WorldWideScience

Sample records for spintronic devices operating

  1. Metallic spintronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Metallic Spintronic Devices provides a balanced view of the present state of the art of metallic spintronic devices, addressing both mainstream and emerging applications from magnetic tunneling junction sensors and spin torque oscillators to spin torque memory and logic. Featuring contributions from well-known and respected industrial and academic experts, this cutting-edge work not only presents the latest research and developments but also: Describes spintronic applications in current and future magnetic recording devicesDiscusses spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) device architectures and modelingExplores prospects of STT-MRAM scaling, such as detailed multilevel cell structure analysisInvestigates spintronic device write and read optimization in light of spintronic memristive effectsConsiders spintronic research directions based on yttrium iron garnet thin films, including spin pumping, magnetic proximity, spin hall, and spin Seebeck effectsProposes unique solutions for ...

  2. Spintronics in nanoscale devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications.

  3. Future perspectives for spintronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Takanashi, Koki

    2014-01-01

    Spintronics is one of the emerging research fields in nanotechnology and has been growing very rapidly. Studies of spintronics were started after the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in 1988, which utilized spin-polarized electron transport across a non-magnetic metallic layer. Within 10 years, this discovery had been implemented into hard disk drives, the most common storage media, followed by recognition through the award of the Nobel Prize for Physics 19 years later. We have never experienced such fast development in any scientific field. Spintronics research is now moving into second-generation spin dynamics and beyond. In this review, we first examine the historical advances in spintronics together with the background physics, and then describe major device applications. (topical review)

  4. Spintronics from materials to devices

    CERN Document Server

    Felser, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Spintronics is an emerging technology exploiting the spin degree of freedom and has proved to be very promising for new types of fast electronic devices. Amongst the anticipated advantages of spintronics technologies, researchers have identified the non-volatile storage of data with high density and low energy consumption as particularly relevant. This monograph examines the concept of half-metallic compounds perspectives to obtain novel solutions and discusses several oxides such as perovskites, double perovskites and CrO2 as well as Heusler compounds. Such materials can be designed and made

  5. Oxide materials for spintronic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestgard, Megan Campbell

    Spintronic devices are currently being researched as next-generation alternatives to traditional electronics. Electronics, which utilize the charge-carrying capabilities of electrons to store information, are fundamentally limited not only by size constraints, but also by limits on current flow and degradation, due to electro-migration. Spintronics devices are able to overcome these limitations, as their information storage is in the spin of electrons, rather than their charge. By using spin rather than charge, these current-limiting shortcomings can be easily overcome. However, for spintronic devices to be fully implemented into the current technology industry, their capabilities must be improved. Spintronic device operation relies on the movement and manipulation of spin-polarized electrons, in which there are three main processes that must be optimized in order to maximize device efficiencies. These spin-related processes are: the injection of spin-polarized electrons, the transport and manipulation of these carriers, and the detection of spin-polarized currents. In order to enhance the rate of spin-polarized injection, research has been focused on the use of alternative methods to enhance injection beyond that of a simple ferromagnetic metal/semiconductor injector interface. These alternatives include the use of oxide-based tunnel barriers and the modification of semiconductors and insulators for their use as ferromagnetic injector materials. The transport of spin-polarized carriers is heavily reliant on the optimization of materials' properties in order to enhance the carrier mobility and to quench spin-orbit coupling (SOC). However, a certain degree of SOC is necessary in order to allow for the electric-field, gate-controlled manipulation of spin currents. Spin detection can be performed via both optical and electrical techniques. Using electrical methods relies on the conversion between spin and charge currents via SOC and is often the preferred method for

  6. Dynamic Circuit Model for Spintronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alawein, Meshal

    2017-01-09

    In this work we propose a finite-difference scheme based circuit model of a general spintronic device and benchmark it with other models proposed for spintronic switching devices. Our model is based on the four-component spin circuit theory and utilizes the widely used coupled stochastic magnetization dynamics/spin transport framework. In addition to the steady-state analysis, this work offers a transient analysis of carrier transport. By discretizing the temporal and spatial derivatives to generate a linear system of equations, we derive new and simple finite-difference conductance matrices that can, to the first order, capture both static and dynamic behaviors of a spintronic device. We also discuss an extension of the spin modified nodal analysis (SMNA) for time-dependent situations based on the proposed scheme.

  7. Dynamic Circuit Model for Spintronic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Alawein, Meshal; Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In this work we propose a finite-difference scheme based circuit model of a general spintronic device and benchmark it with other models proposed for spintronic switching devices. Our model is based on the four-component spin circuit theory and utilizes the widely used coupled stochastic magnetization dynamics/spin transport framework. In addition to the steady-state analysis, this work offers a transient analysis of carrier transport. By discretizing the temporal and spatial derivatives to generate a linear system of equations, we derive new and simple finite-difference conductance matrices that can, to the first order, capture both static and dynamic behaviors of a spintronic device. We also discuss an extension of the spin modified nodal analysis (SMNA) for time-dependent situations based on the proposed scheme.

  8. Spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundler, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    Devices that exploit the spin of the electron promise to revolutionize microelectronics once polarized electrons can be injected efficiently into semiconductors at room temperature. Later this year physicists will be celebrating the centenary of Paul Dirac's birth. One of the most influential scientists of the 20th century, Dirac combined quantum mechanics and special relativity to explain the strange magnetic or 'spin' properties of the electron. What Dirac could not have foreseen, however, is how the spin of the electron could change the field of microelectronics. Indeed, the spin of the electron has attracted renewed interest recently because it promises a wide variety of new devices that combine logic, storage and sensor applications. Moreover, these 'Spintronics' devices might lead to quantum computers and quantum communication based on electronic solid-state devices, thus changing the perspective of information technology in the 21st century. Since the 1970s conventional electronic microprocessors have operated by shuttling packets of electronic charge along ever-smaller semiconductor channels. Although this trend will continue for the next few years, experts predict that silicon technology is beginning to approach fundamental limits. By 2008, for example, the width of the 'gate electrodes' in a silicon microprocessor will be just 45 nano metres across, which will place severe demands on the materials and manufacturing techniques used in the semiconductor industry. Indeed, the cost of implementing a new production line for such devices is predicted to reach $33bn. Although successors to silicon technology have been discussed, most of them rely on a complete set of new materials, new handling and processing techniques, and altered circuit design, among other developments. These new technologies include single-electron transistors and molecular-electronic devices based on organic materials or carbon nanotubes (see Carbon nanotubes roll on Physics World June

  9. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Alexander; Windbacher, Thomas; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    For many decades CMOS devices have been successfully scaled down to achieve higher speed and increased performance of integrated circuits at lower cost. Today’s charge-based CMOS electronics encounters two major challenges: power dissipation and variability. Spintronics is a rapidly evolving research and development field, which offers a potential solution to these issues by introducing novel ‘more than Moore’ devices. Spin-based magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is already recognized as one of the most promising candidates for future universal memory. Magnetic tunnel junctions, the main elements of MRAM cells, can also be used to build logic-in-memory circuits with non-volatile storage elements on top of CMOS logic circuits, as well as versatile compact on-chip oscillators with low power consumption. We give an overview of CMOS-compatible spintronics applications. First, we present a brief introduction to the physical background considering such effects as magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect, and magnetoelectric effects. We continue with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art spintronic devices for memory applications (STT-MRAM, domain wall-motion MRAM, and spin-orbit torque MRAM), oscillators (spin torque oscillators and spin Hall nano-oscillators), logic (logic-in-memory, all-spin logic, and buffered magnetic logic gate grid), sensors, and random number generators. Devices with different types of resistivity switching are analyzed and compared, with their advantages highlighted and challenges revealed. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices are demonstrated beginning with predictive simulations, proceeding to their experimental confirmation and realization, and finalized by the current status of application in modern integrated systems and circuits. We conclude the review with an outlook, where we share our vision on the future applications of the prospective devices in the area.

  10. Flexible spintronic devices on Kapton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Donolato, Marco; Gobbi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic tunnel junctions and nano-sized domain-wall conduits have been fabricated on the flexible substrate Kapton. Despite the delicate nature of tunneling barriers and zig-zag shaped nanowires, the devices show an outstanding integrity and robustness upon mechanical bending. High values of ben...

  11. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yunsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  12. Silicon spintronics with ferromagnetic tunnel devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, R; Sharma, S; Dash, S P; Min, B C

    2012-01-01

    In silicon spintronics, the unique qualities of ferromagnetic materials are combined with those of silicon, aiming at creating an alternative, energy-efficient information technology in which digital data are represented by the orientation of the electron spin. Here we review the cornerstones of silicon spintronics, namely the creation, detection and manipulation of spin polarization in silicon. Ferromagnetic tunnel contacts are the key elements and provide a robust and viable approach to induce and probe spins in silicon, at room temperature. We describe the basic physics of spin tunneling into silicon, the spin-transport devices, the materials aspects and engineering of the magnetic tunnel contacts, and discuss important quantities such as the magnitude of the spin accumulation and the spin lifetime in the silicon. We highlight key experimental achievements and recent progress in the development of a spin-based information technology. (topical review)

  13. Spintronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    we will deal in an elementary fashion with the principles of spintronics. Introduction. Spintronics is the branch of science dealing with the ac- tive manipulation of spin degrees of freedom in solid state materials. .... polarized material can be done in many ways. The sim- plest way is to apply a transient magnetic field to a para-.

  14. Magnetization switching schemes for nanoscale three-terminal spintronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Shunsuke; Ohno, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    Utilizing spintronics-based nonvolatile memories in integrated circuits offers a promising approach to realize ultralow-power and high-performance electronics. While two-terminal devices with spin-transfer torque switching have been extensively developed nowadays, there has been a growing interest in devices with a three-terminal structure. Of primary importance for applications is the efficient manipulation of magnetization, corresponding to information writing, in nanoscale devices. Here we review the studies of current-induced domain wall motion and spin-orbit torque-induced switching, which can be applied to the write operation of nanoscale three-terminal spintronics devices. For domain wall motion, the size dependence of device properties down to less than 20 nm will be shown and the underlying mechanism behind the results will be discussed. For spin-orbit torque-induced switching, factors governing the threshold current density and strategies to reduce it will be discussed. A proof-of-concept demonstration of artificial intelligence using an analog spin-orbit torque device will also be reviewed.

  15. Evaluating Graphene as a Channel Material in Spintronic Logic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anugrah, Yoska

    Spintronics, a class of devices that exploit the spin properties of electrons in addition to the charge properties, promises the possibility for nonvolatile logic and memory devices that operate at low power. Graphene is a material in which the spin orientation of electrons can be conserved over a long distance, which makes it an attractive channel material in spintronics devices. In this dissertation, the properties of graphene that are interesting for spintronics applications are explored. A robust fabrication process is described for graphene spin valves using Al2O3 tunnel tunnel barriers and Co ferromagnetic contacts. Spin transport was characterized in both few-layer exfoliated and single-layer graphene, and spin diffusion lengths and spin relaxation times were extracted using the nonlocal spin valve geometry and Hanle measurements. The effect of input-output asymmetry on the spin transport was investigated. The effect of an applied drift electric field on spin transport was investigated and the spin diffusion length was found to be tunable by a factor of 8X (suppressed to 1.6 microm and enhanced to 13 microm from the intrinsic length of 4.6 microm using electric field of +/-1800 V/cm). A mechanism to induce asymmetry without excess power dissipation is also described which utilizes a double buried-gate structure to tune the Fermi levels on the input and output sides of a graphene spin logic device independently. It was found that different spin scattering mechanisms were at play in the two halves of a small graphene strip. This suggests that the spin properties of graphene are strongly affected by its local environment, e.g. impurities, surface topography, defects. Finally, two-dimensional materials beyond graphene have been explored as spin channels. One such material is phosphorene, which has low spin-orbit coupling and high mobility, and the interface properties of ferromagnets (cobalt and permalloy) with this material were explored. This work could

  16. Spintronic materials and devices based on antiferromagnetic metals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.Y.; Song, C.; Zhang, J.Y.; Pan, F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent experimental developments on antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics mainly comprising Mn-based noncollinear AFM metals. IrMn-based tunnel junctions and Hall devices have been investigated to explore the manipulation of AFM moments by magnetic fields, ferromagnetic materials and electric fields. Room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance based on IrMn as well as FeMn has been successfully achieved, and electrical control of the AFM exchange spring i...

  17. PREFACE International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, You-wei; Judy, Jack; Qian, Zhenghong; Wang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    SSDC logo Preface The International Symposium on Spintronic Devices and Commercialization (ISSDC' 2010) was held in Beijing, China, from 21 to 24 October 2010. The aim of the symposium was to provide an opportunity for international experts, academics, researchers, practitioners and students working in the areas of spintronic theories, spintronic materials, and spintronic devices to exchange information on the R&D and commercialization of spintronic materials and devices. New developments, concepts, future research trends and potential commercialization areas were also discussed. The topics covered by ISSDC' 2010 were: Fundmental Spintronic Theories/Experiments Spin polarization, spin-dependent scattering, spin relaxation, spin manipulation and optimization, as well as other related characterizations and applications, etc. Spintronic Materials Giant magnetoresistance materials, magnetic tunnel junction materials, magnetic semiconductor materials, molecular spintronic materials. Spintronic Devices Sensors, isolators, spin logic devices and magnetic random access memories (MRAMs), microwave devices, spin diodes, spin transistor, spin filters and detectors, spin optoelectronic devices, spin quantum devices, single chip computer, spin molecule and single electron devices. Other Magnetic Materials Soft magnetic materials, hard magnetic materials, magneto-optical materials, magnetostriction materials. Applications of Spintronic Devices Magnetic position/angle/velocity/rotation velocity sensors, magnetic encoders, magnetic compasses, bio-medical magnetic devices and other applications. Future Research Trends and the Commercialization of Spintronic Devices Approximately 85 scientists from almost 10 countries participated in the conference. The conference featured 6 keynote lectures, 8 invited lectures, 12 contributed lectures and about 30 posters. We would like to express our gratitude to all participants for their presentations and discussions, which made the conference

  18. Fiscal 2000 pioneering research on the spintronic device basic technology; 2000 nendo spintronic soshi kiban gijutsu sendo kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researchers specializing in technologies of magnetism or semiconductor were drafted from the industrial, official, and academic circles, who conducted hearings, patent investigations, overseas surveys, and the like, concerning spintronics. Collected in this report are the outline of the research and development of spintronic device technology, its current state and tasks and its importance from social and economic viewpoints, and the strategy that Japan should follow in the research and development of the technology. Important spintronic device technologies now attracting attention are mentioned below. The nonvolatile magnetic memory device MRAM (magnetic random access memory) is supposed to be the device which will enjoy practical application first among like devices. It is expected that the spin conduction device will lead to novel functions when the possibilities of the spin-dependent electric conduction phenomenon are further pursued. It is hoped that the spin optical device will be used as a light isolator, light spin logic device, field induced variable wavelength laser device, spin laser device, high-speed light switch, and so forth. It is necessary to watch the development of a spin-aided quantum computer which is still at the stage of basic study. (NEDO)

  19. Spintronic materials and devices based on antiferromagnetic metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Y. Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review our recent experimental developments on antiferromagnet (AFM spintronics mainly comprising Mn-based noncollinear AFM metals. IrMn-based tunnel junctions and Hall devices have been investigated to explore the manipulation of AFM moments by magnetic fields, ferromagnetic materials and electric fields. Room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance based on IrMn as well as FeMn has been successfully achieved, and electrical control of the AFM exchange spring is realized by adopting ionic liquid. In addition, promising spin-orbit effects in AFM as well as spin transfer via AFM spin waves reported by different groups have also been reviewed, indicating that the AFM can serve as an efficient spin current source. To explore the crucial role of AFM acting as efficient generators, transmitters, and detectors of spin currents is an emerging topic in the field of magnetism today. AFM metals are now ready to join the rapidly developing fields of basic and applied spintronics, enriching this area of solid-state physics and microelectronics.

  20. Optimization of Materials and Interfaces for Spintronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Billy

    In recent years' Spintronic devices have drawn a significant amount of research attention. This interest comes in large part from their ability to enable interesting and new technology such as Spin Torque Transfer Random Access Memory or improve existing technology such as High Signal Read Heads for Hard Disk Drives. For the former we worked on optimizing and improving magnetic tunnel junctions by optimizing their thermal stability by using Ta insertion layers in the free layer. We further tried to simplify the design of the MTJ stack by attempting to replace the Co/Pd multilayer with CoPd alloy. In this dissertation, we detail its development and examine the switching characteristics. Lastly we look at a highly spin polarized material, Fe2MnGe, for optimizing Hard Drive Disk read heads.

  1. Hybrid Spintronic-CMOS Spiking Neural Network with On-Chip Learning: Devices, Circuits, and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Banerjee, Aparajita; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, spiking neural networks (SNNs) have emerged as one of the popular architectures to emulate the brain. In SNNs, information is temporally encoded and communication between neurons is accomplished by means of spikes. In such networks, spike-timing-dependent plasticity mechanisms require the online programing of synapses based on the temporal information of spikes transmitted by spiking neurons. In this work, we propose a spintronic synapse with decoupled spike-transmission and programing-current paths. The spintronic synapse consists of a ferromagnet-heavy-metal heterostructure where the programing current through the heavy metal generates spin-orbit torque to modulate the device conductance. Low programing energy and fast programing times demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed device as a nanoelectronic synapse. We perform a simulation study based on an experimentally benchmarked device-simulation framework to demonstrate the interfacing of such spintronic synapses with CMOS neurons and learning circuits operating in the transistor subthreshold region to form a network of spiking neurons that can be utilized for pattern-recognition problems.

  2. Fabrication of tunnel junction-based molecular electronics and spintronics devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan

    2012-01-01

    Tunnel junction-based molecular devices (TJMDs) are highly promising for realizing futuristic electronics and spintronics devices for advanced logic and memory operations. Under this approach, ∼2.5 nm molecular device elements bridge across the ∼2-nm thick insulator of a tunnel junction along the exposed side edge(s). This paper details the efforts and insights for producing a variety of TJMDs by resolving multiple device fabrication and characterization issues. This study specifically discusses (i) compatibility between tunnel junction test bed and molecular solutions, (ii) optimization of the exposed side edge profile and insulator thickness for enhancing the probability of molecular bridging, (iii) effect of fabrication process-induced mechanical stresses, and (iv) minimizing electrical bias-induced instability after the device fabrication. This research will benefit other researchers interested in producing TJMDs efficiently. TJMD approach offers an open platform to test virtually any combination of magnetic and nonmagnetic electrodes, and promising molecules such as single molecular magnets, porphyrin, DNA, and molecular complexes.

  3. A review on organic spintronic materials and devices: II. Magnetoresistance in organic spin valves and spin organic light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugang Geng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the preceding review paper, Paper I [Journal of Science: Advanced Materials and Devices 1 (2016 128–140], we showed the major experimental and theoretical studies on the first organic spintronic subject, namely organic magnetoresistance (OMAR in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs. The topic has recently been of renewed interest as a result of a demonstration of the magneto-conductance (MC that exceeds 1000% at room temperature using a certain type of organic compounds and device operating condition. In this report, we will review two additional organic spintronic devices, namely organic spin valves (OSVs where only spin polarized holes exist to cause magnetoresistance (MR, and spin organic light emitting diodes (spin-OLEDs where both spin polarized holes and electrons are injected into the organic emissive layer to form a magneto-electroluminescence (MEL hysteretic loop. First, we outline the major advances in OSV studies for understanding the underlying physics of the spin transport mechanism in organic semiconductors (OSCs and the spin injection/detection at the organic/ferromagnet interface (spinterface. We also highlight some of outstanding challenges in this promising research field. Second, the first successful demonstration of spin-OLEDs is reviewed. We also discuss challenges to achieve the high performance devices. Finally, we suggest an outlook on the future of organic spintronics by using organic single crystals and aligned polymers for the spin transport layer, and a self-assembled monolayer to achieve more controllability for the spinterface.

  4. The role of ion-implantation in the realization of spintronic devices in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalish, Rafi, E-mail: kalish@si-sun1.technion.ac.il [Physics Department and Solid State Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2012-02-01

    The application of single photons emitted by specific quantum systems is promising for quantum computers, cryptography and for other future nano-applications. These heavily rely on ion implantation both for selective single ion implantations as well as for the introduction of controlled damage with specific properties. Of particular promise is the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV{sup -}) defect center in diamond. This center has many desirable luminescence properties required for spintronic devices operational at room temperature, including a long relaxation time of the color center, emission of photons in the visible and the fact that it is produced in diamond, a material with outstanding mechanical and optical properties. This center is usually realized by nitrogen and/or vacancy producing ion implantations into diamond which, following annealing, leads to the formation of the desired NV{sup -} center. The single photons emitted by the decay of this center have to be transported to allow their exploitation. This can be best done by realizing very thin wave guides in single crystal diamond with/or without nano-scale cavities in the same diamond in which NV centers are produced. For this, advantage is taken of the unique property of heavily ion-damaged diamond to be converted, following annealing, to etchable graphite. Thus a free standing submicron thick diamond membrane containing the NV center can be obtained. If desirable, specific photonic crystal structures can be realized in them by the use of FIB. The various ion-implantation schemes used to produce NV centers in diamond, free standing diamond membranes, and photonic crystal structures in them are reviewed. The scientific problems and the technological challenges that have to be solved before actual practical realization of diamond based spintronic devices can be produced are discussed.

  5. Spin-polarized transport properties of a pyridinium-based molecular spintronics device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Xu, B.; Qin, Z.

    2018-05-01

    By applying a first-principles approach based on non-equilibrium Green's functions combined with density functional theory, the transport properties of a pyridinium-based "radical-π-radical" molecular spintronics device are investigated. The obvious negative differential resistance (NDR) and spin current polarization (SCP) effect, and abnormal magnetoresistance (MR) are obtained. Orbital reconstruction is responsible for novel transport properties such as that the MR increases with bias and then decreases and that the NDR being present for both parallel and antiparallel magnetization configurations, which may have future applications in the field of molecular spintronics.

  6. Theory of superconducting spintronic SIsFS devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakurskiy, S.V.; Klenov, N.V.; Soloviev, I.I.; Kupriyanov, M.Yu.; Bol'ginov, V.V.; Ryazanov, V.V.; Vernik, I.V.; Mukhanov, O.A.; Golubov, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Motivated by recent progress in developments of cryogenic memory compatible with single flux quantum (SFQ) circuits we have performed a theoretical study of magnetic SIsFS Josephson junctions, where 'S' is a bulk superconductor, 's' is a thin superconducting film, 'F' is a metallic ferromagnet and 'I' is an insulator. We calculate the Josephson current as a function of s and F layers thickness, temperature and exchange energy of F film. We outline several modes of operation of these junctions and demonstrate their unique ability to have high I C R N product in the π-state, comparable to that in SIS tunnel junctions commonly used in SFQ circuits. We develop a model describing switching of the Josephson critical current in these devices by external magnetic field. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data for Nb-Al/AlOx-Nb-Pd0:99Fe0:01-Nb junctions. This work is supported by RFBR No. 12-02-90010-Bel a .

  7. Low intrinsic carrier density LSMO/Alq3/AlOx/Co organic spintronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riminucci, Alberto; Graziosi, Patrizio; Calbucci, Marco; Cecchini, Raimondo; Prezioso, Mirko; Borgatti, Francesco; Bergenti, Ilaria; Dediu, Valentin Alek

    2018-04-01

    The understanding of spin injection and transport in organic spintronic devices is still incomplete, with some experiments showing magnetoresistance and others not detecting it. We have investigated the transport properties of a large number of tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum-based organic spintronic devices with an electrical resistance greater than 5 MΩ that did not show magnetoresistance. Their transport properties could be described satisfactorily by known models for organic semiconductors. At high voltages (>2 V), the results followed the model of space charge limited current with a Poole-Frenkel mobility. At low voltages (˜0.1 V), that are those at which the spin valve behavior is usually observed, the charge transport was modelled by nearest neighbor hopping in intra-gap impurity levels, with a charge carrier density of n0 = (1.44 ± 0.21) × 1015 cm-3 at room temperature. Such a low carrier density can explain why no magnetoresistance was observed.

  8. Emerging materials and devices in spintronic integrated circuits for energy-smart mobile computing and connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.H.; Lee, K.

    2013-01-01

    A spintronic integrated circuit (IC) is made of a combination of a semiconductor IC and a dense array of nanometer-scale magnetic tunnel junctions. This emerging field is of growing scientific and engineering interest, owing to its potential to bring disruptive device innovation to the world of electronics. This technology is currently being pursued not only for scalable non-volatile spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory, but also for various forms of non-volatile logic (Spin-Logic). This paper reviews recent advances in spintronic IC. Key discoveries and breakthroughs in materials and devices are highlighted in light of the broader perspective of their application in low-energy mobile computing and connectivity systems, which have emerged as leading drivers for the prevailing electronics ecosystem

  9. Semiconductor spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, J.; Abiague, A.M.; Ertler, Ch.; Stano, P.; Zutic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Spintronics refers commonly to phenomena in which the spin of electrons in a solid state environment plays the determining role. In a more narrow sense spintronics is an emerging research field of electronics: spintronics devices are based on a spin control of electronics, or on an electrical and optical control of spin of magnetism. While metal spintronics has already found its niche in the computer industry - giant magnetoresistance systems are used as hard disk read heads - semiconductor spintronics is vet demonstrate its full potential. This review presents selected themes of semiconductor spintronics, introducing important concepts in spin transport, spin transport, spin injection. Silsbee-Johnson spin-charge coupling, and spin-dependent tunneling, as well as spin relaxation and spin dynamics. The most fundamental spin-dependent interaction in nonmagnetic semiconductors is spin-orbit coupling. Depending on the crystal symmetries of the material, as well as on the structural properties of semiconductor based heterostructures, the spin-orbit coupling takes on different functional forms, giving a nice playground of effective spin-orbit Hamiltonians. The effective Hamiltonians for the most relevant classes of materials and heterostructures are derived here from realistic electronic band structure descriptions. Most semiconductor device systems are still theoretical concepts, waiting for experimental demonstrations. A review of selected proposed, and a few demonstrated devices is presented, with detailed description of two important classes: magnetic resonant tunnel structures and bipolar magnetic diodes and transistors. In view of the importance of ferromagnetic semiconductor material, a brief discussion of diluted magnetic semiconductors is included. In most cases the presentation is of tutorial style, introducing the essential theoretical formalism at an accessible level, with case-study-like illustrations of actual experimental results, as well as with brief

  10. A general circuit model for spintronic devices under electric and magnetic fields

    KAUST Repository

    Alawein, Meshal

    2017-10-25

    In this work, we present a circuit model of diffusive spintronic devices capable of capturing the effects of both electric and magnetic fields. Starting from a modified version of the well-established drift-diffusion equations, we derive general equivalent circuit models of semiconducting/metallic nonmagnets and metallic ferromagnets. In contrast to other models that are based on steady-state transport equations which might also neglect certain effects such as thermal fluctuations, spin dissipation in the ferromagnets, and spin precession under magnetic fields, our model incorporates most of the important physics and is based on a time-dependent formulation. An application of our model is shown through simulations of a nonlocal spin-valve under the presence of a magnetic field, where we reproduce experimental results of electrical measurements that demonstrate the phenomena of spin precession and dephasing (“Hanle effect”).

  11. Large resistance change on magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Friebe, Edward

    2018-05-01

    Molecular bridges covalently bonded to two ferromagnetic electrodes can transform ferromagnetic materials and produce intriguing spin transport characteristics. This paper discusses the impact of molecule induced strong coupling on the spin transport. To study molecular coupling effect the octametallic molecular cluster (OMC) was bridged between two ferromagnetic electrodes of a magnetic tunnel junction (Ta/Co/NiFe/AlOx/NiFe/Ta) along the exposed side edges. OMCs induced strong inter-ferromagnetic electrode coupling to yield drastic changes in transport properties of the magnetic tunnel junction testbed at the room temperature. These OMCs also transformed the magnetic properties of magnetic tunnel junctions. SQUID and ferromagnetic resonance studies provided insightful data to explain transport studies on the magnetic tunnel junction based molecular spintronics devices.

  12. Nanostructured graphene for spintronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Zigzag edges of the honeycomb structure of graphene exhibit magnetic polarization, making them attractive as building blocks for spintronic devices. Here, we show that devices with zigzag-edged triangular antidots perform essential spintronic functionalities, such as spatial spin splitting or spin...

  13. Damping constant measurement and inverse giant magnetoresistance in spintronic devices with Fe4N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fe4N is one of the attractive materials for spintronic devices due to its large spin asymmetric conductance and negative spin polarization at the Fermi level. We have successfully deposited Fe4N thin film with (001 out-of-plane orientation using a DC facing-target-sputtering system. A Fe(001/Ag(001 composite buffer layer is selected to improve the (001 orientation of the Fe4N thin film. The N2 partial pressure during sputtering is optimized to promote the formation of Fe4N phase. Moreover, we have measured the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR of the (001 oriented Fe4N thin film using coplanar waveguides and microwave excitation. The resonant fields are tested under different microwave excitation frequencies, and the experimental results match well with the Kittel formula. The Gilbert damping constant of Fe4N is determined to be α = 0.021±0.02. We have also fabricated and characterized the current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP giant magnetoresistance (GMR device with Fe4N/Ag/Fe sandwich. Inverse giant magnetoresistance is observed in the CPP GMR device, which suggests that the spin polarization of Fe4N and Fe4N/Ag interface is negative.

  14. Spin-filter scanning tunneling microscopy : a novel technique for the analysis of spin polarization on magnetic surfaces and spintronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera Marun, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a versatile technique to measure spin polarization with atomic resolution. A microscopy technique that can measure electronic spin polarization is relevant for characterization of magnetic nanostructures and spintronic devices. Scanning tunneling microscopy

  15. Semiconductor spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jianbai; Chang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.

  16. "Magnon Spintronics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiming; Xiao, Jiang; Pirro, Philipp

    2018-03-01

    We are proud to present a collection of 12 cutting-edge research articles on the emerging field "magnon spintronics" investigating the properties of spin waves or magnons towards their potential applications in low-power-consumption information technologies. Magnons (quasiparticles of spin waves) are collective excitations of magnetizations in a magnetic system. The concept for such excitations was first introduced 1930 by Felix Bloch [1] who described ferromagnetism in a lattice. The field of magnon spintronics [2] or magnonics [3] aims at utilizing magnons to realize information processing and storage. The propagation of spin waves is free of charge transport, hence a successful realization of magnonic devices can innately avoid Joule heating induced energy loss in nowadays micro- or nano-electronic devices. Magnonics has made many progresses in recent years, including the demonstration of magnonic logic devices [4]. Towards the aim to generate magnonic devices, it is an essential step to find materials suitable for conveying spin waves. One outstanding candidate is a ferromagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG). It offers an out standing low damping which allows the propagation of spin waves over relatively long distances. Experiments on such a thin YIG film with an out-of-plane magnetization have been performed by Chen et al. [5]. They excited so called forward volume mode spin waves and determined the propagating spin wave properties, such as the group velocities. Lohman et al. [6] has successfully imaged the propagating spin waves using time-resolved MOKE microscopy and show agreement with micromagnetic modellings. For very long time, YIG is the most ideal material for spin waves thanks to its ultra-low damping. However, it remains a major challenge integrate YIG on to Silicon substrate. Magnetic Heusler alloys on the other hand, can be easily grown on Si substrate and also shows reasonably good damping properties, which allow spin waves to propagate

  17. The importance of Fe interface states for ferromagnet-semiconductor based spintronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantis, Athanasios

    2009-03-01

    I present our recent theoretical studies of the bias-controlled spin injection, detection sensitivity and tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in ferromagnetic-semiconductor tunnel junctions. Using first-principles electron transport methods we have shown that Fe 3d minority-spin surface (interface) states are responsible for at least two important effects for spin electronics. First, they can produce a sizable Tunneling Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in magnetic tunnel junctions with a single Fe electrode. The effect is driven by a Rashba shift of the resonant surface band when the magnetization changes direction. This can introduce a new class of spintronic devices, namely, Tunneling Magnetoresistance junctions with a single ferromagnetic electrode that can function at room temperatures. Second, in Fe/GaAs(001) magnetic tunnel junctions they produce a strong dependence of the tunneling current spin-polarization on applied electrical bias. A dramatic sign reversal within a voltage range of just a few tenths of an eV is found. This explains the observed sign reversal of spin-polarization in recent experiments of electrical spin injection in Fe/GaAs(001) and related reversal of tunneling magnetoresistcance through vertical Fe/GaAs/Fe trilayers. We also present a theoretical description of electrical spin-detection at a ferromagnet/semiconductor interface. We show that the sensitivity of the spin detector has strong bias dependence which, in the general case, is dramatically different from that of the tunneling current spin-polarization. We show that in realistic ferromagnet/semiconductor junctions this bias dependence can originate from two distinct physical mechanisms: 1) the bias dependence of tunneling current spin-polarization, which is of microscopic origin and depends on the specific properties of the interface, and 2) the macroscopic electron spin transport properties in the semiconductor. Our numerical results show that the magnitude of the voltage signal

  18. Organic spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naber, W J M; Faez, S; Wiel, W G van der

    2007-01-01

    We review the emerging field of organic spintronics, where organic materials are applied as a medium to transport and control spin-polarized signals. The contacts for injecting and detecting spins are formed by ferromagnetic metals, oxides, or inorganic semiconductors. First, the basic concepts of spintronics and organic electronics are addressed, and phenomena which are in particular relevant for organic spintronics are highlighted. Experiments using different organic materials, including carbon nanotubes, organic thin films, self-assembled monolayers and single molecules are then reviewed. Observed magnetoresistance points toward successful spin injection and detection, but spurious magnetoresistance effects can easily be confused with spin accumulation. A few studies report long spin relaxation times and lengths, which forms a promising basis for further research. We conclude with discussing outstanding questions and problems. (topical review)

  19. Antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Martí, Xavier; Wadley, P.; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), 231-241 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferromagnets * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 38.986, year: 2016

  20. Handbook of spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Awschalom, David; Nitta, Junsaku

    2016-01-01

    This large reference work addresses a broad range of topics covering various aspects of spintronics science and technology, ranging from fundamental physics through materials properties and processing to established and emerging device technology and applications.  It comprises a collection of chapters from a large international team of leading researchers across academia and industry, providing readers with an up-to-date and comprehensive review of this dynamic field of research.   The opening chapters focus on the fundamental physical principles of spintronics in metals and semiconductors, including the theory of giant magnetoresistance and an introduction to spin quantum computing.  Materials systems are then considered, with sections on metallic thin films and multilayers, magnetic tunnelling structures, hybrid materials including Heusler compounds, magnetic semiconductors, molecular spintronic materials, carbon nanotubes and graphene.  A separate section describes the various methods used in the char...

  1. Operation training aid device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Sadanori.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention evaluates the propriety of an operation which is conducted optionally by a trainee depending on the state of the plant, analyzes the cause of an operation error and aids the preparation of training policy and teaching materials based on the results of the evaluation and the analysis. Namely, an operation data collection device collects operation data for the plant operation conducted by the trainee and the state of the plant during the operation. Since an operation evaluation device evaluates the plant operation in a short period of time based on the evaluation criteria of an operation evaluation knowledge base, an operation error is never overlooked. Accordingly, uniform and highly reliable operation training at definite evaluation criteria can be obtained. In addition, an error-cause analyzing device and a training policy knowledge base analyze the cause of an error inherent to each of the trainee, and it is recorded systematically independently on every trainees. Since a training policy guide device retrieves and presents an operation error and a cause of the error, there can be prepared a training policy incorporating training with respect to the operation error that each of the trainee tends to commit. (I.S.)

  2. Antiferromagnetic spintronics

    KAUST Repository

    Baltz, V.; Manchon, Aurelien; Tsoi, M.; Moriyama, T.; Ono, T.; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic materials could represent the future of spintronic applications thanks to the numerous interesting features they combine: they are robust against perturbation due to magnetic fields, produce no stray fields, display ultrafast dynamics, and are capable of generating large magnetotransport effects. Intense research efforts over the past decade have been invested in unraveling spin transport properties in antiferromagnetic materials. Whether spin transport can be used to drive the antiferromagnetic order and how subsequent variations can be detected are some of the thrilling challenges currently being addressed. Antiferromagnetic spintronics started out with studies on spin transfer and has undergone a definite revival in the last few years with the publication of pioneering articles on the use of spin-orbit interactions in antiferromagnets. This paradigm shift offers possibilities for radically new concepts for spin manipulation in electronics. Central to these endeavors are the need for predictive models, relevant disruptive materials, and new experimental designs. This paper reviews the most prominent spintronic effects described based on theoretical and experimental analysis of antiferromagnetic materials. It also details some of the remaining bottlenecks and suggests possible avenues for future research. This review covers both spin-transfer-related effects, such as spin-transfer torque, spin penetration length, domain-wall motion, and

  3. Antiferromagnetic spintronics

    KAUST Repository

    Baltz, V.

    2018-02-15

    Antiferromagnetic materials could represent the future of spintronic applications thanks to the numerous interesting features they combine: they are robust against perturbation due to magnetic fields, produce no stray fields, display ultrafast dynamics, and are capable of generating large magnetotransport effects. Intense research efforts over the past decade have been invested in unraveling spin transport properties in antiferromagnetic materials. Whether spin transport can be used to drive the antiferromagnetic order and how subsequent variations can be detected are some of the thrilling challenges currently being addressed. Antiferromagnetic spintronics started out with studies on spin transfer and has undergone a definite revival in the last few years with the publication of pioneering articles on the use of spin-orbit interactions in antiferromagnets. This paradigm shift offers possibilities for radically new concepts for spin manipulation in electronics. Central to these endeavors are the need for predictive models, relevant disruptive materials, and new experimental designs. This paper reviews the most prominent spintronic effects described based on theoretical and experimental analysis of antiferromagnetic materials. It also details some of the remaining bottlenecks and suggests possible avenues for future research. This review covers both spin-transfer-related effects, such as spin-transfer torque, spin penetration length, domain-wall motion, and

  4. Addressing the challenges of using ferromagnetic electrodes in the magnetic tunnel junction-based molecular spintronics devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Pawan; Friebe, Edward; Baker, Collin

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the challenges of using high-Curie temperature ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes is critical for molecular spintronics devices (MSDs) research. Two FM electrodes simultaneously chemically bonded with a thiol-functionalized molecule can produce novel MSDs to exploring new quantum mechanical phenomenon and computer technologies. For developing a commercially viable MSD, it is crucial to developing a device fabrication scheme that carefully considers FM electrodes’ susceptibility to oxidation, chemical etching, and stress-induced deformations during fabrication and usage. This paper studies NiFe, an alloy extensively used in present-day memory devices and high-temperature engineering applications, as a candidate FM electrode for the fabrication of MSDs. Our spectroscopic reflectance studies show that NiFe oxidized aggressively after heating beyond ∼90 °C. The NiFe surfaces, aged for several months or heated for several minutes below ∼90 °C, exhibited remarkable electrochemical activity and were found suitable for chemical bonding with the thiol-functionalized molecular device elements. NiFe also demonstrated excellent etching resistance against commonly used solvents and lithography related chemicals. Additionally, NiFe mitigated the adverse effects of mechanical stress by subsiding the stress-induced deformities. A magnetic tunnel junction-based MSD approach was designed by carefully considering the merits and limitations of NiFe. The device fabrication protocol considers the safe temperature limit to avoiding irreversible surface oxidation, the effect of mechanical stresses, surface roughness, and chemical etching. This paper provides foundational experimental insights in realizing a versatile MSD allowing a wide range of transport and magnetic studies

  5. Heterojunction metal-oxide-metal Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au single nanowire device for spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K. M., E-mail: mrkongara@boisestate.edu; Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States); Padture, Nitin P. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    In this report, we present the synthesis of heterojunction magnetite nanowires in alumina template and describe magnetic and electrical properties from a single nanowire device for spintronics applications. Heterojunction Au-Fe-Au nanowire arrays were electrodeposited in porous aluminum oxide templates, and an extensive and controlled heat treatment process converted Fe segment to nanocrystalline cubic magnetite phase with well-defined Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} interfaces as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed Verwey transition shoulder around 120 K and a room temperature coercive field of 90 Oe. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of a single Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanowire have exhibited Ohmic behavior. Anomalous positive magnetoresistance of about 0.5% is observed on a single nanowire, which is attributed to the high spin polarization in nanowire device with pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase and nanocontact barrier. This work demonstrates the ability to preserve the pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and well defined electrode contact metal (Au)–magnetite interface, which helps in attaining high spin polarized current.

  6. Fabrication of spintronics device by direct synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes from ferromagnetic electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ambri Mohamed, Nobuhito Inami, Eiji Shikoh, Yoshiyuki Yamamoto, Hidenobu Hori and Akihiko Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an alternative method for realizing a carbon nanotube spin field-effect transistor device by the direct synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs on substrates by alcohol catalytic chemical vapor deposition. We observed hysteretic magnetoresistance (MR at low temperatures due to spin-dependent transport. In these devices, the maximum ratio in resistance variation of MR was found to be 1.8%.

  7. Spintronics-based computing

    CERN Document Server

    Prenat, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to spintronics-based computing for the next generation of ultra-low power/highly reliable logic, which is widely considered a promising candidate to replace conventional, pure CMOS-based logic. It will cover aspects from device to system-level, including magnetic memory cells, device modeling, hybrid circuit structure, design methodology, CAD tools, and technological integration methods. This book is accessible to a variety of readers and little or no background in magnetism and spin electronics are required to understand its content.  The multidisciplinary team of expert authors from circuits, devices, computer architecture, CAD and system design reveal to readers the potential of spintronics nanodevices to reduce power consumption, improve reliability and enable new functionality.  .

  8. Novel spintronics devices for memory and logic: prospects and challenges for room temperature all spin computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ping

    An energy efficient memory and logic device for the post-CMOS era has been the goal of a variety of research fields. The limits of scaling, which we expect to reach by the year 2025, demand that future advances in computational power will not be realized from ever-shrinking device sizes, but rather by innovative designs and new materials and physics. Magnetoresistive based devices have been a promising candidate for future integrated magnetic computation because of its unique non-volatility and functionalities. The application of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for potential STT-RAM application was demonstrated and later has been intensively investigated by both academia and industry groups, but there is no clear path way how scaling will eventually work for both memory and logic applications. One of main reasons is that there is no demonstrated material stack candidate that could lead to a scaling scheme down to sub 10 nm. Another challenge for the usage of magnetoresistive based devices for logic application is its available switching speed and writing energy. Although a good progress has been made to demonstrate the fast switching of a thermally stable magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) down to 165 ps, it is still several times slower than its CMOS counterpart. In this talk, I will review the recent progress by my research group and my C-SPIN colleagues, then discuss the opportunities, challenges and some potential path ways for magnetoresitive based devices for memory and logic applications and their integration for room temperature all spin computing system.

  9. Antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, V.; Manchon, A.; Tsoi, M.; Moriyama, T.; Ono, T.; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic materials could represent the future of spintronic applications thanks to the numerous interesting features they combine: they are robust against perturbation due to magnetic fields, produce no stray fields, display ultrafast dynamics, and are capable of generating large magnetotransport effects. Intense research efforts over the past decade have been invested in unraveling spin transport properties in antiferromagnetic materials. Whether spin transport can be used to drive the antiferromagnetic order and how subsequent variations can be detected are some of the thrilling challenges currently being addressed. Antiferromagnetic spintronics started out with studies on spin transfer and has undergone a definite revival in the last few years with the publication of pioneering articles on the use of spin-orbit interactions in antiferromagnets. This paradigm shift offers possibilities for radically new concepts for spin manipulation in electronics. Central to these endeavors are the need for predictive models, relevant disruptive materials, and new experimental designs. This paper reviews the most prominent spintronic effects described based on theoretical and experimental analysis of antiferromagnetic materials. It also details some of the remaining bottlenecks and suggests possible avenues for future research. This review covers both spin-transfer-related effects, such as spin-transfer torque, spin penetration length, domain-wall motion, and "magnetization" dynamics, and spin-orbit related phenomena, such as (tunnel) anisotropic magnetoresistance, spin Hall, and inverse spin galvanic effects. Effects related to spin caloritronics, such as the spin Seebeck effect, are linked to the transport of magnons in antiferromagnets. The propagation of spin waves and spin superfluids in antiferromagnets is also covered.

  10. Room-temperature spintronic effects in Alq3-based hybrid devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dediu, V.; Hueso, L.E.; Bergenti, I; Riminucci, A.; Borgatti, F.; Graziosi, P.; Newby, C.; Casoli, F.; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Taliani, C.; Zhan, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We report on efficient spin polarized injection and transport in long 102 nm channels of Alq3 organic semiconductor. We employ vertical spin valve devices with a direct interface between the bottom manganite electrode and Alq3, while the top-electrode geometry consists of an insulating tunnel

  11. Operation planning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Odakawa, Naoto; Erikuchi, Makoto; Okada, Masayuki; Koizumi, Atsuhiko.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention provides a device suitable for monitoring a reactor core state and operation replanning in terms of reactor operation. Namely, (1) an operation result difference judging means judges that replanning is necessary when the operation results deviates from the operation planning, (2) an operation replanning rule data base storing means stores a deviation key which shows various kinds of states where the results deviate from the planning and a rule for replanning for returning to the operation planning on every deviating key, (3) an operation replanning means forms a new operation planning in accordance with the rule which is retrieved based on the deviation key, (4) an operation planning optimizing rule data base storing means evaluates the reformed planning and stores it on every evaluation item, (5) an operation planning optimization means correct the operation planning data so as to be optimized when the evaluation of the means (4) is less than a reference value, and (6) an operation planning display means edits adaptable operation planning data and the result of the evaluation and displays them. (I.S.)

  12. Spintronics: The molecular way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornia, Andrea; Seneor, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    Molecular spintronics is an interdisciplinary field at the interface between organic spintronics, molecular magnetism, molecular electronics and quantum computing, which is advancing fast and promises large technological payoffs.

  13. Spintronics with multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béa, H.; Gajek, M.; Bibes, M.; Barthélémy, A.

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we review the recent research on the functionalization of multiferroics for spintronics applications. We focus more particularly on antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric BiFeO3 and its integration in several types of architectures. For instance, when used as a tunnel barrier, BiFeO3 allows the observation of a large tunnel magnetoresistance with Co and (La,Sr)MnO3 ferromagnetic electrodes. Also, its antiferromagnetic and magnetoelectric properties have been exploited to induce an exchange coupling with a ferromagnet. The mechanisms of such an exchange coupling open ways to electrically control magnetization and possibly the logic state of spintronics devices. We also discuss recent results concerning the use of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric (La,Bi)MnO3 as an active tunnel barrier in magnetic tunnel junctions with Au and (La,Sr)MnO3 electrodes. A four-resistance-state device has been obtained, with two states arising from a spin filtering effect due to the ferromagnetic character of the barrier and two resulting from the ferroelectric behavior of the (La,Bi)MnO3 ultrathin film. These results show that the additional degree of freedom provided by the ferroelectric polarization brings novel functionalities to spintronics, either as a extra order parameter for multiple-state memory elements, or as a handle for gate-controlled magnetic memories.

  14. Spintronics with multiferroics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bea, H; Gajek, M; Bibes, M; Barthelemy, A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review the recent research on the functionalization of multiferroics for spintronics applications. We focus more particularly on antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric BiFeO 3 and its integration in several types of architectures. For instance, when used as a tunnel barrier, BiFeO 3 allows the observation of a large tunnel magnetoresistance with Co and (La,Sr)MnO 3 ferromagnetic electrodes. Also, its antiferromagnetic and magnetoelectric properties have been exploited to induce an exchange coupling with a ferromagnet. The mechanisms of such an exchange coupling open ways to electrically control magnetization and possibly the logic state of spintronics devices. We also discuss recent results concerning the use of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric (La,Bi)MnO 3 as an active tunnel barrier in magnetic tunnel junctions with Au and (La,Sr)MnO 3 electrodes. A four-resistance-state device has been obtained, with two states arising from a spin filtering effect due to the ferromagnetic character of the barrier and two resulting from the ferroelectric behavior of the (La,Bi)MnO 3 ultrathin film. These results show that the additional degree of freedom provided by the ferroelectric polarization brings novel functionalities to spintronics, either as a extra order parameter for multiple-state memory elements, or as a handle for gate-controlled magnetic memories.

  15. Spintronics with multiferroics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bea, H; Gajek, M; Bibes, M; Barthelemy, A [Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, Route departementale 128, F-91767 Palaiseau (France); Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France)], E-mail: agnes.barthelemy@thalesgroup.com

    2008-10-29

    In this paper, we review the recent research on the functionalization of multiferroics for spintronics applications. We focus more particularly on antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric BiFeO{sub 3} and its integration in several types of architectures. For instance, when used as a tunnel barrier, BiFeO{sub 3} allows the observation of a large tunnel magnetoresistance with Co and (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} ferromagnetic electrodes. Also, its antiferromagnetic and magnetoelectric properties have been exploited to induce an exchange coupling with a ferromagnet. The mechanisms of such an exchange coupling open ways to electrically control magnetization and possibly the logic state of spintronics devices. We also discuss recent results concerning the use of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric (La,Bi)MnO{sub 3} as an active tunnel barrier in magnetic tunnel junctions with Au and (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} electrodes. A four-resistance-state device has been obtained, with two states arising from a spin filtering effect due to the ferromagnetic character of the barrier and two resulting from the ferroelectric behavior of the (La,Bi)MnO{sub 3} ultrathin film. These results show that the additional degree of freedom provided by the ferroelectric polarization brings novel functionalities to spintronics, either as a extra order parameter for multiple-state memory elements, or as a handle for gate-controlled magnetic memories.

  16. A review on organic spintronic materials and devices: I. Magnetic field effect on organic light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugang Geng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic spintronics is an emerging and potential platform for future electronics and display due to the intriguing properties of organic semiconductors (OSCs. For the past decade, studies have focused on three types of organic spintronic phenomena: (i magnetic field effect (MFE in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs, where spin mixing between singlet and triplet polaron pairs (PP can be influenced by an external magnetic field leading to organic magnetoresistive effect (OMAR; (ii magnetoresistance (MR in organic spin valves (OSVs, where spin injection, transport, manipulation, and detection have been demonstrated; and (iii magnetoelectroluminescence (MEL bipolar OSVs or spin-OLEDs, where spin polarized electrons and holes are simultaneously injected into the OSC layer, leading to the dependence of electroluminescence intensity on relative magnetization of the electrodes. In this first of two review papers, we present major experimental results on OMAR studies and current understanding of OMAR using several spin dependent processes in organic semiconductors. During the discussion, we highlight some of the outstanding challenges in this promising research field. Finally, we provide an outlook on the future of organic spintronics.

  17. All-spin logic operations: Memory device and reconfigurable computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Moumita; Maiti, Santanu K.

    2018-02-01

    Exploiting spin degree of freedom of electron a new proposal is given to characterize spin-based logical operations using a quantum interferometer that can be utilized as a programmable spin logic device (PSLD). The ON and OFF states of both inputs and outputs are described by spin state only, circumventing spin-to-charge conversion at every stage as often used in conventional devices with the inclusion of extra hardware that can eventually diminish the efficiency. All possible logic functions can be engineered from a single device without redesigning the circuit which certainly offers the opportunities of designing new generation spintronic devices. Moreover, we also discuss the utilization of the present model as a memory device and suitable computing operations with proposed experimental setups.

  18. Electronic structure and magnetism of new ilmenite compounds for spintronic devices: FeBO{sub 3} (B = Ti, Hf, Zr, Si, Ge, Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, R.A.P. [Department of Chemistry, State University of Ponta Grossa, Av. General Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Camilo, A. [Department of Physics, State University of Ponta Grossa, Av. General Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Lazaro, S.R. de, E-mail: srlazaro@uepg.br [Department of Chemistry, State University of Ponta Grossa, Av. General Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    First-principles calculations were performed in the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) within hybrid functional (B3LYP) to study the electronic structure and magnetic properties of new ilmenite FeBO{sub 3} (B=Ti, Hf, Zr, Si, Ge, Sn) materials. In particular, the magnetic exchange interaction between Fe{sup 2+} layers is dependent on the interlayer distance and it can be controlled by ionic radius of B-site cation. Thus, Fe(Ti, Si, Ge)O{sub 3} are antiferromagnetic materials, while Fe(Zr, Hf, Sn)O{sub 3} are ferromagnetic. We also argue that antiferromagnetic materials and FeZrO{sub 3} are convectional semiconductors, whereas FeHfO{sub 3} and FeSnO{sub 3} exhibit intrinsic half-metallic behavior, making them promising candidates for spintronic devices. - Highlights: • We study electronic structure and magnetism of new FeBO{sub 3} (B=Ti, Hf, Zr, Si, Ge, Sn) ilmenite materials. • We found that magnetic ordering of Fe-based ilmenite materials can be controlled by size of B-site cation. • Fe(Ti, Zr, Si, Ge)O{sub 3} are convectional semiconductors. • FeHfO{sub 3} and FeSnO{sub 3} exhibit intrinsic half-metallic behavior with potential application for spintronic devices.

  19. Quantum computing and spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantser, V.

    2007-01-01

    Tentative to build a computer, which can operate according to the quantum laws, has leaded to concept of quantum computing algorithms and hardware. In this review we highlight recent developments which point the way to quantum computing on the basis solid state nanostructures after some general considerations concerning quantum information science and introducing a set of basic requirements for any quantum computer proposal. One of the major direction of research on the way to quantum computing is to exploit the spin (in addition to the orbital) degree of freedom of the electron, giving birth to the field of spintronics. We address some semiconductor approach based on spin orbit coupling in semiconductor nanostructures. (authors)

  20. Boron nitride nanotubes for spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Kamal B; Pati, Ranjit

    2014-09-22

    With the end of Moore's law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR) effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT), which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  1. Boron Nitride Nanotubes for Spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal B. Dhungana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the end of Moore’s law in sight, researchers are in search of an alternative approach to manipulate information. Spintronics or spin-based electronics, which uses the spin state of electrons to store, process and communicate information, offers exciting opportunities to sustain the current growth in the information industry. For example, the discovery of the giant magneto resistance (GMR effect, which provides the foundation behind modern high density data storage devices, is an important success story of spintronics; GMR-based sensors have wide applications, ranging from automotive industry to biology. In recent years, with the tremendous progress in nanotechnology, spintronics has crossed the boundary of conventional, all metallic, solid state multi-layered structures to reach a new frontier, where nanostructures provide a pathway for the spin-carriers. Different materials such as organic and inorganic nanostructures are explored for possible applications in spintronics. In this short review, we focus on the boron nitride nanotube (BNNT, which has recently been explored for possible applications in spintronics. Unlike many organic materials, BNNTs offer higher thermal stability and higher resistance to oxidation. It has been reported that the metal-free fluorinated BNNT exhibits long range ferromagnetic spin ordering, which is stable at a temperature much higher than room temperature. Due to their large band gap, BNNTs are also explored as a tunnel magneto resistance device. In addition, the F-BNNT has recently been predicted as an ideal spin-filter. The purpose of this review is to highlight these recent progresses so that a concerted effort by both experimentalists and theorists can be carried out in the future to realize the true potential of BNNT-based spintronics.

  2. Advances in graphene spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wees, Bart

    I will give an overview of the status of graphene spintronics, from both scientific as technological perspectives. In the introduction I will show that (single) layer graphene is the ideal host for electronic spins, allowing spin transport by diffusion over distances exceeding 20 micrometers at room temperature. I will show how by the use of carrier drift, induced by charge currents, effective spin relaxation lengths of 90 micrometer can be obtained in graphene encapsulated between boron-nitride layers. This also allows the controlled flow and guiding of spin currents, opening new avenues for spin logic devices based on lateral architectures. By preparing graphene on top of a ferromagnetic insulator (yttrium iron garnet (YIG)) we have shown that we can induce an exchange interaction in the graphene, thus effectively making the graphene magnetic. This allows for new ways to induce and control spin precession for new applications. Finally I will show how, by using two-layer BN tunnel barriers, spins can be injected from a ferromagnet into graphene with a spin polarization which can be tuned continuously from -80% to 40%, using a bias range from -0.3V to 0.3V across the barrier. These unique record values of the spin polarization are not yet understood, but they highlight the potential of Van der Waals stacking of graphene and related 2D materials for spintronics.

  3. Ultrathin Epitaxial Ferromagneticγ-Fe2O3Layer as High Efficiency Spin Filtering Materials for Spintronics Device Based on Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In spintronics, identifying an effective technique for generating spin-polarized current has fundamental importance. The spin-filtering effect across a ferromagnetic insulating layer originates from unequal tunneling barrier heights for spin-up and spin-down electrons, which has shown great promise for use in different ferromagnetic materials. However, the low spin-filtering efficiency in some materials can be ascribed partially to the difficulty in fabricating high-quality thin film with high Curie temperature and/or partially to the improper model used to extract the spin-filtering efficiency. In this work, a new technique is successfully developed to fabricate high quality, ferrimagnetic insulating γ-Fe2O3 films as spin filter. To extract the spin-filtering effect of γ-Fe2O3 films more accurately, a new model is proposed based on Fowler–Nordheim tunneling and Zeeman effect to obtain the spin polarization of the tunneling currents. Spin polarization of the tunneled current can be as high as −94.3% at 2 K in γ-Fe2O3 layer with 6.5 nm thick, and the spin polarization decays monotonically with temperature. Although the spin-filter effect is not very high at room temperature, this work demonstrates that spinel ferrites are very promising materials for spin injection into semiconductors at low temperature, which is important for development of novel spintronics devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  4. Spintronic logic design methodology based on spin Hall effect–driven magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Wang; Zhang, Youguang; Zhao, Weisheng; Wang, Zhaohao; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Lv, Weifeng

    2016-01-01

    Conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology is now approaching its physical scaling limits to enable Moore’s law to continue. Spintronic devices, as one of the potential alternatives, show great promise to replace CMOS technology for next-generation low-power integrated circuits in nanoscale technology nodes. Until now, spintronic memory has been successfully commercialized. However spintronic logic still faces many critical challenges (e.g. direct cascading capability and small operation gain) before it can be practically applied. In this paper, we propose a standard complimentary spintronic logic (CSL) design methodology to form a CMOS-like logic design paradigm. Using the spin Hall effect (SHE)-driven magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) device as an example, we demonstrate CSL implementation, functionality and performance. This logic family provides a unified design methodology for spintronic logic circuits and partly solves the challenges of direct cascading capability and small operation gain in the previously proposed spintronic logic designs. By solving a modified Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation, the magnetization dynamics in the free layer of the MTJ is theoretically described and a compact electrical model is developed. With this electrical model, numerical simulations have been performed to evaluate the functionality and performance of the proposed CSL design. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CSL design paradigm is rather promising for low-power logic computing. (paper)

  5. Spintronics Based on Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yabin; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-10-01

    Spintronics using topological insulators (TIs) as strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) materials have emerged and shown rapid progress in the past few years. Different from traditional heavy metals, TIs exhibit very strong SOC and nontrivial topological surface states that originate in the bulk band topology order, which can provide very efficient means to manipulate adjacent magnetic materials when passing a charge current through them. In this paper, we review the recent progress in the TI-based magnetic spintronics research field. In particular, we focus on the spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced magnetization switching in the magnetic TI structures, spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements in the TI/ferromagnet structures, spin pumping and spin injection effects in the TI/magnet structures, as well as the electrical detection of the surface spin-polarized current in TIs. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in the TI-based spintronics field and its potential applications in ultralow power dissipation spintronic memory and logic devices.

  6. Operation guide device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohashi, Hideaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a reactor operator to perform safety and sure inspection for a reactor and take manual start-up operations for the necessary systems at optimum timing with neither misoperation nor misjudging after the occurrence of reactor accidents. Constitution: If a signal judging circuit judges the generation of an accident signal for a reactor, the circuit issues an output signal to start the time counting operation of a time counter thereby inform the elapse of time after the occurrence of the reactor accident. Further, a time signal generated on every predetermined time from the time counter and a process signal indicating the reactor status are logically judged and, if the conditions for taking manual start-up operations, are satisfied, a start-up instruction signal is generated. An information signal is formed depending on the start-up instruction and the content of the start-up instruction is displayed on every predetermined time by the information signal, whereby the operator can perform the manual start-up operations at the optimum timings. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. High and tunable spin current induced by magnetic-electric fields in a single-mode spintronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala Kumar, S; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G; Liang, G-C

    2009-01-01

    We proposed that a viable form of spin current transistor is one to be made from a single-mode device which passes electrons through a series of magnetic-electric barriers built into the device. The barriers assume a wavy spatial profile across the conduction path due to the inevitable broadening of the magnetic fields. Field broadening results in a linearly increasing vector potential across the conduction channel, which increases spin polarization. We have identified that the important factors for generating high spin polarization and conductance modulation are the low source-drain bias, the broadened magnetic fields, and the high number of FM gates within a fixed channel length.

  8. Reactor operation plan preparing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroki; Maruyama, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Mitsuo; Fukuzaki, Koji; Banto, Masaru; Fukazawa, Yukihisa.

    1993-01-01

    The device comprises a means for retrieving a control rod pattern capable of satisfying a thermal limit upon aimed power/minimum flow rate and providing minimum xenon and a control rod pattern maximum xenon. It further comprises a means for selecting a control rod pattern corresponding to a xenon equilibrium condition, and selecting a control rod which provides a greater thermal margin to provide a control rod operation sequence for each of the patterns. Further, the device comprises an outline plan preparing means and a correction means therefor, a simplified sequence table reference means operated along with sequence change, an operation limit region input means, a control rod operation preferential region changing means, a thermal margin evaluation region and an input means. This can automatically prepare the operation plan, decrease the times for preparation of detailed plans by using the outline plan preparing function, thereby enabling to remarkably shorten the time for preparing of an operation plan. (N.H.)

  9. Ultrathin Epitaxial Ferromagneticγ-Fe2O3Layer as High Efficiency Spin Filtering Materials for Spintronics Device Based on Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng; Xia, Chuan; Zhu, Zhiyong; Wen, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Alshareef, Husam N.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2016-01-01

    In spintronics, identifying an effective technique for generating spin-polarized current has fundamental importance. The spin-filtering effect across a ferromagnetic insulating layer originates from unequal tunneling barrier heights for spin

  10. Focused issue on antiferromagnetic spintronics: An overview (Part of a collection of reviews on antiferromagnetic spintronics)

    KAUST Repository

    Jungwirth, T.

    2017-05-30

    This focused issue attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction into the field of antiferromagnetic spintronics. Apart from the brief overview below, it features five review articles. The intention is to cover in a coherent and complementary way key physical aspects of the antiferromagnetic spintronics research. These range from microelectronic memory devices and optical manipulation and detection of antiferromagnetic spins, to the fundamentals of antiferromagnetic dynamics in uniform or spin-textured systems, and to the interplay of antiferromagnetic spintronics with topological phenomena. The antiferromagnetic ordering can take a number of forms including fully compensated collinear, non-collinear, and non-coplanar magnetic lattices, compensated and uncompensated ferrimagnets, or metamagnetic materials hosting an antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition. Apart from the variety of distinct magnetic crystal structures, the focused issue also encompasses spintronic phenomena and devices studied in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet heterostructures and in synthetic antiferromagnets.

  11. Focused issue on antiferromagnetic spintronics: An overview (Part of a collection of reviews on antiferromagnetic spintronics)

    KAUST Repository

    Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, J.; Manchon, Aurelien; Marti, X.; Wunderlich, J.; Felser, C.

    2017-01-01

    This focused issue attempts to provide a comprehensive introduction into the field of antiferromagnetic spintronics. Apart from the brief overview below, it features five review articles. The intention is to cover in a coherent and complementary way key physical aspects of the antiferromagnetic spintronics research. These range from microelectronic memory devices and optical manipulation and detection of antiferromagnetic spins, to the fundamentals of antiferromagnetic dynamics in uniform or spin-textured systems, and to the interplay of antiferromagnetic spintronics with topological phenomena. The antiferromagnetic ordering can take a number of forms including fully compensated collinear, non-collinear, and non-coplanar magnetic lattices, compensated and uncompensated ferrimagnets, or metamagnetic materials hosting an antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition. Apart from the variety of distinct magnetic crystal structures, the focused issue also encompasses spintronic phenomena and devices studied in antiferromagnet/ferromagnet heterostructures and in synthetic antiferromagnets.

  12. Organic-based magnon spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoliang; Zhang, Chuang; Malissa, Hans; Groesbeck, Matthew; Kavand, Marzieh; McLaughlin, Ryan; Jamali, Shirin; Hao, Jingjun; Sun, Dali; Davidson, Royce A.; Wojcik, Leonard; Miller, Joel S.; Boehme, Christoph; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2018-03-01

    Magnonics concepts utilize spin-wave quanta (magnons) for information transmission, processing and storage. To convert information carried by magnons into an electric signal promises compatibility of magnonic devices with conventional electronic devices, that is, magnon spintronics1. Magnons in inorganic materials have been studied widely with respect to their generation2,3, transport4,5 and detection6. In contrast, resonant spin waves in the room-temperature organic-based ferrimagnet vanadium tetracyanoethylene (V(TCNE)x (x ≈ 2)), were detected only recently7. Herein we report room-temperature coherent magnon generation, transport and detection in films and devices based on V(TCNE)x using three different techniques, which include broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and spin pumping into a Pt adjacent layer. V(TCNE)x can be grown as neat films on a large variety of substrates, and it exhibits extremely low Gilbert damping comparable to that in yttrium iron garnet. Our studies establish an alternative use for organic-based magnets, which, because of their synthetic versatility, may substantially enrich the field of magnon spintronics.

  13. Perspectives of antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Zhang, Wei; Hoffmann, Axel

    2018-04-01

    Antiferromagnets are promising for future spintronic applications owing to their advantageous properties: They are magnetically ordered, but neighboring magnetic moments point in opposite directions, which results in zero net magnetization. This means antiferromagnets produce no stray fields and are insensitive to external magnetic field perturbations. Furthermore, they show intrinsic high frequency dynamics, exhibit considerable spin-orbit and magneto-transport effects. Over the past decade, it has been realized that antiferromagnets have more to offer than just being utilized as passive components in exchange bias applications. This development resulted in a paradigm shift, which opens the pathway to novel concepts using antiferromagnets for spin-based technologies and applications. This article gives a broad perspective on antiferromagnetic spintronics. In particular, the manipulation and detection of antiferromagnetic states by spintronics effects, as well as spin transport and dynamics in antiferromagnetic materials will be discussed. We will also outline current challenges and future research directions in this emerging field.

  14. Perspectives of antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Zhang, Wei; Hoffmann, Axel

    2018-04-01

    Antiferromagnets are promising for future spintronics applications owing to their interesting properties: They are magnetically ordered, but neighboring magnetic moments point in opposite directions which results in zero net magneti- zation. This means antiferromagnets produce no stray fields and are insensitive to external magnetic field perturbations. Furthermore, they show intrinsic high frequency dynamics, exhibit considerable spin-orbit and magneto-transport effects. Over the past decade, it has been realized that antiferromagnets have more to offer than just being utilized as passive components in exchange bias applications. This development resulted in a paradigm shift, which opens the pathway to novel concepts using antiferromagnets for spin-based technologies and applications. This article gives a broad per- spective on antiferromagnetic spintronics. In particular, the manipulation and detection of anitferromagnetic states by spintronics effects, as well as spin transport and dynamics in antiferromagnetic materials will be discussed. We will also outline current challenges and future research directions in this emerging field.

  15. Nanomagnetism and spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinjo, Teruya

    2014-01-01

    The concise and accessible chapters of Nanomagnetism and Spintronics, Second Edition, cover the most recent research in areas of spin-current generation, spin-calorimetric effect, voltage effects on magnetic properties, spin-injection phenomena, giant magnetoresistance (GMR), and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR). Spintronics is a cutting-edge area in the field of magnetism that studies the interplay of magnetism and transport phenomena, demonstrating how electrons not only have charge but also spin. This second edition provides the background to understand this novel physical phenomeno

  16. Prospect for antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martí, Xavier; Fina, I.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2015), s. 2900104 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * antiferromagnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.277, year: 2015

  17. Monitoring device for reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakagami, Masaharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the freedom for the power control due to control rod operation and flow rate control, as well as prevent fuel failures by the provision of a power distribution forecasting device for forecasting the changes in the reactor core power distribution and a device for calculating the fuel performance index and judging to display the calculated values. Constitution: The results for the calculation of the reactor core power distribution from a process computer that processes each of measuring signals of a nuclear power plant are used as inputs to a fuel power history calculator to constitute the power history up to the present time for each of the fuels. The date are inputted to a fuel performance index calculator to calculate the fuel performance index at present time for each of the fuels. Changes in the power distribution are forecast in a forecasting device for reactor power distribution relative to the changes in the control variables of a control variable memory unit and the date are inputted to a fuel power history calculator to forecast the power changes for each of the fuels. The amount of the power changes is inputted to a fuel performance index calculator and a fuel performance indicating and judging device judges and displays if they exceed a predetermined value. (Seki, T.)

  18. Molecular spintronics using single-molecule magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Lapo; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    A revolution in electronics is in view, with the contemporary evolution of the two novel disciplines of spintronics and molecular electronics. A fundamental link between these two fields can be established using molecular magnetic materials and, in particular, single-molecule magnets. Here, we review the first progress in the resulting field, molecular spintronics, which will enable the manipulation of spin and charges in electronic devices containing one or more molecules. We discuss the advantages over more conventional materials, and the potential applications in information storage and processing. We also outline current challenges in the field, and propose convenient schemes to overcome them.

  19. Single atom spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M. R.; Armstrong, J. N.; Hua, S. Z.; Chopra, H. D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Single atom spintronics (SASS) represents the ultimate physical limit in device miniaturization. SASS is characterized by ballistic electron transport, and is a fertile ground for exploring new phenomena. In addition to the 'stationary' (field independent) scattering centers that have a small and fixed contribution to total transmission probability of electron waves, domain walls constitute an additional and enhanced source of scattering in these magnetic quantum point contacts (QPCs), the latter being both field and spin-dependent. Through the measurement of complete hysteresis loops as a function of quantized conductance, we present definitive evidence of enhanced backscattering of electron waves by atomically sharp domain walls in QPCs formed between microfabricated thin films [1]. Since domain walls move in a magnetic field, the magnitude of spin-dependent scattering changes as the QPC is cycled along its hysteresis loop. For example, as shown in the inset in Fig. 1, from zero towards saturation in a given field direction, the resistance varies as the wall is being swept away, whereas the resistance is constant upon returning from saturation towards zero, since in this segment of the hysteresis loop no domain wall is present across the contact. The observed spin-valve like behavior is realized by control over wall width and shape anisotropy. This behavior also unmistakably sets itself apart from any mechanical artifacts; additionally, measurements made on single atom contacts provide an artifact-free environment [2]. Intuitively, it is simpler to organize the observed BMR data according to all possible transitions between different conductance plateaus, as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 1; the solid circles show experimental data for Co, which follows the predicted scheme. Requisite elements for the observation of the effect will be discussed in detail along with a review of state of research in this field. Practically, the challenge lies in making

  20. Semiconductors put spin in spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Electrons and holes, which carry the current in semiconductor devices, are quantum-mechanical objects characterized by a set of quantum numbers - the band index, the wave-vector (which is closely related to the electron or hole velocity) and spin. The spin, however, is one of the strangest properties of particles. In simple terms, we can think of the spin as an internal rotation of the electron, but it has no classical counterpart. The spin is connected to a quantized magnetic moment and hence acts as a microscopic magnet. Thus the electron spin can adopt one of two directions (''up'' or ''down'') in a magnetic field. The spin plays no role in conventional electronics and the current in any semiconductor device is made up of a mixture of electrons with randomly oriented spins. However, a new range of electronic devices that transport the spin of the electrons, in addition to their charge, is being developed. But the biggest obstacle to making practical ''spin electronic'' or ''spintronic'' devices so far has been finding a way of injecting spin-polarized electrons or holes into the semiconductor and then detecting them. Recently a team of physicists from the University of Wuerzburg in Germany, and also a collaboration of researchers from Tohoku University in Japan and the University of California at Santa Barbara, have found a way round these problems using either semi-magnetic or ferromagnetic semiconductors as ''spin aligners'' (R Fiederling et al. 1999 Nature 402 787; Y Ohno et al. 1999 Nature 402 790). In this article the author presents the latest breakthrough in spintronics research. (UK)

  1. Concepts of antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomonay, O.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), 1-8, č. článku 1700022. ISSN 1862-6254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * antiferromagnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.032, year: 2016

  2. Operation control device under radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kiichi; Murakami, Toichi.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention performs smooth progress of operation by remote control for a plurality of operations in periodical inspections in controlled areas of a nuclear power plant, thereby reducing the operator's exposure dose. Namely, the device monitors the progressing state of the operation by displaying the progress of operation on a CRT of a centralized control device present in a low dose area remote from an operation field through an ITV camera disposed in the vicinity of the operation field. Further, operation sequence and operation instruction procedures previously inputted in the device are indicated to the operation field through an operation instruction outputting device (field CRT) in accordance with the progress of the operation steps. On the other hand, the operation progress can be aided by inputting information from the operation field such as start or completion of the operation steps. Further, the device of the present invention can monitor the change of operation circumstances and exposure dose of operators based on the information from a radiation dose measuring device disposed in the operation circumstance and to individual operators. (I.S.)

  3. Spintronics of antiferromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomonaj, E.V.; Loktev, V.M.

    2014-01-01

    Spintronics of antiferromagnetics is a new field that has developed in a fascinating research topic in physics of magnetism. Antiferromagnetics, like ferromagnetic materials experience the influence of spin-polarized current, even though they show no macroscopic magnetization. The mechanism of this phenomenon is related to spin-dependent interaction between free and localized electrons-sd-exchange. Due to the peculiarities of antiferromagnetic materials (complicated magnetic structure, essential role of the exchange interactions, lack of macroscopic magnetization) spintronics of antiferromagnets appeals to new theoretical and experimental approaches. The purpose of this review is to systemize and summarize the recent progress in this field. We start with a short introduction into the structure and dynamics of antiferromagnets and proceed with discussion of different microscopic and phenomenological theories for description of current-induced phenomena in ferro-/antiferromagnetic heterostructures. We also consider the problems of the reverse influence of antiferromagnetic ordering on current, and effectiveness of the fully antiferromagnetic spin valve. In addition, we shortly review and interpret the available experimental results.

  4. Simulation of a spintronic transistor: A study of its performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pela, R.R.; Teles, L.K.

    2009-01-01

    We study theoretically the magnetic bipolar transistor, and compare its performance with common bipolar transistor. We present not only the simulation results for the characteristic curves, but also other relevant parameters related with its performance, such as: the current amplification factor, the open-loop gain, the hybrid parameters and the cutoff frequency. We noted that the spin-charge coupling introduces new phenomena that enrich the functionality characteristics of the magnetic bipolar transistor. Among other things, it has an adjustable band structure, which may be modified during the device operation; it exhibits the already known spin-voltaic effect. On the other hand, we observed that it is necessary a large g-factor to analyze the influence of the field B over the transistor. Nevertheless, we consider the magnetic bipolar transistor as a promising device for spintronic applications

  5. Preparation and characterization of highly L21-ordered full-Heusler alloy Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 thin films for spintronics device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenhong; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Shan Rong; Furubayashi, Takao; Inomata, Koichiro

    2008-01-01

    We report the investigation of structure and magnetic properties of full-Heusler alloy Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (CFAS) thin films grown on MgO-buffered MgO (001) substrates through magnetron sputtering. It was found that single-crystal CFAS thin films with high degree of L2 1 ordering and sufficiently flat surface could be obtained after postdeposition annealing. All the films show a distinct uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with the easy axis of magnetization along the in-plane [110] direction. These results indicate that the use of the MgO buffer for CFAS is a promising approach for achieving a higher tunnel magnetoresistance ratio, and thus for spintronics device applications

  6. Summer School on Spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Stuart; Idzerda, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Stuart Wolf This book originated as a series of lectures that were given as part of a Summer School on Spintronics in the end of August, 1998 at Lake Tahoe, Nevada. It has taken some time to get these lectures in a form suitable for this book and so the process has been an iterative one to provide current information on the topics that are covered. There are some topics that have developed in the intervening years and we have tried to at least alert the readers to them in the Introduction where a rather complete set of references is provided to the current state of the art. The field of magnetism, once thought to be dead or dying, has seen a remarkable rebirth in the last decade and promises to get even more important as we enter the new millennium. This rebirth is due to some very new insight into how the spin degree of freedom of both electrons and nucleons can play a role in a new type of electronics that utilizes the spin in addition to or in place of the charge. For this new field to mature and prosper, ...

  7. Introduction to spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2008-01-01

    The Early History of Spin Spin The Bohr Planetary Model and Space Quantization The Birth of "Spin" The Stern-Gerlach Experiment The Advent of Spintronics The Quantum Mechanics of Spin Pauli Spin Matrices The Pauli Equation and Spinors More on the Pauli Equation Extending the Pauli Equation - the Dirac Equation The Time Independent Dirac Equation Appendix The Bloch Sphere The Spinor and the "Qubit" The Bloch Sphere Concept Evolution of a Spinor Spin-1/2 Particle in a Constant Magnetic Field: Larmor Precession Preparing to Derive the Rabi Formula The Rabi Formula The Density Matrix The Density Matrix Concept: Case of a Pure State Properties of the Density Matrix Pure Versus Mixed State Concept of the Bloch Ball Time Evolution of the Density Matrix: Case of Mixed State The Relaxation Times T1 and T2 and the Bloch Equations Spin Orbit Interaction Spin Orbit Interaction in a Solid Magneto-Electric Sub-Bands in Quantum Confined Structures in the Presence of Spin-Orbit Interaction Dispersion Relations of Spin Resolv...

  8. Plant operation monitoring method and device therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Tsugio; Matsuki, Tsutomu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and a device for monitoring the operation of a nuclear power plant during operation, which improves the safety and reliability of operation without increasing an operator's burden. Namely, a chief in charge orally instruct an operation to an operator upon the operation of a plant constituent equipment. The operator points the equipment and calls the name. Actual operation instruction for the equipment is inputted after confirmation by oral response. The voices of theses series of operation instruction/point-calling/response confirmation are taken into a voice recognition processing device. The processing device discriminates each of the person who calls, and discriminates the content of the calls and objective equipments to be operated. Then, the series of procedures and contents of the operation for the equipments previously disposed in the data base are compared with the order of inputted calls, discriminated contents and the objective equipments to be operated. If they are not agreed with each other, the operation instruction is blocked even if actual operation instructions are inputted. (I.S.)

  9. Automatic operation device for control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimizu, Koichi

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic operation of control rods based on the reactor operation planning, and particularly, to decrease the operator's load upon start up and shutdown of the reactor. Constitution: Operation plannings, demand for the automatic operation, break point setting value, power and reactor core flow rate change, demand for operation interrupt, demand for restart, demand for forecasting and the like are inputted to an input device, and an overall judging device performs a long-term forecast as far as the break point by a long-term forecasting device based on the operation plannings. The automatic reactor operation or the like is carried out based on the long-term forecasting and the short time forecasting is performed by the change in the reactor core status due to the control rod operation sequence based on the control rod pattern and the operation planning. Then, it is judged if the operation for the intended control rod is possible or not based on the result of the short time forecasting. (Aizawa, K.)

  10. Perspective: Ultrafast magnetism and THz spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-10-14

    This year the discovery of femtosecond demagnetization by laser pulses is 20 years old. For the first time, this milestone work by Bigot and coworkers gave insight directly into the time scales of microscopic interactions that connect the spin and electron system. While intense discussions in the field were fueled by the complexity of the processes in the past, it now became evident that it is a puzzle of many different parts. Rather than providing an overview that has been presented in previous reviews on ultrafast processes in ferromagnets, this perspective will show that with our current depth of knowledge the first applications are developed: THz spintronics and all-optical spin manipulation are becoming more and more feasible. The aim of this perspective is to point out where we can connect the different puzzle pieces of understanding gathered over 20 years to develop novel applications. Based on many observations in a large number of experiments. Differences in the theoretical models arise from the localized and delocalized nature of ferromagnetism. Transport effects are intrinsically non-local in spintronic devices and at interfaces. We review the need for multiscale modeling to address the processes starting from electronic excitation of the spin system on the picometer length scale and sub-femtosecond time scale, to spin wave generation, and towards the modeling of ultrafast phase transitions that altogether determine the response time of the ferromagnetic system. Today, our current understanding gives rise to the first usage of ultrafast spin physics for ultrafast magnetism control: THz spintronic devices. This makes the field of ultrafast spin-dynamics an emerging topic open for many researchers right now.

  11. Perspective: Ultrafast magnetism and THz spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This year the discovery of femtosecond demagnetization by laser pulses is 20 years old. For the first time, this milestone work by Bigot and coworkers gave insight directly into the time scales of microscopic interactions that connect the spin and electron system. While intense discussions in the field were fueled by the complexity of the processes in the past, it now became evident that it is a puzzle of many different parts. Rather than providing an overview that has been presented in previous reviews on ultrafast processes in ferromagnets, this perspective will show that with our current depth of knowledge the first applications are developed: THz spintronics and all-optical spin manipulation are becoming more and more feasible. The aim of this perspective is to point out where we can connect the different puzzle pieces of understanding gathered over 20 years to develop novel applications. Based on many observations in a large number of experiments. Differences in the theoretical models arise from the localized and delocalized nature of ferromagnetism. Transport effects are intrinsically non-local in spintronic devices and at interfaces. We review the need for multiscale modeling to address the processes starting from electronic excitation of the spin system on the picometer length scale and sub-femtosecond time scale, to spin wave generation, and towards the modeling of ultrafast phase transitions that altogether determine the response time of the ferromagnetic system. Today, our current understanding gives rise to the first usage of ultrafast spin physics for ultrafast magnetism control: THz spintronic devices. This makes the field of ultrafast spin-dynamics an emerging topic open for many researchers right now.

  12. Operation control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Osamu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To render the controlling functions of a central control console more centralized by constituting the operation controls for a nuclear power plant with computer systems having substantially independent functions such as those of plant monitor controls, reactor monitor management and CRT display and decreasing interactions between each of the systems. Constitution: An input/output device for the input of process data for a nuclear power plant and indication data for a plant control console is connected to a plant supervisory and control computer system and a display computer system, the plant supervisory control computer system and a reactor and management computer system are connected with a CRT display control device, a printer and a CRT display input/output device, and the display computer system is connected with the CRT display control device and the CRT display unit on the central control console, whereby process input can be processed and displayed at high speed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  13. Training device for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoessow, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    A simulated nuclear energy power plant system with visible internal working components comprising a reactor adapted to contain a liquid with heating elements submerged in the liquid and capable of heating the liquid to an elevated temperature, a steam generator containing water and a heat exchanger means to receive the liquid at an elevated temperature, transform the water to steam, and return the spent liquid to the reactor; a steam turbine receiving high energy steam to drive the turbine and discharging low energy steam to a condenser where the low energy steam is condensed to water which is returned to the steam generator; an electric generator driven by the turbine; indicating means to identify the physical status of the reactor and its contents; and manual and automatic controls to selectively establish normal or abnormal operating conditions in the reactor, steam generator, pressurizer, turbine, electric generator, condenser, and pumps; and to be selectively adjusted to bring the reactor to acceptable operating condition after being placed in an abnormal operation. This device is particularly useful as an education device in demonstrating nuclear reactor operations and in training operating personnel for nuclear reactor systems and also as a device for conducting research on various safety systems to improve the safety of nuclear power plants

  14. Special Heusler compounds for spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balke, B.

    2007-07-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of Heusler compounds in a wide range of spintronic applications. Using electronic structure calculations it is possible to design compounds for specific applications. Examples for GMR and TMR applications, for spin injection into semiconductors, and for spin torque transfer applications will be shown. After a detailed introduction about spintronics and related materials chapter 5 reports about the investigation of new half-metallic compounds where the Fermi energy is tuned in the middle of the gap to result in more stable compounds for GMR and TMR applications. The bulk properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si with the Fe concentration ranging from x=0 to 1 are reported and the results suggest that the best candidate for applications may be found at an iron concentration of about 50%. Due to the effect that in the Co{sub 2}Mn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Si series the transition metal carrying the localized moment is exchanged and this might lead to unexpected effects on the magnetic properties if the samples are not completely homogeneous chapter 6 reports about the optimization of the Heusler compounds for GMR and TMR applications. The structural and magnetic properties of the quaternary Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 1-x}Si{sub x} with varying Si concentration are reported. From the combination of experimental (better order for high Si content) and theoretical findings (robust gap at x=0.5) it is concluded that a compound with an intermediate Si concentration close to x=0.5-0.7 would be best suited for spintronic applications, especially for GMR and TMR applications. In chapter 7 the detailed investigation of compounds for spin injection into semiconductors is reported. It is shown that the diluted magnetic semiconductors based on CoTiSb with a very low lattice mismatch among each other are interesting materials for spintronics applications like Spin-LEDs or other spin injection devices. Chapter 8 refers

  15. Structural, optical and morphological properties of Ga1-xMnxAs thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering for spintronic device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, M.E.; Dussan, A.; Mesa, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, GaMnAs alloy materials were deposited on 7059 Corning glass and GaAs (1 0 0) substrates via RF magnetron sputtering technique. A concentration of Mn about 0.28 was obtained by Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The substrate temperature was changed from 440 to 520 °C and layer thicknesses between 172 and 514 nm were obtained. Characterization by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction were performed to determinate surface morphology and crystal structure, respectively. From transmittance spectral measurements we were able to determine optical constants: band gap energy (E g ), absorption coefficient (α), and refraction index (n). A correlation between morphological properties and substrate type was also studied. Diluted magnetic semiconductors like GaMnAs are considered among promising materials for the development of new spin-electronic devices.

  16. Integration of spintronic interface for nanomagnetic arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lyle

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental demonstration utilizing a spintronic input/output (I/O interface for arrays of closely spaced nanomagnets is presented. The free layers of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs form dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays which can be applied to different contexts including Magnetic Quantum Cellular Automata (MQCA for logic applications and self-biased devices for field sensing applications. Dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays demonstrate adaptability to a variety of contexts due to the ability for tuning of magnetic response. Spintronics allows individual nanomagnets to be manipulated with spin transfer torque and monitored with magnetoresistance. This facilitates measurement of the magnetic coupling which is important for (yet to be demonstrated data propagation reliability studies. In addition, the same magnetic coupling can be tuned to reduce coercivity for field sensing. Dipole coupled nanomagnet arrays have the potential to be thousands of times more energy efficient than CMOS technology for logic applications, and they also have the potential to form multi-axis field sensors.

  17. Neuromorphic computing with nanoscale spintronic oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrejon, Jacob; Riou, Mathieu; Araujo, Flavio Abreu; Tsunegi, Sumito; Khalsa, Guru; Querlioz, Damien; Bortolotti, Paolo; Cros, Vincent; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Stiles, Mark D; Grollier, Julie

    2017-07-26

    Neurons in the brain behave as nonlinear oscillators, which develop rhythmic activity and interact to process information. Taking inspiration from this behaviour to realize high-density, low-power neuromorphic computing will require very large numbers of nanoscale nonlinear oscillators. A simple estimation indicates that to fit 10 8 oscillators organized in a two-dimensional array inside a chip the size of a thumb, the lateral dimension of each oscillator must be smaller than one micrometre. However, nanoscale devices tend to be noisy and to lack the stability that is required to process data in a reliable way. For this reason, despite multiple theoretical proposals and several candidates, including memristive and superconducting oscillators, a proof of concept of neuromorphic computing using nanoscale oscillators has yet to be demonstrated. Here we show experimentally that a nanoscale spintronic oscillator (a magnetic tunnel junction) can be used to achieve spoken-digit recognition with an accuracy similar to that of state-of-the-art neural networks. We also determine the regime of magnetization dynamics that leads to the greatest performance. These results, combined with the ability of the spintronic oscillators to interact with each other, and their long lifetime and low energy consumption, open up a path to fast, parallel, on-chip computation based on networks of oscillators.

  18. Safety status system for operating room devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédon, Annetje C P; Wauben, Linda S G L; Overvelde, Marlies; Blok, Joleen H; van der Elst, Maarten; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2014-01-01

    Since the increase of the number of technological aids in the operating room (OR), equipment-related incidents have come to be a common kind of adverse events. This underlines the importance of adequate equipment management to improve the safety in the OR. A system was developed to monitor the safety status (periodic maintenance and registered malfunctions) of OR devices and to facilitate the notification of malfunctions. The objective was to assess whether the system is suitable for use in an busy OR setting and to analyse its effect on the notification of malfunctions. The system checks automatically the safety status of OR devices through constant communication with the technical facility management system, informs the OR staff real-time and facilitates notification of malfunctions. The system was tested for a pilot period of six months in four ORs of a Dutch teaching hospital and 17 users were interviewed on the usability of the system. The users provided positive feedback on the usability. For 86.6% of total time, the localisation of OR devices was accurate. 62 malfunctions of OR devices were reported, an increase of 12 notifications compared to the previous year. The safety status system was suitable for an OR complex, both from a usability and technical point of view, and an increase of reported malfunctions was observed. The system eases monitoring the safety status of equipment and is a promising tool to improve the safety related to OR devices.

  19. Operation guide device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tsuneyasu

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to maintain the soundness of nuclear fuels and each of equipments by compensating the effect of the xenon density on the reactor core thermal power resulted upon load following operation of a nuclear reactor. Constitution: The device comprises an instrumentation system for measuring the status of the nuclear reactor, a reactor core performance calculator for calculating the reactor core performance based on the output from the instrumentation system, a xenon density calculator for calculating the xenon density based on the output from the performance calculator, a memory unit for storing the output from the reactor core performance calculator and the xenon density calculator and for transferring the stored memory to a nuclear reactor status forecasting device and an alternative load pattern searching device for searching, in cooperation with the memory unit, an alternative load pattern which is within an operation restrictive condition and most closed to a demanded load pattern when a monitor for the deviation from the flowrate distribution detects the deviation from the operation restrictive conditions. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Graphene-based spintronic components

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Minggang; Shen, Lei; Su, Haibin; Zhou, Miao; Zhang, Chun; Feng, Yuanping

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge of spintronics is in generating, controlling and detecting spin-polarized current. Manipulation of spin-polarized current, in particular, is difficult. We demonstrate here, based on calculated transport properties of graphene nanoribbons, that nearly +-100% spin-polarized current can be generated in zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) and tuned by a source-drain voltage in the bipolar spin diode, in addition to magnetic configurations of the electrodes. This unusual transpor...

  1. Aerosol can puncture device operational test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Puncturing of aerosol cans is performed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1) process as a requirement of the waste disposal acceptance criteria for both transuranic (TRU) waste and low-level waste (LLW). These cans have contained such things as paints, lubricating oils, paint removers, insecticides, and cleaning supplies which were used in radioactive facilities. Due to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Fire Protection concerns of the baseline system's fire/explosion proof characteristics, a study was undertaken to compare the baseline system's design to commercially available puncturing devices. While the study found no areas which might indicate a risk of fire or explosion, WHC Fire Protection determined that the puncturing system must have a demonstrated record of safe operation. This could be obtained either by testing the baseline design by an independent laboratory, or by substituting a commercially available device. As a result of these efforts, the commercially available Aerosolv can puncturing device was chosen to replace the baseline design. Two concerns were raised with the system. Premature blinding of the coalescing/carbon filter, due to its proximity to the puncture and draining operation; and overpressurization of the collection bottle due to its small volume and by blinding of the filter assembly. As a result of these concerns, testing was deemed necessary. The objective of this report is to outline test procedures for the Aerosolv

  2. Bipolar spintronics: from spin injection to spin-controlled logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zutic, Igor; Fabian, Jaroslav; Erwin, Steven C

    2007-01-01

    An impressive success of spintronic applications has been typically realized in metal-based structures which utilize magnetoresistive effects for substantial improvements in the performance of computer hard drives and magnetic random access memories. Correspondingly, the theoretical understanding of spin-polarized transport is usually limited to a metallic regime in a linear response, which, while providing a good description for data storage and magnetic memory devices, is not sufficient for signal processing and digital logic. In contrast, much less is known about possible applications of semiconductor-based spintronics and spin-polarized transport in related structures which could utilize strong intrinsic nonlinearities in current-voltage characteristics to implement spin-based logic. Here we discuss the challenges for realizing a particular class of structures in semiconductor spintronics: our proposal for bipolar spintronic devices in which carriers of both polarities (electrons and holes) contribute to spin-charge coupling. We formulate the theoretical framework for bipolar spin-polarized transport, and describe several novel effects in two- and three-terminal structures which arise from the interplay between nonequilibrium spin and equilibrium magnetization

  3. Space weather impact on radio device operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berngardt O.I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the space weather impact on operation of radio devices. The review is based on recently published papers, books, and strategic scientific plans of space weather investigations. The main attention is paid to ionospheric effects on propagation of radiowaves, basically short ones. Some examples of such effects are based on 2012–2016 ISTP SB RAS EKB radar data: attenuation of ground backscatter signals during solar flares, effects of traveling ionospheric disturbances of different scales in ground backscatter signals, effects of magnetospheric waves in ionospheric scatter signals.

  4. Space weather impact on radio device operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngardt, Oleg

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews the space weather impact on operation of radio devices. The review is based on recently published papers, books, and strategic scientific plans of space weather investigations. The main attention is paid to ionospheric effects on propagation of radiowaves, basically short ones. Some examples of such effects are based on 2012–2016 ISTP SB RAS EKB radar data: attenuation of ground backscatter signals during solar flares, effects of traveling ionospheric disturbances of different scales in ground backscatter signals, effects of magnetospheric waves in ionospheric scatter signals.

  5. Ferromagnetism in doped or undoped spintronics nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, You

    2010-10-01

    Much interest has been sparked by the discovery of ferromagnetism in a range of oxide doped and undoped semiconductors. The development of ferromagnetic oxide semiconductor materials with giant magnetoresistance (GMR) offers many advantages in spintronics devices for future miniaturization of computers. Among them, TM-doped ZnO is an extensively studied n-type wide-band-gap (3.36 eV) semiconductor with a tremendous interest as future mini-computer, blue light emitting, and solar cells. In this talk, Co-doped ZnO and Co-doped Cu2O semiconductor nanoclusters are successfully synthesized by a third generation sputtering-gas-aggregation cluster technique. The Co-doped nanoclusters are ferromagnetic with Curie temperature above room temperature. Both of Co-doped nanoclusters show positive magnetoresistance (PMR) at low temperature, but the amplitude of the PMRs shows an anomalous difference. For similar Co doping concentration at 5 K, PMR is greater than 800% for Co-doped ZnO but only 5% for Co-doped Cu2O nanoclusters. Giant PMR in Co-doped ZnO which is attributed to large Zeeman splitting effect has a linear dependence on applied magnetic field with very high sensitivity, which makes it convenient for the future spintronics applications. The small PMR in Co-doped Cu2O is related to its vanishing density of states at Fermi level. Undoped Zn/ZnO core-shell nanoparticle gives high ferromagnetic properties above room temperature due to the defect induced magnetization at the interface.

  6. Spin-chemistry concepts for spintronics scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin L. Ivanov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spin chemistry and spintronics developed independently and with different terminology. Until now, the interaction between the two fields has been very limited. In this review, we compile the two “languages” in an effort to enhance communication. We expect that knowledge of spin chemistry will accelerate progress in spintronics.

  7. System and method of operating toroidal magnetic confinement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, M.S.; Jardin, S.C.; Stix, T.H.; Grimm, R.C.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.

    1984-08-30

    This invention pertains to methods and arrangements for attaining high beta values in plasma confinement devices. More specifically, this invention pertains to methods for accessing the second stability region of operation in toroidal magnetic confinement devices.

  8. Spintronic microfluidic platform for biomedical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F. A.; Martins, V. C.; Fonseca, L. P.; Germano, J.; Sousa, L. A.; Piedade, M. S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2010-09-01

    Faster, more sensitive and easy to operate biosensing devices still are a need at important areas such as biomedical diagnostics, food control and environmental monitoring. Recently, spintronic-devices have emerged as a promising alternative to the existent technologies [1-3]. A number of advantages, namely high sensitivity, easy integration, miniaturization, scalability, robustness and low cost make these devices potentially capable of responding to the existent technological need. In parallel, the field of microfluidics has shown great advances [4]. Microfluidic systems allow the analysis of small sample volumes (from micro- down to pico-liters), often by automate sample processing with the ability to integrate several steps into a single device (analyte amplification, concentration, separation and/or labeling), all in a reduced assay time (minutes to hours) and affordable cost. The merging of these two technologies, magnetoresistive biochips and microfluidics, will enable the development of highly competitive devices. This work reports the integration of a magnetoresistive biochip with a microfluidic system inside a portable and autonomous electronic platform aiming for a fully integrated device. A microfluidic structure fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane with dimensions of W: 0.5mm, H: 0.1mm, L: 10mm, associated to a mechanical system to align and seal the channel by pressure is presented (Fig. 1) [5]. The goal is to perform sample loading and transportation over the chip and simultaneously control the stringency and uniformity of the wash-out process. The biochip output is acquired by an electronic microsystem incorporating the circuitry to control, address and read-out the 30 spin-valve sensors sequentially (Fig. 1) [2]. This platform is being applied to the detection of water-borne microbial pathogens (e.g. Salmonella and Escherichia coli) and genetic diseases diagnosis (e.g. cystic fibrosis) through DNA hybridization assays. Open chamber measurements were

  9. ELOPTA: a novel microcontroller-based operant device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Adam M; Song, Jianjian; Tuttle, Elaina M

    2007-11-01

    Operant devices have been used for many years in animal behavior research, yet such devices a regenerally highly specialized and quite expensive. Although commercial models are somewhat adaptable and resilient, they are also extremely expensive and are controlled by difficult to learn proprietary software. As an alternative to commercial devices, we have designed and produced a fully functional, programmable operant device, using a PICmicro microcontroller (Microchip Technology, Inc.). The electronic operant testing apparatus (ELOPTA) is designed to deliver food when a study animal, in this case a bird, successfully depresses the correct sequence of illuminated keys. The device logs each keypress and can detect and log whenever a test animal i spositioned at the device. Data can be easily transferred to a computer and imported into any statistical analysis software. At about 3% the cost of a commercial device, ELOPTA will advance behavioral sciences, including behavioral ecology, animal learning and cognition, and ethology.

  10. Silicon spintronics: Progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried, E-mail: Selberherr@TUWien.ac.at

    2015-07-14

    Electron spin attracts much attention as an alternative to the electron charge degree of freedom for low-power reprogrammable logic and non-volatile memory applications. Silicon appears to be the perfect material for spin-driven applications. Recent progress and challenges regarding spin-based devices are reviewed. An order of magnitude enhancement of the electron spin lifetime in silicon thin films by shear strain is predicted and its impact on spin transport in SpinFETs is discussed. A relatively weak coupling between spin and effective electric field in silicon allows magnetoresistance modulation at room temperature, however, for long channel lengths. Due to tunneling magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects, a much stronger coupling between the spin (magnetization) orientation and charge current is achieved in magnetic tunnel junctions. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) built on magnetic tunnel junctions is CMOS compatible and possesses all properties needed for future universal memory. Designs of spin-based non-volatile MRAM cells are presented. By means of micromagnetic simulations it is demonstrated that a substantial reduction of the switching time can be achieved. Finally, it is shown that any two arbitrary memory cells from an MRAM array can be used to perform a logic operation. Thus, an intrinsic non-volatile logic-in-memory architecture can be realized.

  11. Silicon spintronics: Progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Electron spin attracts much attention as an alternative to the electron charge degree of freedom for low-power reprogrammable logic and non-volatile memory applications. Silicon appears to be the perfect material for spin-driven applications. Recent progress and challenges regarding spin-based devices are reviewed. An order of magnitude enhancement of the electron spin lifetime in silicon thin films by shear strain is predicted and its impact on spin transport in SpinFETs is discussed. A relatively weak coupling between spin and effective electric field in silicon allows magnetoresistance modulation at room temperature, however, for long channel lengths. Due to tunneling magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects, a much stronger coupling between the spin (magnetization) orientation and charge current is achieved in magnetic tunnel junctions. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) built on magnetic tunnel junctions is CMOS compatible and possesses all properties needed for future universal memory. Designs of spin-based non-volatile MRAM cells are presented. By means of micromagnetic simulations it is demonstrated that a substantial reduction of the switching time can be achieved. Finally, it is shown that any two arbitrary memory cells from an MRAM array can be used to perform a logic operation. Thus, an intrinsic non-volatile logic-in-memory architecture can be realized

  12. Recent Advance in Organic Spintronics and Magnetic Field Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valy Vardeny, Z.

    2013-03-01

    In this talk several important advances in the field of Organic Spintronics and magnetic field effect (MFE) of organic films and optoelectronic devices that have occurred during the past two years from the Utah group will be surveyed and discussed. (i) Organic Spintronics: We demonstrated spin organic light emitting diode (spin-OLED) using two FM injecting electrodes, where the electroluminescence depends on the mutual orientation of the electrode magnetization directions. This development has opened up research studies into organic spin-valves (OSV) in the space-charge limited current regime. (ii) Magnetic field effect: We demonstrated that the photoinduced absorption spectrum in organic films (where current is not involved) show pronounced MFE. This unravels the underlying mechanism of the MFE in organic devices, to be more in agreement with the field of MFE in Biochemistry. (iii) Spin effects in organic optoelectronic devices: We demonstrated that certain spin 1/2 radical additives to donor-acceptor blends substantially enhance the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells. This effect shows that studies of spin response and MFE in OPV devices are promising. In collaboration with T. Nguyen, E. Ehrenfreund, B. Gautam, Y. Zhang and T. Basel. Supported by the DOE grant 04ER46109 ; NSF Grant # DMR-1104495 and MSF-MRSEC program DMR-1121252 [2,3].

  13. Operating modes of superconducting tunnel junction device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehata, Keisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    In the Electrotechnical Laboratory, an Nb type superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) device with 200 x 200 sq. micron in area and super high quality was manufactured. By using 55-fe source, response of this large area STJ to X-ray was measured. In this measurement, two action modes with different output wave height from front amplifier were observed. Then, in this study, current-voltage feature of the element in each action mode was analyzed to elucidate a mechanism to form such two action modes. The feature was analyzed by using first order approximate solution on cavity resonance mode of Sine-Gordon equation. From the analytical results, it could be supposed that direction and magnitude of effective magnetic field penetrating into jointed area changed by an induction current effect owing to impressing speed of the magnetic field, which brings two different current-voltage features to make possible to observe two action modes with different pulse wave height. (G.K.)

  14. Self operation type reactor scram device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Makoto; Gunji, Minoru.

    1992-01-01

    A control rod having neutron absorbers therein is held by a curie point electromagnet by way of a control rod extension shaft. The electromagnet is suspended from a vertically movable driving shaft in an upper guide tube. Then, a heater is disposed at the lower portion in the inner side of the upper guide tube. Upon a function confirmation test, the electromagnet is at first pulled up to the inside of the upper guide tube. Subsequently, the electromagnet is heated by the heater by a temperature higher than the curie point of the temperature sensing magnetic material. If the function is normal, armature connected to the control rod extension tube is separated. With such a constitution, the electromagnetic portion is isolated from a coolant main stream, thereby enabling to avoid the cooling effect by the stream of coolants. Accordingly, the operation test for confirming the integrity of the function of the curie point electromagnet can be conducted while placing the electromagnet in the reactor core as it is during actual reactor operation. (I.N.)

  15. Self operation type reactor control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Makoto; Gunji, Minoru.

    1990-01-01

    A boiling-requefication chamber containing transporting materials having somewhat higher boiling point that the usual reactor operation temperature and liquid neutron absorbers having a boiling point sufficiently higher than that of the transporting materials is disposed near the coolant exit of a fuel assembly and connected with a tubular chamber in the reactor core with a moving pipe at the bottom. Since the transporting materials in the boiling-requefication chamber is boiled and expanded by heating, the liquid neutron absorbers are introduced passing through the moving pipe into the cylindrical chamber to control the nuclear reactions. When the temperature is lowered by the control, the transporting materials are liquefied to contract the volume and the liquid neutron absorbers in the cylindrical chamber are returned passing through the moving tube into the boiling-liquefication chamber to make the nuclear reaction vigorous. Thus, self-operation type power conditioning and power stopping are enabled not by way of control rods and not requiring external control, to prevent scram failure or misoperation. (N.H.)

  16. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu; Fruk, Ljiljana; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2015-01-01

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices

  17. Optically controlled multiple switching operations of DNA biopolymer devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Chao-You; Tu, Waan-Ting; Lin, Yi-Tzu [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Fruk, Ljiljana [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Hung, Yu-Chueh, E-mail: ychung@ee.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Photonics Technologies, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2015-12-21

    We present optically tunable operations of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymer devices, where a single high-resistance state, write-once read-many-times memory state, write-read-erase memory state, and single low-resistance state can be achieved by controlling UV irradiation time. The device is a simple sandwich structure with a spin-coated DNA biopolymer layer sandwiched by two electrodes. Upon irradiation, the electrical properties of the device are adjusted owing to a phototriggered synthesis of silver nanoparticles in DNA biopolymer, giving rise to multiple switching scenarios. This technique, distinct from the strategy of doping of pre-formed nanoparticles, enables a post-film fabrication process for achieving optically controlled memory device operations, which provides a more versatile platform to fabricate organic memory and optoelectronic devices.

  18. An open source device for operant licking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Matthew; Willis, Ethan L; Tay, Cindy X; Chen, Hao

    2017-01-01

    We created an easy-to-use device for operant licking experiments and another device that records environmental variables. Both devices use the Raspberry Pi computer to obtain data from multiple input devices (e.g., radio frequency identification tag readers, touch and motion sensors, environmental sensors) and activate output devices (e.g., LED lights, syringe pumps) as needed. Data gathered from these devices are stored locally on the computer but can be automatically transferred to a remote server via a wireless network. We tested the operant device by training rats to obtain either sucrose or water under the control of a fixed ratio, a variable ratio, or a progressive ratio reinforcement schedule. The lick data demonstrated that the device has sufficient precision and time resolution to record the fast licking behavior of rats. Data from the environment monitoring device also showed reliable measurements. By providing the source code and 3D design under an open source license, we believe these examples will stimulate innovation in behavioral studies. The source code can be found at http://github.com/chen42/openbehavior.

  19. Giant magnetoresistance in lateral metallic nanostructures for spintronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnd, G; Vila, L; Pham, V T; Marty, A; Beigné, C; Vergnaud, C; Attané, J P

    2017-08-25

    In this letter, we discuss the shift observed in spintronics from the current-perpendicular-to-plane geometry towards lateral geometries, illustrating the new opportunities offered by this configuration. Using CoFe-based all-metallic LSVs, we show that giant magnetoresistance variations of more than 10% can be obtained, competitive with the current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance. We then focus on the interest of being able to tailor freely the geometries. On the one hand, by tailoring the non-magnetic parts, we show that it is possible to enhance the spin signal of giant magnetoresistance structures. On the other hand, we show that tailoring the geometry of lateral structures allows creating a multilevel memory with high spin signals, by controlling the coercivity and shape anisotropy of the magnetic parts. Furthermore, we study a new device in which the magnetization direction of a nanodisk can be detected. We thus show that the ability to control the magnetic properties can be used to take advantage of all the spin degrees of freedom, which are usually occulted in current-perpendicular-to-plane devices. This flexibility of lateral structures relatively to current-perpendicular-to-plane structures is thus found to offer a new playground for the development of spintronic applications.

  20. On the path toward organic spintronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodera, J.S.; Koopmans, B.; Oppeneer, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Organic materials provide a unique platform for exploiting the spin of the electron—a field dubbed organic spintronics. Originally, this was mostly motivated by the notion that because of weak spin-orbit coupling, due to the small mass elements in organics and small hyperfine field coupling, organic

  1. Comment on The Rise of Semiconductor Spintronics

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, Vladimir L.

    2009-01-01

    I argue that most of the key experiments that have born semiconductor spintronics were done and published earlier than the papers cited in the Nature Physics, 4 S20 (2008) milestone article (http://www.nature.com/milestones/spin, milestone 23).

  2. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Churchill, H O H; Herring, P K

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual......, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications....

  3. Operation aid device upon periodical inspection of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukusaka, Ryoji.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an operation aid device upon periodical inspection of a nuclear power plant, capable of controlling a plurality of control rods safely at good operation efficiency while maintaining subcritical state. Namely, a fuel exchange computer controls an operation for exchanging fuel assemblies upon periodical inspection. An operation aiding computer aids the exchanging operation of fuel assemblies. A control rod position monitoring device allows withdrawal of one control rod under the condition of establishment of entire control rod insertion signal upon operation of exchanging fuel assemblies. Whether all of the four fuel assemblies around one control rod have been entirely taken out or not is judged based on information on the fuel assembly exchanging operation. When conditions for the judgement for operation aiding computer are established, the all insertion signals for the entire control rods as the condition for the withdrawal of the control rods are bypassed, and operation enable signals for plurality control rods are outputted to a control rod manual operation device. (I.S.)

  4. Hydraulic screw fastening devices - design, maintenance, operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachner.

    1976-01-01

    With hydraulic screw fastening devices, pretension values with a maximum deviation of +-2.5% from the rated value can be achieved. This high degree of pretension accuracy is of considerable importance with regard to the safety factor required for the screw connection between reactor vessel head and reactor vessel. The operating rhythm of a nuclear power station with its refuelling art regular intervals makes further demands on the screw fastening device, in particular in connection with the transport of screws and for nuts. The necessary installations extend the screw fastening device into a combination of a high-pressure hydraulic cylinder system with an electrical or pneumoelectrical driving unit and an electrical control unit. Maintenance work is complicated by the large number of identical, highly stressed structural elements in connection with an unfavourable relation operating time/outage time. The problems have been perpetually reduced by close cooperation between the manufacturers and users of screw fastening devices. (orig./AK) [de

  5. System and method of operating toroidal magnetic confinement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Morrell S.; Jardin, Stephen C.; Stix, Thomas H.; Grimm, deceased, Ray C.; Manickam, Janardhan; Okabayashi, Michio

    1987-01-01

    For toroidal magnetic confinement devices the second region of stability against ballooning modes can be accessed with controlled operation. Under certain modes of operation, the first and second stability regions may be joined together. Accessing the second region of stability is accomplished by forming a bean-shaped plasma and increasing the indentation until a critical value of indentation is reached. A pusher coil, located at the inner-major-radius side of the device, is engaged to form a bean-shaped poloidal cross-section in the plasma.

  6. Considerations of device and operational flexibility in FER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Masayoshi; Miki, Nobuharu; Nishio, Satoshi; Yamada, Masao; Yamamoto, Shin

    1988-01-01

    Expected physics uncertainties in DT burning plasma of FER, which may not be removed completely at the start of construction or DT operation, are reviewed. Several possible device and operational flexibility scenarios to cope with these uncertainties are considered. They are (1) Plasma size enlargement scenario, (2) Plasma shape flexibility scenario, (3) Heating/Current drive/Control system flexibility scenario, (4) Impurity control system flexibility scenario and (5) Advanced operation scenario. Feasibility of these flexibility scenarios are examined and shown to be practicable. However, careful assessment of the physics data base is necessary at the start of construction and DT operation to proceed to actually implement these flexibilities in FER. (author)

  7. Nanospintronics: when spintronics meets single electron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seneor, Pierre; Bernand-Mantel, Anne; Petroff, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    As spintronics goes nano, new phenomena are predicted resulting from the interplay between spin dependent transport and single electron physics. The long term goal of manipulating spins one by one would open a promising path to quantum computing. Towards this end, there is an ever-growing effort to connect spin tanks (i.e. ferromagnetic leads) to smaller and smaller objects in order to study spintronics in reduced dimensions. As the dimensions are reduced, spin dependent transport is predicted to interplay with quantum and/or single electron charging effects. We review experiments and theories on the interplay between Coulomb blockade and spin properties (namely magneto-Coulomb effects) in structures where a single nano-object is connected to ferromagnetic leads. We then discuss briefly future directions in the emerging field of nanospintronics towards quantum dots, carbon nanotubes and single molecule magnets

  8. Mobile Augmented Note-taking to Support Operating Physical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu , Can; Diehl , Jonathan; Huot , Stéphane; Borchers , Jan

    2011-01-01

    Mobile Augmented Reality: Design Issues and Opportunities - 1st Workshop on Mobile Augmented Reality, MobileHCI 2011; In this paper we propose an approach to assist operating physical devices with mobile augmented reality techniques. We propose ideas of interaction techniques, which allow users to put self-authored information as notes onto physical objects. We present the design of two example applications aiming at solving problems from different aspects of physical operations.

  9. Superconducting spin switch based on superconductor-ferromagnet nanostructures for spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrle, Jan; Mueller, Claus; Obermeier, Guenter; Schreck, Matthias; Gsell, Stefan; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard; Zdravkov, Vladimir; Morari, Roman; Sidorencko, Anatoli; Prepelitsa, Andrei; Antropov, Evgenii; Socrovisciiuc, Alexei; Nold, Eberhard; Tagirov, Lenar

    2011-01-01

    Very rapid developing area, spintronics, needs new devices, based on new physical principles. One of such devices - a superconducting spin-switch, consists of ferromagnetic and superconducting layers, and is based on a new phenomenon - reentrant superconductivity. The tuning of the superconducting and ferromagnetic layers thickness is investigated to optimize superconducting spin-switch effect for Nb/Cu 41 Ni 59 based nanoscale layered systems.

  10. Utilizing an eye tracker device for operator support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, T.E. de; Lafeber, H.

    2007-01-01

    At present a number of studies have attempted to embed eye-tracking devices into closed-loop systems to augment the cognitive state of the human operator. It has been demonstrated that the pupil diameter and blinking frequency serve as such indicators. Although these two factors serve cognitive

  11. Operation control device for a nuclear reactor fuel exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aida, Takashi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a operation control device for a nuclear reactor fuel exchanger with reduced size and weight capable of optionally meeting the complicated and versatile mode of the operation scope. Constitution: The operation range of a fuel exchanger is finely divided so as to attain the state capable of discriminating between operation-allowable range and operation-inhibitive range, which are stored in a memory circuit. Upon operating the fuel exchanger, the position is detected and a divided range data corresponding to the present position is taken out from the memory circuit so as to determine whether the fuel exchanger is to be run or stopped. Use of reduced size and compact IC circuits (calculation circuit, memory circuit, data latch circuit) and input/output interface circuits or the likes contributes to the size reduction of the exchanger control system to enlarge the floor maintenance space. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Towards automated assistance for operating home medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Detyniecki, Marcin; Chen, Ming-Yu; Wu, Wen; Hauptmann, Alexander G; Wactlar, Howard D

    2010-01-01

    To detect errors when subjects operate a home medical device, we observe them with multiple cameras. We then perform action recognition with a robust approach to recognize action information based on explicitly encoding motion information. This algorithm detects interest points and encodes not only their local appearance but also explicitly models local motion. Our goal is to recognize individual human actions in the operations of a home medical device to see if the patient has correctly performed the required actions in the prescribed sequence. Using a specific infusion pump as a test case, requiring 22 operation steps from 6 action classes, our best classifier selects high likelihood action estimates from 4 available cameras, to obtain an average class recognition rate of 69%.

  13. LSMO - growing opportunities by PLD and applications in spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, M; Caricato, A P; Maruccio, G; Martino, M, E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it [Physics Department, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100, Lecce (Italy)

    2011-04-01

    Ferromagnetic materials exhibiting at room temperature combination of good conductivity, magnetic and opto-electronic properties are needed for the development of functional spin-devices. Mixed-valence LSMO is an optimal source of fully spin-polarized carriers and shows a rich physics of magnetic phases and transport mechanisms. Many factors, such as growth temperature, oxygen stoichiometry, temperature-dependent oxygen desorption rate, structural matching between the growing film and substrate, film thickness, and defects, influence the LSMO properties. Stabilization of ferromagnetic and conductive behaviours is linked to structural order. Therefore a growth approach allowing congruent deposition of complex materials under controlled, reproducible and tunable conditions is strongly needed. In this respect pulsed laser deposition reveals a well-suited choice. This review aims to give an overview on LSMO thin film properties, deposition and applications, especially in the emerging organic spintronics.

  14. Investigation of surge protective devices operation of a wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D.; Vasileva, M.

    2008-01-01

    The interest to the investments in a wind energetics increases in the last years. The wind energetics is the fastest developing direction in the energetics in global scale. The wind energy is more attractive because its prices are lower in comparison of the other technologies for generating energy. The right choice of the surge protective devices has the important meaning on building and exploitation of the wind generators. The aim of this paper is investigation of the surge protective devices operation when they are installation to a wind generator. (authors)

  15. EPICS: operating system independent device/driver support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraimer, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Originally EPICS input/output controllers (IOCs) were only supported on VME-based systems running the vxWorks operating system. Now IOCs are supported on many systems: vxWorks, RTEMS, Solaris, HPUX, Linux, WIN32, and Darwin. A challenge is to provide operating-system-independent device and driver support. This paper presents some techniques for providing such support. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) is a set of software tools, libraries, and applications developed collaboratively and used worldwide to create distributed, real-time control systems for scientific instruments such as particle accelerators, telescopes, and other large scientific experiments. An important component of all EPICS-based control systems is a collection of input/output controllers (IOCs). An IOC has three primary components: (1) a real-time database; (2) channel access, which provides network access to the database; and (3) device/driver support for interfacing to equipment. This paper describes some projects related to providing device/driver support on non-vxWorks systems. In order to support IOCs on platforms other than vxWorks, operating-system-independent (OSI) application program interfaces (APIs) were defined for threads, semaphores, timers, etc. Providing support for a new platform consists of providing an operating-system-dependent implementation of the OSI APIs.

  16. Organic Light-Emitting Transistors: Materials, Device Configurations, and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congcong; Chen, Penglei; Hu, Wenping

    2016-03-09

    Organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs) represent an emerging class of organic optoelectronic devices, wherein the electrical switching capability of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and the light-generation capability of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are inherently incorporated in a single device. In contrast to conventional OFETs and OLEDs, the planar device geometry and the versatile multifunctional nature of OLETs not only endow them with numerous technological opportunities in the frontier fields of highly integrated organic electronics, but also render them ideal scientific scaffolds to address the fundamental physical events of organic semiconductors and devices. This review article summarizes the recent advancements on OLETs in light of materials, device configurations, operation conditions, etc. Diverse state-of-the-art protocols, including bulk heterojunction, layered heterojunction and laterally arranged heterojunction structures, as well as asymmetric source-drain electrodes, and innovative dielectric layers, which have been developed for the construction of qualified OLETs and for shedding new and deep light on the working principles of OLETs, are highlighted by addressing representative paradigms. This review intends to provide readers with a deeper understanding of the design of future OLETs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Energy management in mobile devices with the cinder operating system

    KAUST Repository

    Roy, Arjun

    2011-01-01

    We argue that controlling energy allocation is an increasingly useful and important feature for operating systems, especially on mobile devices. We present two new low-level abstractions in the Cinder operating system, reserves and taps, which store and distribute energy for application use. We identify three key properties of control - isolation, delegation, and subdivision - and show how using these abstractions can achieve them. We also show how the architecture of the HiStar information-flow control kernel lends itself well to energy control. We prototype and evaluate Cinder on a popular smartphone, the Android G1. Copyright © 2011 ACM.

  18. Detection of Special Operations Forces Using Night Vision Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.M.

    2001-10-22

    Night vision devices, such image intensifiers and infrared imagers, are readily available to a host of nations, organizations, and individuals through international commerce. Once the trademark of special operations units, these devices are widely advertised to ''turn night into day''. In truth, they cannot accomplish this formidable task, but they do offer impressive enhancement of vision in limited light scenarios through electronically generated images. Image intensifiers and infrared imagers are both electronic devices for enhancing vision in the dark. However, each is based upon a totally different physical phenomenon. Image intensifiers amplify the available light energy whereas infrared imagers detect the thermal energy radiated from all objects. Because of this, each device operates from energy which is present in a different portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. This leads to differences in the ability of each device to detect and/or identify objects. This report is a compilation of the available information on both state-of-the-art image intensifiers and infrared imagers. Image intensifiers developed in the United States, as well as some foreign made image intensifiers, are discussed. Image intensifiers are categorized according to their spectral response and sensitivity using the nomenclature of GEN I, GEN II, and GEN III. As the first generation of image intensifiers, GEN I, were large and of limited performance, this report will deal with only GEN II and GEN III equipment. Infrared imagers are generally categorized according to their spectral response, sensor materials, and related sensor operating temperature using the nomenclature Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) Cooled and Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Uncooled. MWIR Cooled refers to infrared imagers which operate in the 3 to 5 {micro}m wavelength electromagnetic spectral region and require either mechanical or thermoelectric coolers to keep the sensors operating at 77 K

  19. Multi-parameter geometrical scaledown study for energy optimization of MTJ and related spintronics nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, I. A. H.; Alpha, C.; Gale, E.; Atia, D. Y.; Stein, A.; Isakovic, A. F.

    The scaledown of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) and related nanoscale spintronics devices poses unique challenges for energy optimization of their performance. We demonstrate the dependence of the switching current on the scaledown variable, while considering the influence of geometric parameters of MTJ, such as the free layer thickness, tfree, lateral size of the MTJ, w, and the anisotropy parameter of the MTJ. At the same time, we point out which values of the saturation magnetization, Ms, and anisotropy field, Hk, can lead to lowering the switching current and overall decrease of the energy needed to operate an MTJ. It is demonstrated that scaledown via decreasing the lateral size of the MTJ, while allowing some other parameters to be unconstrained, can improve energy performance by a measurable factor, shown to be the function of both geometric and physical parameters above. Given the complex interdependencies among both families of parameters, we developed a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm that can simultaneously lower energy of operation and the switching current density. Results we obtained in scaledown study and via PSO optimization are compared to experimental results. Support by Mubadala-SRC 2012-VJ-2335 is acknowledged, as are staff at Cornell-CNF and BNL-CFN.

  20. Materials for spintronic: Room temperature ferromagnetism in Zn-Mn-O interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Crespo, P.; Hernando, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study the room temperature ferromagnetism reported on Mn-doped ZnO and ascribed to spin polarization of conduction electrons. We experimentally show that the ferromagnetic behaviour is associated to the coexistence of Mn 3+ and Mn +4 in MnO 2 grains where diffusion of Zn promotes the Mn 4+→ Mn 3+ reduction. Potential uses of this material in spintronic devices are analysed

  1. Spintronics and thermoelectrics in exfoliated and epitaxial graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Jan Jasper

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about two subjects: graphene spintronics and graphene thermoelectrics. Spintronics is about the creation and manipulation of spin currents. These are electrical currents in which we can control the spin orientation (up or down) of the conduction electrons. The second subject,

  2. Topological insulator materials and nanostructures for future electronics, spintronics and energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantser, Valeriu

    2011-01-01

    Two fundamental electrons attributes in materials and nanostructures - charge and spin - determine their electronic properties. The processing of information in conventional electronic devices is based only on the charge of the electrons. Spin electronics, or spintronics, uses the spin of electrons, as well as their charge, to process information. Metals, semiconductors and insulators are the basic materials that constitute the components of electronic devices, and these have been transforming all aspects of society for over a century. In contrast, magnetic metals, half-metals, magnetic semiconductors, dilute magnetic semiconductors and magnetic insulators are the materials that will form the basis for spintronic devices. Materials with topological band structure attributes and having a zero-energy band gap surface states are a special class of these materials that exhibit some fascinating and superior electronic properties compared to conventional materials allowing to combine both charge and spin functionalities. This article reviews a range of topological insulator materials and nanostructures with tunable surface states, focusing on nanolayered and nanowire like structures. These materials and nanostructures all have intriguing physical properties and numerous potential practical applications in spintronics, electronics, optics and sensors.

  3. The Role of a Mental Model in Learning to Operate a Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieras, David E.; Bovair, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Describes three studies concerned with learning to operate a control panel device and how this learning is affected by understanding a device model that describes its internal mechanism. Results indicate benefits of a device model depend on whether it supports direct inference of exact steps required to operate the device. (Author/MBR)

  4. Magnetization Dynamics in Two Novel Current-Driven Spintronic Memory Cell Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Velazquez-Rizo, Martin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, two new spintronic memory cell structures are proposed. The first cell uses the diffusion of polarized spins into ferromagnets with perpendicular anisotropy to tilt their magnetization followed by their dipolar coupling to a fixed magnet (Bhowmik et al., 2014). The possibility of setting the magnetization to both stable magnetization states in a controlled manner using a similar concept remains unknown, but the proposed structure poses to be a solution to this difficulty. The second cell proposed takes advantage of the multiple stable magnetic states that exist in ferromagnets with configurational anisotropy and also uses spin torques to manipulate its magnetization. It utilizes a square-shaped ferromagnet whose stable magnetization has preferred directions along the diagonals of the square, giving four stable magnetic states allowing to use the structure as a multi-bit memory cell. Both devices use spin currents generated in heavy metals by the Spin Hall effect present in these materials. Among the advantages of the structures proposed are their inherent non-volatility and the fact that there is no need for applying external magnetic fields during their operation, which drastically improves the energy efficiency of the devices. Computational simulations using the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF) software package were performed to study the dynamics of the magnetization process in both structures and predict their behavior. Besides, we fabricated a 4-terminal memory cell with configurational anisotropy similar to the device proposed, and found four stable resistive states on the structure, proving the feasibility of this technology for implementation of high-density, non-volatile memory cells.

  5. Equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloys: A material perspective for spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainsla, Lakhan, E-mail: lakhanbainsla@gmail.com, E-mail: suresh@phy.iitb.ac.in; Suresh, K. G., E-mail: lakhanbainsla@gmail.com, E-mail: suresh@phy.iitb.ac.in [Magnetic Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Half-metallic ferromagnetic (HMF) materials show high spin polarization and are therefore interesting to researchers due to their possible applications in spintronic devices. In these materials, while one spin sub band has a finite density of states at the Fermi level, the other sub band has a gap. Because of their high Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and tunable electronic structure, HMF Heusler alloys have a special importance among the HMF materials. Full Heusler alloys with the stoichiometric composition X{sub 2}YZ (where X and Y are the transition metals and Z is a sp element) have the cubic L2{sub 1} structure with four interpenetrating fcc sublattices. When each of these four fcc sublattices is occupied by different atoms (XX′YZ), a quaternary Heusler structure with different structural symmetries (space group F-43m, #216) is obtained. Recently, these equiatomic quaternary Heusler alloys (EQHAs) with 1:1:1:1 stoichiometry have attracted a lot of attention due to their superior magnetic and transport properties. A special class of HMF materials identified recently is known as spin gapless semiconductors (SGS). The difference in this case, compared with HMFs, is that the density of states for one spin band is just zero at the Fermi level, while the other has a gap as in the case of HMFs. Some of the reported SGS materials belong to EQHAs family. This review is dedicated to almost all reported materials belonging to EQHAs family. The electronic structure and hence the physical properties of Heusler alloys strongly depend on the degree of structural order and distribution of the atoms in the crystal lattice. A variety of experimental techniques has been used to probe the structural parameters and degree of order in these alloys. Their magnetic properties have been investigated using the conventional methods, while the spin polarization has been probed by point contact Andreev reflection technique. The experimentally obtained values of saturation magnetization are

  6. The insertion device magnetic measurement facility: Prototype and operational procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkel, L.; Dejus, R.; Maines, J.; O'Brien, J.; Vasserman, I.; Pfleuger, J.

    1993-03-01

    This report is a description of the current status of the magnetic measurement facility and is a basic instructional manual for the operation of the facility and its components. Please refer to the appendices for more detailed information about specific components and procedures. The purpose of the magnetic measurement facility is to take accurate measurements of the magnetic field in the gay of the IDs in order to determine the effect of the ID on the stored particle beam and the emitted radiation. The facility will also play an important role when evaluating new ideas, novel devices, and inhouse prototypes as part of the ongoing research and development program at the APS. The measurements will be performed with both moving search coils and moving Hall probes. The IDs will be evaluated by computer modeling of the emitted radiation for any given (measured) magnetic field map. The quality of the magnetic field will be described in terms of integrated multipoles for the effect on Storage Ring performance and in terms of the derived trajectories for the emitted radiation. Before being installed on the Storage Ring, every device will be measured and characterized to assure that it is compatible with Storage Ring requirements and radiation specifications. The accuracy that the APS needs to achieve for magnetic measurements will be based on these specifications

  7. High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results

  8. Diagnostics Development towards Steady State Operation in Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burhenn, R.; Baldzuhn, J.; Dreier, H.; Endler, M.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Hildebrandt, D.; Hirsch, M.; Koenig, R.; Kornejev, P.; Krychowiak, M.; Laqua, H.P.; Laux, M.; Oosterbeek, J.W.; Pasch, E.; Schneider, W.; Thomsen, H.; Weller, A.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.; Zhang, D. [Max-Planck-Institute fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Biel, W. [Institut fuer Energieforschung - Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH EURATOM Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is being presently under construction and is already equipped with superconducting coil systems and principally is capable of quasi-continuous operation. However, W7-X is faced with new enhanced technical requirements which have to be met by plasma facing components as well as the diagnostic systems in general. Depending on the available heating power, the continuous heat flux to plasma facing components during long pulse operation might lead to unacceptable local thermal overload and necessitates sufficient but often complicate active cooling precautions. Fusion devices with electron cyclotron frequency heating (ECRH) are concerned with significant stray radiation, depending on the chosen heating scheme and the plasma parameters. The required shielding is often not compatible with optimal UHV-consistent design and high intensity throughput. For machine safety, diagnostics are required which are able to identify enhanced plasma wall interaction on a fast time scale in order to prevent damage in time. For W7-X, video camera systems covering most of the inner wall, fast IR-camera systems with coating-resistant pinhole-optics for the observation of the divertor surface temperature and spectrometers with large spectral survey covering relevant spectral lines of all intrinsic impurities with sufficient spectral resolution and sensitivity are necessary. In combination with energy integrating but spatially resolving diagnostics like bolometers and soft-X cameras slow impurity accumulation phenomena on a time scale much larger than flat-top times typically achieved in short-pulse operation can be identified and a radiative plasma collapse possibly be avoided by counteractive measures. Longer port dimensions due to thermal insulation of the cryogenic coil system and high density operation with strong density gradients necessitate the choice of shorter wavelengths for interferometer laser beams. This complicates the avoidance of fringe

  9. Multi-parameter optimization of a nanomagnetic system for spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Meza, Mishel [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Zubieta Rico, Pablo F. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV) Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Fracc. Real de Juriquilla, 76230 Querétaro (Mexico); Horley, Paul P., E-mail: paul.horley@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Sukhov, Alexander [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Vieira, Vítor R. [Centro de Física das Interacções Fundamentais (CFIF), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-11-15

    Magnetic properties of nano-particles feature many interesting physical phenomena that are essentially important for the creation of a new generation of spin-electronic devices. The magnetic stability of the nano-particles can be improved by formation of ordered particle arrays, which should be optimized over several parameters. Here we report successful optimization regarding inter-particle distance and applied field frequency allowing to obtain about three-times reduction of coercivity of a particle array compared to that of a single particle, which opens new perspectives for development of new spintronic devices.

  10. Multi-parameter optimization of a nanomagnetic system for spintronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Meza, Mishel; Zubieta Rico, Pablo F.; Horley, Paul P.; Sukhov, Alexander; Vieira, Vítor R.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic properties of nano-particles feature many interesting physical phenomena that are essentially important for the creation of a new generation of spin-electronic devices. The magnetic stability of the nano-particles can be improved by formation of ordered particle arrays, which should be optimized over several parameters. Here we report successful optimization regarding inter-particle distance and applied field frequency allowing to obtain about three-times reduction of coercivity of a particle array compared to that of a single particle, which opens new perspectives for development of new spintronic devices

  11. Integrated Spintronic Platforms for Biomolecular Recognition Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, V. C.; Cardoso, F. A.; Loureiro, J.; Mercier, M.; Germano, J.; Cardoso, S.; Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, L. P.; Sousa, L.; Piedade, M. S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2008-06-01

    This paper covers recent developments in magnetoresistive based biochip platforms fabricated at INESC-MN, and their application to the detection and quantification of pathogenic waterborn microorganisms in water samples for human consumption. Such platforms are intended to give response to the increasing concern related to microbial contaminated water sources. The presented results concern the development of biological active DNA chips and protein chips and the demonstration of the detection capability of the present platforms. Two platforms are described, one including spintronic sensors only (spin-valve based or magnetic tunnel junction based), and the other, a fully scalable platform where each probe site consists of a MTJ in series with a thin film diode (TFD). Two microfluidic systems are described, for cell separation and concentration, and finally, the read out and control integrated electronics are described, allowing the realization of bioassays with a portable point of care unit. The present platforms already allow the detection of complementary biomolecular target recognition with 1 pM concentration.

  12. Cryogenic operation strategy for the SST-1 device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanna, V.L.; Pradhan, S.

    2013-01-01

    The SST-1 has been operated since 2012 as part of its engineering commissioning and almost 5 experimental campaigns have been successfully completed. Before final assembling, cool-down and current excitation tests for the Toroidal field coils and PF 3 (Upper) coil were demonstrated successfully as part of validation under coils test program. These superconducting coils consist of a cable-in-conduit conductor, (CICC) is cooled by the forced-flow Two-phase flow as well as supercritical helium conditions. During the recent campaigns, hydraulic characteristics of whole superconducting magnets along with the TF case cooling were studied as an integral system. Based on the experimental observations, efforts have been made to cryo stable conditions of the SST-1 superconducting magnets system in order to produce steady state TF magnetic field of 1.5 T at the plasma center. Optimization of Helium plant related processes have been worked out and implemented to realize the successful SST-1 device operation over a week. In order to have long experimental campaign, an intermediate temperature cooling down philosophy has been adopted. The complete superconducting coils flow distribution among their cooling channels and pressure head requirements were studied from the measurements. In this paper, we will highlight the recent cool-down results, flow distribution and temperature uniformity aspects while cooling down the SST-1 magnets system. (author)

  13. Local DER Driven Grid Support by Coordinated Operation of Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmer, C.J.; Kamphuis, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    In the traditional operation of electricity networks the system operator has a number of ancillary services available for preservation of system balance. These services are called upon near real-time, after the planning phase. Ancillary services consist of regulating power, reserve capacity and emergency capacity, each with their own characteristics. Regulating power is deployed via load frequency control. Reserve capacity is used to release regulating power and can be called upon to maintain a balance or to counterbalance or resolve transmission restrictions. Both are traded at the Dutch energy market under an auction model with a single buyer (TenneT). Emergency capacity is rewarded on the basis of accessibility/availability within 15 minutes. In local electricity networks neither planning nor ancillary services exist. Planning is done by aggregation into large customer groups. For ancillary services one relies on the system operation as sketched above. In local electricity networks with a large share of distributed generation the costs of keeping the electricity system reliable and stable will increase further and technical problems may arise. The European SmartGrids initiative responds to these challenges in their strategic research agenda. One of the issues addressed in this agenda is the changing role of the distribution grid in which users get a more active role. One opportunity is the introduction of ancillary-type services at the distribution level, utilizing different types of producing and consuming devices in the local network, in order to make the total system more dependable. Distributed generation has a number of characteristics that are similar to characteristics of consumption. Part of it is intermittent / variable, although to a large extent predictable (PV, wind versus lighting, electronic devices). Another part is task-driven (micro-CHP versus electrical heating). Yet another part is controllable or shiftable in time. And storage can behave both

  14. From Spintronics to CFD/ContractForDifferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksoed, W. H.

    2015-11-01

    Involve the CFD/Computational Fluid Dynamics & HCCI/Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition - Marcine Frackowiak, dissertation, 2009, for CFD/Contract For Differences accompanied by ``One Man's Crusade to Exonerate Hydrogen for Hindenburg Disaster'' of Addison BAIN, APS News, v. 9, n.7 (July 2000) concludes ``ignition of the blaze'' are responsible to those May, 1937 Accidents. Spintronics their selves include active control & manipulation of spin degree of freedom ever denotes: the nano-obelisk of scanning electron microscopy of galliumnitride/GaN nanostructures-Yong-Hon Cho et al.:``Novel Photonic Device using core-shell nanostructures'', SPIE-newsroom,10.1117/2.1201503.005864. Herewith commercial activated carbon/C can be imaged directly using abberation-corrected transmission electron microscopy[PJF Harris et al.: ``Imaging the Atomic Structures of activated C'', J. Phys. Condens. Matt, 20 (2008) in fig b & c- images networks of hexagonal rings can be clearly be seen depicts equal etchings of 340 px Akhenaten, Nefertiti & their childrens. Incredible acknowledgments to Minister of Education & Culture RI 1998-1999 HE. Mr. Prof. Ir. WIRANTO ARISMUNANDAR, MSME.

  15. GNSS-based operational monitoring devices for forest logging operation chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondo Gallo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The first results of a new approach for implementing operational monitoring tool to control the performance of forest mechanisation chains are proposed and discussed. The solution is based on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS tools that are the core of a datalogging system that, in combination with a specific inference-engine, is able to analyse process times, work distances, forward speeds, vehicle tracking and number of working cycles in forest operations. As a consequence the operational monitoring control methods could provide an evaluation of the efficiency of the investigated forest operations. The study has monitored the performance of a tower yarder with crane and processor-head, during logging operations. The field surveys consisted on the installation of the GNSS device directly on the forest equipment for monitoring its movements. Simultaneously the field survey considered the integration of the GNSS information with a time study of work elements based on the continuous time methods supported by a time study board. Additionally, where possible, the onboard computer of the forest machine was also used in order to obtain additional information to be integrated to the GNSS data and the time study. All the recorded GNSS data integrated with the work elements study were thus post-processed through GIS analysis. The preliminary overview about the application of this approach on harvesting operations has permitted to assess a good feasibility of the use of GNSS in the relief of operative times in high mechanised forest chains. Results showed an easy and complete identification of the different operative cycles and elementary operations phases, with a maximum difference between the two methodologies of 10.32%. The use of GNSS installed on forest equipment, integrated with the inferenceengine and also with an interface for data communication or data storage, will permit an automatic or semi-automatic operational monitoring, improving

  16. Surface spintronics enhanced photo-catalytic hydrogen evolution: Mechanisms, strategies, challenges and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyan; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Xuqiang; Li, Zhen; Lu, Gongxuan

    2018-03-01

    Hydrogen is a green energy carrier with high enthalpy and zero environmental pollution emission characteristics. Photocatalytic hydrogen evolution (HER) is a sustainable and promising way to generate hydrogen. Despite of great achievements in photocatalytic HER research, its efficiency is still limited due to undesirable electron transfer loss, high HER over-potential and low stability of some photocatalysts, which lead to their unsatisfied performance in HER and anti-photocorrosion properties. In recent years, many spintronics works have shown their enhancing effects on photo-catalytic HER. For example, it was reported that spin polarized photo-electrons could result in higher photocurrents and HER turn-over frequency (up to 200%) in photocatalytic system. Two strategies have been developed for electron spin polarizing, which resort to heavy atom effect and magnetic induction respectively. Both theoretical and experimental studies show that controlling spin state of OHrad radicals in photocatalytic reaction can not only decrease OER over-potential (even to 0 eV) of water splitting, but improve stability and charge lifetime of photocatalysts. A convenient strategy have been developed for aligning spin state of OHrad by utilizing chiral molecules to spin filter photo-electrons. By chiral-induced spin filtering, electron polarization can approach to 74%, which is significantly larger than some traditional transition metal devices. Those achievements demonstrate bright future of spintronics in enhancing photocatalytic HER, nevertheless, there is little work systematically reviewing and analysis this topic. This review focuses on recent achievements of spintronics in photocatalytic HER study, and systematically summarizes the related mechanisms and important strategies proposed. Besides, the challenges and developing trends of spintronics enhanced photo-catalytic HER research are discussed, expecting to comprehend and explore such interdisciplinary research in

  17. Self-operation type power control device for nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru.

    1993-07-23

    The device of the present invention operates by sensing the temperature change of a reactor core in all of LMFBR type reactors irrespective of the scale of the reactor core power. That is, a region where liquid poison is filled is disposed at the upper portion and a region where sealed gases are filled is disposed at the lower portion of a pipe having both ends thereof being closed. When the pipe is inserted into the reactor core, the inner diameter of the pipe is determined smaller than a predetermined value so that the boundary between the liquid poison and the sealed gases in the pipe is maintained relative to an assumed maximum acceleration. The sealed gas region is disposed at the reactor core region. If the liquid poison is expanded by the elevation of the reactor core exit temperature, it is moved to the lower gas region, to control the reactor power. Since high reliability can be maintained over a long period of time by this method, it is suitable to FBR reactors disposed in such environments that maintenance can not easily be conducted, such as desserts, isolated islands and undeveloped countries. Further, it is also suitable to ultra small sized nuclear reactors disposed at environments that the direction and the magnitude of gravity are different from those on the ground. (I.S.).

  18. Self-operation type power control device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention operates by sensing the temperature change of a reactor core in all of LMFBR type reactors irrespective of the scale of the reactor core power. That is, a region where liquid poison is filled is disposed at the upper portion and a region where sealed gases are filled is disposed at the lower portion of a pipe having both ends thereof being closed. When the pipe is inserted into the reactor core, the inner diameter of the pipe is determined smaller than a predetermined value so that the boundary between the liquid poison and the sealed gases in the pipe is maintained relative to an assumed maximum acceleration. The sealed gas region is disposed at the reactor core region. If the liquid poison is expanded by the elevation of the reactor core exit temperature, it is moved to the lower gas region, to control the reactor power. Since high reliability can be maintained over a long period of time by this method, it is suitable to FBR reactors disposed in such environments that maintenance can not easily be conducted, such as desserts, isolated islands and undeveloped countries. Further, it is also suitable to ultra small sized nuclear reactors disposed at environments that the direction and the magnitude of gravity are different from those on the ground. (I.S.)

  19. Operation method and operation control device for emergency core cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Shoichiro; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Tadashi [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mizutani, Akira

    1996-05-07

    The present invention provides a method of reducing continuous load capacity of an emergency cooling system of a BWR type reactor and a device reducing a rated capacity of an emergency power source facility. Namely, the emergency core cooling system comprises a first cooling system having a plurality of power source systems based on a plurality of emergency power sources and a second cooling system having a remaining heat removing function. In this case, when the first cooling system is operated the manual starting under a predetermined condition that an external power source loss event should occur, a power source division different from the first cooling system shares the operation to operate the secondary cooling system simultaneously. Further, the first cooling system is constituted as a high pressure reactor core water injection system and the second cooling system is constituted as a remaining heat removing system. With such a constitution, a high pressure reactor core water injection system for manual starting and a remaining heat removing system of different power source division can be operated simultaneously before automatic operation of the emergency core cooling system upon loss of external power source of a nuclear power plant. (I.S.)

  20. Reusable single-port access device shortens operative time and reduces operative costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shussman, Noam; Kedar, Asaf; Elazary, Ram; Abu Gazala, Mahmoud; Rivkind, Avraham I; Mintz, Yoav

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, single-port laparoscopy (SPL) has become an attractive approach for performing surgical procedures. The pitfalls of this approach are technical and financial. Financial concerns are due to the increased cost of dedicated devices and prolonged operating room time. Our aim was to calculate the cost of SPL using a reusable port and instruments in order to evaluate the cost difference between this approach to SPL using the available disposable ports and standard laparoscopy. We performed 22 laparoscopic procedures via the SPL approach using a reusable single-port access system and reusable laparoscopic instruments. These included 17 cholecystectomies and five other procedures. Operative time, postoperative length of stay (LOS) and complications were prospectively recorded and were compared with similar data from our SPL database. Student's t test was used for statistical analysis. SPL was successfully performed in all cases. Mean operative time for cholecystectomy was 72 min (range 40-116). Postoperative LOS was not changed from our standard protocols and was 1.1 days for cholecystectomy. The postoperative course was within normal limits for all patients and perioperative morbidity was recorded. Both operative time and length of hospital stay were shorter for the 17 patients who underwent cholecystectomy using a reusable port than for the matched previous 17 SPL cholecystectomies we performed (p cost difference. Operating with a reusable port ended up with an average cost savings of US$388 compared with using disposable ports, and US$240 compared with standard laparoscopy. Single-port laparoscopic surgery is a technically challenging and expensive surgical approach. Financial concerns among others have been advocated against this approach; however, we demonstrate herein that using a reusable port and instruments reduces operative time and overall operative costs, even beyond the cost of standard laparoscopy.

  1. Large-scale fabrication of BN tunnel barriers for graphene spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wangyang; Makk, Péter; Maurand, Romain; Bräuninger, Matthias; Schönenberger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We have fabricated graphene spin-valve devices utilizing scalable materials made from chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Both the spin-transporting graphene and the tunnel barrier material are CVD-grown. The tunnel barrier is realized by Hexagonal boron nitride, used either as a monolayer or bilayer and placed over the graphene. Spin transport experiments were performed using ferromagnetic contacts deposited onto the barrier. We find that spin injection is still greatly suppressed in devices with a monolayer tunneling barrier due to resistance mismatch. This is, however, not the case for devices with bilayer barriers. For those devices, a spin relaxation time of ∼260 ps intrinsic to the CVD graphene material is deduced. This time scale is comparable to those reported for exfoliated graphene, suggesting that this CVD approach is promising for spintronic applications which require scalable materials

  2. Dynamical properties of three terminal magnetic tunnel junctions: Spintronics meets spin-orbitronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasello, R. [Department of Computer Science, Modeling, Electronics and System Science, University of Calabria, Rende (CS) (Italy); Carpentieri, M., E-mail: m.carpentieri@poliba.it [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy)

    2013-12-16

    This Letter introduces a micromagnetic model able to characterize the magnetization dynamics in three terminal magnetic tunnel junctions, where the effects of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque are taken into account. Our results predict that the possibility to separate electrically those two torque sources is very promising from a technological point of view for both next generation of nanoscale spintronic oscillators and microwave detectors. A scalable synchronization scheme based on the parallel connection of those three terminal devices is also proposed.

  3. Dynamical properties of three terminal magnetic tunnel junctions: Spintronics meets spin-orbitronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasello, R.; Carpentieri, M.; Finocchio, G.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter introduces a micromagnetic model able to characterize the magnetization dynamics in three terminal magnetic tunnel junctions, where the effects of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque are taken into account. Our results predict that the possibility to separate electrically those two torque sources is very promising from a technological point of view for both next generation of nanoscale spintronic oscillators and microwave detectors. A scalable synchronization scheme based on the parallel connection of those three terminal devices is also proposed

  4. Synthesis and characterization of transition-metal-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals for spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng

    Spintronics (spin transport electr onics), in which both spin and charge of carriers are utilized for information processing, is believed to challenge the current microelectronics and to become the next-generation electronics. Nanostructured spintronic materials and their synthetic methodologies are of paramount importance for manufacturing future nanoscale spintronic devices. This thesis aims at studying synthesis, characterization, and magnetism of transition-metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals---a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS)---for potential applications in future nano-spintronics. A simple bottom-up-based synthetic strategy named a solvothermal technique is introduced as the primary synthetic approach and its crystal growth mechanism is scrutinized. N-type cobalt-doped ZnO-based DMS nanocrystals are employed as a model system, and characterized by a broad spectrum of advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. It is found that the self-orientation growth mechanism, imperfect oriented attachment, is intimately correlated with the high-temperature ferromagnetism via defects. The influence of processing on the magnetic properties, such as compositional variations, reaction conditions, and post-growth treatment, is also studied. In this way, an in-depth understanding of processing-structure-property interrelationships and origins of magnetism in DMS nanocrystals are obtained in light of the theoretical framework of a spin-split impurity band model. In addition, a nanoscale spinodal decomposition phase model is also briefly discussed. Following the similar synthetic route, copper- and manganese-doped ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized and characterized. They both show high-temperature ferromagnetism in line with the aforementioned theoretical model(s). Moreover, they display interesting exchange biasing phenomena at low temperatures, revealing the complexity of magnetic phases therein. The crystal growth strategy demonstrated in this work

  5. Semiconductor terahertz technology devices and systems at room temperature operation

    CERN Document Server

    Carpintero, G; Hartnagel, H; Preu, S; Raisanen, A

    2015-01-01

    Key advances in Semiconductor Terahertz (THz) Technology now promises important new applications enabling scientists and engineers to overcome the challenges of accessing the so-called "terahertz gap".  This pioneering reference explains the fundamental methods and surveys innovative techniques in the generation, detection and processing of THz waves with solid-state devices, as well as illustrating their potential applications in security and telecommunications, among other fields. With contributions from leading experts, Semiconductor Terahertz Technology: Devices and Systems at Room Tempe

  6. 30 CFR 90.205 - Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; operation; air... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.205 Approved sampling devices; operation; air flowrate...

  7. ESPINTRÓNICA, LA ELECTRONICA DEL ESPÍN SPINTRONICS, SPIN ELECTRONICS

    KAUST Repository

    Monteblanco, Elmer; Ortiz Pauyac, Christian; Savero, Williams; RojasSanchez, J. Carlos; Schuhl, A.

    2017-01-01

    Current technology seeks to develop nanoscale devices capable of storing and processing information. These devices would be difficult to make in the area of electronics, which is based on the manipulation of electric charge. However, thanks to advances in experimental and theoretical physics in the field of condensed matter, these devices are already a reality, belonging to the field of what we now call spintronics, which bases its functionality on the control of the electron’s spin, a property that can only be conceived at the quantum level. In this article we review this new perspective, describing giant- and tunneling- magnetoresistance, the spin transfer torque, and their applications such as MRAM memories, nano-oscillators and lateral spin valves.

  8. ESPINTRÓNICA, LA ELECTRONICA DEL ESPÍN SPINTRONICS, SPIN ELECTRONICS

    KAUST Repository

    Monteblanco, Elmer

    2017-03-14

    Current technology seeks to develop nanoscale devices capable of storing and processing information. These devices would be difficult to make in the area of electronics, which is based on the manipulation of electric charge. However, thanks to advances in experimental and theoretical physics in the field of condensed matter, these devices are already a reality, belonging to the field of what we now call spintronics, which bases its functionality on the control of the electron’s spin, a property that can only be conceived at the quantum level. In this article we review this new perspective, describing giant- and tunneling- magnetoresistance, the spin transfer torque, and their applications such as MRAM memories, nano-oscillators and lateral spin valves.

  9. Flexible spin-orbit torque devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, OukJae; You, Long; Jang, Jaewon; Subramanian, Vivek; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2015-01-01

    We report on state-of-the-art spintronic devices synthesized and fabricated directly on a flexible organic substrate. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was achieved in ultrathin ferromagnetic heterostructures of Pt/Co/MgO sputtered on a non-rigid plastic substrate at room temperature. Subsequently, a full magnetic reversal of the Co was observed by exploiting the spin orbit coupling in Pt that leads to a spin accumulation at the Pt/Co interface when an in-plane current is applied. Quasi-static measurements show the potential for operating these devices at nano-second speeds. Importantly, the behavior of the devices remained unchanged under varying bending conditions (up to a bending radius of ≈ ±20–30 mm). Furthermore, the devices showed robust operation even after application of 10 6 successive pulses, which is likely sufficient for many flexible applications. Thus, this work demonstrates the potential for integrating high performance spintronic devices on flexible substrates, which could lead to many applications ranging from flexible non-volatile magnetic memory to local magnetic resonance imaging

  10. Flexible spin-orbit torque devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, OukJae; You, Long; Jang, Jaewon; Subramanian, Vivek [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Salahuddin, Sayeef [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    We report on state-of-the-art spintronic devices synthesized and fabricated directly on a flexible organic substrate. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was achieved in ultrathin ferromagnetic heterostructures of Pt/Co/MgO sputtered on a non-rigid plastic substrate at room temperature. Subsequently, a full magnetic reversal of the Co was observed by exploiting the spin orbit coupling in Pt that leads to a spin accumulation at the Pt/Co interface when an in-plane current is applied. Quasi-static measurements show the potential for operating these devices at nano-second speeds. Importantly, the behavior of the devices remained unchanged under varying bending conditions (up to a bending radius of ≈ ±20–30 mm). Furthermore, the devices showed robust operation even after application of 10{sup 6} successive pulses, which is likely sufficient for many flexible applications. Thus, this work demonstrates the potential for integrating high performance spintronic devices on flexible substrates, which could lead to many applications ranging from flexible non-volatile magnetic memory to local magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in C60-based organic spintronic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Kai; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Bolhuis, Thijs; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; de Jong, Machiel Pieter

    2014-01-01

    C 60 fullerenes are interesting molecular semiconductors for spintronics since they exhibit weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, which is a prerequisite for long spin lifetimes. We report spin-polarized transport in spin-valve-like structures containing ultrathin (<10 nm) C 60 layers,

  12. A Test Device Module of the Step Motor Driver for HANARO CAR Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Yun-Taek; Doo, Seung-Gyu; Shin, Jin-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Young-San; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Kyoo; Lee, Choong-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The brand-new control system is reliable and has advantages compared with the old control system, and the installed system covers all functional operations of old system. Nevertheless, packaged RTP systems do not include a step motor or driver, and it is necessary to develop a proper test device to check the step motor and driver without using the RTP system. In particular, the operation of a CAR (Control Absorber Rod) requires many complicated procedures. Occasionally, it takes significant time to prepare for a field test. In this work, a test device module for a step motor diver is shown to emulate a HANARO CAR operation, and the test device system architecture, operational principle, and experiment results are presented. A commercial 8-bit μ-processor is applied to implement the device. A portable test device for HANARO CAR operation is presented. An 8-bit μ-controller is used to emulate a HANARO CAR operation. The digital interface, as well as the functional operation, of the test device module matches that of the currently used driver. This device can be used to check the functional validity of the step motor and driver.

  13. Spin-Valve Effect in a Ni-C60-Ni Device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Haiying; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P

    2006-01-01

    .... The magnitude of the junction magnetoresistance (JMR) is found to be significantly large for the device, which makes it a promising candidate for realistic applications in molecular spintronics...

  14. The Operation of a Domestic Interface Device for the HANARO Control Rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young San; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Jung Hee; Kim, Hyung Kyoo

    2010-01-01

    The interface device for the HANARO control rod which was supplied by a foreign company put difficulties on reactor operation due to the obsolescence of the products and lukewarm technical support from the manufacturer. The development of the interface device based on domestic technology has been completed in order to solve the problems in this issue and to ensure safe and reliable reactor operation. This paper describes the development process of the domestic interface device conducted which was over 5 years, the field test results, and the reactor operation application results

  15. Reconfiguration strategies for electrical devices for operation within feasibility margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandor, Malin; Blank, Marita [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany); Lehnhoff, Sebastian [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Due to a transition of the energy system towards a sustainable energy supply by the integration of renewable, decentralized energy resources, new challenges regarding a safe and secure energy supply appear. With renewable energy resources the power fee-in will be highly volatile. Furthermore, due to a correlated feed-in depending on e.g. weather phenomena or control strategies on the demand side, the system might be operated beyond feasible boundaries. However, the satisfaction of viable operational boundaries must be guaranteed. In this paper a method is presented that allows the utilization of degrees of freedom in form of decentralized flexible electric consumers and products in order to optimize an operational state with regard to its feasibility. First results are presented in a case study. (orig.)

  16. Cr-doped III-V nitrides: Potential candidates for spintronics

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin

    2011-02-19

    Studies of Cr-doped III-V nitrides, dilute magnetic alloys in the zincblende crystal structure, are presented. The objective of the work is to investigate half-metallicity in Al 0.75Cr 0.25N, Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N, and In 0.75Cr 0.25N for their possible application in spin-based electronic devices. The calculated spin-polarized band structures, electronic properties, and magnetic properties of these compounds reveal that Al 0.75Cr 0.25N and Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N are half-metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors while In 0.75Cr 0.25N is metallic in nature. The present theoretical predictions provide evidence that some Cr-doped III-V nitrides can be used in spintronics devices. © 2011 TMS.

  17. Cr-doped III-V nitrides: Potential candidates for spintronics

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin; Arif, Suneela K.; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Maqbool, Muhammad; Ahmad, Roshan; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Prisbrey, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of Cr-doped III-V nitrides, dilute magnetic alloys in the zincblende crystal structure, are presented. The objective of the work is to investigate half-metallicity in Al 0.75Cr 0.25N, Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N, and In 0.75Cr 0.25N for their possible application in spin-based electronic devices. The calculated spin-polarized band structures, electronic properties, and magnetic properties of these compounds reveal that Al 0.75Cr 0.25N and Ga 0.75Cr 0.25N are half-metallic dilute magnetic semiconductors while In 0.75Cr 0.25N is metallic in nature. The present theoretical predictions provide evidence that some Cr-doped III-V nitrides can be used in spintronics devices. © 2011 TMS.

  18. Inter-operator and inter-device agreement and reliability of the SEM Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenin, Marta; Jaradeh, Kindah; Shamirian, Anasheh; Rhodes, Shannon L

    2015-02-01

    The SEM Scanner is a medical device designed for use by healthcare providers as part of pressure ulcer prevention programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the inter-rater and inter-device agreement and reliability of the SEM Scanner. Thirty-one (31) volunteers free of pressure ulcers or broken skin at the sternum, sacrum, and heels were assessed with the SEM Scanner. Each of three operators utilized each of three devices to collect readings from four anatomical sites (sternum, sacrum, left and right heels) on each subject for a total of 108 readings per subject collected over approximately 30 min. For each combination of operator-device-anatomical site, three SEM readings were collected. Inter-operator and inter-device agreement and reliability were estimated. Over the course of this study, more than 3000 SEM Scanner readings were collected. Agreement between operators was good with mean differences ranging from -0.01 to 0.11. Inter-operator and inter-device reliability exceeded 0.80 at all anatomical sites assessed. The results of this study demonstrate the high reliability and good agreement of the SEM Scanner across different operators and different devices. Given the limitations of current methods to prevent and detect pressure ulcers, the SEM Scanner shows promise as an objective, reliable tool for assessing the presence or absence of pressure-induced tissue damage such as pressure ulcers. Copyright © 2015 Bruin Biometrics, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Possible fire hazard caused by mismatching electrical chargers with the incorrect device within the operating room.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, Martin

    2012-02-03

    It has come to our attention that numerous devices that need charging adaptors during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have similar charging sockets but different voltage requirements. This has caused one of our devices in the operating theater to overheat and completely shut down when connected to an incorrect higher-voltage charger. The possibility of fire, device destruction, or patient harm in such circumstances is of serious concern.

  20. Support system for loop device operator. Analysis of technological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovlev, V.V.; Mozhaev, A.A.; Lyadin, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of controlling the loops of a research reactor. A method of optimized interaction of the operator and hardware of the control system by computeraided identification of the cause of regime violation is considered. The equipment diagnostics based on use of the expert system methods and tuzzy algorithms enables to propose a support system for application in new generation of loops

  1. Usability Operations on Touch Mobile Devices for Users with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Angeles; Juárez-Ramírez, Reyes; Jiménez, Samantha; Noriega, Alan Ramírez; Inzunza, Sergio; Garza, Arnulfo Alanis

    2017-10-14

    The Autistic Spectrum Disorder is a cognitive disorder that affects the cognitive and motor skills; due that, users cannot perform digital and fine motor tasks. It is necessary to create software applications that adapt to the abilities of these users. In recent years has been an increase in the research of the use of technology to support autistic users to develop their communication skills and to improve learning. However, the applications' usability for disable users is not assessed objectively as the existing models do not consider interaction operators for disable users. This article focuses on identifying the operations that can easily be performed by autistic users following the metrics of KML-GOMS, TLM and FLM. In addition, users of typical development were included in order to do a comparison between both types of users. The experiment was carried out using four applications designed for autistic users. Participants were subjects divided in two groups: level 1 and level 2 autistic users, and a group of users of typical development. During the experimentation, users performed a use case for each application; the time needed to perform each task was measured. Results show that the easiest operations for autistic users are K (Keystroke), D (Drag), Initial Act (I) and Tapping (T).

  2. Point of Maintenance Ruggedized Operational Device Evaluation and Observation Test Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorman, Megan

    2002-01-01

    .... The Ruggedized Operational Device Evaluation and Observation (RODEO) test examined hardware packaging, software user interface, and environmental factors associated with the usability of potential Point of Maintenance (POMx) electronic tools...

  3. Evaluation of spectrum measurement devices for operational use

    CERN Document Server

    Devine, R T; Gray, D W; Seagraves, D T; Olsher, R H; Johnson, J P

    2002-01-01

    Several neutron spectrometers manufactured by Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) were tested and evaluated in a variety of neutron fields. Findings and conclusions are presented for the following BTI instruments: a modification of the Rotational Spectrometer (ROSPEC) that includes a thermal and epithermal capability, the Simple Scintillation Spectrometer that is used in conjunction with the ROSPEC to extend its high-energy range, and the MICROSPEC N-Probe which is capable of providing a crude spectrum over the energy range from thermal to 18 MeV. The main objective of these measurements was to determine the accuracy of both the energy spectrum and dose equivalent information generated by these devices. In addition, the dose response of the Wide-Energy Neutron Detection Instrument (WENDI-II) was measured in all neutron fields relative to a bare sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf calibration. The performance of the WENDI-II rem meter was compared to the dose information generated by the neutron spectrometers. The instruments...

  4. Devices and methods of operation thereof for providing stable flow for centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Stevens, Mark A. (Inventor); Jett, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Centrifugal compressor flow stabilizing devices and methods of operation thereof are disclosed that act upon the flow field discharging from the impeller of a centrifugal compressor and modify the flow field ahead of the diffuser vanes such that flow conditions contributing to rotating stall and surge are reduced or even eliminated. In some embodiments, shaped rods and methods of operation thereof are disclosed, whereas in other embodiments reverse-tangent air injection devices and methods are disclosed.

  5. Operating Systems for Low-End Devices in the Internet of Things: a Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hahm , Oliver; Baccelli , Emmanuel; Petersen , Hauke; Tsiftes , Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The Internet of Things (IoT) is projected to soon interconnect tens of billions of new devices, in large part also connected to the Internet. IoT devices include both high-end devices which can use traditional go-to operating systems (OS) such as Linux, and low-end devices which cannot, due to stringent resource constraints, e.g. very limited memory, computational power, and power supply. However, large-scale IoT software development, deployment, and maintenance requir...

  6. Prospects of asymmetrically H-terminated zigzag germanene nanoribbons for spintronic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Varun, E-mail: varun@iiitm.ac.in [Nanomaterials Research Group, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (IIITM), Gwalior 474015 (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Nanomaterials Research Group, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (IIITM), Gwalior 474015 (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K. [Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design & Manufacturing, Jabalpur, Dumna Airport Road, Jabalpur 482005 (India)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Asymmetric hydrogen termination of Zigzag Germanene Nanoribbons (ZGeNR) is presented with their plausible spintronic device application. • It is revealed that asymmetric terminations are energetically more favourable compared to symmetric terminations. • The magnetic moment analysis depicts that asymmetric ZGeNR have a magnetic ground state with a preferred ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. • Presented doped asymmetric ZGeNR exhibits a half-metallic character which makes them qualify for spin-filtering device. - Abstract: First-principles investigations have been performed to explore the spin based electronic and transport properties of asymmetrically H-terminated zigzag germanene nanoribbons (2H−H ZGeNR). Investigations reveal a significant formation energy difference (ΔE{sub F} = E{sub F(2H-H)} − E{sub F(H-H)} ∼ −0.49 eV), highlighting more energetic stability for asymmetric edge termination compared to symmetric edge termination, irrespective of the ribbon width. Further, magnetic moment analysis and total energy calculations were performed to unveil that these structures have a magnetic ground state with preferred ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. The calculated E-k structures project a unique bipolar semiconducting behaviour for 2H−H ZGeNR which is contrast to H-terminated ZGeNR. Half-metallic transformation has also been revealed via suitable p-type or n-type doping for these structures. Finally, transport calculations were performed to highlight the selective contributions of spin-down (spin-up) electrons in the I–V characteristics of the doped 2H−H ZGeNR, suggesting their vitality for spintronic device applications.

  7. 47 CFR 95.1119 - Specific requirements for wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 608-614 MHz band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices operating in the 608-614 MHz band. For a wireless medical telemetry device operating within the... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific requirements for wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 608-614 MHz band. 95.1119 Section 95.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL...

  8. Mobile devices in the operating rooms: intended and unintended consequences for nurses’ work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sergeeva, A.; Aij, K.H.; van den Hooff, B.J.; Huysman, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of a case study of the consequences of mobile device use for the work practices of operating room nurses. The study identifies different patterns of mobile technology use by operating room nurses, including both work-related and non-work-related use. These patterns

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Xxxx of... - Operating Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits for Puncture Sealant Application Control Devices 4 Table 4 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Manufacturing Pt. 63, Subpt. XXXX, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart XXXX of Part 63—Operating Limits for Puncture...

  10. Particle interaction and displacement damage in silicon devices operated in radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Claude; Rancoita, Pier-Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Silicon is used in radiation detectors and electronic devices. Nowadays, these devices achieving submicron technology are parts of integrated circuits of large to very large scale integration (VLSI). Silicon and silicon-based devices are commonly operated in many fields including particle physics experiments, nuclear medicine and space. Some of these fields present adverse radiation environments that may affect the operation of the devices. The particle energy deposition mechanisms by ionization and non-ionization processes are reviewed as well as the radiation-induced damage and its effect on device parameters evolution, depending on particle type, energy and fluence. The temporary or permanent damage inflicted by a single particle (single event effect) to electronic devices or integrated circuits is treated separately from the total ionizing dose (TID) effect for which the accumulated fluence causes degradation and from the displacement damage induced by the non-ionizing energy-loss (NIEL) deposition. Understanding of radiation effects on silicon devices has an impact on their design and allows the prediction of a specific device behaviour when exposed to a radiation field of interest

  11. Spintronics with graphene-hexagonal boron nitride van der Waals heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalakar, M. Venkata; Dankert, André; Bergsten, Johan; Ive, Tommy; Dash, Saroj P.

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a large bandgap insulating isomorph of graphene, ideal for atomically thin tunnel barrier applications. In this letter, we demonstrate large area chemical vapor deposited (CVD) h-BN as a promising spin tunnel barrier in graphene spin transport devices. In such structures, the ferromagnetic tunnel contacts with h-BN barrier are found to show robust tunneling characteristics over a large scale with resistances in the favorable range for efficient spin injection into graphene. The non-local spin transport and precession experiments reveal spin lifetime ≈500 ps and spin diffusion length ≈1.6 μm in graphene with tunnel spin polarization ≈11% at 100 K. The electrical and spin transport measurements at different injection bias current and gate voltages confirm tunnel spin injection through h-BN barrier. These results open up possibilities for implementation of large area CVD h-BN in spintronic technologies

  12. Memory operation devices based on light-illumination ambipolar carbon-nanotube thin-film-transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aïssa, B., E-mail: aissab@emt.inrs.ca [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Centre Energie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Nedil, M. [Telebec Wireless Underground Communication Laboratory, UQAT, 675, 1ère Avenue, Val d' Or, Quebec J9P 1Y3 (Canada); Kroeger, J. [NanoIntegris & Raymor Nanotech, Raymor Industries Inc., 3765 La Vérendrye, Boisbriand, Quebec J7H 1R8 (Canada); Haddad, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0B8 (Canada); Rosei, F. [Centre Energie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, INRS, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2015-09-28

    We report the memory operation behavior of a light illumination ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube thin film field-effect transistors devices. In addition to the high electronic-performance, such an on/off transistor-switching ratio of 10{sup 4} and an on-conductance of 18 μS, these memory devices have shown a high retention time of both hole and electron-trapping modes, reaching 2.8 × 10{sup 4} s at room temperature. The memory characteristics confirm that light illumination and electrical field can act as an independent programming/erasing operation method. This could be a fundamental step toward achieving high performance and stable operating nanoelectronic memory devices.

  13. Measurement of Underwater Operational Noise Emitted by Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper, Paul A; Robinson, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    The increasing international growth in the development of marine and freshwater wave and tidal energy harvesting systems has been followed by a growing requirement to understand any associated underwater impact. Radiated noise generated during operation is dependent on the device's physical properties, the sound-propagation environment, and the device's operational state. Physical properties may include size, distribution in the water column, and mechanics/hydrodynamics. The sound-propagation environment may be influenced by water depth, bathymetry, sediment type, and water column acoustic properties, and operational state may be influenced by tidal cycle and wave height among others This paper discusses some of the challenges for measurement of noise characteristics from these devices as well as a case study of the measurement of radiated noise from a full-scale wave energy converter.

  14. Memory operation devices based on light-illumination ambipolar carbon-nanotube thin-film-transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aïssa, B.; Nedil, M.; Kroeger, J.; Haddad, T.; Rosei, F.

    2015-01-01

    We report the memory operation behavior of a light illumination ambipolar single-walled carbon nanotube thin film field-effect transistors devices. In addition to the high electronic-performance, such an on/off transistor-switching ratio of 10 4 and an on-conductance of 18 μS, these memory devices have shown a high retention time of both hole and electron-trapping modes, reaching 2.8 × 10 4  s at room temperature. The memory characteristics confirm that light illumination and electrical field can act as an independent programming/erasing operation method. This could be a fundamental step toward achieving high performance and stable operating nanoelectronic memory devices

  15. The first radical-based spintronic memristors: Towards resistive RAMs made of organic magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Karin; Krist, Florian; Seyfferle, Simon; Hoefel, Udo; Paretzki, Alexa; Dressel, Martin; Bogani, Lapo; Institut Fuer Anorganische Chemie, University of Stuttgart Collaboration; 1. Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart Team

    2014-03-01

    Using molecules as building blocks for electronic devices offers ample possibilities for new device functionalities due to a chemical tunability much higher than that of standard inorganic materials, and at the same time offers a decrease in the size of the electronic component down to the single-molecule level. Purely organic molecules containing no metallic centers such as organic radicals can serve as an electronic component with magnetic properties due to the unpaired electron in the radical state. Here we present memristive logic units based on organic radicals of the nitronyl-nitroxide kind. Integrating these purely molecular units as a spin coated layer into crossbar arrays, electrically induced unipolar resistive switching is observed with a change in resistance of up to 100%. We introduce a model based on filamentary reorganization of molecules of different oxidation state revealing the importance of the molecular nature for the switching properties. The major role of the oxidation state of these paramagnetic molecules introduces a magnetic field dependence to the device functionality, which goes along with magnetoresistive charactistics observed for the material. These are the first steps towards a spintronic implementation of organic radicals in electronic devices.

  16. Oxide thin films for spintronics application growth and characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Popovici, Nicoleta, 1973-

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Física (Física), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2009 During my PhD research I have synthesized thin films of a material known as a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. This material is envisioned to be of importance in the emerging field of spintronics where both the charge and the spin of the carriers can be combined to yield unique functionalities. It was envisaged that if spin polarized charge carri...

  17. Prediction of novel interface-driven spintronic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Satadeep; Singh, Surendra; Bellaiche, L; Wang, D; Viret, M

    2014-01-01

    The recently proposed coupling between the angular momentum density and magnetic moment (Raeliarijaona et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 137205) is shown here to result in the prediction of (i) novel spin currents generated by an electrical current and (ii) new electrical currents induced by a spin current in systems possessing specific interfaces between two different materials. Some of these spin (electrical) currents can be reversed near the interface by reversing the applied electrical (spin) current. Similarities and differences between these novel spintronic effects and the well-known spin Hall and inverse spin Hall effects are also discussed. (paper)

  18. Stability of the superconductive operating mode in high current-density devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    The superconductive operating mode represents a thermal equilibrium that can tolerate a certain amount of disturbance before it is lost. The basin of attraction (BOA), in many ways equivalent to a potential well, is a measure of the size of disturbance needed to lift the device from the superconductive into a resistive operating mode. The BOA for a simple geometry is calculated and discussed. Experimental results are reported, showing how the concept is used to gain information on the disturbances occurring in a superconducting device

  19. Closed-loop approach for situation awareness of medical devices and operating room infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockstroh Max

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, approaches for information and control integration in the digital operating room have emerged. A major step towards an intelligent operating room and a cooperative technical environment would be autonomous adaptation of medical devices and systems to the surgical workflow. The OR staff should be freed from information seeking and maintenance tasks. We propose a closed-loop concept integrating workflow monitoring, processing and (semi-automatic interaction to bridge the gap between OR integration of medical devices and workflow-related information management.

  20. Mitigating operating room fires: development of a carbon dioxide fire prevention device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-04-01

    Operating room fires are sentinel events that present a real danger to surgical patients and occur at least as frequently as wrong-sided surgery. For fire to occur, the 3 points of the fire triad must be present: an oxidizer, an ignition source, and fuel source. The electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil triggers most operating room fires. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that prevents ignition and suppresses fire by displacing oxygen. We hypothesize that a device can be created to reduce operating room fires by generating a cone of CO2 around the ESU pencil tip. One such device was created by fabricating a divergent nozzle and connecting it to a CO2 source. This device was then placed over the ESU pencil, allowing the tip to be encased in a cone of CO2 gas. The device was then tested in 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen environments. The ESU was activated at 50 W cut mode while placing the ESU pencil tip on a laparotomy sponge resting on an aluminum test plate for up to 30 seconds or until the sponge ignited. High-speed videography was used to identify time of ignition. Each test was performed in each oxygen environment 5 times with the device activated (CO2 flow 8 L/min) and with the device deactivated (no CO2 flow-control). In addition, 3-dimensional spatial mapping of CO2 concentrations was performed with a CO2 sampling device. The median ± SD [range] ignition time of the control group in 21% oxygen was 2.9 s ± 0.44 [2.3-3.0], in 50% oxygen 0.58 s ± 0.12 [0.47-0.73], and in 100% oxygen 0.48 s ± 0.50 [0.03-1.27]. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15); no fires ignited when the device was used (0/15, P fire prevention device can be created by using a divergent nozzle design through which CO2 passes, creating a cone of fire suppressant. This device as demonstrated in a flammability model effectively reduced the risk of fire. CO2 3-dimensional spatial mapping suggests effective fire reduction at least 1 cm away from the tip of the ESU pencil at 8 L/min CO2 flow

  1. Quest for high-Curie temperature MnxGe1-x diluted magnetic semiconductors for room-temperature spintronics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Tianxiao; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Kang L.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we report the non-equilibrium growth of various Mn-doped Ge dilute magnetic semiconductor nanostructures using molecular-beam epitaxy, including quantum dots, nanodisks and nanowires. Their detailed structural and magnetic properties are characterized. By comparing the results with those in MnxGe1-x thin films, it is affirmed that the use of nanostructures helps eliminate crystalline defects and meanwhile enhance the carrier-mediate ferromagnetism from substantial quantum confinements. Our systematic studies provide a promising platform to build nonvolatile spinFET and other novel spintronic devices based upon dilute magnetic semiconductor nanostructures.

  2. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel based on these polymeric films. In particular, the effect of film hydration on device performance is evaluated by studying its electrical response as a function of the spatial position between the electrolyte and the channel electrodes. This is done by depositing a PEDOT:PSS film on a super-hydrophobic surface aimed at controlling the electrolyte confinement next to the electrodes. The device response shows that the confinement of ionic liquids near to the drain electrode results in a worsening of the current modulation. This result has been interpreted in the light of studies dealing with the transport of ions in semiconducting polymers, indicating that the electrolyte adsorption by the polymeric film implies the formation of liquid pathways inside its bulk. These pathways, in particular, affect the device response because they are able to assist the drift of ionic species in the electrolyte towards the drain electrode. The effect of electrolyte adsorption on the device operation is confirmed by means of moving-front measurements, and is related to the reproducibility of the device operation curves by measuring repeatedly its electrical response.

  3. Hybrid Spintronic Structures With Magnetic Oxides and Heusler Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Y. B.; Hassan, S. S. A.; Wong, P. K. J.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid spintronic structures, integrating half-metallic magnetic oxides and Heusler alloys with their predicted high spin polarization, are important for the development of second-generation spintronics with high-efficient spin injection. We have synthesized epitaxial magnetic oxide Fe3O4 on Ga......As(100) and the unit cell of the Fe3O4 was found to be rotated by 45 degrees to match the gallium arsenide GaAs. The films were found to have a bulk-like moment down to 3-4 nm and a low coercivity indicating a high-quality magnetic interface. The magnetization hysteresis loops of the ultrathin films...... are controlled by uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The dynamic response of the sample shows a heavily damped precessional response to the applied field pulses. In the Heusler alloy system of Co-2 MnGa on GaAs, we found that the magnetic moment was reduced for thicknesses down to 10 nm, which may account...

  4. Optimal Operation and Dispatch of Voltage Regulation Devices Considering High Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, Barry A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cho, Gyu-Jung [Sungkyunkwan University; Oh, Yun-Sik [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Min-Sung [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Ji-Soo [Sungkyunkwan University; Kim, Chul-Hwan [Sungkyunkwan University

    2017-06-29

    Voltage regulation devices have been traditionally installed and utilized to support distribution voltages. Installations of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution systems are rapidly increasing, and many of these generation resources have variable and uncertain power output. These generators can significantly change the voltage profile for a feeder; therefore, in the distribution system planning stage of the optimal operation and dispatch of voltage regulation devices, possible high penetrations of DERs should be considered. In this paper, we model the IEEE 34-bus test feeder, including all essential equipment. An optimization method is adopted to determine the optimal siting and operation of the voltage regulation devices in the presence of distributed solar power generation. Finally, we verify the optimal configuration of the entire system through the optimization and simulation results.

  5. Improvements in or relating to fluid operated devices for moving articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogerson, Victor.

    1986-01-01

    The patent relates to fluid operated devices for moving articles. The machine may be used in filling a nuclear fuel canister with fuel pellets where there is a tendency for out of squareness of pellets to produce a jam condition readily cleared by a modest force. (U.K.)

  6. CT pre-operative planning of a new semi-implantable bone conduction hearing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Eric K.C.; Bhatia, Kunwar S.S. [Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Tsang, Willis S.S.; Tong, Michael C.F. [Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hong Kong, SAR (China); Shi, Lin [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Hong Kong, SAR (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Chow Yuk Ho Technology Center for Innovative Medicine, Hong Kong, SAR (China)

    2016-06-15

    Accommodating a novel semi-implantable bone conduction hearing device within the temporal bone presents challenges for surgical planning. This study describes the utility of CT in pre-operative assessment of such an implant. Retrospective review of pre-operative CT, clinical and surgical records of 16 adults considered for device implantation. Radiological suitability was assessed on CT using 3D simulation software. Antero-posterior (AP) dimensions of the mastoid bone and minimum skull thickness were measured. CT planning results were correlated with operative records. Eight and five candidates were suitable for device placement in the transmastoid and retrosigmoid positions, respectively, and three were radiologically unsuitable. The mean AP diameter of the mastoid cavity was 14.6 mm for the transmastoid group and 4.6 mm for the retrosigmoid group (p < 0.05). Contracted mastoid and/or prior surgery were predisposing factors for unsuitability. Four transmastoid and five retrosigmoid positions required sigmoid sinus/dural depression and/or use of lifts due to insufficient bone capacity. A high proportion of patients being considered have contracted or operated mastoids, which reduces the feasibility of the transmastoid approach. This finding combined with the complex temporal bone geometry illustrates the importance of careful CT evaluation using 3D software for precise device simulation. (orig.)

  7. Prediction of Operating Characteristics of Electrotechnical Devices using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PASCA Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper purpose is to emphasize the possibilities and the advantages to use the artificial intelligence techniques for operating mode prediction of electrotechnical devices. The considered application consists of the analysis of behavior of an inductive proximity sensor at variation of design parameters.

  8. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Song Hae; Kim, Young Sik; Lyou, Ho Sun; Kim, Min Suk [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP), Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lyou, Joon [Dept. of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Wireless communication technologies, especially smart phones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smart phones (Wi-Fi standard), Internet Protocol (IP) phones, personal digital assistant (PDA) for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs.

  9. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hae Ye

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless communication technologies, especially smartphones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smartphones (Wi-Fi standard, Internet Protocol (IP phones, personal digital assistant (PDA for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs.

  10. Verification of electromagnetic effects from wireless devices in operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Song Hae; Kim, Young Sik; Lyou, Ho Sun; Kim, Min Suk; Lyou, Joon

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication technologies, especially smart phones, have become increasingly common. Wireless technology is widely used in general industry and this trend is also expected to grow with the development of wireless technology. However, wireless technology is not currently applied in any domestic operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of the highest priority of the safety policy. Wireless technology is required in operating NPPs, however, in order to improve the emergency responses and work efficiency of the operators and maintenance personnel during its operation. The wired telephone network in domestic NPPs can be simply connected to a wireless local area network to use wireless devices. This design change can improve the ability of the operators and personnel to respond to an emergency situation by using important equipment for a safe shutdown. IEEE 802.11 smart phones (Wi-Fi standard), Internet Protocol (IP) phones, personal digital assistant (PDA) for field work, notebooks used with web cameras, and remote site monitoring tablet PCs for on-site testing may be considered as wireless devices that can be used in domestic operating NPPs. Despite its advantages, wireless technology has only been used during the overhaul period in Korean NPPs due to the electromagnetic influence of sensitive equipment and cyber security problems. This paper presents the electromagnetic verification results from major sensitive equipment after using wireless devices in domestic operating NPPs. It also provides a solution for electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) from portable and fixed wireless devices with a Wi-Fi communication environment within domestic NPPs

  11. Molecular engineering with artificial atoms: designing a material platform for scalable quantum spintronics and photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Matthew F.; Ma, Xiangyu; Zide, Joshua M. O.; Bryant, Garnett W.

    2017-09-01

    Self-assembled InAs Quantum Dots (QDs) are often called "artificial atoms" and have long been of interest as components of quantum photonic and spintronic devices. Although there has been substantial progress in demonstrating optical control of both single spins confined to a single QD and entanglement between two separated QDs, the path toward scalable quantum photonic devices based on spins remains challenging. Quantum Dot Molecules, which consist of two closely-spaced InAs QDs, have unique properties that can be engineered with the solid state analog of molecular engineering in which the composition, size, and location of both the QDs and the intervening barrier are controlled during growth. Moreover, applied electric, magnetic, and optical fields can be used to modulate, in situ, both the spin and optical properties of the molecular states. We describe how the unique photonic properties of engineered Quantum Dot Molecules can be leveraged to overcome long-standing challenges to the creation of scalable quantum devices that manipulate single spins via photonics.

  12. Powering autonomous sensors with miniaturized piezoelectric based energy harvesting devices operating at very low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferin, G.; Bantignies, C.; Le Khanh, H.; Flesch, E.; Nguyen-Dinh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Harvesting energy from ambient mechanical vibrations is a smart and efficient way to power autonomous sensors and support innovative developments in IoT (Internet of Things), WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) and even implantable medical devices. Beyond the environmental operating conditions, efficiency of such devices is mainly related to energy source properties like the amplitude of vibrations and its spectral contain and some of these applications exhibit a quite low frequency spectrum where harvesting surrounding mechanical energy make sense, typically 5-50Hz for implantable medical devices or 50Hz-150Hz for industrial machines. Harvesting such low frequency vibrations is a challenge since it leads to adapt the resonator geometries to the targeted frequency or to use out-off band indirect harvesting strategies. In this paper we present a piezoelectric based vibrational energy harvesting device (PEH) which could be integrated into a biocompatible package to power implantable sensor or therapeutic medical devices. The presented architecture is a serial bimorph laminated with ultra-thinned (ranging from 15μm to 100μm) outer PZT “skins” that could operate at a “very low frequency”, below 25Hz typically. The core process flow is disclosed and performances highlighted with regards to other low frequency demonstrations.

  13. Powering autonomous sensors with miniaturized piezoelectric based energy harvesting devices operating at very low frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferin, G; Bantignies, C; Khanh, H Le; Flesch, E; Nguyen-Dinh, A

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting energy from ambient mechanical vibrations is a smart and efficient way to power autonomous sensors and support innovative developments in IoT (Internet of Things), WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) and even implantable medical devices. Beyond the environmental operating conditions, efficiency of such devices is mainly related to energy source properties like the amplitude of vibrations and its spectral contain and some of these applications exhibit a quite low frequency spectrum where harvesting surrounding mechanical energy make sense, typically 5-50Hz for implantable medical devices or 50Hz-150Hz for industrial machines. Harvesting such low frequency vibrations is a challenge since it leads to adapt the resonator geometries to the targeted frequency or to use out-off band indirect harvesting strategies. In this paper we present a piezoelectric based vibrational energy harvesting device (PEH) which could be integrated into a biocompatible package to power implantable sensor or therapeutic medical devices. The presented architecture is a serial bimorph laminated with ultra-thinned (ranging from 15μm to 100μm) outer PZT “skins” that could operate at a “very low frequency”, below 25Hz typically. The core process flow is disclosed and performances highlighted with regards to other low frequency demonstrations. (paper)

  14. The design and implementation of device operation and management system based on LAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shuzhen; Ma Lanxin; Qi Fazhi

    2010-01-01

    In order to manage devices with high efficiency and high quality and make it more standardized, more scientific and more modern, we use the platform of LAMP (Linux-Apache-Mysql-PHP) to develop a web-based equipment operation and management system. It uses the Browser/Server mode as the system mode and Mysql as the database to complete the function, such as query, modify, add, delete, batch import, batch export user information and device information, automatic alarm, user reviews and so on. (authors)

  15. [Intelligent operating room suite : From passive medical devices to the self-thinking cognitive surgical assistant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenngott, H G; Wagner, M; Preukschas, A A; Müller-Stich, B P

    2016-12-01

    Modern operating room (OR) suites are mostly digitally connected but until now the primary focus was on the presentation, transfer and distribution of images. Device information and processes within the operating theaters are barely considered. Cognitive assistance systems have triggered a fundamental rethinking in the automotive industry as well as in logistics. In principle, tasks in the OR, some of which are highly repetitive, also have great potential to be supported by automated cognitive assistance via a self-thinking system. This includes the coordination of the entire workflow in the perioperative process in both the operating theater and the whole hospital. With corresponding data from hospital information systems, medical devices and appropriate models of the surgical process, intelligent systems could optimize the workflow in the operating theater in the near future and support the surgeon. Preliminary results on the use of device information and automatically controlled OR suites are already available. Such systems include, for example the guidance of laparoscopic camera systems. Nevertheless, cognitive assistance systems that make use of knowledge about patients, processes and other pieces of information to improve surgical treatment are not yet available in the clinical routine but are urgently needed in order to automatically assist the surgeon in situation-related activities and thus substantially improve patient care.

  16. 40 CFR 63.9525 - What are the installation, operation, and maintenance requirements for my weight measurement device?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement device? (a) If you use a solvent recovery system, you must install, operate, and maintain a weight... solvent mixer. If the weight measurement device cannot reproduce the value of the calibration weight..., and maintenance requirements for my weight measurement device? 63.9525 Section 63.9525 Protection of...

  17. Performance evaluation of air cleaning devices of an operating low level radioactive solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Surya Narayana, D.S.; Sundararajan, A.R.; Satyasai, P.M.; Ahmed, Jaleel

    1997-01-01

    Particle removal efficiencies of a cyclone separator, baghouse filters and a high efficiency particulate activity (HEPA) filter bank of an incinerator have been determined during the incineration of combustible low level solid radioactive wastes with surface dose of 20 - 50 gy/h. Experimental runs have been carried out to collect the particulates in various aerodynamic size ranges using an eight stage Andersen sampler and a low pressure impactor (LPI) while the incinerator is in operation. The collection efficiencies of the cyclone, baghouse and HEPA filters have been found to be 100 per cent for particles of size greater than 4.7, 2.1 and 1.1 μm respectively. The results of our investigations indicate that the air cleaning devices of the incinerator are working according to their design criteria. The data will be useful in the design and operation of air cleaning devices for toxic gaseous effluents. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Group IV all-semiconductor spintronics. Materials aspects and optical spin selection rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sircar, Narayan

    2012-04-03

    In the scope of the present thesis various aspects for the realization of spintronic applications based on group IV semiconductors are discussed. This work comprises a refined material characterization of the magnetic semiconductor GeMn. We furthermore present efforts to utilize this material as spin injector for a Si-based optical spintronic device. Applying transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography, we are able to resolve a vertical anisotropy in the self-assembly, leading to the stacking of well-defined clusters in the growth direction. Three-dimensional atom distribution maps confirm that clusters are built from a nonstoichiometric GeMn alloy and exhibit a high-Mn-concentration core with a decreasing Mn concentration toward a shell. An amorphous nature of the cluster cores as well as the crystallinity of the shells, coherent with the surrounding Ge lattice, are revealed in scanning transmission electron microscopy. We localize a strain field surrounding each GeMn cluster by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The importance of strain to the stacking phenomenon of the clusters becomes clear in studies of Ge/GeMn superlattice structures, where a vertical spatial correlation of clusters over 30 nm-thick Ge spacer layers is observed. We present evidence that electrical transport properties of the p-type GeMn thin films fabricated on high-resistivity Ge substrates are severely influenced by parallel conduction through the substrate. It is shown that substrate conduction persists also for wellconducting degenerate p-type reference thin films, giving rise to an effective two-layer conduction scheme. GeMn thin films fabricated on these substrates exhibit only a negligible magnetoresistance effect. Before integrating GeMn in an optical spintronic device, some key aspects important for an understanding of the optical injection and detection of carrier spins in Si and Si-based heterostructures are clarified in the second part of this thesis. In

  19. Nonconformance in electromechanical output relays of microprocessor-based protection devices under actual operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Microprocessor-based protection relays are gradually driving out traditional electromechanical and even electronic protection devices from virtually all fields of power and electrical engineering. In this paper, one of many problems of microprocessor-based relays is discussed: nonconformance of miniature electromechanical output relays under actual operation conditions: switching inductive loads (with tripping CB coils or lockout relay coils) at 220 VDC, and "dry" switching of some control ci...

  20. 7. IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices - Booklet of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This meeting has provided an appropriate forum to discuss current issues covering a wide range of technical topics related to the steady state operation issues and also to encourage forecast of the ITER performances. The technical meeting includes invited and contributed papers. The topics that have been dealt with are: 1) Superconducting devices (ITER, KSTAR, Tore-Supra, HT-7U, EAST, LHD, Wendelstein-7-X,...); 2) Long-pulse operation and advanced tokamak physics; 3) steady state fusion technologies; 4) Long pulse heating and current drive; 5) Particle control and power exhaust, and 6) ITER-related research and development issues. This document gathers the abstracts

  1. 47 CFR 95.1121 - Specific requirements for wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 1395-1400 and 1427...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 1395-1400 and 1427-1432 MHz bands. Due to the critical... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specific requirements for wireless medical telemetry devices operating in the 1395-1400 and 1427-1432 MHz bands. 95.1121 Section 95.1121...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  3. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Oooo of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OOOO of Part 63—Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System If you are required... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-On Control Devices and Capture System 2 Table 2 to Subpart OOOO of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Ssss of... - Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System If you are required to comply with operating limits by... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits if Using Add-on Control Devices and Capture System 1 Table 1 to Subpart SSSS of Part 63 Protection of Environment...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart IIIi of... - Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Operating Limits for Capture Systems... 63—Operating Limits for Capture Systems and Add-On Control Devices If you are required to comply with operating limits by § 63.3093, you must comply with the applicable operating limits in the following table...

  6. Spintronics with metals: Current perpendicular-to-the-plane magneto-transport studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    In this thesis, we present studies to produce new information about three topics: current perpendicular to the plane magnetoresistance (CPP-MR), spin transfer torque (STT), and antiferromagnetic spintronics. Large values of CPP-MR interface parameters---specific interface resistance (Area times resistance), 2AR*, and scattering asymmetry, gamma---are desirable for the use of CPP-MR in devices. Stimulated by a nanopillar study by the Cornell Group, we first discovered that Py/Al had an unusually large 2AR*, but a small gamma. In the hope of finding metal pairs with large values of both the interface parameters, the Py/Al studies led us to study the following interfaces: (a) F/Al with F: Py (= Ni84Fe16). Co, Fe, Co91Fe9, and (b) F/N: Py/Pd, Fe/V, Fe/Nb and Co/Pt. None of the metal pairs looks better for CPP-MR devices. The Cornell group also found that bracketing Al with thin Cu in Py/Al/Py nanopillars, gave an MR similar to Py/Al/Py rather than to Py/Cu/Py. To try to understand this result, we studied the effect of Cu/Al/Cu spacers on ADeltaR = AR(AP) - AR(P) of Py exchange biased spin valves (EBSVs). Here AR(AP) and AR(P) are the specific resistances in the anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) configurations of the F layers. Intriguingly, fixing the Al thickness tAl = 10 nm and varying tCu has no effect on ADeltaR, but fixing tCu = 10 nm and varying t Al significantly affected ADeltaR. These unusual behaviors are probably due to strong Al and Cu intermixing, with probable formation of some fraction of ordered alloys. Recent calculations predicted that 2AR of Al/Ag interfaces would vary substantially with orientation and with alloying. The latter is a special potential problem, because Al and Ag interdiffuse at room temperature. To compare with the calculations, we determined 2AR of sputtered Al/Ag interfaces with (111) orientation. Our estimate agrees with calculations that assume 4 monolayers of interfacial disorder, consistent with modest intermixing. To aid in

  7. Process automation system for integration and operation of Large Volume Plasma Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, R.; Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L.M.; Mattoo, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis and design of process automation system for Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). • Data flow modeling for process model development. • Modbus based data communication and interfacing. • Interface software development for subsystem control in LabVIEW. - Abstract: Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) has been successfully contributing towards understanding of the plasma turbulence driven by Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG), considered as a major contributor for the plasma loss in the fusion devices. Large size of the device imposes certain difficulties in the operation, such as access of the diagnostics, manual control of subsystems and large number of signals monitoring etc. To achieve integrated operation of the machine, automation is essential for the enhanced performance and operational efficiency. Recently, the machine is undergoing major upgradation for the new physics experiments. The new operation and control system consists of following: (1) PXIe based fast data acquisition system for the equipped diagnostics; (2) Modbus based Process Automation System (PAS) for the subsystem controls and (3) Data Utilization System (DUS) for efficient storage, processing and retrieval of the acquired data. In the ongoing development, data flow model of the machine’s operation has been developed. As a proof of concept, following two subsystems have been successfully integrated: (1) Filament Power Supply (FPS) for the heating of W- filaments based plasma source and (2) Probe Positioning System (PPS) for control of 12 number of linear probe drives for a travel length of 100 cm. The process model of the vacuum production system has been prepared and validated against acquired pressure data. In the next upgrade, all the subsystems of the machine will be integrated in a systematic manner. The automation backbone is based on 4-wire multi-drop serial interface (RS485) using Modbus communication protocol. Software is developed on LabVIEW platform using

  8. Process automation system for integration and operation of Large Volume Plasma Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugandhi, R., E-mail: ritesh@ipr.res.in; Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L.M.; Mattoo, S.K.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Analysis and design of process automation system for Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). • Data flow modeling for process model development. • Modbus based data communication and interfacing. • Interface software development for subsystem control in LabVIEW. - Abstract: Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) has been successfully contributing towards understanding of the plasma turbulence driven by Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG), considered as a major contributor for the plasma loss in the fusion devices. Large size of the device imposes certain difficulties in the operation, such as access of the diagnostics, manual control of subsystems and large number of signals monitoring etc. To achieve integrated operation of the machine, automation is essential for the enhanced performance and operational efficiency. Recently, the machine is undergoing major upgradation for the new physics experiments. The new operation and control system consists of following: (1) PXIe based fast data acquisition system for the equipped diagnostics; (2) Modbus based Process Automation System (PAS) for the subsystem controls and (3) Data Utilization System (DUS) for efficient storage, processing and retrieval of the acquired data. In the ongoing development, data flow model of the machine’s operation has been developed. As a proof of concept, following two subsystems have been successfully integrated: (1) Filament Power Supply (FPS) for the heating of W- filaments based plasma source and (2) Probe Positioning System (PPS) for control of 12 number of linear probe drives for a travel length of 100 cm. The process model of the vacuum production system has been prepared and validated against acquired pressure data. In the next upgrade, all the subsystems of the machine will be integrated in a systematic manner. The automation backbone is based on 4-wire multi-drop serial interface (RS485) using Modbus communication protocol. Software is developed on LabVIEW platform using

  9. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanuman Singh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently. Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We also show synchronization of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer (n=1,2,3 multiples of auto oscillation frequency and side band peaks at higher external magnetic field values. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study.

  10. Effect of external magnetic field on locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanuman; Konishi, K.; Bose, A.; Bhuktare, S.; Miwa, S.; Fukushima, A.; Yakushiji, K.; Yuasa, S.; Kubota, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Tulapurkar, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work we have studied the effect of external applied magnetic field on the locking range of spintronic feedback nano oscillator. Injection locking of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer and fractional multiple of its auto oscillation frequency was demonstrated recently. Here we show that the locking range increases with increasing external magnetic field. We also show synchronization of spintronic feedback nano oscillator at integer (n=1,2,3) multiples of auto oscillation frequency and side band peaks at higher external magnetic field values. We have verified experimental results with macro-spin simulation using similar conditions as used for the experimental study.

  11. Electric field-induced magnetoresistance in spin-valve/piezoelectric multiferroic laminates for low-power spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huong Giang, D.T.; Thuc, V.N.; Duc, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    Electric field-induced magnetic anisotropy has been realized in the spin-valve-based {Ni 80 Fe 20 /Cu/Fe 50 Co 50 /IrMn}/piezoelectric multiferroic laminates. In this system, electric-field control of magnetization is accomplished by strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling. Practically, the magnetization in the magnetostrictive FeCo layer of the spin-valve structure rotates under an effective compressive stress caused by the inverse piezoelectric effect in external electrical fields. This phenomenon is evidenced by the magnetization and magnetoresistance changes under the electrical field applied across the piezoelectric layer. The result shows great potential for advanced low-power spintronic devices. - Highlights: ► Investigate electric field-induced magnetic anisotropy in spin-valve/piezoelectric. ► Magnetization, magnetoresistance changes under electric field across piezoelectric. ► Magnetization in magnetostrictive FeCo-layer rotates under a compressive stress. ► This advance shows great implications for low-power electronics and spintronics.

  12. [Discussion on Quality Evaluation Method of Medical Device During Life-Cycle in Operation Based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Caixian; Zheng, Kun; Shen, Yunming; Wu, Yunyun

    2016-01-01

    The content related to the quality during life-cycle in operation of medical device includes daily use, repair volume, preventive maintenance, quality control and adverse event monitoring. In view of this, the article aims at discussion on the quality evaluation method of medical devices during their life cycle in operation based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The presented method is proved to be effective by evaluating patient monitors as example. The method presented in can promote and guide the device quality control work, and it can provide valuable inputs to decisions about purchase of new device.

  13. Spintronic effects in metallic, semiconductor, metal-oxide and metal-semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratkovsky, A M [Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, 1501 Page Mill Road, MS 1123, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Spintronics is a rapidly growing field focusing on phenomena and related devices essentially dependent on spin transport. Some of them are already an established part of microelectronics. We review recent theoretical and experimental advances in achieving large spin injection efficiency (polarization of current) and accumulated spin polarization. These include tunnel and giant magnetoresistance, spin-torque and spin-orbit effects on electron transport in various heterostructures. We give a microscopic description of spin tunneling through oxide and modified Schottky barriers between a ferromagnet (FM) and a semiconductor (S). It is shown that in such FM-S junctions electrons with a certain spin projection can be efficiently injected into (or extracted from) S, while electrons with the opposite spin can accumulate in S near the interface. The criterion for efficient injection is opposite to a known Rashba criterion, since the barrier should be rather transparent. In degenerate semiconductors, extraction of spin can proceed at low temperatures. We mention a few novel spin-valve ultrafast devices with small dissipated power: a magnetic sensor, a spin transistor, an amplifier, a frequency multiplier, a square-law detector and a source of polarized radiation. We also discuss effects related to spin-orbital interactions, such as the spin Hall effect (SHE) and a recently predicted positive magnetoresistance accompanying SHE. Some esoteric devices such as 'spinFET', interacting spin logic and spin-based quantum computing are discussed and problems with their realization are highlighted. We demonstrate that the so-called 'ferroelectric tunnel junctions' are unlikely to provide additional functionality because in all realistic situations the ferroelectric barrier would be split into domains by the depolarizing field.

  14. Spintronic effects in metallic, semiconductor, metal-oxide and metal-semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratkovsky, A M

    2008-01-01

    Spintronics is a rapidly growing field focusing on phenomena and related devices essentially dependent on spin transport. Some of them are already an established part of microelectronics. We review recent theoretical and experimental advances in achieving large spin injection efficiency (polarization of current) and accumulated spin polarization. These include tunnel and giant magnetoresistance, spin-torque and spin-orbit effects on electron transport in various heterostructures. We give a microscopic description of spin tunneling through oxide and modified Schottky barriers between a ferromagnet (FM) and a semiconductor (S). It is shown that in such FM-S junctions electrons with a certain spin projection can be efficiently injected into (or extracted from) S, while electrons with the opposite spin can accumulate in S near the interface. The criterion for efficient injection is opposite to a known Rashba criterion, since the barrier should be rather transparent. In degenerate semiconductors, extraction of spin can proceed at low temperatures. We mention a few novel spin-valve ultrafast devices with small dissipated power: a magnetic sensor, a spin transistor, an amplifier, a frequency multiplier, a square-law detector and a source of polarized radiation. We also discuss effects related to spin-orbital interactions, such as the spin Hall effect (SHE) and a recently predicted positive magnetoresistance accompanying SHE. Some esoteric devices such as 'spinFET', interacting spin logic and spin-based quantum computing are discussed and problems with their realization are highlighted. We demonstrate that the so-called 'ferroelectric tunnel junctions' are unlikely to provide additional functionality because in all realistic situations the ferroelectric barrier would be split into domains by the depolarizing field

  15. Spintronic effects in metallic, semiconductor, metal oxide and metal semiconductor heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkovsky, A. M.

    2008-02-01

    Spintronics is a rapidly growing field focusing on phenomena and related devices essentially dependent on spin transport. Some of them are already an established part of microelectronics. We review recent theoretical and experimental advances in achieving large spin injection efficiency (polarization of current) and accumulated spin polarization. These include tunnel and giant magnetoresistance, spin-torque and spin-orbit effects on electron transport in various heterostructures. We give a microscopic description of spin tunneling through oxide and modified Schottky barriers between a ferromagnet (FM) and a semiconductor (S). It is shown that in such FM-S junctions electrons with a certain spin projection can be efficiently injected into (or extracted from) S, while electrons with the opposite spin can accumulate in S near the interface. The criterion for efficient injection is opposite to a known Rashba criterion, since the barrier should be rather transparent. In degenerate semiconductors, extraction of spin can proceed at low temperatures. We mention a few novel spin-valve ultrafast devices with small dissipated power: a magnetic sensor, a spin transistor, an amplifier, a frequency multiplier, a square-law detector and a source of polarized radiation. We also discuss effects related to spin-orbital interactions, such as the spin Hall effect (SHE) and a recently predicted positive magnetoresistance accompanying SHE. Some esoteric devices such as 'spinFET', interacting spin logic and spin-based quantum computing are discussed and problems with their realization are highlighted. We demonstrate that the so-called 'ferroelectric tunnel junctions' are unlikely to provide additional functionality because in all realistic situations the ferroelectric barrier would be split into domains by the depolarizing field.

  16. Magnetic Transport in Spin Antiferromagnets for Spintronics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Azzouz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Had magnetic monopoles been ubiquitous as electrons are, we would probably have had a different form of matter, and power plants based on currents of these magnetic charges would have been a familiar scene of modern technology. Magnetic dipoles do exist, however, and in principle one could wonder if we can use them to generate magnetic currents. In the present work, we address the issue of generating magnetic currents and magnetic thermal currents in electrically-insulating low-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnets by invoking the (broken electricity-magnetism duality symmetry. The ground state of these materials is a spin-liquid state that can be described well via the Jordan–Wigner fermions, which permit an easy definition of the magnetic particle and thermal currents. The magnetic and magnetic thermal conductivities are calculated in the present work using the bond–mean field theory. The spin-liquid states in these antiferromagnets are either gapless or gapped liquids of spinless fermions whose flow defines a current just as the one defined for electrons in a Fermi liquid. The driving force for the magnetic current is a magnetic field with a gradient along the magnetic conductor. We predict the generation of a magneto-motive force and realization of magnetic circuits using low-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnets. The present work is also about claiming that what the experiments in spintronics attempt to do is trying to treat the magnetic degrees of freedoms on the same footing as the electronic ones.

  17. Automatic limit switch system for scintillation device and method of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnett, C.J.; Ioannou, B.N.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation scanner is described having an automatic limit switch system for setting the limits of travel of the radiation detection device which is carried by a scanning boom. The automatic limit switch system incorporates position responsive circuitry for developing a signal representative of the position of the boom, reference signal circuitry for developing a signal representative of a selected limit of travel of the boom, and comparator circuitry for comparng these signals in order to control the operation of a boom drive and indexing mechanism. (author)

  18. Magnetization Dynamics in Two Novel Current-Driven Spintronic Memory Cell Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Velazquez-Rizo, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, two new spintronic memory cell structures are proposed. The first cell uses the diffusion of polarized spins into ferromagnets with perpendicular anisotropy to tilt their magnetization followed by their dipolar coupling to a fixed

  19. Magnetic polyoxometalates: from molecular magnetism to molecular spintronics and quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Juan, Juan M; Coronado, Eugenio; Gaita-Ariño, Alejandro

    2012-11-21

    In this review we discuss the relevance of polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry to provide model objects in molecular magnetism. We present several potential applications in nanomagnetism, in particular, in molecular spintronics and quantum computing.

  20. Magnon spintronics in non-collinear magnetic insulator/metal heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqeel, Aisha

    2017-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on the growth of complex magnetic materials with unique magnetic properties and experimental investigation of fundamental spintronics phenomena in these magnetic insulators with magnetic orders varying from collinear to noncollinear chiral spin

  1. Gain dynamics of quantum dot devices for dual-state operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptan, Y., E-mail: yuecel.kaptan@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, B.; Kolarczik, M.; Owschimikow, N.; Woggon, U. [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G. [Technion Institute of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-06-30

    Ground state gain dynamics of In(Ga)As-quantum dot excited state lasers are investigated via single-color ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy below and above lasing threshold. Two-color pump-probe experiments are used to localize lasing and non-lasing quantum dots within the inhomogeneously broadened ground state. Single-color results yield similar gain recovery rates of the ground state for lasing and non-lasing quantum dots decreasing from 6 ps to 2 ps with increasing injection current. We find that ground state gain dynamics are influenced solely by the injection current and unaffected by laser operation of the excited state. This independence is promising for dual-state operation schemes in quantum dot based optoelectronic devices.

  2. Gender differences in use of hearing protection devices among farm operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie C McCullagh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although farm operators have frequent exposure to hazardous noise and high rates of noise-induced hearing loss, they have low use of hearing protection devices (HPDs. Women represent about one-third of farm operators, and their numbers are climbing. However, among published studies examining use of HPDs in this worker group, none have examined gender-related differences. The purpose of this study was to examine gender-related differences in use of hearing protection and related predictors among farm operators. Materials and Methods: Data previously collected at farm shows and by telephone were analyzed using t-tests and generalized linear model with zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB distribution. Findings: The difference in rate of hearing protector use between men and women farm operators was not significant. There was no difference between men and women in most hearing protector-related attitudes and beliefs. Conclusion: Although men and women farm operators had similar rates of use of hearing protectors when working in high-noise environments, attitudes about HPD use differed. Specifically, interpersonal role modeling was a predictor of HPD use among women, but not for men. This difference suggests that while farm operators of both genders may benefit from interventions designed to reduce barriers to HPD use (e.g., difficulty communicating with co-workers and hearing warning sounds, farm women have unique needs in relation to cognitive-perceptual factors that predict HPD use. Women farm operators may lack role models for use of HPDs (e.g., in peers and advertising, contributing to their less frequent use of protection.

  3. High-Z plasma facing components in fusion devices: boundary conditions and operational experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, R.

    2006-04-01

    In present day fusion devices optimization of the performance and experimental freedom motivates the use of low-Z plasma facing materials (PFMs). However, in a future fusion reactor, for economic reasons, a sufficient lifetime of the first wall components is essential. Additionally, tritium retention has to be small to meet safety requirements. Tungsten appears to be the most realistic material choice for reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because it exhibits the lowest erosion. But besides this there are a lot of criteria which have to be fulfilled simultaneously in a reactor. Results from present day devices and from laboratory experiments confirm the advantages of high-Z PFMs but also point to operational restrictions, when using them as PFCs. These are associated with the central impurity concentration, which is determined by the sputtering yield, the penetration of the impurities and their transport within the confined plasma. The restrictions could exclude successful operation of a reactor, but concomitantly there exist remedies to ameliorate their impact. Obviously some price has to be paid in terms of reduced performance but lacking of materials or concepts which could substitute high-Z PFCs, emphasis has to be put on the development and optimization of reactor-relevant scenarios which incorporate the experiences and measures.

  4. High-Z plasma facing components in fusion devices: boundary conditions and operational experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neu, R.

    2006-01-01

    In present day fusion devices optimization of the performance and experimental freedom motivates the use of low-Z plasma facing materials (PFMs). However, in a future fusion reactor, for economic reasons, a sufficient lifetime of the first wall components is essential. Additionally, tritium retention has to be small to meet safety requirements. Tungsten appears to be the most realistic material choice for reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because it exhibits the lowest erosion. But besides this there are a lot of criteria which have to be fulfilled simultaneously in a reactor. Results from present day devices and from laboratory experiments confirm the advantages of high-Z PFMs but also point to operational restrictions, when using them as PFCs. These are associated with the central impurity concentration, which is determined by the sputtering yield, the penetration of the impurities and their transport within the confined plasma. The restrictions could exclude successful operation of a reactor, but concomitantly there exist remedies to ameliorate their impact. Obviously some price has to be paid in terms of reduced performance but lacking of materials or concepts which could substitute high-Z PFCs, emphasis has to be put on the development and optimization of reactor-relevant scenarios which incorporate the experiences and measures

  5. Active implantable medical device EMI assessment for wireless power transfer operating in LF and HF bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikage, Takashi; Nojima, Toshio; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2016-06-21

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) imposed on active implantable medical devices by wireless power transfer systems (WPTSs) is discussed based upon results of in vitro experiments. The purpose of this study is to present comprehensive EMI test results gathered from implantable-cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators exposed to the electromagnetic field generated by several WPTSs operating in low-frequency (70 kHz-460 kHz) and high-frequency (6.78 MHz) bands. The constructed in vitro experimental test system based upon an Irnich's flat torso phantom was applied. EMI test experiments are conducted on 14 types of WPTSs including Qi-compliant system and EV-charging WPT system mounted on current production EVs. In addition, a numerical simulation model for active implantable medical device (AIMD) EMI estimation based on the experimental test system is newly proposed. The experimental results demonstrate the risk of WPTSs emitting intermittent signal to affect the correct behavior of AIMDs when operating at very short distances. The proposed numerical simulation model is applicable to obtain basically the EMI characteristics of various types of WPTSs.

  6. Sharing data between mobile devices, connected vehicles and infrastructure - task 3: concept of operations : technical memorandum -final.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    This report describes the concept of operation for the use of mobile devices in a connected vehicle environment. Specifically, it identifies the needs, conceptual system, and potential scenarios that serve as the basis for demonstrating both safety a...

  7. Optical devices for proximity operations study and test report. [intensifying images for visual observation during space transportation system activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Operational and physical requirements were investigated for a low-light-level viewing device to be used as a window-mounted optical sight for crew use in the pointing, navigating, stationkeeping, and docking of space vehicles to support space station operations and the assembly of large structures in space. A suitable prototype, obtained from a commercial vendor, was subjected to limited tests to determine the potential effectiveness of a proximity optical device in spacecraft operations. The constructional features of the device are discussed as well as concepts for its use. Tests results show that a proximity optical device is capable of performing low-light-level viewing services and will enhance manned spacecraft operations.

  8. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  9. Design and construction of automatic operating system of double chamber plasma nitriding device PLC based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminto; Slamet Santosa; Eko Priyono

    2012-01-01

    The automatic operating system of double chamber plasma nitriding device has been done. The system is used for operating double chamber plasma nitriding automatically as according to the standard operating procedure by pressing push button on the human machine interface (HMI). The system consists of hardware and software. The hardware was constructed using main components T100MD1616+ PLC module and supported by temperature signal conditioner module, Wheatstone bridge module, isolated amplifier module and EMS 30A H Bridge motor driver module. A software program that is planted on T100MD1616+ PLC using ladder diagrams and Tbasic program. Test system functions performed by inserting a set values of temperature and pressure by pressing the button on the human machine interface (HMI). The test results show that the temperature control with a set of values 100 °C obtained stable coverage of 98 °C to 102 °C, (Δ ± 2 °C) with a 2% tolerance and the output voltage of the DAC is 2.436 volts to 2.913 volts. The pressure control with a set of values 2.169 x 10 -1 mbar obtained stable coverage of 1.995 x 10 -1 mbar to 2.205 x 10 -1 mbar, (Δ ± 0.105 x 10 -1 mbar) with a 5% tol. (author)

  10. Control rod driving mechanism of reactor, control device and operation method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyoshi, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Fujio; Matsumoto, Koji; Kinugasa, Kunihiko; Nara, Yoshihiko; Otama, Kiyomaro; Mikami, Takao

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for and a method of directly driving control rods of an FBR type reactor linearly by a cylinder type linear motor while having a driving shaft as an electric conductor. Namely, a linear induction motor drives a driving shaft connected with a control rod and vertically moving the control rod by electromagnetic force as an electric conductor. The position of the control rod is detected by a position detector. The driving shaft is hung by a wire by way of an electromagnet which is attachably/detachably held. With such a constitution, the driving shaft connected with the control rod can be vertically moved linearly, stopped or kept. Since they can be driven smoothly at a wide range speed, the responsibility and reliability of the reactor operation can be improved. In addition, since responsibility of the control rod operation is high, scram can be conducted by the linear motor. Since the driving mechanism can be simplified, maintenance and inspection operation can be mitigated. (I.S.)

  11. Wave Intensity Analysis of Right Ventricular Function during Pulsed Operation of Rotary Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, J Christopher; Park, Jiheum; Valdovinos, John; Bonde, Pramod

    2018-05-29

    Changing the speed of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) cyclically may be useful to restore aortic pulsatility; however, the effects of this pulsation on right ventricular (RV) function are unknown. This study investigates the effects of direct ventricular interaction by quantifying the amount of wave energy created by RV contraction when axial and centrifugal LVADs are used to assist the left ventricle. In 4 anesthetized pigs, pressure and flow were measured in the main pulmonary artery and wave intensity analysis was used to identify and quantify the energy of waves created by the RV. The axial pump depressed the intensity of waves created by RV contraction compared with the centrifugal pump. In both pump designs, there were only minor and variable differences between the continuous and pulsed operation on RV function. The axial pump causes the RV to contract with less energy compared with a centrifugal design. Diminishing the ability of the RV to produce less energy translates to less pressure and flow produced, which may lead to LVAD-induced RV failure. The effects of pulsed LVAD operation on the RV appear to be minimal during acute observation of healthy hearts. Further study is necessary to uncover the effects of other modes of speed modulation with healthy and unhealthy hearts to determine if pulsed operation will benefit patients by reducing LVAD complications.

  12. First operations with the new Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Castaldo, C.; De Angeli, M.; Figini, L.; Galperti, C.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, G.; Korsholm, S. B.; Lontano, M.; Mellera, V.; Minelli, D.; Moro, A.; Nardone, A.; Nielsen, S. K.; Rasmussen, J.; Simonetto, A.; Stejner, M.; Tartari, U.

    2015-10-01

    Anomalous emissions were found over the last few years in spectra of Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in tokamak devices such as TEXTOR, ASDEX and FTU, in addition to real CTS signals. The signal frequency, down-shifted with respect to the probing one, suggested a possible origin in Parametric Decay Instability (PDI) processes correlated with the presence of magnetic islands and occurring for pumping wave power levels well below the threshold predicted by conventional models. A threshold below or close to the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) power levels could limit, under certain circumstances, the use of the ECRH in fusion devices. An accurate characterization of the conditions for the occurrence of this phenomenon and of its consequences is thus of primary importance. Exploiting the front-steering configuration available with the real-time launcher, the implementation of a new CTS setup now allows studying these anomalous emission phenomena in FTU under conditions of density and wave injection geometry that are more similar to those envisaged for CTS in ITER. The upgrades of the diagnostic are presented as well as a few preliminary spectra detected with the new system during the very first operations in 2014. The present work has been carried out under an EUROfusion Enabling Research project. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  13. Electrowetting-based microfluidic operations on rapid-manufactured devices for heat pipe applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Renee S.; Bahadur, Vaibhav

    2017-07-01

    The heat transport capacity of traditional heat pipes is limited by the capillary pressure generated in the internal wick that pumps condensate to the evaporator. Recently, the authors conceptualized a novel heat pipe architecture, wherein wick-based pumping is replaced by electrowetting (EW)-based pumping of microliter droplets in the adiabatic section. An electrowetting heat pipe (EHP) can overcome the capillary limit to heat transport capacity and enable compact, planar, gravity-insensitive, and ultralow power consumption heat pipes that transport kiloWatt heat loads over extended distances. This work develops a novel technique for rapid, scalable fabrication of EW-based devices and studies critical microfluidic operations underlying the EHP, with the objective of predicting the key performance parameters of the EHP. Devices are fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB) substrate with mechanically-milled electrodes, and a removable polyimide dielectric film. The first set of experiments uncovers the maximum channel gap (1 mm) for reliable EW-based pumping; this parameter determines the heat transport capacity of the EHP, which scales linearly with the channel gap. The second set of experiments uncovers the maximum channel gap (375 microns) at which EW voltages can successfully split droplets. This is an important consideration which ensures EHP operability in the event of unintentional droplet merging. The third set of experiments demonstrate and study EW-induced droplet generation from an open-to-air reservoir, which mimics the interface between the condenser and adiabatic sections of the EHP. The experimental findings predict that planar, water-based EHPs with a (10 cm by 4 mm) cross section can transport 1.6 kW over extended distances (>1 m), with a thermal resistance of 0.01 K W-1.

  14. High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutoh, T., E-mail: mutoh@nifs.ac.jp; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Seki, R.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ii, T.; Makino, R.; Nagaoka, K.; Nomura, G. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Shinya, T. [The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 2777-8561 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}.

  15. An open-source, programmable pneumatic setup for operation and automated control of single- and multi-layer microfluidic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Brower

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have been used across diverse disciplines (e.g. high-throughput biological measurement, fluid physics, laboratory fluid manipulation but widespread adoption has been limited in part due to the lack of openly disseminated resources that enable non-specialist labs to make and operate their own devices. Here, we report the open-source build of a pneumatic setup capable of operating both single and multilayer (Quake-style microfluidic devices with programmable scripting automation. This setup can operate both simple and complex devices with 48 device valve control inputs and 18 sample inputs, with modular design for easy expansion, at a fraction of the cost of similar commercial solutions. We present a detailed step-by-step guide to building the pneumatic instrumentation, as well as instructions for custom device operation using our software, Geppetto, through an easy-to-use GUI for live on-chip valve actuation and a scripting system for experiment automation. We show robust valve actuation with near real-time software feedback and demonstrate use of the setup for high-throughput biochemical measurements on-chip. This open-source setup will enable specialists and novices alike to run microfluidic devices easily in their own laboratories. Keywords: Microfluidics, Pneumatics, Laboratory automation, Biochip, BioMEMs, Biohacking, Fluid handling, Micro total analysis systems (μTAS, Quake-style valves

  16. Operation and control of an ion-implantation/sputtering storage device for 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClanahan, E.D.; Moss, R.W.; Greenwell, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    The design and operation of a device for implanting 85 Kr in a sputtered Cu-Y alloy for long-term storage tests are described. A total of approx.400 Ci of 85 Kr, in a 4.2% mixture with nonradioactive isotopes, was implanted in three batches at a rate of 6.1 sccm. A triode discharge operating at a pressure of 0.4 Pa with a plasma current of 4.5 A was maintained with a potential of 67 V. The target and substrate potentials were 2400 and 290, respectively, with an ion current density of approx.100 A/m 2 . The discharge and pumping action was started with nonradioactive Kr, then was switched to the radioactive gas until all in the reservoir was consumed, then again was switched to the nonradioactive gas to apply a closeout layer. The control feature used made it possible to empty the 85 Kr reservoir without use of an auxiliary pumping system. 13 refs., 4 figs

  17. Bidirectional reconfiguration and thermal tuning of microcantilever metamaterial device operating from 77 K to 400 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Manjappa, Manukumara; Krishnamoorthy, Harish N. S.; Chang, Yuhua; Lee, Chengkuo; Singh, Ranjan

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally report the bidirectional reconfiguration of an out-of-plane deformable microcantilever based metamaterial for advanced and dynamic manipulation of terahertz waves. The microcantilever is made of a bimaterial stack with a large difference in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the constituent materials. This allows for the continuous deformation of microcantilevers in upward or downward direction in response to positive or negative temperature gradient, respectively. The fundamental resonance frequency of the fabricated microcantilever metamaterial is measured at 0.4 THz at room temperature of 293 K. With decreasing temperature, the resonance frequency continuously blue shifts by 30 GHz at 77 K. On the other hand, with increasing temperature, the resonance frequency gradually red shifts by 80 GHz and saturates at 0.32 THz for 400 K. Furthermore, as the temperature is increased above room temperature, which results in the downward actuation of the microcantilever, a significant resonance line-narrowing with an enhanced quality factor is observed due to tight field confinement in the metamaterial structure. The thermal control of the microcantilever possesses numerous inherent advantages such as enhanced tunable range (˜37.5% in this work compared to previously reported microcantilever metamaterials), continuous tunability, and repeatable operations. The microcantilever metamaterial also shows high robustness to operate at cryogenic conditions and hence opens up the possibility of using meta-devices in harsh environments such as space, polar, and deep sea applications.

  18. Analysis of operations and cyber security policies for a system of cooperating Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Tejani, Bankim; Margulies, Jonathan; Hills, Jason L.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Baca, Micheal J.; Weiland, Laura

    2005-12-01

    Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS) devices are installed on electric power transmission lines to stabilize and regulate power flow. Power lines protected by FACTS devices can increase power flow and better respond to contingencies. The University of Missouri Rolla (UMR) is currently working on a multi-year project to examine the potential use of multiple FACTS devices distributed over a large power system region in a cooperative arrangement in which the FACTS devices work together to optimize and stabilize the regional power system. The report describes operational and security challenges that need to be addressed to employ FACTS devices in this way and recommends references, processes, technologies, and policies to address these challenges.

  19. Cost and Information Effectiveness Analysis (CIEA): A Methodology for Evaluating a Training Device Operational Readiness Assessment Capability (DORAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    Report 528 COST AIND I*FO•?JidTH ?i EFFECT•• ES1BS ANALYSIS (CDEA): A METiBLOBU Y FOR EVALUATIN1G A TRAINING DEMCE OPERATMDN1AL MAEA3 ],SE 3SSESS$ iElT ...8217, N. Within a military setting, the uses of training devices in performance evaluation have generally mirrored civilian uses and primarily...Technical Report 528 COST AND INFORMATION EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS (CIEA): A METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING A TRAINING DEVICE OPERATIONAL READINESS

  20. Reliability and efficiency upgrades of power systems operation by implementing intelligent electronic devices with synchrophasor measurement technology support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokeev Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews issues of reliability and efficiency upgrades of power systems functions by means of a widespread implementation of intelligent electronic devices (IED in various purposes supporting synchrophasor measurement technology. Thus, such issues as IED’s operational analysis in the conditions of electromagnetic and electromechanical transient processes and synthesis of digital filters that improve static and dynamic responses of these devices play an important role in their development.

  1. Reliability and efficiency upgrades of power systems operation by implementing intelligent electronic devices with synchrophasor measurement technology support

    OpenAIRE

    Mokeev Alexey

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews issues of reliability and efficiency upgrades of power systems functions by means of a widespread implementation of intelligent electronic devices (IED) in various purposes supporting synchrophasor measurement technology. Thus, such issues as IED’s operational analysis in the conditions of electromagnetic and electromechanical transient processes and synthesis of digital filters that improve static and dynamic responses of these devices play an important role in their devel...

  2. Fundamental investigation of high temperature operation of field effect transistor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jehn-Huar

    , JFET, pseudomorphic-HEMT, and modulation doped FET (MODFET) devices for high-temperature applications were investigated and addressed in terms of device performance such as transconductance, leakage current density, and current gain. Wide gap materials such as GaN have low carrier generation rate at high temperatures and, hence, high operation temperature capabilities and potential.

  3. Inter operability of smart field devices on an open field-bus: from laboratory tests to on-site applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, M.; Favennec, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a field trial held in EDF's R and D laboratories concerning smart field instruments (sensors, I/O modules, transmitters) operating on the WorldFIP field-bus. The trial put into operation a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on the field-bus with available industrial field devices and software tools. The field trial enables EDF's teams to address the inter-operability issue regarding smart field devices and to prepare the forthcoming step from analog to fully digital measurement technology by evaluating new services and higher performances provided. Possible architectures for process control and on-site testing purposes have been identified. A first application for a flow-measuring rig is under way. It implements a WorldFIP field-bus based DCS with FIP/HART multiplexers, FIP and HART smart devices (sensors and actuators) and a field management system. (authors)

  4. A Low-Power High-Speed Spintronics-Based Neuromorphic Computing System Using Real Time Tracking Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkhani, Hooman; Tohidi, Mohammad; Farkhani, Sadaf

    2018-01-01

    In spintronic-based neuromorphic computing systems (NCS), the switching of magnetic moment in a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is used to mimic neuron firing. However, the stochastic switching behavior of the MTJ and process variations effect lead to a significant increase in stimulation time...... of such NCSs. Moreover, current NCSs need an extra phase to read the MTJ state after stimulation which is in contrast with real neuron functionality in human body. In this paper, the read circuit is replaced with a proposed real-time sensing (RTS) circuit. The RTS circuit tracks the MTJ state during...... stimulation phase. As soon as switching happens, the RTS circuit terminates the MTJ current and stimulates the post neuron. Hence, the RTS circuit not only improves the energy consumption and speed, but also makes the operation of NCS similar to real neuron functionality. The simulation results in 65-nm CMOS...

  5. Spintronic and transport properties of linear atomic strings of transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Neha, E-mail: nehatyagi.phy@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, New Delhi (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K. [Discipline of Physics, PDPM-Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design & Manufacturing, Jabalpur (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Nanomaterials Research Group, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management, Gwalior (India)

    2016-05-06

    In the present work, first-principles investigations have been performed to study the spintronic and transport properties of linear atomic strings of Fe, Co and Ni. The structural stabilities of the considered strings were compared on the basis of binding energies which revealed that all the strings are energetically feasible to be achieved. Further, all the considered strings are found to be ferromagnetic and the observed magnetic moment ranges from 1.38 to 1.71 μ{sub B}. The observed transport properties and high spin polarization points towards their potential for nano interconnects and spintronic applications.

  6. 40 CFR 63.3546 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3546 Section 63.3546... device or system of multiple capture devices. The average duct static pressure is the maximum operating... Add-on Controls Option § 63.3546 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control...

  7. Spintronic Circuits: The Building Blocks of Spin-Based Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Warman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the most general situation, binary computation is implemented by means of microscopic logical gates known as transistors. According to Moore’s Law, the size of transistors will half every two years, and as these transistors reach their fundamental size limit, the quantum effects of the electrons passing through the transistors will be observed. Due to the inherent randomness of these quantum fluctuations, the basic binary logic will become uncontrollable. This project describes the basic principle governing quantum spin-based computing devices, which may provide an alternative to the conventional solid-state computing devices and circumvent the technological limitations of the current implementation of binary logic.

  8. The first operation of the superconducting optimized stellarator fusion device Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinger, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Greifswald (Germany); Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universitaet, Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The confinement of a high-temperature plasma by a suitable magnetic field is the most promising path to master nuclear fusion of Deuterium and Tritium on the scale of a reasonable power station. The two leading confinement concepts are the tokamak and the stellarator. Different from a tokamak, the stellarator does not require a strong current in the plasma but generates the magnetic field by external coils only. This has significant advantages, e.g. better stability properties and inherent steady-state capability. But stellarators need optimization, since ad hoc chosen magnetic field geometries lead to insufficient confinement properties, unfavourable plasma equilibria, and loss of fast particles. Wendelstein 7-X is a large (plasma volume 30 m{sup 3}) stellarator device with shaped superconducting coils that were determined via pure physics optimization criteria. After 19 years of construction, Wendelstein 7-X has now started operation. This talk introduces into the stellarator concept as a candidate for a future fusion power plant, summarizes the optimization principles, and presents the first experimental results with Helium and Hydrogen high temperature plasmas. An outlook on the physics program and the main goals of the project is given, too.

  9. Rare earth-based quaternary Heusler compounds MCoVZ (M = Lu, Y; Z = Si, Ge with tunable band characteristics for potential spintronic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic Heusler compounds (MHCs have recently attracted great attention since these types of material provide novel functionalities in spintronic and magneto-electronic devices. Among the MHCs, some compounds have been predicted to be spin-filter semiconductors [also called magnetic semiconductors (MSs], spin-gapless semiconductors (SGSs or half-metals (HMs. In this work, by means of first-principles calculations, it is demonstrated that rare earth-based equiatomic quaternary Heusler (EQH compounds with the formula MCoVZ (M = Lu, Y; Z = Si, Ge are new spin-filter semiconductors with total magnetic moments of 3 µB. Furthermore, under uniform strain, there are physical transitions from spin-filter semiconductor (MS → SGS → HM for EQH compounds with the formula LuCoVZ, and from HM → SGS → MS → SGS → HM for EQH compounds with the formula YCoVZ. Remarkably, for YCoVZ EQH compounds there are not only diverse physical transitions, but also different types of spin-gapless feature that can be observed with changing lattice constants. The structural stability of these four EQH compounds is also examined from the points of view of formation energy, cohesive energy and mechanical behaviour. This work is likely to inspire consideration of rare earth-based EQH compounds for application in future spintronic and magneto-electronic devices.

  10. Post-operative orbital imaging: a focus on implants and prosthetic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Ashok; Mankad, Kshitij; Poitelea, Cornelia; Verity, David H.; Davagnanam, Indran

    2014-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of orbital imaging in the presence of either orbital implants requires a sound knowledge of both the surgical approach used and the imaging characteristics of the implanted devices themselves. In this article, the radiological appearance of the various devices used in ophthalmology, and their relationship to other orbital structures, is reviewed. In addition, the intended anatomical location, function of these devices, and clinical indications for their use are provided. (orig.)

  11. Teaching Advanced Operation of an iPod-Based Speech-Generating Device to Two Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmadi, Donna; Kagohara, Debora M.; van der Meer, Larah; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sutherland, Dean; Lang, Russell; Marschik, Peter B.; Green, Vanessa A.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a program for teaching two adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to perform more advanced operations on an iPod-based speech-generating device (SGD). The effects of the teaching program were evaluated in a multiprobe multiple baseline across participants design that included two intervention phases. The first intervention…

  12. In-situ inspection of grooves in reactor tube sheet using a remotely operated cast impression taking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, S.; Ramakumar, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Utmost importance is given to the in-service inspection of critical components of a reactor to ensure its reliable performance during the reactor operation. This paper describes a cast taking device using cold setting resin to take impression of the grooves being made in the tube sheet for sparger tube installation in pressurised heavy water reactor. (author)

  13. Observations on the reliability of COTS-device-based solid state data recorders operating in low-earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, C.I.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Surrey Space Centre's experience in using different coding schemes and hardware configurations to protect data and protect data and software stored in COTS-device (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) based memories on-board operational spacecraft in low Earth orbit. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 63.3967 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3967 Section 63.3967... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the... the operating limits required by § 63.3892 according to this section, unless you have received...

  15. 40 CFR 63.9324 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.9324 Section 63... Requirements § 63.9324 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating... the operating limits required by § 63.9302 according to this section, unless you have received...

  16. Comments on the Operation of Capillary Pumped Loop Devices in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, K. P.; Allen, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  17. Measurement of hearing protection devices performance in the workplace during full-shift working operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nélisse, Hugues; Gaudreau, Marc-André; Boutin, Jérôme; Voix, Jérémie; Laville, Frédéric

    2012-03-01

    The effectiveness of hearing protection devices (HPDs), when used in workplace conditions, has been shown over the years to be usually lower than the labeled values obtained under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Causes for such discrepancies have been listed and discussed by many authors. This study is an attempt to understand the issues in greater details and quantify some of these factors by looking at the performance of hearing protectors as a function of time during full work shift conditions. A non-invasive field microphone in the real ear (F-MIRE)-based method has been developed for measuring the effectiveness of different HPDs as a function of time in the workplace. Details of the test procedures, the equipment used, and the post-processing operations are presented and discussed. The methodology was developed in such a way that a complete time and frequency representation are possible. The system was used on a total of 24 workers in eight different companies. Work shifts of up to 9-h long were recorded. Various types of earmuffs and one type of molded earplugs were tested. Attenuation data reported as a function of time showed, for most workers tested, considerable fluctuations over entire work shift periods. Parts of these fluctuations are attributed to variations in the low-frequency content in the noise (in particular for earmuffs) as well as poor insertion and/or fitting of earplugs. Lower performances than laboratory-based ones were once again observed for most cases tested but also, important left and right ear differences were obtained for many individuals. When reported as a function of frequency, the attenuation results suggested that the few approximations used to relate the measurements to subjective real-ear-attenuation-at-threshold (REAT) data were realistic. The use of individualized attenuation data and performance ratings for HPDs as well as a good knowledge of the ambient noise in the workplace are key ingredients when evaluating the

  18. The effect of a slack-pulling device in reducing operator physiological workload during log winching operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Aalmo, Giovanna Ottaviani; Magagnotti, Natascia

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted a comparative test to determine whether the introduction of a hydraulic slack puller allowed reducing the physiological workload of operators assigned to log winching tasks. The tests were conducted in northern Italy, on the mountains near Como. The study involved five volunteer subjects, considered representatives of the regional logging workforce. Physiological workload was determined by measuring the operators' heart rate upon completion of specific tasks. The slack puller improved the efficiency of downhill winching, since it allowed a single operator to pull out the cable on his own, without requiring the assistance of a colleague. However, introduction of the slack puller did not result in any reductions of operator physiological workload. The main stressor when working on a steep slope is moving up and down the slope: pulling a cable is only a secondary stressor. Any measures targeting secondary stressors are unlikely to produce dramatic reductions of operator workload.

  19. Development of a Math Input Interface with Flick Operation for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nakahara, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Developing online test environments for e-learning for mobile devices will be useful to increase drill practice opportunities. In order to provide a drill practice environment for calculus using an online math test system, such as STACK, we develop a flickable math input interface that can be easily used on mobile devices. The number of taps…

  20. [A Quantitative Verification for Operability of Three PCA Devices Attached to the Disposable Infusion Pumps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro, Takahiro; Fuchibe, Makoto; Odo, Yuichiro; Kakinohana, Manabu

    2015-11-01

    In this study using 3 different PCA devices (Baxter infuser LVBB +PCM 2 ml: Pump B, Coopdech Balloonjector +PCA 3 ml: Pump C, Rakuraku fuser +PCA 3 ml: Pump S), we investigated how easily PCA devices could be handled. In this study with 42 volunteers (14 elders and 28 nurses), we compared 3 PCA ejection volume and ejection rate among three PCA devices. PCA ejection rate was defined as the ratio of actual ejection volume to the maximum ejection volume (MEV) of each PCA device. Although not only elders but also nurses failed to produce accurate PCA ejection volume in the Pump B, Pump S could provide the MEV even by elders. In the Pump C, approximately 80% of MEV could be achieved by nurses, but 60% of MEV by elders (P PCA ejection volume might be dependent on PCA device.

  1. Preliminary report on operational guidelines developed for use in emergency preparedness and response to a radiological dispersal device incident.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Cheng, J.-J.; Kamboj, S.; Domotor, S.; Wallo, A.; Environmental Science Division; DOE

    2006-12-15

    This report presents preliminary operational guidelines and supporting work products developed through the interagency Operational Guidelines Task Group (OGT). The report consolidates preliminary operational guidelines, all ancillary work products, and a companion software tool that facilitates their implementation into one reference source document. The report is intended for interim use and comment and provides the foundation for fostering future reviews of the operational guidelines and their implementation within emergency preparedness and response initiatives in the event of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) incident. The report principally focuses on the technical derivation and presentation of the operational guidelines. End-user guidance providing more details on how to apply these operational guidelines within planning and response settings is being considered and developed elsewhere. The preliminary operational guidelines are categorized into seven groups on the basis of their intended application within early, intermediate, and long-term recovery phases of emergency response. We anticipate that these operational guidelines will be updated and refined by interested government agencies in response to comments and lessons learned from their review, consideration, and trial application. This review, comment, and trial application process will facilitate the selection of a final set of operational guidelines that may be more or less inclusive of the preliminary operational guidelines presented in this report. These and updated versions of the operational guidelines will be made available through the OGT public Web site (http://ogcms.energy.gov) as they become finalized for public distribution and comment.

  2. The design, operation and application of a low-cost electronic device for the determination of ion-intensity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, A.M.; Bulmer, R.J.; Lowe, A.E.; Pickup, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    A low-cost electronic device to monitor two ions and provide the ratio of their intensities is described. The device operates in two modes, repetitive and accumulative. In the repetitive mode consecutive channels are integrated and their ratios displayed and printed, whereas in the accumulative mode, integrals of ion intensities are summed for a period before ratios are given. The unit has been designed principally for application in quantitative experiments using stable-isotope dilution with mass spectrometry. The precision of the ratios generated are demonstrated using hexachlorobutadiene mass ions and a calibration series of mixtures of phosphate and 18 O-labelled phosphate as internal standard

  3. Battery-operated, portable, and flexible air microplasma generation device for fabrication of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices on demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Peng-Kai; Hsu, Cheng-Che

    2014-09-02

    A portable microplasma generation device (MGD) operated in ambient air is introduced for making a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) that serves as a primary healthcare platform. By utilizing a printed circuit board fabrication process, a flexible and lightweight MGD can be fabricated within 30 min with ultra low-cost. This MGD can be driven by a portable power supply (less than two pounds), which can be powered using 12 V-batteries or ac-dc converters. This MGD is used to perform maskless patterning of hydrophilic patterns with sub-millimeter spatial resolution on hydrophobic paper substrates with good pattern transfer fidelity. Using this MGD to fabricate μPADs is demonstrated. With a proper design of the MGD electrode geometry, μPADs with 500-μm-wide flow channels can be fabricated within 1 min and with a cost of less than $USD 0.05/device. We then test the μPADs by performing quantitative colorimetric assay tests and establish a calibration curve for detection of glucose and nitrite. The results show a linear response to a glucose assay for 1-50 mM and a nitrite assay for 0.1-5 mM. The low cost, miniaturized, and portable MGD can be used to fabricate μPADs on demand, which is suitable for in-field diagnostic tests. We believe this concept brings impact to the field of biomedical analysis, environmental monitoring, and food safety survey.

  4. Investigating the detection of multi-homed devices independent of operating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    the TCP connection will be established. If the TCP port is not listening for traffic, then the host device will not allow the data to be processed...active and listening for traffic. If the ports are not activated, a given device will ignore the request and no data will be transmitted. 22 There...P. E. Verissimo, C. Rothenberg, and S. Azodolmolky, “Software-defined networking a comprehensive survey,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 103, no. 1

  5. Evaluation of 600V Superjunction Devices in Single Phase PFC Applications under CCM Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    electromagnetic interference (EMI). The dynamic characterization is based on a low inductive double pulse tester (DPT). The measured switching energy is used in order to evaluate the devices performance in a conventional PFC. This data is used together with the mathematical model for prediction of the conducted...... electromagnetic interference. The method allows comparing different devices and evaluating the performance as a function of the PFC power density and efficiency....

  6. Preliminary audiologic and peri-operative outcomes of the Sophono™ transcutaneous bone conduction device: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdjian, Aren; Bruijnzeel, Hanneke; Daniel, Sam J; Grolman, Wilko; Thomeer, Hans G X M

    2017-10-01

    To delineate the auditory functional improvement and peri-operative outcomes of the Sophono™ transcutaneous bone conduction device. Eligible articles presenting patients implanted with the Sophono™ were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase electronic databases. All relevant articles were reviewed to justify inclusion independently by 2 authors. Studies that successfully passed critical appraisal for directness of evidence and risk of bias were included. From a total of 125 articles, 8 studies encompassing 86 patients using 99 implants were selected. Most patients (79.1%) were children. Ear atresia (67.5%) was the most frequently reported indication for Sophono™ implantation. Overall pure tone average auditory improvement was 31.10 (±8.29) decibel. During a mean follow-up time of 12.48 months, 25 patients (29%) presented with post-operative complications from which 3 were deemed as serious implant-related adverse events (3.5%). The Sophono™ transcutaneous bone conduction device shows promising functional improvement, no intra-operative complications and minor post-operative skin related complications. If suitable, the device could be a proposed solution for the rehabilitation of hearing in children meeting eligibility criteria. A wearing schedule must be implemented in order to reduce magnet-related skin complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy performance of a micro-cogeneration device during transient and steady-state operation: Experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Micro-cogeneration is a well-established technology and its deployment has been considered by the European Community as one of the most effective measure to save primary energy and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. As a consequence, the estimation of the potential impact of micro-cogeneration devices is necessary to design policy and to energetically, ecologically and economically rank these systems among other potential energy saving and CO 2 -reducing measures. Even if transient behaviour can be very important when the engine is frequently started and stopped and allowed to cool-down in between, for the sake of simplicity mainly static and simplified methods are used for assessing the performance of cogeneration devices, completely neglecting the dynamic response of the units themselves. In the first part of this paper a series of experiments is illustrated and discussed in detail in order to highlight and compare the transient and stationary operation of a natural gas fuelled reciprocating internal combustion engine based cogeneration unit with 6.0 kW as nominal electric output and 11.7 kW as nominal thermal output. The measured performance of the cogeneration device is also compared with the performance of the system calculated on the basis of the efficiency values suggested by the manufacturer in order to highlight and quantify the discrepancy between the two approaches in evaluating the unit operation. Finally the experimental data are also compared with those predicted by a simulation model developed within IEA/ECBCS Annex 42 and experimentally calibrated by the authors in order to assess the model reliability for studying and predicting the performance of the system under different operating scenarios. -- Highlights: ► Transient operation of a cogeneration system has been experimentally investigated. ► Steady-state operation of a cogeneration device has been experimentally evaluated. ► Measured data have been compared with those predicted by a

  8. Operational tests of a device with an elevator for automated outlet of heat for heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinger, N.M.; Belevich, A.I.; Burd, A.L.; Krivitskiy, V.I.; Lokshin, L.S.

    1983-01-01

    The results are presented of operational tests of series produced jet pumps. The field of use of an automated elevator is determined and recommendations for increasing its operational qualities are given.

  9. A 3D CFD Modelling Study of a Diesel Oil Evaporation Device Operating in the Stabilized Cool Flame Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysios I. Kolaitis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Diesel fuel is used in a variety of technological applications due to its high energy density and ease of distribution and storage. Motivated by the need to use novel fuel utilization techniques, such as porous burners and fuel cells, which have to be fed with a gaseous fuel, a Diesel fuel evaporation device, operating in the “Stabilized Cool Flame” (SCF regime, is numerically investigated. In this device, a thermo-chemically stable low-temperature oxidative environment is developed, which produces a well-mixed, heated air-fuel vapour gaseous mixture that can be subsequently fed either to premixed combustion systems or fuel reformer devices for fuel cell applications. In this work, the ANSYS CFX 11.0 CFD code is used to simulate the three-dimensional, turbulent, two-phase, multi-component and reacting flow-field, developed in a SCF evaporation device. An innovative modelling approach, based on the fitting parameter concept, has been developed in order to simulate cool flame reactions. The model, based on physico-chemical reasoning coupled with information from available experimental data, is implemented in the CFD code and is validated by comparing numerical predictions to experimental data obtained from an atmospheric pressure, recirculating flow SCF device. Numerical predictions are compared with temperature measurements, achieving satisfactory levels of agreement. The developed numerical tool can effectively support the theoretical study of the physical and chemical phenomena emerging in practical devices of liquid fuel spray evaporation in a SCF environment, as well as the design optimisation process of such innovative devices.

  10. A device that operates within a self-assembled 3D DNA crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yudong; Kristiansen, Martin; Sha, Ruojie; Birktoft, Jens J.; Hernandez, Carina; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2017-08-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology finds applications in numerous areas, but the construction of objects, 2D and 3D crystalline lattices and devices is prominent among them. Each of these components has been developed individually, and most of them have been combined in pairs. However, to date there are no reports of independent devices contained within 3D crystals. Here we report a three-state 3D device whereby we change the colour of the crystals by diffusing strands that contain dyes in or out of the crystals through the mother-liquor component of the system. Each colouring strand is designed to pair with an extended triangle strand by Watson-Crick base pairing. The arm that contains the dyes is quite flexible, but it is possible to establish the presence of the duplex proximal to the triangle by X-ray crystallography. We modelled the transition between the red and blue states through a simple kinetic model.

  11. Selected fault testing of electronic isolation devices used in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaran, M.; Hillman, K.; Taylor, J.; Lara, J.; Wilhelm, W.

    1994-05-01

    Electronic isolation devices are used in nuclear power plants to provide electrical separation between safety and non-safety circuits and systems. Major fault testing in an earlier program indicated that some energy may pass through an isolation device when a fault at the maximum credible potential is applied in the transverse mode to its output terminals. During subsequent field qualification testing of isolators, concerns were raised that the worst case fault, that is, the maximum credible fault (MCF), may not occur with a fault at the maximum credible potential, but rather at some lower potential. The present test program investigates whether problems can arise when fault levels up to the MCF potential are applied to the output terminals of an isolator. The fault energy passed through an isolated device during a fault was measured to determine whether the levels are great enough to potentially damage or degrade performance of equipment on the input (Class 1E) side of the isolator

  12. 40 CFR 63.4567 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4567 Section 63.4567... Emission Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4567 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the performance test required...

  13. 40 CFR 63.4767 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4767 Section 63.4767... Rate with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4767 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the performance test required by § 63...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4167 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4167 Section 63.4167... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4167 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? During the performance test required by § 63.4160...

  15. 40 CFR 60.107a - Monitoring of emissions and operations for fuel gas combustion devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or less. In the case of a liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) product specification in the pressurized liquid state, the gas phase sulfur content should be evaluated assuming complete vaporization of the LPG... for fuel gas combustion devices. 60.107a Section 60.107a Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...

  16. Device operation of conjugated polymer/zinc oxide bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, L. Jan Anton; van Strien, Wouter J.; Beek, Waldo J. E.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2007-01-01

    Solar cells based on a poly (p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivative and zinc oxide nanoparticles can reach a power conversion efficiency of 1.6%. The transport of electrons and holes in these promising devices is characterized and it is found that the electron mobility is equal to 2.8 x 10(-9) m(2)

  17. First operations with the new Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic on the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous emissions were found over the last few years in spectra of Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in tokamak devices such as TEXTOR, ASDEX and FTU, in addition to real CTS signals. The signal frequency, down-shifted with respect to the probing one, suggested a possible origin i...

  18. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  19. PARAMETER DETERMINATION FOR ADDITIONAL OPERATING FORCE MECHANISM IN DEVICE FOR PNEUMO-CENTRIFUGAL MACHINING OF BALL-SHAPED WORKPIECES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sukhotsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes development of the methodology for optimization of parameters for an additional operating force mechanism in a device for pneumo-centrifugal machining of glass balls. Specific feature in manufacturing glass balls for micro-optics in accordance with technological process for obtaining ball-shaped workpieces is grinding and polishing of spherical surface in a free state. In this case component billets of future balls are made in the form of cubes and the billets are given preliminary a form of ball with the help of rough grinding. An advanced method for obtaining ball-shaped work-pieces from brittle materials is a pneumocentrifugal machining. This method presupposes an application of two conic rings with abrasive working surfaces which are set coaxially with large diameters to each other and the billets are rolled along these rings. Rotation of the billets is conveyed by means of pressure medium.The present devices for pneumo-centrifugal machining are suitable for obtaining balls up to 6 mm. Machining of the work-pieces with full spherical surfaces and large diameter is non-productive due to impossibility to ensure a sufficient force on the billet in the working zone. For this reason the paper proposes a modified device where an additional force on the machined billet is created by upper working disc that is making a reciprocating motion along an axis of abrasive conic rings. The motion is realized with the help of a cylindrical camshaft mechanism in the form of a ring with a profile working end face and the purpose of present paper is to optimize parameters of the proposed device.The paper presents expressions for calculation of constitutive parameters of the additional operating force mechanism including parameters of loading element motion, main dimensions of the additional operating force mechanism and parameters of a profile element in the additional operating force mechanism.Investigation method is a mathematical

  20. Device- and system-independent personal touchless user interface for operating rooms : One personal UI to control all displays in an operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Habert, Séverine; Weidert, Simon; Navab, Nassir

    2016-06-01

    In the modern day operating room, the surgeon performs surgeries with the support of different medical systems that showcase patient information, physiological data, and medical images. It is generally accepted that numerous interactions must be performed by the surgical team to control the corresponding medical system to retrieve the desired information. Joysticks and physical keys are still present in the operating room due to the disadvantages of mouses, and surgeons often communicate instructions to the surgical team when requiring information from a specific medical system. In this paper, a novel user interface is developed that allows the surgeon to personally perform touchless interaction with the various medical systems, switch effortlessly among them, all of this without modifying the systems' software and hardware. To achieve this, a wearable RGB-D sensor is mounted on the surgeon's head for inside-out tracking of his/her finger with any of the medical systems' displays. Android devices with a special application are connected to the computers on which the medical systems are running, simulating a normal USB mouse and keyboard. When the surgeon performs interaction using pointing gestures, the desired cursor position in the targeted medical system display, and gestures, are transformed into general events and then sent to the corresponding Android device. Finally, the application running on the Android devices generates the corresponding mouse or keyboard events according to the targeted medical system. To simulate an operating room setting, our unique user interface was tested by seven medical participants who performed several interactions with the visualization of CT, MRI, and fluoroscopy images at varying distances from them. Results from the system usability scale and NASA-TLX workload index indicated a strong acceptance of our proposed user interface.

  1. Spectromicroscopic Insights into the Morphology and Interfaces of Operational Organic Electronic Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Organic electronics, e.g., organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic solar cells (OSCs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), have attracted strong interest in both academia and industry during the last decades due to their unique capabilities offered by organic semiconductors. The micro-/nano-structures in active layers and the interface engineering in organic electronics are extremely important for desired device functionalities. In this thesis, the structure-function relations...

  2. Recent Trends in Spintronics-Based Nanomagnetic Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayita; Alam, Syed M.; Bhanja, Sanjukta

    2014-09-01

    With the growing concerns of standby power in sub-100-nm CMOS technologies, alternative computing techniques and memory technologies are explored. Spin transfer torque magnetoresistive RAM (STT-MRAM) is one such nonvolatile memory relying on magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) to store information. It uses spin transfer torque to write information and magnetoresistance to read information. In 2012, Everspin Technologies, Inc. commercialized the first 64Mbit Spin Torque MRAM. On the computing end, nanomagnetic logic (NML) is a promising technique with zero leakage and high data retention. In 2000, Cowburn and Welland first demonstrated its potential in logic and information propagation through magnetostatic interaction in a chain of single domain circular nanomagnetic dots of Supermalloy (Ni80Fe14Mo5X1, X is other metals). In 2006, Imre et al. demonstrated wires and majority gates followed by coplanar cross wire systems demonstration in 2010 by Pulecio et al. Since 2004 researchers have also investigated the potential of MTJs in logic. More recently with dipolar coupling between MTJs demonstrated in 2012, logic-in-memory architecture with STT-MRAM have been investigated. The architecture borrows the computing concept from NML and read and write style from MRAM. The architecture can switch its operation between logic and memory modes with clock as classifier. Further through logic partitioning between MTJ and CMOS plane, a significant performance boost has been observed in basic computing blocks within the architecture. In this work, we have explored the developments in NML, in MTJs and more recent developments in hybrid MTJ/CMOS logic-in-memory architecture and its unique logic partitioning capability.

  3. New tools for C.A.D. of input devices for tele-operation with force feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, F.

    2000-01-01

    The performances of a tele-operation system are related to the master arm's ability to emulate the behavior of the remote environment. Ideally, it allows the operator to control the slave arm in a natural way as if that were an extension of its own body. The criteria to be checked for that are known but contradictory. It is thus necessary to make trade-offs on which there is not consensus. Existing input devices are therefore very varied thus more or less adapted to the tasks considered, which is in general checked a posteriori. In this document, we propose an original approach allowing to dimension the master arm a priori according to the use which one wishes to make. For that, we developed two tools: - the first one makes it possible to establish his specifications by taking account of the transmission of information between the operator and the slave arm. By exploiting their respective limitations, one is assured that the master arm will not limit the performances of the system, - the second one allows to design it (kinematics, size, motorization... ) according to the preceding specifications. For that, we use well-known theoretical tools which however are approached here as design tools. This leads to the definition of new concepts which do not appear in the literature. This approach is used to establish the specifications of a master arm for nuclear and offshore tele-operation then to design two input devices answering these specifications. The first has 3 degrees of freedom with force feedback. Its performances are higher than those of the best existing input devices. The second is a mock-up of a 6 degrees of freedom master arm. It uses a new parallel structure that is redundant in actuation and whose performances are remarkable. (author) [fr

  4. Functional and operational requirements document : building 1012, Battery and Energy Storage Device Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, William H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report provides an overview of information, prior studies, and analyses relevant to the development of functional and operational requirements for electrochemical testing of batteries and energy storage devices carried out by Sandia Organization 2546, Advanced Power Sources R&D. Electrochemical operations for this group are scheduled to transition from Sandia Building 894 to a new Building located in Sandia TA-II referred to as Building 1012. This report also provides background on select design considerations and identifies the Safety Goals, Stakeholder Objectives, and Design Objectives required by the Sandia Design Team to develop the Performance Criteria necessary to the design of Building 1012. This document recognizes the Architecture-Engineering (A-E) Team as the primary design entity. Where safety considerations are identified, suggestions are provided to provide context for the corresponding operational requirement(s).

  5. A High Power Boost Converter for PV Systems Operating up to 300 kHz using SiC Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a 3kW boost converter for PV applications using SiC devices is introduced. Main focus is to operate the converter over a wide range of switching frequency and to analyze the main loss distributors as well as the efficiency. The switching element is a recently introduced normally...... be operated at full power for a switching frequency of 100 kHz using natural cooling. At 200 kHz the boost converter is capable of operating at full power when forced air cooling is applied having a JFET case temperature of less than 90 C. The case temperature of the JFET increases up to 110 C at a switching...

  6. Analysis of the network protection devices action connected with the Krsko NPP operation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omahen, P.; Struc, S.

    1995-01-01

    The example of failure that took place in Zagreb on 30 March, 1995, has been investigated in order to obtain appropriate answers to the unexpected electric power system (ESP) response and consecutive outage of the Krsko nuclear power plant (NPP). The analysis has been made of particular operating and stability conditions, related to the functioning of distance relays line protection. Using a consequent simulation model of the EPS (European interconnection) under specified fault condition, the research of EPS operation (relays action) and stability has been done. The appropriate simulation results have been compared to the available measured data which had been collected by the SOREL on-line data acquisition system. In the end, a practise proposal for measures to be taken with the target of achieving the foreseen and expected operation of the EPS equipment that effects operation of the Krsko NPP is given. (author)

  7. Influence of Insulation Monitoring Devices on the Operation of DC Control Circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszowiec, Piotr, E-mail: olpio@o2.pl [Erea Polaniec (Poland)

    2017-03-15

    The insulation level of DC control circuits is an important safety-critical factor and, thus, should be subject to continuous and periodic monitoring. The methods used for monitoring the insulation in live circuits may, however, disturb the reliable operation of control relays. The risks of misoperation and failure to reset of relays posed by the operation of various insulation monitoring and fault location systems are evaluated.

  8. Remotely operated closure device for a pipeline with a fixed pipeline flange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westendorf, H.

    1987-01-01

    The remotely operated closure is set by suspension centring on the circumference of a blank flange on the fixed pipeline flange to be closed. By operating a central actuating mechanism at the closure, the clamping levers are adjusted so that the blank flange is clamped to the pipeline flange and the two flanges are pressed together. The spring-loaded clamping levers are particularly suitable for actuating the closure with the pliers of a manipulator of a large cell. (DG) [de

  9. Analysis And Simulation Of Low Profile Planar Inverted - F Antenna Design For WLAN Operation In Portable Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaw Htet Lwin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compact planar invertedF antenna PIFA design for WLAN operation in portable devices. The proposed design has size of 8 x 21 mm and provides peak directive gain of 5.78dBi with the peak return loss of -33.89dB and input impedance of 50.28amp8486. It covers a 10dB return loss bandwidth of 410MHz 2.37GHz 2.789GHz. Its VSWR varies from 1.96 to 1.93 within the antenna return loss bandwidth. As the dimension of the proposed antenna is very small the antenna is promising to be embedded within the different portable devices employing WiFi applications. This paper includes the return loss as a function of frequency with varying the different parameters VSWR input resistance radiation pattern and current distribution of the proposed antenna.

  10. A Microcontroller Operated Device for the Generation of Liquid Extracts from Conventional Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chastain A; Bokota, Rachael E; Majeste, Andrew E; Murfee, Walter L; Wang, Shusheng

    2018-01-18

    Electronic cigarettes are the most popular tobacco product among middle and high schoolers and are the most popular alternative tobacco product among adults. High quality, reproducible research on the consequences of electronic cigarette use is essential for understanding emerging public health concerns and crafting evidence based regulatory policy. While a growing number of papers discuss electronic cigarettes, there is little consistency in methods across groups and very little consensus on results. Here, we describe a programmable laboratory device that can be used to create extracts of conventional cigarette smoke and electronic cigarette aerosol. This protocol details instructions for the assembly and operation of said device, and demonstrates the use of the generated extract in two sample applications: an in vitro cell viability assay and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. This method provides a tool for making direct comparisons between conventional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes, and is an accessible entry point into electronic cigarette research.

  11. Effect of gas filling pressure and operation energy on ion and neutron emission in a medium energy plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R. K.; Srivastava, Rohit; Kaushik, T. C.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of gas filling pressure and operation energy on deuterium ions and neutrons have been studied in a medium energy plasma focus device, MEPF-12. The deuterium gas filling pressure was varied from 1 to 10 mbar at an operation energy of 9.7 kJ. Also, the operation energy was varied from 3.9 to 9.7 kJ at a deuterium gas filling pressure of 4 mbar. Time resolved emission of deuterium ions was measured using a Faraday cup. Simultaneously, time integrated and time resolved emissions of neutrons were measured using a silver activation detector and plastic scintillator detector, respectively. Various characteristics (fluence, peak density, and most probable energy) of deuterium ions were estimated using the Faraday cup signal. The fluence was found to be nearly independent of the gas filling pressure and operation energy, but the peak density and most probable energy of deuterium ions were found to be varying. The neutron yield was observed to be varying with the gas filling pressure and operation energy. The effect of ions on neutrons emission was observed at each operation condition.

  12. Electro-thermal Modeling of Modern Power Devices for Studying Abnormal Operating Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Rui

    in industrial power electronic systems in the range above 10 kW. The failure of IGBTs can be generally classified as catastrophic failures and wear out failures. A wear out failure is mainly induced by accumulated degradation with time, while a catastrophic failure is triggered by a single-event abnormal....... The objective of this project has been to model and predict the electro-thermal behavior of IGBT power modules under abnormal conditions, especially short circuits. A thorough investigation on catastrophic failure modes and mechanisms of modern power semiconductor devices, including IGBTs and power diodes, has...

  13. Operational characteristics of a high voltage plasma focus device working with deuterium and heavy gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoita, V.; Presura, R.; Gherendi, F.; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C.; Aliaga, R.

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a few neon percents to the deuterium gas filling of a medium energy plasma focus device (PFD) changes dramatically the radiation characteristics of the discharge as well as the pinch configuration. One exceptional result is the generation of high aspect ratio pinches shown clearly and reproducibly on X-ray pinhole camera images and on schlieren pictures. Another remarkable result is that these pinches which show no macroscopic instabilities copiously produce neutrons and hard X-rays. This confirms an experimental fact previously identified on a lower voltage PFD: the macroscopic instabilities do not play the decisive role in the neutronic performance of medium energy PFD's. (Author)

  14. Development of aluminum gallium nitride based optoelectronic devices operating in deep UV and terahertz spectrum ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei

    In this research project I have investigated AlGaN alloys and their quantum structures for applications in deep UV and terahertz optoelectronic devices. For the deep UV emitter applications the materials and devices were grown by rf plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and c-plane sapphire substrates. In the growth of AlGaN/AlN multiple quantum wells on SiC substrates, the AlGaN wells were grown under excess Ga, far beyond than what is required for the growth of stoichiometric AlGaN films, which resulted in liquid phase epitaxy growth mode. Due to the statistical variations of the excess Ga on the growth front we found that this growth mode leads to films with lateral variations in the composition and thus, band structure potential fluctuations. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the wells in such structures are not homogeneous but have the appearance of quantum dots. We find by temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements that the multiple quantum wells with band structure potential fluctuations emit at 240 nm and have room temperature internal quantum efficiency as high as 68%. Furthermore, they were found to have a maximum net modal optical gain of 118 cm-1 at a transparency threshold corresponding to 1.4 x 1017 cm-3 excited carriers. We attribute this low transparency threshold to population inversion of only the regions of the potential fluctuations rather than of the entire matrix. Some prototype deep UV emitting LED structures were also grown by the same method on sapphire substrates. Optoelectronic devices for terahertz light emission and detection, based on intersubband transitions in III-nitride semiconductor quantum wells, were grown on single crystal c-plane GaN substrates. Growth conditions such the ratio of group III to active nitrogen fluxes, which determines the appropriate Ga-coverage for atomically smooth growth without requiring growth interruptions were employed. Emitters designed in the quantum cascade

  15. Investigations of Pulsed Plasma Streams Generated by 'Prosvet' device Operated with Different Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrka, O.V.; Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V. and others

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the investigations of plasma streams generated by pulsed plasma gun 'Prosvet' operated with different gases: krypton (m=84) and helium (m=4). Contour parameters of working gas spectral lines (full intensities and half-widths) are used for determination of spatial distributions of the electron density and temperature. Temporal distributions of the spectral lines intensities (both neutrals and ions of working gas), impurity spectral lines and continuum intensities are analyzed. Plasma stream velocity was estimated by time-of-flight method between two monochromators (MUM) connected with photo-multiplier. longitudinal distributions of the plasma pressure for different time moments and varied distances from the accelerator output have been used for investigation of the plasma stream dynamics and study the plasma compression in the focus region for different operational regimes of plasma accelerator. Experiments show that operation regime of the accelerator and plasma stream parameters strongly depend on the gas atomic mass

  16. Device for the simultaneous operation of the closing valve of a vessel and the closing valve of a transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Claude; Surriray, Michel.

    1982-01-01

    This device includes mechanisms for unlatching the closing valve of the vessel and securing it to the closing valve of the transport container and other mechanisms for vertically raising the assembly of valves, pivoting it and bringing it into a vertical position in a bulge provided in the bottom of the transport container. For example the first containment is a nuclear reactor vessel and the transport container is used for carrying an item from the vessel to an external area (for instance, a defective pump to the repair area) and for the return transport operation [fr

  17. 40 CFR 63.3556 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.3556 Section 63.3556... of key parameters of the valve operating system (e.g., solenoid valve operation, air pressure.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3556 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control...

  18. Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq, 2003-09: A Case of Operational Surprise and Institutional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    plementation for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan under no-win, no-loss arrangements. While impos- sible to isolate in the published budget data...the slow erosion of our agreeable way of life. The dilemma facing modern militaries, therefore, is to balance their efforts and investment between

  19. Liquid electrolyte positioning along the device channel influences the operation of Organic Electro-Chemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    D'angelo, Pasquale; Coppedè , Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Romeo, Agostino; Gentile, Francesco T.; Iannotta, Salvatore; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Mosca, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we show the influence of the liquid electrolyte adsorption by porous films made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, on the operation of an Organic Electro-Chemical Transistor with an active channel

  20. Optimal Planning and Operation of Hybrid Energy System Supplemented by Storage Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    data of a real grid. The objective function of this problem consists of total investment cost and total operating costs of installed assets. The proposed scheme is implemented on a distribution test system and the obtained results demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of this model in dealing...

  1. On-field evaluation of operator lens protective devices in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strocchi, S.; Chiaravalli, A.; Veronese, I.; Novario, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recent publication of the Euratom Directive 2013/59, adopting the reduction of eye lens dose limits from 150 to 20 mSv y"-"1, calls for the development of new tools and methodologies for evaluating the eye lens dose absorbed by the medical staff involved in interventional radiology practices. Moreover, the effectiveness of the protective devices, like leaded glasses, which can be employed for radiation protection purposes, must be tested under typical exposure scenarios. In this work, eye lens dose measurements were carried out on an anthropomorphic phantom simulating a physician bound to perform standard interventional neuroradiology angiographic procedures. The correlation between eye lens doses, in terms of Hp(0.07), and the equivalent dose [again in terms of Hp(0.07)] monthly measured with thermoluminescent dosemeters placed above the lead apron at the chest level was studied, in the presence and in the absence of different types of leaded glasses. (authors)

  2. Impact-driven, frequency up-converting coupled vibration energy harvesting device for low frequency operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Lei; Livermore, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experiments and models of an energy harvesting device in which a low frequency resonator impacts a high frequency energy harvesting resonator, resulting in energy harvesting predominantly at the system's coupled vibration frequency. Analysis shows that a reduced mechanical damping ratio during coupled vibration enables increased electrical power generation as compared with conventional technology. Experiments demonstrate that the efficiency of electrical power transfer is significantly improved with the coupled vibration approach. An average power output of 0.43 mW is achieved under 0.4g acceleration at 8.2 Hz, corresponding to a power density of 25.5 µW cm −3 . The measured power and power density at the resonant frequency are respectively 4.8 times and 13 times the measured peak values for a conventional harvester created from a low frequency beam alone

  3. Practicability of Hygienic Wrapping of Touchscreen Operated Mobile Devices in a Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammon, Matthias; Kunz, Bernd; Dinzl, Veronika; Kammerer, Ferdinand J.; Schwab, Siegfried A.; Bogdan, Christian; Uder, Michael; Schlechtweg, Philipp M.

    2014-01-01

    Background To prove effectiveness of wrapping tablet computers in order to reduce microbiological contamination and to evaluate whether a plastic bag-covered tablet leads to impaired user satisfaction or touchscreen functionality. Materials and Methods Within a period of 11 days 115 patients were provided with a tablet computer while waiting for their magnetic resonance imaging examination. Every day the contamination of the surface of the tablet was determined before the first and after the final use. Before the device was handed over to a patient, it was enclosed in a customized single-use plastic bag, which was analyzed for bacterial contamination after each use. A questionnaire was applied to determine whether the plastic bag impairs the user satisfaction and the functionality of the touchscreen. Results Following the use by patients the outside of the plastic bags was found to be contaminated with various bacteria (657.5 ± 368.5 colony forming units/day); some of them were potentially pathogenic. In contrast, the plastic bag covered surface of the tablet was significantly less contaminated (1.7 ± 1.9 colony forming units/day). Likewise, unused plastic bags did not show any contamination. 11% of the patients reported problems with the functionality of the touchscreen. These patients admitted that they had never used a tablet or a smartphone before. Conclusions Tablets get severely contaminated during usage in a clinical setting. Wrapping with a customized single-use plastic bag significantly reduces microbiological contamination of the device, protects patients from the acquisition of potentially pathogenic bacteria and hardly impairs the user satisfaction and the functionality of the touchscreen. PMID:25180580

  4. Practicability of hygienic wrapping of touchscreen operated mobile devices in a clinical setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Hammon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To prove effectiveness of wrapping tablet computers in order to reduce microbiological contamination and to evaluate whether a plastic bag-covered tablet leads to impaired user satisfaction or touchscreen functionality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Within a period of 11 days 115 patients were provided with a tablet computer while waiting for their magnetic resonance imaging examination. Every day the contamination of the surface of the tablet was determined before the first and after the final use. Before the device was handed over to a patient, it was enclosed in a customized single-use plastic bag, which was analyzed for bacterial contamination after each use. A questionnaire was applied to determine whether the plastic bag impairs the user satisfaction and the functionality of the touchscreen. RESULTS: Following the use by patients the outside of the plastic bags was found to be contaminated with various bacteria (657.5 ± 368.5 colony forming units/day; some of them were potentially pathogenic. In contrast, the plastic bag covered surface of the tablet was significantly less contaminated (1.7 ± 1.9 colony forming units/day. Likewise, unused plastic bags did not show any contamination. 11% of the patients reported problems with the functionality of the touchscreen. These patients admitted that they had never used a tablet or a smartphone before. CONCLUSIONS: Tablets get severely contaminated during usage in a clinical setting. Wrapping with a customized single-use plastic bag significantly reduces microbiological contamination of the device, protects patients from the acquisition of potentially pathogenic bacteria and hardly impairs the user satisfaction and the functionality of the touchscreen.

  5. Practicability of hygienic wrapping of touchscreen operated mobile devices in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammon, Matthias; Kunz, Bernd; Dinzl, Veronika; Kammerer, Ferdinand J; Schwab, Siegfried A; Bogdan, Christian; Uder, Michael; Schlechtweg, Philipp M

    2014-01-01

    To prove effectiveness of wrapping tablet computers in order to reduce microbiological contamination and to evaluate whether a plastic bag-covered tablet leads to impaired user satisfaction or touchscreen functionality. Within a period of 11 days 115 patients were provided with a tablet computer while waiting for their magnetic resonance imaging examination. Every day the contamination of the surface of the tablet was determined before the first and after the final use. Before the device was handed over to a patient, it was enclosed in a customized single-use plastic bag, which was analyzed for bacterial contamination after each use. A questionnaire was applied to determine whether the plastic bag impairs the user satisfaction and the functionality of the touchscreen. Following the use by patients the outside of the plastic bags was found to be contaminated with various bacteria (657.5 ± 368.5 colony forming units/day); some of them were potentially pathogenic. In contrast, the plastic bag covered surface of the tablet was significantly less contaminated (1.7 ± 1.9 colony forming units/day). Likewise, unused plastic bags did not show any contamination. 11% of the patients reported problems with the functionality of the touchscreen. These patients admitted that they had never used a tablet or a smartphone before. Tablets get severely contaminated during usage in a clinical setting. Wrapping with a customized single-use plastic bag significantly reduces microbiological contamination of the device, protects patients from the acquisition of potentially pathogenic bacteria and hardly impairs the user satisfaction and the functionality of the touchscreen.

  6. Study on magnetic fluid optical fiber devices for optical logic operations by characteristics of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chieh, J. J.; Hong, C. Y.; Yang, S. Y.; Horng, H. E.; Yang, H. C.

    2010-01-01

    We propose two optical fiber-based schemes using two magnetic fluid optical fiber modulators in series or in parallel for optical logic signal processing and operation. Here, each magnetic fluid optical fiber modulator consists of a bare multimode fiber surrounded by magnetic fluid in which the refractive index is adjustable by applying external magnetic fields amplifying the input electrical signal to vary the transmission intensity of the optical fiber-based scheme. The physical mechanisms for the performances of the magnetic fluid optical fiber devices, such as the transmission loss related to Boolean number of the logic operation as well as the dynamic response, are studied by the characteristics of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and magnetic fluids. For example, in the dynamic response composed of the retarding and response sub-procedures except the response times of the actuation coil, the theoretical evaluation of the retarding time variation with cladding magnetic fluids length has good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Development of the plasma operational regime in the large helical device by the various wall conditioning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, K.; Ashikawa, N.; Masuzaki, S.; Miyazawa, J.; Sagara, A.; Goto, M.; Peterson, B.J.; Komori, A.; Noda, N.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kobuchi, T.; Kubo, S.; Morita, S.; Osakabe, M.; Sakakibara, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Sato, K.; Shimozuma, T.; Takeiri, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Motojima, O.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments in the large helical device have been developing since the first discharge in 1998. Baking at 95 deg C, electron cyclotron resonance discharge cleaning, glow discharge cleaning, titanium gettering and boronization were attempted for wall conditioning. Using these conditioning techniques, the partial pressures of the oxidized gases, such as H 2 O, CO and CO 2 , were reduced gradually and the plasma operational regime enlarged. The glow discharge cleaning with the various working gases, such as hydrogen, helium, neon and argon, was effective in increasing the plasma purity. By this method, we obtained a central ion temperature of 10 keV. Boronization, which was started from FY2001, was also effective in reducing the radiation losses from impurities and in enlarging the density operational regime. We obtained a plasma stored energy of 1.31 MJ and an electron density of 2.4 x 10 20 m -3

  8. Results from prototypes of environmental and health alarm devices based on gaseous detectors operating in air in counting mode

    CERN Document Server

    Martinengo, P; Peskov, V; Benaben, P; Charpak, G; Breuil, P

    2011-01-01

    We have developed and successfully tested two prototypes of detectors of dangerous gases based on wire-type counters operating in air in avalanche mode: one is for radon (Rn) detection whereas the other one is for the detection of gases with an ionization potential less than the air components. Due to the operation in pulse counting mode these prototypes have sensitivities comparable to (in the case of the Rn detector) or much higher than (in the case of the detector for low ionization gases) the best commercial devices currently available on the market. We believe that due to their high sensitivity, simplicity and low cost such new detectors will find massive applications. One of them, discussed in this paper, could be the on-line monitoring of Rn for the prediction of earthquakes. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on capillary tube expansion device used in J-T refrigerators operating with nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harish Kruthiventi, S. S.; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2017-10-01

    Capillary tube expansion devices are used extensively in small closed cycle J-T refrigerators operating with refrigerant mixtures due to its low cost and the absence of any moving parts. It is possible for J-T refrigerators operating with mixtures that the velocity of refrigerant mixture at capillary tube outlet reaches a value where it equals the speed of sound at certain conditions. The variation of the speed of sound of nitrogen-hydrocarbon mixtures used in J-T refrigerators has been studied in two phase (vapour-liquid) and three-phase (Vapour-liquid-liquid) region as a function of temperature and pressure in this work. Also the conditions under which choking occurs in practical J-T refrigerators is investigated.

  10. Direct current microhollow cathode discharges on silicon devices operating in argon and helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, R.; Felix, V.; Stolz, A.; Aubry, O.; Lefaucheux, P.; Dzikowski, S.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Overzet, L. J.; Dussart, R.

    2018-02-01

    Microhollow cathode discharges have been produced on silicon platforms using processes usually used for MEMS fabrication. Microreactors consist of 100 or 150 μm-diameter cavities made from Ni and SiO2 film layers deposited on a silicon substrate. They were studied in the direct current operating mode in two different geometries: planar and cavity configuration. Currents in the order of 1 mA could be injected in microdischarges operating in different gases such as argon and helium at a working pressure between 130 and 1000 mbar. When silicon was used as a cathode, the microdischarge operation was very unstable in both geometry configurations. Strong current spikes were produced and the microreactor lifetime was quite short. We evidenced the fast formation of blisters at the silicon surface which are responsible for the production of these high current pulses. EDX analysis showed that these blisters are filled with argon and indicate that an implantation mechanism is at the origin of this surface modification. Reversing the polarity of the microdischarge makes the discharge operate stably without current spikes, but the discharge appearance is quite different from the one obtained in direct polarity with the silicon cathode. By coating the silicon cathode with a 500 nm-thick nickel layer, the microdischarge becomes very stable with a much longer lifetime. No current spikes are observed and the cathode surface remains quite smooth compared to the one obtained without coating. Finally, arrays of 76 and 576 microdischarges were successfully ignited and studied in argon. At a working pressure of 130 mbar, all microdischarges are simultaneously ignited whereas they ignite one by one at higher pressure.

  11. Safety by design: effects of operating room floor marking on the position of surgical devices to promote clean air flow compliance and minimise infection risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korne, Dirk F.; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D. H.; van Rooij, Jeroen; Wauben, Linda S. G. L.; Hiddema, U. Frans; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the use of floor marking on the positioning of surgical devices within the clean air flow in an operating room (OR) to minimise infection risk. Laminar flow clean air systems are important in preventing infection in ORs but, for optimal results, surgical devices must be correctly

  12. Neutronic design of pulse operation simulating device for in-pile functional test of fusion blanket by MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu; Nakamichi, Masaru; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    The pulse operation of a fusion reactor can be simulated in a fission reactor by controlling the neutron flux entering a test section by using a rotating 'hollow cylinder with window' made of hafnium. The rotating cylinder is installed between the test section and the fixed outer neutron absorber cylinder and is also made of hafnium with an opening in the direction to the core center. For gathering engineering data for the tritium breeding blanket such as characteristics of temperature change, tritium release and recovery, etc., it is desirable that the ratio of minimum to maximum thermal neutron fluxes is greater than 1:10. Design calculations were performed for the test assembly which considered local neutronic effects and the mechanical constraints of the device. From the results of these calculations, the ratio of minimum to maximum thermal neutron flux under irradiation would be about 1:10 using a pulse operation simulating device which has a thickness of 6.5 mm and a 150deg window angle for the rotating hollow cylinder and 5.0 mm in thickness of fixed neutron absorber. (author)

  13. Postoperative environmental anesthetic vapour concentrations following removal of the airway device in the operating room versus the postanesthesia care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sara K; Özelsel, Timur; Rashiq, Saifee; Tsui, Ban C

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to compare waste anesthetic gas (WAG) concentrations within patients' breathing zones after removal of the patient's airway device in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) vs in the operating room (OR). Following Research Ethics Board approval and patient consent, we recruited patients undergoing surgery who received volatile anesthesia via an endotracheal tube or supraglottic airway. Patients had their airway device removed in the OR or in the PACU depending on the attending anesthesiologist's preference. Upon the patient's arrival in the PACU, concentrations of exhaled sevoflurane and desflurane were measured at their breathing zone (i.e., 15 cm from the patient's mouth and nose) using a single-beam infrared spectrophotometer. Seventy patients were recruited during the five-month study period. The median [interquartile range] WAG levels in the patients' breathing zones were higher when their airway devices were removed in the PACU vs in the OR. The WAG levels for sevoflurane were 0.7 [0.4-1.1] parts per million (ppm) vs 0.5 [0.4-0.7] ppm, respectively; median difference, 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.1 to 0.6; P = 0.04. The WAG levels for desflurane were 2.4 [1.2-3.4] ppm vs 4.1 [2.5-5.2] ppm, respectively; median difference, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.3 to 2.7; P = 0.04. After a volatile-based anesthetic, our results suggest that removal of the airway device in the PACU vs in the OR increases the amount of waste anesthetic gas in a patient's breathing zone and thus potentially in the PACU nurse's working zone.

  14. Monopole and topological electron dynamics in adiabatic spintronic and graphene systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Fujita, T.

    2010-01-01

    A unified theoretical treatment is presented to describe the physics of electron dynamics in semiconductor and graphene systems. Electron spin's fast alignment with the Zeeman magnetic field (physical or effective) is treated as a form of adiabatic spin evolution which necessarily generates a monopole in magnetic space. One could transform this monopole into the physical and intuitive topological magnetic fields in the useful momentum (K) or real spaces (R). The physics of electron dynamics related to spin Hall, torque, oscillations and other technologically useful spinor effects can be inferred from the topological magnetic fields in spintronic, graphene and other SU(2) systems.

  15. Concentrated Ground Plane Booster Antenna Technology for Multiband Operation in Handset Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Picher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current demand in the handset antenna field requires multiband antennas due to the existence of multiple communication standards and the emergence of new ones. At the same time, antennas with reduced dimensions are strongly required in order to be easily integrated. In this sense, the paper proposes a compact radiating system that uses two non-resonant elements to properly excite the ground plane to solve the abovementioned shortcomings by minimizing the required Printed Circuit Board (PCB area while ensuring a multiband performance. These non-resonant elements are called here ground plane boosters since they excite an efficient mode of the ground plane. The proposed radiating system comprises two ground plane boosters of small dimensions of 5 mm x 5 mm x 5 mm. One is in charge of the low frequency region (0.824-0.960 GHz and the other is in charge of the high frequency region (1.710-2.170 GHz. With the aim of achieving a compact configuration, the two boosters are placed close to each other in a corner of the ground plane of a handset device (concentrated architecture. Several experiments related to the coupling between boosters have been carried out in two different platforms (barphone and smartphone, and the best position and the required matching network are presented. The novel proposal achieves multiband performance at GSM850/900/1800/1900 and UMTS.

  16. STUDY ON OPERATING CHARACTERISTECS OF WATER HAMMER GENERATING DEVICE FOR TREATMENT OF MICROORGANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Tatsuhisa; Endo, Shigekatsu; Oda, Akira; Shimizu, Yasushi

    The phenomenon that has been actualized due to the water quality deterioration because of the inflow of drainage and the industrial wastewater includes the phenomenon that is called water-bloom generated in the freshwater environment made a eutrophic. This is becoming a serious problem to secure the water.Mixing with the drinking water has already been confirmed, and the generation of water-bloom is becoming a big social problem, and fundamental measures have not been established yet.On the other hand, authors are proving the pressure to be a fast the pressure speed of the impact pressure by the water hammer and effective in the destruction of the blue-green algae.In this studies, the hydraulics flow characteristics of an effective water hammer pressure generator to the shredding of the water-bloom cell were examined.As a result, there was a boundary in the region where the water hammer was generated by length and the water supply head of conduit, and the water hammer pressure was able to be understood to be influenced according to the angle of the valve that generated the water hammer in addition in the water hammer generator.The demonstration in the locale was confirmed based on these and the scale etc. of an effective device to the doing water-bloom processing were able to be confirmed by continuous running.

  17. Why OR.NET? Requirements and perspectives from a medical user's, clinical operator's and device manufacturer's points of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplik, Michael; Voigt, Verena; Kenngott, Hannes; Clusmann, Hans; Hoffmann, Rüdiger; Will, Armin

    2018-02-23

    In the past decades, modern medicine has been undergoing a change in the direction of digitalisation and automation. Not only the integration of new digital technologies, but also the interconnection of all components can simplify clinical processes and allow progress and development of new innovations. The integration and interconnection of medical devices with each other and with information technology (IT) systems was addressed within the framework of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)-funded lighthouse project OR.NET ("Secure dynamic networking in the operating room and clinic".) (OR.net-Forschungskonsortium (OR.net Research Syndicate.) OR.net - Sichere dynamische Vernetzung in Operationssaal und Klinik [Online]. Available: www.ornet.org. [last accessed 22 March 2017]). In this project the standards and concepts for interdisciplinary networking in the operating room (OR) were developed. In this paper, the diverse advantages of the OR.NET concept are presented and explained by the OR.NET "Medical Board". This board represents the forum of clinical users and includes clinicians and experts from various specialties. Furthermore, the opinion from the viewpoint of operators is presented. In a concluding comment of the "Operator Board", clinical user needs are aligned with technical requirements.

  18. Logic gates and antisense DNA devices operating on a translator nucleic Acid scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlyahovsky, Bella; Li, Yang; Lioubashevski, Oleg; Elbaz, Johann; Willner, Itamar

    2009-07-28

    A series of logic gates, "AND", "OR", and "XOR", are designed using a DNA scaffold that includes four "footholds" on which the logic operations are activated. Two of the footholds represent input-recognition strands, and these are blocked by complementary nucleic acids, whereas the other two footholds are blocked by nucleic acids that include the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-mimicking DNAzyme sequence. The logic gates are activated by either nucleic acid inputs that hybridize to the respective "footholds", or by low-molecular-weight inputs (adenosine monophosphate or cocaine) that yield the respective aptamer-substrate complexes. This results in the respective translocation of the blocking nucleic acids to the footholds carrying the HRP-mimicking DNAzyme sequence, and the concomitant release of the respective DNAzyme. The released product-strands then self-assemble into the hemin/G-quadruplex-HRP-mimicking DNAzyme that biocatalyzes the formation of a colored product and provides an output signal for the different logic gates. The principle of the logic operation is, then, implemented as a possible paradigm for future nanomedicine. The nucleic acid inputs that bind to the blocked footholds result in the translocation of the blocking nucleic acids to the respective footholds carrying the antithrombin aptamer. The released aptamer inhibits, then, the hydrolytic activity of thrombin. The system demonstrates the regulation of a biocatalytic reaction by a translator system activated on a DNA scaffold.

  19. Post-operative ventricular flow dynamics following atrioventricular valve surgical and device therapies: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Yen Ngoc; Ismail, Munirah; Kabinejadian, Foad; Tay, Edgar Lik Wui; Leo, Hwa Liang

    2018-04-01

    Intra-ventricular flow dynamics has recently emerged as an important evaluation and diagnosis tool in different cardiovascular conditions. The formation of vortex pattern during the cardiac cycle has been suggested to play important epigenetic and energy-modulation roles in cardiac remodelling, adaptations and mal-adaptations. In this new perspective, flow alterations due to different cardiovascular procedures can affect the long-term outcome of those procedures. Especially, repairs and replacements performed on atrioventricular valves are likely to exert direct impact on intra-ventricular flow pattern. In this review, current consensus around the roles of vortex dynamics in cardiac function is discussed. An overview of physiological vortex patterns found in healthy left and right ventricles as well as post-operative ventricular flow phenomenon owing to different atrioventricular valvular procedures are reviewed, followed by the summary of different vortex identification schemes used to characterise intraventricular flow. This paper also emphasises on future research directions towards a comprehensive understanding of intra-cardiac flow and its clinical relevance. The knowledge could encourage more effective pre-operative planning and better outcomes for current clinical practices. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Pulsatile operation of a continuous-flow right ventricular assist device (RVAD) to improve vascular pulsatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Boon C; Kleinheyer, Matthias; Smith, Peter A; Timms, Daniel; Cohn, William E; Lim, Einly

    2018-01-01

    Despite the widespread acceptance of rotary blood pump (RBP) in clinical use over the past decades, the diminished flow pulsatility generated by a fixed speed RBP has been regarded as a potential factor that may lead to adverse events such as vasculature stiffening and hemorrhagic strokes. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of generating physiological pulse pressure in the pulmonary circulation by modulating the speed of a right ventricular assist device (RVAD) in a mock circulation loop. A rectangular pulse profile with predetermined pulse width has been implemented as the pump speed pattern with two different phase shifts (0% and 50%) with respect to the ventricular contraction. In addition, the performance of the speed modulation strategy has been assessed under different cardiovascular states, including variation in ventricular contractility and pulmonary arterial compliance. Our results indicated that the proposed pulse profile with optimised parameters (Apulse = 10000 rpm and ωmin = 3000 rpm) was able to generate pulmonary arterial pulse pressure within the physiological range (9-15 mmHg) while avoiding undesirable pump backflow under both co- and counter-pulsation modes. As compared to co-pulsation, stroke work was reduced by over 44% under counter-pulsation, suggesting that mechanical workload of the right ventricle can be efficiently mitigated through counter-pulsing the pump speed. Furthermore, our results showed that improved ventricular contractility could potentially lead to higher risk of ventricular suction and pump backflow, while stiffening of the pulmonary artery resulted in increased pulse pressure. In conclusion, the proposed speed modulation strategy produces pulsatile hemodynamics, which is more physiologic than continuous blood flow. The findings also provide valuable insight into the interaction between RVAD speed modulation and the pulmonary circulation under various cardiovascular states.

  1. Surface damage characterization of FBK devices for High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscatelli, F.; Passeri, D.; Morozzi, A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Mattiazzo, S.; Bomben, M.; Bilei, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    The very high fluences (e.g. up to 2×1016 1 MeV neq/cm2) and total ionising doses (TID) of the order of 1 Grad, expected at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), impose new challenges for the design of effective, radiation resistant detectors. Ionising energy loss is the dominant effect for what concerns SiO2 and SiO2/Si interface radiation damage. In particular, surface damage can create a positive charge layer near the SiO2/Si interface and interface traps along the SiO2/Si interface, which strongly influence the breakdown voltage, the inter-electrode isolation and capacitance, and might also impact the charge collection properties of silicon sensors. To better understand in a comprehensive framework the complex and articulated phenomena related to surface damage at these very high doses, measurements on test structures have been carried out in this work (e.g. C-V and I-V). In particular, we have studied the properties of the SiO2 layer and of the SiO2/Si interface, using MOS capacitors, gated diodes (GD) and MOSFETs manufactured by FBK on high-resistivity n-type and p-type silicon, before and after irradiation with X-rays in the range from 50 krad(SiO2) to 20 Mrad(SiO2). Relevant parameters have been determined for all the tested devices, converging in the oxide charge density NOX, the surface generation velocity s0 and the integrated interface-trap density NIT dose-dependent values. These parameters have been extracted to both characterize the technology as a function of the dose and to be used in TCAD simulations for the surface damage effect modeling and the analysis and optimization of different classes of detectors for the next HEP experiments.

  2. Origin of microplasma instabilities during DC operation of silicon based microhollow cathode devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Valentin; Lefaucheux, Philippe; Aubry, Olivier; Golda, Judith; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Overzet, Lawrence J.; Dussart, Rémi

    2016-04-01

    The failure mechanisms of micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) in silicon have been investigated using their I-V characteristics, high speed photography and scanning electron microscopy. Experiments were carried out in helium. We observed I-V instabilities in the form of rapid voltage decreases associated with current spikes. The current spikes can reach values more than 100 times greater than the average MHCD current. (The peaks can be more than 1 Ampere for a few 10’s of nanoseconds.) These current spikes are correlated in time with 3-10 μm diameter optical flashes that occur inside the cavities. The SEM characterizations indicated that blister-like structures form on the Si surface during plasma operation. Thin Si layers detach from the surface in localized regions. We theorize that shallow helium implantation occurs and forms the ‘blisters’ whenever the Si is biased as the cathode. These blisters ‘explode’ when the helium pressure inside them becomes too large leading to the transient micro-arcs seen in both the optical emission and the I-V characteristics. We noted that blisters were never found on the metal counter electrode, even when it was biased as the cathode (and the Si as the anode). This observation led to a few suggestions for delaying the failure of Si MHCDs. One may coat the Si cathode (cavities) with blister resistant material; design the MHCD array to operate with the Si as the anode rather than as the cathode; or use a gas additive to prevent surface damage. Regarding the latter, tests using SF6 as the gas additive successfully prevented blister formation through rapid etching. The result was an enhanced MHCD lifetime.

  3. Origin of microplasma instabilities during DC operation of silicon based microhollow cathode devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Valentin; Lefaucheux, Philippe; Aubry, Olivier; Dussart, Rémi; Golda, Judith; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker; Overzet, Lawrence J

    2016-01-01

    The failure mechanisms of micro hollow cathode discharges (MHCD) in silicon have been investigated using their I-V characteristics, high speed photography and scanning electron microscopy. Experiments were carried out in helium. We observed I–V instabilities in the form of rapid voltage decreases associated with current spikes. The current spikes can reach values more than 100 times greater than the average MHCD current. (The peaks can be more than 1 Ampere for a few 10’s of nanoseconds.) These current spikes are correlated in time with 3–10 μm diameter optical flashes that occur inside the cavities. The SEM characterizations indicated that blister-like structures form on the Si surface during plasma operation. Thin Si layers detach from the surface in localized regions. We theorize that shallow helium implantation occurs and forms the ‘blisters’ whenever the Si is biased as the cathode. These blisters ‘explode’ when the helium pressure inside them becomes too large leading to the transient micro-arcs seen in both the optical emission and the I–V characteristics. We noted that blisters were never found on the metal counter electrode, even when it was biased as the cathode (and the Si as the anode). This observation led to a few suggestions for delaying the failure of Si MHCDs. One may coat the Si cathode (cavities) with blister resistant material; design the MHCD array to operate with the Si as the anode rather than as the cathode; or use a gas additive to prevent surface damage. Regarding the latter, tests using SF 6 as the gas additive successfully prevented blister formation through rapid etching. The result was an enhanced MHCD lifetime. (paper)

  4. Dynamical behaviour of FEL devices operating with two undulators having opposite circular polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy); Ottaviani, P.L. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche, Bologna (Italy); Bucci, L. [ENEA, Guest Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Optical-Klystron FELs operating with undulators having opposite circular polarizations are characterized by a spontaneous emission spectrum which does not exhibit the characteristic interference pattern. The use of the Madey theorem may allow the conclusion that, for such configuration, the dispersive section does not provide any gain enhancement. In this paper it has been analyzed the problem from a dynamical point of view and clarify how the optical field evolve, what is the role of the bunching and how the consequences of the Madey theorem should be correctly understood. [Italian] Klystron ottici operanti con ondulatori aventi polarizzazione elicoidali opposte, sono caratterizzati da uno spettro di emissione spontanea senza il termine interferenziale dovuto alla sezione dispersiva. L'uso del teorema di Madey indurrebbe alla conclusione che, per una tale configurazione, la sezione dispersiva non induce nessun aumento del guadagno. In questo lavoro analizziamo il problema da un punto di vista dinamico che chiarisce l'evoluzione del campo ottico, quale e' il ruolo del bunching e come le conseguenze del teorema di Madey debbano essere interpretate.

  5. Water feeding/condensating device and operation method in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibayama, Takashi.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention overcomes a problem in reactor water level control occurring upon operation of a water feeding/condensating system in a nuclear power plant. That is, the water feed system to a nuclear reactor is constituted with parallel circuit comprising a reactor feedwater pump driven by a steam turbine and a serial circuit composed of a reactor feedwater pump driven by an electrical motor and a pump adjusting valve for controlling the amount of feedwater at the exit of the motor driven feedwater pump. Further, a reactor feedwater control valve having a function of controlling the feedwater to the reactor is disposed to the bypass pipeway for bypassing the parallel circuit of feedwater pumps. In this constitution, water can be fed to the nuclear reactor by way of the reactor feedwater pump bypass control valve upon starting and stopping of a nuclear feedwater pump driven by electric motor upon starting and shutdown of the nuclear reactor. Accordingly, stable water level control can be conducted for the reactor core with no effect of rapid pressure fluctuation due to the starting and the stopping of the reactor feedwater pump driven by electric motor. (I.S.)

  6. New photonic devices for ultrafast pulse processing operating on the basis of the diffraction-dispersion analogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Company, Victor; Minguez-Vega, Gladys; Climent, Vicent; Lands, Jesus [GROC-UJI, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Jaume I, 12080 Castello (Spain); Andres, Pedro [Departament d' Optica, Universitat de Valencia, 46100 Burjassot (Spain)], E-mail: lancis@fca.uji.es

    2008-11-01

    The space-time analogy is a well-known topic within wave optics that brings together some results from beam diffraction and pulse dispersion. On the above basis, and taking as starting point some classical concepts in Optics, several photonic devices have been proposed during the last few years with application in rapidly evolving fields such as ultrafast (femtosecond) optics or RF and microwave signal processing. In this contribution, we briefly review the above ideas with particular emphasis in the generation of trains of ultrafast pulses from periodic modulation of the phase of a CW laser source. This is the temporal analogue of Fresnel diffraction by a pure phase grating. Finally, we extend the analogy to the partially coherent case, what enables us to design an original technique for wavelength-to-time mapping of the spectrum of a temporally stationary source. Results of laboratory experiments concerning the generation of user-defined radio-frequency waveforms and filtering of microwave signals will be shown. The devices are operated with low-cost incoherent sources.

  7. Explosion of optimal high-beta operation regime by magnetic axis swing in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Ohdachi, S.; Watanabe, K.Y.

    2010-11-01

    In Large Helical Device (LHD), the volume averaged beta value dia > as high as 5.1% was achieved in FY2007-2008 experiments. High beta operation regime was explorated by the programmed control of magnetic axis position, which characterizes MHD equilibrium, stability and transport. This control became enable by increasing capability of poloidal coil power supply. The experiments made clear the effect of magnetic hill on MHD activities in high-beta plasmas with more than 4%. Also it enabled to access the ideal stability boundary with keeping high-beta state. The strong m/n=2/1 mode leading minor collapse in core plasma appeared with the inward shift of the magnetic axis. (author)

  8. Device Performance Improvement of Double-Pass Wire Mesh Packed Solar Air Heaters under Recycling Operation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Dong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of device performance of a recycling solar air heater featuring a wire mesh packing was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The application of the wire mesh packing and recycle-effect concept to the present study were proposed aiming to strengthen the convective heat-transfer coefficient due to increased turbulence. Comparisons were made among different designs, including the single-pass, flat-plate double-pass and recycling double-pass wire mesh packed operations. The collector efficiency of the recycling double-pass wire mesh packed solar air heater was much higher than that of the other configurations for various recycle ratios and mass flow rates scenarios. The power consumption increment due to implementing wire mesh in solar air heaters was also discussed considering the economic feasibility. A fairly good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements was achieved with an analyzed error of 1.07%–9.32%.

  9. Integrated Prediction and Mitigation Methods of Materials Damage and Lifetime Assessment during Plasma Operation and Various Instabilities in Fusion Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanein, Ahmed [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This report describes implementation of comprehensive and integrated models to evaluate plasma material interactions during normal and abnormal plasma operations. The models in full3D simulations represent state-of-the art worldwide development with numerous benchmarking of various tokamak devices and plasma simulators. In addition, significant number of experimental work has been performed in our center for materials under extreme environment (CMUXE) at Purdue to benchmark the effect of intense particle and heat fluxes on plasma-facing components. This represents one-year worth of work and resulted in more than 23 Journal Publications and numerous conferences presentations. The funding has helped several students to obtain their M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees and many of them are now faculty members in US and around the world teaching and conducting fusion research. Our work has also been recognized through many awards.

  10. Integrated Prediction and Mitigation Methods of Materials Damage and Lifetime Assessment during Plasma Operation and Various Instabilities in Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This report describes implementation of comprehensive and integrated models to evaluate plasma material interactions during normal and abnormal plasma operations. The models in full3D simulations represent state-of-the art worldwide development with numerous benchmarking of various tokamak devices and plasma simulators. In addition, significant number of experimental work has been performed in our center for materials under extreme environment (CMUXE) at Purdue to benchmark the effect of intense particle and heat fluxes on plasma-facing components. This represents one-year worth of work and resulted in more than 23 Journal Publications and numerous conferences presentations. The funding has helped several students to obtain their M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees and many of them are now faculty members in US and around the world teaching and conducting fusion research. Our work has also been recognized through many awards.

  11. 40 CFR 63.4966 - How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control device operating limits during...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... system and add-on control device operating limits during the performance test? 63.4966 Section 63.4966... outlet gas temperature is the maximum operating limit for your condenser. (e) Emission capture system... with Add-on Controls Option § 63.4966 How do I establish the emission capture system and add-on control...

  12. Extension of operation regimes and investigation of three-dimensional current-less plasmas in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, O.

    2012-11-01

    The Large Helical Device (LHD) has shown the advantages of heliotron plasma for fusion reactor from operational point of view not only such as disruption free and steady state operation, but also as high density and stable high beta operation. Since the last Fusion Energy Conference in Daejon in 2010 (Yamada, 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 094021), physical understanding as well as parameter improvement of net-current free helical plasmas has progressed successively. The current efforts are focused on optimization of plasma edge condition to extend the operation regime towards higher ion temperature and more stable high density. In LHD a part of open helical divertors are being modified to the baffle-structured closed ones to aim at active control of the edge plasma. It has been demonstrated that the neutral pressure in the closed helical divertor was more than 10 times higher than that in the open helical divertor. The central ion temperature has exceeded 7 keV. This high-T i plasma was obtained by a carbon pellet injection and the kinetic-energy confinement was improved by a factor of 1.5. Transport analysis of the high-T i plasmas has shown that the ion-thermal conductivity and the viscosity reduced after the pellet injection. Study of physics in 3-D geometry is highlighted in the topics of the response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbation such as ELM mitigation and divertor detachment. Novel approaches of non-local and non-diffusive transport have also been advanced. In this paper, highlighted results in these two years are overviewed. (author)

  13. Direct electrical stimulation using a battery-operated device for induction and modulation of colonic contractions in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschi, Mattia; Schlageter, Vincent; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Aellen, Steve; Peloponissios, Nicolas; D'Ambrogio, Aris; Wiesel, Paul Herman; Givel, Jean-Claude; Kucera, Pavel; Virag, Nathalie

    2010-07-01

    Direct electrical stimulation of the colon offers a promising approach for the induction of propulsive colonic contractions by using an implantable device. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility to induce colonic contractions using a commercially available battery-operated stimulator (maximum pulse width of 1 ms and maximum amplitude of 10 V). Three pairs of pacing electrodes were inserted into the cecal seromuscular layer of anesthetized pigs. During a first set of in vivo experiments conducted on six animals, a pacing protocol leading to cecum contractions was determined: stimulation bursts with 1 ms pulse width, 10 V amplitude (7-15 mA), 120 Hz frequency, and 30-s burst duration, repeated every 2-5 min. In a second testing phase, an evaluation of the pacing protocol was performed in four animals (120 stimulation bursts in total). By using the battery-operated stimulator, contractions of the cecum and movement of contents could be induced in 92% of all stimulations. A cecal shortening of about 30% and an average intraluminal pressure increase of 10.0 +/- 6.0 mmHg were observed.

  14. An electronic image processing device featuring continuously selectable two-dimensional bipolar filter functions and real-time operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charleston, B.D.; Beckman, F.H.; Franco, M.J.; Charleston, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile electronic-analogue image processing system has been developed for use in improving the quality of various types of images with emphasis on those encountered in experimental and diagnostic medicine. The operational principle utilizes spatial filtering which selectively controls the contrast of an image according to the spatial frequency content of relevant and non-relevant features of the image. Noise can be reduced or eliminated by selectively lowering the contrast of information in the high spatial frequency range. Edge sharpness can be enhanced by accentuating the upper midrange spatial frequencies. Both methods of spatial frequency control may be adjusted continuously in the same image to obtain maximum visibility of the features of interest. A precision video camera is used to view medical diagnostic images, either prints, transparencies or CRT displays. The output of the camera provides the analogue input signal for both the electronic processing system and the video display of the unprocessed image. The video signal input to the electronic processing system is processed by a two-dimensional spatial convolution operation. The system employs charged-coupled devices (CCDs), both tapped analogue delay lines (TADs) and serial analogue delay lines (SADs), to store information in the form of analogue potentials which are constantly being updated as new sampled analogue data arrive at the input. This information is convolved with a programmed bipolar radially symmetrical hexagonal function which may be controlled and varied at each radius by the operator in real-time by adjusting a set of front panel controls or by a programmed microprocessor control. Two TV monitors are used, one for processed image display and the other for constant reference to the original image. The working prototype has a full-screen display matrix size of 200 picture elements per horizontal line by 240 lines. The matrix can be expanded vertically and horizontally for the

  15. Rashba and Dresselhaus Couplings in Halide Perovskites: Accomplishments and Opportunities for Spintronics and Spin-Orbitronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepenekian, Mikaël; Even, Jacky

    2017-07-20

    In halide hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites (HOPs), spin-orbit coupling (SOC) presents a well-documented large influence on band structure. However, SOC may also present more exotic effects, such as Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. In this Perspective, we start by recalling the main features of this effect and what makes HOP materials ideal candidates for the generation and tuning of spin-states. Then, we detail the main spectroscopy techniques able to characterize these effects and their application to HOPs. Finally, we discuss potential applications in spintronics and in spin-orbitronics in those nonmagnetic systems, which would complete the skill set of HOPs and perpetuate their ride on the crest of the wave of popularity started with optoelectronics and photovoltaics.

  16. Defective aluminium nitride nanotubes: a new way for spintronics? A density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeoni, M; Santucci, S; Picozzi, S; Delley, B

    2006-01-01

    The structural and electronic properties (in terms of Mulliken charges, density of states and band structures) of pristine and defective (10,0) AlN nanotubes have been calculated within density functional theory. The results show that, in several defective tubes, a spontaneous spin-polarization arises, due to the presence of spin-split flat bands close to the Fermi level, with a strong localization of the corresponding electronic states and of the magnetic moments. The highest positive spin-magnetization (3 μ B per cell) is found for the vacancy in the Al site, while the other magnetic tubes (the vacancy in N, C and O substitutional for N and Al, respectively) show a magnetization of only 1 μ B per cell. The spontaneous magnetization of some defective tubes might open the way to their use for spintronic applications

  17. Manipulating spin in organic spintronics : probing the interplay between the electronic and nuclear spins in organic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in spin manipulation in the field of spin electronics, or "spintronics," is due to the wealth of exciting possibilities that it offers in areas of magnetic sensing, new types of information storage, low-power electronics, and quantum information processing. Nuclear spin

  18. The role of the hole-extraction layer in determining the operational stability of a polycarbazole:fullerene bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovill, E.; Scarratt, N.; Griffin, J.; Yi, H.; Iraqi, A.; Buckley, A. R.; Kingsley, J. W.; Lidzey, D. G.

    2015-02-01

    We have made a comparative study of the relative operational stability of bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices utilising different hole transport layers (HTLs). OPV devices were fabricated based on a blend of the polymer PCDTBT with the fullerene PC70BM, and incorporated the different HTL materials PEDOT:PSS, MoOx and V2O5. Following 620 h of irradiation by light from a solar simulator, we find that devices using the PEDOT:PSS HTL retained the highest efficiency, having a projected T80 lifetime of 14 500 h.

  19. Nanoscale observations of the operational failure for phase-change-type nonvolatile memory devices using Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung-Min; Choi, Kyu-Jeong; Lee, Nam-Yeal; Lee, Seung-Yun; Park, Young-Sam; Yu, Byoung-Gon

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a phase-change memory device was fabricated and the origin of device failure mode was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) was used as the active phase-change material in the memory device and the active pore size was designed to be 0.5 μm. After the programming signals of more than 2x10 6 cycles were repeatedly applied to the device, the high-resistance memory state (reset) could not be rewritten and the cell resistance was fixed at the low-resistance state (set). Based on TEM and EDS studies, Sb excess and Ge deficiency in the device operating region had a strong effect on device reliability, especially under endurance-demanding conditions. An abnormal segregation and oxidation of Ge also was observed in the region between the device operating and inactive peripheral regions. To guarantee an data endurability of more than 1x10 10 cycles of PRAM, it is very important to develop phase-change materials with more stable compositions and to reduce the current required for programming

  20. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  1. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems

  2. [Prevention of medical device-related adverse events in hospitals: Specifying the recommendations of the German Coalition for Patient Safety (APS) for users and operators of anaesthesia equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine; Zippel, Claus; Siebert, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The use and organisation of medical technology has an important role to play for patient and user safety in anaesthesia. Specification of the recommendations of the German Coalition for Patient Safety (APS) for users and operators of anaesthesia equipment, explore opportunities and challenges for the safe use and organisation of anaesthesia devices. We conducted a literature search in Medline/PubMed for studies dealing with the APS recommendations for the prevention of medical device-related risks in the context of anaesthesia. In addition, we performed an internet search for reports and recommendations focusing on the use and organisation of medical devices in anaesthesia. Identified studies were grouped and assigned to the recommendations. The division into users and operators was maintained. Instruction and training in anaesthesia machines is sometimes of minor importance. Failure to perform functional testing seems to be a common cause of critical incidents in anaesthesia. There is a potential for reporting to the federal authority. Starting points for the safe operation of anaesthetic devices can be identified, in particular, at the interface of staff, organisation, and (anaesthesia) technology. The APS recommendations provide valuable information on promoting the safe use of medical devices and organisation in anaesthesia. The focus will be on risks relating to the application as well as on principles and materials for the safe operation of anaesthesia equipment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  3. Contribution of the different erosion processes to material release from the vessel walls of fusion devices during plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrisch, R.

    2002-01-01

    In high temperature plasma experiments several processes contribute to erosion and loss of material from the vessel walls. This material may enter the plasma edge and the central plasma where it acts as impurities. It will finally be re-deposited at other wall areas. These erosion processes are: evaporation due to heating of wall areas. At very high power deposition evaporation may become very large, which has been named ''blooming''. Large evaporation and melting at some areas of the vessel wall surface may occur during heat pulses, as observed in plasma devices during plasma disruptions. At tips on the vessel walls and/or hot spots on the plasma exposed solid surfaces electrical arcs between the plasma and the vessel wall may ignite. They cause the release of ions, atoms and small metal droplets, or of carbon dust particles. Finally, atoms from the vessel walls are removed by physical and chemical sputtering caused by the bombardment of the vessel walls with ions as well as energetic neutral hydrogen atoms from the boundary plasma. All these processes have been, and are, observed in today's plasma experiments. Evaporation can in principle be controlled by very effective cooling of the wall tiles, arcing is reduced by very stable plasma operation, and sputtering by ions can be reduced by operating with a cold plasma in front of the vessel walls. However, sputtering by energetic neutrals, which impinge on all areas of the vessel walls, is likely to be the most critical process because ions lost from the plasma recycle as neutrals or have to be refuelled by neutrals leading to the charge exchange processes in the plasma. In order to quantify the wall erosion, ''materials factors'' (MF) have been introduced in the following for the different erosion processes. (orig.)

  4. Theoretical aspects of the electronical devices operating due to interaction between annular electron beams and the azimuthal surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girka, V O; Girka, I O [Kharkiv State Univ. (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The physical basis is discussed of electronic devices whose operation is based on the beam or dissipative instability of the azimuthal surface waves (ASW). The ASW are electromagnetic surface waves with extraordinary polarization (with field components E{sub r}, E{sub {phi}}, H{sub z}), propagating across the axial external steady magnetic field in the cylindrical metal waveguide with cold plasma filling. The ASW fields are described by Maxwell equations. To solve the problem, the authors used the Fourier method and numerical simulation of the equations obtained. The ASW excitation was examined under conditions of beam and dissipative instabilities due to the electron beam motion. The correction to ASW eigenfrequencies caused by the waveguide chamber noncircularity was also studied. ASW delaying leads to a negative frequency correction. The ASW energy can be emitted from the narrow slot in the metallic chamber of the waveguide. The optimum wavenumber range was found where the increment values are much greater than those of the ASW decrement caused by their energy radiation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs.

  5. Linearity of high-Tc dc superconducting quantum interference device operated in a flux-locked loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.G.; Dantsker, E.; Kleiner, R.; Mueck, M.; Clarke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the linearity of a high transition temperature dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) operated at 77 K with 130 kHz flux modulation in a flux-locked loop. The degree of nonlinearity was determined from harmonic generation. A sinusoidal magnetic flux with harmonic content less than -130 dB was applied to the SQUID, which was cooled in a magnetic field below 10 -7 T, and the harmonics at the output of the flux-locked loop were measured with a spectrum analyzer. For input signals at frequencies up to 248 Hz and amplitudes up to 20Φ 0 rms (Φ 0 is the flux quantum), the second, third, and fourth harmonics were each at least 115 dB below the fundamental. At higher frequencies the harmonic content began to increase because of the reduction in the open-loop gain of the flux-locked loop. The magnitude of the harmonics was not measurably changed when the SQUID was cooled in a field of 100 μT. The amplitudes of the even harmonics depended critically on the amplitude of the 130 kHz flux modulation, and became zero when its peak-to-peak value was precisely Φ 0 /2. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. FDTD assessment of human exposure to electromagnetic fields from WiFi and bluetooth devices in some operating situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M; Martín, A; Sanchis, A; Villar, R

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the numerical dosimetry in human exposure to the electromagnetic fields from antennas of wireless devices, such as those of wireless local area networks (WLAN) access points or phone and computer peripherals with Bluetooth antennas, is analyzed with the objective of assessing guidelines compliance. Several geometrical configurations are considered to simulate possible exposure situations of a person to the fields from WLAN or Bluetooth antennas operating at 2400 MHz. The exposure to radiation from two sources of different frequencies when using a 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone connected via Bluetooth with a hands-free car kit is also considered. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to calculate electric and magnetic field values in the vicinity of the antennas and specific absorption rates (SAR) in a high-resolution model of the human head and torso, to be compared with the limits from the guidelines (reference levels and basic restrictions, respectively). Results show that the exposure levels in worst-case situations studied are lower than those obtained when analyzing the exposure to mobile phones, as could be expected because of the low power of the signals and the distance between the human and the antennas, with both field and SAR values being far below the limits established by the guidelines, even when considering the combined exposure to both a GSM and a Bluetooth antenna. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Influence of Nitrogen Doping on Device Operation for TiO2-Based Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Photo-Physics from Materials to Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSC constitute a major approach to photovoltaic energy conversion with efficiencies over 8% reported thanks to the rational design of efficient porous metal oxide electrodes, organic chromophores, and hole transporters. Among the various strategies used to push the performance ahead, doping of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2 electrode is regularly proposed to extend the photo-activity of the materials into the visible range. However, although various beneficial effects for device performance have been observed in the literature, they remain strongly dependent on the method used for the production of the metal oxide, and the influence of nitrogen atoms on charge kinetics remains unclear. To shed light on this open question, we synthesized a set of N-doped TiO2 nanopowders with various nitrogen contents, and exploited them for the fabrication of ssDSSC. Particularly, we carefully analyzed the localization of the dopants using X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS and monitored their influence on the photo-induced charge kinetics probed both at the material and device levels. We demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of photo-induced charge carriers probed both at the level of the nanopowders and at the level of working solar cells, illustrating a direct transposition of the photo-physic properties from materials to devices.

  8. Track 5: safety in engineering, construction, operations, and maintenance. Reactor physics design, validation, and operating experience. 5. A Negative Reactivity Feedback Device for Actinide Burner Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Hejzlar, P.

    2001-01-01

    Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled reactors are of considerable interest because they may be useful for destruction of actinides in a cost-effective manner, particularly cores fueled predominantly with minor actinides, which gain reactivity with burnup. However, they also pose several design challenges: 1. a small (and perhaps even slightly positive) Doppler feedback; 2. small effective delayed neutron yield; 3. a small negative feedback from axial fuel expansion; 4. positive coolant void and temperature coefficients for conventional designs. This has motivated a search for palliative measures, leading to conceptualization of the reactivity feedback device (RFD). The RFD consists of an in-core flask containing helium gas, tungsten wool, and a small reservoir of LBE that communicates with vertical tubes housing neutron absorber floats. The upper part of these guide tubes contains helium gas that is vented into a separate, cooler ex-core helium gas plenum. The principle of operation is as follows: 1. The tungsten wool, hence the helium gas in the in-core plenum, is heated by gammas and loses heat to the walls by convection and conduction (radiation is feeble for monatomic gases and, in any event, intercepted by the tungsten wool). An energy balance determines the gas temperature, hence, pressure, which is 10 atm here. The energy loss rate can be adjusted by using xenon or a gas mixture in place of helium. The tungsten wool mass, which is 1 vol% wool here, can also be increased to increase gamma heating and further retard convection; alternatively, a Dewar flask could be used in place of the additional wool. 2. An increase in core power causes a virtually instantaneous increase in gamma flux, hence, gas heatup: The thermal time constant of the tungsten filaments and their surrounding gas film is ∼40 μs. 3. The increased gas temperature is associated with an increased gas pressure, which forces more liquid metal into the float guide tubes: LBE will rise ∼100 cm

  9. Transmission electron microscopy assessment of conductive-filament formation in Ni-HfO2-Si resistive-switching operational devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Gemma; González, Mireia B.; Campabadal, Francesca; Peiró, Francesca; Cornet, Albert; Estradé, Sònia

    2018-01-01

    Resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) devices are currently the object of extensive research to replace flash non-volatile memory. However, elucidation of the conductive-filament formation mechanisms in ReRAM devices at nanoscale is mandatory. In this study, the different states created under real operation conditions of HfO2-based ReRAM devices are characterized through transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. The physical mechanism behind the conductive-filament formation in Ni/HfO2/Si ReRAM devices based on the diffusion of Ni from the electrode to the Si substrate and of Si from the substrate to the electrode through the HfO2 layer is demonstrated.

  10. Is the bipolar vessel sealer device an effective tool in robotic surgery? A retrospective analysis of our experience and a meta-analysis of the literature about different robotic procedures by investigating operative data and post-operative course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortenzi, Monica; Ghiselli, Roberto; Baldarelli, Maddalena; Cardinali, Luca; Guerrieri, Mario

    2018-04-01

    The latest robotic bipolar vessel sealing tools have been described to be effective allowing to perform procedures with reduced blood loss and shorter operative times. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and reliability of these devices applied in different robotic procedures. All robotic operations, between 2014 and 2016, were performed using the EndoWrist One VesselSealer (EWO, Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), a bipolar fully wristed device. Data, including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), were collected. Robot docking time, intraoperative blood loss, robot malfunctioning and overall operative time were analyzed. A meta-analysis of the literature was carried out to point the attention to three different parameters (mean blood loss, operating time and hospital stay) trying to identify how different coagulation devices may affect them. In 73 robotic procedures, the mean operative time was 118.2 minutes (75-125 minutes). Mean hospital stay was four days (2-10 days). There were two post-operative complications (2.74%). The bipolar vessel sealer offers the efficacy of bipolar diathermy and the advantages of a fully wristed instrument. It does not require any change of instruments for coagulation or involvement of the bedside assistant surgeon. These characteristics lead to a reduction in operative time.

  11. Transcatheter closure of post-operative residual ventricular septal defect using a patent ductus arteriosus closure device in an adult: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djer, Mulyadi M; Idris, Nikmah S; Alwi, Idrus; Wijaya, Ika P

    2014-07-01

    Transcatheter closure of perimembranous and muscular ventricular septal defect (VSD) has been performed widely and it has more advantages compare to surgery. However, transcatheter closure of residual VSD post operation of complex congenital heart disease is still challenging because of the complexity of anatomy and concern about device stability, so the operator should meticulously choose the most appropriate technique and device. We would like to report a case of transcatheter closure of residual VSD post Rastelli operation in a patient with double outlet right ventricle (DORV), sub-aortic VSD, severe infundibulum pulmonary stenosis (PS) and single coronary artery. The patient had undergone operations for four times, but he still had intractable heart failure that did not response to medications. On the first attempt. we closed the VSD using a VSD occluder, unfortunately the device embolized into the descending aorta, but fortunately we was able to snare it out. Then we decided to close the VSD using a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA occluder). On transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and angiography evaluation, the device position was stable. Post transcatheter VSD closure, the patient clinical condition improved significantly and he could finally be discharged after a long post-surgery hospitalization. Based on this experience we concluded that the transcatheter closure of residual VSD in complex CHD using PDA occluder could be an effective alternative treatment.

  12. Structure and properties of quarternary and tetragonal Heusler compounds for spintronics and spin transver torque applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Vajiheh Alijani

    2012-03-07

    This work is divided into two parts: part 1 is focused on the prediction of half-metallicity in quaternary Heusler compounds and their potential for spintronic applications and part 2 on the structural properties of Mn{sub 2}-based Heusler alloys and tuning the magnetism of them from soft to hard-magnetic for spin-transfer torque applications. In part 1, three different series of quaternary Heusler compounds are investigated, XX'MnGa (X=Cu, Ni and X'=Fe,Co), CoFeMnZ (Z=Al,Ga,Si,Ge), and Co{sub 2-x}Rh{sub x}MnZ (Z=Ga,Sn,Sb). All of these quaternary compounds except CuCoMnGa are predicted to be half-metallic ferromagnets by ab-initio electronic structure calculations. In the XX'MnGa class of compounds, NiFeMnGa has a low Curie temperature for technological applications but NiCoMnGa with a high spin polarization, magnetic moment, and Curie temperature is an interesting new material for spintronics applications. All CoFeMnZ compounds exhibit a cubic Heusler structur and their magnetic moments are in fair agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule indicating the halfmetallicity and high spin polarization required for spintronics applications. Their high Curie temperatures make them suitable for utilization at room temperature and above. The structural investigation revealed that the crystal structure of all Co{sub 2-x}Rh{sub x}MnZ compounds aside from CoRhMnSn exhibit different types of anti-site disorder. The magnetic moments of the disordered compounds deviate from the Slater-Pauling rule indicating that 100% spin polarization are not realized in CoRhMnGa, CoRhMnSb, and Co{sub 0.5}Rh{sub 1.5}MnSb. Exchange of one Co in Co{sub 2}MnSn by Rh results in the stable, well-ordered compound CoRhMnSn. This exchange of one of the magnetic Co atoms by a non-magnetic Rh atom keeps the magnetic properties and half-metallicity intact. In part 2, two series of Mn{sub 2}-based Heusler alloys are investigated, Mn{sub 3-x}Co{sub x}Ga and Mn{sub 2-x}Rh{sub 1+x}Sn. It has been

  13. Canadian East Coast offshore petroleum industry safe lifting practices respecting offshore pedestal cranes, offshore containers, loose gear, other lifting devices, and operational best practices : standard practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This document was developed by a working group with representatives from the petroleum industry, the Offshore Petroleum Boards and Certifying Authorities. It outlines industry best practices for operators responsible for the management, planning and execution of offshore lifting operations. Its purpose is to assist in the interpretation of applicable legislation and standards. Considered within the practice are safe design requirements, manufacture, certification, testing, maintenance and inspection requirements for pedestal cranes, offshore containers, loose gear and lifting devices. Operational best practices for lifting operations are also included along with a section that identifies additional requirements for personnel lifting operations, including personnel transfers by crane and man-riding operations. 82 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs., 3 appendices.

  14. Special Technology Area Review on Spintronics. Report of Department of Defense Advisory Group on Electron Devices Working Group B (Microelectronics)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunbridge, Barry; Palkuti, Les; Wolf, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    ...) as it applies to nonvolatile memories and quantum-based logic and computing. In addition, the information provided at the STAR is expected to be of use to the Services and Department of Defense (DoD...

  15. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  16. New spintronic superlattices composed of half-metallic compounds with zinc-blende structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C Y; Qian, M C

    2004-01-01

    The successful growth of zinc-blende half-metallic compounds, namely CrAs and CrSb, in thin film forms offers a new direction to search for novel spintronic materials. By using a well documented first-principles algorithm, the VASP code, we predict the electronic and magnetic properties of superlattices made of these exciting half-metallic materials. Not only are the superlattices constructed with two of the half-metallic compounds (CrAs/MnAs) but also they are modelled to combine with both a III-V (GaAs-MnAs/CrAs/GaAs) and a IV-IV (MnC/SiC) semiconductor. We investigate variable thicknesses for the combinations. For every case, we find the equilibrium lattice constant as well as the lattice constant at which the superlattice exhibits the half-metallic properties. For CrAs/MnAs, the half-metallic properties are presented and the magnetic moments are shown to be the sum of the moments for MnAs and CrAs. The half-metallic properties of GaAs-MnAs/CrAs/GaAs are found to be crucially dependent on the completion of the d-p hybridization. The magnetic properties of MnC/SiC are discussed with respect to the properties of MnC

  17. P-type zinc oxide spinels: application to transparent conductors and spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoica, Maria; S Lo, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    We report on the electronic and optical properties of two theoretically predicted stable spinel compounds of the form ZnB 2 O 4 , where B = Ni or Cu; neither compound has been previously synthesized, so we compare them to the previously studied p-type ZnCo 2 O 4 spinel. These new materials exhibit spin polarization, which is useful for spintronics applications, and broad conductivity maxima near the valence band edge that indicate good p-type dopability. We show that 3d electrons on the octahedrally coordinated Zn atom fall deep within the valence band and do not contribute significantly to the electronic structure near the band edge of the material, while the O 2p and tetrahedrally coordinated B 3d electrons hybridize broadly in the shallow valence states, resulting in increasing curvature (i.e., decreased electron effective mass) of valence bands near the band edge. In particular, ZnCu 2 O 4 exhibits high electrical conductivities in the p-doping region near the valence band edge that, at σ=2×10 4  S cm −1 , are twice the maximum found for ZnCo 2 O 4 , a previously synthesized compound in this class of materials. This material also exhibits ferromagnetism in all of its most stable structures, which makes it a good candidate for further study as a dilute magnetic semiconductor. (paper)

  18. Radiation safety in operation with morally and physically obsolete radiological devices is a imperative of the day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosca, A.; Grajdieru, L.; Coretchi, L.

    2009-01-01

    The activity with superannuated morally and physically radio-diagnostic device needs an increased attention to perform obligatory monthly technical revision, annual and every quarter (in radiotherapy) dosimetry and correctness of technical parameters (KV and exposition time), estimation of all superannuated morally and physically dosimeters, which are still utilized. The most efficient measure of radioprotection suitable assurance in activity with such devices is their urgent renovation. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of a training program for device operators in the Australian Government's Point of Care Testing in General Practice Trial: issues and implications for rural and remote practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Mark D; Mazzachi, Beryl C; Watkinson, Les; Shephard, Anne K; Laurence, Caroline; Gialamas, Angela; Bubner, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    From September 2005 to February 2007 the Australian Government funded the Point of Care Testing (PoCT) in General Practice Trial, a multi-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the safety, clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and satisfaction of PoCT in General Practice. In total, 53 practices (23 control and 30 intervention) based in urban, rural or remote locations across three states (South Australia [SA], New South Wales [NSW] and Victoria [VIC]) participated in the Trial. Control practices had pathology testing performed by their local laboratory, while intervention practices conducted pathology testing by PoCT. In total, 4968 patients (1958 control and 3010 intervention) participated in the Trial. The point-of-care (PoC) tests performed by intervention practices were: haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) on patients with diabetes, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol on patients with hyperlipidaemia, and international normalised ratio (INR) on patients on anticoagulant therapy. Three PoCT devices measured these tests: the Siemens DCA 2000 (Siemens HealthCare Diagnostics, Melbourne, VIC, Australia) for HbA1c and urine ACR; Point of Care Diagnostics Cholestech LDX analyser (Point of Care Diagnostics; Sydney, NSW, Australia) for lipids; and the Roche CoaguChek S (Roche Diagnostics; Sydney, NSW, Australia) for INR. Point-of-care testing in the General Practice Trial was underpinned by a quality management framework which included an on-going training and competency program for PoCT device operators. This article describes the design, implementation and results of the training and competency program. An education and training resource package was developed for the Trial consisting of a training manual, a set of A3 laminated posters and a CD ROM. Five initial training workshops were held for intervention practices from each geographic region between August and October 2005

  20. Artificial neuron operations and spike-timing-dependent plasticity using memristive devices for brain-inspired computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marukame, Takao; Nishi, Yoshifumi; Yasuda, Shin-ichi; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi

    2018-04-01

    The use of memristive devices for creating artificial neurons is promising for brain-inspired computing from the viewpoints of computation architecture and learning protocol. We present an energy-efficient multiplier accumulator based on a memristive array architecture incorporating both analog and digital circuitries. The analog circuitry is used to full advantage for neural networks, as demonstrated by the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) in fabricated AlO x /TiO x -based metal-oxide memristive devices. STDP protocols for controlling periodic analog resistance with long-range stability were experimentally verified using a variety of voltage amplitudes and spike timings.

  1. The Swiss disaster management plan for coping with the aftermath of radiological dispersal devices - ''dirty bomb'' operational concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffel, F.; Blaettler, M.; Leonardi, A.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the Swiss Federal Commission for NRBC Protection released a disaster management plan for coping with the aftermath of radiological dispersal devices. This paper summarises the basic concept and outlines the relevant bodies and agencies as well as their responsibilities. It also sets out the strategy to monitor radioactive contamination and the measures to prevent public radiation exposure. (orig.)

  2. A field test of substance use screening devices as part of routine drunk-driving spot detection operating procedures in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzopoulos, Richard; Lasarow, Avi; Bowman, Brett

    2013-10-01

    This pilot study aimed to test four substance use screening devices developed in Germany under local South African conditions and assess their utility for detecting driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) as part of the standard roadblock operations of local law enforcement agencies. The devices were used to screen a sample of motorists in the Gauteng and Western Cape provinces. The motorists were diverted for screening at roadblocks at the discretion of the law enforcement agencies involved, as per their standard operating procedures. Fieldworkers also administered a questionnaire that described the screening procedure, as well as information about vehicles, demographic information about the motorists and their attitudes to the screening process during testing. Motorists tested positive for breath alcohol in 28% of the 261 cases tested. Oral fluid was screened for drugs as per the standard calibrated cut-offs of all four devices. There were 14 cases where the under-influence drivers tested positive for alcohol and drugs simultaneously, but 14% of the 269 drivers drug-screened tested positive for drugs only. After alcohol, amphetamine, methamphetamine and cocaine were the most common drugs of impairment detected. The results suggest that under normal enforcement procedures only 76% of drivers impaired by alcohol and other drugs would have been detected. In more than 70% of cases the tests were administered within 5 min and this is likely to improve with more regular use. It was clear that the pilot screening process meets global testing standards. Although use of the screening devices alone would not serve as a basis for prosecution and provisions would need to be made for the confirmation of results through laboratory testing, rollout of this screening process would improve operational efficiency in at least two ways. Firstly, the accuracy of the tests will substantially decrease confirmatory test loads. Secondly, laboratory drug testing can be restricted to

  3. Guide device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, C.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a fuel handling guide tube centering device for use in nuclear reactors during fuel assembly handling operations. The device comprises an outer ring secured to the flange of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, a rotatable table rotatably coupled to the outer ring, and a plurality of openings through the table. Truncated locating cones are positioned in each of the openings in the table, and the locating cones center the guide tube during fuel handling operations. The openings in the table are located such that each fuel assembly in the nuclear core may be aligned with one of the openings by a suitable rotation of the table. The locating cones thereby provide alignment between the fuel handling mechanism located in the guide tube and the individual fuel assemblies of the cone. The need for a device to provide alignment is especially critical for floating nuclear power plants, where wave motion may exist during fuel handling operations. 5 claims, 4 figures

  4. Operational amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Dostal, Jiri

    1993-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. It presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits.Provides the reader with practical knowledge necessary to select and use operational amplifier devices. Presents an extensive treatment of applications and a practically oriented, unified theory of operational circuits

  5. Multi-channel spintronic transistor design based on magnetoelectric barriers and spin-orbital effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G

    2008-01-01

    We present a spin transistor design based on spin-orbital interactions in a two-dimensional electron gas, with magnetic barriers induced by a patterned ferromagnetic gate. The proposed device overcomes certain shortcomings of previous spin transistor designs such as long device length and degradation of conductance modulation for multi-channel transport. The robustness of our device for multi-channel transport is unique in spin transistor designs based on spin-orbit coupling. The device is more practical in fabrication and experimental respects compared to previously conceived single-mode spin transistors

  6. Application of Detailed Phase Comparison Protection Models for the Analysis of its Operation in Networks with Facts Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Nikolay Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of relay protection misoperations in networks with FACTS devices is considered in the paper. It is offered a solution to this problem for a phase comparison protection of transmission power line through the use of its detailed model for the analysis of the functioning for a case of various normal, emergency and post-emergency modes of electric power systems. The research results of this approach are given in the paper.

  7. [Intelligent telemedicine in intensive care units. Bed-side operation of medical technology devices and IT in intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, R; Rüth, R

    2009-03-01

    Patient data management systems (PDMS) may improve the quality of clinical documentation in intensive care medicine. In addition to the documentation, many PDMS offer the clinicians support for clinical decisions and workflow. The data recorded by the PDMS are available for data analysis to support administrative responsibilities (e.g., reimbursement, personnel management, quality management) or scientific questions. Within this process, semantic interoperability is a cornerstone for the integration of the PDMS into the IT infrastructure of the hospital, and the connection of medical devices is an essential precondition. Thus, a medical terminology system, like LOINC or SNOMED CT, is required, but are generally not widely used. This is partly caused by the fact that the effort necessary to implement a standard vocabulary is not equally shared between the sending and receiving systems. The solution could be medical devices that send LOINC-coded data. The experience of implementing LOINC into medical devices and information systems teaches us that more research and development of new functionalities for clinical information systems and PDMS to display and process (LOINC) coded data are needed.

  8. Using of explosive technologies for development of a compact current-limiting device for operation on 110 kV class systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Shurupov, M. A.; Kozlov, A. A.; Kotov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    This paper considers the possibility of creating on new physical principles a highspeed current-limiting device (CLD) for the networks with voltage of 110 kV, namely, on the basis of the explosive switching elements. The device is designed to limit the steady short-circuit current to acceptable values for the time does not exceed 3 ms at electric power facilities. The paper presents an analysis of the electrical circuit of CLD. The main features of the scheme are: a new high-speed switching element with high regenerating voltage; fusible switching element that enables to limit the overvoltage after sudden breakage of network of the explosive switch; non-inductive resistor with a high heat capacity and a special reactor with operating time less than 1 s. We analyzed the work of the CLD with help of special software PSPICE, which is based on the equivalent circuit of single-phase short circuit to ground in 110 kV network. Analysis of the equivalent circuit operation CLD shows its efficiency and determines the CLD as a perspective direction of the current-limiting devices of new generation.

  9. Using of explosive technologies for development of a compact current-limiting device for operation on 110 kV class systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurupov, A V; Shurupov, M A; Kozlov, A A; Kotov, A V

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the possibility of creating on new physical principles a highspeed current-limiting device (CLD) for the networks with voltage of 110 kV, namely, on the basis of the explosive switching elements. The device is designed to limit the steady short-circuit current to acceptable values for the time does not exceed 3 ms at electric power facilities. The paper presents an analysis of the electrical circuit of CLD. The main features of the scheme are: a new high-speed switching element with high regenerating voltage; fusible switching element that enables to limit the overvoltage after sudden breakage of network of the explosive switch; non-inductive resistor with a high heat capacity and a special reactor with operating time less than 1 s. We analyzed the work of the CLD with help of special software PSPICE, which is based on the equivalent circuit of single-phase short circuit to ground in 110 kV network. Analysis of the equivalent circuit operation CLD shows its efficiency and determines the CLD as a perspective direction of the current-limiting devices of new generation. (paper)

  10. Voltage-Controlled Reconfigurable Spin-Wave Nanochannels and Logic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Bivas; Otani, YoshiChika

    2018-01-01

    Propagating spin waves (SWs) promise to be a potential information carrier in future spintronics devices with lower power consumption. Here, we propose reconfigurable nanochannels (NCs) generated by voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) in an ultrathin ferromagnetic waveguide for SW propagation. Numerical micromagnetic simulations are performed to demonstrate the confinement of magnetostatic forward volumelike spin waves in NCs by VCMA. We demonstrate that the NCs, with a width down to a few tens of a nanometer, can be configured either into a straight or curved structure on an extended SW waveguide. The key advantage is that either a single NC or any combination of a number of NCs can be easily configured by VCMA for simultaneous propagation of SWs either with the same or different wave vectors according to our needs. Furthermore, we demonstrate the logic operation of a voltage-controlled magnonic xnor and universal nand gate and propose a voltage-controlled reconfigurable SW switch for the development of a multiplexer and demultiplexer. We find that the NCs and logic devices can even be functioning in the absence of the external-bias magnetic field. These results are a step towards the development of all-voltage-controlled magnonic devices with an ultralow power consumption.

  11. Anisotropic sensor and memory device with a ferromagnetic tunnel barrier as the only magnetic element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lόpez-Mir, L; Frontera, C; Aramberri, H; Bouzehouane, K; Cisneros-Fernández, J; Bozzo, B; Balcells, L; Martínez, B

    2018-01-16

    Multiple spin functionalities are probed on Pt/La 2 Co 0.8 Mn 1.2 O 6 /Nb:SrTiO 3 , a device composed by a ferromagnetic insulating barrier sandwiched between non-magnetic electrodes. Uniquely, La 2 Co 0.8 Mn 1.2 O 6 thin films present strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of magnetocrystalline origin, property of major interest for spintronics. The junction has an estimated spin-filtering efficiency of 99.7% and tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) values up to 30% at low temperatures. This remarkable angular dependence of the magnetoresistance is associated with the magnetic anisotropy whose origin lies in the large spin-orbit interaction of Co 2+ which is additionally tuned by the strain of the crystal lattice. Furthermore, we found that the junction can operate as an electrically readable magnetic memory device. The findings of this work demonstrate that a single ferromagnetic insulating barrier with strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy is sufficient for realizing sensor and memory functionalities in a tunneling device based on TAMR.

  12. Spin-dependent transport and functional design in organic ferromagnetic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guichao Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Organic ferromagnets are intriguing materials in that they combine ferromagnetic and organic properties. Although challenges in their synthesis still remain, the development of organic spintronics has triggered strong interest in high-performance organic ferromagnetic devices. This review first introduces our theory for spin-dependent electron transport through organic ferromagnetic devices, which combines an extended Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model with the Green’s function method. The effects of the intrinsic interactions in the organic ferromagnets, including strong electron–lattice interaction and spin–spin correlation between π-electrons and radicals, are highlighted. Several interesting functional designs of organic ferromagnetic devices are discussed, specifically the concepts of a spin filter, multi-state magnetoresistance, and spin-current rectification. The mechanism of each phenomenon is explained by transmission and orbital analysis. These works show that organic ferromagnets are promising components for spintronic devices that deserve to be designed and examined in future experiments.

  13. Development of digital device based work verification system for cooperation between main control room operators and field workers in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min, E-mail: jewellee@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Chul, E-mail: leehc@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 305-353, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jun Su, E-mail: junsu.ha@kustar.ac.ae [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi P.O. Box 127788 (United Arab Emirates); Seong, Poong Hyun, E-mail: phseong@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • A digital device-based work verification and cooperation support system was developed. • Requirements were derived by interviewing field operators having experiences with mobile-based work support systems. • The usability of the proposed system was validated by conducting questionnaire surveys. • The proposed system will be useful if the manual or the set of guidelines is well constructed. - Abstract: Digital technologies have been applied in the nuclear field to check task results, monitor events and accidents, and transmit/receive data. The results of using digital devices have proven that these devices can provide high accuracy and convenience for workers, allowing them to obtain obvious positive effects by reducing their workloads. In this study, as one step forward, a digital device-based cooperation support system, the nuclear cooperation support and mobile documentation system (Nu-COSMOS), is proposed to support communication between main control room (MCR) operators and field workers by verifying field workers’ work results in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The proposed system consists of a mobile based information storage system to support field workers by providing various functions to make workers more trusted by MCR operators; also to improve the efficiency of meeting, and a large screen based information sharing system supports meetings by allowing both sides to share one medium. The usability of this system was estimated by interviewing field operators working in nuclear power plants and experts who have experience working as operators. A survey to estimate the usability of the suggested system and the suitability of the functions of the system for field working was conducted for 35 subjects who have experience in field works or with support system development-related research. The usability test was conducted using the system usability scale (SUS), which is widely used in industrial usability evaluation. Using questionnaires

  14. Development of digital device based work verification system for cooperation between main control room operators and field workers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Hyun Chul; Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A digital device-based work verification and cooperation support system was developed. • Requirements were derived by interviewing field operators having experiences with mobile-based work support systems. • The usability of the proposed system was validated by conducting questionnaire surveys. • The proposed system will be useful if the manual or the set of guidelines is well constructed. - Abstract: Digital technologies have been applied in the nuclear field to check task results, monitor events and accidents, and transmit/receive data. The results of using digital devices have proven that these devices can provide high accuracy and convenience for workers, allowing them to obtain obvious positive effects by reducing their workloads. In this study, as one step forward, a digital device-based cooperation support system, the nuclear cooperation support and mobile documentation system (Nu-COSMOS), is proposed to support communication between main control room (MCR) operators and field workers by verifying field workers’ work results in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The proposed system consists of a mobile based information storage system to support field workers by providing various functions to make workers more trusted by MCR operators; also to improve the efficiency of meeting, and a large screen based information sharing system supports meetings by allowing both sides to share one medium. The usability of this system was estimated by interviewing field operators working in nuclear power plants and experts who have experience working as operators. A survey to estimate the usability of the suggested system and the suitability of the functions of the system for field working was conducted for 35 subjects who have experience in field works or with support system development-related research. The usability test was conducted using the system usability scale (SUS), which is widely used in industrial usability evaluation. Using questionnaires

  15. A superconducting quantum interference device based read-out of a subattonewton force sensor operating at millikelvin temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, O.; Vinante, A.; Wijts, G.; Oosterkamp, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scheme to measure the displacement of a nanomechanical resonator at cryogenic temperature. The technique is based on the use of a superconducting quantum interference device to detect the magnetic flux change induced by a magnetized particle attached on the end of the resonator. Unlike conventional interferometric techniques, our detection scheme does not involve direct power dissipation in the resonator, and therefore, is particularly suitable for ultralow temperature applications. We demonstrate its potential by cooling an ultrasoft silicon cantilever to a noise temperature of 25 mK, corresponding to a subattonewton thermal force noise of 0.5 aN/√(Hz).

  16. Prevention of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infections: Single Operator Technique with Use of Povidone-Iodine, Double Gloving, Meticulous Aseptic/Antiseptic Measures and Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Antonis S; Melita, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation is complicated by infection still at a worrisome rate of 2-5%. Since early on during device implantation procedures, we have adopted an infection-preventive technique which has hitherto resulted in effective prevention of infections. Herein we present our results of applying this technique by a single operator in a prospective series of 762 consecutive patients undergoing device implantation. A meticulous search for and treatment of active, occult, or smoldering infection was undertaken preoperatively. An aseptic/antiseptic technique was used for implantation of each device. Skin preparation is thorough with initial cleansing performed with alcohol followed by povidone-iodine 10% solution, which is also used in the wound and inside the pocket. In addition, we routinely use double gloving, and IV antibiotic prophylaxis 1 hour before and for 48 hours afterwards followed by oral antibiotic for 2-3 days after discharge. The skin is closed with absorbable sutures. The study includes 382 patients having a new pacemaker (n = 333) or battery change, system upgrade or lead revision (n = 49), and 380 patients having a new implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (n = 296) or device replacement/upgrade/lead revision (n = 84). The pacemaker group, aged 70.2 ± 16.5 years, includes 18% VVI, 49% DDD, 29% VDD, and 4% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The ICD group, aged 61.3 ± 13.0 years, with a mean ejection fraction of 36 ± 13%, includes 325 ICD and 55 CRT implants. Over 26.6 ± 33.4 months for the pacemaker group and 36.6 ± 38.3 months for the ICD group, infection occurred in one patient in each group (0.26%) having a device replacement. A consistent and strict approach of aseptic/antiseptic technique with the use of double gloving and povidone-iodine solution within the pocket plus a 4-day regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis minimizes infections in CIED implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Identifying costs and funding alternatives for equipping operating while intoxicated (OWI) offenders with ignition interlock devices (IIDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    From 2005-2009 there were over 200,000 arrests for Operating while intoxicated (OWI) in the State of : Wisconsin. The project had three primary goals. First, data on OWI offenders were analyzed to : determine if there existed any driver characteristi...

  18. An analysis of the operation of a single-pole relay integrated circuit device with a controlled reset ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshetov, N.E.

    1980-01-01

    Relay equipment using semiconductor components (such as those containing gates using planar transformers, and a relay in networks which control the operational time of a relay) are widely used in the automation equipment of electric power systems. A scheme where a gate in the form of an integrated circuit is used is given.

  19. Field testing, comparison, and discussion of five aeolian sand transport measuring devices operating on different measuring principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Dirk; Nolet, Corjan; Etyemezian, Vicken; Duarte-campos, Leonardo; Bakker, Gerben; Riksen, Michel

    2018-01-01

    Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And

  20. Field testing, comparison, and discussion of five aeolian sand transport measuring devices operation on different measuring priciples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Dirk; Nolet, C.; Etyemezian, Vicken; Duarte-Campos, Leonardo; Bakker, G.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And

  1. Electronic structure and physical properties of Heusler compounds for thermoelectric and spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouardi, Siham

    2012-03-19

    This thesis focuses on synthesis as well as investigations of the electronic structure and properties of Heusler compounds for spintronic and thermoelectric applications. The first part reports on the electronic and crystal structure as well as the mechanical, magnetic, and transport properties of the polycrystalline Heusler compound Co{sub 2}MnGe. The crystalline structure was examined in detail by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and anomalous X-ray diffraction. The low-temperature magnetic moment agrees well with the Slater-Pauling rule and indicates a half-metallic ferromagnetic state of the compound, as is predicted by ab-initio calculations. Transport measurements and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) were performed to explain the electronic structure of the compound. A major part of the thesis deals with a systematical investigation of Heusler compounds for thermoelectric applications. This thesis focuses on the search for new p-type Heusler compounds with high thermoelectric efficiency. The substitutional series NiTi{sub 1-x}M{sub x}Sn (where M=Sc, V and 0

  2. Electronic structure and physical properties of Heusler compounds for thermoelectric and spintronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouardi, Siham

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on synthesis as well as investigations of the electronic structure and properties of Heusler compounds for spintronic and thermoelectric applications. The first part reports on the electronic and crystal structure as well as the mechanical, magnetic, and transport properties of the polycrystalline Heusler compound Co 2 MnGe. The crystalline structure was examined in detail by extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and anomalous X-ray diffraction. The low-temperature magnetic moment agrees well with the Slater-Pauling rule and indicates a half-metallic ferromagnetic state of the compound, as is predicted by ab-initio calculations. Transport measurements and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) were performed to explain the electronic structure of the compound. A major part of the thesis deals with a systematical investigation of Heusler compounds for thermoelectric applications. This thesis focuses on the search for new p-type Heusler compounds with high thermoelectric efficiency. The substitutional series NiTi 1-x M x Sn (where M=Sc, V and 0 0.26 Sc 0.04 Zr 0.35 Hf 0.35 Sn. HAXPES valence band measurement show massive in gap states for the parent compounds NiTiSn, CoTiSb and NiTi 0.3 Zr 0.35 Hf 0.35 Sn. This proves that the electronic states close to the Fermi energy play a key role for the behavior of the transport properties. Furthermore, the electronic structure of the gapless Heusler compounds PtYSb, PtLaBi and PtLuSb were investigated by bulk sensitive HAXPES. The linear behavior of the spectra close to εF proves the bulk origin of Dirac-cone type density of states. Furthermore, a systematic study on the optical and transport properties of PtYSb is presented. The compound exhibits promising thermoelectric properties with a high figure of merit (ZT=0.2) and a Hall mobility μh of 300 cm 2 /Vs at 350 K. The last part of this thesis describes the linear dichroism in angular-resolved photoemission from the valence band

  3. Graphene: from functionalization to devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Antonio; Soukiassian, Patrick G.

    2014-03-01

    The year 2014 marks the first decade of the rise of graphene. Graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon atoms in sp2 bonding configuration having a honeycomb structure, has now become a well-known and well-established material. Among some of its many outstanding fundamental properties, one can mention a very high carrier mobility, a very large spin diffusion length, unsurpassed mechanical properties as graphene is the strongest material ever measured and an exceptional thermal conductivity scaling more than one order of magnitude above that of copper. After the first years of the graphene rush, graphene growth is now well controlled using various methods like epitaxial growth on silicon carbide substrate, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) or plasma techniques on metal, insulator or semiconductor substrates. More applied research is now taking over the initial studies on graphene production. Indeed, graphene is a promising material for many advanced applications such as, but not limited to, electronic, spintronics, sensors, photonics, micro/nano-electromechanical (MEMS/NEMS) systems, super-capacitors or touch-screen technologies. In this context, this Special Issue of the Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics on graphene reviews some of the recent achievements, progress and prospects in this field. It includes a collection of seventeen invited articles covering the current status and future prospects of some selected topics of strong current interest. This Special Issue is organized in four sections. The first section is dedicated to graphene devices, and opens with an article by de Heer et al on an investigation of integrating graphene devices with silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Then, a study by Svintsov et al proposes a lateral all-graphene tunnel field-effect transistor (FET) with a high on/off current switching ratio. Next, Tsukagoshi et al present how a band-gap opening occurs in a graphene bilayer by using a perpendicular

  4. Field testing, comparison, and discussion of five aeolian sand transport measuring devices operating on different measuring principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Dirk; Nolet, Corjan; Etyemezian, Vicken; Duarte-Campos, Leonardo; Bakker, Gerben; Riksen, Michel

    2018-06-01

    Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And Cooke) is a passive segmented trap. The modified Leatherman sampler is a passive vertically integrating trap. The Saltiphone is an acoustic sampler that registers grain impacts on a microphone. The Wenglor sampler is an optical sensor that detects particles as they pass through a laser beam. The SANTRI (Standalone AeoliaN Transport Real-time Instrument) detects particles travelling through an infrared beam, but in different channels each associated with a particular grain size spectrum. A procedure is presented to transform the data output, which is different for each sampler, to a common standard so that the samplers can be objectively compared and their relative efficiency calculated. Results show that the efficiency of the samplers is comparable despite the differences in operating principle and the instrumental and environmental uncertainties associated to working with particle samplers in field conditions. The ability of the samplers to register the temporal evolution of a wind erosion event is investigated. The strengths and weaknesses of the samplers are discussed. Some problems inherent to optical sensors are looked at in more detail. Finally, suggestions are made for further improvement of the samplers.

  5. Device for absorbing the axial forces occurring on the fuel assemblies during operation of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankovich, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    The fuel assemblies consisting of rod-shaped fuel rods stand on a grid plate. Opposite the projections of the upper grid plate mounted on a support barrel the fuel assemblies are elastically supported in order to compensate the mechanical vibrations and thermal expansions occurring during operation. This is achieved by combined bending and torsion springs bridging the distance between projections and fuel assembly end pieces. The bending and torsion springs consist of a bending arm, a torsion piece, and another bending arm being deflected by 90 0 and provided at the end with an upsetting. Each spring consists of round stock. In order to increase the flexibility one of the bending arms is designed conically or stepped. (DG) [de

  6. Generalized non-Local Resistance Expression and its Application in F/N/F Spintronic Structure with Graphene Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huazhou; Fu, Shiwei

    We report our work on the spin transport properties in the F/N/F(ferromagnets/normal metal/ferromagnets) spintronic structure from a new theoretical perspective. A significant problem in the field is to explain the inferior measured order of magnitude for spin lifetime. Based on the known non-local resistance formula and the mechanism analysis of spin-flipping within the interfaces between F and N, we analytically derive a broadly applicable new non-local resistance expression and a generalized Hanle curve formula. After employing them in the F/N/F structure under different limits, especially in the case of graphene channel, we find that the fitting from experimental data would yield a longer spin lifetime, which approaches its theoretical predicted value in graphene. The authors acknowledge the financial support by China University of Petroleum-Beijing and the Key Laboratory of Optical Detection Technology for Oil and Gas in this institution.

  7. Electron spin for classical information processing: a brief survey of spin-based logic devices, gates and circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Cahay, Marc

    2009-01-01

    In electronics, information has been traditionally stored, processed and communicated using an electron's charge. This paradigm is increasingly turning out to be energy-inefficient, because movement of charge within an information processing device invariably causes current flow and an associated dissipation. Replacing 'charge' with the 'spin' of an electron to encode information may eliminate much of this dissipation and lead to more energy-efficient 'green electronics'. This realization has spurred significant research in spintronic devices and circuits where spin either directly acts as the physical variable for hosting information or augments the role of charge. In this review article, we discuss and elucidate some of these ideas, and highlight their strengths and weaknesses. Many of them can potentially reduce energy dissipation significantly, but unfortunately are error-prone and unreliable. Moreover, there are serious obstacles to their technological implementation that may be difficult to overcome in the near term. This review addresses three constructs: (1) single devices or binary switches that can be constituents of Boolean logic gates for digital information processing, (2) complete gates that are capable of performing specific Boolean logic operations, and (3) combinational circuits or architectures (equivalent to many gates working in unison) that are capable of performing universal computation. (topical review)

  8. Coupling Photonics and Coherent Spintronics for Low-Loss Flexible Optical Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    into devices, ranging from macroscopic optical cavities, to arrays of microlens cavities, to quantum dot-impregnated integrated polymer waveguides...spins   in   semiconductor   nanocrystal   quantum   dots   (NCQDs),   with   the   particular   aim   of   enabling   spin... lock -­‐in   based   detection.   The   pump   and   probe   lasers   are   then   used   for   a   Faraday   rotation

  9. Does One Need a 4.5 K Screen in Cryostats of Superconducting Accelerator Devices Operating in Superfluid Helium? Lessons from the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, Ph; Tavian, L

    2014-01-01

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large proj...

  10. The properties of human body phantoms used in calculations of electromagnetic fields exposure by wireless communication handsets or hand-operated industrial devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2013-06-01

    According to international guidelines, the assessment of biophysical effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by hand-operated sources needs the evaluation of induced electric field (E(in)) or specific energy absorption rate (SAR) caused by EMF inside a worker's body and is usually done by the numerical simulations with different protocols applied to these two exposure cases. The crucial element of these simulations is the numerical phantom of the human body. Procedures of E(in) and SAR evaluation due to compliance analysis with exposure limits have been defined in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standards and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines, but a detailed specification of human body phantoms has not been described. An analysis of the properties of over 30 human body numerical phantoms was performed which has been used in recently published investigations related to the assessment of EMF exposure by various sources. The differences in applicability of these phantoms in the evaluation of E(in) and SAR while operating industrial devices and SAR while using mobile communication handsets are discussed. The whole human body numerical phantom dimensions, posture, spatial resolution and electric contact with the ground constitute the key parameters in modeling the exposure related to industrial devices, while modeling the exposure from mobile communication handsets, which needs only to represent the exposed part of the human body nearest to the handset, mainly depends on spatial resolution of the phantom. The specification and standardization of these parameters of numerical human body phantoms are key requirements to achieve comparable and reliable results from numerical simulations carried out for compliance analysis against exposure limits or within the exposure assessment in EMF-related epidemiological studies.

  11. Cooling device in thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Tsutomu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent loss of cooling effect over the entire torus structure directly after accidental toubles in a cooling device of a thermonuclear device. Constitution: Coolant recycling means of a cooling device comprises two systems, which are alternately connected with in-flow pipeways and exit pipeways of adjacent modules. The modules are cooled by way of the in-flow pipeways and the exist pipeways connected to the respective modules by means of the coolant recycling means corresponding to the respective modules. So long as one of the coolant recycling means is kept operative, since every one other modules of the torus structure is still kept cooled, the heat generated from the module put therebetween, for which the coolant recycling is interrupted, is removed by means of heat conduction or radiation from the module for which the cooling is kept continued. No back-up emergency cooling system is required and it can provide high economic reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Understanding Electrically Active Interface Formation on Wide Bandgap Semiconductors through Molecular Beam Epitaxy Using Fe3O 4 for Spintronics as a Base Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani Golshan, Negar

    Nanoelectronics, complex heterostructures, and engineered 3D matrix materials are quickly advancing from research possibilities to manufacturing challenges for applications ranging from high-power devices to solar cells to any number of novel multifunctional sensors and controllers. Formation of an abrupt and effective interface is one of the basic requirements for integration of functional materials on different types of semiconductors (from silicon to the wide bandgaps) which can significantly impact the functionality of nanoscale electronic devices. To realize the potential of next-generation electronics, the understanding and control of those initial stages of film layer formation must be understood and translated to a process that can control the initial stages of film deposition. Thin film Fe3O4 has attracted much attention as a material for exploring the potential of spintronics in next-generation information technologies. Synthesis of highly spin-polarized material as spin sources, in combination with wide bandgap semiconductors which have a long spin relaxation time in addition to functionality in high-temperature, high-power, and high-frequency environments, would enhance the performance of today's spintronic devices. Spinel ferrite Fe3O4 has a high Curie temperature of 858 K and it is predicted to possess half-metallic properties, i.e. 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level, which can lead to ultrahigh tunneling magnetoresistance at room temperature. However, these properties have been very difficult to realize in thin film form, and device design strategies require high-quality thin films of Fe3O4. The most common reason reported in literature for the failure of the films to achieve theoretical performance is that the growth techniques used today produce films with antiphase boundaries (APB). These APBs have a strong antiferromagnetic coupling that negatively impact the magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial Fe 3O4 films. Therefore, greater

  13. Right ventricular functional analysis utilizing first pass radionuclide angiography for pre-operative ventricular assist device planning: a multi-modality comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Ryan; Day, Kevin; Jokerst, Clinton; Kazui, Toshinobu; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Khalpey, Zain

    2017-10-10

    FPRNA was 32.6% (9 - 56%). The mean discrepancy for LVEF between cardiac MRI and MUGA was 4.1% (0 - 9%), and correlation of calculated LVEF using cardiac MRI and MUGA demonstrated an R of 0.9. The mean discrepancy for RVEF between cardiac MRI and FPRNA was 12.0% (range: 2 - 24%) with a moderate correlation (R = 0.5). The increased discrepancies for RV analysis were statistically significant using an unpaired t-test (t = 3.19, p = 0.0061). Echocardiogram parameters of RV function, including TAPSE and FAC, were for available for all 9 patients and agreement with cardiac MRI demonstrated a kappa statistic for TAPSE of 0.39 (95% CI of 0.06 - 0.72) and for FAC of 0.64 (95% of 0.21 - 1.00). Heart failure patients are increasingly requiring left ventricular assist device placement; however, definitive evaluation of biventricular function is required due to the increased mortality rate associated with right heart failure after assist device placement. Our results suggest that FPRNA only has a moderate correlation with reference standard RVEFs calculated using cardiac MRI, which was similar to calculated agreements between cardiac MRI and echocardiographic parameters of right ventricular function. Given the need for identification of patients at risk for right heart failure, further studies are warranted to determine a more accurate estimate of RVEF for heart failure patients during pre-operative ventricular assist device planning.

  14. Articulating feedstock delivery device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2013-11-05

    A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

  15. Topological Material-Based Spin Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minhao; Wang, Xuefeng

    Three-dimensional topological insulators have insulating bulk and gapless helical surface states. One of the most fascinating properties of the metallic surface states is the spin-momentum helical locking. The giant current-driven torques on the magnetic layer have been discovered in TI/ferromagnet bilayers originating from the spin-momentum helical locking, enabling the efficient magnetization switching with a low current density. We demonstrated the current-direction dependent on-off state in TIs-based spin valve devices for memory and logic applications. Further, we demonstrated the Bi2Se3 system will go from a topologically nontrivial state to a topologically trivial state when Bi atoms are replaced by lighter In atoms. Here, topologically trivial metal (BixIny)2 Se3 with high mobility also facilitates the realization of its application in multifunctional spintronic devices.

  16. Pre- and post-operative risk factors associated with cerebrovascular accidents in patients supported by left ventricular assist device. -Single center's experience in japan-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ikutaro; Kato, Tomoko S; Komamura, Kazuo; Takahashi, Ayako; Oda, Noboru; Sasaoka, Taro; Asakura, Masanori; Hashimura, Kazuhiko; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is a major adverse event following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) surgery. This study investigates pre- and post-operative factors associated with CVA in this population. A total of 118 consecutive patients who underwent LVAD surgery at our institution between April 1994 and April 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical characteristics, hemodynamic data, and laboratory indexes associated with CVA after LVAD surgery were analyzed. In total, 57 (48.3%) patients developed CVA 133.5 ± 184.7 days after surgery. The combination of baseline heart disease, type of LVAD surgery, mean right atrial pressure (mRA), serum total bilirubin and total protein concentration, and right ventricular end-diastolic dimension (RVEDd) was associated with CVA at any time after LVAD surgery, with a discriminant probability of 718%. With regard to CVA development later than 3 months after surgery, the combination of mRA and RVEDd before surgery [odds ratio (OR), 1.24, 1.20; 95% confidential interval (CI), 1.07-1.42, 1.06-1.34; P = 0.004, P = 0.006, respectively], positive blood culture, and C-reactive protein after surgery (OR, 7.66, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.50-39.0, 1.47-3.25; P = 0.015, P < 0.0001, respectively) was associated with CVA with a discriminant probability of 85.9%. Patients' general condition including malnutrition, in addition to device selection, contributed to overall CVA development after surgery. In the chronic phase after surgery, pre-LVAD right heart failure and post-LVAD systemic infection were highly associated with CVA development.

  17. Smart devices are different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Allan; Blunck, Henrik; Bhattacharya, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    research results. This is due to variations in training and test device hardware and their operating system characteristics among others. In this paper, we systematically investigate sensor-, device- and workload-specific heterogeneities using 36 smartphones and smartwatches, consisting of 13 different...... device models from four manufacturers. Furthermore, we conduct experiments with nine users and investigate popular feature representation and classification techniques in HAR research. Our results indicate that on-device sensor and sensor handling heterogeneities impair HAR performances significantly...

  18. Low-power non-volatile spintronic memory: STT-RAM and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K L; Alzate, J G; Khalili Amiri, P

    2013-01-01

    The quest for novel low-dissipation devices is one of the most critical for the future of semiconductor technology and nano-systems. The development of a low-power, universal memory will enable a new paradigm of non-volatile computation. Here we consider STT-RAM as one of the emerging candidates for low-power non-volatile memory. We show different configurations for STT memory and demonstrate strategies to optimize key performance parameters such as switching current and energy. The energy and scaling limits of STT-RAM are discussed, leading us to argue that alternative writing mechanisms may be required to achieve ultralow power dissipation, a necessary condition for direct integration with CMOS at the gate level for non-volatile logic purposes. As an example, we discuss the use of the giant spin Hall effect as a possible alternative to induce magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions using pure spin currents. Further, we concentrate on magnetoelectric effects, where electric fields are used instead of spin-polarized currents to manipulate the nanomagnets, as another candidate solution to address the challenges of energy efficiency and density. The possibility of an electric-field-controlled magnetoelectric RAM as a promising candidate for ultralow-power non-volatile memory is discussed in the light of experimental data demonstrating voltage-induced switching of the magnetization and reorientation of the magnetic easy axis by electric fields in nanomagnets. (paper)

  19. Line voltage distortions due to operation of the power supply devices required for plasma heating and magnetic field generation in the W7X thermonuclear fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, F.

    1997-03-01

    The operation of the W7-X plasma heating devices requires high voltage DC power supplies with a total electrical power of 40 MVA. For this purpose twelve-pulse AC/DC converters are projected. These converters enforce a non sinusoidal line current, whose harmonics are causing corresponding line voltage distortions. To evaluate the extent of these distortions, the reaction of the harmonic currents on the AC line, is investigated by numerical network analysis. This is done for both, the 20 kV-junction point of the converters and the 110 kV-line terminal of the electricity supply company. Furthermore the design of LC series-resonant circuits, projected for power factor correction and damping of the harmonic content of the line voltage, has been verified. The additional operation of the 1.5 MVA magnet power supplies also contributes, even though to a much smaller extent, to the line voltage distortion. The influence of these twelve-pulse AC/DC converters was investigated too. The numerical calculations have been done with the aid of the network simulation program 'Pspice'. In an equivalent circuit the transmission line network and the transformers are represented by their inductances respectively equivalent inductances. The rectifier units are simulated by a number of current sources, producing the current harmonics in amplitude, frequency and phase. The harmonics amplitudes of the plasma heating power supplies are frequency and phase. The harmonics amplitudes of the plasma heating power supplies are measured values given by the manufacturer. For the magnet power supplies, the harmonics are derived from the theoretical step like I(t) current shape by Fourier series decomposition. Due to the action of the LC circuits the achieved characteristic voltage quality values are far below the permissible values corresponding to the recommendations of VDE 0160. (orig.) [de

  20. Does one need a 4.5 K screen in cryostats of superconducting accelerator devices operating in superfluid helium? lessons from the LHL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Philippe; Parma, Vittorio; Tavian, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Superfluid helium is increasingly used as a coolant for superconducting devices in particle accelerators: the lower temperature enhances the performance of superconductors in high-field magnets and reduces BCS losses in RF acceleration cavities, while the excellent transport properties of superfluid helium can be put to work in efficient distributed cooling systems. The thermodynamic penalty of operating at lower temperature however requires careful management of the heat loads, achieved inter alia through proper design and construction of the cryostats. A recurrent question appears to be that of the need and practical feasibility of an additional screen cooled by normal helium at around 4.5 K surrounding the cold mass at about 2 K, in such cryostats equipped with a standard 80 K screen. We introduce the issue in terms of first principles applied to the configuration of the cryostats, discuss technical constraints and economical limitations, and illustrate the argumentation with examples taken from large projects confronted with this issue, i.e. CEBAF, SPL, ESS, LHC, TESLA, European X-FEL, ILC.

  1. Workers' exposure to electric fields during the task 'maintenance of an operating device of circuit breaker from a service platform' at 110-kV substations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2018-02-26

    The objective of the study was to investigate occupational exposure to electric fields during the task 'maintenance of an operating device of circuit breaker from a service platform' at 110-kV substations. The aim was also to compare the results to Directive 2013/35/EU. At 16 substations, 255 electric field measurements were performed. The highest mean value of the electric fields was 9.6 kV⋅m -1 . At 63% of substations the maximum values were over 10.0 kV⋅m -1 , and at 31% of the substations the 75th percentiles were over 10.0 kV⋅m -1 , which is the low action level (AL) according to Directive 2013/35/EU. All measured values were below the high AL (20.0 kV⋅m -1 ). In the future, it is important to take into account that the measurements were only taken at Finnish 110-kV substations; therefore, it is not possible to generalize these results to other countries and different types of substations.

  2. Rational Design of Two-Dimensional Metallic and Semiconducting Spintronic Materials Based on Ordered Double-Transition-Metal MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Liang

    2016-12-30

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials that display robust ferromagnetism have been pursued intensively for nanoscale spintronic applications, but suitable candidates have not been identified. Here we present theoretical predictions on the design of ordered double-transition-metal MXene structures to achieve such a goal. On the basis of the analysis of electron filling in transition-metal cations and first-principles simulations, we demonstrate robust ferromagnetism in Ti2MnC2Tx monolayers regardless of the surface terminations (T = O, OH, and F), as well as in Hf2MnC2O2 and Hf2VC2O2 monolayers. The high magnetic moments (3–4 μB/unit cell) and high Curie temperatures (495–1133 K) of these MXenes are superior to those of existing 2D ferromagnetic materials. Furthermore, semimetal-to-semiconductor and ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic phase transitions are predicted to occur in these materials in the presence of small or moderate tensile in-plane strains (0–3%), which can be externally applied mechanically or internally induced by the choice of transition metals.

  3. BO2-functionalized B3N3C54 heterofullerene as a possible candidate for molecular spintronics and nonlinear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2016-04-01

    BO2-substituted B3N3C54 heterofullerene was studied using density functional theory, and its electronic, magnetic and nonlinear optical properties are discussed. The substitution was considered at the B and N sites of the heterofullerene, in lower and higher spin states. We notice that BO2 substitution at the B sites of B3N3C54 heterofullerene leads to interesting properties, such as a smaller energy gap (0.66 eV) and a high spin magnetic moment (3 μ B). The density-of-states curves, molecular orbitals and spin density surfaces have been used to explain these facts. In addition, the first-order mean hyperpolarizability of B3N3C54 heterofullerene has been found to be significantly large (3.6 × 103 a.u.), which is due to smaller transition energy in the crucial excited state. This is reflected by the absorption spectra calculated using the time-dependent density functional theory method. These findings may be exploited to design novel materials for possible spintronic and electro-optical applications.

  4. Emerging chemical strategies for imprinting magnetism in graphene and related 2D materials for spintronic and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuček, Jiří; Błoński, Piotr; Ugolotti, Juri; Swain, Akshaya Kumar; Enoki, Toshiaki; Zbořil, Radek

    2018-03-26

    Graphene, a single two-dimensional sheet of carbon atoms with an arrangement mimicking the honeycomb hexagonal architecture, has captured immense interest of the scientific community since its isolation in 2004. Besides its extraordinarily high electrical conductivity and surface area, graphene shows a long spin lifetime and limited hyperfine interactions, which favors its potential exploitation in spintronic and biomedical applications, provided it can be made magnetic. However, pristine graphene is diamagnetic in nature due to solely sp2 hybridization. Thus, various attempts have been proposed to imprint magnetic features into graphene. The present review focuses on a systematic classification and physicochemical description of approaches leading to equip graphene with magnetic properties. These include introduction of point and line defects into graphene lattices, spatial confinement and edge engineering, doping of graphene lattice with foreign atoms, and sp3 functionalization. Each magnetism-imprinting strategy is discussed in detail including identification of roles of various internal and external parameters in the induced magnetic regimes, with assessment of their robustness. Moreover, emergence of magnetism in graphene analogues and related 2D materials such as transition metal dichalcogenides, metal halides, metal dinitrides, MXenes, hexagonal boron nitride, and other organic compounds is also reviewed. Since the magnetic features of graphene can be readily masked by the presence of magnetic residues from synthesis itself or sample handling, the issue of magnetic impurities and correct data interpretations is also addressed. Finally, current problems and challenges in magnetism of graphene and related 2D materials and future potential applications are also highlighted.

  5. X-ray analysis of spintronic semiconductor and half metal thin film systems; Roentgenstrukturuntersuchungen an spintronischen Halbleiter- und Halbmetall-Duennschichtsystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    In this work the structural properties of spintronic semiconductor and halfmetalic thin-film systems were investigated. The layer thicknesses and interface roughnesses of the multi-layer systems were estimated by X-ray reflectivity measurements. The fits were performed using the software Fewlay which uses the Parratt formalism to calculate the reflectivities. The relaxation of the films was analyzed by reciprocal space mapping on preferably highly indexed Bragg reflexes. (orig.)

  6. Resistive switching mechanism of ZnO/ZrO2-stacked resistive random access memory device annealed at 300 °C by sol-gel method with forming-free operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wen-Yi; You, Hsin-Chiang; Wu, Cheng-Yen

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we used a sol-gel process to fabricate a ZnO-ZrO2-stacked resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) device and investigated its switching mechanism. The Gibbs free energy in ZnO, which is higher than that in ZrO2, facilitates the oxidation and reduction reactions of filaments in the ZnO layer. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the device revealed a forming-free operation because of nonlattice oxygen in the oxide layer. In addition, the device can operate under bipolar or unipolar conditions with a reset voltage of 0 to ±2 V, indicating that in this device, Joule heating dominates at reset and the electric field dominates in the set process. Furthermore, the characteristics reveal why the fabricated device exhibits a greater discrete distribution phenomenon for the set voltage than for the reset voltage. These results will enable the fabrication of future ReRAM devices with double-layer oxide structures with improved characteristics.

  7. Power source device for thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Akira.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a small sized and economical power source device for a thermonuclear device. That is, the device comprises a conversion device having a rated power determined by a power required during a plasma current excitation period and a conversion device having a rated power determined by a power required during a plasma current maintaining period, connected in series to each other. Then, for the former conversion device, power is supplied from an electric power generator and, for the latter, power is supplied from a power system. With such a constitution, during the plasma electric current maintaining period for substantially continuous operation, it is possible to conduct bypassing paired operation for the former conversion device while the electric power generator is put under no load. Further, since a short period rated power may be suffice for the former conversion device and the electric power generator having the great rated power required for the plasma electric current excitation period, they can be reduced in the size and made economical. On the other hand, since the power required for the plasma current maintaining period is relatively small, the capacity of the continuous rated conversion device may be small, and the power can be received from the power system. (I.S.)

  8. Inspection device in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Etsuo.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides an inspection device in PWR reactor core in which inspection operations are made efficient by stabilizing a posture of the device in front-to-back, vertical and left-to-right directions by a simple structure. When the device conducts inspection while running in liquid, the front and the back directions of the device main body are inspected using a visual device while changing the posture by operating a front-to-back direction propulsion device and a right-to-left direction propulsion device, and a vertical direction propulsion device against to rolling, pitching and yawing of the device main body. In this case, a spherical magnet moves freely in the gravitational direction in a vibration-damping fluid in a non-magnetic spherical shell following the change of the posture of the device main body, in which the vibrations due to the movement of the spherical magnet is settled by the vibration-damping fluid thereby stabilizing the posture of the device main body. At a typical inspection posture, the settling effect is enhanced by the attraction force between the spherical magnets in the spherical shell and each of magnetic force-attracted magnetic members disposed to the outer circumference of the shell, and the posture of the device main body can be confirmed in front-to-back, right-to-left and vertical directions by each of the posture confirming magnetic sensors. (N.H.)

  9. Impacts of Mechanical Macrophyte Removal Devices on Sediment Scouring in Littoral Habitats: II. Experimental Operation in the Littoral Zone of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Wright, David I; Barko, John W; Eakin, Harry L

    2006-01-01

    ... in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin. Mechanical macrophyte removal devices are an attractive, low-cost means of removing macrophytes in specific areas without herbicides or repeated mechanical harvesting...

  10. Steady-state operation of magnetic fusion devices: Plasma control and plasma facing components. Report on the IAEA technical committee meeting held at Fukuoka, 25-29 October 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, F.

    2000-01-01

    An IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Steady-State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices - Plasma Control and Plasma Facing Components was held at Fukuoka, Japan, from 25 to 29 October 1999. The meeting was the second IAEA Techical Committee Meeting on the subject, following the one held at Hefei, China, a year earlier. The meeting was attended by over 150 researchers from 10 countries

  11. A laser gyro with a four-mirror square resonator: formulas for simulating the dynamics of the synchronisation zone parameters of the frequencies of counterpropagating waves during the device operation in the self-heating regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, E A

    2014-01-01

    For a laser gyro with a four-mirror square resonator we have developed a mathematical model, which allows one to simulate the temporal behaviour of the synchronisation zone parameters of the frequencies of counterpropagating waves in a situation when the device operates in the self-heating regime and is switched-on at different initial temperatures. (laser gyroscopes)

  12. Digital device for synchronous storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzar', Yu.M.; Kovtun, V.G.; Pashechko, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Synchronous storage digital device for IR electron-photon emission spectrometer operating with analogue-to-digital converter F4223 or monocrystal converter K572PV1 is described. The device accomplished deduction of noise-background in each storage cycle. Summation and deduction operational time equals 90 ns, device output code discharge - 20, number of storages -2 23

  13. Thermal MEMS actuator operation in aqueous media/seawater: Performance enhancement through atomic layer deposition post processing of PolyMUMPs devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnat, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.warnat@dal.ca; Forbrigger, Cameron; Hubbard, Ted [Mechanical Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X4 (Canada); Bertuch, Adam; Sundaram, Ganesh [Ultratech Inc., Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A method to enhance thermal microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuators in aqueous media by using dielectric encapsulation layers is presented. Aqueous media reduces the available mechanical energy of the thermal actuator through an electrical short between actuator structures. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} laminates with various thicknesses were deposited on packaged PolyMUMPs devices to electrically separate the actuator from the aqueous media. Atomic layer deposition was used to form an encapsulation layer around released MEMS structures and the package. The enhancement was assessed by the increase of the elastic energy, which is proportional to the mechanical stiffness of the actuator and the displacement squared. The mechanical stiffness of the encapsulated actuators compared with the noncoated actuators was increased by factors ranging from 1.45 (for 45 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 20 nm TiO{sub 2}) to 1.87 (for 90 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 40 nm TiO{sub 2}). Displacement measurements were made for all laminate combinations in filtered tap water and seawater by using FFT based displacement measurement technique with a repeatability of ∼10 nm. For all laminate structures, the elastic energy increased and enhanced the actuator performance: In seawater, the mechanical output energy increased by factors ranging from 5 (for 90 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to 11 (for 90 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 40 nm TiO{sub 2}). The authors also measured the long-term actuator stability/reliability in seawater. Samples were stored for 29 days in seawater and tested for 17 days in seawater. Laminates with TiO{sub 2} layers allowed constant operation over the entire measurement period.

  14. Controllable Quantum States Mesoscopic Superconductivity and Spintronics (MS+S2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku; Nakano, Hayato

    2008-10-01

    Mesoscopic effects in superconductors. Tunneling measurements of charge imbalance of non-equilibrium superconductors / R. Yagi. Influence of magnetic impurities on Josephson current in SNS junctions / T. Yokoyama. Nonlinear response and observable signatures of equilibrium entanglement / A. M. Zagoskin. Stimulated Raman adiabatic passage with a Cooper pair box / Giuseppe Falci. Crossed Andreev reflection-induced giant negative magnetoresistance / Francesco Giazotto -- Quantum modulation of superconducting junctions. Adiabatic pumping through a Josephson weak link / Fabio Taddei. Squeezing of superconducting qubits / Kazutomu Shiokawa. Detection of Berrys phases in flux qubits with coherent pulses / D. N. Zheng. Probing entanglement in the system of coupled Josephson qubits / A. S. Kiyko. Josephson junction with tunable damping using quasi-particle injection / Ryuta Yagi. Macroscopic quantum coherence in rf-SQUIDs / Alexey V. Ustinov. Bloch oscillations in a Josephson circuit / D. Esteve. Manipulation of magnetization in nonequilibrium superconducting nanostructures / F. Giazotto -- Superconducting qubits. Decoherence and Rabi oscillations in a qubit coupled to a quantum two-level system / Sahel Ashhab. Phase-coupled flux qubits: CNOT operation, controllable coupling and entanglement / Mun Dae Kim. Characteristics of a switchable superconducting flux transformer with a DC-SQUID / Yoshihiro Shimazu. Characterization of adiabatic noise in charge-based coherent nanodevices / E. Paladino -- Unconventional superconductors. Threshold temperatures of zero-bias conductance peak and zero-bias conductance dip in diffusive normal metal/superconductor junctions / Iduru Shigeta. Tunneling conductance in 2DEG/S junctions in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling / T. Yokoyama. Theory of charge transport in diffusive ferromagnet/p-wave superconductor junctions / T. Yokoyama. Theory of enhanced proximity effect by the exchange field in FS bilayers / T. Yokoyama. Theory of

  15. Industrial gamma radiography on a building site with a portable device. Recommendations to operators - gammagraphy sheet ED 4243; Recommendations to intervening companies (subcontractors) -gammagraphy sheet ED 4244; Recommendations to user companies - gammagraphy sheet ED 4245

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaisseau, Bernard; Bourdon, Patrick; Laurent, Pierre; Servent, Jean-Pierre; Biau, Alain

    2006-12-01

    Based on best practices, three sheets indicate sets of recommendations regarding the use of an industrial gamma radiography portable device on a building site either by operators, intervening companies (or subcontractors), or user companies. As far as operators are concerned, recommendations concern preparation and transport, arrival on the building site, examination performance, end of examination, occurrence of an incident other than radiological, and occurrence of a radiological incident. As far as subcontractors are concerned, recommendations concern the actors of the intervening company, the permanent storage site of portable devices, the film development laboratory, portable devices and their accessories, other equipment used for examination, vehicles, operators, intervention preparation, the return on experience, and the immediate processing of anomalies. As far as user companies are concerned, recommendations concern actors of the user company, the definition of the operation, the previous inspection of premises and the definition of a prevention plan, the storage of equipment containing depleted uranium, loading and unloading operations, the coordination of exposure doses, the immediate processing of anomalies, and the return on experience. Moreover, the three sheets indicate the associated legal texts

  16. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  17. Device-Centric Monitoring for Mobile Device Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chircop, Luke; Colombo, Christian; Pace, Gordon J.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquity of computing devices has led to an increased need to ensure not only that the applications deployed on them are correct with respect to their specifications, but also that the devices are used in an appropriate manner, especially in situations where the device is provided by a party other than the actual user. Much work which has been done on runtime verification for mobile devices and operating systems is mostly application-centric, resulting in global, device-centri...

  18. Radiation emitting devices regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment

  19. Partial Device Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, M.; Hernandez Ganan, C.; van Eeten, M.J.G.

    2017-01-01

    In computing, remote devices may be identified by means of device fingerprinting, which works by collecting a myriad of clientside attributes such as the device’s browser and operating system version, installed plugins, screen resolution, hardware artifacts, Wi-Fi settings, and anything else

  20. Process control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshifumi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    A process control device comprises a memory device for memorizing a plant operation target, a plant state or a state of equipments related with each other as control data, a read-only memory device for storing programs, a plant instrumentation control device or other process control devices, an input/output device for performing input/output with an operator, and a processing device which conducts processing in accordance with the program and sends a control demand or a display demand to the input/output device. The program reads out control data relative to a predetermined operation target, compares and verify them with actual values to read out control data to be a practice premise condition which is further to be a practice premise condition if necessary, thereby automatically controlling the plant or requiring or displaying input. Practice presuming conditions for the operation target can be examined succesively in accordance with the program without constituting complicated logical figures and AND/OR graphs. (N.H.)

  1. Tokapole II device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprott, J.G.

    1978-05-01

    A discussion is given of the design and operation of the Tokapole II device. The following topics are considered: physics considerations, vacuum vessel, poloidal field, ring and support design, toroidal field, vacuum system, initial results, and future plans

  2. Fuel pattern recognition device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomomi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention monitors normal fuel exchange upon fuel exchanging operation carried out in a reactor of a nuclear power plant. Namely, a fuel exchanger is movably disposed to the upper portion of the reactor and exchanges fuels. An exclusive computer receives operation signals of the fuel exchanger during operation as inputs, and outputs reactor core fuel pattern information signals to a fuel arrangement diagnosis device. An underwater television camera outputs image signals of a fuel pattern in the reactor core to an image processing device. If there is any change in the image signals for the fuel pattern as a result of the fuel exchange operation of the fuel exchanger, the image processing device outputs the change as image signals to the fuel pattern diagnosis device. The fuel pattern diagnosis device compares the pattern information signals from the exclusive computer with the image signals from the image processing device, to diagnose the result of the fuel exchange operation performed by the fuel exchanger and inform the diagnosis by means of an image display. (I.S.)

  3. Reactor core control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor core control device, in which switching from a manual operation to an automatic operation, and the control for the parameter of an automatic operation device are facilitated. Namely, the hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter by an manual operation input means is stored. The hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter is collected. The state of the reactor core simulated by an operation control to which the collected operation parameters are manually inputted is determined as an input of the reactor core state to the automatic input means. The record of operation upon manual operation is stored as a hysteresis of control for the operation parameter, but the hysteresis information is not only the result of manual operation of the operation parameter. This is results of operation conducted by a skilled operator who judge the state of the reactor core to be optimum. Accordingly, it involves information relevant to the reactor core state. Then, it is considered that the optimum automatic operation is not deviated greatly from the manual operation. (I.S.)

  4. Tunneling path toward spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Guoxing; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Muenzenberg, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of quantum tunneling, which was discovered almost a century ago, has led to many subsequent discoveries. One such discovery, spin polarized tunneling, was made 40 years ago by Robert Meservey and Paul Tedrow (Tedrow and Meservey 1971 Phys. Rev. Lett. 26 192), and it has resulted in many fundamental observations and opened up an entirely new field of study. Until the mid-1990s, this field developed at a steady, low rate, after which a huge increase in activity suddenly occurred as a result of the unraveling of successful spin tunneling between two ferromagnets. In the past 15 years, several thousands of papers related to spin polarized tunneling and transport have been published, making this topic one of the hottest areas in condensed matter physics from both fundamental science and applications viewpoints. Many review papers and book chapters have been written in the past decade on this subject. This paper is not exhaustive by any means; rather, the emphases are on recent progress, technological developments and informing the reader about the current direction in which this topic is moving.

  5. Room temperature electrically tunable rectification magnetoresistance in Ge-based Schottky devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi-Kun; Yan, Yi; Zhang, Kun; Li, Huan-Huan; Kang, Shishou; Tian, Yu-Feng

    2016-11-23

    Electrical control of magnetotransport properties is crucial for device applications in the field of spintronics. In this work, as an extension of our previous observation of rectification magnetoresistance, an innovative technique for electrical control of rectification magnetoresistance has been developed by applying direct current and alternating current simultaneously to the Ge-based Schottky devices, where the rectification magnetoresistance could be remarkably tuned in a wide range. Moreover, the interface and bulk contribution to the magnetotransport properties has been effectively separated based on the rectification magnetoresistance effect. The state-of-the-art electrical manipulation technique could be adapt to other similar heterojunctions, where fascinating rectification magnetoresistance is worthy of expectation.

  6. The Spin Torque Lego - from spin torque nano-devices to advanced computing architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollier, Julie

    2013-03-01

    Spin transfer torque (STT), predicted in 1996, and first observed around 2000, brought spintronic devices to the realm of active elements. A whole class of new devices, based on the combined effects of STT for writing and Giant Magneto-Resistance or Tunnel Magneto-Resistance for reading has emerged. The second generation of MRAMs, based on spin torque writing : the STT-RAM, is under industrial development and should be out on the market in three years. But spin torque devices are not limited to binary memories. We will rapidly present how the spin torque effect also allows to implement non-linear nano-oscillators, spin-wave emitters, controlled stochastic devices and microwave nano-detectors. What is extremely interesting is that all these functionalities can be obtained using the same materials, the exact same stack, simply by changing the device geometry and its bias conditions. So these different devices can be seen as Lego bricks, each brick with its own functionality. During this talk, I will show how spin torque can be engineered to build new bricks, such as the Spintronic Memristor, an artificial magnetic nano-synapse. I will then give hints on how to assemble these bricks in order to build novel types of computing architectures, with a special focus on neuromorphic circuits. Financial support by the European Research Council Starting Grant NanoBrain (ERC 2010 Stg 259068) is acknowledged.

  7. Wavefunction Engineering of Spintronic devices in ZnO/MgO and GaN/AlN Quantum Structures Doped with Transition Metal Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    combined with computational optimization routines the FEM allows us to predict the material properties and optimized geomnetry of structures tinder bias...genetic algorithms [41]. The lack of a direct relationship between the input parameters and the experimentally determined quantities is probably the single

  8. A versatile LabVIEW and field-programmable gate array-based scanning probe microscope for in operando electronic device characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J; Page, Michael R; Jacob, Jan; Young, Justin R; Lewis, Jim; Wenzel, Lothar; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Pelekhov, Denis V; Hammel, P Chris

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the complex properties of electronic and spintronic devices at the micro- and nano-scale is a topic of intense current interest as it becomes increasingly important for scientific progress and technological applications. In operando characterization of such devices by scanning probe techniques is particularly well-suited for the microscopic study of these properties. We have developed a scanning probe microscope (SPM) which is capable of both standard force imaging (atomic, magnetic, electrostatic) and simultaneous electrical transport measurements. We utilize flexible and inexpensive FPGA (field-programmable gate array) hardware and a custom software framework developed in National Instrument's LabVIEW environment to perform the various aspects of microscope operation and device measurement. The FPGA-based approach enables sensitive, real-time cantilever frequency-shift detection. Using this system, we demonstrate electrostatic force microscopy of an electrically biased graphene field-effect transistor device. The combination of SPM and electrical transport also enables imaging of the transport response to a localized perturbation provided by the scanned cantilever tip. Facilitated by the broad presence of LabVIEW in the experimental sciences and the openness of our software solution, our system permits a wide variety of combined scanning and transport measurements by providing standardized interfaces and flexible access to all aspects of a measurement (input and output signals, and processed data). Our system also enables precise control of timing (synchronization of scanning and transport operations) and implementation of sophisticated feedback protocols, and thus should be broadly interesting and useful to practitioners in the field.

  9. Spin-orbit interaction in quantum dots and quantum wires of correlated electrons - a way to spintronics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholz, Jens Eiko

    2008-01-01

    how the linear conductance and the spin-polarization can be controlled by tuning the spin-orbit interaction in an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with a quantum dot in one arm. Finally, an estimation of the magnitude of the spin-orbit interaction in e.g. semiconductor heterojunctions shows that the system parameters used in our simulations are achievable in experiments. Therefore, the theoretical results obtained in this thesis might also be observable experimentally pointing out the relevance for future spintronic applications. (orig.)

  10. Controlled pump with internal toothed gears during four-quadrant operation. Velocity- and position control of a hydraulic handling device; Geregelte Innenzahnradpumpe im Mehrquadrantenbetrieb. Geschwindigkeits- und Positionsregelung eines hydraulischen Handlinggeraetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahmann, P. [Fachhochschule Aachen (Germany). FB Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik; Hagemeister, W. [IGH, Essen (Germany); Nagel, G.; Exner, P. [Voith Turbo, Heidenheim (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The drive of a handling device (weight 3t) is realized by an hydrocylinder, which is directly connected with the pressure side of a pump with internal toothed gears. The drive speed is generated by a frequency controlled electric motor. As a result for frequency-controlled drive can be noted less noise formation, less heat generation, an energy efficienct operation as a simple control- and regulation possibilities for position and velocities. (GL)

  11. Equipment abnormality monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Yasumasa

    1991-01-01

    When an operator hears sounds in a plantsite, the operator compares normal sounds of equipment which he previously heard and remembered with sounds he actually hears, to judge if they are normal or abnormal. According to the method, there is a worry that abnormal conditions can not be appropriately judged in a case where the number of objective equipments is increased and in a case that the sounds are changed gradually slightly. Then, the device of the present invention comprises a plurality of monitors for monitoring the operation sound of equipments, a recording/reproducing device for recording and reproducing the signals, a selection device for selecting the reproducing signals among the recorded signals, an acoustic device for converting the signals to sounds, a switching device for switching the signals to be transmitted to the acoustic device between to signals of the monitor and the recording/reproducing signals. The abnormality of the equipments can be determined easily by comparing the sounds representing the operation conditions of equipments for controlling the plant operation and the sounds recorded in their normal conditions. (N.H.)

  12. 49 CFR 232.407 - Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train devices; prohibition on purchase of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a secondary, fully independent braking system capable of safely stopping the train in the event of... either by using the manual toggle switch or through automatic activation, whenever it becomes necessary... automatic brake valve or the conductor's emergency brake valve. (g) En route failure of device on a freight...

  13. Plant monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Kunio.

    1991-01-01

    The monitoring device of the present invention is most suitable to early detection for equipment abnormality, or monitoring of state upon transient conditions such as startup and shutdown of an electric power plant, a large-scaled thermonuclear device and an accelerator plant. That is, in existent moitoring devices, acquired data are stored and the present operation states are monitored in comparison. A plant operation aquisition data reproduction section is disposed to the device. From the past operation conditions stored in the plant operation data aquisition reproducing section, the number of operation cycles that agrees with the present plant operation conditions is sought, to determine the agreed aquired data. Since these aquired data are time sequential data measured based on the standard time determined by the operation sequence, aquired data can be reproduced successively on every sample pitches. With such a constitution, aquired data under the same operation conditions as the present conditions are displayed together with the measured data. Accordingly, accurate monitoring can be conducted from the start-up to the shutdown of the plant. (I.S.)

  14. [Design of SCM inoculation device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingli; Xie, Haiyuan

    2014-01-01

    The first step of bacilli culture is inoculation bacteria on culture medium. Designing a device to increase efficiency of inoculation is significative. The new device is controlled by SCM. The stepper motor can drive the culture medium rotating, accelerating, decelerating, overturn and suspending. The device is high practicability and efficient, let inoculation easy for operator.

  15. EPICS GPIB device support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, J.

    1993-01-01

    A GPIB device support module is used to provide access to the operating parameters of a GPIB device. GPIB devices may be accessed via National Instruments 1014 cards or via Bitbus Universal Gateways. GPIB devices typically have many parameters, each of which may be thought of in terms of the standard types of database records available in EPICS. It is the job of the device support module designer to decide how the mapping of these parameters will be made to the available record types. Once this mapping is complete, the device support module may be written. The writing of the device support module consists primarily of the construction of a parameter table. This table is used to associate the database record types with the operating parameters of the GPIB instrument. Other aspects of module design include the handling of SRQ events and errors. SRQ events are made available to the device support module if so desired. The processing of an SRQ event is completely up to the designer of the module. They may be ignored, tied to event based record processing, or anything else the designer wishes. Error conditions may be handled in a similar fashion

  16. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  17. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  18. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  19. Filtering and concentrating device for processing radioactive waste and operation method therefor, processing facility for radioactive wastes and processing method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, Ken-ichi; Yamazaki, Masami

    1998-01-01

    A filtering and concentrating device is prepared by assembling a porous ceramic filtering material having a pore diameter of 1 μm or less secured by a support to a filtering device main body. The porous ceramic filtering material preferably comprises a surface portion having pores having a diameter of 1 μm or less and a hollow ceramic material having filtering flow channels having a diameter greater than the pores on the surface portion. The ratio of the diameter and the thickness of the hollow ceramic material is determined to greater than 50 : 1. The filtering and concentrating device precisely filter and concentrate radioactive liquid wastes containing an insoluble solid content generated from a nuclear power plant to conduct solid/liquid separation thereby forming a filtrate and concentrated wastes having a mass concentration of 20% or more. With such a constitution, stable filtration and concentration can be conducted while reducing occurrence of clogging of filtering materials. In addition, the frequency for the exchange of filtering materials can be reduced. (I.N.)

  20. Integrating Emerging Data Sources into Operational Practice: Capabilities and Limitations of Devices to Collect, Compile, Save, and Share Messages from CAVs and Connected Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) and connected travelers will be providing substantially increased levels of data which will be available for agencies to consider using to improve the management and operation of the surface transportation syst...

  1. Remotely operated closure device for a pipeline with a fixed pipeline flange. Fernbedient betaetigbare Verschlussvorrichtung fuer eine Rohrleitung mit ortsfestem Rohrleitungsflansch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, H.

    1987-01-29

    The remotely operated closure is set by suspension centring on the circumference of a blank flange on the fixed pipeline flange to be closed. By operating a central actuating mechanism at the closure, the clamping levers are adjusted so that the blank flange is clamped to the pipeline flange and the two flanges are pressed together. The spring-loaded clamping levers are particularly suitable for actuating the closure with the pliers of a manipulator of a large cell.

  2. Reluctance device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claridge, A.N.; Smith, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A reluctance device comprises two or more phases, each of which has a rotor mounted for rotation within a tubular member and an annular stator positioned externally of the tubular member. The rotor and the internal surface of the tubular member are each provided with aligned, axially spaced apart annular arrays of teeth, the teeth on the rotor confronting those on the tubular member in radially spaced apart relationship. The stator encloses a coil which, when electrically energised, creates a plurality of magnetic flux paths each of which extends radially between the rotor and stator via the confronting teeth and the tubular member, and axially along both the rotor and the portion of the stator located radially outwardly of the coil. The portion of the tubular member intermediate the teeth thereon is provided with a non-magnetic insert in order to resist the axial passage of magnetic flux therethrough. In one of the claims, the tubular member comprises a portion of a nuclear reactor which is adapted to contain a reactor control rod, the rotor constituting a portion of the drive mechanism for the control rod contained in operation within the tubular member. (author)

  3. RFQ1 diagnostic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidley, B.G.; Arbique, G.M.; de Jong, M.S.; McMichael, G.E.; Michel, W.L.; Smith, B.H.

    1991-01-01

    The diagnostic devices in use on RFQ1 will be described. They consist of a double-slit emittance-measuring unit, a 45 degree deflection energy-analysis magnet, parametric current transformers, optical beam sensors, beam-stop current monitors, and an x-ray end-point analyzer. All of these devices are able to operate up to the full output current of RFQ1 (75 mA cw at 0.6 MeV)

  4. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  6. Smart portable rehabilitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Danaher, Gil; Jensen, Katherine; Pelletier, Philip; Prugnarola, Jennifer; Stuart, Ryan; Arango, Roberto; Leahey, Matt; Pavone, Robert; Provo, Andrew; Yasevac, Dan

    2005-07-12

    The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s). In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Laboratory tests of the devices demonstrated that they were able to meet their design

  7. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    2005-03-01

    This volume offers a solid foundation for understanding the most important devices used in the hottest areas of electronic engineering today, from semiconductor fundamentals to state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in the telecommunications and computing industries. Kevin Brennan describes future approaches to computing hardware and RF power amplifiers, and explains how emerging trends and system demands of computing and telecommunications systems influence the choice, design and operation of semiconductor devices. In addition, he covers MODFETs and MOSFETs, short channel effects, and the challenges faced by continuing miniaturization. His book is both an excellent senior/graduate text and a valuable reference for practicing engineers and researchers.

  8. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  9. Synaptic plasticity and memory functions achieved in a WO3−x-based nanoionics device by using the principle of atomic switch operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Rui; Terabe, Kazuya; Yao, Yiping; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Gimzewski, James K; Aono, Masakazu

    2013-01-01

    A compact neuromorphic nanodevice with inherent learning and memory properties emulating those of biological synapses is the key to developing artificial neural networks rivaling their biological counterparts. Experimental results showed that memorization with a wide time scale from volatile to permanent can be achieved in a WO 3−x -based nanoionics device and can be precisely and cumulatively controlled by adjusting the device’s resistance state and input pulse parameters such as the amplitude, interval, and number. This control is analogous to biological synaptic plasticity including short-term plasticity, long-term potentiation, transition from short-term memory to long-term memory, forgetting processes for short- and long-term memory, learning speed, and learning history. A compact WO 3−x -based nanoionics device with a simple stacked layer structure should thus be a promising candidate for use as an inorganic synapse in artificial neural networks due to its striking resemblance to the biological synapse. (paper)

  10. Sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  11. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  12. Gauging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurnell, F.D.; Patterson, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    A gauge supporting device for measuring say a square tube comprises a pair of rods or guides in tension between a pair of end members, the end members being spaced apart by a compression member or members. The tensioned guides provide planes of reference for measuring devices moved therealong on a carriage. The device is especially useful for making on site dimensional measurements of components, such as irradiated and therefore radioactive components, that cannot readily be transported to an inspection laboratory. (UK)

  13. Human Factors and Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick Sawyer

    1998-01-01

    Medical device hardware- and software-driven user interfaces should be designed to minimize the likelihood of use-related errors and their consequences. The role of design-induced errors in medical device incidents is attracting widespread attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is fully cognizant that human factors engineering is critical to the design of safe medical devices, and user interface design is receiving substantial attention by the agency. Companies are paying more attention to the impact of device design, including user instructions, upon the performance of those health professionals and lay users who operate medical devices. Concurrently, the FDA is monitoring human factors issues in its site inspections, premarket device approvals, and postmarket incident evaluations. Overall, the outlook for improved designs and safer device operation is bright

  14. Role of Ni2+(d8) ions in electrical, optical and magnetic properties of CdS nanowires for optoelectronic and spintronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad Kamran, Muhammad

    2018-06-01

    For the first time, 1D Ni ion doped CdS nanowires (NWs) were synthesized via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The synthesized Cd0.886Ni0.114S NWs were single crystalline. We have reported here the investigation of optical, electrical and magnetic properties of prepared NWs for optoelectronic and spintronic applications. Successful incorporation of Ni ions in an individual CdS NW has been confirmed through several characterization tools: significantly higher angle and phonon mode shift were observed in the XRD and Raman spectra. SEM-EDX and XPS analysis also confirmed the presence of Ni2+ ions. Room temperature photoluminescence (RT-PL) showed multiple peaks: two emission peaks in the visible region centered at 517.1 nm (green), 579.2 nm (orange), and a broad-band near infra-red (NIR) emission centered at 759.9 nm. The first peak showed 5 nm red shift upon Ni2+ doping, hinting at the formation of exciton magnetic polarons (EMPs), and broad NIR emission was observed in both chlorides and bromides, which was assigned to d‑d transition of Ni ions whose energy levels lying at 749.51 nm (13 342 cm–1) and 750.98 nm (13 316 cm–1) are very close to NIR emission. Orange emission not only remained at same peak position—its PL intensity was also significantly enhanced at 78 K; this was assigned to d‑d transition (3A2g → 1Eg) of Ni2+ ions. It was observed that 11.4% Ni2+ ion doping enhanced the conductivity of our sample around 20 times, and saturation magnetization (Ms) increased from 7.2 × 10‑5 Am2/Kg to 1.17 × 10‑4 Am2/Kg, which shows promise for optoelectronic and spintronic applications.

  15. A new device expanding operability of fingertip replantation: subzone 1 fingertip replantation assisted by non-enhanced angiography in a 2-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Takumi; Seki, Yukio; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2012-11-01

    Fingertip replantation in young children is difficult, especially in cases with amputation at subzone 1. Replantation is preferred whenever possible, but the identification of vessels of operative size can be very challenging. Non-enhanced angiography (NEA; Genial Viewer; Genial Light, Shizuoka, Japan) emits infrared light with the wavelength of 850 nm, which is exclusively absorbed by haemoglobin. The light penetrates the bones and other soft tissues, effectively visualising vessels containing blood, and the image is shown in real time on the screen of a laptop computer. We present a case in which preoperative NEA visualised vessels in the amputated fingertip, allowing a successful replantation in a 2-year-old boy. By taking the guesswork out of vessel localisation, NEA can be useful in expanding operability of replantation surgery in fingertip amputations. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Integrated control rod monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Katsuhiro

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device in which an entire control rod driving time measuring device and a control rod position support device in a reactor building and a central control chamber are integrated systematically to save hardwares such as a signal input/output device and signal cables between boards. Namely, (1) functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device for monitoring control rods which control the reactor power and a control rod position indication device are integrated into one identical system. Then, the entire devices can be made compact by the integration of the functions. (2) The functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device and the control rod position indication device are integrated in a central operation board and a board in the site. Then, the place for the installation of them can be used in common in any of the cases. (3) The functions of the entire control rod driving time measuring device and the control rod position indication device are integrated to one identical system to save hardware to be used. Then, signal input/output devices and drift branching panel boards in the site and the central operation board can be saved, and cables for connecting both of the boards is no more necessary. (I.S.)

  17. Fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of thermonuclear fusion devices currently under development are reviewed for an electric utilities management audience. Overall design features of laser fusion, tokamak, and magnetic mirror type reactors are described and illustrated. Thrusts and trends in current research on these devices that promise to improve performance are briefly reviewed. Twenty photographs and drawings are included

  18. BRAKE DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  19. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  20. Multilevel Resistance Switching Memory in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (011) Heterostructure by Combined Straintronics-Spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Xiong, Yuanqiang; Zhang, Zhengming; Wang, Dunhui; Tan, Weishi; Cao, Qingqi; Qian, Zhenghong; Du, Youwei

    2016-03-02

    We demonstrate a memory device with multifield switchable multilevel states at room temperature based on the integration of straintronics and spintronics in a La2/3Ba1/3MnO3/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) (011) heterostructure. By precisely controlling the electric field applied on the PMN-PT substrate, multiple nonvolatile resistance states can be generated in La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 films, which can be ascribed to the strain-modulated metal-insulator transition and phase separation of Manganite. Furthermore, because of the strong coupling between spin and charge degrees of freedom, the resistance of the La2/3Ba1/3MnO3 film can be readily modulated by magnetic field over a broad temperature range. Therefore, by combining electroresistance and magnetoresistance effects, multilevel resistance states with excellent retention and endurance properties can be achieved at room temperature with the coactions of electric and magnetic fields. The incorporation of ferroelastic strain and magnetic and resistive properties in memory cells suggests a promising approach for multistate, high-density, and low-power consumption electronic memory devices.

  1. Fluctuations in quantum devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Haken

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of composite quantum systems.

  2. Position measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Shuichi; Maruyama, Mayumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device capable of measuring accurate position and distance easily even at places where operator can not easily access, such as cell facilities for vitrifying radioactive wastes. Referring to a case of the vitrifying cell, an objective equipment settled in the cell is photographed by a photographing device. The image is stored in a position measuring device by way of an image input device. After several years, when the objective equipment is exchanged, a new objective equipment is photographed by a photographing device. The image is also stored in the position measuring device. The position measuring device compares the data of both of the images on the basis of pixel unit. Based on the image of the equipment before the exchange as a reference, extent of the displacement of the installation position of the equipment on the image after the exchange caused by installation error and manufacturing error is determined to decide the position of the equipment after exchange relative to the equipment before exchange. (I.S.)

  3. π-Conjugated organic-based devices with different layered structures produced by the neutral cluster beam deposition method and operating conduction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Hoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Do; Kim, Dae-Kyu; Shin, Eun-Sol; Choi, Jong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    The authors report on the systematic characterization of structural effects of organic complementary inverters based on two π-conjugated organic molecules, pentacene and copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F 16 CuPc). Three classes of inverters with different layered structures in top-contact configuration were produced using the neutral cluster beam deposition method. Their voltage transfer characteristics, gain curves and hysteresis behaviour were characterized with respect to their thickness. Class I inverters, with generic structures of single-layered, p-and n-type (200/180 Å) transistors, exhibited high gains of 12.8 ± 1.0 with sharp inversions. Their two constituent transistors, with hole and electron mobilities of 0.38 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and 7.0 × 10 -3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively, showed well-coupled carrier conduction during operation. The behaviour of class II and III inverters, with layered heterojunction structures, was independent of upper-layer thickness and did not show hysteresis. The better performances of class II inverters, which showed high gains of 14.4 ± 1.1, were rationalized partly in terms of decreased mobility differences between their constituent transistors. Heterojunction geometries can be applied to obtain high-performance, fast-switching inverters by avoiding direct exposure of the air-sensitive transistors to ambient conditions. The inverters' general operating conduction mechanism is also discussed.

  4. The effect of the variable frequency drive of the CNC roll grinding machine on the operation of other devices in low-voltage electrical installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ninoslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the observations that have been collected during the years of testing of electrical installations. A typical case from industrial plant in which are installed loads with variable frequency regulation is analyzed. We propose a simple way by measuring the frequency of the voltage in the objects, to establish the existence of possible irregularities in the operation of the individual units and analyze the influence of the current and voltage signal shape of one load to the work of other loads in the plant. The need for verification of electrical installations immediately upon receipt and installation of electrical equipment is emphasized and the use of the latest standards in the design and selection of equipment, in order to avoid unplanned expenses is recommended.

  5. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  6. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  7. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touchscreen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may include a small gas cartridge or may be provided from an external source.

  8. Synchronization and chaos in spin-transfer-torque nano-oscillators coupled via a high-speed operational amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanid, C; Murugesh, S

    2014-01-01

    We propose a system of two coupled spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs), one driver and another response, and demonstrate using numerical studies the synchronization of the response system to the frequency of the driver system. To this end we use a high-speed operational amplifier in the form of a voltage follower, which essentially isolates the drive system from the response system. We find the occurrence of 1 : 1 as well as 2 : 1 synchronization in the system, wherein the oscillators show limit cycle dynamics. An increase in power output is noticed when the two oscillators are locked in 1 : 1 synchronization. Moreover in the crossover region between these two synchronization dynamics we show the existence of chaotic dynamics in the slave system. The coupled dynamics under periodic forcing, using a small ac input current in addition to that of the dc part, is also studied. The slave oscillator is seen to retain its qualitative identity in the parameter space in spite of being fed in, at times, a chaotic signal. Such electrically coupled STNOs will be highly useful in fabricating commercial spin-valve oscillators with high power output, when integrated with other spintronic devices. (paper)

  9. Progress in Group III nitride semiconductor electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yue; Zhang Jinfeng; Shen Bo; Liu Xinyu

    2012-01-01

    Recently there has been a rapid domestic development in group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices. This paper reviews the important progress in GaN-based wide bandgap microelectronic materials and devices in the Key Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, which focuses on the research of the fundamental physical mechanisms of group III nitride semiconductor electronic materials and devices with the aim to enhance the crystal quality and electric performance of GaN-based electronic materials, develop new GaN heterostructures, and eventually achieve high performance GaN microwave power devices. Some remarkable progresses achieved in the program will be introduced, including those in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and metal—oxide—semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMTs) with novel high-k gate insulators, and material growth, defect analysis and material properties of InAlN/GaN heterostructures and HEMT fabrication, and quantum transport and spintronic properties of GaN-based heterostructures, and high-electric-field electron transport properties of GaN material and GaN Gunn devices used in terahertz sources. (invited papers)

  10. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-01-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme. PMID:27021295

  11. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshihiko; Arita, Setsuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Fukazawa, Yukihisa; Ishii, Kazuhiko

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor power control device capable of enhancing an operation efficiency while keeping high reliability and safety in a BWR type nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a means for inputting a set value of a generator power and a set value of a reactor power, (2) a means for controlling the reactor power to either smaller one of the reactor power corresponding to the set value of the generator power and the set value of the reactor power. With such procedures, even if the nuclear power plant is set so as to operate it to make the reactor power 100%, when the generator power reaches the upper limit, the reactor power is controlled with a preference given to the upper limit value of the generator power. Accordingly, safety and reliability are not deteriorated. The operation efficiency of the plant can be improved. (I.S.)

  12. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2016-03-29

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  13. Fuel inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Tadashi.

    1990-01-01

    The fuel inspection device of the present invention has a feature of obtaining an optimum illumination upon fuel rod interval inspection operation in a fuel pool. That is, an illumination main body used underwater is connected to a cable which is led out on a floor. A light control device is attached to the other end of the cable and an electric power cable is connected to the light control device. A light source (for example, incandescent lamp) is incorporated in the casing of the illumination main body, and a diffusion plate is disposed at the front to provide a plane light source. The light control device has a light control knob capable of remote-controlling the brightness of the light of the illumination main body. In the fuel inspection device thus constituted, halation is scarcely caused on the image screen upon inspection of fuels by a submerged type television camera to facilitate control upon inspection. Accordingly, efficiency of the fuel inspection can be improved to shorten the operation time. (I.S.)

  14. Incore inspection and repairing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Arata; Kimura, Motohiko

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for inspecting and repairing the inside of a reactor container even if it is narrow, with no trouble by using a swimming-type operation robot. Namely, the device of the present invention conducts inspection and repairing operations for the inside of the reactor by introducing a swimming type operation robot into the reactor container. The swimming-type operation robot comprises a robot main body having a propeller, a balancer operably disposed to the robot main body and an inspection and repairing unit attached detachable to the balancer. In the device of the present invention, since the inspection and preparing unit is attached detachably to the swimming robot, a robot which transports tools is formed as a standard product. As a result, the production cost can be reduced, and the reliability of products can be improved. Appropriate operations can be conducted by using best tools. (I.S.)

  15. Device for electron beam machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panzer, S.; Ardenne, T. von; Liebergeld, H.

    1984-01-01

    The invention concerns a device for electron beam machining, in particular welding. It is aimed at continuous operation of the electron irradiation device. This is achieved by combining the electron gun with a beam guiding chamber, to which vacuum chambers are connected. The working parts to be welded can be arranged in the latter

  16. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed

  17. High heat flux device of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachikawa, Nobuo.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides an equipments for high heat flux device (divertor) of a thermonuclear device, which absorbs thermal deformation during operation, has a high installation accuracy, and sufficiently withstands for thermal stresses. Namely, a heat sink member is joined to a structural base. Armour tiles are joined on the heat sink member. Cooling pipes are disposed between the heat sink member and the armour tiles. With such a constitution, the heat sink member using a highly heat conductive material having ductility, such as oxygen free copper, the cooling pipes using a material having excellent high temperature resistance and excellent elongation, such as aluminum-dispersed reinforced copper, and the armour tiles are completely joined on the structural base. Therefore, when thermal deformation tends to cause in the high heat flux device such as a divertor, cooling pipes cause no plastic deformation because of their high temperature resistance, but the heat sink member such as a oxygen free copper causes plastic deformation to absorb thermal deformation. As a result, the high heat flux device such as a divertor causes no deformation. (I.S.)

  18. Electronic security device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbach, Eugene A.; LeBlanc, Edward J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box (12) containing an electronic system (50) and a communications loop (14) over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system (50) and a detection module (72) capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop.

  19. Electronic security device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschbach, E.A.; LeBlanc, E.J.; Griffin, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention relates to a security device having a control box containing an electronic system and a communications loop over which the system transmits a signal. The device is constructed so that the communications loop can extend from the control box across the boundary of a portal such as a door into a sealed enclosure into which access is restricted whereby the loop must be damaged or moved in order for an entry to be made into the enclosure. The device is adapted for detecting unauthorized entries into such enclosures such as rooms or containers and for recording the time at which such entries occur for later reference. Additionally, the device detects attempts to tamper or interfere with the operation of the device itself and records the time at which such events take place. In the preferred embodiment, the security device includes a microprocessor-based electronic system and a detection module capable of registering changes in the voltage and phase of the signal transmitted over the loop. 11 figs

  20. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th