etude physico-chimique, biochimique et stabilité d’un nouveau produit : jus de cladode du figuier de Barbarie marocain (Opuntia ficus-indica et Opuntia megacantha).

    OpenAIRE

    Boutakiout , Amale

    2015-01-01

    The orientations of the Moroccan agricultural policy concerning the Green Morocco Plan, promote the development of the arid zones and the development of crops that adapt to global warming. The prickly pear cactus is a plant which is adapted to the arid climate and still untapped in Morocco. Prickly pear cladodes contain bioactive components that have beneficial health effects. The juice extracted from cladodes of both species Opuntia ficus-indica(spineless) and Opuntia megacantha(spiny) was t...

  14. Palmar and plantar lichen planus: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Ana Maria Abreu; Howard, Michael S; Pereyo, Neville

    2015-01-01

    AbstractPalmoplantar lichen planus is an uncommon dermatosis. We present a case of 38-year-old Caucasian male with a history of pruritic, scaly lesions on the right plantar foot. Physical examination revealed whitish plaques and numerous spiny hyperkeratotic papules and focal scaling. A biopsy demonstrated orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity within the epidermis and/or lichenoid infiltrate with CD3, CD8, CD45, CD68, myeloid his...

  15. A new chytridiomycete fungus intermixed with crustacean resting eggs in a 407-million-year-old continental freshwater environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strullu-Derrien, Christine; Gora, Tomasz; Longcore, Joyce E.

    2016-01-01

    critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures...... to the crustacean Lepidocaris rhyniensis, dating branchiopod adaptation to life in ephemeral pools to the Early Devonian. The new fungal interaction suggests that, as in modern freshwater environments, chytrids were important to the mobilisation of nutrients in early aquatic foodwebs....

  16. Studies on the importance of creatine during pregnancy for the mother and newborn

    OpenAIRE

    Ellery, Stacey Joan

    2017-01-01

    The primary focus of this thesis was the use of the spiny mouse to model birth asphyxia-induced neonatal Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Understanding what effect birth asphyxia has on the neonatal kidney at a molecular, structural and functional level, determining if deficits persist into adulthood, and the potential for intervention using maternal creatine supplementation, were important goals. The work in this thesis also characterised maternal creatine homeostasis during late pregnancy, to ass...

  17. CURRENT APPROACHES TO TREAT HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE- A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Chincholkar Anjali Baburao*, Shende Vikas Suresh, Medhekar Sheetal Kashinath, Dr. Aloorkar Nagesh Hanmantrao, Dr. Kulkarni Ajit Shankarrao

    2017-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal inherited progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by a single mutation in the gene IT15 which codes for the protein huntingtin that result in an expanded polyglutamine stretch in the NH2 terminus of huntingtin protein (HTT). HD results from destruction of the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which constitute 95% of all striatal neurons. MSNs are projection neurons that primarily innervate the substantia nigra and globus pallidus. Oxid...

  18. A De Novo Case of Floating Chromosomal Polymorphisms by Translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Qing, Liyan; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yuchi; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2012-01-01

    Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated th...

  19. Another new species of Pseudouroplectes Lourenço, 1995 from Madagascar (Scorpiones, Buthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Lourenco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the endemic Malagasy genus Pseudouroplectes Lourenço (family Buthidae is described from spiny forests of the southwestern portion of the island. The holotype was obtained in the forests of Ifaty, north of Toliara. With the description of this species, the distributional pattern of this genus is confined to dry forest formations in the south and southwest. A key is proposed to the known species.

  20. Gulf Coast Deep Water Port Facilities Study. Appendix C. Eastern Gulf Hydrobiological Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    Luidia clathrata starfish Oculina diffusa hermatypic coral L. senegaiensis nine-armed starfish Siderastrea siderea hermatypic coral Strombus alatus...garlic sponge Hepetus epheliticus crab Murex fulvescense spiny murex Luidia clethrata starfish Siderastraea siderea hermatypic coral Strombus alatus corich...gorgonids and plexaurids, which are abundant in the Keys, range only halfway through this zone and are few in number. In contrast, certain hermatypic corals

  1. Finding of No Significant Impact/Finding of No Practicable Alternative: Environmental Assessment of the Privatization of Military Family Housing at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-09

    Atlantic; Stone Crab Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico; Spiny Lobster in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Coral and Coral Reefs of the Gulf of Mexico...Numbon; (813): Admin. 627-2620 Waste 627-2640 Legal 627-2Wl Wetlands 627-2630 Water 627-2670 ERM 627-2650 Air 627-2660 Lab 272-5157 RECEIVED SEP 1

  2. Breizacanthus aznari sp. n. (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) from the banded cusk-eel Raneya brasiliensis (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae) from the Patagonian coast in Argentina

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernandez-Orts, J.S.; Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Crespo, E.A.; García, N.A.; Raga, J. A.; Montero, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2012), s. 264-271 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : spiny-headed worms * Palaeacanthocephala * Euzetacanthus * taxonomy * marine fish * southwestern Atlantic * Patagonia Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.515, year: 2012 http://folia.paru.cas.cz/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=22090

  3. In Vivo Study of Dynamics and Stability of Dendritic Spines on Olfactory Bulb Interneurons in Xenopus laevis Tadpoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Bin Huang

    Full Text Available Dendritic spines undergo continuous remodeling during development of the nervous system. Their stability is essential for maintaining a functional neuronal circuit. Spine dynamics and stability of cortical excitatory pyramidal neurons have been explored extensively in mammalian animal models. However, little is known about spiny interneurons in non-mammalian vertebrate models. In the present study, neuronal morphology was visualized by single-cell electroporation. Spiny neurons were surveyed in the Xenopus tadpole brain and observed to be widely distributed in the olfactory bulb and telencephalon. DsRed- or PSD95-GFP-expressing spiny interneurons in the olfactory bulb were selected for in vivo time-lapse imaging. Dendritic protrusions were classified as filopodia, thin, stubby, or mushroom spines based on morphology. Dendritic spines on the interneurons were highly dynamic, especially the filopodia and thin spines. The stubby and mushroom spines were relatively more stable, although their stability significantly decreased with longer observation intervals. The 4 spine types exhibited diverse preferences during morphological transitions from one spine type to others. Sensory deprivation induced by severing the olfactory nerve to block the input of mitral/tufted cells had no significant effects on interneuron spine stability. Hence, a new model was established in Xenopus laevis tadpoles to explore dendritic spine dynamics in vivo.

  4. Comparative study of antioxidant power, polyphenols, flavonoids and betacyanins of peel and pulp of three Tunisian Opuntia forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeddes, Nizar; Chérif, Jamila Kalthoum; Trabelsi Ayadi, Malika

    2014-05-01

    The antioxidant activity and the chemical composition of methanol extracts from peel and pulp belonging to two species of Tunisian prickly pears Opuntia ficus indica (spiny and thornless forms) and Opuntia stricta has been studied. The antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity. The Total Phenolic Compound (TPC) and the total flavonoid content were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and colorimetric method, respectively. The phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The results showed that O. stricta fruits present the best antioxidant activities than the two forms of O. ficus indica while the TPC was more important in O. ficus indica than in the O. stricta fruits. The peels have higher flavonoids than pulps and the thornless has more flavonoid than the spiny. The RP-HPLC and ESI-MS analysis detected two classes of phenolic compounds and betalain pigments. Isorhamnetin derivatives are the dominant flavonol glycoside identified in O. ficus indica (spiny: 65.25 μg g(-1); thornless: 77.03 μg g(-1)) and O. stricta peels (19.22 μg g(-1)).

  5. The neocortex of cetartiodactyls: I. A comparative Golgi analysis of neuronal morphology in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butti, Camilla; Janeway, Caroline M; Townshend, Courtney; Wicinski, Bridget A; Reidenberg, Joy S; Ridgway, Sam H; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Jacobs, Bob

    2015-11-01

    The present study documents the morphology of neurons in several regions of the neocortex from the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the North Atlantic minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), and the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Golgi-stained neurons (n = 210) were analyzed in the frontal and temporal neocortex as well as in the primary visual and primary motor areas. Qualitatively, all three species exhibited a diversity of neuronal morphologies, with spiny neurons including typical pyramidal types, similar to those observed in primates and rodents, as well as other spiny neuron types that had more variable morphology and/or orientation. Five neuron types, with a vertical apical dendrite, approximated the general pyramidal neuron morphology (i.e., typical pyramidal, extraverted, magnopyramidal, multiapical, and bitufted neurons), with a predominance of typical and extraverted pyramidal neurons. In what may represent a cetacean morphological apomorphy, both typical pyramidal and magnopyramidal neurons frequently exhibited a tri-tufted variant. In the humpback whale, there were also large, star-like neurons with no discernable apical dendrite. Aspiny bipolar and multipolar interneurons were morphologically consistent with those reported previously in other mammals. Quantitative analyses showed that neuronal size and dendritic extent increased in association with body size and brain mass (bottlenose dolphin whale humpback whale). The present data thus suggest that certain spiny neuron morphologies may be apomorphies in the neocortex of cetaceans as compared to other mammals and that neuronal dendritic extent covaries with brain and body size.

  6. Ring-Tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Health Parameters across Two Habitats with Varied Levels of Human Disturbance at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Cora L; Norris, Aimee M; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P; Youssouf Jacky, Ibrahim Antho

    2015-01-01

    The health of 36 wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Bezà Mahafaly Special Reserve was assessed across 2 habitats of varied human impact: a reserve riverine gallery forest, and a degraded mixed dry deciduous and Alluaudia-dominated spiny forest. While there were no statistically significant differences in leukocyte count or differential between habitats, female lemurs in the reserve gallery forest had significantly higher percentages of monocytes and eosinophils than male lemurs in the gallery forest. Lemurs from the degraded spiny habitat had significantly higher mean packed cell volume, hematocrit, hemoglobin, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, chloride, ionized calcium and urine specific gravity than lemurs from the reserve gallery forest. These findings may reflect lower hydration levels in lemurs living in degraded habitat, providing evidence that environmental degradation has identifiable impacts on the physiology and health of wild, free-ranging ring-tailed lemurs living in nearby habitats. Given the greater evidence of human impact in the mixed dry deciduous/spiny forest habitat, a pattern seen throughout southern Madagascar, biomedical markers suggestive of decreased hydration can provide empirical data to inform new conservation policies facilitating the long-term survival of this lemur community. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenkranz David

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. Results In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Conclusions Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs

  8. Mercury bioaccumulation in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters: contamination from a trophic ecology and human health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David L; Kutil, Nicholas J; Malek, Anna J; Collie, Jeremy S

    2014-08-01

    This study examined total mercury (Hg) concentrations in cartilaginous fishes from Southern New England coastal waters, including smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias), little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), and winter skate (Leucoraja ocellata). Total Hg in dogfish and skates were positively related to their respective body size and age, indicating Hg bioaccumulation in muscle tissue. There were also significant inter-species differences in Hg levels (mean ± 1 SD, mg Hg/kg dry weight, ppm): smooth dogfish (3.3 ± 2.1 ppm; n = 54) > spiny dogfish (1.1 ± 0.7 ppm; n = 124) > little skate (0.4 ± 0.3 ppm; n = 173) ∼ winter skate (0.3 ± 0.2 ppm; n = 148). The increased Hg content of smooth dogfish was attributed to its upper trophic level status, determined by stable nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope analysis (mean δ(15)N = 13.2 ± 0.7‰), and the consumption of high Hg prey, most notably cancer crabs (0.10 ppm). Spiny dogfish had depleted δ(15)N signatures (11.6 ± 0.8‰), yet demonstrated a moderate level of contamination by foraging on pelagic prey with a range of Hg concentrations, e.g., in order of dietary importance, butterfish (Hg = 0.06 ppm), longfin squid (0.17 ppm), and scup (0.11 ppm). Skates were low trophic level consumers (δ(15)N = 11.9-12.0‰) and fed mainly on amphipods, small decapods, and polychaetes with low Hg concentrations (0.05-0.09 ppm). Intra-specific Hg concentrations were directly related to δ(15)N and carbon (δ(13)C) isotope signatures, suggesting that Hg biomagnifies across successive trophic levels and foraging in the benthic trophic pathway increases Hg exposure. From a human health perspective, 87% of smooth dogfish, 32% of spiny dogfish, and <2% of skates had Hg concentrations exceeding the US Environmental Protection Agency threshold level (0.3 ppm wet weight). These results indicate that frequent consumption of smooth dogfish and spiny dogfish may adversely

  9. Hybridization of mouse lemurs: different patterns under different ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Andreas; Gligor, Mark; Rakotondranary, S Jacques; Rosenkranz, David; Zupke, Oliver

    2011-10-11

    Several mechanistic models aim to explain the diversification of the multitude of endemic species on Madagascar. The island's biogeographic history probably offered numerous opportunities for secondary contact and subsequent hybridization. Existing diversification models do not consider a possible role of these processes. One key question for a better understanding of their potential importance is how they are influenced by different environmental settings. Here, we characterized a contact zone between two species of mouse lemurs, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus, in dry spiny bush and mesic gallery forest that border each other sharply without intermediate habitats between them. We performed population genetic analyses based on mtDNA sequences and nine nuclear microsatellites and compared the results to a known hybrid zone of the same species in a nearby wide gradient from dry spiny bush over transitional forest to humid littoral forest. In the spiny-gallery system, Microcebus griseorufus is restricted to the spiny bush; Microcebus murinus occurs in gallery forest and locally invades the dryer habitat of its congener. We found evidence for bidirectional introgressive hybridization, which is closely linked to increased spatial overlap within the spiny bush. Within 159 individuals, we observed 18 hybrids with mitochondrial haplotypes of both species. Analyses of simulated microsatellite data indicate that we identified hybrids with great accuracy and that we probably underestimated their true number. We discuss short-term climatic fluctuations as potential trigger for the dynamic of invasion and subsequent hybridization. In the gradient hybrid zone in turn, long-term aridification could have favored unidirectional nuclear introgression from Microcebus griseorufus into M. murinus in transitional forest. Madagascar's southeastern transitional zone harbors two very different hybrid zones of mouse lemurs in different environmental settings. This sheds light on the

  10. SINOPSE DA SITUAÇÃO ATUAL, PERSPECTIVAS E CONDIÇÕES DE CULTIVO PARA LAGOSTAS PALINURIDAE REVIEW OF CURRENT SITUATION, PERSPECTIVE AND NEW TECNOLOGIES FOR GROWOUT OF PALINURID LOBSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Igarashi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A lagosta é um produto de exportação de grande importância para o Nordeste brasileiro. Há uma preocupação visível e constante com o decréscimo da produção lagosteira, razão pela qual se propõe o cultivo da lagosta. Não há cultivo comercial de lagostas no Brasil e, no mundo, poucos juvenis de lagostas são cultivados em escala comercial. Desde 1995, os pesquisadores brasileiros têm feito esforços para criar a lagosta Panulirus argus e P. laevicauda, de pueruli ou juvenis recentes até adulto. Contudo, as investigações envolvem a captura dos exemplares em seu hábitat, para o posterior cultivo em confinamento. Existempossibilidades de o Estado do Ceará cultivar juvenis de P. argus e de P. laevicauda que são encontrados em profusão, porém mais pesquisas são necessárias antes de se iniciar um projeto em escala comercial. A par disso, estratégias para a criação da lagosta são relatadas detalhadamente neste artigo, objetivando contribuir para o êxito dessa atividade. Além disso, demonstra-se que os juvenis podem ser cultivados sob regime de confinamento, por se adaptarem bem às condições artificiais de alimentação. Dadas tais características, a lagosta é um crustáceo que se apresenta apropriado para o cultivo comercial. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cultivo, lagosta, manejo. Spiny lobster are important product of exportation in Northeastern of Brasil. There is a visible preoccupation about the reported decline in the catch of lobster. One of the solution to this problem is through culture of spiny lobster. There is no commercial juveniles growout in Brazil and the world culture of juvenile spiny lobster is still conducted on only a small commercial scale. Since 1995 Brazilian researchers have made efforts to rear spiny lobster Panulirus argus and P. laevicauda from the pueruli or early juvenile to the adult stage. The investigations involve capturing pueruli or juveniles and growing them in confinement. This possibility has

  11. The June 2014 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise: Insights from field, textural and geochemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurioli, Lucia; Vlastelic, Ivan; Di Muro, Andrea; Boudoire, Guillaume; Moune, Séverine; Bachelery, Patrick; Villeneuve, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The June 20st, 2014 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise (PdF) represents the first eruption after 3.5 years of quiescence of this very active basaltic volcano. The eruption occurred on the SE slopes of the central cone and was short-lived, lasting only 20 hours and producing a short (1.5 km long) lava flow and a very weak (low) hawaiian to strombolian activity along the eruptive fissure. Here we discuss the first detailed dataset on PdF products integrating field, componentry, texture and chemical data on the 2014 eruptive products. The most intense activity occurred close to the lower tip of the eruptive fracture and dispersed a very small scoria fall out deposit. The deposit is inversely graded from lapilli to bombs, with minor coarse ash and comprises mainly juvenile scoriae with (very) minor, non-juvenile fragments of old scoriae and lava. The juvenile component is characterized by three groups of scoria: (i) spiny-opaque, (ii) spiny-iridescent, and (iii) fluidal, along with golden pumice. Density analyses performed on 200 coarse lapilli reveal a correlation between porosity and morphology, so that the spiny-opaque clasts are the densest (up to 1.60 x 103 kg m-3, for a vesicularity of 45%) and the golden pumice are the lightest (minimum density of 0.4 x 103 kg m-3 for a vesicularity of up to 86 %; DRE: 2.88 x 103 kg m-3). The increase in vesicularity correlates with an increase in number of small vesicles and a decrease in the large, coalesced vesicles. The connectivity data also indicate that the fluidal and golden (hawaiian-like) clasts have more isolated vesicles (up to 40%) than the spiny (strombolian-like) clasts (0-5%). The strong variation in density is controlled not only by the vesicularity, but also by the crystal content: the densest, spiny opaque fragments are the richest in microphenocrysts and microlites of plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine. The glass chemistry of each of the four clast types allows us to correlate porosity and oxide content: while

  12. PERTUMBUHAN IKAN UCENG (Nemacheilus fasciatus DENGAN PADAT TEBAR BERBEDA DALAM LINGKUNGAN EX SITU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Atmadi Prakoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ikan uceng (Nemacheilus fasciatus tergolong ke dalam famili Balitoridae dan genus Nemacheilus. Ikan uceng memiliki potensi ekonomi yang cukup tinggi. Namun, ketersediaan ikan ini masih mengandalkan penangkapan di alam. Untuk itu, perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk memperoleh informasi tentang kemampuan beradaptasi dan keragaan pertumbuhannya sebagai kegiatan awal domestikasi. Koleksi ikan uceng ditangkap dari Sungai Progo, Temanggung, Jawa Tengah dengan ukuran panjang total 4,39 ± 0,35 cm dan bobot 0,66 ± 0,13 g. Ikan diangkut menggunakan sistem transportasi tertutup selama 12 jam menuju Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Air Tawar (BPPBAT, Bogor. Ikan dipelihara dan diadaptasikan di akuarium untuk mengetahui pengaruh transportasi terhadap sintasan pasca-transportasi. Selain itu, ikan uceng juga diadaptasikan dengan pemberian pakan alami berupa cacing sampai ikan tersebut dapat beradaptasi dengan pemberian pakan buatan (pellet. Uji keragaan pertumbuhan ikan uceng dilakukan dalam akuarium berukuran 40 cm x 25 cm x 25 cm dengan tiga perlakuan kepadatan, yaitu 1; 1,5; dan 2 ekor/L dengan tiga ulangan pada masing-masing perlakuan. Pakan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pelet terapung dengan kandungan protein 30% sebanyak 5% dari biomassa dengan frekuensi dua kali sehari. Pengambilan data pertumbuhan dilakukan setiap 10 hari sekali selama 80 hari masa pemeliharaan. Kualitas air yang diamati meliputi: suhu air, pH, oksigen terlarut, nitrat, nitrit, CO2, dan TAN. Parameter yang diukur meliputi: pertambahan panjang, bobot, laju pertumbuhan spesifik (SGR, biomassa, dan sintasan (SR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa padat tebar optimal untuk pertumbuhan ikan uceng adalah 1,5 ekor/L. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan bahwa ikan uceng sangat mungkin didomestikasi dan selanjutnya dilakukan perbaikan mutu genetiknya. Barred loach (Nemacheillus fasciatus from Family of Balitoridae and Genus Nemacheilus has considerable economic

  13. The Study of Importance of the Balance Space Food with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yoshimura, Tuyoshi; Baba, Keiichi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Providing foods to space crew is the important requirements to support long term manned space exploration. We designed joyful and healthy recipe with materials (plants, insects, fish and et.cet.), which can be produced by the bio-regenerative agricultural system operated at limited resources available in spaceship or on Moon and Mars. The fundamental composition of our recipe is unpolished rice, barley, soybean, sweat potato and green-yellow vegetables. Supplement food materials to fulfill the nutritional requirements we chose are loach, silkworm pupa, termite, snail, mud snail, bee, locust, cassava, quinoa and et. cet. And the space foods were made by using IH cooking heater and vacuum cooking machine. Nutritional analysis on the basic vegetable menu consisting of rice, barley, soybean, sweet potato cassava, quinoa and green reveals a shortage of vitamins D and B12, cholesterol and sodium salt. Since vitamin D deficiency results in demineralization of bone. Vitamin B12 is essential to prevent pernicious anemia.Fish contains both vitamins D and B12. The pupa of the silkworm becomes the impor-tant nourishment source as protein and lipid. The silk thread uses it as clothing and cosmetics and medical supplies. However, we can use the silk thread as food as protein after finish to use. A law of nature shakes high quality oils and fats included in termite for cooking. I use the bee as food after having used it for the pollination of the plant. Of course the honey becomes the important food, too. The snail and mud snail become the food as protein. We decided to use the menu consisting of the basic vegetarian menu plus insect and loach for further conceptual design of space agriculture. We succeeded to develop joyful and nutritious space recipe at the end. Because of less need of agricultural resources at choosing ecological members from the lower ladder of the food chain, our space recipe could be a proposal to solve the food problem on Earth.In addition, as for these

  14. A river system to watch: documenting the effects of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) biocontrol in the Virgin River valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Heather L.; Dudley, Tom L.; Bean, Dan W.; Ostoja, Steven M.; Hultine, Kevin R.; Kuehn, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout riparian areas of the southwestern United States, non-native saltcedar (also known as tamarisk; Tamarix spp.) can form dense, monotypic stands and is often reported to have detrimental effects on native plants and habitat quality (Everitt 1980; Shafroth et al. 2005). Natural resource managers of these riparian areas spend considerable time and resources controlling saltcedar using a variety of techniques, including chemical (Duncan and McDaniel 1998), mechanical, and burning methods (Shafroth et al. 2005). Approximately one billion dollars are spent each year on river restoration projects nationally (Bernhardt et al. 2005), and a majority of these projects focus on invasive species control in the Southwest (Follstad Shah et al. 2007). A technique that has drawn much attention is the use of the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a specialist herbivore, as biological control of saltcedar (Lewis et al. 2003). Research testing was conducted with beetles housed in secure enclosures in six states in 1998 and 1999 (Dudley et al. 2001), followed by open release at some of those sites starting in 2001 (DeLoach et al. 2004). By 2005, full-scale saltcedar biocontrol was implemented in 13 states, led by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), the agency that oversees biological control programs, and with the participation and support of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Despite the widespread application of Diorhabda, however, only limited research has quantified the consequences (benefits and costs) on biotic communities and ecosystem services. Alterations to riparian areas caused by various non-native species control activities have the potential to affect a variety of habitat types used by wildlife (Bateman et al. 2008a); processes like water availability, fluvial deposition, and erosion; and the establishment of other non-native species (Carruthers and D'Antonio 2005, Shafroth et al. 2005, DeLoach et al. 2006). Similarly

  15. Two genotypic groups of morphologically similar fish trypanosomes from the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Angela J; Gibson, Wendy; Ferris, Vanessa; Basson, Linda; Smit, Nico J

    2005-09-23

    Blood smears and blood lysate samples from freshwater fishes captured in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, were examined to determine whether their trypanosomes were all Trypanosoma mukasai, a species of supposed broad host specificity and widespread existence across Africa. Trypanosomes and/or babesiosomes occurred in 20/32 blood smears, and morphometric analysis of trypanosomes from 13/32 smears showed features suggestive of T. mukasai, including nuclear indices consistently >1. In 16/32 blood lysate samples from which DNA was extracted, trypanosome DNA was detected in 12/16 by PCR (polymerase chain reaction), using trypanosome-specific ssu rRNA gene primers. Two samples positive for trypanosomes in blood smears yielded no amplifiable trypanosome DNA, but 4 samples with no detectable infection in blood smears were positive for trypanosome DNA, suggesting an overall trypanosome prevalence rate of 17/32 (53%) among fishes and demonstrating the value of PCR in trypanosome recognition. Cloning and sequencing of the 12 amplified fragments revealed 2 genotypic groups among these fish trypanosomes. Group 1 trypanosomes were from cichlids and 3 families of catfishes, Group 2 from 2 types of catfishes. Sequence comparison showed that the consensus Group 1 sequence was most similar to that of Trypanosoma cobitis, representing European fish trypanosomes of the carassii type, while the consensus Group 2 sequence showed similarity with a trypanosome sequence from another African catfish, Clarias angolensis. It was concluded that the identification of T. mukasai remains a problem, but at least 2 genotypic groups of trypanosomes occur in Okavango Delta fishes, and catfishes in this region appear to contain both types.

  16. High serotonin levels during brain development alter the structural input-output connectivity of neural networks in the rat somatosensory layer IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eMiceli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeostatic regulation of serotonin (5-HT concentration is critical for normal topographical organization and development of thalamocortical (TC afferent circuits. Down-regulation of the serotonin transporter (SERT and the consequent impaired reuptake of 5-HT at the synapse, results in a reduced terminal branching of developing TC afferents within the primary somatosensory cortex (S1. Despite the presence of multiple genetic models, the effect of high extracellular 5-HT levels on the structure and function of developing intracortical neural networks is far from being understood. Here, using juvenile SERT knockout (SERT-/- rats we investigated, in vitro, the effect of increased 5-HT levels on the structural organization of (i the thalamocortical projections of the ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus towards S1, (ii the general barrel-field pattern and (iii the electrophysiological and morphological properties of the excitatory cell population in layer IV of S1 (spiny stellate and pyramidal cells. Our results confirmed previous findings that high levels of 5-HT during development lead to a reduction of the topographical precision of TCA projections towards the barrel cortex. Also, the barrel pattern was altered but not abolished in SERT-/- rats. In layer IV, both excitatory spiny stellate and pyramidal cells showed a significantly reduced intracolumnar organization of their axonal projections. In addition, the layer IV spiny stellate cells gave rise to a prominent projection towards the infragranular layer Vb. Our findings point to a structural and functional reorganization, of TCAs, as well as early stage intracortical microcircuitry, following the disruption of 5-HT reuptake during critical developmental periods. The increased projection pattern of the layer IV neurons suggests that the intracortical network changes are not limited to the main entry layer IV but may also affect the subsequent stages of the canonical circuits of the barrel

  17. Dissociable effects of dopamine on neuronal firing rate and synchrony in the dorsal striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Burkhardt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that dopamine depletion leads to both changes in firing rate and in neuronal synchrony in the basal ganglia. Since dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are preferentially expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal medium spiny neurons, respectively, we investigated the relative contribution of lack of D1 and/or D2-type receptor activation to the changes in striatal firing rate and synchrony observed after dopamine depletion. Similar to what was observed after dopamine depletion, co-administration of D1 and D2 antagonists to mice chronically implanted with multielectrode arrays in the striatum caused significant changes in firing rate, power of the local field potential (LFP oscillations, and synchrony measured by the entrainment of neurons to striatal local field potentials. However, although blockade of either D1 or D2 type receptors produced similarly severe akinesia, the effects on neural activity differed. Blockade of D2 receptors affected the firing rate of medium spiny neurons and the power of the LFP oscillations substantially, but it did not affect synchrony to the same extent. In contrast, D1 blockade affected synchrony dramatically, but had less substantial effects on firing rate and LFP power. Furthermore, there was no consistent relation between neurons changing firing rate and changing LFP entrainment after dopamine blockade. Our results suggest that the changes in rate and entrainment to the LFP observed in medium spiny neurons after dopamine depletion are somewhat dissociable, and that lack of D1- or D2-type receptor activation can exert independent yet interactive pathological effects during the progression of Parkinson’s disease.

  18. Striatal activation by optogenetics induces dyskinesias in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F Hernández, Ledia; Castela, Ivan; Ruiz-DeDiego, Irene; Obeso, Jose A; Moratalla, Rosario

    2017-04-01

    Long-term levodopa (l-dopa) treatment is associated with the development of l-dopa-induced dyskinesias in the majority of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The etiopathogonesis and mechanisms underlying l-dopa-induced dyskinesias are not well understood. We used striatal optogenetic stimulation to induce dyskinesias in a hemiparkinsonian model of PD in rats. Striatal dopamine depletion was induced unilaterally by 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle. For the optogenetic manipulation, we injected adeno-associated virus particles expressing channelrhodopsin to stimulate striatal medium spiny neurons with a laser source. Simultaneous optical activation of medium spiny neurons of the direct and indirect striatal pathways in the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion but l-dopa naïve rats induced involuntary movements similar to l-dopa-induced dyskinesias, labeled here as optodyskinesias. Noticeably, optodyskinesias were facilitated by l-dopa in animals that did not respond initially to the laser stimulation. In general, optodyskinesias lasted while the laser stimulus was applied, but in some instances remained ongoing for a few seconds after the laser was off. Postmortem tissue analysis revealed increased FosB expression, a molecular marker of l-dopa-induced dyskinesias, primarily in medium spiny neurons of the direct pathway in the dopamine-depleted hemisphere. Selective optogenetic activation of the dorsolateral striatum elicits dyskinesias in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of PD. This effect was associated with a preferential activation of the direct striato-nigral pathway. These results potentially open new avenues in the understanding of mechanisms involved in l-dopa-induced dyskinesias. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  19. Brain Sexual Differentiation and Requirement of SRY: Why or Why Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl S. Rosenfeld

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differentiation, but this can be overridden in males by early exposure to estrogenic chemicals. Testes development in mammals requires a Y chromosome and testis determining gene SRY (in humans/Sry (all other therian mammals, although there are notable exceptions. Two species of spiny rats: Amami spiny rat (Tokudaia osimensis and Tokunoshima spiny rat (Tokudaia tokunoshimensis and two species of mole voles (Ellobius lutescens and Ellobius tancrei, lack a Y chromosome/Sry and possess an XO chromosome system in both sexes. Such rodent species, prototherians (monotremes, who also lack Sry, and fish and reptile species that demonstrate temperature sex determination (TSD seemingly call into question the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation. This review will consider brain regions expressing SRY/Sry in humans and rodents, respectively, and potential roles of SRY/Sry in the brain will be discussed. The evidence from various taxa disputing the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation in mammals (therians and prototherians and certain fish and reptilian species will be examined. A comparative approach to address this question may elucidate other genes, pathways, and epigenetic modifications stimulating brain sexual differentiation in vertebrate species, including humans.

  20. Brain Sexual Differentiation and Requirement of SRY: Why or Why Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2017-01-01

    Brain sexual differentiation is orchestrated by precise coordination of sex steroid hormones. In some species, programming of select male brain regions is dependent upon aromatization of testosterone to estrogen. In mammals, these hormones surge during the organizational and activational periods that occur during perinatal development and adulthood, respectively. In various fish and reptiles, incubation temperature during a critical embryonic period results in male or female sexual differentiation, but this can be overridden in males by early exposure to estrogenic chemicals. Testes development in mammals requires a Y chromosome and testis determining gene SRY (in humans)/Sry (all other therian mammals), although there are notable exceptions. Two species of spiny rats: Amami spiny rat (Tokudaia osimensis) and Tokunoshima spiny rat (Tokudaia tokunoshimensis) and two species of mole voles (Ellobius lutescens and Ellobius tancrei), lack a Y chromosome/Sry and possess an XO chromosome system in both sexes. Such rodent species, prototherians (monotremes, who also lack Sry), and fish and reptile species that demonstrate temperature sex determination (TSD) seemingly call into question the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation. This review will consider brain regions expressing SRY/Sry in humans and rodents, respectively, and potential roles of SRY/Sry in the brain will be discussed. The evidence from various taxa disputing the requirement of Sry for brain sexual differentiation in mammals (therians and prototherians) and certain fish and reptilian species will be examined. A comparative approach to address this question may elucidate other genes, pathways, and epigenetic modifications stimulating brain sexual differentiation in vertebrate species, including humans. PMID:29200993

  1. First Harvestman Record for the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, with Morphological Notes on Acropsopilio chilensis (Opiliones: Caddidae: Acroposopilioninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-González, Abel; Ramírez, Martín J; Soto, Eduardo M; Pizarro-Araya, Jaime

    2014-08-15

    Acropsopilio chilensis Silvestri, 1904 (Eupnoi: Caddidae: Acropsopilioninae), is recorded for Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile. This is the first harvestman species recorded for the Juan Fernández Archipelago and also the first extra-continental record for this species. During the comparison with continental co-specific specimens, some previously unknown, remarkable morphological characteristics were discovered, among them: the absence of ovipositor seminal receptacles and tracheal system, small and probably imperforate spiracles and the presence of a subdistal spiny structure, maybe a stylus, in the major branch of the penis. 

  2. Probing α4βδ GABAA Receptor Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoestgaard-Jensen, Kirsten; Dalby, Nils Ole; Krall, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    in cerebellar granule cells. In contrast, the compound did not elicit significant currents in dentate gyrus granule cells or in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), indicating predominant expression of extrasynaptic α4β2δ receptors in these cells. Interestingly, Thio-THIP evoked differential degrees...... recorded from dentate gyrus granule cells, most likely by targeting perisynaptic α4βδ receptors expressed at distal dendrites of these cells. Being the first published ligand capable of discriminating between β2- and β3-containing receptor subtypes, Thio-THIP could be a valuable tool in explorations...

  3. Final Environmental Assessment/Overseas Environmental Assessment Joint Strile Fighter System Development and Demonstration Developmental Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    turtle–E (Dermochelys coriacea) U U Y Y Green turtle–T/E (Chelonia mydas) Y Y Y Y Olive ridley turtle–T ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) U U U U Fish...Hawksbill sea turtle E A L L L Lepidochelys kempii Kemp’s Ridley sea turtle E L L L L Caretta caretta Loggerhead sea turtle T M M M M Source: DoN...coriacea E E Kemp’s Ridley Sea Turtle Lepidochelys kempii E E Loggerhead Sea Turtle 135 Caretta caretta T T Eastern Spiny Softshell Apalone s

  4. Elucidating dynamic responses of North Pacific fish populations to climatic forcing: Influence of life-history strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsu, A.; Aydin, K. Y.; King, J. R.; McFarlane, G. A.; Chiba, S.; Tadokoro, K.; Kaeriyama, M.; Watanabe, Y.

    2008-05-01

    In order to explore mechanistic linkages between low-frequency ocean/climate variability, and fish population responses, we undertook comparative studies of time-series of recruitment-related productivity and the biomass levels of fish stocks representing five life-history strategies in the northern North Pacific between the 1950s and the present. We selected seven species: Japanese sardine ( Sardinopus melanostictus) and California sardine ( Sardinopus sagax) (opportunistic strategists), walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma, intermediate strategist), pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, salmonic strategist), sablefish ( Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis) (periodic strategists) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias, equilibrium strategist). The responses in terms of productivity of sardine, pink salmon, sablefish and halibut to climatic regime shifts were generally immediate, delayed, or no substantial responses depending on the particular regime shift year and fish stock (population). In walleye pollock, there were some periods of high productivity and low productivity, but not coincidental to climatic regime shifts, likely due to indirect climate forcing impacts on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Biomass of zooplankton and all fish stocks examined, except for spiny dogfish whose data were limited, indicated a decadal pattern with the most gradual changes in periodic strategists and most intensive and rapid changes in opportunistic strategists. Responses of sardine productivity to regime shifts were the most intense, probably due to the absence of density-dependent effects and the availability of refuges from predators when sardine biomass was extremely low. Spiny dogfish were least affected by environmental variability. Conversely, spiny dogfish are likely to withstand only modest harvest rates due to their very low intrinsic rate of increase. Thus, each life-history strategy type had a unique response to climatic

  5. Cine-Club

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Ciné-Club

    2010-01-01

    Thursday 10 June 2010 at 20:30 Main Auditorium Family Life By: Ken Loach (UK, 1971) 105 min. With: Sandy Ratcliff, Grace Cave, Bill Dean, Malcolm Tierney, Michael Riddall   A nineteen-year old London girl received agressive psychiatric treatments for her schizophrenic behaviour by a doctor who still wants her family to insure the guard of the child without any regards to the facts that it is this family who’s agravating her situation.....   * * * * * * * Thursday 17 June 2010 at 20:30 Main Auditorium Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) By: Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck (Germany, 2006) With: Martina Gedeck, Ulrich Mühe, Sebastian Koch, Ulrich Tukur, Thomas Thieme Academy Award, Best Foreign Language Film 2007 In the early 1980s, the successful dramatist Georg Dreyman and his longtime companion Christa-Maria Sieland, a popular actress, are big intellectual stars in the socialist state, although they secretly don’t always think loyal to the party ...

  6. Cine Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ciné Club

    2013-01-01

    Thursday 22 August 2013 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber The Angels’ Share Directed by Ken Loach (UK, 2012) Original version English; french subtitles; 101 minute This bitter sweet comedy follows protagonist Robbie as he sneaks into the maternity hospital to visit his young girlfriend Leonie and hold his newborn son Luke for the first time. Overwhelmed by the moment, he swears that Luke will not have the same tragic life he has had. Escaping a prison sentence by the skin of his teeth, he's given one last chance...While serving a community service order, he meets Rhino, Albert and Mo who, like him, find it impossible to find work because of their criminal records. Little did Robbie imagine how turning to drink might change their lives - not cheap fortified wine, but the best malt whiskies in the world. Will it be 'slopping out' for the next twenty years, or a new future with 'Uisge Beatha' the 'Water of Life?' Only the angels know.... Th...

  7. Cinema, from scientific enquiry to artistic expression

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Cinéclub’s October cycle explores the evolution of cinema with film-makers Adelina von Fürstenberg and Jan Peters.   "In the Mirror of Maya Deren", a film by Martina Kudlácek. For the past few decades, the CERN Cinéclub has been screening films for the CERN community on Thursday evenings. New members have brought with them greater enthusiasm and new ideas for this Cinéclub tradition. The greatest of these new ideas has been the addition of “cycles”, dedicated either to directors (Luis Bunuel, Serguei Paradzanov, Emir Kusturica, Ken Loach) or to particular themes (Czech new wave, science fiction). Inspired by discussions with Jan Peters - winner of the Collide@CERN Geneva prize and CERN’s filmmaker in residence - the Cinéclub’s October film cycle has explored the evolution of cinema from a form of scientific enquiry to a true form of artistic ...

  8. Treatment of fish parasites. 9. Effects of a medicated food containing malachite green on Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Hymenostomatida, Ciliophora) in ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahl, G; Ruider, S; Mehlhorn, H; Schmidt, H; Ritter, G

    1992-01-01

    For systemic therapy against trophozoites of the skin-inhabiting stage of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in ornamental fish, the latter were fed medicated food flakes containing malachite green once daily for 1-11 days ad libitum. Naturally or artificially infected cardinal tetras (Paracheirodon axelrodi), blue gouramis (Trichogaster trichopterus), or clown loach (Botia macracantha) were used in the trials. The fish were maintained in aerated 12.5- or 60-1 aquaria at 23 degrees C. Ultrastructural investigations (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) revealed clear deleterious effects of malachite green on the parasitic stages. Following the initial application, the inner membrane of the mitochondria was destroyed. In fish fed for 2 days, aggregation of the mucocysts and polymerization the microtubules within the macronucleus occurred. Finally, the trophozoite's membrane was completely destroyed. In fish fed for 4 days, the medicated food killed all trophozoites of I. multifiliis. Sensitive ornamental fish (e.g., P. axelrodi) showed no adverse effects after they had been fed with only the medicated food flakes for 2 months. Therefore, the oral administration of malachite green using this newly developed medicated food considerably reduces the risk of toxic effects on the fish hosts, which are sometimes caused by malachite green following its application by immersion therapy. The feeding of flakes medicated with malachite green provides and easy-to-handle and highly effective treatment of I. multifiliis in ornamental fish.

  9. Presence Tendency of Fish Species in Yatsu Paddy Field and Characterization for Indicator Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Takeshi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Mizutani, Masakazu; Mori, Atsushi; Watabe, Keiji; Nishida, Kazuya

    We analyzed presence tendency of fish species covering the result of surveys which had been performed every month for two years in Yatsu paddy fields, Chiba prefecture. In the result, there were 13 fish species and the number of loach, Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, was about 3/4 of the total number of all species. To analyze tendency of presence of fish species, we applied 3 methods. A few species stood out in the results from all 3 methods. We compared the environmental properties of the canals that these notable species represented with the properties of the other canals, or, the properties of canals in which those species were present with the properties of the other canals. At the result, in our target area, the analysis suggested that presence of many numbers of field gudgeon, Gnathopogon elongatus elongatus, would indicate higher possibility other species would be present and there would be better balanced species composition. And presence of field gudgeon would indicate a more suitable environment for not only field gudgeon but also other species would exist in the reach.

  10. Shouting in the Library: the Radical Voices season at the University of London’s Senate House Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Kimbell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available From its inception, the University of London has defined itself in opposition to the classical elitism of pre-Victorian academia. Described by Dickens as ‘the people’s university’, its founding principles emphasized social inclusion, the betterment of the individual through education and the contributions to the national economy of innovation, invention and hard work. The university’s central research library at Senate House holds a unique corpus of 18th- to 20th-century radical political collections, among which is the library of the Family Welfare Association, with its ground-breaking campaigning around disability, prison conditions, public health and child poverty. Senate House Library and the Institute of Historical Research hosted a season of public and online exhibitions, ‘radical walks’, talks, film screenings and sound installations between January and March 2017, which saw contemporary radical thinkers Ken Loach and Ron Heisler connecting with their predecessors, through their book and manuscript legacies, to tell accessible stories and encourage new audiences into dialogue with ‘the people’s university’. This article explores the successes, challenges and lessons learned from the programme, while the events themselves brought new audiences in to encounter the history of protest and reform in a notoriously inaccessible space.

  11. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from freshwater aquacultures and prediction of the persistence and toxicity of antimicrobials in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung J; Jang, Eunhee; Lee, Sang-Hun; Yoo, Byeong-Hak; Kim, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Tak-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from freshwater aquaculture effluents was investigated. The bacterial strains were collected from four different freshwater aquaculture effluents (catfish, trout, eel, and loach). Based on sequence of 16S rRNA, a total of 20 bacterial strains was isolated and one half of the isolated bacteria were Aeromonas sp. The antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed using the disc diffusion method. Individual antibiotic-resistant bacteria to antimicrobials were 41.7% and multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria were 58.3%. The disinfection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by electron beam (E-beam) irradiation was carried out using an electron accelerator. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were effectively disinfected by E-beam irradiation. The isolated bacteria were completely disinfected at a dose of less than 2 kGy. The persistence and toxicity of each antimicrobial in the aquatic environment was estimated due to the human health and ecosystems. In order to estimate the persistence and toxicity of antimicrobials in the aquatic environment, two quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were used. The persistence and toxicity of each antimicrobial were influenced on its hydrophobicity. In addition, QSAR models showed that isoelectric point and hydrogen bonding acceptor are key parameters to estimate the persistence and toxicity of antimicrobials in the aquatic environment.

  12. Latter-day Mother Irelands: The Role of Women in Michael Collins and The Wind that Shakes the Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Villar-Argáiz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the experimental and subversive work of Irish feminist filmmakers such as Pat Murphy and Margo Harkin in the 1980s, as Gerardine Meaney has contended, “the image of woman as Ireland, Ireland as woman, remains powerful and pervasive in the new Irish cinema” (1998: 250. The cinematic convention of representing Ireland through female characters becomes particularly relevant in two recent Irish historical films: Michael Collins (1996, directed and written by Irish Neil Jordan, and The Wind that Shakes the Barley (2006, written by Scottish Paul Laverty and directed by English Ken Loach. In their dealing with themes such as military occupation, colonisation and the heated debate about the Treaty, both films maintain the nationalist rhetoric that represents Ireland as a woman/mother in a direct manner. Over the course of this essay, I shall try to chart the implications of both films’ representations of women, with a view to demonstrating how, even at present, the trope of Mother Ireland continues to be deep in the national unconscious.

  13. Cine-club

    CERN Document Server

    Ciné-club

    2013-01-01

    Thursday 26 September 2013 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber The Wind that Shakes the Barley Directed by Ken Loach (UK, 2006) Original version english; french subtitles; 127 minutes Ireland, 1920. Damien and Teddy are brothers. But while the latter is already the leader of a guerrilla squad fighting for the independence of his motherland, Damien, a medical graduate of University College, would rather further his training at the London hospital where he has found a place. However, shortly before his departure, he happens to witness atrocities committed by the ferocious Black and Tans and finally decides to join the resistance group led by Teddy. The two brothers fight side by side until a truce is signed. But peace is short-lived and when one faction of the freedom-fighters accepts a treaty with the British that is regarded as unfair by the other faction, a civil war ensues, pitting Irishmen against Irishmen, brothers against brothers, Teddy against Damien... http://cineclub.web.cern.ch/Cineclub/

  14. Cine-club

    CERN Document Server

    Ciné-club

    2010-01-01

    Thursday 3 June 2010 at 20:30 / Jeudi 3 Juin 2010 à 20:30 CERN Main Auditorium / Amphithéâtre Principal The Wind That Shakes the Barley By/de : Ken Loach (UK, 2005) 124 min.   With/ avec : Cillian Murphy, Padraic Delaney, Liam Cunningham, Orla Fitzgerald Golden Palm, Cannes Film Festival 2006 Ireland, 1920. Damien and Teddy are brothers. But while the latter is already the leader of a guerrilla squad fighting for the independence of his motherland, Damien, a medical graduate of University College, would rather further his training at the London hospital where he has found a place. However, shortly before his departure, he happens to witness atrocities committed by the ferocious Black and Tans and finally decides to join the resistance group led by Teddy. The two brothers fight side by side until a truce is signed. But peace is short-lived and when one faction of the freedom-fighters accepts a treaty with the British that is regarded as unfair by the oth...

  15. [Age structure and genetic diversity of Homatula pycnolepis in the Nujiang River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xing-Jian; Liu, Shao-Ping; Liu, Ming-Dian; Duan, Xin-Bin; Wang, Deng-Qiang; Chen, Da-Qing

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the age structure of the Loach, Homatula pycnolepis through the otolith growth rings in 204 individual specimens collected from the Xiaomengtong River of the Nujiang River (Salween River) basin in April, 2008. There were only two different age classes, 1 and 2 years of age-no 3 year olds were detected. The age structure of H. pycnolepis was simple. The complete mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences (1140) of 80 individuals from 4 populations collected in the Nujiang River drainage were sequenced and a total of 44 variable sites were found among 4 different haplotypes. The global haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (Pi) were calculated at 0.7595, 0.0151 respectively, and 0, 0 in each population, indicating a consistent lack of genetic diversity in each small population. There was obvious geographic structure in both the Nujiang River basin (NJB) group, and the Nanding River (NDR) group. The genetic distance between NJB and NDR was calculated at 0.0356, suggesting that genetic divergence resulted from long-term isolation of individual population. Such a simple age structure and a lack of genetic diversity in H. pycnolepis may potentially be due to small populations and locale fishing pressures. Accordingly, the results of this study prompt us to recommend that the NJB, NDR and Lancang River populations should be protected as three different evolutionary significant units or separated management units.

  16. Simple and inexpensive method for cryopreservation of fish sperm combining straw and powdered dry ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, George Shigueki; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Fujimoto, Takafumi; Arai, Katsutoshi

    2008-01-01

    Here, we propose a simple and inexpensive method for fish sperm cryopreservation. Sperm samples of the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) were diluted 7-fold by an extender containing 63.5 mM NaCl, 114 mM KCl, 20 mM Tris and 10% methanol. The cryogenic straws were placed in three kinds of self-made tubes which diameter was changed by commercially available materials and then immersed into powdered dry ice for 2 min and plunged into liquid nitrogen. This procedure resulted in a cooling rate at -421.4 +/- 119.84 (control), -55.8 +/- 4.32 (tube 1), -40.2 +/- 3.43 (tube 2) and -33.3 +/- 2.09 C/min (tube 3). In the slowest cooling rate by the tube 3, total motility (72 +/- 3 %), duration (146 +/- 12 s) and hatching rates (29 +/- 04 %) were higher than those by other rates. Progressive motility (83 +/- 5 %) did not differ significantly from fresh samples.

  17. Geometry and mechanics of teleost gastrulation and the formation of primary embryonic axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdantseva, Elena M; Cherdantsev, Vladimir G

    2006-01-01

    Examination of normal shaping dynamics and immediate and long-term responses to blastoderm cutting in zebrafish and loach embryos prior to the onset of gastrulation and during the course of epiboly revealed that anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) polarity formation is connected with shaping of the blastoderm circumferential region, which stretches along and shrinks across its movement axes and originates the non-isotropic fields of tensile stresses. Based on data from cutting experiments and quantitative morphology, we reconstructed the movement-shaping patterns of epiboly and embryonic shield formation. We revealed that AP and DV axes originate as a mass cell movement subject to the movement-shaping equivalence principle, which means the spatial series of differently shaped areas corresponding to the time succession of the same area shaping. Maintenance of the main body axes in orthogonal orientation depends on the mechanical equilibrium principle allowing for converting shape asymmetry into that of tensile stresses and vice versa. The causal relationship between the main movement-shaping axes and that of embryonic polarity was proved in cutting experiments in which the DV axis direction was subject to rearrangement so as to adjust to the new direction of mass cell movement axes induced by healing the wound in the blastoderm circumferential region.

  18. Do infants find snakes aversive? Infants' physiological responses to "fear-relevant" stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Cat; LoBue, Vanessa

    2016-02-01

    In the current research, we sought to measure infants' physiological responses to snakes-one of the world's most widely feared stimuli-to examine whether they find snakes aversive or merely attention grabbing. Using a similar method to DeLoache and LoBue (Developmental Science, 2009, Vol. 12, pp. 201-207), 6- to 9-month-olds watched a series of multimodal (both auditory and visual) stimuli: a video of a snake (fear-relevant) or an elephant (non-fear-relevant) paired with either a fearful or happy auditory track. We measured physiological responses to the pairs of stimuli, including startle magnitude, latency to startle, and heart rate. Results suggest that snakes capture infants' attention; infants showed the fastest startle responses and lowest average heart rate to the snakes, especially when paired with a fearful voice. Unexpectedly, they also showed significantly reduced startle magnitude during this same snake video plus fearful voice combination. The results are discussed with respect to theoretical perspectives on fear acquisition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electric Shocks Resulting in Seismic Animal Anomalous Behaviors (SAABs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Takaki, Shunji; Takashimizu, Dan

    1996-03-01

    Electric field effects on fish and worms have been studied assuming that the seismic animal anomalous behaviors (SAABs) witnessed prior to the Hansin Earthquake were caused by seismic electric current. Japanese minnows, guppies and loaches responded to the current and aligned perpendicular to the field direction and earthworms swarmed, which are forms of SAABs, at a current density of J=0.1˜1 A/m2 presumably to reduce the effects of the field, F. A mathematical model of a fault was used to express the seismic stress, σ(t) corresponding to a fault displacement, D(t). An electromagnetic model of a fault, where a bound charge density, q which compensate the piezoelectric polarization, appears due to the release of seismic stress is used to derive dq/dt=-α(dσ/dt)-q/ɛρ, F=q/ɛ and J=F/ρ'. Using the piezoelectric coefficient, α, dielectric constant, ɛ and the resistivity, ρ of bedrock granite and ρ' of water gives J=1 A/m2 in concordance with the experiments.

  20. Structure of supporting elements in the dorsal fin of percid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickhardt, Alexander F; Feilich, Kara L; Lauder, George V

    2017-12-01

    The dorsal fin is one of the most varied swimming structures in Acanthomorpha, the spiny-finned fishes. This fin can be present as a single contiguous structure supported by bony spines and soft lepidotrichia, or it may be divided into an anterior, spiny dorsal fin and a posterior, soft dorsal fin. The freshwater fish family Percidae exhibits especially great variation in dorsal fin spacing, including fishes with separated fins of varying gap length and fishes with contiguous fins. We hypothesized that fishes with separated dorsal fins, especially those with large gaps between fins, would have stiffened fin elements at the leading edge of the soft dorsal fin to resist hydrodynamic loading during locomotion. For 10 percid species, we measured the spacing between dorsal fins and calculated the second moment of area of selected spines and lepidotrichia from museum specimens. There was no significant relationship between the spacing between dorsal fins and the second moment of area of the leading edge of the soft dorsal fin. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Musical representation of dendritic spine distribution: a new exploratory tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toharia, Pablo; Morales, Juan; de Juan, Octavio; Fernaud, Isabel; Rodríguez, Angel; DeFelipe, Javier

    2014-04-01

    Dendritic spines are small protrusions along the dendrites of many types of neurons in the central nervous system and represent the major target of excitatory synapses. For this reason, numerous anatomical, physiological and computational studies have focused on these structures. In the cerebral cortex the most abundant and characteristic neuronal type are pyramidal cells (about 85 % of all neurons) and their dendritic spines are the main postsynaptic target of excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Thus, our understanding of the synaptic organization of the cerebral cortex largely depends on the knowledge regarding synaptic inputs to dendritic spines of pyramidal cells. Much of the structural data on dendritic spines produced by modern neuroscience involves the quantitative analysis of image stacks from light and electron microscopy, using standard statistical and mathematical tools and software developed to this end. Here, we present a new method with musical feedback for exploring dendritic spine morphology and distribution patterns in pyramidal neurons. We demonstrate that audio analysis of spiny dendrites with apparently similar morphology may "sound" quite different, revealing anatomical substrates that are not apparent from simple visual inspection. These morphological/music translations may serve as a guide for further mathematical analysis of the design of the pyramidal neurons and of spiny dendrites in general.

  2. Procedural-Based Category Learning in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Category Number and Category Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent eFiloteo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously we found that Parkinson's disease (PD patients are impaired in procedural-based category learning when category membership is defined by a nonlinear relationship between stimulus dimensions, but these same patients are normal when the rule is defined by a linear relationship (Filoteo et al., 2005; Maddox & Filoteo, 2001. We suggested that PD patients' impairment was due to a deficit in recruiting ‘striatal units' to represent complex nonlinear rules. In the present study, we further examined the nature of PD patients' procedural-based deficit in two experiments designed to examine the impact of (1 the number of categories, and (2 category discontinuity on learning. Results indicated that PD patients were impaired only under discontinuous category conditions but were normal when the number of categories was increased from two to four. The lack of impairment in the four-category condition suggests normal integrity of striatal medium spiny cells involved in procedural-based category learning. In contrast, and consistent with our previous observation of a nonlinear deficit, the finding that PD patients were impaired in the discontinuous condition suggests that these patients are impaired when they have to associate perceptually distinct exemplars with the same category. Theoretically, this deficit might be related to dysfunctional communication among medium spiny neurons within the striatum, particularly given that these are cholinergic neurons and a cholinergic deficiency could underlie some of PD patients’ cognitive impairment.

  3. Description of the East Brazil Large Marine Ecosystem using a trophic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M.F. Freire

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the marine ecosystem off northeastern Brazil. A trophic model was constructed for the 1970s using Ecopath with Ecosim. The impact of most of the forty-one functional groups was modest, probably due to the highly reticulated diet matrix. However, seagrass and macroalgae exerted a strong positive impact on manatee and herbivorous reef fishes, respectively. A high negative impact of omnivorous reef fishes on spiny lobsters and of sharks on swordfish was observed. Spiny lobsters and swordfish had the largest biomass changes for the simulation period (1978-2000; tunas, other large pelagics and sharks showed intermediate rates of biomass decline; and a slight increase in biomass was observed for toothed cetaceans, large carnivorous reef fishes, and dolphinfish. Recycling was an important feature of this ecosystem with low phytoplankton-originated primary production. The mean transfer efficiency between trophic levels was 11.4%. The gross efficiency of the fisheries was very low (0.00002, probably due to the low exploitation rate of most of the resources in the 1970s. Basic local information was missing for many groups. When information gaps are filled, this model may serve more credibly for the exploration of fishing policies for this area within an ecosystem approach.

  4. Acetaminophen and zinc phosphide for lethal management of invasive lizards Ctenosaura similis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. AVERY, John D. EISEMANN, Kandy L. KEACHER,Peter J. SAVARIE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reducing populations of invasive lizards through trapping and shooting is feasible in many cases but effective integrated management relies on a variety of tools, including toxicants. In Florida, using wild-caught non-native black spiny-tailed iguanas Ctenosaura similis, we screened acetaminophen and zinc phosphide to determine their suitability for effective population management of this prolific invasive species. Of the animals that received acetaminophen, none died except at the highest test dose, 240 mg per lizard, which is not practical for field use. Zinc phosphide produced 100% mortality at dose levels as little as 25 mg per lizard, equivalent to about 0.5% in bait which is lower than currently used in commercial baits for commensal rodent control. We conclude that zinc phosphide has potential as a useful tool for reducing populations of invasive lizards such as the black spiny-tailed iguana provided target-selective delivery methods are developed [Current Zoology 57 (5: 625–629, 2011].

  5. Spatiotemporal ecology of Apalone spinifera in a large, Great Plains river ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Brian J.; Bramblett, Robert G.; Zale, Alexander V.; Leathe, Stephen A.

    2017-01-01

    Sparse information exists about the ecology of Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera) in large rivers, at the northwestern extent of their natural range, and in Montana, where they are disjunct from downstream populations and a State Species of Concern. We determined spatiotemporal ecology of 47 female and 12 male turtles from 2009 through 2012 and identified fundamental habitats in the Missouri River in east-central Montana. Movement rates of females were greater than those of males and peaked before nesting. Movement rates of males peaked before overwintering, and movement rates of both sexes were minimal in winter. Home range sizes were not different between sexes, varied among individuals and seasons, and were similar to those reported elsewhere in their northern range. Turtles aggregated and showed interannual fidelity to separate and disparate habitats in different seasons. Turtles often chose fine substrates, tributary confluences, and reaches with islands during summer and mainstem outside bends in the winter. They inhabited shallow, slow water velocity areas from May to September. They inhabited deeper, moderate velocity areas from October to April. We did not observe ice jams and associated riverbed scour at hibernacula, but did observe them elsewhere. Ice jams may be spatially predictable and influence the distribution of riverine turtles during autumn and winter. Preservation of dissimilar habitats used during major portions of the life cycle (lateral habitats, islands, and hibernacula) and natural streamflow patterns, which influenced timing of habitat availability and turtle movement, may facilitate continued existence of Spiny Softshell Turtles in the Missouri River in Montana

  6. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  7. Enhanced dendritic spine number of neurons of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens in old rats after chronic donepezil administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara-Gonzalez, Faviola; Juarez, Ismael; Solis, Oscar; Martinez-Tellez, Isaura; Camacho-Abrego, Israel; Masliah, Eliezer; Mena, Raul; Flores, Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease brains morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus have been observed. These changes are particularly reflected in the decrement of both the dendritic tree and spine number. Donepezil is a potent and selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We have studied the effect of oral administration of this drug on the morphology of neuronal cells from the brain of aged rats. We examined dendrites of pyramidal neurons of the PFC, dorsal or ventral hippocampus and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Donepezil (1 mg/Kg, vo) was administrated every day for 60 days to rats aged 10 and 18 months. Dendritic morphology was studied by the Golgi-Cox stain procedure followed by Sholl analysis at 12 and 20 months ages, respectively. In all Donepezil treated-rats a significant increment of the dendritic spines number in pyramidal neurons of the PFC, dorsal hippocampus was observed. However, pyramidal neurons of the ventral hippocampus and medium spiny cells of the NAcc only showed an increase in the number of their spines in 12 months old-rats. Our results suggest that Donepezil prevents the alterations of the neuronal dendrite morphology caused by aging. PMID:20336627

  8. Bidirectional Control of Reversal in a Dual Action Task by Direct and Indirect Pathway Activation in the Dorsolateral Striatum in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Laurent

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is a key brain structure involved in the processing of cognitive flexibility, which results from the balance between the flexibility demanded for novel learning of motor actions and the inflexibility required to preserve previously learned actions. In particular, the dorsolateral portion of the striatum (DLS is engaged in the learning of action sequence. This process is temporally driven by fine adjustments in the function of the two main neuronal populations of the striatum, known as the direct pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons (iMSNs. Here, using optogenetics, behavioral, and electrophysiological tools, we addressed the relative role of both neuronal populations in the acquisition of a reversal dual action sequence in the DLS. While the channelrhodopsin-induced activation of dMSNs and iMSNs of the DLS did not induce changes in the learning rate of the sequence, the specific activation of the dMSNs of the DLS facilitated the acquisition of a reversal dual action sequence; the activation of iMSNs induced a significant deficit in the acquisition of the same task. Taken together our results indicate an antagonistic relationship between dMSNs and iMSNs on the acquisition of a reversal dual action sequence.

  9. Descriptions of Protospathidium serpens (Kahl, 1930) and P. fraterculum n. sp. (Ciliophora, Haptoria), two species based on different resting cyst morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuidong; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2005-01-01

    Protospathidium serpens (Kahl, 1930) is frequent in semiterrestrial and terrestrial habitats worldwide. Conventionally, all populations are considered as conspecific because they have very similar overall morphologies and morphometrics. We studied in detail not only the morphology of the vegetative cells but also the resting cysts using live observation, protargol impregnation, and scanning electron microscopy. These revealed a cryptic diversity and biogeographic pattern in details of the dorsal brush and cyst wall morphology. The cyst wall is spiny in the Austrian specimens, while smooth in the South African and Antarctic populations. Accordingly, P. serpens consists of at least two species: P. serpens (with spiny cyst wall) and P. fraterculum n. sp. (with smooth cyst wall); the latter is probably composed of two distinct taxa differing by the absence (South African)/presence (Antarctic) of a monokinetidal bristle tail in brush row 3, the number of dikinetids comprising brush row 1 (seven versus three), and the total number of brush dikinetids (29 versus 17). Protospathidium serpens is neotypified with the new population from Austria. The significance of resting cyst morphology is discussed with respect to alpha-taxonomy and overall ciliate diversity.

  10. Huntington's disease: a randomized, controlled trial using the NMDA-antagonist amantadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen Metman, L; Morris, M J; Farmer, C; Gillespie, M; Mosby, K; Wuu, J; Chase, T N

    2002-09-10

    To examine the acute effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist amantadine on motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Chorea in HD and in the levodopa-induced dyskinesias of PD may be clinically indistinguishable. In PD, hyperphosphorylation of NMDA receptors expressed on striatal medium spiny neurons contributes to peak-dose dyskinesias, and drugs that block these receptors can diminish chorea severity. Because these spiny neurons are the primary target of the neurodegenerative process in HD, sensitization of NMDA receptors on residual striatal neurons might also participate in the generation of motor dysfunction in HD. To evaluate this possibility, 24 patients with HD entered a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of amantadine with two 2-week arms. Chorea scores were lower with amantadine (usually 400 mg/d) than placebo, with a median reduction in extremity chorea at rest of 36% (p = 0.04) for all 22 evaluable patients and of 56% in the 10 individuals with the highest plasma drug levels. Improvement correlated with plasma amantadine concentrations (p = 0.01) but not CAG repeat length. Parkinsonian rating scores did not worsen and there was no consistent change in cognitive measures. Adverse event profile was benign. Results suggest that NMDA receptor supersensitivity may contribute to the clinical expression of choreiform dyskinesias in HD and that selective antagonists at that site can safely confer palliative benefit.

  11. Reef Sound as an Orientation Cue for Shoreward Migration by Pueruli of the Rock Lobster, Jasus edwardsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, Ivan A; Green, Bridget S; Gardner, Caleb; Hesse, Jan; Stanley, Jenni A; Jeffs, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    The post-larval or puerulus stage of spiny, or rock, lobsters (Palinuridae) swim many kilometres from open oceans into coastal waters where they subsequently settle. The orientation cues used by the puerulus for this migration are unclear, but are presumed to be critical to finding a place to settle. Understanding this process may help explain the biological processes of dispersal and settlement, and be useful for developing realistic dispersal models. In this study, we examined the use of reef sound as an orientation cue by the puerulus stage of the southern rock lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Experiments were conducted using in situ binary choice chambers together with replayed recording of underwater reef sound. The experiment was conducted in a sandy lagoon under varying wind conditions. A significant proportion of puerulus (69%) swam towards the reef sound in calm wind conditions. However, in windy conditions (>25 m s-1) the orientation behaviour appeared to be less consistent with the inclusion of these results, reducing the overall proportion of pueruli that swam towards the reef sound (59.3%). These results resolve previous speculation that underwater reef sound is used as an orientation cue in the shoreward migration of the puerulus of spiny lobsters, and suggest that sea surface winds may moderate the ability of migrating pueruli to use this cue to locate coastal reef habitat to settle. Underwater sound may increase the chance of successful settlement and survival of this valuable species.

  12. Why all those spines? Anachronistic defences in the Didiereoideae against now extinct lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Crowley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants evolve physical defences, such as spines, against browsing herbivores. However, in some cases, these defences may be anachronistic because the principal consumers of protected parts of the plant are extinct. In such cases, there may be few extant species consuming heavily defended resources. Here we examine the spiny defences of Madagascar’s endemic Didiereoideae, and ask whether they may be anachronistic. To accomplish this aim, we reviewed the literature to determine which species consume these plants today, and then used stable isotope biogeochemistry to determine who may have exploited Didiereoideae in the recent past. There are four major groups of browsers that are now extinct in Madagascar: giant lemurs, elephant birds (Aepyornis and Mullerornis: Aepyornithidae, pygmy hippopotamuses (Hippopotamus and giant tortoises (Aldabrachelys: Testudinidae. Each group was evaluated for isotopic evidence of didiereoid plant consumption. Given the structure of members of this plant clade (especially Alluaudia, we predicted that lemurs would be their most important consumers. Three extant lemur species consume Didiereoideae. Several of the extinct lemurs, particularly Hadropithecus stenognathus, may have relied heavily on these spiny plants. None of the non-lemur megafaunal browsers (elephant birds, hippopotamuses and giant tortoises were important consumers of Didiereoideae.

  13. Compensation of thermal constraints along a natural environmental gradient in a Malagasy iguanid lizard (Oplurus quadrimaculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisinger, Ole; Berg, W; Dausmann, K H

    2017-08-01

    Physiological or behavioural adjustments are a prerequisite for ectotherms to cope with different thermal environments. One of the world's steepest environmental gradients in temperature and precipitation can be found in southeastern Madagascar. This unique gradient allowed us to study the compensation of thermal constraints in the heliothermic lizard Oplurus quadrimaculatus on a very small geographic scale. The lizard occurs from hot spiny forest to intermediate gallery and transitional forest to cooler rain forest and we investigated whether these habitat differences are compensated behaviourally or physiologically. To study activity skin temperature (as proxy for body temperature) and the activity time of lizards, we attached temperature loggers to individuals in three different habitats. In addition, we calculated field resting costs from field resting metabolic rate to compare energy expenditure along the environmental gradient. We found no variation in activity skin temperature, despite significant differences in operative environmental temperature among habitats. However, daily activity time and field resting costs were reduced by 35% and 28% in the cool rain forest compared to the hot spiny forest. Our study shows that O. quadrimaculatus relies on behavioural mechanisms rather than physiological adjustments to compensate thermal differences between habitats. Furthermore, its foraging activity in open, sun exposed habitats facilitates such a highly effective thermoregulation that cold operative temperature, not energetically expensive heat, presents a greater challenge for these lizards despite living in a hot environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A New Chytridiomycete Fungus Intermixed with Crustacean Resting Eggs in a 407-Million-Year-Old Continental Freshwater Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Strullu-Derrien

    Full Text Available The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy enabled us to reconstruct the fungus and its possible mode of nutrition, the affinity of the resting eggs, and their spatial associations. The new fungus (Cultoraquaticus trewini gen. et sp. nov is attributed to Chytridiomycota based on its size, consistent formation of papillae, and the presence of an internal rhizoidal system. It is the most pristine fossil Chytridiomycota known, especially in terms of rhizoidal development and closely resembles living species in the Rhizophydiales. The spiny resting eggs are attributed to the crustacean Lepidocaris rhyniensis, dating branchiopod adaptation to life in ephemeral pools to the Early Devonian. The new fungal interaction suggests that, as in modern freshwater environments, chytrids were important to the mobilisation of nutrients in early aquatic foodwebs.

  15. [Population ecology of Heteromys pictus (Rodentia: Heteromyidae), in a tropical deciduous forest with human disturbance, in Oaxaca coast, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Salas, Miguel; González, Graciela

    2016-12-01

    Spiny pocket mice Liomys and Heteromys are forest-dwelling granivorous rodents distributed in seasonally dry forest or thorn scrub along the Pacific lowlands or xeric regions in the Mexican Plateau. We analyzed the population dynamics of the spiny pocket mouse Heteromys pictus, in the coast of Oaxaca, Mexico, in two sites of tropical deciduous forest with different degrees of disturbance: ZPP = less disturbed site, and ZMP = more disturbed site. Two plots were established in each area with 66 trap stations; we used the capture-recapture method and trapping for 12 periods for one year. Population density was estimated using the method of Minimum Number of Individuals Known Alive (MNKA). We captured 706 individuals, 290 for the ZPP and 416 for the ZMP. The population density ranged from 28 to 142 ind./ha for both zones, but it was higher for the ZMP (54 against 142 ind./ha). The population density for both areas increased during the rainy season and coincided with the increased recruitment of adults. Reproductive activity occurred throughout the study period in both areas, but it was higher for the ZMP. The sex ratio in the ZPP was 1:1 while in the ZMP was 1:0.75. In the ZMP we found a higher population density and reproductive activity in females, compared to the ZPP. These results suggest that H. pictus prefers the ZMP, indicating that thespeciesisnot significantly affected by human disturbance in the studied location.

  16. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA SALMONIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev

    2003-12-01

    watershed. Their extensions touch just at the water-separation between the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea on the Dinarid Mountains. The idea for this thesis originates from the distribution of the small cobitid Cobitis elongata Heckel & Kner, 1858 given in the work of K a r ama n, S., (1952. The thesis that the endemic salmonids came in the Adriatic Sea watershed through the Adriatic.Pannonian connection is supported by the zoogeographical distribution of some mutual marine, brachic or freshwater fish species for Adriatic Sea itself or the Adriatic Sea watershed and Ponto.Caspian depression (Black Sea and Caspian Lake. These fish belong to the families Acipenseridae and Cobitidae, some endemic Cyprinidae representatives from the Adriatic Sea watershed belong to widely extended genera in the central Europe, mainly in the Danube river flow.

  17. mGluR5 Exerts Cell-Autonomous Influences on the Functional and Anatomical Development of Layer IV Cortical Neurons in the Mouse Primary Somatosensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Rosado, Carlos J; Sun, Hao; Huang, Jui-Yen; Lu, Hui-Chen

    2016-08-24

    Glutamate neurotransmission refines synaptic connections to establish the precise neural circuits underlying sensory processing. Deleting metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in mice perturbs cortical somatosensory map formation in the primary somatosensory (S1) cortex at both functional and anatomical levels. To examine the cell-autonomous influences of mGluR5 signaling in the morphological and functional development of layer IV spiny stellate glutamatergic neurons receiving sensory input, mGluR5 genetic mosaic mice were generated through in utero electroporation. In the S1 cortex of these mosaic brains, we found that most wild-type neurons were located in barrel rings encircling thalamocortical axon (TCA) clusters while mGluR5 knock-out (KO) neurons were placed in the septal area, the cell-sparse region separating barrels. These KO neurons often displayed a symmetrical dendritic morphology with increased dendritic complexity, in contrast to the polarized pattern of wild-type neurons. The dendritic spine density of mGluR5 KO spiny stellate neurons was significantly higher than in wild-type neurons. Whole-cell electrophysiological recordings detected a significant increase in the frequencies of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic events in mGluR5 KO neurons compared with neighboring wild-type neurons. Our mosaic analysis provides strong evidence supporting the cell-autonomous influence of mGluR5 signaling on the functional and anatomical development of cortical glutamatergic neurons. Specifically, mGluR5 is required in cortical glutamatergic neurons for the following processes: (1) the placement of cortical glutamatergic neurons close to TCA clusters; (2) the regulation of dendritic complexity and outgrowth toward TCA clusters; (3) spinogenesis; and (4) tuning of excitatory inputs. Glutamatergic transmission plays a critical role in cortical circuit formation. Its dysfunction has been proposed as a core factor in the etiology of many

  18. Dopamine Receptors Differentially Control Binge Alcohol Drinking-Mediated Synaptic Plasticity of the Core Nucleus Accumbens Direct and Indirect Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xincai; Saha, Sucharita; Kolpakova, Jenya; Guildford, Melissa; Tapper, Andrew R; Martin, Gilles E

    2017-05-31

    Binge alcohol drinking, a behavior characterized by rapid repeated alcohol intake, is most prevalent in young adults and is a risk factor for excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence. Although the alteration of synaptic plasticity is thought to contribute to this behavior, there is currently little evidence that this is the case. We used drinking in the dark (DID) as a model of binge alcohol drinking to assess its effects on spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) in medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the core nucleus accumbens (NAc) by combining patch-clamp recordings with calcium imaging and optogenetics. After 2 weeks of daily alcohol binges, synaptic plasticity was profoundly altered. STDP in MSNs expressing dopamine D1 receptors shifted from spike-timing-dependent long-term depression (tLTD), the predominant form of plasticity in naive male mice, to spike-timing-dependent long-term potentiation (tLTP) in DID mice, an effect that was totally reversed in the presence of 4 μm SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist. In MSNs presumably expressing dopamine D2 receptors, tLTP, the main form of plasticity in naive mice, was inhibited in DID mice. Interestingly, 1 μm sulpiride, a D2 receptor antagonist, restored tLTP. Although we observed no alterations of AMPA and NMDA receptor properties, we found that the AMPA/NMDA ratio increased at cortical and amygdaloid inputs but not at hippocampal inputs. Also, DID effects on STDP were accompanied by lower dendritic calcium transients. These data suggest that the role of dopamine in mediating the effects of binge alcohol drinking on synaptic plasticity of NAc MSNs differs markedly whether these neurons belong to the direct or indirect pathways. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We examined the relationship between binge alcohol drinking and spike timing-dependent plasticity in nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons. We found that repeated drinking bouts modulate differently synaptic plasticity in medium spiny neurons of the

  19. Ecological effects of dams, alien fish, and physiochemical environmental factors on homogeneity/heterogeneity of fish community in four tributaries of the Pearl River in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lei; Zhou, Lei; Guo, Ding-Li; Fu, Dong-Hua; Xu, Peng; Zeng, Shuang; Tang, Qin-Dong; Chen, An-Luo; Chen, Fei-Qiao; Luo, Yong; Li, Gui-Feng

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to characterize the fish community structure and identify the drivers contributing to homogenization/differentiation processes in four tributaries to the Pearl River, Guangxi Province, China, over the past few decades. We sampled 22 sites seasonally from 2013 through 2015, and these sites were selected based on archived records of previous sampling conducted in the 1980s. Jaccard's faunal similarity index, cluster analysis, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were applied to describe the homogenization/differentiation of fish community and illustrate the potential effectors. The number of fish species present in three of the four sampled tributaries declined dramatically over the past 30 years, leading toward a trend of increased fish community homogeneity throughout the watershed. Results from multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses allowed us to divide the study area into two distinct ecoregions. Four species ( yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco , pond loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus , Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus , and sharpbelly Hemiculter leucisculus ) were considered to be indicative fish species contributing more than 5% of the dissimilarity between the two eco-regions according to the results of similarity percentage procedure. Results from CCA revealed that pH and latitude corresponded with the dominant fish species of each respective tributary. More specifically, CCA results allowed us to classify dominant fish species into three distinct groups. The first group was mainly located in Guijiang characterized by higher latitudes and lower pH values, the second group was widespread in the four tributaries, and the last group was primarily distributed in Yujiang, Youjiang, and Zuojiang characterized by lower latitudes and higher pH values. Spatial differentiation of fish community structure and temporal homogeneity of species composition were attributed to the joint actions of human interventions including

  20. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -IH and Vacuum cooking -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Murasaki, Masahiro; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. This study was aimed at making balance space foods menu for the healthy space-life. The kitchen utensil has a limit in the space environment. And a method to warm is only heater without fire. Therefore purpose of this study, we make the space foods which make by using vacuum cooking device and the IH heater We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores.. We could make the space foods which we devised with vacuum cooking and IH deliciously. As a result of sensuality examination, the eight points in ten points of perfect scores was appeared. This result showed, our space food menu is delicious. We can store these space foods with a refrigerator for 20 days by making vacuum cooking. This thing is at all important result so that a save is enabled when surplus food was done in future by performing vacuum cooking. We want to make delicious space foods menu with vacuum cooking and IH heater more in future.

  1. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  2. Effect of vitamin E levels on the cell-mediated immunity of broilers vaccinated against coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICM da Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the relationships between animal nutrition and immunity have sought reliable methodologies to measure responses. Cell-mediated immune response is similarly studied in humans. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity test (CBH is one of the methods to measure that response and consists in the infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly of lymphocytes and basophils, as result of the application of substances capable of inducing cell proliferation in determined sites, such as wings, wattle, and interdigital space in birds. CBH is considered a simple and fast method and can be applied in birds of different ages. In immunocompetence studies with poultry, phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P is a commonly used substance, despite the variability of the response related to the method of application (intradermal injection and the antigens used. In the present experiment, PHA-P was used to observe the cell-mediated immune response of 216 chicks fed three dietary levels of vitamin E from 1 to 36 days of age. All birds were immunologically challenged by vaccination against coccidiosis at three days of age and against Newcastle Disease (NCD at 14 and 30 days of age. At 36 days of age, birds were submitted to the CBH test according to the methodology of Corrier & DeLoach (1990. Birds fed 65mg/kg of vitamin E presented lasting cell reaction (p<0.08, which indicates that this vitamin E level improved cell immune response of birds due to its antioxidant and immunomodulating properties. The use of this vitamin E level can be considered by nutritionists under practical conditions, aiming to improve broiler immunity.

  3. Striatal Vulnerability in Huntington’s Disease: Neuroprotection Versus Neurotoxicity

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    Ryoma Morigaki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat encoding an abnormally long polyglutamine tract (PolyQ in the huntingtin (Htt protein. In HD, striking neuropathological changes occur in the striatum, including loss of medium spiny neurons and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons accompanied by neurodegeneration of the striosome and matrix compartments, leading to progressive impairment of reasoning, walking and speaking abilities. The precise cause of striatal pathology in HD is still unknown; however, accumulating clinical and experimental evidence suggests multiple plausible pathophysiological mechanisms underlying striatal neurodegeneration in HD. Here, we review and discuss the characteristic neurodegenerative patterns observed in the striatum of HD patients and consider the role of various huntingtin-related and striatum-enriched proteins in neurotoxicity and neuroprotection.

  4. Cafeteria diet induces neuroplastic modifications in the nucleus accumbens mediated by microglia activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Martos, Miriam; Girard, Benoit; Mendonça-Netto, Sueli; Perroy, Julie; Valjent, Emmanuel; Maldonado, Rafael; Martin, Miquel

    2018-03-01

    High-palatable and caloric foods are widely overconsumed due to hedonic mechanisms that prevail over caloric necessities leading to overeating and overweight. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key brain area modulating the reinforcing effects of palatable foods and is crucially involved in the development of eating disorders. We describe that prolonged exposure to high-caloric chocolate cafeteria diet leads to overeating and overweight in mice. NAc functionality was altered in these mice, presenting structural plasticity modifications in medium spiny neurons, increased expression of neuroinflammatory factors and activated microglia, and abnormal responses after amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion. Chronic inactivation of microglia normalized these neurobiological and behavioural alterations exclusively in mice exposed to cafeteria diet. Our data suggest that prolonged exposure to cafeteria diet produces neuroplastic and functional changes in the NAc that can modify feeding behaviour. Microglia activation and neuroinflammation play an important role in the development of these neurobiological alterations. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Linking Cholinergic Interneurons, Synaptic Plasticity, and Behavior during the Extinction of a Cocaine-Context Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junuk; Finkelstein, Joel; Choi, Jung Yoon; Witten, Ilana B

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that cholinergic interneurons are a key cell type within the nucleus accumbens, a relationship between synaptic plasticity and the in vivo activity of cholinergic interneurons remains to be established. Here, we identify a three-way link between the activity of cholinergic interneurons, synaptic plasticity, and learning in mice undergoing the extinction of a cocaine-context association. We found that activity of cholinergic interneurons regulates extinction learning for a cocaine-context association and generates a sustained reduction in glutamatergic presynaptic strength onto medium spiny neurons. Interestingly, activation of cholinergic interneurons does not support reinforcement learning or plasticity by itself, suggesting that these neurons have a modulatory rather than a reinforcing function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dopamine signaling leads to loss of Polycomb repression and aberrant gene activation in experimental parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Södersten, Erik; Feyder, Michael; Lerdrup, Mads

    2014-01-01

    was accompanied by reduced PcG binding to regulatory regions of genes. An analysis of the genome wide distribution of L-DOPA-induced H3K27me3S28 phosphorylation by ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq) in combination with expression analysis by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) showed that the induction of H3K27me3S28p correlated....... The induction of the H3K27me3S28p histone mark specifically occurs in medium spiny neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors and is dependent on Msk1 kinase activity and DARPP-32-mediated inhibition of protein phosphatase-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments showed that increased H3K27me3S28p...

  7. Six cultivars of Solanum macrocarpon (Solanaceae in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Bukenya

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available The  Solanum macrocarpon complex (the cultivated egg plant has been studied in Ghana using morphological and experimental methods. Six cultivars belonging to the S.  macrocarpon complex have been recognized and described. The cultivars are  S. macrocarpon ‘Gboma’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Mankessim’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Akwaseho’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Kade’,  S. macrocarpon ‘Sarpeiman’ and  S. macrocarpon ‘Bui’. The very spiny, hairy plant traditionally called S. dasyphyllum is regarded as the wild ancestor from which the cultivars have been derived through a process of crop evolution. The variation within S. macrocarpon complex is attributable to genotypic differences and environmental factors.

  8. Aposematic (warning) coloration associated with thorns in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Yadun, S

    2001-06-07

    Aposematic coloration, a well-known phenomenon in animals, has been given little attention in plants. Here I discuss two types of conspicuousness of thorns which are typical of many plant species: (1) colorful thorns, and (2) white spots, or white and colorful stripes, associated with thorns in leaves and stems. Both types of aposematic coloration predominate the spine system of taxa rich with spiny species-Cacti, the genera Agave, Aloe and Euphorbia. The phenomena have been recorded here in over a thousand species originating in several continents of both the Old and New World. I propose that this is a case of vegetal aposematic coloration analogous to such coloration of poisonous animals, and which communicates between plants and herbivores. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  9. Maladaptive synaptic plasticity in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia

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    Qiang Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID in patients with Parkinson disease (PD could be due to maladaptive plasticity of corticostriatal synapses in response to L-DOPA treatment. A series of recent studies has revealed that LID is associated with marked morphological plasticity of striatal dendritic spines, particularly cell type-specific structural plasticity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the striatum. In addition, evidence demonstrating the occurrence of plastic adaptations, including aberrant morphological and functional features, in multiple components of cortico-basal ganglionic circuitry, such as primary motor cortex (M1 and basal ganglia (BG output nuclei. These adaptations have been implicated in the pathophysiology of LID. Here, we briefly review recent studies that have addressed maladaptive plastic changes within the cortico-BG loop in dyskinetic animal models of PD and patients with PD.

  10. Historical aspects of meetings, publication series, and digital resources dedicated to echinoderms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ziegler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Half a century after the first scientific meeting dedicated to marine spiny-skinned animals (Deuterostomia: Echinodermata was held in Washington, DC, we take this opportunity to provide information on a number of historical aspects related to the echinoderm scientific community. Apart from shedding light on the historical origins of modern echinoderm conferences, the present contribution presents photographs taken during the first meeting of echinoderm researchers in 1963 as well as during the first installments of the International Echinoderm Conference and the European Conference on Echinoderms. Furthermore, we provide background information on publication series dedicated solely to the Echinodermata as well as descriptions of selected digital resources that focus on echinoderms. Finally, we present a number of echinoderm conference logos and flyers in addition to selected information about specific echinoderm meetings.

  11. The Bermuda Triangle of cocaine-induced neuroadaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Marina E

    2010-09-01

    Activation of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the nucleus accumbens is critical for goal-directed behaviors including cocaine seeking. Studies in cocaine-experienced rodents have revealed three major categories of neuroadaptations that influence the ability of glutamate inputs to activate MSNs: changes in synaptic AMPA receptor levels, changes in extracellular non-synaptic glutamate levels and changes in MSN intrinsic membrane excitability. Most studies have focused on one of these adaptations. This review will consider the possibility that they are causally related and speculate about how time-dependent changes in their interactions may regulate MSN output during early and late withdrawal from repeated cocaine exposure. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Revision of the Sargassum species (Sagassaceae, Phaeophycaeae from Acanthocarpicae and Malacocarpicae sections in Iranian southern coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Shams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sargassum C. Agardh (Sagassaceae, Phaeophycaeae is a brown algae in the Iranian southern coasts which they showed high density along the subtidal zone of area. In this study, the features of four species of Acanthocarpicae (S. crassifolium J. Agardh and S. oligocystum Montagne and Malacocarpicae (S. baccularia (Mertens C. Agardh, S. henslowianum C. Agardh were described. Species within the Malacocarpicae section were typified by having smooth receptacles, whereas those in the Acanthocarpicae section had spiny receptacles. Also, presence of discoid to conical holdfast, elongated to lanceolate leavesand with wavy to denticulate margin were the main characters of these sections. S. baccularia was characterized by less sping branches compared to other species. S. crassifolium and S. oligocystum had flattened primary branches, their leaves mostly wavy or denticulate at margins, with leaf-like mucronate at vesicles apex and racemose to paniculate receptacles.

  13. Cocaine Exposure Reorganizes Cell-Type and Input-Specific Connectivity in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAskill, Andrew F.; Cassel, John M.; Carter, Adam G.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cocaine alters the structural and functional properties of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc). These changes suggest a rewiring of the NAc circuit, with an enhancement of excitatory synaptic connections onto MSNs. However, it is unknown how drug exposure alters the balance of long-range afferents onto different cell types in the NAc. Here we use whole-cell recordings, two-photon microscopy, optogenetics and pharmacogenetics to show how repeated cocaine alters connectivity in the mouse NAc medial shell. We first determine that cocaine selectively enhances amygdala innervation of D1-MSNs relative to D2-MSNs. We then show that amygdala activity is required for cocaine-induced changes to behavior and connectivity. Finally, we establish how heightened amygdala innervation can explain the structural and functional changes induced by cocaine. Our findings reveal how exposure to drugs of abuse fundamentally reorganizes cell-type and input-specific connectivity in the NAc. PMID:25108911

  14. Left-handed sperm removal by male Calopteryx damselflies (Odonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kaori; Hayashi, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Male genitalia in several insect species are asymmetry in right and left shape. However, the function of such asymmetric male genitalia is still unclear. We found that the male genitalia of the damselfly Calopteryx cornelia (Odonata: Calopterygidae) are morphologically symmetric just after emergence but asymmetric after reproductive maturation. Males remove rival sperm stored in the female bursa copulatrix (single spherical sac) and the following spermatheca (Y-shaped tubular sac) prior to their own ejaculation to prevent sperm competition. Males possess the aedeagus with a recurved head to remove bursal sperm and a pair of spiny lateral processes to remove spermathecal sperm. The right lateral process is less developed than the left, and sperm stored in the right spermathecal tube are rarely removed. Experiments involving surgical cutting of each lateral process demonstrated that only the left process functions in spermathecal sperm removal. Thus, males of C. cornelia are left-handed in their sperm removal behaviour at copulation.

  15. A new species of the Xestoblatta surinamensis group from Amazonia, northern Brazil, with redescriptions of X. amaparica , X. surinamensis and X. vera (Blattodea: Ectobiidae

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    Luiz Rafael Silva-da-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Xestoblatta Hebard, 1916 is revisited, with description of X. urucuana sp. nov. from northern Brazil. Additionally the hitherto known species X. amaparica Rocha e Silva Albuquerque & Gurney, 1962, X. surinamensis Bruijning, 1959 and X. vera Rocha e Silva Albuquerque & Fraga, 1975, are redescribed. Information on the genitalia of the males is also provided. All the species are included in the Xestoblatta surinamensis species group and the placement of X. jygautieri Grandcolas, 1992 in this group discussed. To facilitate species identification, we provide a key to the species of the X. surinamensis group, charac terized by the subgenital plate with left style (ventral view about two to five times larger than right style; right paraproct (dorsal view with three lobes, one with a spiny projection, and median sclerite slender and lanceolate.

  16. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

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    Swapnil Y Chaudhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana, calcination (Māraṇa etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%, ash value (1.4%, alcohol soluble extract (28.6%, and water soluble extract (53.3%. These observations can be of use in future studies.

  17. Seed dispersal and spatial distribution of Attalea geraensis (Arecaceae) in two remnants of Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjorne de Almeida, Lilian; Galetti, Mauro

    2007-09-01

    The seed dispersal system of Attalea geraensis (Arecaceae), an acaulescent palm, was investigated during one year in two Cerrado fragments in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. A. geraensis had inflorescences and infrutescences throughout the year. Two scatter-hoarding rodents (the spiny rat, Clyomys bishopi and agoutis, Dasyprocta azarae) were identified as seed predators/dispersers, able to move seeds up to 30 m from the palms, although most of the fruits (57.5%) were dispersed less than 2 m. The removal rates were high and after 20 days, 97.2% of the fruits were removed. Fruit fate was not related to fruit mass, length and diameter. The application of Morisita's index showed a more clumped distribution of adults in the smaller fragment, probably because of the absence of agoutis. Higher seed removal by rodents in the large Cerrado remnant may decrease seed predation by beetles.

  18. Late Pleistocene echimyid rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi) from northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thais M F; Olivares, Adriana Itati; Kerber, Leonardo; Dutra, Rodrigo P; Avilla, Leonardo S

    2016-06-07

    Echimyidae (spiny rats, tree rats and the coypu) is the most diverse family of extant South American hystricognath rodents (caviomorphs). Today, they live in tropical forests (Amazonian, coastal and Andean forests), occasionally in more open xeric habitats in the Cerrado and Caatinga of northern South America, and open areas across the southern portion of the continent (Myocastor). The Quaternary fossil record of this family remains poorly studied. Here, we describe the fossil echimyids found in karst deposits from southern Tocantins, northern Brazil. The analyzed specimens are assigned to Thrichomys sp., Makalata cf. didelphoides and Proechimys sp. This is the first time that a fossil of Makalata is reported. The Pleistocene record of echimyids from this area is represented by fragmentary remains, which hinders their determination at specific levels. The data reported here contributes to the understanding of the ancient diversity of rodents of this region, evidenced until now in other groups, such as the artiodactyls, cingulates, carnivores, marsupials, and squamate reptiles.

  19. Palmar and plantar lichen planus: a case report and review of the literature*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Ana Maria Abreu; Howard, Michael S; Pereyo, Neville

    2015-01-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is an uncommon dermatosis. We present a case of 38-year-old Caucasian male with a history of pruritic, scaly lesions on the right plantar foot. Physical examination revealed whitish plaques and numerous spiny hyperkeratotic papules and focal scaling. A biopsy demonstrated orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity within the epidermis and/or lichenoid infiltrate with CD3, CD8, CD45, CD68, myeloid histiod antigen, BCL2, p27, p53, HLA-DPDQDR, metallothionein and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1. The diagnosis of PPLP was thus confirmed; this case illustrates that PPLP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of uncommon foot dermatoses with a significant junctional inflammatory component. PMID:26312708

  20. Palmar and plantar lichen planus: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu Velez, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S; Pereyo, Neville

    2015-01-01

    Palmoplantar lichen planus is an uncommon dermatosis. We present a case of 38-year-old Caucasian male with a history of pruritic, scaly lesions on the right plantar foot. Physical examination revealed whitish plaques and numerous spiny hyperkeratotic papules and focal scaling. A biopsy demonstrated orthohyperkeratosis and acanthosis of the epidermis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed positivity within the epidermis and/or lichenoid infiltrate with CD3, CD8, CD45, CD68, myeloid histiod antigen, BCL2, p27, p53, HLA-DPDQDR, metallothionein and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1. The diagnosis of PPLP was thus confirmed; this case illustrates that PPLP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of uncommon foot dermatoses with a significant junctional inflammatory component.

  1. A Neuron Model Based Ultralow Current Sensor System for Bioapplications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Arifuzzman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ultralow current sensor system based on the Izhikevich neuron model is presented in this paper. The Izhikevich neuron model has been used for its superior computational efficiency and greater biological plausibility over other well-known neuron spiking models. Of the many biological neuron spiking features, regular spiking, chattering, and neostriatal spiny projection spiking have been reproduced by adjusting the parameters associated with the model at hand. This paper also presents a modified interpretation of the regular spiking feature in which the firing pattern is similar to that of the regular spiking but with improved dynamic range offering. The sensor current ranges between 2 pA and 8 nA and exhibits linearity in the range of 0.9665 to 0.9989 for different spiking features. The efficacy of the sensor system in detecting low amount of current along with its high linearity attribute makes it very suitable for biomedical applications.

  2. MicroRaman, PXRD, EDS and microscopic investigation of magnesium calcite biomineral phases. The case of sea urchin biominerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzęcka-Prokop, B.; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, A.; Koszowska, E.

    2007-02-01

    This study concerns Mg-calcite characterization (and in particular molecular structure and microstructural studies of mineral phases) of a sea urchin mineralised test and spines. Sea urchins are spiny sea animals (kingdom Animalia, phylum Echinodermata, class Echinoidea). Microscopic observations, SEM, EDS, PXRD and spectroscopic microRaman methods have been applied to characterize the biomineral parts of the sea urchin. The latter technique is very useful in research of biological systems and especially suitable for monitoring differences within biomineral phases exhibiting varieties of morphological forms. Crystalline magnesium calcium carbonate, Mg xCa 1- xCO 3 (magnesian calcite; space group R-3 cH; a = 4.9594(8) Å, c = 16.886(6) Å), has been identified as the predominant biomineral component.

  3. Cellular Taxonomy of the Mouse Striatum as Revealed by Single-Cell RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgun Gokce

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The striatum contributes to many cognitive processes and disorders, but its cell types are incompletely characterized. We show that microfluidic and FACS-based single-cell RNA sequencing of mouse striatum provides a well-resolved classification of striatal cell type diversity. Transcriptome analysis revealed ten differentiated, distinct cell types, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal, immune, and vascular cells, and enabled the discovery of numerous marker genes. Furthermore, we identified two discrete subtypes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs that have specific markers and that overexpress genes linked to cognitive disorders and addiction. We also describe continuous cellular identities, which increase heterogeneity within discrete cell types. Finally, we identified cell type-specific transcription and splicing factors that shape cellular identities by regulating splicing and expression patterns. Our findings suggest that functional diversity within a complex tissue arises from a small number of discrete cell types, which can exist in a continuous spectrum of functional states.

  4. Dendritic maturation in cat retinal ganglion cells: a Lucifer yellow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, J F; Buhl, E H; Peichl, L

    1987-09-11

    The dendritic morphology of developing cat alpha- and beta-retinal ganglion cells was investigated by intracellular injection of Lucifer yellow. In both cell classes the basic pattern of adult morphology was present at birth. However, the presence of transient small spiny protrusions along the dendrites was characteristic of early postnatal cells. Many alpha-cells were further distinguished by a small degree of dendritic bi-stratification which disappeared within the first 5 postnatal days. Therefore during the period before the eyes opened (P7-P10) there was a considerable degree of modification and maturation in dendritic morphology in both classes of retinal ganglion cells. alpha- and beta-cells exhibited differing temporal patterns of dendritic growth, which argues against a 'passive-stretching' hypothesis that explains dendritic field enlargement solely as an effect of retinal areal growth.

  5. A rough concrete wall-climbing robot based on grasping claws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengyu Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Climbing robots have been widely used to inspect smooth walls. However, a good adsorption method has not been found for the inspection of a cliff surface and a dusty high-altitude surface with small vibration, both of which are made of coarse concrete, square brick, or rock. In this article, first, we analyzed the bionic structure of the cockroach legs and observed their morphological characteristics of the spiny claws on these legs. We also studied the interaction theory of the bionic claw with the bulges on the rough wall surfaces and deduced the mechanical criteria of the claws grabbing steadily these bulges. Then, an initial mechanical structure of a wall-climbing robot was proposed based on a grasping claw and a climbing model. Furthermore, a mathematical model was established to reflect the relationship between sharp hooks and bulges on the rough wall. Finally, we performed several laboratory experiments to verify the grasping stability.

  6. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y.; Harisha, C. R.; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Materials and Methods: Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results and Conclusion: Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies. PMID:25861144

  7. Batwanema gen. n. and Chokwenema gen. n. (Oxyurida, Hystrignathidae), new nematode genera as parasites of Passalidae (Coleoptera) from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and species parasitizing passalid beetles from the Democratic Republic of Congo are described. Batwanema congo gen. n. et sp. n. is characterized by having females with the cervical cuticle armed with scale-like projections, arranged initially in rows of eight elements that gradually divide and form pointed spines toward the end of the spiny region, two cephalic annuli, clavate procorpus and genital tract monodelphic-prodelphic. Two Malagasian species of Artigasia Christie, 1934 were placed in this genus as B. latum (Van Waerebeke, 1973) comb. n. and B. annulatum (Van Waerebeke, 1973) comb. n. Chokwenema lepidophorum gen. n. et sp. n. is characterized by having females with the cervical cuticle armed with scale-like projections, arranged initially in rows of eight elements (similar to Batwanema) that divide gradually, forming spines; a single cephalic annule cone-like, truncated, moderately inflated; procorpus sub-cylindrical and genital tract didelphic-amphidelphic. PMID:24363593

  8. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Citrus jambhiri Lush. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Swapnil Y; Harisha, C R; Galib, Ruknuddin; Prajapati, P K

    2014-01-01

    Citrus jambhiri Lush., commonly known as Jambīra Nimbū in Sanskrit is medium to large indigenous tree with spreading habit, less spiny than lemon and belonging to the family Rutaceae. In Ayurveda, it is used in many pharmaceutical procedures of purification (Śodhana), calcination (Māraṇa) etc., Though it is an important plant, till date, no pharmacognostical reports have been available on its fruit. Study of fruit and its powder, histochemical tests and preliminary physicochemical investigations were done. Results showed prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, aerenchyma cells, oil globules, pitted vessels, scalariform vessels, juicy sac, etc., Preliminary physicochemical analysis revealed loss on drying (1.1%), ash value (1.4%), alcohol soluble extract (28.6%), and water soluble extract (53.3%). These observations can be of use in future studies.

  9. Redescription and taxonomical considerations about Aonchotheca (Aonchotheca pulchra n. comb. (Enoplida: Trichuridae, a nematode of Nyctinomops spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fontana Ferreira Cardia

    Full Text Available Pterothominx pulchra (Freitas, 1934 are little known gastric nematodes of Nyctinomops laticaudatus (Chiroptera: Molossidae. Information about the occurrence and host range of these parasites in Neotropical region is still scanty, and the only two morphological descriptions available in the literature are divergent about the presence or absence of a spiny spicular sheath in males, which may lead to incorrect taxonomical positioning, since this feature represents the main difference between the genera Pterothominx and Aonchotheca. Based on the absence of this morphological feature in specimens of this nematode obtained from N. laticaudatus and Nyctinomops macrotis bats captured in two municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the present study reclassifies the aforementioned species in the genus Aonchotheca and allocates it to the subgenus Aonchotheca. Additional morphometric data and new host and locality records are also provided.

  10. Desertification and its effect on the erosion of vegetation in the south-western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Elhakem, Abeer Hamdy

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in Jazan region of south-western Saudi Arabia. Vegetation cover, frequency, abundance and soil characteristics were analysed at three locations with different quantitative and descriptive vegetation characteristics. Plant species were classified into three primary communities dominated by Salvadora persic, Acacia tortilis and Ziziphus spini-Christi. The results indicated that the distribution of plant species is controlled by soil characteristics. Very limited water resources are also limiting factor in vegetation growth. Among the three studied sites, desert and coastal environments are affected by desertification. Rehabilitation of the degraded lands requires collaborative efforts and support from the different related governmental sectors. Ecological conservation and sustainable development must be adopted as tools of rehabilitation.

  11. A new Haemocystidium (Apicomplexa: Plasmodiidae) species of the dhub lizard, Uromastyx aegyptia microlepis , in Abu Dhabi, distinguished by the absence of pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Sam R; Peirce, M A; Samour, J

    2012-06-01

    The spiny-tailed lizard, Uromastyx aegyptia microlepis , in Abu Dhabi is parasitized by Haemocystidium apigmentada n. sp., and 2 species of Hepatozoon . The elongate gametocytes of H. apigmentada are 13-19 × 6-9 µm, with length × width (LW) 90-133 µm(2), and L/W ratio 1.56-3.17. Gametocyte dimensions do not differ by sex. Gametocytes are unpigmented. Hepatozoon species 1 has gamonts with a consistently terminal nucleus, with dimensions of 13-16 × 4.5-7 µm, LW of 58-104 µm(2), and L/W ratio of 2.00-3.22. Hepatozoon species 2 gamonts have a broad nucleus at the midbody, and dimensions of 13-15.5 × 5-7 µm, LW of 71-109 µm(2), and L/W ratio of 1.93-3.00.

  12. Ras- ERK signaling in behavior: old questions and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania eFasano

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The role of Ras-ERK signaling in behavioral plasticity is well established. Inhibition studies using the blood-brain barrier permeable drug SL327 have conclusively demonstrated that this neuronal cell signaling cascade is a crucial component of the synaptic machinery implicated in the formation of various forms of long-term memory, from spatial learning to fear and operant conditioning. However, abnormal Ras-ERK signaling has also been linked to a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including mental retardation syndromes (RASopathies, drug addiction and L-DOPA induced Dyskinesia (LID. The work recently done on these brain disorders has pointed to previously underappreciated roles of Ras-ERK in specific subsets of neurons, like GABAergic interneurons of the hippocampus or the cortex, as well as in the medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Here we will highlight the open questions related to Ras-ERK signaling in these behavioral manifestations and propose crucial experiments for the future.

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xiang; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yu-Chi; Zou, Fang-Dong; Zeng, Xiao-Mao

    2014-04-01

    Quasipaa boulengeri, an Asian spiny frog that belongs to Neobatrachia, has been reported as a de novo case of chromosomal rearrangements. In this paper, we determined the whole mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Q. boulengeri. The complete mtDNA sequence of Q. boulengeri is 17,741 bp in length, which contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNAs, 23 tRNAs and one control region. The overall nucleotides base composition of the complete mtDNA is A (28.86%), G (14.43%), C (26.09%), T (30.62%), with a much higher A + T content. Compared to other Neobatrachia species, the mtDNA genome of Q. boulengeri shows a novel gene order at WANCY region.

  14. Reappraising striatal D1- and D2-neurons in reward and aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Cunha, Carina; Coimbra, Barbara; Sousa, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana J

    2016-09-01

    The striatum has been involved in complex behaviors such as motor control, learning, decision-making, reward and aversion. The striatum is mainly composed of medium spiny neurons (MSNs), typically divided into those expressing dopamine receptor D1, forming the so-called direct pathway, and those expressing D2 receptor (indirect pathway). For decades it has been proposed that these two populations exhibit opposing control over motor output, and recently, the same dichotomy has been proposed for valenced behaviors. Whereas D1-MSNs mediate reinforcement and reward, D2-MSNs have been associated with punishment and aversion. In this review we will discuss pharmacological, genetic and optogenetic studies that indicate that there is still controversy to what concerns the role of striatal D1- and D2-MSNs in this type of behaviors, highlighting the need to reconsider the early view that they mediate solely opposing aspects of valenced behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Upper Paleocene Antigonia-like fish from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Niels Christensøn

    1997-01-01

    into diatomite, the socalled Mo-clay (Fur Fm.), perhaps crossing the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. The Mo-clay contains a rich fish fauna somewhat different from the one in the "shales" below. The probable sistergroup of the plectognaths, namely the Zeiformes, is found in the Mo-clay: two very small species (10....... It is either the sistergroup of all later antigoniids or it could be a member of the "Squamipinnes"/Acanthuroids, a more primitive, "percoid-like" assemblage often supposed to be related to the plectognath (+zeiform) group. There is character conflict, and the tiny Antigonia-like fossil furthermore has......, the spiny- rayed fishes, in general. And it certainly indicates that stratigraphic occurrence or the "fossil record" is a poor guide to evolutionary history....

  16. Ring-tailed lemurs: a species re-imagined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauther, Michelle L; Gould, Lisa; Cuozzo, Frank P; O'Mara, M Teague

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, ring-tailed lemurs have been studied continuously in the wild. As one of the most long-studied primate species, the length and breadth of their study is comparable to research on Japanese macaques, baboons and chimpanzees. They are also one of the most broadly observed of all primates, with comprehensive research conducted on their behaviour, biology, ecology, genetics, palaeobiology and life history. However, over the last decade, a new generation of lemur scholars, working in conjunction with researchers who have spent decades studying this species, have greatly enhanced our knowledge of ring-tailed lemurs. In addition, research on this species has expanded beyond traditional gallery forest habitats to now include high altitude, spiny thicket, rocky outcrop and anthropogenically disturbed coastal forest populations. The focus of this special volume is to 're-imagine' the 'flagship species of Madagascar', bringing together three generations of lemur scholars. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae from Peru and Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M.Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S.Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S.Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M.Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given.

  18. Comportamento migratório da lagosta Panulirus argus (Latreille, em frente ao Estado do Ceará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Adauto Fonteles-Filho

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Tagging experiments have been used to study the migratory behaviour of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Latreille, off Ceará State, Brazil. An analysis based on vectorial theory has provided the calculation of the coefficient of directional dispersion ( V, the coefficient of randon disperson (a² and the centre of density, by quarters of the year. The lobsters were found to engage in breeding migration in the second quarter, when there is a low random dispersion and in feeding migration in the third and fourth quarters, when there is high randon dispersion. The spawning areas are located in offshore regions and the lobsters reach them by moving seawardly, from positions occupied nearer the cost, in the fourth quarter.

  19. Morphological characteristics of five bycatch sharks caught by southern Chilean demersal longline fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Valenzuela

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The by-catch of sharks in artisanal demersal pink cusk-eel (Genypterus blacodes and yellownose skate (Dipturus chilensis fisheries is frequent within their fishing effort. Nevertheless, there is no registry of landings, which could help to control this problem. This is particularly evident for endemic species, which includes most coastal and deep water Chilean sharks. The main systematic characteristic of these Chondrichthyan species is the external morphology of the neurocraneum. The form and arrangement of the teeth and dermal denticles allow specific differences to be identified. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the biology and systematic knowledge of demersal shark species, teeth and dermal denticle morphology and neurocraneum morphometrics of two species of Scyliorhinids, the redspotted catshark (Schroederichthys chilensis and the dusky catshark (Halaelurus canescens, as well as three Squaliforms, the granular dogfish (Centroscyllium granulatum, the birdbeak dogfish (Deania calcea and the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias.

  20. Behavioural and biochemical stress responses of Palinurus elephas after exposure to boat noise pollution in tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiciotto, Francesco; Vazzana, Mirella; Celi, Monica; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Ceraulo, Maria; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2014-07-15

    This study examined the effects of boat noise on the behavioural and biochemical parameters of the Mediterranean spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). The experiment was conducted in a tank equipped with a video and audio recording system. 18 experimental trials, assigned to boat noise and control conditions, were performed using lobsters in single and group of 4 specimens. After a 1h habituation period, we audio- and video-recorded the lobsters for 1h. During the experimental phase, the animals assigned to the boat groups were exposed to boat noise pollution (a random sequence of boat noises). Exposure to the noise produced significant variations in locomotor behaviours and haemolymphatic parameters. Our results indicate that the lobsters exposed to boat noises increased significantly their locomotor activities and haemolymphatic bioindicator of stressful conditions such as glucose, total proteins, Hsp70 expression and THC when tested both singly and in groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.