Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi
2012-01-01
In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.
Geometrical spin symmetry and spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pestov, I. B.
2011-01-01
Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.
Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi
2017-01-01
Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.
Vozková, Markéta
2011-01-01
1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anton, Gisela
1990-01-01
The idea of the intrinsic angular momentum, or 'spin', of a particle has played an essential part in fundamental physics for more than 60 years, and its continuing importance was underlined at the 9th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in September in Bonn.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anton, Gisela
1990-12-15
The idea of the intrinsic angular momentum, or 'spin', of a particle has played an essential part in fundamental physics for more than 60 years, and its continuing importance was underlined at the 9th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in September in Bonn.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Ariano, G M [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Maccone, L [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Paini, M [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)
2003-02-01
We propose a tomographic reconstruction scheme for spin states. The experimental set-up, which is a modification of the Stern-Gerlach scheme, can be easily performed with currently available technology. The method is generalized to multiparticle states, analysing the spin-1/2 case for indistinguishable particles. Some Monte Carlo numerical simulations are given to illustrate the technique.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Ariano, G M; Maccone, L; Paini, M
2003-01-01
We propose a tomographic reconstruction scheme for spin states. The experimental set-up, which is a modification of the Stern-Gerlach scheme, can be easily performed with currently available technology. The method is generalized to multiparticle states, analysing the spin-1/2 case for indistinguishable particles. Some Monte Carlo numerical simulations are given to illustrate the technique
Bovier, Anton
2007-01-01
Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1989-01-15
The recent 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota, opened with a bang when L. Pondrom (Wisconsin), donning a hard hat borrowed from construction workers, ventured that 'spin, the notorious inessential complication of hadronic physics, is finally telling us what real QCD (quantum chromodynamics, the field theory of quarks and gluons) looks like.' He was referring to an animated discussion on the meaning of the recent spin oriented (polarized) scattering results from the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) at CERN and reported at the Symposium by R. Garnet (Liverpool) and P. Schuler (Yale) which show that the proton spin is not simply a reflection of the spins of its constituent quarks.
Caspers, W J
1989-01-01
This book is about spin systems as models for magnetic materials, especially antiferromagnetic lattices. Spin-systems are well-defined models, for which, in special cases, exact properties may be derived. These special cases are for the greater part, one- dimensional and restricted in their applicability, but they may give insight into general properties that also exist in higher dimension. This work pays special attention to qualitative differences between spin lattices of different dimensions. It also replaces the traditional picture of an (ordered) antiferromagnetic state of a Heisenberg sy
Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael
2004-01-01
This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1983-01-01
The 5th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics met in September at Brookhaven. The symposium has evolved to include a number of diverse specialities: theory, including parity violations and proposed quantum chromodynamics (QCD) tests with polarized beams; experiment, including the large spin effects discovered in high transverse momentum elastic scattering and hyperon production, dibaryons, and magnetic moments; acceleration and storage of polarized protons and electrons; and development of polarized sources and targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaarde, C.
1985-01-01
An analysis of spectra of (p,n) reactions showed that they were very selective in exciting spin modes. Charge exchange reactions at intermediate energies give important new understanding of the M1-type of excitations and of the spin structure of continuum p spectra in general. In this paper, the author discusses three charge exchange reactions: (p,n); ( 3 H,t); and (d,2p) at several targets. Low-lying states and the Δ region are discussed separately. Finally, the charge exchange reaction with heavy ion beams is briefly discussed. (G.J.P./Auth.)
Schwarz, H.
2017-01-01
The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1
Spin Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Flatte, Michael E
2006-01-01
... dots, tuning of spin coherence times for electron spin, tuning of dipolar magnetic fields for nuclear spin, spontaneous spin polarization generation and new designs for spin-based teleportation and spin transistors...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mookerjee, Abhijit
1976-01-01
''Spin glasses'', are entire class of magnetic alloys of moderate dilution, in which the magnetic atoms are far enough apart to be unlike the pure metal, but close enough so that the indirect exchange energy between them (mediated by the s-d interaction between local moments and conduction electrons) dominates all other energies. Characteristic critical phenomena displayed such as freezing of spin orientation at 'Tsub(c)' and spreading of magnetic ordering, are pointed out. Anomalous behaviour, associated with these critical phenomena, as reflected in : (i) Moessbauer spectroscopy giving hyperfine splitting at Tsub(c), (ii) maxima in susceptibility and remanent magnetism, (iii) thermopower maxima and change in slope, (iv) Characteristic cusp in susceptibility and its removal by very small magnetic fields, and (v) conductivity-resistivity measurements, are discussed. Theoretical developments aimed at explaining these phenomena, in particular, the ideas from percolation and localisation theories, and the approach based on the gellations of polymers, are discussed. Finally, a new approach based on renormalisation group in disordered systems is also briefly mentioned. (K.B.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji
2017-01-01
Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)
Entangled spins and ghost-spins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dileep P. Jatkar
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We study patterns of quantum entanglement in systems of spins and ghost-spins regarding them as simple quantum mechanical toy models for theories containing negative norm states. We define a single ghost-spin as in [20] as a 2-state spin variable with an indefinite inner product in the state space. We find that whenever the spin sector is disentangled from the ghost-spin sector (both of which could be entangled within themselves, the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over all the ghost-spins gives rise to positive entanglement entropy for positive norm states, while negative norm states have an entanglement entropy with a negative real part and a constant imaginary part. However when the spins are entangled with the ghost-spins, there are new entanglement patterns in general. For systems where the number of ghost-spins is even, it is possible to find subsectors of the Hilbert space where positive norm states always lead to positive entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins. With an odd number of ghost-spins however, we find that there always exist positive norm states with negative real part for entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins.
Pramanik, S.; bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.
2003-01-01
We study high-field spin transport of electrons in a quasi one-dimensional channel of a $GaAs$ gate controlled spin interferometer (SPINFET) using a semiclassical formalism (spin density matrix evolution coupled with Boltzmann transport equation). Spin dephasing (or depolarization) is predominantly caused by D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation associated with momentum dependent spin orbit coupling effects that arise due to bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling) and structural inve...
Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport
Farle, Michael
2013-01-01
Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.
Spin-polarized spin excitation spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J
2010-01-01
We report on the spin dependence of elastic and inelastic electron tunneling through transition metal atoms. Mn, Fe and Cu atoms were deposited onto a monolayer of Cu 2 N on Cu(100) and individually addressed with the probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Electrons tunneling between the tip and the substrate exchange energy and spin angular momentum with the surface-bound magnetic atoms. The conservation of energy during the tunneling process results in a distinct onset threshold voltage above which the tunneling electrons create spin excitations in the Mn and Fe atoms. Here we show that the additional conservation of spin angular momentum leads to different cross-sections for spin excitations depending on the relative alignment of the surface spin and the spin of the tunneling electron. For this purpose, we developed a technique for measuring the same local spin with a spin-polarized and a non-spin-polarized tip by exchanging the last apex atom of the probe tip between different transition metal atoms. We derive a quantitative model describing the observed excitation cross-sections on the basis of an exchange scattering process.
Spin nematics next to spin singlets
Yokoyama, Yuto; Hotta, Chisa
2018-05-01
We provide a route to generate nematic order in a spin-1/2 system. Unlike the well-known magnon-binding mechanism, our spin nematics requires neither the frustration effect nor spin polarization in a high field or in the vicinity of a ferromagnet, but instead appears next to the spin singlet phase. We start from a state consisting of a quantum spin-1/2 singlet dimer placed on each site of a triangular lattice, and show that interdimer ring exchange interactions efficiently dope the SU(2) triplets that itinerate and interact, easily driving a stable singlet state to either Bose-Einstein condensates or a triplet crystal, some hosting a spin nematic order. A variety of roles the ring exchange serves includes the generation of a bilinear-biquadratic interaction between nearby triplets, which is responsible for the emergent nematic order separated from the singlet phase by a first-order transition.
Matsuo, Mamoru; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi
2017-01-01
We investigate the interconversion phenomena between spin and mechanical angular momentum in moving objects. In particular, the recent results on spin manipulation and spin-current generation by mechanical motion are examined. In accelerating systems, spin-dependent gauge fields emerge, which enable the conversion from mechanical angular momentum into spins. Such a spin-mechanical effect is predicted by quantum theory in a non-inertial frame. Experiments which confirm the effect, i.e., the resonance frequency shift in nuclear magnetic resonance, the stray field measurement of rotating metals, and electric voltage generation in liquid metals, are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2006-07-01
The following topics were ealt with: Hadron physics with proton and deuteron probes, physics projects with Georgian participation, spin physics with antiprotons and leptons, spin filtering experiments, ISTC projects, technical issues for FAIR. (HSI)
Dynamic nuclear spin polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)
1996-11-01
Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji Xiangdong
2003-01-01
Spin is a beautiful concept that plays an ever important role in modern physics. In this talk, I start with a discussion of the origin of spin, and then turn to three themes in which spin has been crucial in subatomic physics: a lab to explore physics beyond the standard model, a tool to measure physical observables that are hard to obtain otherwise, a probe to unravel nonperturbative QCD. I conclude with some remarks on a world without spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1980-01-01
From 25 September to 1 October, some 150 spin enthusiasts gathered in Lausanne for the 1980 International Symposium on High Energy Physics with Polarized Beams and Polarized Targets. The programme was densely packed, covering physics interests with spin as well as the accelerator and target techniques which make spin physics possible
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Xiao-Qin; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Su, Gang
2017-01-01
The thermoelectric performance of a topological energy converter is analyzed. The H-shaped device is based on a combination of transverse topological effects involving the spin: the inverse spin Hall effect and the spin Nernst effect. The device can convert a temperature drop in one arm into an e...
Cross, Rod
2013-01-01
Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…
Spin physics in semiconductors
2017-01-01
This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.
Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection
Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.
2007-09-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.
Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current
Korenev, V. L.
2005-01-01
It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a non-equilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known equilibrium polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.
Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current
Korenev, V. L.
2006-07-01
It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a nonequilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known “equilibrium” polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.
Muon spin relaxation in random spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toshimitsu Yamazaki
1981-01-01
The longitudinal relaxation function Gsub(z)(t) of the positive muon can reflect dynamical characters of local field in a unique way even when the correlation time is longer than the Larmor period of local field. This method has been applied to studies of spin dynamics in spin glass systems, revealing sharp but continuous temperature dependence of the correlation time. Its principle and applications are reviewed. (author)
Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.
2015-10-01
Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical
The susceptibilities in the spin-S Ising model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ainane, A.; Saber, M.
1995-08-01
The susceptibilities of the spin-S Ising model are evaluated using the effective field theory introduced by Tucker et al. for studying general spin-S Ising model. The susceptibilities are studied for all spin values from S = 1/2 to S = 5/2. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs
Neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters and a phase-spin echo interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebisawa, Toru; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawai, Takeshi; Hino, Masahiro; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Achiwa, Norio; Otake, Yoshie; Funahashi, Haruhiko.
1996-01-01
Neutron spin quantum precession by multilayer spin splitter has been demonstrated using a new spin interferometer. The multilayer spin splitter consists of a magnetic multilayer mirror on top, followed by a gap layer and a non magnetic multilayer mirror which are evaporated on a silicon substrate. Using the multilayer spin splitter, a polarized neutron wave in a magnetic field perpendicular to the polarization is split into two spin eigenstates with a phase shift in the direction of the magnetic field. The spin quantum precession is equal to the phase shift, which depends on the effective thickness of the gap layer. The demonstration experiments verify the multilayer spin splitter as a neutron spin precession device as well as the coherent superposition principle of the two spin eigenstates. We have developed a new phase-spin echo interferometer using the multilayer spin splitters. We present successful performance tests of the multilayer spin splitter and the phase-spin echo interferometer. (author)
Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A
2017-01-01
Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...
Korenev, V. L.
2007-01-01
Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei brings the optical transition energy into resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hakioglu, T
2009-01-01
Based on Khodas et al (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 086602), we propose a device acting like a controllable prism for an incident spin. The device is a large quantum well where Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are present and controlled by the plunger gate potential, the electric field and the barrier height. A totally destructive interference can be manipulated externally between the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The spin-dependent transmission/reflection amplitudes are calculated as the control parameters are changed. The device operates as a spin prism/converter/filter in different regimes and may stimulate research in promising directions in spintronics in analogy with linear optics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kaminski, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy
2011-01-01
The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin
Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.
2007-04-01
Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic
Topologically Massive Higher Spin Gravity
Bagchi, A.; Lal, S.; Saha, A.; Sahoo, B.
2011-01-01
We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the
Spin-orbit and spin-lattice coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, Gerrit E.W.; Ziman, Timothy; Mori, Michiyasu
2014-01-01
We pursued theoretical research on the coupling of electron spins in the condensed matter to the lattice as mediated by the spin-orbit interaction with special focus on the spin and anomalous Hall effects. (author)
Spin Current Noise of the Spin Seebeck Effect and Spin Pumping
Matsuo, M.; Ohnuma, Y.; Kato, T.; Maekawa, S.
2018-01-01
We theoretically investigate the fluctuation of a pure spin current induced by the spin Seebeck effect and spin pumping in a normal-metal-(NM-)ferromagnet(FM) bilayer system. Starting with a simple ferromagnet-insulator-(FI-)NM interface model with both spin-conserving and non-spin-conserving processes, we derive general expressions of the spin current and the spin-current noise at the interface within second-order perturbation of the FI-NM coupling strength, and estimate them for a yttrium-iron-garnet-platinum interface. We show that the spin-current noise can be used to determine the effective spin carried by a magnon modified by the non-spin-conserving process at the interface. In addition, we show that it provides information on the effective spin of a magnon, heating at the interface under spin pumping, and spin Hall angle of the NM.
Effect of spin rotation coupling on spin transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, B.
2013-01-01
We have studied the spin rotation coupling (SRC) as an ingredient to explain different spin-related issues. This special kind of coupling can play the role of a Dresselhaus like coupling in certain conditions. Consequently, one can control the spin splitting, induced by the Dresselhaus like term, which is unusual in a semiconductor heterostructure. Within this framework, we also study the renormalization of the spin-dependent electric field and spin current due to the k → ⋅p → perturbation, by taking into account the interband mixing in the rotating system. In this paper we predict the enhancement of the spin-dependent electric field resulting from the renormalized spin rotation coupling. The renormalization factor of the spin electric field is different from that of the SRC or Zeeman coupling. The effect of renormalized SRC on spin current and Berry curvature is also studied. Interestingly, in the presence of this SRC-induced SOC it is possible to describe spin splitting as well as spin galvanic effect in semiconductors. -- Highlights: •Studied effect of spin rotation coupling on the spin electric field, spin current and Berry curvature. •In the k → ⋅p → framework we study the renormalization of spin electric field and spin current. •For an inertial system we have discussed the spin splitting. •Expression for the Berry phase in the inertial system is discussed. •The inertial spin galvanic effect is studied
Effect of spin rotation coupling on spin transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chowdhury, Debashree, E-mail: debashreephys@gmail.com; Basu, B., E-mail: sribbasu@gmail.com
2013-12-15
We have studied the spin rotation coupling (SRC) as an ingredient to explain different spin-related issues. This special kind of coupling can play the role of a Dresselhaus like coupling in certain conditions. Consequently, one can control the spin splitting, induced by the Dresselhaus like term, which is unusual in a semiconductor heterostructure. Within this framework, we also study the renormalization of the spin-dependent electric field and spin current due to the k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} perturbation, by taking into account the interband mixing in the rotating system. In this paper we predict the enhancement of the spin-dependent electric field resulting from the renormalized spin rotation coupling. The renormalization factor of the spin electric field is different from that of the SRC or Zeeman coupling. The effect of renormalized SRC on spin current and Berry curvature is also studied. Interestingly, in the presence of this SRC-induced SOC it is possible to describe spin splitting as well as spin galvanic effect in semiconductors. -- Highlights: •Studied effect of spin rotation coupling on the spin electric field, spin current and Berry curvature. •In the k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} framework we study the renormalization of spin electric field and spin current. •For an inertial system we have discussed the spin splitting. •Expression for the Berry phase in the inertial system is discussed. •The inertial spin galvanic effect is studied.
Spin temperature concept verified by optical magnetometry of nuclear spins
Vladimirova, M.; Cronenberger, S.; Scalbert, D.; Ryzhov, I. I.; Zapasskii, V. S.; Kozlov, G. G.; Lemaître, A.; Kavokin, K. V.
2018-01-01
We develop a method of nonperturbative optical control over adiabatic remagnetization of the nuclear spin system and apply it to verify the spin temperature concept in GaAs microcavities. The nuclear spin system is shown to exactly follow the predictions of the spin temperature theory, despite the quadrupole interaction that was earlier reported to disrupt nuclear spin thermalization. These findings open a way for the deep cooling of nuclear spins in semiconductor structures, with the prospect of realizing nuclear spin-ordered states for high-fidelity spin-photon interfaces.
Spin labels. Applications in biology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.
1980-11-01
The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)
Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves
Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.
2018-01-01
We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.
Hawkes, N
1999-01-01
RAL is fostering commerical exploitation of its research and facilities in two main ways : spin-out companies exploit work done at the lab, spin-in companies work on site taking advantage of the facilities and the expertise available (1/2 page).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haxton, W.C.
1988-01-01
I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity nonconservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence. 28 refs., 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peskin, M.E.
1994-01-01
When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics
Classical spins in superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K
1968-08-01
It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peskin, M.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
1994-12-01
When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masaike, Akira
1993-01-01
Despite playing a major role in today's Standard Model, spin - the intrinsic angular momentum carried by particles - is sometimes dismissed as an inessential complication. However several major spin questions with important implications for the Standard Model remain unanswered, and recent results and new technological developments made the 10th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in Nagoya, Japan, in November, highly topical. The symposium covered a wide range of physics, reflecting the diversity of spin effects, however four main themes were - the spin content of the nucleon, tests of symmetries and physics beyond standard models, intermediate energy physics, and spin technologies. Opening the meeting, T. Kinoshita reviewed the status of measurements of the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of the electron and the muon. The forthcoming experiment at Brookhaven (September 1991, page 23) will probe beyond the energy ranges open to existing electronpositron colliders. For example muon substructure will be opened up to 5 TeV and Ws to 2 TeV. R.L. Jaffe classified quark-parton distributions in terms of their spin dependence, pointing out their leftright attributes, and emphasized the importance of measuring transverse spin distributions through lepton pair production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin Lan (兰金
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A diode, a device allowing unidirectional signal transmission, is a fundamental element of logic structures, and it lies at the heart of modern information systems. The spin wave or magnon, representing a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, is a promising candidate for an information carrier for the next-generation energy-saving technologies. Here, we propose a scalable and reprogrammable pure spin-wave logic hardware architecture using domain walls and surface anisotropy stripes as waveguides on a single magnetic wafer. We demonstrate theoretically the design principle of the simplest logic component, a spin-wave diode, utilizing the chiral bound states in a magnetic domain wall with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and confirm its performance through micromagnetic simulations. Our findings open a new vista for realizing different types of pure spin-wave logic components and finally achieving an energy-efficient and hardware-reprogrammable spin-wave computer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowenstein, D.I.
1985-01-01
Spin Physics at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory is the most recent of new capabilities being explored at this facility. During the summer of 1984 the AGS accelerated beams of polarized protons to 16.5 GeV/c at 40% polarization to two experiments (E782, E785). These experiments; single spin asymmetry in inclusive polarized pp interactions; and spin-spin effects in polarized pp elastic scattering, operated at the highest polarized proton energy ever achieved by any accelerator in the world. These experiments are reviewed after the complementary spin physics program with unpolarized protons, and the future possibilities with a booster injector for the AGS and the secondary benefits of a Relativisitic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), are placed within the context of the present physics program
Superconductivity and spin fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scalapino, D.J.
1999-01-01
The organizers of the Memorial Session for Herman Rietschel asked that the author review some of the history of the interplay of superconductivity and spin fluctuations. Initially, Berk and Schrieffer showed how paramagnon spin fluctuations could suppress superconductivity in nearly-ferromagnetic materials. Following this, Rietschel and various co-workers wrote a number of papers in which they investigated the role of spin fluctuations in reducing the Tc of various electron-phonon superconductors. Paramagnon spin fluctuations are also believed to provide the p-wave pairing mechanism responsible for the superfluid phases of 3 He. More recently, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations have been proposed as the mechanism for d-wave pairing in the heavy-fermion superconductors and in some organic materials as well as possibly the high-Tc cuprates. Here the author will review some of this early history and discuss some of the things he has learned more recently from numerical simulations
Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets
Pauyac, C. O.
2017-12-08
A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.
Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets
Pauyac, C. O.; Chshiev, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Nikolaev, S. A.
2017-01-01
A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.
Ting, David Z.
2007-01-01
The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.
Nuclear spins in nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coish, W.A.; Baugh, J.
2009-01-01
We review recent theoretical and experimental advances toward understanding the effects of nuclear spins in confined nanostructures. These systems, which include quantum dots, defect centers, and molecular magnets, are particularly interesting for their importance in quantum information processing devices, which aim to coherently manipulate single electron spins with high precision. On one hand, interactions between confined electron spins and a nuclear-spin environment provide a decoherence source for the electron, and on the other, a strong effective magnetic field that can be used to execute local coherent rotations. A great deal of effort has been directed toward understanding the details of the relevant decoherence processes and to find new methods to manipulate the coupled electron-nuclear system. A sequence of spectacular new results have provided understanding of spin-bath decoherence, nuclear spin diffusion, and preparation of the nuclear state through dynamic polarization and more general manipulation of the nuclear-spin density matrix through ''state narrowing.'' These results demonstrate the richness of this physical system and promise many new mysteries for the future. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idrish Miah, M [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au
2008-09-15
On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.
Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Idrish Miah
2008-01-01
Full Text Available On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.
Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Idrish Miah, M
2008-01-01
On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.
Quantifying Spin Hall Angles from Spin Pumping : Experiments and Theory
Mosendz, O.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.
2010-01-01
Spin Hall effects intermix spin and charge currents even in nonmagnetic materials and, therefore, ultimately may allow the use of spin transport without the need for ferromagnets. We show how spin Hall effects can be quantified by integrating Ni80Fe20|normal metal (N) bilayers into a coplanar
Compound nucleus effects in spin-spin cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, W.J.
1976-01-01
By comparison with recent data, it is shown that spin-spin cross sections for low-energy neutrons may be dominated by a simple compound-elastic level-density effect, independent of spin-spin terms in the nucleon-nucleus optical-model potential. (Auth.)
2013-01-01
This book covers all principal aspects of currently investigated frustrated systems, from exactly solved frustrated models to real experimental frustrated systems, going through renormalization group treatment, Monte Carlo investigation of frustrated classical Ising and vector spin models, low-dimensional systems, spin ice and quantum spin glass. The reader can - within a single book - obtain a global view of the current research development in the field of frustrated systems.This new edition is updated with recent theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in the field of frustrated
SPINning parallel systems software
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matlin, O.S.; Lusk, E.; McCune, W.
2002-01-01
We describe our experiences in using Spin to verify parts of the Multi Purpose Daemon (MPD) parallel process management system. MPD is a distributed collection of processes connected by Unix network sockets. MPD is dynamic processes and connections among them are created and destroyed as MPD is initialized, runs user processes, recovers from faults, and terminates. This dynamic nature is easily expressible in the Spin/Promela framework but poses performance and scalability challenges. We present here the results of expressing some of the parallel algorithms of MPD and executing both simulation and verification runs with Spin
McWeeny, Roy
2004-01-01
Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp
NUCLEON SPIN: Enigma confirmed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1994-01-01
In 1987 the European Muon Collaboration (EMC - June 1988, page 9) reported results from a polarized muon-proton scattering experiment at CERN which puzzled the particle and nuclear physics communities. Contrary to the prediction of the naive quark model, the EMC found that little of the proton spin seemed to be carried by the spins of the quarks. An extensive experimental programme was therefore immediately proposed at CERN, SLAC (Stanford) and DESY (Hamburg) to measure the spin structure function of the neutron and to repeat the proton measurement with improved accuracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konoto, Makoto
2007-01-01
Development of highly effective evaluation technology of magnetic structures on a nanometric scale is a key to understanding spintronics and related phenomena. A high-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscope (spin SEM) developed recently is quite suitable for probing such nanostructures because of the capability of analyzing local magnetization vectors in three dimensions. Utilizing the spin SEM, a layered antiferromagnetic structure with the 1nm-alternation of bilayer-sheet magnetization has been successfully resolved. The real-space imaging with full analysis of the temperature-dependent magnetization vectors will be demonstrated. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, H.
1990-01-01
This thesis explores deep inelastic scattering of a lepton beam from a polarized nuclear target with spin J=1. After reviewing the formation for spin-1/2, the structure functions for a spin-1 target are defined in terms of the helicity amplitudes for forward compton scattering. A version of the convolution model, which incorporates relativistic and binding energy corrections is used to calculate the structure functions of a neutron target. A simple parameterization of these structure functions is given in terms of a few neutron wave function parameters and the free nucleon structure functions. This allows for an easy comparison of structure functions calculated using different neutron models. (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Wunderlich, Joerg; Park, B.G.; Irvine, A.C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Rozkotová, E.; Němec, P.; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš
2010-01-01
Roč. 330, č. 6012 (2010), s. 1801-1804 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 31.364, year: 2010
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Wenkua; Zheng Han
1989-01-01
The effects of spinning process parameters including max. pass percentage reduction, spinning temperature, feed rate, lubricant and annealing technology on the quality of shaped components are summarized and discussed in the present paper. The above mentioned parameters are adopted in the process of spinning of barrel-shaped and specially shaped components of refractory metals and their alloys W, Mo, Nb, Zr, TZM molybdenum alloy, C-103, C-752 niobium alloy etc. The cause of leading to usual defects of spun products of refractory metals such as lamellar as 'scaling', crack, swelling, wrinkle, etc. have been analysed and the ways to eliminate the defects have been put forward. 8 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)
Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2012-08-09
Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin diffusion is considered theoretically. Combining ballistic tunneling across the barrier and diffusive transport in the electrodes, we solve the spin dynamics equation in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque, as well as a nonconventional thickness dependence of both spin torque components.
Electron spin and nuclear spin manipulation in semiconductor nanosystems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirayama, Yoshiro; Yusa, Go; Sasaki, Satoshi
2006-01-01
Manipulations of electron spin and nuclear spin have been studied in AlGaAs/GaAs semiconductor nanosystems. Non-local manipulation of electron spins has been realized by using the correlation effect between localized and mobile electron spins in a quantum dot- quantum wire coupled system. Interaction between electron and nuclear spins was exploited to achieve a coherent control of nuclear spins in a semiconductor point contact device. Using this device, we have demonstrated a fully coherent manipulation of any two states among the four spin levels of Ga and As nuclei. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian
2011-01-01
Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)
Spin-4 extended conformal algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kakas, A.C.
1988-01-01
We construct spin-4 extended conformal algebras using the second hamiltonian structure of the KdV hierarchy. In the presence of a U(1) current a family of spin-4 algebras exists but the additional requirement that the spin-1 and spin-4 currents commute fixes the algebra uniquely. (orig.)
Anisotropic spin relaxation in graphene
Tombros, N.; Tanabe, S.; Veligura, A.; Jozsa, C.; Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.
2008-01-01
Spin relaxation in graphene is investigated in electrical graphene spin valve devices in the nonlocal geometry. Ferromagnetic electrodes with in-plane magnetizations inject spins parallel to the graphene layer. They are subject to Hanle spin precession under a magnetic field B applied perpendicular
Spin squeezing and quantum correlations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2 states. A coherent spin-s state. (CSS) θ φ can then be thought of as having no quantum correlations as the constituent. 2s elementary spins point in the same direction ˆn(θ φ) which is the mean spin direction. 2. State classification and squeezing. In order to discuss squeezing, we begin with the squeezing condition itself.
Geometry of spin coherent states
Chryssomalakos, C.; Guzmán-González, E.; Serrano-Ensástiga, E.
2018-04-01
Spin states of maximal projection along some direction in space are called (spin) coherent, and are, in many respects, the ‘most classical’ available. For any spin s, the spin coherent states form a 2-sphere in the projective Hilbert space \
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
O'FAllon, J.R.
1991-01-01
The history of spin physics experiments is presented, with emphasis of Kent Terwilliger's involvement. Development of polarized beams and targets at the ZGS and AGS is recalled. P-P elastic scattering experiments are reviewed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ratcliffe, P.G.
1993-01-01
A discussion is presented of the role that transverse spin physics can play in providing information on the bound state dynamics in hadronic physics. Care is taken to distinguish between single- and double-spin measurements, each being discussed separately. In the case of single-spin effects it is stressed that as yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided within the framework if perturbative QCD which in fact generally predicts negligible effects. In order to clarify the situation experimental data at yet higher p T are necessary and semi-leptonic data could shed some light on the underlying scattering mechanisms. As regards double-spin correlations, the theoretical picture (although clouded by some ill-informed, often erroneous statements and even recent papers) is rather well understood and what is dearly missing is the experimental study of, for example, g 2 in deep-inelastic scattering. (author). 31 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.
1986-01-01
Several ground state properties of (electron) spin-polarized deuterium (D) such as the energy, single quasiparticle energies and lifetimes, Landau parameters and sound velocities are evaluated. The calculations begin with the Kolos-Wolneiwicz potential and use the Galitskii-FeynmanHartree-Fock (GFHF) approximation. The deuteron nucleas has spin I = 1, and spin states I/sub z/ = 1,0,-1. We explore D 1 , D 2 and D 3 in which, respectively, one spin state only is populated, two states are equally populated, and three states are equally populated. We find the GFHF describes D 1 well, but D 2 and D 3 less well. The Landau parameters, F/sub L/, are small compared to liquid 3 He and very small for doubly polarized D 1 (i.e. the F/sub L/ decrease with nuclear polarization)
Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris, E-mail: hammel@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2015-05-07
Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.
Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)
Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris
2015-05-01
Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.
Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris
2015-01-01
Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems
Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning
Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung
2016-01-01
Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24?48 hours after attending a spi...
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.
Salberger, Olof; Korepin, Vladimir
We introduce a new model of interacting spin 1/2. It describes interactions of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of Fredkin gates. The Fredkin gate (also known as the controlled swap gate) is a computational circuit suitable for reversible computing. Our construction generalizes the model presented by Peter Shor and Ramis Movassagh to half-integer spins. Our model can be solved by means of Catalan combinatorics in the form of random walks on the upper half plane of a square lattice (Dyck walks). Each Dyck path can be mapped on a wave function of spins. The ground state is an equally weighted superposition of Dyck walks (instead of Motzkin walks). We can also express it as a matrix product state. We further construct a model of interacting spins 3/2 and greater half-integer spins. The models with higher spins require coloring of Dyck walks. We construct a SU(k) symmetric model (where k is the number of colors). The leading term of the entanglement entropy is then proportional to the square root of the length of the lattice (like in the Shor-Movassagh model). The gap closes as a high power of the length of the lattice [5, 11].
Chudnovsky, Eugene M.
2007-01-01
An extension of Drude model is proposed that accounts for spin and spin-orbit interaction of charge carriers. Spin currents appear due to combined action of the external electric field, crystal field and scattering of charge carriers. The expression for spin Hall conductivity is derived for metals and semiconductors that is independent of the scattering mechanism. In cubic metals, spin Hall conductivity $\\sigma_s$ and charge conductivity $\\sigma_c$ are related through $\\sigma_s = [2 \\pi \\hbar...
Spin-current emission governed by nonlinear spin dynamics.
Tashiro, Takaharu; Matsuura, Saki; Nomura, Akiyo; Watanabe, Shun; Kang, Keehoon; Sirringhaus, Henning; Ando, Kazuya
2015-10-16
Coupling between conduction electrons and localized magnetization is responsible for a variety of phenomena in spintronic devices. This coupling enables to generate spin currents from dynamical magnetization. Due to the nonlinearity of magnetization dynamics, the spin-current emission through the dynamical spin-exchange coupling offers a route for nonlinear generation of spin currents. Here, we demonstrate spin-current emission governed by nonlinear magnetization dynamics in a metal/magnetic insulator bilayer. The spin-current emission from the magnetic insulator is probed by the inverse spin Hall effect, which demonstrates nontrivial temperature and excitation power dependences of the voltage generation. The experimental results reveal that nonlinear magnetization dynamics and enhanced spin-current emission due to magnon scatterings are triggered by decreasing temperature. This result illustrates the crucial role of the nonlinear magnon interactions in the spin-current emission driven by dynamical magnetization, or nonequilibrium magnons, from magnetic insulators.
Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2016-06-19
In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the ﬁeld of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin ﬁltering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin ﬁltering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall eﬀect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.
Optical spin generation/detection and spin transport lifetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miah, M. Idrish
2011-01-01
We generate electron spins in semiconductors by optical pumping. The detection of them is also performed by optical technique using time-resolved pump-probe photoluminescence polarization measurements in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the generated spin. The spin polarization in dependences of the pulse length, pump-probe delay and external magnetic field is studied. From the dependence of spin-polarization on the delay of the probe, the electronic spin transport lifetimes and the spin relaxation frequencies as a function of the strength of the magnetic field are estimated. The results are discussed based on hyperfine effects for interacting electrons.
Optical spin generation/detection and spin transport lifetimes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)
2011-02-25
We generate electron spins in semiconductors by optical pumping. The detection of them is also performed by optical technique using time-resolved pump-probe photoluminescence polarization measurements in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the generated spin. The spin polarization in dependences of the pulse length, pump-probe delay and external magnetic field is studied. From the dependence of spin-polarization on the delay of the probe, the electronic spin transport lifetimes and the spin relaxation frequencies as a function of the strength of the magnetic field are estimated. The results are discussed based on hyperfine effects for interacting electrons.
Magnetocaloric effect in quantum spin-s chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Honecker
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We compute the entropy of antiferromagnetic quantum spin-s chains in an external magnetic field using exact diagonalization and Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetocaloric effect, i. e., temperature variations during adiabatic field changes, can be derived from the isentropes. First, we focus on the example of the spin-s=1 chain and show that one can cool by closing the Haldane gap with a magnetic field. We then move to quantum spin-s chains and demonstrate linear scaling with s close to the saturation field. In passing, we propose a new method to compute many low-lying excited states using the Lanczos recursion.
Rotational Invariance of the 2d Spin - Spin Correlation Function
Pinson, Haru
2012-09-01
At the critical temperature in the 2d Ising model on the square lattice, we establish the rotational invariance of the spin-spin correlation function using the asymptotics of the spin-spin correlation function along special directions (McCoy and Wu in the two dimensional Ising model. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1973) and the finite difference Hirota equation for which the spin-spin correlation function is shown to satisfy (Perk in Phys Lett A 79:3-5, 1980; Perk in Proceedings of III international symposium on selected topics in statistical mechanics, Dubna, August 22-26, 1984, JINR, vol II, pp 138-151, 1985).
Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nahid, M.A.I.
2010-06-01
Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokosawa, A.
1992-01-01
Spin physics activities at medium and high energies became significantly active when polarized targets and polarized beams became accessible for hadron-hadron scattering experiments. My overview of spin physics will be inclined to the study of strong interaction using facilities at Argonne ZGS, Brookhaven AGS (including RHIC), CERN, Fermilab, LAMPF, an SATURNE. In 1960 accelerator physicists had already been convinced that the ZGS could be unique in accelerating a polarized beam; polarized beams were being accelerated through linear accelerators elsewhere at that time. However, there was much concern about going ahead with the construction of a polarized beam because (i) the source intensity was not high enough to accelerate in the accelerator, (ii) the use of the accelerator would be limited to only polarized-beam physics, that is, proton-proton interaction, and (iii) p-p elastic scattering was not the most popular topic in high-energy physics. In fact, within spin physics, π-nucleon physics looked attractive, since the determination of spin and parity of possible πp resonances attracted much attention. To proceed we needed more data beside total cross sections and elastic differential cross sections; measurements of polarization and other parameters were urgently needed. Polarization measurements had traditionally been performed by analyzing the spin of recoil protons. The drawbacks of this technique are: (i) it involves double scattering, resulting in poor accuracy of the data, and (ii) a carbon analyzer can only be used for a limited region of energy
Noise in tunneling spin current across coupled quantum spin chains
Aftergood, Joshua; Takei, So
2018-01-01
We theoretically study the spin current and its dc noise generated between two spin-1 /2 spin chains weakly coupled at a single site in the presence of an over-population of spin excitations and a temperature elevation in one subsystem relative to the other, and we compare the corresponding transport quantities across two weakly coupled magnetic insulators hosting magnons. In the spin chain scenario, we find that applying a temperature bias exclusively leads to a vanishing spin current and a concomitant divergence in the spin Fano factor, defined as the spin current noise-to-signal ratio. This divergence is shown to have an exact analogy to the physics of electron scattering between fractional quantum Hall edge states and not to arise in the magnon scenario. We also reveal a suppression in the spin current noise that exclusively arises in the spin chain scenario due to the fermion nature of the spin-1/2 operators. We discuss how the spin Fano factor may be extracted experimentally via the inverse spin Hall effect used extensively in spintronics.
Spin Structures in Magnetic Nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørup, Steen; Brok, Erik; Frandsen, Cathrine
2013-01-01
Spin structures in nanoparticles of ferrimagnetic materials may deviate locally in a nontrivial way from ideal collinear spin structures. For instance, magnetic frustration due to the reduced numbers of magnetic neighbors at the particle surface or around defects in the interior can lead to spin...... canting and hence a reduced magnetization. Moreover, relaxation between almost degenerate canted spin states can lead to anomalous temperature dependences of the magnetization at low temperatures. In ensembles of nanoparticles, interparticle exchange interactions can also result in spin reorientation....... Here, we give a short review of anomalous spin structures in nanoparticles....
Rackham, Neil
1995-01-01
True or false? In selling high-value products or services: "closing" increases your chance of success; it is essential to describe the benefits of your product or service to the customer; objection handling is an important skill; and open questions are more effective than closed questions. All false, says Neil Rackham. He and his team studied more than 35,000 sales calls made by 10,000 sales people in 23 countries over 12 years. Their findings revealed that many of the methods developed for selling low-value goods just don't work for major sales. Rackham went on to introduce his SPIN-selling method, where SPIN describes the whole selling process - Situation questions, Problem questions, Implication questions, Need-payoff questions. SPIN-selling provides you with a set of simple and practical techniques which have been tried in many of today's leading companies with dramatic improvements to their sales performance.
Contucci, Pierluigi
2013-01-01
Presenting and developing the theory of spin glasses as a prototype for complex systems, this book is a rigorous and up-to-date introduction to their properties. The book combines a mathematical description with a physical insight of spin glass models. Topics covered include the physical origins of those models and their treatment with replica theory; mathematical properties like correlation inequalities and their use in the thermodynamic limit theory; main exact solutions of the mean field models and their probabilistic structures; and the theory of the structural properties of the spin glass phase such as stochastic stability and the overlap identities. Finally, a detailed account is given of the recent numerical simulation results and properties, including overlap equivalence, ultrametricity and decay of correlations. The book is ideal for mathematical physicists and probabilists working in disordered systems.
Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning.
Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung
2016-11-01
Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24-48 hours after attending a spinning class at a local gymnasium. Paired with key laboratory findings, her symptoms were suggestive of rhabdomyolysis. She required hospital admission to sustain renal function through fluid resuscitation therapy and fluid balance monitoring. Because exertional rhabdomyolysis may occur in any unfit but otherwise healthy individual who indulges in stationary cycling, the potential health risks of this activity must be considered.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden
1975-01-01
The selection rules for the linear couplings between magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of a simple basal-plane hcp ferromagnet are determined by general symmetry considerations. The acoustic-optical magnon-phonon interactions observed in the heavy-rare-earth metals have been...... explained by Liu as originating from the mixing of the spin states of the conduction electrons due to the spin-orbit coupling. We find that this coupling mechanism introduces interactions which violate the selection rules for a simple ferromagnet. The interactions between the magnons and phonons propagating...... in the c direction of Tb have been studied experimentally by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The magnons are coupled to both the acoustic- and optical-transverse phonons. By studying the behavior of the acoustic-optical coupling, we conclude that it is a spin-mixed-induced coupling as proposed...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schill, Christian
2012-01-01
The COMPASS experiment is a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS using muon and hadron beams for the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon and hadron spectroscopy. The main objective of the muon physics program is the study of the spin of the nucleon in terms of its constituents, quarks and gluons. COMPASS has accumulated data during 6 years scattering polarized muons off longitudinally or transversely polarized deuteron ( 6 LiD) or proton (NH 3 ) targets. Results for the gluon polarization are obtained from longitudinal double spin cross section asymmetries using two different channels, open charm production and high transverse momentum hadron pairs, both proceeding through the photon-gluon fusion process. Also, the longitudinal spin structure functions of the proton and the deuteron were measured in parallel as well as the helicity distributions for the three lightest quark flavours. With a transversely polarized target, results were obtained with proton and deuteron targets for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons as well as for identified kaons and pions. The Collins asymmetry is sensitive to the transverse spin structure of the nucleon, while the Sivers asymmetry reflects correlations between the quark transverse momentum and the nucleon spin. Recently, a new proposal for the COMPASS II experiment was accepted by the CERN SPS which includes two new topics: Exclusive reactions like DVCS and DVMP using the muon beam and a hydrogen target to study generalized parton distributions and Drell-Yan measurements using a pion beam and a polarized NH 3 target to study transverse momentum dependent distributions.
Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths
Liu, Ren-Bao
2011-03-01
Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bland, L.C.
2003-01-01
The physics goals that will be addressed by colliding polarized protons at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are described. The RHIC spin program provides a new generation of experiments that will unfold the quark, anti-quark and gluon contributions to the proton's spin. In addition to these longer term goals, this paper describes what was learned from the first polarized proton collisions at √(s)=200 GeV. These collisions took place in a five-week run during the second year of RHIC operation
CONFERENCE: Muon spin rotation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karlsson, Erik
1986-11-15
An international physics conference centred on muons without a word about leptons, weak interactions, EMC effects, exotic decay modes or any other standard high energy physics jargon. Could such a thing even have been imagined ten years ago? Yet about 120 physicists and chemists from 16 nations gathered at the end of June in Uppsala (Sweden) for their fourth meeting on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance, without worrying about the muon as an elementary particle. This reflects how the experimental techniques based on the muon spin interactions have reached maturity and are widely recognized by condensed matter physicists and specialized chemists as useful tools.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans
1975-01-01
with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results......, which are corrected for the effect of the direct coupling between the magnons and the phonons, and for the field dependence of the relative magnetization at finite temperatures. A large q⃗-dependent difference between the two energy components is observed, showing that the anisotropy of the two...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramachandran, R.
1994-09-01
The object of this brief review is to reconcile different points of view on how the spin of proton is made up from its constituents. On the basis of naive quark model with flavour symmetry such as isospin or SU(3) one finds a static description. On the contrary the local SU(3) colour symmetry gives a dynamical view. Both these views are contrasted and the role of U(1) axial anomaly and the ambiguity for the measurable spin content is discussed. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig
Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien; Matsumoto, R.; Jaffres, H.; Grollier, J.
2012-01-01
in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque
Transverse Spin Physics: Recent Developments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Feng
2008-01-01
Transverse-spin physics has been very active and rapidly developing in the last few years. In this talk, I will briefly summarize recent theoretical developments, focusing on the associated QCD dynamics in transverse spin physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faris, W.G.
1981-01-01
Dankel has shown how to incorporate spin into stochastic mechanics. The resulting non-local hidden variable theory gives an appealing picture of spin correlation experiments in which Bell's inequality is violated. (orig.)
Muonium spin exchange in spin-polarized media: Spin-flip and -nonflip collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senba, M.
1994-01-01
The transverse relaxation of the muon spin in muonium due to electron spin exchange with a polarized spin-1/2 medium is investigated. Stochastic calculations, which assume that spin exchange is a Poisson process, are carried out for the case where the electron spin polarization of the medium is on the same axis as the applied field. Two precession signals of muonium observed in intermediate fields (B>30 G) are shown to have different relaxation rates which depend on the polarization of the medium. Furthermore, the precession frequencies are shifted by an amount which depends on the spin-nonflip rate. From the two relaxation rates and the frequency shift in intermediate fields, one can determine (i) the encounter rate of muonium and the paramagnetic species, (ii) the polarization of the medium, and most importantly (iii) the quantum-mechanical phase shift (and its sign) associated with the potential energy difference between electron singlet and triplet encounters. Effects of spin-nonflip collisions on spin dynamics are discussed for non-Poisson as well as Poisson processes. In unpolarized media, the time evolution of the muon spin in muonium is not influenced by spin-nonflip collisions, if the collision process is Poissonian. This seemingly obvious statement is not true anymore in non-Poissonian processes, i.e., it is necessary to specify both spin-flip and spin-nonflip rates to fully characterize spin dynamics
Antiferromagnetic spin-orbitronics
Manchon, Aurelien; Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Ghosh, Sumit
2015-01-01
Antiferromagnets have long remained an intriguing and exotic state of matter, whose application has been restricted to enabling interfacial exchange bias in metallic and tunneling spin-valves [1]. Their role in the expanding field of applied spintronics has been mostly passive and the in-depth investigation of their basic properties mostly considered from a fundamental perspective.
Antiferromagnetic spin-orbitronics
Manchon, Aurelien
2015-05-01
Antiferromagnets have long remained an intriguing and exotic state of matter, whose application has been restricted to enabling interfacial exchange bias in metallic and tunneling spin-valves [1]. Their role in the expanding field of applied spintronics has been mostly passive and the in-depth investigation of their basic properties mostly considered from a fundamental perspective.
Brookhaven: Spin result underlined
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1990-09-15
A recent experiment looking at violent proton-proton elastic scattering confirms, with high precision, earlier data which puzzled many theorists. Most pictures of strong interactions based on perturbative quark-gluon field theory (Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD) suggested that spin effects should disappear with energy and as the collisions become more violent.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
ments have shown that in some cases the nuclear spin systems may be held in special configurations called .... these methods have been commercialized, and used for clinical trials, in which hyperpolarized NMR is used to .... symmetric under exchange, meaning that exchanging the two nuclei leaves the state unchanged.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1981-11-01
This booklet gives examples of 'nuclear spin off', from research programmes carried out for the UKAEA, under the following headings; non destructive testing; tribology; environmental protection; flow measurement; material sciences; mechanical engineering; marine services; biochemical technology; electronic instrumentation. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, T.; Sagawa, H.
2000-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Spin and isospin modes in nuclei are investigated. We discuss some of the following topics. 1. Spin-dipole excitations in 12 C and 16 O are studied (1). Effects of tensor and spin-orbit interactions on the distribution of the strengths are investigated, and neutral current neutrino scattering cross sections in 16 O are obtained for heavy-flavor neutrinos from the supernovae. 2. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-dipole (SD) modes in 208 Bi are investigated. Quenching and fragmentation of the GT strength are discussed (2). SD excitations and electric dipole (E1) transitions between the GT and SD states are studied (3). Calculated E1 strengths are compared with the sum rule values obtained within the 1p-1h and 1p-1h + 2p-2h configuration spaces. 3. Coulomb displacement energy (CDE) of the IAS of 14 Be is calculated, and the effects of the halo on the CDE and the configuration of the halo state are investigated. 4. Spreading width of IAS and isospin dependence of the width are investigated (4). Our formula for the width explains very well the observed isospin dependence (5). (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Peter D.
1997-01-01
Spin-polarized photoemission has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this review, we examine the methodology of the technique and its application to a number of different problems, including both valence band and core level studies. After a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements we consider in detail studies of the bulk properties both above and below the Curie temperature. This section also includes a discussion of observations relating to unique metastable phases obtained via epitaxial growth. The application of the technique to the study of surfaces, both clean and adsorbate covered, is reviewed. The report then examines, in detail, studies of the spin-polarized electronic structure of thin films and the related interfacial magnetism. Finally, observations of spin-polarized quantum well states in non-magnetic thin films are discussed with particular reference to their mediation of the oscillatory exchange coupling in related magnetic multilayers. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Althoff, K.H.
1989-01-01
In 1987 the new Bonn stretcher accelerator ELSA came into operation. In this paper a short description of the accelerator and the three experimental facilities PHOENICS, ELAN and SAPHIR is given. The determination of spin observables is one of the main subjects of the experimental program. Some experiments are discussed in more detail
Spin physics in semiconductors
Dyakonov, Mikhail I
2008-01-01
This book describes beautiful optical and transport phenomena related to the electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors with emphasis on a clear presentation of the physics involved. Recent results on quantum wells and quantum dots are reviewed. The book is intended for students and researchers in the fields of semiconductor physics and nanoelectronics.
Brookhaven: Spin result underlined
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1990-01-01
A recent experiment looking at violent proton-proton elastic scattering confirms, with high precision, earlier data which puzzled many theorists. Most pictures of strong interactions based on perturbative quark-gluon field theory (Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD) suggested that spin effects should disappear with energy and as the collisions become more violent
Spin polarizability of hyperons
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
K B VIJAYA KUMAR. Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri 574 199, India. E-mail: kbvijayakumar@yahoo.com. DOI: 10.1007/s12043-014-0869-4; ePublication: 4 November 2014. Abstract. We review the recent progress of the theoretical understanding of spin polarizabilities of the hyperon in the ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bramson, B.D.
1978-01-01
An isolated system in general relativity makes a transition between stationary states. It is shown that the spin vectors of the system, long before and long after the emission of radiation, are supertranslation invariant and, hence, independent of the choice of Minkowski observation space. (author)
Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark eJohnson
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prescott, C.Y.
1991-07-01
Spin physics is playing an increasingly important role in high energy experiments and theory. This review looks at selected topics in high energy spin physics that were discussed at the 9th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics at Bonn in September 1990
Mechanical generation of spin current
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mamoru eMatsuo
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We focus the recent results on spin-current generation from mechanical motion such as rigid rotation and elastic deformations. Spin transport theory in accelerating frames is constructed by using the low energy expansion of the generally covariant Dirac equation. Related issues on spin-manipulation by mechanical rotation are also discussed.
Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinescu, Domnita Catalina
2011-01-01
The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.
Spinning Them Off: Entrepreneuring Practices in Corporate Spin-Offs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katja Maria Hydle
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the practices between parent and child firms in corporate spinoffs. We uncover the enacted aspects of knowledge, called knowing, through theories from seven cases of incumbent-backed spin-offs and find that the management of the parent firms are highly involved in the spin-offs. The practices associated with spinning off are solving problems, involving multidisciplinary expertise and entrepreneuring management at the parent firm. We contribute to the spin-off literature by discussing the knowledge required for successfully spinning off child firms and to practice theory by empirically uncovering the practical understanding involved in the origin and perpetuation of an organization.
Spin-orbit induced electronic spin separation in semiconductor nanostructures.
Kohda, Makoto; Nakamura, Shuji; Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ono, Teruo; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Mineno, Taiki; Nitta, Junsaku
2012-01-01
The demonstration of quantized spin splitting by Stern and Gerlach is one of the most important experiments in modern physics. Their discovery was the precursor of recent developments in spin-based technologies. Although electrical spin separation of charged particles is fundamental in spintronics, in non-uniform magnetic fields it has been difficult to separate the spin states of charged particles due to the Lorentz force, as well as to the insufficient and uncontrollable field gradients. Here we demonstrate electronic spin separation in a semiconductor nanostructure. To avoid the Lorentz force, which is inevitably induced when an external magnetic field is applied, we utilized the effective non-uniform magnetic field which originates from the Rashba spin-orbit interaction in an InGaAs-based heterostructure. Using a Stern-Gerlach-inspired mechanism, together with a quantum point contact, we obtained field gradients of 10(8) T m(-1) resulting in a highly polarized spin current.
Spin Relaxation and Manipulation in Spin-orbit Qubits
Borhani, Massoud; Hu, Xuedong
2012-02-01
We derive a generalized form of the Electric Dipole Spin Resonance (EDSR) Hamiltonian in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction for single spins in an elliptic quantum dot (QD) subject to an arbitrary (in both direction and magnitude) applied magnetic field. We predict a nonlinear behavior of the Rabi frequency as a function of the magnetic field for sufficiently large Zeeman energies, and present a microscopic expression for the anisotropic electron g-tensor. Similarly, an EDSR Hamiltonian is devised for two spins confined in a double quantum dot (DQD). Finally, we calculate two-electron-spin relaxation rates due to phonon emission, for both in-plane and perpendicular magnetic fields. Our results have immediate applications to current EDSR experiments on nanowire QDs, g-factor optimization of confined carriers, and spin decay measurements in DQD spin-orbit qubits.
Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents.
Demidov, Vladislav E; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O
2016-01-28
Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics.
Spin current and spin transfer torque in ferromagnet/superconductor spin valves
Moen, Evan; Valls, Oriol T.
2018-05-01
Using fully self-consistent methods, we study spin transport in fabricable spin valve systems consisting of two magnetic layers, a superconducting layer, and a spacer normal layer between the ferromagnets. Our methods ensure that the proper relations between spin current gradients and spin transfer torques are satisfied. We present results as a function of geometrical parameters, interfacial barrier values, misalignment angle between the ferromagnets, and bias voltage. Our main results are for the spin current and spin accumulation as functions of position within the spin valve structure. We see precession of the spin current about the exchange fields within the ferromagnets, and penetration of the spin current into the superconductor for biases greater than the critical bias, defined in the text. The spin accumulation exhibits oscillating behavior in the normal metal, with a strong dependence on the physical parameters both as to the structure and formation of the peaks. We also study the bias dependence of the spatially averaged spin transfer torque and spin accumulation. We examine the critical-bias effect of these quantities, and their dependence on the physical parameters. Our results are predictive of the outcome of future experiments, as they take into account imperfect interfaces and a realistic geometry.
Spin injection and spin accumulation in all-metal mesoscopic spin valves
Jedema, FJ; Nijboer, MS; Filip, AT; van Wees, BJ
2003-01-01
We study the electrical injection and detection of spin accumulation in lateral ferromagnetic-metal-nonmagnetic-metal-ferromagnetic-metal (F/N/F) spin valve devices with transparent interfaces. Different ferromagnetic metals, Permalloy (Py), cobalt (Co), and nickel (Ni), are used as electrical spin
Spin current evolution in the separated spin-up and spin-down quantum hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trukhanova, Mariya Iv.
2015-01-01
We have developed a method of quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) that describes particles with spin-up and with spin-down in separate. We have derived the equation of the spin current evolution as a part of the set of the quantum hydrodynamics equations that treat particles with different projection of spin on the preferable direction as two different species. We have studied orthogonal propagation of waves in the external magnetic field and determined the contribution of quantum corrections due to the Bohm potential and to magnetization energy of particles with different projections of spin in the spin-current wave dispersion. We have analyzed the limits of weak and strong magnetic fields. - Highlights: • We derive the spin current equation for particles with different projection of spin. • We predict the contribution of Bohm potential to the dynamics of spin current. • We derive the spin-current wave in the system of spin-polarized particles. • We study the propagation of spin-acoustic wave in magnetized dielectrics.
Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2016-01-01
ﬁltering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall eﬀect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives
Li, Fan; Song, Cheng; Cui, Bin; Peng, Jingjing; Gu, Youdi; Wang, Guangyue; Pan, Feng
2017-01-01
Spin-polarized field-effect transistor (spin-FET), where a dielectric layer is generally employed for the electrical gating as the traditional FET, stands out as a seminal spintronic device under the miniaturization trend of electronics. It would be fundamentally transformative if optical gating was used for spin-FET. We report a new type of spin-polarized field-effect transistor (spin-FET) with optical gating, which is fabricated by partial exposure of the (La,Sr)MnO3 channel to light-emitti...
Efficient spin transport through polyaniline
Mendes, J. B. S.; Alves Santos, O.; Gomes, J. P.; Assis, H. S.; Felix, J. F.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Rezende, S. M.; Azevedo, A.
2017-01-01
By using the spin pumping process, we show that it is possible to transport a pure spin current across layers of conducting polyaniline (PANI) with several hundred nanometers sandwiched between a film of the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and a thin layer of platinum. The spin current generated by microwave-driven ferromagnetic resonance of the YIG film, injected through the YIG/PANI interface, crosses the whole PANI layer and then is injected into the Pt layer. By means of the inverse spin Hall effect in the Pt, the spin current is converted into charge current and electrically detected as a dc voltage. We measured a spin diffusion length in PANI of 590 ± 40 nm, which is very large compared with normal metals, demonstrating that PANI can be used as an efficient spin current conductor and poor charge current conductor, opening the path towards spintronics applications based in this very attractive material.
Spin Funneling for Enhanced Spin Injection into Ferromagnets
Sayed, Shehrin; Diep, Vinh Q.; Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Datta, Supriyo
2016-07-01
It is well-established that high spin-orbit coupling (SOC) materials convert a charge current density into a spin current density which can be used to switch a magnet efficiently and there is increasing interest in identifying materials with large spin Hall angle for lower switching current. Using experimentally benchmarked models, we show that composite structures can be designed using existing spin Hall materials such that the effective spin Hall angle is larger by an order of magnitude. The basic idea is to funnel spins from a large area of spin Hall material into a small area of ferromagnet using a normal metal with large spin diffusion length and low resistivity like Cu or Al. We show that this approach is increasingly effective as magnets get smaller. We avoid unwanted charge current shunting by the low resistive NM layer utilizing the newly discovered phenomenon of pure spin conduction in ferromagnetic insulators via magnon diffusion. We provide a spin circuit model for magnon diffusion in FMI that is benchmarked against recent experiments and theory.
Shot noise of spin current and spin transfer torque
Yu, Yunjin; Zhan, Hongxin; Wan, Langhui; Wang, Bin; Wei, Yadong; Sun, Qingfeng; Wang, Jian
2013-04-01
We report the theoretical investigation of the shot noise of the spin current (Sσ) and the spin transfer torque (Sτ) for non-collinear spin polarized transport in a spin-valve device which consists of a normal scattering region connected by two ferromagnetic electrodes (MNM system). Our theory was developed using the non-equilibrium Green’s function method, and general nonlinear Sσ - V and Sτ - V relations were derived as a function of the angle θ between the magnetizations of two leads. We have applied our theory to a quantum dot system with a resonant level coupled with two ferromagnetic electrodes. It was found that, for the MNM system, the auto-correlation of the spin current is enough to characterize the fluctuation of the spin current. For a system with three ferromagnetic layers, however, both auto-correlation and cross-correlation of the spin current are needed to characterize the noise of the spin current. For a quantum dot with a resonant level, the derivative of spin torque with respect to bias voltage is proportional to sinθ when the system is far away from resonance. When the system is near resonance, the spin transfer torque becomes a non-sinusoidal function of θ. The derivative of the noise of the spin transfer torque with respect to the bias voltage Nτ behaves differently when the system is near or far away from resonance. Specifically, the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque Nτ is a concave function of θ near resonance while it becomes a convex function of θ far away from resonance. For certain bias voltages, the period Nτ(θ) becomes π instead of 2π. For small θ, it was found that the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque is very sensitive to the bias voltage and the other system parameters.
Shot noise of spin current and spin transfer torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Yunjin; Zhan Hongxin; Wan Langhui; Wang Bin; Wei Yadong; Sun Qingfeng; Wang Jian
2013-01-01
We report the theoretical investigation of the shot noise of the spin current (S σ ) and the spin transfer torque (S τ ) for non-collinear spin polarized transport in a spin-valve device which consists of a normal scattering region connected by two ferromagnetic electrodes (MNM system). Our theory was developed using the non-equilibrium Green’s function method, and general nonlinear S σ − V and S τ − V relations were derived as a function of the angle θ between the magnetizations of two leads. We have applied our theory to a quantum dot system with a resonant level coupled with two ferromagnetic electrodes. It was found that, for the MNM system, the auto-correlation of the spin current is enough to characterize the fluctuation of the spin current. For a system with three ferromagnetic layers, however, both auto-correlation and cross-correlation of the spin current are needed to characterize the noise of the spin current. For a quantum dot with a resonant level, the derivative of spin torque with respect to bias voltage is proportional to sinθ when the system is far away from resonance. When the system is near resonance, the spin transfer torque becomes a non-sinusoidal function of θ. The derivative of the noise of the spin transfer torque with respect to the bias voltage N τ behaves differently when the system is near or far away from resonance. Specifically, the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque N τ is a concave function of θ near resonance while it becomes a convex function of θ far away from resonance. For certain bias voltages, the period N τ (θ) becomes π instead of 2π. For small θ, it was found that the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque is very sensitive to the bias voltage and the other system parameters. (paper)
Nucleon spin structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.
1989-01-01
There has been recent excitement arising from the claim by the EMC collaboration that none of the proton's spin is carried by quarks. There are many textbooks, including those written by some members of this audience which assert that the proton's spin is carried by quarks. I will review the history of deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized protons, culminating in this most recent dramatic claim. I will show that, for the last decade, data have appeared consistent with predictions of the quark model and highlight what the new and potentially exciting data are. I will conclude with suggestions for the future, and discuss the polarization dependence of inclusive hadron production. 35 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Xiangsong; Sun Weimin; Wang Fan; Goldman, T.
2011-01-01
We analyze the problem of spin decomposition for an interacting system from a natural perspective of constructing angular-momentum eigenstates. We split, from the total angular-momentum operator, a proper part which can be separately conserved for a stationary state. This part commutes with the total Hamiltonian and thus specifies the quantum angular momentum. We first show how this can be done in a gauge-dependent way, by seeking a specific gauge in which part of the total angular-momentum operator vanishes identically. We then construct a gauge-invariant operator with the desired property. Our analysis clarifies what is the most pertinent choice among the various proposals for decomposing the nucleon spin. A similar analysis is performed for extracting a proper part from the total Hamiltonian to construct energy eigenstates.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salesi, G.
1995-07-01
Starting from the Pauli current the decomposition of the non-relativistic local velocity has been obtained in two parts (in the ordinary tensorial language): one parallel and the other orthogonal to the impulse. The former is recognized to be the classical part, that is, the center-of-mass (CM) velocity, and the latter the quantum one, that is, the velocity of the motion in the CM frame (namely, the internal spin motion or Zitterbewegung). Inserting this complete, composite expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the classical non-relativistic (i.e. Newtonian) Lagrangian, the author straightforwardly get the appearance of the so called quantum potential associates as it is known, to the Madelung fluid. In such a way, the quantum mechanical behaviour of particles appears to be strictly correlated to the existence of spin and Zitterbewegung
McDowell, M.
2002-12-01
Looking at lopsided Pangaea, shown imaginatively on many illustrated proposals, I wondered what would happen if the configuration were put in high relief on a globe and spun on axis. Then I wondered if the present configuration of land masses would itself balance as a spinning top. So I got two Replogle globes, two boxes of colored modeling clay sticks, and two fat knitting needles, to fit through the capped holes at the poles of the globes. The clay sticks I cut up into 3 mm. (1/8") slices, using a different color for each continent, and applied to the first globe, assuming the extreme exaggeration above the geoid, no matter how crude, would tell the story. Inserting one needle through the globe and securing it, I balanced the globe on the point of the needle and twirled it like a top. Result: Wobbly! Top end of needle gyrated unevenly, and here it was supposed to make a smooth precessional cone. Oh boy. For the second globe, I used a Scotese "free stuff" interpretation of Pangaea, which I had to augment considerably using USGS, DuToit, Irving and other references, fitting it on the globe and applying identical clay color slices to what I judged generally accepted land surfaces. Result: the thing would hardly stand up, let alone spin. Conclusion: Although a refinement of application on the "today" globe might eliminate nutation, creating a smoother spin, there is no way any refinement of Pangaea on the same size globe can come close. While the concept of a supercontinent may be viable, I theorize that it had to have evolved on a far smaller globe, where land mass could balance, and the "breakup" would not have caused us to wildly gyrate on our axis. Because Pangaea, she no spin.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1984-01-01
The focus for nuclear energy research in the UK has been mainly the generation of electricity. However, nuclear technology is also applied in many areas other than energy production. Nuclear Spin Off shows how technology has been transferred to industry, agriculture, medicine and other areas, creating considerable material benefit. Nuclear research has produced revolutionary new materials and measuring and detection techniques. This film shows a wide range of uses. (author)
Lord, Michael D; Mandel, Stanley W; Wager, Jeffrey D
2002-06-01
Spinouts rarely take off; most, in fact, fall into one or more of four traps that doom them from the start. Some companies spin out ventures that are too close to the core of their businesses, in effect selling off their crown jewels. Sometimes, a parent company uses the spinout primarily to pawn off debt or expenses or to quickly raise external capital for itself. Other times, a company may try to spin out an area of its business that lacks one or more of the critical legs of a successful company--a coherent business model, say, or a solid financial base. And in many cases, parent companies can't bring themselves to sever their ownership ties and give up control of their spinouts. R.J. Reynolds, the tobacco giant, managed to avoid these traps when it successfully spun out a most unlikely venture, the pharmaceutical company Targacept. As the story illustrates, the problem with spinouts is similar to the problem of rich children. Their parents have the wherewithal to spoil them or shelter them or cling to them, but what they need is tough love and discipline--much the same discipline that characterizes successful start-ups. R.J. Reynolds recognized that it didn't know that much about the pharmaceutical business and couldn't merely try to spin out a small clone of itself. It had to treat the venture as if it were essentially starting from scratch, with a passionate entrepreneurial leader, a solid business plan, help from outside partners in the industry, and ultimately substantial venture backing. That these lessons are less obvious to executives contemplating spinning out ventures closer to their core businesses may be why so many spinouts fail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunce, G.
1994-01-01
The physics potential of colliding beams of protons, polarized either longitudinally or transversely, at RHIC is remarkable. A luminosity of L = 2 x 10 32 cm -2 with 70% polarized beams will be available with up to 250 GeV energy in each beam. The proposal to collide polarized protons in RHIC was submitted in August 1992 and approved in October 1993. We have funding for R ampersand D on Siberian Snakes, so that RHIC will be able to accelerate polarized protons early in its program. The expected date of the first heavy ion collisions is 1999. The spin physics program includes measurement of gluon and sea quark polarization in the longitudinally polarized proton, measurement and then application of parity violation in W and Z production, measurement of hard scattering parton-parton asymmetries, and quark polarization or transversity in transversely polarized protons. Single spin asymmetries allow sensitive searches for parity violation (longitudinal polarization), and correlations between quark spin and gluons (transverse). Probes include direct photons (to P T = 20 GeV/c), jets (to P T > 50 GeV/c), Drell-Yan pairs to M ell ell = 9 GeV, W ± , Z. This program is described in our Particle World paper. Here we will emphasize the new information included in our Update, given to the Brookhaven PAC this September
Nuclear spin circular dichroism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia
2014-01-01
Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solomon, I. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, BP2, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
1959-07-01
Torrey has observed the free precession of nuclear spins around an r-f field H{sub 1}, fixed in a frame rotating at the Larmor frequency ω{sub 0} = γH{sub 0} around a large d-c magnetic field H{sub 0}. He showed that for an H{sub 1}, much larger than inhomogeneity of H{sub 0}, the latter has a negligible effect on the decay of the spin magnetization which is mainly due to the inhomogeneity of H{sub 1}. We report here on a method of overcoming the inhomogeneity of H{sub 1}, by production of echoes in the rotating frame ('rotary echoes'). These echoes are obtained by a 180 deg. phase shift at t = τ on the r-f field so that H{sub 1}, is suddenly reversed, producing a re-focussing of the magnetization vectors at the time t = 2 τ. The rotary echoes so obtained are very similar to the usual spin-echoes with, however some specific features that make them particularly suitable for the measurement of long relaxation times. Reprint of a paper published in Physical Review Letters, vol. 2, no. 7, Apr 1959, p. 301-302.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solomon, I.
1959-01-01
Torrey has observed the free precession of nuclear spins around an r-f field H 1 , fixed in a frame rotating at the Larmor frequency ω 0 = γH 0 around a large d-c magnetic field H 0 . He showed that for an H 1 , much larger than inhomogeneity of H 0 , the latter has a negligible effect on the decay of the spin magnetization which is mainly due to the inhomogeneity of H 1 . We report here on a method of overcoming the inhomogeneity of H 1 , by production of echoes in the rotating frame ('rotary echoes'). These echoes are obtained by a 180 deg. phase shift at t = τ on the r-f field so that H 1 , is suddenly reversed, producing a re-focussing of the magnetization vectors at the time t = 2 τ. The rotary echoes so obtained are very similar to the usual spin-echoes with, however some specific features that make them particularly suitable for the measurement of long relaxation times. Reprint of a paper published in Physical Review Letters, vol. 2, no. 7, Apr 1959, p. 301-302
Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan
2014-01-01
It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunce, G.
1993-01-01
The physics potential of colliding beams of protons, polarized either longitudinally or transversely, at RHIC is remarkable. A luminosity of L = 2 x 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 with 70% polarized beams will be available with up to 250 GeV energy in each beam. The proposal to collide polarized protons in RHIC was submitted in August 1992 and approved in October 1993, just after this workshop. The collaboration has been encouraged to complete R ampersand D on Siberian Snakes, so that RHIC will be able to accelerate polarized protons early in its program. The expected date of the first heavy ion collisions is 1999. The spin physics program includes measurement of gluon and sea quark polarization in the longitudinally polarized proton, measurement and then application of parity violation in W and Z production, measurement of hard scattering parton-parton asymmetries, and quark polarization or transversity in transversely polarized protons. Single spin asymmetries allow sensitive searches for parity violation (longitudinal polarization), and correlations between quark spin and gluons (transverse). Probes include direct photons (to p T = 20 GeV/c), jets (to p T > 50 GeV/c), Drell-Yan pairs (to m ll = 9 GeV), W +/- , Z. Here, the collaboration emphasizes the new information included in the Update, given to the Brookhaven PAC this September
Nuclear spin noise in the central spin model
Fröhling, Nina; Anders, Frithjof B.; Glazov, Mikhail
2018-05-01
We study theoretically the fluctuations of the nuclear spins in quantum dots employing the central spin model which accounts for the hyperfine interaction of the nuclei with the electron spin. These fluctuations are calculated both with an analytical approach using homogeneous hyperfine couplings (box model) and with a numerical simulation using a distribution of hyperfine coupling constants. The approaches are in good agreement. The box model serves as a benchmark with low computational cost that explains the basic features of the nuclear spin noise well. We also demonstrate that the nuclear spin noise spectra comprise a two-peak structure centered at the nuclear Zeeman frequency in high magnetic fields with the shape of the spectrum controlled by the distribution of the hyperfine constants. This allows for direct access to this distribution function through nuclear spin noise spectroscopy.
Entanglement entropy in random quantum spin-S chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saguia, A.; Boechat, B.; Continentino, M. A.; Sarandy, M. S.
2007-01-01
We discuss the scaling of entanglement entropy in the random singlet phase (RSP) of disordered quantum magnetic chains of general spin S. Through an analysis of the general structure of the RSP, we show that the entanglement entropy scales logarithmically with the size of a block, and we provide a closed expression for this scaling. This result is applicable for arbitrary quantum spin chains in the RSP, being dependent only on the magnitude S of the spin. Remarkably, the logarithmic scaling holds for the disordered chain even if the pure chain with no disorder does not exhibit conformal invariance, as is the case for Heisenberg integer-spin chains. Our conclusions are supported by explicit evaluations of the entanglement entropy for random spin-1 and spin-3/2 chains using an asymptotically exact real-space renormalization group approach
Spinning particle approach to higher spin field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corradini, Olindo
2011-01-01
We shortly review on the connection between higher-spin gauge field theories and supersymmetric spinning particle models. In such approach the higher spin equations of motion are linked to the first-class constraint algebra associated with the quantization of particle models. Here we consider a class of spinning particle models characterized by local O(N)-extended supersymmetry since these models are known to provide an alternative approach to the geometric formulation of higher spin field theory. We describe the canonical quantization of the models in curved target space and discuss the obstructions that appear in presence of an arbitrarily curved background. We then point out the special role that conformally flat spaces appear to have in such models and present a derivation of the higher-spin curvatures for maximally symmetric spaces.
Spin current through quantum-dot spin valves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J; Xing, D Y
2006-01-01
We report a theoretical study of the influence of the Coulomb interaction on the equilibrium spin current in a quantum-dot spin valve, in which the quantum dot described by the Anderson impurity model is coupled to two ferromagnetic leads with noncollinear magnetizations. In the Kondo regime, electrons transmit through the quantum dot via higher-order virtual processes, in which the spin of either lead electrons or a localized electron on the quantum dot may reverse. It is found that the magnitude of the spin current decreases with increasing Coulomb interactions due to spin flip effects on the dot. However, the spatial direction of the spin current remains unchanged; it is determined only by the exchange coupling between two noncollinear magnetizations
Dynamical spin accumulation in large-spin magnetic molecules
Płomińska, Anna; Weymann, Ireneusz; Misiorny, Maciej
2018-01-01
The frequency-dependent transport through a nanodevice containing a large-spin magnetic molecule is studied theoretically in the Kondo regime. Specifically, the effect of magnetic anisotropy on dynamical spin accumulation is of primary interest. Such accumulation arises due to finite components of frequency-dependent conductance that are off diagonal in spin. Here, employing the Kubo formalism and the numerical renormalization group method, we demonstrate that the dynamical transport properties strongly depend on the relative orientation of spin moments in electrodes of the device, as well as on intrinsic parameters of the molecule. In particular, the effect of dynamical spin accumulation is found to be greatly affected by the type of magnetic anisotropy exhibited by the molecule, and it develops for frequencies corresponding to the Kondo temperature. For the parallel magnetic configuration of the device, the presence of dynamical spin accumulation is conditioned by the interplay of ferromagnetic-lead-induced exchange field and the Kondo correlations.
Graphene spin diode: Strain-modulated spin rectification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yunhua; Wang, B., E-mail: stslyl@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology, School of Physics and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liu, Yulan, E-mail: stslyl@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)
2014-08-04
Strain effects on spin transport in a ferromagnetic/strained/normal graphene junction are explored theoretically. It is shown that the spin-resolved Fermi energy range can be controlled by the armchair direction strain because the strain-induced pseudomagnetic field suppresses the current. The spin rectification effect for the bias reversal occurs because of a combination of ferromagnetic exchange splitting and the broken spatial symmetry of the junction. In addition, the spin rectification performance can be tuned remarkably by manipulation of the strains. In view of this strain-modulated spin rectification effect, we propose that the graphene-based ferromagnetic/strained/normal junction can be used as a tunable spin diode.
Spin Transfer Torque in Graphene
Lin, Chia-Ching; Chen, Zhihong
2014-03-01
Graphene is an idea channel material for spin transport due to its long spin diffusion length. To develop graphene based spin logic, it is important to demonstrate spin transfer torque in graphene. Here, we report the experimental measurement of spin transfer torque in graphene nonlocal spin valve devices. Assisted by a small external in-plane magnetic field, the magnetization reversal of the receiving magnet is induced by pure spin diffusion currents from the injector magnet. The magnetization switching is reversible between parallel and antiparallel configurations by controlling the polarity of the applied charged currents. Current induced heating and Oersted field from the nonlocal charge flow have also been excluded in this study. Next, we further enhance the spin angular momentum absorption at the interface of the receiving magnet and graphene channel by removing the tunneling barrier in the receiving magnet. The device with a tunneling barrier only at the injector magnet shows a comparable nonlocal spin valve signal but lower electrical noise. Moreover, in the same preset condition, the critical charge current density for spin torque in the single tunneling barrier device shows a substantial reduction if compared to the double tunneling barrier device.
Spin dynamics in electron synchrotrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Jan Felix
2017-01-01
Providing spin polarized particle beams with circular accelerators requires the consideration of depolarizing resonances which may significantly reduce the desired degree of polarization at specific beam energies. The corresponding spin dynamical effects are typically analyzed with numerical methods. In case of electron beams the influence of the emission of synchrotron radiation has to be taken into account. On short timescales, as in synchrotrons with a fast energy ramp or in damping rings, spin dynamics are investigated with spin tracking algorithms. This thesis presents the spin tracking code Polematrix as a versatile tool to study the impact of synchrotron radiation on spin dynamics. Spin tracking simulations have been performed based on the well established particle tracking code Elegant. The numerical studies demonstrate effects which are responsible for beam depolarization: Synchrotron side bands of depolarizing resonances and decoherence of spin precession. Polematrix can be utilized for any electron accelerator with minimal effort as it imports lattice files from the tracking programs MAD-X or Elegant. Polematrix has been published as open source software. Currently, the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA at Bonn University is the only electron synchrotron worldwide providing a polarized beam. Integer and intrinsic depolarizing resonances are compensated with dedicated countermeasures during the fast energy ramp. Polarization measurements from ELSA demonstrate the particular spin dynamics of electrons and confirm the results of the spin tracking code Polematrix.
Spin waves and spin instabilities in quantum plasmas
Andreev, P. A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.
2014-01-01
We describe main ideas of method of many-particle quantum hydrodynamics allows to derive equations for description of quantum plasma evolution. We also present definitions of collective quantum variables suitable for quantum plasmas. We show that evolution of magnetic moments (spins) in quantum plasmas leads to several new branches of wave dispersion: spin-electromagnetic plasma waves and self-consistent spin waves. Propagation of neutron beams through quantum plasmas is also considered. Inst...
Field-controlled spin current in frustrated spin chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.K. Kolezhuk
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study states with spontaneous spin current, emerging in frustrated antiferromagnetic spin-S chains subject to a strong external magnetic field. As a numerical tool, we use a non-Abelian symmetry realization of the density matrix renormalization group. The field dependence of the order parameter and the critical exponents are presented for zigzag chains with S=1/2, 1, 3/2, and 2.
Hardy's argument and successive spin-s measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahanj, Ali
2010-01-01
We consider a hidden-variable theoretic description of successive measurements of noncommuting spin observables on an input spin-s state. In this scenario, the hidden-variable theory leads to a Hardy-type argument that quantum predictions violate it. We show that the maximum probability of success of Hardy's argument in quantum theory is ((1/2)) 4s , which is more than in the spatial case.
QED approach to the nuclear spin-spin coupling tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, Rodolfo H.; Aucar, Gustavo A.
2002-01-01
A quantum electrodynamical approach for the calculation of the nuclear spin-spin coupling tensor of nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy is given. Quantization of radiation fields within the molecule is considered and expressions for the magnetic field in the neighborhood of a nucleus are calculated. Using a generalization of time-dependent response theory, an effective spin-spin interaction is obtained from the coupling of nuclear magnetic moments to a virtual quantized magnetic field. The energy-dependent operators obtained reduce to usual classical-field expressions at suitable limits
Spin transport in spin filtering magnetic tunneling junctions.
Li, Yun; Lee, Eok Kyun
2007-11-01
Taking into account spin-orbit coupling and s-d interaction, we investigate spin transport properties of the magnetic tunneling junctions with spin filtering barrier using Landauer-Büttiker formalism implemented with the recursive algorithm to calculate the real-space Green function. We predict completely different bias dependence of negative tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) between the systems composed of nonmagnetic electrode (NM)/ferromagnetic barrier (FB)/ferromagnet (FM) and NM/FB/FM/NM spin filtering tunnel junctions (SFTJs). Analyses of the results provide us possible ways of designing the systems which modulate the TMR in the negative magnetoresistance regime.
Spin-orbit mediated control of spin qubits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A.S; Flensberg, Karsten
2006-01-01
We propose to use the spin-orbit interaction as a means to control electron spins in quantum dots, enabling both single-qubit and two-qubit operations. Very fast single-qubit operations may be achieved by temporarily displacing the electrons. For two-qubit operations the coupling mechanism is bas...... on a combination of the spin-orbit coupling and the mutual long-ranged Coulomb interaction. Compared to existing schemes using the exchange coupling, the spin-orbit induced coupling is less sensitive to random electrical fluctuations in the electrodes defining the quantum dots....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Entin-Wohlman, O.
2005-01-01
Full Text:The spin-Hall effect is described. The Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are both shown to yield the low temperature spin-Hall effect for strongly localized electrons coupled to phonons. A frequency-dependent electric field E(ω) generates a spin-polarization current, normal to E, due to interference of hopping paths. At zero temperature the corresponding spin-Hall conductivity is real and is proportional to ω 2 . At non-zero temperatures the coupling to the phonons yields an imaginary term proportional to ω. The interference also yields persistent spin currents at thermal equilibrium, at E = 0. The contributions from the Dresselhaus and Rashba interactions to the interference oppose each other
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Berman
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Resonant behavior involving spin-orbit entangled states occurs for spin transport along a narrow channel defined in a two-dimensional electron gas, including an apparent rapid relaxation of the spin polarization for special values of the channel width and applied magnetic field (so-called ballistic spin resonance. A fully quantum-mechanical theory for transport using multiple subbands of the one-dimensional system provides the dependence of the spin density on the applied magnetic field and channel width and position along the channel. We show how the spatially nonoscillating part of the spin density vanishes when the Zeeman energy matches the subband energy splittings. The resonance phenomenon persists in the presence of disorder.
Asymptotics of relativistic spin networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, John W; Steele, Christopher M
2003-01-01
The stationary phase technique is used to calculate asymptotic formulae for SO(4) relativistic spin networks. For the tetrahedral spin network this gives the square of the Ponzano-Regge asymptotic formula for the SU(2) 6j-symbol. For the 4-simplex (10j-symbol) the asymptotic formula is compared with numerical calculations of the spin network evaluation. Finally, we discuss the asymptotics of the SO(3, 1) 10j-symbol
Spin currents in metallic nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Czeschka, Franz Dominik
2011-09-05
A pure spin current, i.e., a flow of angular momentum without accompanying net charge current, is a key ingredient in the field of spintronics. In this thesis, we experimentally investigated two different concepts for pure spin current sources suggested by theory. The first is based on a time-dependent magnetization precession which ''pumps'' a pure spin current into an adjacent non-magnetic conductor. Our experiments quantitatively corroborated important predictions expected theoretically for this approach, including the dependence of the spin current on the sample geometry and the microwave power. Even more important, we could show for the first time that the spin pumping concept is viable in a large variety of ferromagnetic materials and that it only depends on the magnetization damping. Therefore, our experiments established spin pumping as generic phenomenon and demonstrated that it is a powerful way to generate pure spin currents. The second theoretical concept is based on the conversion of charge currents into spin currents in non-magnetic nanostructures via the spin Hall effect. We experimentally investigated this approach in H-shaped, metallic nanodevices, and found that the predictions are linked to requirements not realizable with the present experimental techniques, neither in sample fabrication nor in measurement technique. Indeed, our experimental data could be consistently understood by a spin-independent transport model describing the transition from diffusive to ballistic transport. In addition, the implementation of advanced fabrication and measurement techniques allowed to discover a new non-local phenomenon, the non-local anisotropic magnetoresistance. Finally, we also studied spin-polarized supercurrents carried by spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We found that low resistance interfaces are a key requirement for further experiments in this direction. (orig.)
Nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde
Chapovsky, Pavel L.
2000-01-01
Theoretical model of the nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde (H2CO) has been developed. The conversion is governed by the intramolecular spin-rotation mixing of molecular ortho and para states. The rate of conversion has been found equal 1.4*10^{-4}~1/s*Torr. Temperature dependence of the spin conversion has been predicted to be weak in the wide temperature range T=200-900 K.
Spin interactions of light quarks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonov, Yu.A.
1989-01-01
Spin-spin and spin-orbit interactions of light quarks is calculated exactly, i.e. without use of perturbation expansion in (mass) -1 . Vacuum gluonic fields are represented by bilocal correlators and higher order correlators are neglected. Perturbative contribution is reproduced in lowest order by a simple modification of the bilocal correlator, and the smearing of the function in the hyperfine term is discussed. 12 refs
Observation of the spin Nernst effect
Meyer, S.; Chen, Y.-T.; Wimmer, S.; Althammer, M.; Wimmer, T.; Schlitz, R.; Geprägs, S.; Huebl, H.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.
2017-10-01
The observation of the spin Hall effect triggered intense research on pure spin current transport. With the spin Hall effect, the spin Seebeck effect and the spin Peltier effect already observed, our picture of pure spin current transport is almost complete. The only missing piece is the spin Nernst (-Ettingshausen) effect, which so far has been discussed only on theoretical grounds. Here, we report the observation of the spin Nernst effect. By applying a longitudinal temperature gradient, we generate a pure transverse spin current in a Pt thin film. For readout, we exploit the magnetization-orientation-dependent spin transfer to an adjacent yttrium iron garnet layer, converting the spin Nernst current in Pt into a controlled change of the longitudinal and transverse thermopower voltage. Our experiments show that the spin Nernst and the spin Hall effect in Pt are of comparable magnitude, but differ in sign, as corroborated by first-principles calculations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunce, G.
1995-01-01
Colliding beams of high energy polarized protons at RHIC is an excellent way to probe the polarization of gluons, u and d quarks in a polarized proton. RHIC is the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider being built now at Brookhaven in the ISABELLE tunnel. It is designed to collide gold ions on gold ions at 100 GeV/nucleon. Its goal is to discover the quark-gluon plasma, and the first collisions are expected in March, 1999. RHIC will also make an ideal polarized proton collider with high luminosity and 250 GeV x 250 GeV collisions. The RHIC spin physics program is: (1) Use well-understood perturbative QCD probes to study non-perturbative confining dynamics in QCD. We will measure - gluon and sea quark polarization in a polarized proton, polarization of quarks in a transversely polarized proton. (2) Look for additional surprises using the first high energy polarized proton collider. We will - look for the expected maximal parity violation in W and Z boson production, - search for parity violation in other processes, - test parton models with spin. This lecture is organized around a few of the key ideas: Siberian Snakes--What are they? High energy proton-proton collisions are scatters of quarks and leptons, at high x, a polarized proton beam is a beam of polarized u quarks, quark and gluon collisions are very sensitive to spin. We will discuss two reactions: how direct photon production measures gluon polarization, and how W + boson production measures u and d quark polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bunce, G.
1995-12-31
Colliding beams of high energy polarized protons at RHIC is an excellent way to probe the polarization of gluons, u and d quarks in a polarized proton. RHIC is the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider being built now at Brookhaven in the ISABELLE tunnel. It is designed to collide gold ions on gold ions at 100 GeV/nucleon. Its goal is to discover the quark-gluon plasma, and the first collisions are expected in March, 1999. RHIC will also make an ideal polarized proton collider with high luminosity and 250 GeV x 250 GeV collisions. The RHIC spin physics program is: (1) Use well-understood perturbative QCD probes to study non-perturbative confining dynamics in QCD. We will measure - gluon and sea quark polarization in a polarized proton, polarization of quarks in a transversely polarized proton. (2) Look for additional surprises using the first high energy polarized proton collider. We will - look for the expected maximal parity violation in W and Z boson production, - search for parity violation in other processes, - test parton models with spin. This lecture is organized around a few of the key ideas: Siberian Snakes--What are they? High energy proton-proton collisions are scatters of quarks and leptons, at high x, a polarized proton beam is a beam of polarized u quarks, quark and gluon collisions are very sensitive to spin. We will discuss two reactions: how direct photon production measures gluon polarization, and how W{sup +} boson production measures u and d quark polarization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephens, F.S.
1980-03-01
The present talk has three parts: first, a discussion of current ideas about the physics of very high spin states; second, some comments about noncollective behavior up to the highest spins where it is known, approx. 40 h; and finally, a presentation of the newest method for studying collective behavior up to spins of 60 to 70 h. The intention is that the overview presented in the first part will be sufficiently broad to indicate the relationship of the noncollective and collective behavior discussed in the other parts, and to provide some understanding of the compromise in behavior that seems to occur at the very highest spins. 13 figures
Spin correlations in quantum wires
Sun, Chen; Pokrovsky, Valery L.
2015-04-01
We consider theoretically spin correlations in a one-dimensional quantum wire with Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction (RDI). The correlations of noninteracting electrons display electron spin resonance at a frequency proportional to the RDI coupling. Interacting electrons, upon varying the direction of the external magnetic field, transit from the state of Luttinger liquid (LL) to the spin-density wave (SDW) state. We show that the two-time total-spin correlations of these states are significantly different. In the LL, the projection of total spin to the direction of the RDI-induced field is conserved and the corresponding correlator is equal to zero. The correlators of two components perpendicular to the RDI field display a sharp electron-spin resonance driven by the RDI-induced intrinsic field. In contrast, in the SDW state, the longitudinal projection of spin dominates, whereas the transverse components are suppressed. This prediction indicates a simple way for an experimental diagnostic of the SDW in a quantum wire. We point out that the Luttinger model does not respect the spin conservation since it assumes the infinite Fermi sea. We propose a proper cutoff to correct this failure.
Towards spin injection into silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dash, S.P.
2007-08-15
Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Ayan K; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha
2015-01-01
In artificial neural networks, neurons are usually implemented with highly dissipative CMOS-based operational amplifiers. A more energy-efficient implementation is a ‘spin-neuron’ realized with a magneto-tunneling junction (MTJ) that is switched with a spin-polarized current (representing weighted sum of input currents) that either delivers a spin transfer torque or induces domain wall motion in the soft layer of the MTJ to mimic neuron firing. Here, we propose and analyze a different type of spin-neuron in which the soft layer of the MTJ is switched with mechanical strain generated by a voltage (representing weighted sum of input voltages) and term it straintronic spin-neuron. It dissipates orders of magnitude less energy in threshold operations than the traditional current-driven spin neuron at 0 K temperature and may even be faster. We have also studied the room-temperature firing behaviors of both types of spin neurons and find that thermal noise degrades the performance of both types, but the current-driven type is degraded much more than the straintronic type if both are optimized for maximum energy-efficiency. On the other hand, if both are designed to have the same level of thermal degradation, then the current-driven version will dissipate orders of magnitude more energy than the straintronic version. Thus, the straintronic spin-neuron is superior to current-driven spin neurons. (paper)
Barone, Vicenzo
2001-01-01
This book is devoted to the theory and phenomenology of transverse-spin effects in high-energy hadronic physics. Contrary to common past belief, it is now rather clear that such effects are far from irrelevant. A decade or so of intense theoretical work has shed much light on the subject and brought to surface an entire class of new phenomena, which now await thorough experimental investigation. Over the next few years a number of experiments world-wide (at BNL, CERN, DESY and JLAB) will run with transversely polarised beams and targets, providing data that will enrich our knowledge of the tra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wasson, J.R.; Salinas, J.E.
1980-01-01
Published literature concerning electron spin resonance (ESR) from July 1977 to July 1979 is reviewed. The 108 literature sources cited were chosen from literally thousands and are intended to serve as a guide to the current literature and to provide an eclectic selection of publications cited for their contributions to the advance and/or applications of ESR spectroscopy. 40 of the sources are reviews, and a table is included to indicate the topic(s) mainly covered in each review. Other divisions of the material reviewed are apparatus and spectral analysis, analytical applications, and selected paramagnetic materials
Determination of the Pt spin diffusion length by spin-pumping and spin Hall effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wei; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Vlaminck, Vincent [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Colegio de Ciencias e Ingenería, Universidad San Fransciso de Quito, Quito (Ecuador); Divan, Ralu [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bader, Samuel D. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois 60439 (United States)
2013-12-09
The spin diffusion length of Pt at room temperature and at 8 K is experimentally determined via spin pumping and spin Hall effect in permalloy/Pt bilayers. Voltages generated during excitation of ferromagnetic resonance from the inverse spin Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance effect were investigated with a broadband approach. Varying the Pt layer thickness gives rise to an evolution of the voltage line shape due to the superposition of the above two effects. By studying the ratio of the two voltage components with the Pt layer thickness, the spin diffusion length of Pt can be directly extracted. We obtain a spin diffusion length of ∼1.2 nm at room temperature and ∼1.6 nm at 8 K.
Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques
Lee, Ki-Seung
2015-04-06
In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.
Spin motive forces, 'measurements', and spin-valves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, S.E.
2007-01-01
Discussed is the spin motive force (smf) produced by a spin valve, this reflecting its dynamics. Relaxation implies an implicit measurement of the magnetization of the free layer of a valve. It is shown this has implications for the angular dependence of the torque transfer. Some discussion of recent experiments is included
Spin energy levels in axial symmetry: spin 4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Biasi, R S; Portella, P D [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia e Ciencia dos Materiais
1979-01-01
The spin energy levels in axial symmetry are presented, in graphical and tabular form, for a spin 4. The levels are calculated for five different angles between the applied field and the symmetry axis 0/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, 60 and 90/sup 0/.
Spin energy levels in axial symmetry: spin 3/2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Biasi, R S; Portella, P D [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia e Ciencia dos Materiais
1977-01-01
The spin energy levels in axial symmetry are presented, in graphical and tabular form, for a spin 3/2. The levels are calculated for five different angles between the applied field and the symmetry axis: 0/sup 0/, 30/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/ and 90/sup 0/.
Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques
Lee, Ki-Seung; Go, Dongwook; Manchon, Aurelien; Haney, Paul M.; Stiles, M. D.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2015-01-01
In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.
Diffusion equation and spin drag in spin-polarized transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flensberg, Karsten; Jensen, Thomas Stibius; Mortensen, Asger
2001-01-01
We study the role of electron-electron interactions for spin-polarized transport using the Boltzmann equation, and derive a set of coupled transport equations. For spin-polarized transport the electron-electron interactions are important, because they tend to equilibrate the momentum of the two-s...
Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Haiming; Brechet, Sylvain D.; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
2017-01-01
Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal
Semiconductors put spin in spintronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, Dieter
2000-01-01
Electrons and holes, which carry the current in semiconductor devices, are quantum-mechanical objects characterized by a set of quantum numbers - the band index, the wave-vector (which is closely related to the electron or hole velocity) and spin. The spin, however, is one of the strangest properties of particles. In simple terms, we can think of the spin as an internal rotation of the electron, but it has no classical counterpart. The spin is connected to a quantized magnetic moment and hence acts as a microscopic magnet. Thus the electron spin can adopt one of two directions (''up'' or ''down'') in a magnetic field. The spin plays no role in conventional electronics and the current in any semiconductor device is made up of a mixture of electrons with randomly oriented spins. However, a new range of electronic devices that transport the spin of the electrons, in addition to their charge, is being developed. But the biggest obstacle to making practical ''spin electronic'' or ''spintronic'' devices so far has been finding a way of injecting spin-polarized electrons or holes into the semiconductor and then detecting them. Recently a team of physicists from the University of Wuerzburg in Germany, and also a collaboration of researchers from Tohoku University in Japan and the University of California at Santa Barbara, have found a way round these problems using either semi-magnetic or ferromagnetic semiconductors as ''spin aligners'' (R Fiederling et al. 1999 Nature 402 787; Y Ohno et al. 1999 Nature 402 790). In this article the author presents the latest breakthrough in spintronics research. (UK)
Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Haiming, E-mail: haiming.yu@buaa.edu.cn [Fert Beijing Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, BDBC, Beihang University (China); Brechet, Sylvain D. [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland); Ansermet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.ansermet@epfl.ch [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland)
2017-03-03
Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, S.Y.
1990-01-01
The generalized snake configuration offers advantages of either shorter total snake length and smaller orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the multi-functions in the split configuration. We found that the compact configuration can save about 10% of the total length of a snake. On other hand, the spilt snake configuration can be used both as a snake and as a spin rotator for the helicity state. Using the orbit compensation dipoles, the spilt snake configuration can be located at any distance on both sides of the interaction point of a collider provided that there is no net dipole rotation between two halves of the snake. The generalized configuration is then applied to the partial snake excitation. Simple formula have been obtained to understand the behavior of the partial snake. Similar principle can also be applied to the spin rotators. We also estimate the possible snake imperfections are due to various construction errors of the dipole magnets. Accuracy of field error of better than 10 -4 will be significant. 2 refs., 5 figs
Muon spin relaxation measurements of spin-correlation decay in spin-glass AgMn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heffner, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); MacLaughlin, D.E.; Gupta, L.C. (California Univ., Riverside (USA))
1984-01-01
The field (H) dependence of the muon longitudinal spin-lattice relaxation rate well below the spin glass temperature in AgMn is found to obey an algebraic form given by (H)sup(..gamma..-1), with ..gamma.. = 0.54 +- 0.05. This suggests that Mn spin correlations decay with time as tsup(-..gamma..), in agreement with mean field theories of spin-glass dynamics which yield ..gamma..
Muon spin relaxation measurements of spin-correlation decay in spin-glass AgMn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heffner, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Gupta, L.C.
1984-01-01
The field (H) dependence of the muon longitudinal spin-lattice relaxation rate well below the spin glass temperature in AgMn is found to obey an algebraic form given by (H)sup(γ-1), with γ = 0.54 +- 0.05. This suggests that Mn spin correlations decay with time as tsup(-γ), in agreement with mean field theories of spin-glass dynamics which yield γ < approx. 0.5. Near the glass temperature the agreement between the data and theory is not as good. (Auth.)
IV. Workshop on High Energy Spin Physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nurushev, S.
1992-01-01
In this proceedings the results on high energy spin physics are summarized. The theory of spin phenomenon and the experimental results at intermediate energy and at high energy spin physics and new technical developments in polarization experiments are presented
Superconductive analogue of spin glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.
1987-07-01
The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs
Erlingsson, S.I.
2003-01-01
The main theme of this thesis is the hyperfine interaction between the many lattice nuclear spins and electron spins localized in GaAs quantum dots. This interaction is an intrinsic property of the material. Despite the fact that this interaction is rather weak, it can, as shown in this thesis,
Generation of genealogical spin eigenfunctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grabenstetter, J.E.; Tseng, T.J.; Grein, F.
1976-01-01
A method is given for generating the Yamanouchi-Kotani genealogical spin eigenfunctions which requires neither storage of eigenfunctions for smaller numbers of electrons, nor summations of large order, nor explicit use of results from the theory of representations of the symmetric group. An explicit formula is given for the coefficients of expansion in terms of spin products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1992-01-01
Lasers are now an everyday tool in particle physics, particularly for the spin polarization of beams, targets, and even short-lived particles. Development has been boosted in recent years by the availability of reliable multiwatt tunable lasers to select spin in an experimentally useful sample
Universal intrinsic spin Hall effect
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sinova, J.; Culcer, D.; Sinitsyn, N. A.; Niu, Q.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.
2004-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 12 (2004), 126603/1-126603/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : semiconductor quantum wells * spin-orbit interaction * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.218, year: 2004
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhar, S.; Basu, B.; Ghosh, Subir
2007-01-01
We explain the intrinsic spin Hall effect from generic anyon dynamics in the presence of external electromagnetic field. The free anyon is represented as a spinning particle with an underlying non-commutative configuration space. The Berry curvature plays a major role in the analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A. S.; Lukin, M. D.
2007-01-01
We propose a semiconductor device that can electrically generate entangled electron spin-photon states, providing a building block for entanglement of distant spins. The device consists of a p-i-n diode structure that incorporates a coupled double quantum dot. We show that electronic control of t...
Integrable multiparametric quantum spin chains
Förster, A; Roditi, I; Foerster, Angela; Links, Jon; Roditi, Itzhak
1998-01-01
Using Reshetikhin's construction for multiparametric quantum algebras we obtain the associated multiparametric quantum spin chains. We show that under certain restrictions these models can be mapped to quantum spin chains with twisted boundary conditions. We illustrate how this general formalism applies to construct multiparametric versions of the supersymmetric t-J and U models.
Spin noise spectroscopy of ZnO
Horn, H.; Berski, F.; Balocchi, A.; Marie, X.; Mansur-Al-Suleiman, M.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A.; Hübner, J.; Oestreich, M.
2013-12-01
We investigate the thermal equilibrium dynamics of electron spins bound to donors in nanoporous ZnO by optical spin noise spectroscopy. The spin noise spectra reveal two noise contributions: A weak spin noise signal from undisturbed localized donor electrons with a dephasing time of 24 ns due to hyperfine interaction and a strong spin noise signal with a spin dephasing time of 5 ns which we attribute to localized donor electrons which interact with lattice defects.
Spin noise spectroscopy of ZnO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horn, H.; Berski, F.; Hübner, J.; Oestreich, M. [Institute for Solid State Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstr. 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Balocchi, A.; Marie, X. [INSA-CNRS-UPS, LPCNO, Université de Toulouse, 135 Av. de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Mansur-Al-Suleiman, M.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Straße 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)
2013-12-04
We investigate the thermal equilibrium dynamics of electron spins bound to donors in nanoporous ZnO by optical spin noise spectroscopy. The spin noise spectra reveal two noise contributions: A weak spin noise signal from undisturbed localized donor electrons with a dephasing time of 24 ns due to hyperfine interaction and a strong spin noise signal with a spin dephasing time of 5 ns which we attribute to localized donor electrons which interact with lattice defects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pestov, I.B.
1997-01-01
It is substantiated that spin is a notion associated with the group of internal symmetry that is tightly connected with the geometrical structure of spacetime. The wave equation for the description of a particle with spin one half is proposed. On this ground it is shown that the spin of electron is exhibited through the quantum number and accordingly the Dirac equation describes properties of particles with the projection of spin ±h/2. On the contrary, we put forward the conjecture that the spin of the quark cannot be considered as a quantum number, but only as an origin of a non-abelian gauge field. The reason is that the quark and electron from physical, geometrical and group-theoretical points of view differ from each other. It is a deep reason for understanding quark-lepton symmetry and such important phenomena as quark confinement
Martin, N.; Bonville, P.; Lhotel, E.; Guitteny, S.; Wildes, A.; Decorse, C.; Ciomaga Hatnean, M.; Balakrishnan, G.; Mirebeau, I.; Petit, S.
2017-10-01
We report on diffuse neutron scattering experiments providing evidence for the presence of random strains in the quantum spin-ice candidate Pr2Zr2O7 . Since Pr3 + is a non-Kramers ion, the strain deeply modifies the picture of Ising magnetic moments governing the low-temperature properties of this material. It is shown that the derived strain distribution accounts for the temperature dependence of the specific heat and of the spin-excitation spectra. Taking advantage of mean-field and spin-dynamics simulations, we argue that the randomness in Pr2Zr2O7 promotes a new state of matter, which is disordered yet characterized by short-range antiferroquadrupolar correlations, and from which emerge spin-ice-like excitations. Thus, this study gives an original research route in the field of quantum spin ice.
Spin-3 topologically massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Bin, E-mail: bchen01@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Long Jiang, E-mail: longjiang0301@gmail.com [Department of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wu Junbao, E-mail: wujb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, and Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)
2011-11-24
In this Letter, we study the spin-3 topologically massive gravity (TMG), paying special attention to its properties at the chiral point. We propose an action describing the higher spin fields coupled to TMG. We discuss the traceless spin-3 fluctuations around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum and find that there is an extra local massive mode, besides the left-moving and right-moving boundary massless modes. At the chiral point, such extra mode becomes massless and degenerates with the left-moving mode. We show that at the chiral point the only degrees of freedom in the theory are the boundary right-moving graviton and spin-3 field. We conjecture that spin-3 chiral gravity with generalized Brown-Henneaux boundary condition is holographically dual to 2D chiral CFT with classical W{sub 3} algebra and central charge c{sub R}=3l/G.
A spin exchange model for singlet fission
Yago, Tomoaki; Wakasa, Masanobu
2018-03-01
Singlet fission has been analyzed with the Dexter model in which electron exchange occurs between chromophores, conserving the spin for each electron. In the present study, we propose a spin exchange model for singlet fission. In the spin exchange model, spins are exchanged by the exchange interaction between two electrons. Our analysis with simple spin functions demonstrates that singlet fission is possible by spin exchange. A necessary condition for spin exchange is a variation in exchange interactions. We also adapt the spin exchange model to triplet fusion and triplet energy transfer, which often occur after singlet fission in organic solids.
Spin-lattice relaxation of individual solid-state spins
Norambuena, A.; Muñoz, E.; Dinani, H. T.; Jarmola, A.; Maletinsky, P.; Budker, D.; Maze, J. R.
2018-03-01
Understanding the effect of vibrations on the relaxation process of individual spins is crucial for implementing nanosystems for quantum information and quantum metrology applications. In this work, we present a theoretical microscopic model to describe the spin-lattice relaxation of individual electronic spins associated to negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, although our results can be extended to other spin-boson systems. Starting from a general spin-lattice interaction Hamiltonian, we provide a detailed description and solution of the quantum master equation of an electronic spin-one system coupled to a phononic bath in thermal equilibrium. Special attention is given to the dynamics of one-phonon processes below 1 K where our results agree with recent experimental findings and analytically describe the temperature and magnetic-field scaling. At higher temperatures, linear and second-order terms in the interaction Hamiltonian are considered and the temperature scaling is discussed for acoustic and quasilocalized phonons when appropriate. Our results, in addition to confirming a T5 temperature dependence of the longitudinal relaxation rate at higher temperatures, in agreement with experimental observations, provide a theoretical background for modeling the spin-lattice relaxation at a wide range of temperatures where different temperature scalings might be expected.
Spin manipulation and relaxation in spin-orbit qubits
Borhani, Massoud; Hu, Xuedong
2012-03-01
We derive a generalized form of the electric dipole spin resonance (EDSR) Hamiltonian in the presence of the spin-orbit interaction for single spins in an elliptic quantum dot (QD) subject to an arbitrary (in both direction and magnitude) applied magnetic field. We predict a nonlinear behavior of the Rabi frequency as a function of the magnetic field for sufficiently large Zeeman energies, and present a microscopic expression for the anisotropic electron g tensor. Similarly, an EDSR Hamiltonian is devised for two spins confined in a double quantum dot (DQD), where coherent Rabi oscillations between the singlet and triplet states are induced by jittering the inter-dot distance at the resonance frequency. Finally, we calculate two-electron-spin relaxation rates due to phonon emission, for both in-plane and perpendicular magnetic fields. Our results have immediate applications to current EDSR experiments on nanowire QDs, g-factor optimization of confined carriers, and spin decay measurements in DQD spin-orbit qubits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prets, A.
1998-07-01
In the present Ph. D. thesis we are considering a special form of scaling limits, namely the hydrodynamic limit. Such limits are considered to explain macroscopic behavior of matter by means of microscopic dynamic laws. In this procedure a rescaling of space and time plays a central role. The limit will be formulated in a quantum mechanical way. Within this framework we study derivations of the Landau Lifshitz equation for ferromagnets. This equation is a macroscopic equation of motion for the magnetization vector and results into the theory of spin waves. Since we have no exact knowledge of the Heisenberg operator's time evolution no definitive statement an how to regain the Landau Lifshitz equation from the microscopic dynamics can be given. In contrast to the Heisenberg operator, for an Ising type interaction inside a ferromagnet one is able to recover macroscopically a solution of a linearized Landau Lifschitz equation. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Loktev
2008-09-01
Full Text Available We analyze the spectral properties of a phenomenological model for a weakly doped two-dimensional antiferromagnet, in which the carriers move within one of the two sublattices where they were introduced. Such a constraint results in the free carrier spectra with the maxima at k=(± π/2 , ± π/2 observed in some cuprates. We consider the spectral properties of the model by taking into account fluctuations of the spins in the antiferromagnetic background. We show that such fluctuations lead to a non-pole-like structure of the single-hole Green's function and these fluctuations can be responsible for some anomalous "strange metal" properties of underdoped cuprates in the nonsuperconducting regime.
Spin Orbit Interaction Engineering for beyond Spin Transfer Torque memory
Wang, Kang L.
Spin transfer torque memory uses electron current to transfer the spin torque of electrons to switch a magnetic free layer. This talk will address an alternative approach to energy efficient non-volatile spintronics through engineering of spin orbit interaction (SOC) and the use of spin orbit torque (SOT) by the use of electric field to improve further the energy efficiency of switching. I will first discuss the engineering of interface SOC, which results in the electric field control of magnetic moment or magneto-electric (ME) effect. Magnetic memory bits based on this ME effect, referred to as magnetoelectric RAM (MeRAM), is shown to have orders of magnitude lower energy dissipation compared with spin transfer torque memory (STTRAM). Likewise, interests in spin Hall as a result of SOC have led to many advances. Recent demonstrations of magnetization switching induced by in-plane current in heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures have been shown to arise from the large SOC. The large SOC is also shown to give rise to the large SOT. Due to the presence of an intrinsic extraordinarily strong SOC and spin-momentum lock, topological insulators (TIs) are expected to be promising candidates for exploring spin-orbit torque (SOT)-related physics. In particular, we will show the magnetization switching in a chromium-doped magnetic TI bilayer heterostructure by charge current. A giant SOT of more than three orders of magnitude larger than those reported in heavy metals is also obtained. This large SOT is shown to come from the spin-momentum locked surface states of TI, which may further lead to innovative low power applications. I will also describe other related physics of SOC at the interface of anti-ferromagnetism/ferromagnetic structure and show the control exchange bias by electric field for high speed memory switching. The work was in part supported by ERFC-SHINES, NSF, ARO, TANMS, and FAME.
Competing Spin Liquids and Hidden Spin-Nematic Order in Spin Ice with Frustrated Transverse Exchange
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mathieu Taillefumier
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Frustration in magnetic interactions can give rise to disordered ground states with subtle and beautiful properties. The spin ices Ho_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} and Dy_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} exemplify this phenomenon, displaying a classical spin-liquid state, with fractionalized magnetic-monopole excitations. Recently, there has been great interest in closely related “quantum spin-ice” materials, following the realization that anisotropic exchange interactions could convert spin ice into a massively entangled, quantum spin liquid, where magnetic monopoles become the charges of an emergent quantum electrodynamics. Here we show that even the simplest model of a quantum spin ice, the XXZ model on the pyrochlore lattice, can realize a still-richer scenario. Using a combination of classical Monte Carlo simulation, semiclassical molecular-dynamics simulation, and analytic field theory, we explore the properties of this model for frustrated transverse exchange. We find not one, but three competing forms of spin liquid, as well as a phase with hidden, spin-nematic order. We explore the experimental signatures of each of these different states, making explicit predictions for inelastic neutron scattering. These results show an intriguing similarity to experiments on a range of pyrochlore oxides.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wenxu, E-mail: xwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Peng, Bin; Han, Fangbin; Wang, Qiuru; Zhang, Wanli [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Soh, Wee Tee; Ong, Chong Kim [Center for Superconducting and Magnetic Materials, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)
2016-03-07
We develop a method for universally resolving the important issue of separating the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) from the spin rectification effect (SRE) signal. This method is based on the consideration that the two effects depend on the spin injection direction: The ISHE is an odd function of the spin injection direction while the SRE is independent on it. Thus, the inversion of the spin injection direction changes the ISHE voltage signal, while the SRE voltage remains. It applies generally to analyzing the different voltage contributions without fitting them to special line shapes. This fast and simple method can be used in a wide frequency range and has the flexibility of sample preparation.
Spin transport in epitaxial graphene
Tbd, -
2014-03-01
Spintronics is a paradigm focusing on spin as the information vector in fast and ultra-low-power non volatile devices such as the new STT-MRAM. Beyond its widely distributed application in data storage it aims at providing more complex architectures and a powerful beyond CMOS solution for information processing. The recent discovery of graphene has opened novel exciting opportunities in terms of functionalities and performances for spintronics devices. We will present experimental results allowing us to assess the potential of graphene for spintronics. We will show that unprecedented highly efficient spin information transport can occur in epitaxial graphene leading to large spin signals and macroscopic spin diffusion lengths (~ 100 microns), a key enabler for the advent of envisioned beyond-CMOS spin-based logic architectures. We will also show that how the device behavior is well explained within the framework of the Valet-Fert drift-diffusion equations. Furthermore, we will show that a thin graphene passivation layer can prevent the oxidation of a ferromagnet, enabling its use in novel humide/ambient low-cost processes for spintronics devices, while keeping its highly surface sensitive spin current polarizer/analyzer behavior and adding new enhanced spin filtering property. These different experiments unveil promising uses of graphene for spintronics.
Electronic structure of spin systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri
2016-04-15
Highlights: • We review the theoretical modeling of quantum spin systems. • We apply the Nth order muffin-tin orbital electronic structure method. • The method shows the importance of chemistry in the modeling. • CuTe{sub 2}O{sub 5} showed a 2-dimensional coupled spin dimer behavior. • Ti substituted Zn{sub 2}VO(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} showed spin gap behavior. - Abstract: Low-dimensional quantum spin systems, characterized by their unconventional magnetic properties, have attracted much attention. Synthesis of materials appropriate to various classes within these systems has made this field very attractive and a site of many activities. The experimental results like susceptibility data are fitted with the theoretical model to derive the underlying spin Hamiltonian. However, often such a fitting procedure which requires correct guess of the assumed spin Hamiltonian leads to ambiguity in deciding the representative model. In this review article, we will describe how electronic structure calculation within the framework of Nth order muffin-tin orbital (NMTO) based Wannier function technique can be utilized to identify the underlying spin model for a large number of such compounds. We will show examples from compounds belonging to vanadates and cuprates.
Spin Filters as High-Performance Spin Polarimeters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rougemaille, N.; Lampel, G.; Peretti, J.; Drouhin, H.-J.; Lassailly, Y.; Filipe, A.; Wirth, T.; Schuhl, A.
2003-01-01
A spin-dependent transport experiment in which hot electrons pass through a ferromagnetic metal / semiconductor Schottky diode has been performed. A spin-polarized free-electron beam, emitted in vacuum from a GaAs photocathode, is injected into the thin metal layer with an energy between 5 and 1000 eV above to the Fermi level. The transmitted current collected in the semiconductor substrate increases with injection energy because of secondary - electron multiplication. The spin-dependent part of the transmitted current is first constant up to about 100 eV and then increases by 4 orders of magnitude. As an immediate application, the solid-state hybrid structure studied here leads to a very efficient and compact device for spin polarization detection
Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures
Manchon, Aurelien; Lee, K.-J.
2011-01-01
Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-07-13
Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Spin Hall effect and Berry phase of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berard, Alain; Mohrbach, Herve
2006-01-01
We consider the adiabatic evolution of the Dirac equation in order to compute its Berry curvature in momentum space. It is found that the position operator acquires an anomalous contribution due to the non-Abelian Berry gauge connection making the quantum mechanical algebra noncommutative. A generalization to any known spinning particles is possible by using the Bargmann-Wigner equation of motions. The noncommutativity of the coordinates is responsible for the topological spin transport of spinning particles similarly to the spin Hall effect in spintronic physics or the Magnus effect in optics. As an application we predict new dynamics for nonrelativistic particles in an electric field and for photons in a gravitational field
Spin Currents and Spin Orbit Torques in Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets
Hung, Yu-Ming
This thesis focuses on the interactions of spin currents and materials with magnetic order, e.g., ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic thin films. The spin current is generated in two ways. First by spin-polarized conduction-electrons associated with the spin Hall effect in heavy metals (HMs) and, second, by exciting spin-waves in ferrimagnetic insulators using a microwave frequency magnetic field. A conduction-electron spin current can be generated by spin-orbit coupling in a heavy non-magnetic metal and transfer its spin angular momentum to a ferromagnet, providing a means of reversing the magnetization of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin films with currents that flow in the plane of the layers. The torques on the magnetization are known as spin-orbit torques (SOT). In the first part of my thesis project I investigated and contrasted the quasistatic (slowly swept current) and pulsed current-induced switching characteristics of micrometer scale Hall crosses consisting of very thin (magnetized CoFeB layers on beta-Ta. While complete magnetization reversal occurs at a threshold current density in the quasistatic case, pulses with short duration (≤10 ns) and larger amplitude (≃10 times the quasistatic threshold current) lead to only partial magnetization reversal and domain formation. The partial reversal is associated with the limited time for reversed domain expansion during the pulse. The second part of my thesis project studies and considers applications of SOT-driven domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin ferromagnet sandwiched between a heavy metal and an oxide. My experiment results demonstrate that the DW motion can be explained by a combination of the spin Hall effect, which generates a SOT, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which stabilizes chiral Neel-type DW. Based on SOT-driven DW motion and magnetic coupling between electrically isolated ferromagnetic elements, I proposed a new type of spin logic devices. I then
Neutralino spin measurement with ATLAS
Ventura, A
2007-01-01
One of the goals of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC is to search for evidence of Supersymmetry (SUSY) signals and to measure, if discovered, the main properties of the new particles, like the spin. Left-handed squark cascade decay to second lightest neutralino which further decays to slepton represents a good opportunity for SUSY particles' spin measurement. The observability of charge asymmetries in invariant mass distributions of some final products is investigated to prove that neutralino spin is 1/2. The criteria used to select signal events and to reject background are described, together with the applied cut efficiencies. Results on charge asymmetry are then shown and discussed.
FERMILAB: High energy spin effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1991-03-15
While many physicists would agree that it is important to study interactions of different isospin states (for example comparing proton and neutron data), many of them also accept as normal data averaged or integrated over ordinary spin. However an ongoing programme at Brookhaven studying elastic scattering (where the incoming particles 'bounce' off each other) produced marked spin effects which are not well understood. Our understanding of particle interactions should not be influenced by which observables are easy to measure and which aren't, and until a clear understanding of spin effects emerges, it is important to continue and extend these studies.
Spin orientation for nearby galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karachentsev, I.D.
1989-01-01
The spatial orientations and the absolute values of angular momentum are determined for galaxies in the Local Group and the M 81/IC 342 group. For this purpose, the data on both velocity field and the dust knots configuration have been used. The spin direction has been established unambiguously for 21 objects; however, for the remaining 14 dwarf members the spin orientations are presented by pairs of alternative directions. The distribution of the spin vectors on the sky does not slow pronounced sings of anisotropy
Summary of spin physics sessions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roser, T.
1988-01-01
The list of topics in the many talks given during the Spin Physics sessions of this Intersections conference is nearly as long as the one of this conference: P and T Violation NN Interaction πp and πd Elastic Scattering Nuclear Matter Spin Effects Muon (g-2) Polarized Proton Beams Polarized Gas Targets This points to the almost trivial fact that spin is fundamental to our understanding of nuclear and particle physics. I will discuss in some detail only four of these topics. Needless to say this choice is very much personally biased and I apologize to all the speakers whose excellent contributions I did not include
Spin structures in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brok, Erik
dependence of the magnetisation in certain nanoparticle systems, as welll bulk systems with spin canting due to defects. In accordance with this model magnetisation measurements on goethtie (a-FeOOH) nanoparticles are presented, showing a low temperature increase in the magnetisation. The spin orientation...... experimental data from unpolarised neutron diffraction. The spin orientation is found to be close to the particle plane, which is the (111) plane of the FCC structure of NiO for particles with thickness ranging from 2.2 nm to bulk (= 200 nm) particles. In the smallest particles, with a thickness of 2.0 nm, we...
Spinning fluids in general relativity
Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.
1982-01-01
General relativity field equations are employed to examine a continuous medium with internal spin. A variational principle formerly applied in the special relativity case is extended to the general relativity case, using a tetrad to express the spin density and the four-velocity of the fluid. An energy-momentum tensor is subsequently defined for a spinning fluid. The equations of motion of the fluid are suggested to be useful in analytical studies of galaxies, for anisotropic Bianchi universes, and for turbulent eddies.
Spin-spin correlations in the tt'-Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Husslein, T.; Newns, D.M.; Mattutis, H.G.; Pattnaik, P.C.; Morgenstern, I.; Singer, J.M.; Fettes, W.; Baur, C.
1994-01-01
We present calculations of the tt'-Hubbard model using Quantum Monte Carlo techniques. The parameters are chosen so that the van Hove Singularity in the density of states and the Fermi level coincide. We study the behaviour of the system with increasing Hubbard interaction U. Special emphasis is on the spin-spin correlation (SSC). Unusual behaviour for large U is observed there and in the momentum distribution function (n(q)). (orig.)
High-field spin dynamics of antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enderle, M.; Regnault, L.P.; Broholm, C.
2000-01-01
present recent work on the high-field spin dynamics of the S = I antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains NENP (Haldane ground state) and CsNiCl3 (quasi-1D HAF close to the quantum critical point), the uniform S = 1/2 chain CTS, and the spin-Peierls system CuGeO3. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights...
Beam Splitter for Spin Waves in Quantum Spin Network
Yang, S.; Song, Z.; Sun, C. P.
2005-01-01
We theoretically design and analytically study a controllable beam splitter for the spin wave propagating in a star-shaped (e.g., a $Y$-shaped beam) spin network. Such a solid state beam splitter can display quantum interference and quantum entanglement by the well-aimed controls of interaction on nodes. It will enable an elementary interferometric device for scalable quantum information processing based on the solid system.
Single spin asymmetries and the spin of the proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez Z, G.; Herrera C, G.
2000-01-01
We study the spin asymmetries of inclusive π + , π 0 , π - , η and γ production in the interaction of a polarized with a non polarized proton, in the frame of a two component model. Particle production in the model is assumed to consist of a conventional QCD fragmentation process plus a recombination mechanism. The presence of Thomas precession in the recombination process seems to be responsible for the production spin asymmetry. (Author) 12 refs., 8 figs
Drones, quasi-spin or iso-spin. A comparison of many-body techniques for general spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKenzie, B.J.; Stedman, G.E.
1976-01-01
For an effective-spin system with 2S + 1 levels there are a number of possible mappings of spin onto pseudo-fermion operators. The relative merits of three of these methods are investigated by calculating to second order the dispersion relation for coupled spin-phonon modes in crystals containing S = 1 effective spin impurities. It is found that the drone formalism quickly becomes intractable at higher spin values, as does the related quasi-spin formalism developed in contrast with the iso-spin (or Abrinkosov projection) formalism. (author)
Spin voltage generation through optical excitation of complementary spin populations
Bottegoni, Federico; Celebrano, Michele; Bollani, Monica; Biagioni, Paolo; Isella, Giovanni; Ciccacci, Franco; Finazzi, Marco
2014-08-01
By exploiting the spin degree of freedom of carriers inside electronic devices, spintronics has a huge potential for quantum computation and dissipationless interconnects. Pure spin currents in spintronic devices should be driven by a spin voltage generator, able to drive the spin distribution out of equilibrium without inducing charge currents. Ideally, such a generator should operate at room temperature, be highly integrable with existing semiconductor technology, and not interfere with other spintronic building blocks that make use of ferromagnetic materials. Here we demonstrate a device that matches these requirements by realizing the spintronic equivalent of a photovoltaic generator. Whereas a photovoltaic generator spatially separates photoexcited electrons and holes, our device exploits circularly polarized light to produce two spatially well-defined electron populations with opposite in-plane spin projections. This is achieved by modulating the phase and amplitude of the light wavefronts entering a semiconductor (germanium) with a patterned metal overlayer (platinum). The resulting light diffraction pattern features a spatially modulated chirality inside the semiconductor, which locally excites spin-polarized electrons thanks to electric dipole selection rules.
Bipolar spintronics: from spin injection to spin-controlled logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zutic, Igor; Fabian, Jaroslav; Erwin, Steven C
2007-01-01
An impressive success of spintronic applications has been typically realized in metal-based structures which utilize magnetoresistive effects for substantial improvements in the performance of computer hard drives and magnetic random access memories. Correspondingly, the theoretical understanding of spin-polarized transport is usually limited to a metallic regime in a linear response, which, while providing a good description for data storage and magnetic memory devices, is not sufficient for signal processing and digital logic. In contrast, much less is known about possible applications of semiconductor-based spintronics and spin-polarized transport in related structures which could utilize strong intrinsic nonlinearities in current-voltage characteristics to implement spin-based logic. Here we discuss the challenges for realizing a particular class of structures in semiconductor spintronics: our proposal for bipolar spintronic devices in which carriers of both polarities (electrons and holes) contribute to spin-charge coupling. We formulate the theoretical framework for bipolar spin-polarized transport, and describe several novel effects in two- and three-terminal structures which arise from the interplay between nonequilibrium spin and equilibrium magnetization
RESEARCH PLAN FOR SPIN PHYSICS AT RHIC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
AIDALA, C.; BUNCE, G.; ET AL.
2005-02-01
In this report we present the research plan for the RHIC spin program. The report covers (1) the science of the RHIC spin program in a world-wide context; (2) the collider performance requirements for the RHIC spin program; (3) the detector upgrades required, including timelines; (4) time evolution of the spin program.
Some recent developments in spin glasses
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
I give some experimental and theoretical background to spin glasses, and then discuss the nature of the phase transition in spin glasses with vector spins. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Heisenberg spin glass model in three dimensions are presented. A finite-size scaling analysis of the correlation length of the ...
Squeezing of Collective Excitations in Spin Ensembles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kraglund Andersen, Christian; Mølmer, Klaus
2012-01-01
We analyse the possibility to create two-mode spin squeezed states of two separate spin ensembles by inverting the spins in one ensemble and allowing spin exchange between the ensembles via a near resonant cavity field. We investigate the dynamics of the system using a combination of numerical an...
Phase space representations for spin23
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polubarinov, I.V.
1991-01-01
General properties of spin matrices and density ones are considered for any spin s. For spin 2 3 phase space representations are constructed. Representations, similar to the Bell one, for the correlator of projections of two spins 2 3 in the singlet state are found. Quantum analogs of the Bell inequality are obtained. 14 refs
Spin tunneling and manipulation in nanostructures.
Sherman, E Ya; Ban, Yue; Gulyaev, L V; Khomitsky, D V
2012-09-01
The results for joint effects of tunneling and spin-orbit coupling on spin dynamics in nanostructures are presented for systems with discrete and continuous spectra. We demonstrate that tunneling plays the crucial role in the spin dynamics and the abilities of spin manipulation by external electric field. This result can be important for design of nanostructures-based spintronics devices.
Source of spin polarized electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pierce, D.T.; Meier, F.A.; Siegmann, H.C.
1976-01-01
A method is described of producing intense beams of polarized free electrons in which a semiconductor with a spin orbit split valence band and negative electron affinity is used as a photocathode and irradiated with circularly polarized light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.
1989-01-01
Self-dual particles in two-dimensions are presented. They were obtained from chiral boson particle by square root technique. The propagator of spinning self-dual particle is calculated using the BFV formalism. (M.C.K.)
Spin resonance with trapped ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wunderlich, Ch; Balzer, Ch; Hannemann, T; Mintert, F; Neuhauser, W; Reiss, D; Toschek, P E [Institut fuer Laser-Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)
2003-03-14
A modified ion trap is described where experiments (in particular related to quantum information processing) that usually require optical radiation can be carried out using microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead of applying the usual methods for coherent manipulation of trapped ions, a string of ions in such a modified trap can be treated like a molecule in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments taking advantage of spin-spin coupling. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as an N-qubit molecule with adjustable spin-spin coupling constants. Given N identically prepared quantum mechanical two-level systems (qubits), the optimal strategy to estimate their quantum state requires collective measurements. Using the ground state hyperfine levels of electrodynamically trapped {sup 171}Yb{sup +}, we have implemented an adaptive algorithm for state estimation involving sequential measurements on arbitrary qubit states.
Spin resonance with trapped ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wunderlich, Ch; Balzer, Ch; Hannemann, T; Mintert, F; Neuhauser, W; Reiss, D; Toschek, P E
2003-01-01
A modified ion trap is described where experiments (in particular related to quantum information processing) that usually require optical radiation can be carried out using microwave or radio frequency electromagnetic fields. Instead of applying the usual methods for coherent manipulation of trapped ions, a string of ions in such a modified trap can be treated like a molecule in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments taking advantage of spin-spin coupling. The collection of trapped ions can be viewed as an N-qubit molecule with adjustable spin-spin coupling constants. Given N identically prepared quantum mechanical two-level systems (qubits), the optimal strategy to estimate their quantum state requires collective measurements. Using the ground state hyperfine levels of electrodynamically trapped 171 Yb + , we have implemented an adaptive algorithm for state estimation involving sequential measurements on arbitrary qubit states
Magnetoelectric control of spin currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gómez, J. E.; Vargas, J. M.; Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Instituto de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CNEA) and Conicet, 8400 Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)
2016-06-13
The ability to control the spin current injection has been explored on a hybrid magnetoelectric system consisting of a (011)-cut ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) single crystal, a ferromagnetic FePt alloy, and a metallic Pt. With this PMNT/FePt/Pt structure we have been able to control the magnetic field position or the microwave excitation frequency at which the spin pumping phenomenon between FePt and Pt occurs. We demonstrate that the magnetoelectric heterostructure operating in the L-T (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized) mode couples the PMNT crystal to the magnetostrictive FePt/Pt bilayer, displaying a strong magnetoelectric coefficient of ∼140 Oe cm kV{sup −1}. Our results show that this mechanism can be effectively exploited as a tunable spin current intensity emitter and open the possibility to create an oscillating or a bistable switch to effectively manipulate spin currents.
Spin Structure Analyses of Antiferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, Jae Ho; Song, Young Sang; Lee, Hak Bong
2010-05-01
We have synthesized series of powder sample of incommensurate antiferromagnetic multiferroics, (Mn, Co)WO 4 and Al doped Ba 0.5 Sr 1.5 Zn 2 Fe 12 O 22 , incommensurate antiferromagnetic multiferroics. Their spin structure was studied by using the HRPD. In addition, we have synthesized series of crystalline samples of incommensurate multiferroics, (Mn, Co)WO 4 and olivines. Their spin structure was investigated using neutron diffraction under high magnetic field. As a result, we were able to draw the phase diagram of (Mn, Co)WO 4 as a function of composition and temperature. We learned the how the spin structure changes with increased ionic substitution. Finally we have drawn the phase diagram of the multicritical olivine Mn2SiS4/Mn2GeS4 as a function of filed and temperature through the spin structure studies
Relativistic fluid dynamics with spin
Florkowski, Wojciech; Friman, Bengt; Jaiswal, Amaresh; Speranza, Enrico
2018-04-01
Using the conservation laws for charge, energy, momentum, and angular momentum, we derive hydrodynamic equations for the charge density, local temperature, and fluid velocity, as well as for the polarization tensor, starting from local equilibrium distribution functions for particles and antiparticles with spin 1/2. The resulting set of differential equations extends the standard picture of perfect-fluid hydrodynamics with a conserved entropy current in a minimal way. This framework can be used in space-time analyses of the evolution of spin and polarization in various physical systems including high-energy nuclear collisions. We demonstrate that a stationary vortex, which exhibits vorticity-spin alignment, corresponds to a special solution of the spin-hydrodynamical equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tannenbaum, M.J.
1996-01-01
Operation of RHIC with two beams of highly polarized protons (70%, either longitudinal or transverse) at high luminosity L = 2 x 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 for two months/year will allow the STAR and PHENIX detectors to perform high statististics studies of polarization phenomena in the perturbative region of hard scattering where both QCD and ElectroWeak theory make detailed predictions for polarization effects. The collision c.m. energy, √s = 200 - 500 GeV, represents a new domain for the study of spin. Direct photon production will be used to measure the gluon polarization in the polarized proton. A new twist comes from W-boson production which is expected to be 100% parity violating and will thus allow measurements of flavor separated Quark and antiquark (u, bar u, d, bar d) polarization distributions. Searches for parity violation in strong interaction processes such as jet and leading particle production will be a sensitive way to look for new physics beyond the standard model, one possibility being quark substructure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marzuoli, Annalisa; Rasetti, Mario
2005-01-01
We expand a set of notions recently introduced providing the general setting for a universal representation of the quantum structure on which quantum information stands. The dynamical evolution process associated with generic quantum information manipulation is based on the (re)coupling theory of SU (2) angular momenta. Such scheme automatically incorporates all the essential features that make quantum information encoding much more efficient than classical: it is fully discrete; it deals with inherently entangled states, naturally endowed with a tensor product structure; it allows for generic encoding patterns. The model proposed can be thought of as the non-Boolean generalization of the quantum circuit model, with unitary gates expressed in terms of 3nj coefficients connecting inequivalent binary coupling schemes of n + 1 angular momentum variables, as well as Wigner rotations in the eigenspace of the total angular momentum. A crucial role is played by elementary j-gates (6j symbols) which satisfy algebraic identities that make the structure of the model similar to 'state sum models' employed in discretizing topological quantum field theories and quantum gravity. The spin network simulator can thus be viewed also as a Combinatorial QFT model for computation. The semiclassical limit (large j) is discussed
Calculation program development for spinning reserve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
This study is about optimal holding of spinning reserve and optimal operation for it. It deals with the purpose and contents of the study, introduction of the spinning reserve electricity, speciality of the spinning reserve power, the result of calculation, analysis for limited method of optimum load, calculation of requirement for spinning reserve, analysis on measurement of system stability with summary, purpose of the analysis, cause of impact of the accident, basics on measurement of spinning reserve and conclusion. It has the reference on explanation for design of spinning reserve power program and using and trend about spinning reserve power in Korea.
Spin-chirality decoupling in Heisenberg spin glasses and related systems
Kawamura, Hikaru
2006-01-01
Recent studies on the spin and the chirality orderings of the three-dimensional Heisenberg spin glass and related systems are reviewed with particular emphasis on the possible spin-chirality decoupling phenomena. Chirality scenario of real spin-glass transition and its experimental consequence on the ordering of Heisenberg-like spin glasses are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.
1989-02-01
We study spinning self-dual particles in two dimensions. They are obtained from the chiral bosonic particle through the square root technique. We show that the resulting field theory can be either fermionic or bosonic and that the associated self-dual field reveals its Lorentz tensor structure which remains hidden in the usual formulations. We also calculate the spinning self-dual particle propagators using the BFV formalism. (author) [pt
Conformal description of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todorov, I.T.
1986-01-01
This book is an introduction to the application of the conformal group to quantum field theory of particles with spin. After an introduction to the twistor representations of the conformal group of a conformally flat space-time and twistor flag manifolds with Su(2,2) orbits the classical phase space of conformal spinning particles is described. Thereafter the twistor description of classical zero mass fields is considered together with the quantization. (HSI)
Twistor Transform for Spinning Particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedoruk, S.
2005-01-01
Twistorial formulation of a particle of arbitrary spin has been constructed. The twistor formulation is deduced from a space-time formulation of the spinning particle by introducing pure gauge Lorentz harmonics in this system. Canonical transformations and gauge fixing conditions, excluding space-time variables, produce the fundamental conditions of twistor transform relating the space-time formulation and twistor one. Integral transformations, relating massive twistor fields with usual space-time fields, have been constructed
Helicity formalism and spin effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anselmino, M.; Caruso, F.; Piovano, U.
1990-01-01
The helicity formalism and the technique to compute amplitudes for interaction processes involving leptons, quarks, photons and gluons are reviewed. Explicit calculations and examples of exploitation of symmetry properties are shown. The formalism is then applied to the discussion of several hadronic processes and spin effects: the experimental data, when related to the properties of the elementary constituent interactions, show many not understood features. Also the nucleon spin problem is briefly reviewed. (author)
Spin dependent photon structure functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manohar, A.V.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge
1989-01-01
Spin dependent structure functions of the photon are studied using the operator product expansion. There are new twist-two photon and gluon operators which contribute. The structure functions g 1 and F 3 are calculable in QCD, but differ from their free quark values. The corrections to F 3 are suppressed by 1/log Q 2 . The calculation is an extension of the analysis of Witten for the spin averaged structure functions F 1 and F 2 . (orig.)
Indiana: Siberian Snake saves spin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1990-01-15
A team working at the Indiana University Cooler Ring has used a 'Siberian Snake' system to accelerate a spin-polarized proton beam through two depolarizing resonances with no loss of spin. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team under Alan Krisch overcame their first imperfection resonance hurdle at 108 MeV, and in a subsequent run vanquished a further resonance at 177 MeV.
Indiana: Siberian Snake saves spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1990-01-01
A team working at the Indiana University Cooler Ring has used a 'Siberian Snake' system to accelerate a spin-polarized proton beam through two depolarizing resonances with no loss of spin. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team under Alan Krisch overcame their first imperfection resonance hurdle at 108 MeV, and in a subsequent run vanquished a further resonance at 177 MeV
Spin Hall effect by surface roughness
Zhou, Lingjun
2015-01-08
The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Takaaki; Senami, Masato; Tachibana, Akitomo
2012-01-01
The spin torque and zeta force, which govern spin dynamics, are studied by using monoatoms in their steady states. We find nonzero local spin torque in transition metal atoms, which is in balance with the counter torque, the zeta force. We show that d-orbital electrons have a crucial effect on these torques. Nonzero local chirality density in transition metal atoms is also found, though the electron mass has the effect to wash out nonzero chirality density. Distribution patterns of the chirality density are the same for Sc–Ni atoms, though the electron density distributions are different. -- Highlights: ► Nonzero local spin torque is found in the steady states of transition metal atoms. ► The spin steady state is realized by the existence of a counter torque, zeta force. ► D-orbital electrons have a crucial effect on the spin torque and zeta force. ► Nonzero local chiral density is found in spite of the washout by the electron mass. ► Chiral density distribution have the same pattern for Sc–Ni atoms.
Positivity of spin foam amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baez, John C; Christensen, J Daniel
2002-01-01
The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (e iS ) rather than imaginary-time e -S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model
Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schindler, Christoph
2012-05-15
In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.
Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schindler, Christoph
2012-01-01
In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.
Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohashi, Teruo
2014-01-01
Spin-Polarized Scanning Electron Microscopy (Spin SEM) is one way for observing magnetic domain structures taking advantage of the spin polarization of the secondary electrons emitted from a ferromagnetic sample. This principle brings us several excellent capabilities such as high-spatial resolution better than 10 nm, and analysis of magnetization direction in three dimensions. In this paper, the principle and the structure of the spin SEM is briefly introduced, and some examples of the spin SEM measurements are shown. (author)
Spin rotation after a spin-independent scattering. Spin properties of an electron gas in a solid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zayets, V.
2014-01-01
It is shown that spin direction of an electron may not be conserved after a spin-independent scattering. The spin rotations occur due to a quantum-mechanical fact that when a quantum state is occupied by two electrons of opposite spins, the total spin of the state is zero and the spin direction of each electron cannot be determined. It is shown that it is possible to divide all conduction electrons into two group distinguished by their time-reversal symmetry. In the first group the electron spins are all directed in one direction. In the second group there are electrons of all spin directions. The number of electrons in each group is conserved after a spin-independent scattering. This makes it convenient to use these groups for the description of the magnetic properties of conduction electrons. The energy distribution of spins, the Pauli paramagnetism and the spin distribution in the ferromagnetic metals are described within the presented model. The effects of spin torque and spin-torque current are described. The origin of spin-transfer torque is explained within the presented model
Spin-transfer torque in spin filter tunnel junctions
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian; Kalitsov, Alan; Manchon, Aurelien; Chshiev, Mairbek
2014-01-01
Spin-transfer torque in a class of magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations, referred to as spin filter tunnel junctions, is studied within the tight-binding model using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique within Keldysh formalism. These junctions consist of one ferromagnet (FM) adjacent to a magnetic insulator (MI) or two FM separated by a MI. We find that the presence of the magnetic insulator dramatically enhances the magnitude of the spin-torque components compared to conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The fieldlike torque is driven by the spin-dependent reflection at the MI/FM interface, which results in a small reduction of its amplitude when an insulating spacer (S) is inserted to decouple MI and FM layers. Meanwhile, the dampinglike torque is dominated by the tunneling electrons that experience the lowest barrier height. We propose a device of the form FM/(S)/MI/(S)/FM that takes advantage of these characteristics and allows for tuning the spin-torque magnitudes over a wide range just by rotation of the magnetization of the insulating layer.
Spin-transfer torque in spin filter tunnel junctions
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2014-12-08
Spin-transfer torque in a class of magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations, referred to as spin filter tunnel junctions, is studied within the tight-binding model using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function technique within Keldysh formalism. These junctions consist of one ferromagnet (FM) adjacent to a magnetic insulator (MI) or two FM separated by a MI. We find that the presence of the magnetic insulator dramatically enhances the magnitude of the spin-torque components compared to conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The fieldlike torque is driven by the spin-dependent reflection at the MI/FM interface, which results in a small reduction of its amplitude when an insulating spacer (S) is inserted to decouple MI and FM layers. Meanwhile, the dampinglike torque is dominated by the tunneling electrons that experience the lowest barrier height. We propose a device of the form FM/(S)/MI/(S)/FM that takes advantage of these characteristics and allows for tuning the spin-torque magnitudes over a wide range just by rotation of the magnetization of the insulating layer.
Possible evidence for spin-transfer torque induced by spin-triplet supercurrent
Li, Lailai; Zhao, Yuelei; Zhang, Xixiang; Sun, Young
2017-01-01
Cooper pairs in superconductors are normally spin singlet. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that spin-triplet Cooper pairs can be created at carefully engineered superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces. If Cooper pairs are spin
Spin-inversion in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somaieh Ahmadi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Spin-inversion properties of an electron in nanoscale graphene sheets with a Rashba spin-orbit barrier is studied using transfer matrix method. It is found that for proper values of Rashba spin-orbit strength, perfect spin-inversion can occur in a wide range of electron incident angle near the normal incident. In this case, the graphene sheet with Rashba spin-orbit barrier can be considered as an electron spin-inverter. The efficiency of spin-inverter can increase up to a very high value by increasing the length of Rashba spin-orbit barrier. The effect of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction on electron spin inversion is then studied. It is shown that the efficiency of spin-inverter decreases slightly in the presence of intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The present study can be used to design graphene-based spintronic devices.
Spin relaxation in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin-orbit interaction
Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Sanz, L.; Marques, G. E.
2010-01-01
We calculate the spin relaxation rates in a parabolic InSb quantum dots due to the spin interaction with acoustical phonons. We considered the deformation potential mechanism as the dominant electron-phonon coupling in the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. We analyze the behavior of the spin relaxation rates as a function of an external magnetic field and mean quantum dot radius. Effects of the spin admixture due to Dresselhaus contribution to spin-orbit interaction are also discussed.
Singh, Madhav K.; Jha, Pradeep K.; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.
2017-09-01
In this article, we study the spin and tunneling dynamics as a function of magnetic field in a one-dimensional GaAs double quantum dot with both the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. In particular, we consider different spatial widths for the spin-up and spin-down electronic states. We find that the spin dynamics is a superposition of slow as well as fast Rabi oscillations. It is found that the Rashba interaction strength as well as the external magnetic field strongly modifies the slow Rabi oscillations which is particularly useful for implementing solid state selective spin transport device.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Endres, Bernhard
2013-11-01
In this work spin injection into GaAs from Fe and (Ga,Mn)As was investigated. For the realization of any spintronic device the detailed knowledge about the spin lifetime, the spatial distribution of spin-polarized carriers and the influence of electric fields is essential. In the present work all these aspects have been analyzed by optical measurements of the polar magneto-optic Kerr effect (pMOKE) at the cleaved edge of the samples. Besides the attempt to observe spin pumping and thermal spin injection into n-GaAs the spin solar cell effect is demonstrated, a novel mechanism for the optical generation of spins in semiconductors with potential for future spintronic applications. Also important for spin-based devices as transistors is the presented realization of electrical spin injection into a two-dimensional electron gas.
Universal spin dynamics in quantum wires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fajardo, E. A.; Zülicke, U.; Winkler, R.
2017-10-01
We discuss the universal spin dynamics in quasi-one-dimensional systems including the real spin in narrow-gap semiconductors like InAs and InSb, the valley pseudospin in staggered single-layer graphene, and the combination of real spin and valley pseudospin characterizing single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, WS2, MoS2, and WSe2. All these systems can be described by the same Dirac-like Hamiltonian. Spin-dependent observable effects in one of these systems thus have counterparts in each of the other systems. Effects discussed in more detail include equilibrium spin currents, current-induced spin polarization (Edelstein effect), and spin currents generated via adiabatic spin pumping. Our work also suggests that a long-debated spin-dependent correction to the position operator in single-band models should be absent.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong Fenglei; Zhang Yun; Ishikawa, Jun; Onae, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Hirokazu
2002-01-01
Hyperfine structures of the R(87)33-0, R(145)37-0, and P(132)36-0 transitions of molecular iodine near 532 nm are measured by observing the heterodyne beat-note signal of two I 2 -stabilized lasers, whose frequencies are bridged by an optical frequency comb generator. The measured hyperfine splittings are fit to a four-term Hamiltonian, which includes the electric quadrupole, spin-rotation, tensor spin-spin, and scalar spin-spin interactions, with an accuracy of ∼720 Hz. High-accurate hyperfine constants are obtained from this fit. Vibration dependences of the tensor spin-spin and scalar spin-spin hyperfine constants are determined for molecular iodine, for the first time to our knowledge. The observed hyperfine transitions are good optical frequency references in the 532-nm region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
energies of 1.2, 2.5 et 3.6 GeV, underline that spin effects decrease with energy and tend to zero in agreement with the prediction of a nonpertubative quantum chromodynamics (QCD) model, where the strong fluctuations of vacuum gluon fields (instantons) provide the main contribution. The rapid vanishing of neutron-proton difference, observed for the first time, suggests that the prediction is valid for both isospin 0 and 1 states. It will be interesting to take measurements using a transversely polarized beam and target, where different behaviour is expected. With the polarizing solenoid shipped to Mainz for another experiment, the JINR setup needs a new solenoid and superconducting coils for transverse target polarization. Construction has begun in Dubna and Kharkov, respectively. Additional INTAS financial support will be requested
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babichev, Eugeny [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay,91405 Orsay (France); UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Schmidt-May, Angnis [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Urban, Federico; Veermäe, Hardi [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Strauss, Mikael von [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO,98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)
2016-09-12
We provide further details on a recent proposal addressing the nature of the dark sectors in cosmology and demonstrate that all current observations related to Dark Matter can be explained by the presence of a heavy spin-2 particle. Massive spin-2 fields and their gravitational interactions are uniquely described by ghost-free bimetric theory, which is a minimal and natural extension of General Relativity. In this setup, the largeness of the physical Planck mass is naturally related to extremely weak couplings of the heavy spin-2 field to baryonic matter and therefore explains the absence of signals in experiments dedicated to Dark Matter searches. It also ensures the phenomenological viability of our model as we confirm by comparing it with cosmological and local tests of gravity. At the same time, the spin-2 field possesses standard gravitational interactions and it decays universally into all Standard Model fields but not into massless gravitons. Matching the measured DM abundance together with the requirement of stability constrains the spin-2 mass to be in the 1 to 100 TeV range.
Spin-Spin Cross Relaxation in Single-Molecule Magnets
Wernsdorfer, W.; Bhaduri, S.; Tiron, R.; Hendrickson, D. N.; Christou, G.
2002-10-01
The one-body tunnel picture of single-molecule magnets (SMMs) is not always sufficient to explain the measured tunnel transitions. An improvement to the picture is proposed by including also two-body tunnel transitions such as spin-spin cross relaxation (SSCR) which are mediated by dipolar and weak superexchange interactions between molecules. A Mn4 SMM is used as a model system. At certain external fields, SSCRs lead to additional quantum resonances which show up in hysteresis loop measurements as well-defined steps. A simple model is used to explain quantitatively all observed transitions.
Spin Interactions and Spin Dynamics in Electronic Nanostructures
2006-08-31
041302(R) (2005). 30. “Room-temperature spin coherence in ZnO ,” S. Ghosh, V. Sih, W. H. Lau, D. D. Awschalom, S.-Y. Bae, S. Wang, S. Vaidya. and G...Yazdani, Journal of Superconductivity: Incorporating Novel Magnetism 18, 23 (2005). 32. “Room-temperature spin coherence in ZnO ,” S. Ghosh, V. Sih, W...C. Ralph, invited lecture presented by at 2005 Electrochemistry Gordon Research Conference, February 20-25, 2005, Ventura, CA 94. “Tools for Studying
Reducing quantum control for spin-spin entanglement distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciccarello, F; Zarcone, M; Paternostro, M; Palma, G M
2009-01-01
We present a protocol that sets maximum stationary entanglement between remote spins through scattering of mobile mediators without initialization, post-selection or feedback of the mediators' state. No time-resolved tuning is needed and, counterintuitively, the protocol generates two-qubit singlet states even when classical mediators are used. The mechanism responsible for this effect is resilient against non-optimal coupling strengths and dephasing affecting the spins. The scheme uses itinerant particles and scattering centres and can be implemented in various settings. When quantum dots and photons are used a striking result is found: injection of classical mediators, rather than quantum ones, improves the scheme efficiency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebisawa, T.; Tasaki, S.; Kawai, T.; Akiyoshi, T. [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.; Achiwa, N.; Hino, M.; Otake, Y.; Funahashi, H.
1996-08-01
The authors have developed cold neutron optics and interferometry using multilayer mirrors. The advantages of the multilayer mirrors are their applicability to long wavelength neutrons and a great variety of the mirror performance. The idea of the present spin interferometry is based on nonmagnetic neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters. The equation for polarized neutrons means that the polarized neutrons are equivalent to the coherent superposition of two parallel spin eigenstates. The structure and principle of a multilayer spin splitter are explained, and the nonmagnetic gap layer of the multilayer spin splitter gives rise to neutron spin quantum precession. The performance test of the multilayer spin splitter were made with a new spin interferometer, which is analogous optically to a spin echo system with vertical precession field. The spin interferometers were installed at Kyoto University research reactor and the JRR-3. The testing method and the results are reported. The performance tests on a new phase-spin echo interferometer are described, and its applications to the development of a high resolution spin echo system and a Jamin type cold neutron interferometer are proposed. (K.I.)
Induction-detection electron spin resonance with spin sensitivity of a few tens of spins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Artzi, Yaron; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)
2015-02-23
Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic method that addresses electrons in paramagnetic materials directly through their spin properties. ESR has many applications, ranging from semiconductor characterization to structural biology and even quantum computing. Although it is very powerful and informative, ESR traditionally suffers from low sensitivity, requiring many millions of spins to get a measureable signal with commercial systems using the Faraday induction-detection principle. In view of this disadvantage, significant efforts were made recently to develop alternative detection schemes based, for example, on force, optical, or electrical detection of spins, all of which can reach single electron spin sensitivity. This sensitivity, however, comes at the price of limited applicability and usefulness with regard to real scientific and technological issues facing modern ESR which are currently dealt with conventional induction-detection ESR on a daily basis. Here, we present the most sensitive experimental induction-detection ESR setup and results ever recorded that can detect the signal from just a few tens of spins. They were achieved thanks to the development of an ultra-miniature micrometer-sized microwave resonator that was operated at ∼34 GHz at cryogenic temperatures in conjunction with a unique cryogenically cooled low noise amplifier. The test sample used was isotopically enriched phosphorus-doped silicon, which is of significant relevance to spin-based quantum computing. The sensitivity was experimentally verified with the aid of a unique high-resolution ESR imaging approach. These results represent a paradigm shift with respect to the capabilities and possible applications of induction-detection-based ESR spectroscopy and imaging.
Spin flipping a stored polarized proton beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caussyn, D.D.; Derbenev, Y.S.; Ellison, T.J.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E.J.; von Przewoski, B.; Blinov, B.B.; Chu, C.M.; Courant, E.D.; Crandell, D.A.; Kaufman, W.A.; Krisch, A.D.; Nurushev, T.S.; Phelps, R.A.; Ratner, L.G.; Wong, V.K.; Ohmori, C.
1994-01-01
We recently studied the spin flipping of a vertically polarized, stored 139-MeV proton beam. To flip the spin, we induced an rf depolarizing resonance by sweeping our rf solenoid magnet's frequency through the resonance frequency. With multiple spin flips, we found a polarization loss of 0.0000±0.0005 per spin flip under the best conditions; this loss increased significantly for small changes in the conditions. Minimizing the depolarization during each spin flip is especially important because frequent spin flipping could significantly reduce the systematic errors in stored polarized-beam experiments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Lebech, Bente
1980-01-01
Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed.......Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed....
QCD SPIN PHYSICS IN HADRONIC INTERACTIONS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
VOGELSANG,W.
2007-06-19
We discuss spin phenomena in high-energy hadronic scattering, with a particular emphasis on the spin physics program now underway at the first polarized proton-proton collider, RHIC. Experiments at RHIC unravel the spin structure of the nucleon in new ways. Prime goals are to determine the contribution of gluon spins to the proton spin, to elucidate the flavor structure of quark and antiquark polarizations in the nucleon, and to help clarify the origin of transverse-spin phenomena in QCD. These lectures describe some aspects of this program and of the associated physics.
Second post-Newtonian Lagrangian dynamics of spinning compact binaries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Li; Wu, Xin [Nanchang University, Department of Physics and Institute of Astronomy, Nanchang (China); Ma, DaZhu [Hubei University for Nationalities, School of Science, Enshi (China)
2016-09-15
The leading-order spin-orbit coupling is included in a post-Newtonian Lagrangian formulation of spinning compact binaries, which consists of the Newtonian term, first post-Newtonian (1PN) and 2PN non-spin terms and 2PN spin-spin coupling. This leads to a 3PN spin-spin coupling occurring in the derived Hamiltonian. The spin-spin couplings are mainly responsible for chaos in the Hamiltonians. However, the 3PN spin-spin Hamiltonian is small and has different signs, compared with the 2PN spin-spin Hamiltonian equivalent to the 2PN spin-spin Lagrangian. As a result, the probability of the occurrence of chaos in the Lagrangian formulation without the spin-orbit coupling is larger than that in the Lagrangian formulation with the spin-orbit coupling. Numerical evidences support this claim. (orig.)
Fission fragment spins and spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durell, J.L.
1988-01-01
Prompt γ-ray coincidence experiments have been carried out on γ-rays emitted from post-neutron emission fission fragments produced by the aup 19F + 197 Au and 18 O + 232 Th reactions. Decay schemes have been established for even-even nuclei ranging from 78 Se to 148 Nd. Many new states with spin up to ∼ 12h have been observed. Apart from providing a wealth of new information on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei, the data have been analyzed to determine the average spin of primary fission fragments as a function of fragment mass. The results suggest that the fragment spins are determined by the temperature and shape of the primary fragments at or near to scission
Next generation spin torque memories
Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Anant Aravind; Prajapati, Sanjay
2017-01-01
This book offers detailed insights into spin transfer torque (STT) based devices, circuits and memories. Starting with the basic concepts and device physics, it then addresses advanced STT applications and discusses the outlook for this cutting-edge technology. It also describes the architectures, performance parameters, fabrication, and the prospects of STT based devices. Further, moving from the device to the system perspective it presents a non-volatile computing architecture composed of STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices and demonstrates that efficient STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices can turn the dream of instant on/off non-volatile computing into reality.
Spin analysis of supersymmetric particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, S.Y.; Martyn, H.U.
2006-12-01
The spin of supersymmetric particles can be determined at e + e - colliders unambiguously. This is demonstrated for a characteristic set of non-colored supersymmetric particles -- smuons, selectrons, and charginos/neutralinos. The analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for pair production in e + e - collisions, the angular distribution in the production process and decay angular distributions. In the first step we present the observables in the helicity formalism for the supersymmetric particles. Subsequently we confront the results with corresponding analyses of Kaluza-Klein particles in theories of universal extra space dimensions which behave distinctly different from supersymmetric theories. It is shown in the third step that a set of observables can be designed which signal the spin of supersymmetric particles unambiguously without any model assumptions. Finally in the fourth step it is demonstrated that the determination of the spin of supersymmetric particles can be performed experimentally in practice at an e + e - collider. (orig.)
Nuclear spin and isospin excitations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osterfeld, F.
1992-01-01
A review is given of our present knowledge of collective spin-isospin excitations in nuclei. Most of this knowledge comes from intermediate-energy charge-exchange reactions and from inelastic electron- and proton-scattering experiments. The nuclear-spin dynamics is governed by the spin-isospin-dependent two-nucleon interaction in the medium. This interaction gives rise to collective spin modes such as the giant Gamow-Teller resonances. An interesting phenomenon is that the measured total Gamow-Teller transition strength in the resonance region is much less than a model-independent sum rule predicts. Two physically different mechanisms have been discussed to explain this so-called quenching of the total Gamow-Teller strength: coupling to subnuclear degrees of freedom in the form of Δ-isobar excitation and ordinary nuclear configuration mixing. Both detailed nuclear structure calculations and extensive analyses of the scattering data suggest that the nuclear configuration mixing effect is the more important quenching mechanism, although subnuclear degrees of freedom cannot be ruled out. The quenching phenomenon occurs for nuclear-spin excitations at low excitation energies (ω∼10--20 MeV) and small-momentum transfers (q≤0.5 fm -1 ). A completely opposite effect is anticipated in the high (ω,q)-transfer region (0≤ω≤500 MeV, 0.5≤q≤3 fm -1 ). The nuclear spin-isospin response might be enhanced due to the attractive pion field inside the nucleus. Charge-exchange reactions at GeV incident energies have been used to study the quasifree peak region and the Δ-resonance region. An interesting result of these experiments is that the Δ excitation in the nucleus is shifted downwards in energy relative to the Δ excitation of the free proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.
1988-01-01
There has been much recent excitement arising from the claim by the EMC collaboration that none of the proton's spin is carried by quarks. There are many textbooks, including those written by some members of this audience, which assert that the proton's spin is carried by quarks. I will review the history of deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized protons, culminating in this most recent dramatic claim. I will show that, for the last decade, data have appeared consistent with predictions of the quark model and highlight what the new and potentially exciting data are. I will conclude with suggestions for the future. 33 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ralston, John P.
2009-01-01
Activity and discoveries in spin physics of strong interactions has grown dramatically in recent years. What will we find in the future? I believe the future will be about the direct experimental exploration of confinement. While it is impossible to predict the 'future spin' of the whole community, my personal vision indicates we will teach ourselves how to use new coordinates for the gauge sector. New coordinates will be more appropriate for the new questions being asked. Contrary to long-held beliefs, there does exist alternatives to QCD. Not only will the future be about discovering the micro-structure of hadrons, but also new fundamental questions of principle will be confronted.
Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems
Garg, Anupam
2001-02-01
We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the space of magnetic fields, known as diabolical points. This phenomena is explained in terms of two approaches, one based on spin-coherent-state path integrals, and the other on a generalization of the phase integral (or WKB) method to difference equations. Explicit formulas for the diabolical points are obtained for a model Hamiltonian.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.
1993-06-01
When the new data on polarised lepton nucleon scattering are compared at the same value of Q 2 and with a common set of assumptions, a consistent picture of the spin content of the nucleon begins to emerge. Higher order effects in O(α s ), higher twist effects, modern data on unpolarised structure functions and an updated value for F/D are all important in analysing the data. The detailed x dependences of the polarisation asymmetry in the valence quark region are shown to confirm 20 year old predictions of the quark model and I argue that these are an important ingredient in decoding the nucleon spin puzzle. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.
1994-01-01
When the new data on polarised lepton nucleon scattering are compared at the same value of Q 2 and with a common set of assumptions, a consistent picture of the spin content of the nucleon begins to emerge. Higher order effects in 0(α s ), higher twist effects, modern data on unpolarized structure functions and an updated value for F/D are all important in analysing the data. The detailed x dependences of the polarisation asymmetry in the valence quark region are shown to confirm 20 year old predictions of the quark model and I argue that these are an important ingredient in decoding the nucleon spin puzzle. (author)
COMMISSIONING SPIN ROTATORS IN RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MACKAY, W.W.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.; COURANT, E.D.; FISCHER, W.; HUANG, H.; LUCCIO, A.; MONTAG, C.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VANZIEJTS, J.
2003-01-01
During the summer of 2002, eight superconducting helical spin rotators were installed into RHIC in order to control the polarization directions independently at the STAR and PHENIX experiments. Without the rotators, the orientation of polarization at the interaction points would only be vertical. With four rotators around each of the two experiments, we can rotate either or both beams from vertical into the horizontal plane through the interaction region and then back to vertical on the other side. This allows independent control for each beam with vertical, longitudinal, or radial polarization at the experiment. In this paper, we present results from the first run using the new spin rotators at PHENIX
Spin reorientation via antiferromagnetic coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ranjbar, M., E-mail: mojtaba.ranjbar@physics.gu.se [Data Storage Institute, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 5, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Sbiaa, R. [Data Storage Institute, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 5, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Muscat (Oman); Dumas, R. K. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Åkerman, J. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Piramanayagam, S. N. [Data Storage Institute, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 5, Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)
2014-05-07
Spin reorientation in antiferromagnetically coupled (AFC) Co/Pd multilayers, wherein the thickness of the constituent Co layers was varied, was studied. AFC-Co/Pd multilayers were observed to have perpendicular magnetic anisotropy even for a Co sublayer thickness of 1 nm, much larger than what is usually observed in systems without antiferromagnetic coupling. When similar multilayer structures were prepared without antiferromagnetic coupling, this effect was not observed. The results indicate that the additional anisotropy energy contribution arising from the antiferromagnetic coupling, which is estimated to be around 6 × 10{sup 6} ergs/cm{sup 3}, induces the spin-reorientation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Close, F.E.
1989-01-01
There has been much recent excitement arising from the claim by the EMC collaboration that none of the proton's spin is carried by quarks. There are many textbooks, including those written by some members of this audience, which assert that the proton's spin is carried by quarks. I will review the history of deep inelastic scattering of polarized leptons from polarized protons, culminating in this most recent dramatic claim. I will show that, for the last decade, data have appeared consistent with predictions of the quark model and highlight what the new and potentially exciting data are. I will conclude with suggestions for the future
Harmony of spinning conformal blocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sobko, Evgeny [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
2016-12-07
Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese; Łukowski, Tomasz [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter,Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)
2015-11-16
Using conformal field theory (CFT) arguments we derive an infinite number of constraints on the large spin expansion of the anomalous dimensions and structure constants of higher spin operators. These arguments rely only on analyticity, unitarity, crossing-symmetry and the structure of the conformal partial wave expansion. We obtain results for both, perturbative CFT to all order in the perturbation parameter, as well as non-perturbatively. For the case of conformal gauge theories this provides a proof of the reciprocity principle to all orders in perturbation theory and provides a new “reciprocity' principle for structure constants. We argue that these results extend also to non-conformal theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese; Łukowski, Tomasz
2015-01-01
Using conformal field theory (CFT) arguments we derive an infinite number of constraints on the large spin expansion of the anomalous dimensions and structure constants of higher spin operators. These arguments rely only on analyticity, unitarity, crossing-symmetry and the structure of the conformal partial wave expansion. We obtain results for both, perturbative CFT to all order in the perturbation parameter, as well as non-perturbatively. For the case of conformal gauge theories this provides a proof of the reciprocity principle to all orders in perturbation theory and provides a new “reciprocity' principle for structure constants. We argue that these results extend also to non-conformal theories.
Harmony of spinning conformal blocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sobko, Evgeny [Nordita and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)
2017-03-15
Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.
Extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene
Rappoport, Tatiana
The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene is extremely weak, making it a promising spin conductor for spintronic devices. In addition, many applications also require the generation of spin currents in graphene. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results suggest one can engineer the spin Hall effect in graphene by greatly enhancing the spin-orbit coupling in the vicinity of an impurity. The extrinsic spin Hall effect then results from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. This effect can be used to efficiently convert charge currents into spin-polarized currents. I will discuss recent experimental results on spin Hall effect in graphene decorated with adatoms and metallic cluster and show that a large spin Hall effect can appear due to skew scattering. While this spin-orbit coupling is small if compared with what it is found in metals, the effect is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering, giving rise to robust spin Hall angles. I will present our single impurity scattering calculations done with exact partial-wave expansions and complement the analysis with numerical results from a novel real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism for tight-binding Hamiltonians. The author acknowledges the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.
Spin interferometry in anisotropic spin-orbit fields
Saarikoski, Henri; Reynoso, Andres A.; Baltanás, José Pablo; Frustaglia, Diego; Nitta, Junsaku
2018-03-01
Electron spins in a two-dimensional electron gas can be manipulated by spin-orbit (SO) fields originating from either Rashba or Dresselhaus interactions with independent isotropic characteristics. Together, though, they produce anisotropic SO fields with consequences on quantum transport through spin interference. Here we study the transport properties of modeled mesoscopic rings subject to Rashba and Dresselhaus [001] SO couplings in the presence of an additional in-plane Zeeman field acting as a probe. By means of one- and two-dimensional quantum transport simulations we show that this setting presents anisotropies in the quantum resistance as a function of the Zeeman field direction. Moreover, the anisotropic resistance can be tuned by the Rashba strength up to the point to invert its response to the Zeeman field. We also find that a topological transition in the field texture that is associated with a geometric phase switching is imprinted in the anisotropy pattern. We conclude that resistance anisotropy measurements can reveal signatures of SO textures and geometric phases in spin carriers.
Semiclassical spin transport in spin-orbit-coupled bands
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Culcer, D.; Sinova, J.; Sinitsyn, N. A.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.; Niu, Q.
2004-01-01
Roč. 93, č. 4 (2004), 046602/1-046602/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : spin Hall effect * semiconductor spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.218, year: 2004
The proton spin structure; La structure en spin du proton
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Breton, V.
1996-05-13
The author presents first the theoretical frame of the nucleon spin structure study carried out through the deep inelastic scattering of polarised leptons on a polarised target. The interest of the lepton scattering reaction to study the hadronic structure is discussed and the formalism of the inclusive inelastic scattering presented. If the target and the beam are both polarised, the formalism enables to connect the experimentally measured asymmetries to the contribution of quarks to the spin of nucleon. The recent knowledge about the nucleon spin structure is also presented. The Bjorken sum rule is then discussed: it correlates the difference of spin structure between proton and neutron to the neutron lifetime. Then, the author mentions the experimental results of SMC (CERN) and E142, E143 (SLAC). The transition from rough asymmetry to the g sub 1 structure function integral is discussed as well as the main causes of uncertainty. Compared to theoretical data, the measurements confirm the reliability of the Bjorken sum rule. They also confirm the deficit of the quark contribution with respect to the naive unpolarized strange sea model. The possible origins of this discrepancy and the contributions of the current and planned experiments are also discussed. Finally, the author brings up the next major step for nucleon spin studies: the estimation of the gluon contribution. He discusses the experimental knowledge about the polarised gluon distribution function with regard to the multiple existing parameter set. Concerning the experimental determination of this distribution function, outlooks are proposed with respect to feasibility on current experimental facilities. (N.T.). 134 refs.
Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors
Li, Hang
2016-01-01
Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read' and `write' in memory devices can
Microscopic theory of ultrafast spin linear reversal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, G P, E-mail: gpzhang@indstate.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)
2011-05-25
A recent experiment (Vahaplar et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 117201) showed that a single femtosecond laser can reverse the spin direction without spin precession, or spin linear reversal (SLR), but its microscopic theory has been missing. Here we show that SLR does not occur naturally. Two generic spin models, the Heisenberg and Hubbard models, are employed to describe magnetic insulators and metals, respectively. We find analytically that the spin change is always accompanied by a simultaneous excitation of at least two spin components. The only model that has prospects for SLR is the Stoner single-electron band model. However, under the influence of the laser field, the orbital angular momenta are excited and are coupled to each other. If a circularly polarized light is used, then all three components of the orbital angular momenta are excited, and so are their spins. The generic spin commutation relation further reveals that if SLR exists, it must involve a complicated multiple state excitation.
Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets
Manchon, Aurelien
2017-02-01
We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.
Spin diffusion in disordered organic semiconductors
Li, Ling; Gao, Nan; Lu, Nianduan; Liu, Ming; Bässler, Heinz
2015-12-01
An analytical theory for spin diffusion in disordered organic semiconductors is derived. It is based on percolation theory and variable range hopping in a disordered energy landscape with a Gaussian density of states. It describes universally the dependence of the spin diffusion on temperature, carrier density, material disorder, magnetic field, and electric field at the arbitrary magnitude of the Hubbard energy of charge pairs. It is found that, compared to the spin transport carried by carriers hopping, the spin exchange will hinder the spin diffusion process at low carrier density, even under the condition of a weak electric field. Importantly, under the influence of a bias voltage, anomalous spreading of the spin packet will lead to an abnormal temperature dependence of the spin diffusion coefficient and diffusion length. This explains the recent experimental data for spin diffusion length observed in Alq3.
Experimental Realization of a Quantum Spin Pump
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Watson, Susan; Potok, R.; M. Marcus, C.
2003-01-01
We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin-dependent by the a......We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin......-dependent by the application of an in-plane Zeeman field. Spin currents are measured by placing the pump in a focusing geometry with a spin-selective collector....
The spinning particle with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhar, A.
1988-01-01
We construct and analyse an action for the spinning particle which contains an extrinsic curvature term. A possible generalization of this construction to the case of the spinning string is also discussed. (orig.)
Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets
Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.
Some recent developments in spin glasses
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
I give some experimental and theoretical background to spin glasses, and then discuss the ... Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Heisenberg spin glass model in three dimensions are presented. ..... with equal probability. This has a ...
Proton polarimeters for spin transfer experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNaughton, M.W.
1985-01-01
The design and use of proton polarimeters for spin transfer (Wolfenstein parameter) measurements is discussed. Polarimeters are compared with polarized targets for spin dependent experiments. 32 refs., 4 figs
Spin transport and relaxation in graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Wei; McCreary, K.M.; Pi, K.; Wang, W.H.; Li Yan; Wen, H.; Chen, J.R.; Kawakami, R.K.
2012-01-01
We review our recent work on spin injection, transport and relaxation in graphene. The spin injection and transport in single layer graphene (SLG) were investigated using nonlocal magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. Spin injection was performed using either transparent contacts (Co/SLG) or tunneling contacts (Co/MgO/SLG). With tunneling contacts, the nonlocal MR was increased by a factor of ∼1000 and the spin injection/detection efficiency was greatly enhanced from ∼1% (transparent contacts) to ∼30%. Spin relaxation was investigated on graphene spin valves using nonlocal Hanle measurements. For transparent contacts, the spin lifetime was in the range of 50-100 ps. The effects of surface chemical doping showed that for spin lifetimes in the order of 100 ps, charged impurity scattering (Au) was not the dominant mechanism for spin relaxation. While using tunneling contacts to suppress the contact-induced spin relaxation, we observed the spin lifetimes as long as 771 ps at room temperature, 1.2 ns at 4 K in SLG, and 6.2 ns at 20 K in bilayer graphene (BLG). Furthermore, contrasting spin relaxation behaviors were observed in SLG and BLG. We found that Elliot-Yafet spin relaxation dominated in SLG at low temperatures whereas Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation dominated in BLG at low temperatures. Gate tunable spin transport was studied using the SLG property of gate tunable conductivity and incorporating different types of contacts (transparent and tunneling contacts). Consistent with theoretical predictions, the nonlocal MR was proportional to the SLG conductivity for transparent contacts and varied inversely with the SLG conductivity for tunneling contacts. Finally, bipolar spin transport in SLG was studied and an electron-hole asymmetry was observed for SLG spin valves with transparent contacts, in which nonlocal MR was roughly independent of DC bias current for electrons, but varied significantly with DC bias current for holes. These results are very important for
Deformed Fredkin spin chain with extensive entanglement
Salberger, Olof; Udagawa, Takuma; Zhang, Zhao; Katsura, Hosho; Klich, Israel; Korepin, Vladimir
2017-06-01
We introduce a new spin chain which is a deformation of the Fredkin spin chain and has a phase transition between bounded and extensive entanglement entropy scaling. In this chain, spins have a local interaction of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian is frustration-free and its ground state can be described analytically as a weighted superposition of Dyck paths that depends on a deformation parameter t. In the purely spin 1/2 case, whenever t\
Acoustic parametric pumping of spin waves
Keshtgar, Hedyeh; Zareyan, Malek; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.
2014-11-01
Recent experiments demonstrated generation of spin currents by ultrasound. We can understand this acoustically induced spin pumping in terms of the coupling between magnetization and lattice waves. Here we study the parametric excitation of magnetization by longitudinal acoustic waves and calculate the acoustic threshold power. The induced magnetization dynamics can be detected by the spin pumping into an adjacent normal metal that displays the inverse spin Hall effect.
Acoustic parametric pumping of spin waves
Keshtgar, Hedyeh; Zareyan, Malek; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.
2013-01-01
Recent experiments demonstrated generation of spin currents by ultrasound. We can understand this acoustically induced spin pumping in terms of the coupling between magnetization and lattice waves. Here we study the parametric excitation of magnetization by longitudinal acoustic waves and calculate the acoustic threshold power. The induced magnetization dynamics can be detected by the spin pumping into an adjacent normal metal that displays the inverse spin Hall effect.
The chirality operators for Heisenberg spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subrahmanyam, V.
1994-01-01
The ground state of closed Heisenberg spin chains with an odd number of sites has a chiral degeneracy, in addition to a two-fold Kramers degeneracy. A non-zero chirality implies that the spins are not coplanar, and is a measure of handedness. The chirality operator, which can be treated as a spin-1/2 operator, is explicitly constructed in terms of the spin operators, and is given as commutator of permutation operators. (author). 3 refs
Magnus effects on spinning transonic missiles
Seginer, A.; Rosenwasser, I.
1983-01-01
Magnus forces and moments were measured on a basic-finner model spinning in transonic flow. Spin was induced by canted fins or by full-span or semi-span, outboard and inboard roll controls. Magnus force and moment reversals were caused by Mach number, reduced spin rate, and angle of attack variations. Magnus center of pressure was found to be independent of the angle of attack but varied with the Mach number and model configuration or reduced spin rate.
Development of high-spin isomer beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Xiaohong
2000-01-01
The physical motivations with high-spin isomer beams were introduced. Taking HSIB of RIKEN as an example, the methods to produce, separate, transport and purity high-spin isomer beams were described briefly, and the detection of γ rays emitted from the reactions induced by the high-spin isomer beams was presented. Finally, the progress to develop the high-spin isomers in the N = 83 isotones as second beams was stressed
Two perspectives on a decohering spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, A.
1992-01-01
I study the quantum mechanics of a spin interacting with an environment. Although the evolution of the whole system is unitary, the spin evolution is not. The system is chosen so that the spin exhibits loss of quantum coherence, or ''wavefunction collapse,'' of the sort usually associated with a quantum measurement. The system is analyzed from the point of view of the spin density matrix (or ''Schmidt path''), and also using the consistent histories (or decoherence functional) approach
Spin Transport in Nondegenerate Si with a Spin MOSFET Structure at Room Temperature
Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Ando, Yuichiro; Kameno, Makoto; Tahara, Takayuki; Koike, Hayato; Oikawa, Tohru; Suzuki, Toshio; Shiraishi, Masashi
2014-09-01
Spin transport in nondegenerate semiconductors is expected to pave the way to the creation of spin transistors, spin logic devices, and reconfigurable logic circuits, because room-temperature (RT) spin transport in Si has already been achieved. However, RT spin transport has been limited to degenerate Si, which makes it difficult to produce spin-based signals because a gate electric field cannot be used to manipulate such signals. Here, we report the experimental demonstration of spin transport in nondegenerate Si with a spin metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) structure. We successfully observe the modulation of the Hanle-type spin-precession signals, which is a characteristic spin dynamics in nondegenerate semiconductors. We obtain long spin transport of more than 20 μm and spin rotation greater than 4π at RT. We also observe gate-induced modulation of spin-transport signals at RT. The modulation of the spin diffusion length as a function of a gate voltage is successfully observed, which we attribute to the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism. These achievements are expected to lead to the creation of practical Si-based spin MOSFETs.
Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes based on organic bipolar spin valves
Vardeny, Zeev Valentine; Nguyen, Tho Duc; Ehrenfreund, Eitan Avraham
2017-10-25
Spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes are provided. Such spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes incorporate ferromagnetic electrodes and show considerable spin-valve magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-conductivity responses, with voltage and temperature dependencies that originate from the bipolar spin-polarized space charge limited current.
Percolation and spin glass transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadiq, A.; Tahir-Kheli, R.A.; Wortis, M.; Bhatti, N.A.
1980-10-01
The behaviour of clusters of curved and normal plaquette particles in a bond random, +-J, Ising model is studied in finite square and triangular lattices. Computer results for the concentration of antiferromagnetic bonds when percolating clusters first appears are found to be close to those reported for the occurrence and disappearance of spin glass phases in these systems. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nathan Isgur
1995-01-01
In these lectures the author argues that their response to the spin crisis should not be to abandon the naive quark model baby, but rather to allow it to mature. He begin by recalling what a beautiful baby the quark model is via an overview of its successes in spectroscopy, dynamics, and valence spin structure. He also introduces the conservative hypothesis that dynamical qanti q pairs are its key missing ingredient. He then discusses dressing the baby. He first shows that it can be clothed in glue without changing its spectroscopic successes. In the process, several dynamical mysteries associated with quark model spectroscopy are potentially explained. Next, he dresses the baby in qanti q pairs, first showing that this can be done without compromising the naive quark model's success with either spectroscopy or the OZI rule. Finally, he shows that despite their near invisibility elsewhere, pairs do play an important role in the proton's spin structure by creating an antipolarized qanti q sea. In the context of an explicit calculation he demonstrate that it is plausible that the entire ''spin crisis'' arises from this effect
Algebraic topology of spin glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koma, Tohru
2011-01-01
We study the topology of frustration in d-dimensional Ising spin glasses with d ≥ 2 with nearest-neighbor interactions. We prove the following. For any given spin configuration, the domain walls on the unfrustration network are all transverse to a frustrated loop on the unfrustration network, where a domain wall is defined to be a connected element of the collection of all the (d - 1)-cells which are dual to the bonds having an unfavorable energy, and the unfrustration network is the collection of all the unfrustrated plaquettes. These domain walls are topologically nontrivial because they are all related to the global frustration of a loop on the unfrustration network. Taking account of the thermal stability for the domain walls, we can explain the numerical results that three- or higher-dimensional systems exhibit a spin glass phase, whereas two-dimensional ones do not. Namely, in two dimensions, the thermal fluctuations of the topologically nontrivial domain walls destroy the order of the frozen spins on the unfrustration network, whereas they do not in three or higher dimensions. This may be interpreted as a global topological effect of the frustrations.
High-spin nuclear spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond, R.M.
1986-07-01
High-spin spectroscopy is the study of the changes in nuclear structure, properties, and behavior with increasing angular momentum. It involves the complex interplay between collective and single-particle motion, between shape and deformation changes, particle alignments, and changes in the pairing correlations. A review of progress in theory, experimentation, and instrumentation in this field is given
Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
coherent-state path integrals, and ... 0 33 K, and ¾. 0 22 K. The -factor of the net spin is very close to ...... Quantum Theory, S. N. Bose Centre, Calcutta, in January 2000. I am grateful ... [19] G Herzberg and H C Longuet-Higgins, Discuss. Faraday ...
Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic ﬁeld, vanishing completely at special points in the ...
Spinning targets for laser fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldwin, D.E.; Ryutov, D.D.
1995-09-01
Several techniques for spinning the ICF targets up prior to or in the course of their compression are suggested. Interference of the rotational shear flow with Rayleigh-Taylor instability is briefly discussed and possible consequences for the target performance are pointed out
Verifying business processes using spin
Janssen, W.; Mateescu, R.; Mauw, S.; Springintveld, J.; Holzmann, G.; Najm, E.; Serhrouchni, A.
1998-01-01
We present an application of the Spin model-checker in Testbed, a framework for business process reengineering. Business processes are described by end-users of Testbed in a graphi- cal language with a causality-based semantics, called Amber. The Amber language contains various constructs describing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Switzner, Nathan; Henry, Dick
2009-03-20
In a second development order, spin-forming equipment was again evaluated using the test shape, a hemispherical shell. In this second development order, pure vanadium and alloy titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) were spin-formed, as well as additional copper and 21-6-9 stainless. In the first development order the following materials had been spin-formed: copper (alloy C11000 ETP), 6061 aluminum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 stainless steel, and tantalum-2.5% tungsten. Significant challenges included properly adjusting the rotations-per-minute (RPM), cracking at un-beveled edges and laser marks, redressing of notches, surface cracking, non-uniform temperature evolution in the titanium, and cracking of the tailstock. Lessons learned were that 300 RPM worked better than 600 RPM for most materials (at the feed rate of 800 mm/min); beveling the edges to lower the stress reduces edge cracking; notches, laser marks, or edge defects in the preform doom the process to cracking and failure; coolant is required for vanadium spin-forming; increasing the number of passes to nine or more eliminates surface cracking for vanadium; titanium develops a hot zone in front of the rollers; and the tailstock should be redesigned to eliminate the cylindrical stress concentrator in the center.
Spin qubits in antidot lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger
2008-01-01
We suggest and study designed defects in an otherwise periodic potential modulation of a two-dimensional electron gas as an alternative approach to electron spin based quantum information processing in the solid-state using conventional gate-defined quantum dots. We calculate the band structure a...
Spin waves in quantum crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondratenko, P.S.
1975-01-01
The paper considers the spectrum of spin waves of a quantum magnetic crystal. It has been assumed that the crystal is characterized by gapless Fermi excitations. The properties of a single-particle Green function for a magnetic crystal are briefly outlined. The dispersion equation system describing the spin wave spectrum has been derived. The spectrum described by the equation system comprises a group of Goldstone modes and a family of spin waves of the zero sound type, associated with the group by an interaction. The maximum number of Goldstone modes in an antiferromagnet is three, whereas in a ferromagnet it is two. At frequencies higher than the characteristic frequencies of magnetic interactions, in an antiferromagnet all three modes have a linear spectrum, whereas in a ferromagnet the longitudinal mode is represented by a linear spectrum and the transverse mode, by a quadratic one. The dynamical susceptibility of a magnetically ordered crystal has been calculated. The thermodynamical potential of the crystal has been proved to vary as a function of the angular crystal orientation in a spin subspace. The results have been obtained by methods of the quantum field theory for the case of zero temperature
Spin glasses and neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parga, N.; Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche
1989-01-01
The mean-field theory of spin glass models has been used as a prototype of systems with frustration and disorder. One of the most interesting related systems are models of associative memories. In these lectures we review the main concepts developed to solve the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and its application to neural networks. (orig.)
Spin chains and Gustafson's integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derkachov, S.E; Manashov, A.N.; Regensburg Univ.
2016-12-01
The Gustafson's integrals are the multidimensional generalization of the classical Mellin-Barnes integrals. We show that some of these integrals arise from relations between matrix elements in the Sklyanin's representation of Separated Variables in the spin chain models. We also present several new integrals.
High energy spin isospin modes in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chanfray, G.; Ericson, M.
1984-01-01
The high energy response of nuclei to a spin-isospin excitation is investigated. We show the existence of a strong contrast between the spin transverse and spin longitudinal responses. The second one undergoes a shadow effect in the Δ region and displays the occurrence of the pionic branch
Geometry of Spin: Clifford Algebraic Approach
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of Pauli matrices follow from the underlying algebra. Clif- ford algebraic approach provides a geometrical and hence intuitive way to understand quantum theory of spin, and is a natural formalism to study spin. Clifford algebraic formal- ism has lot of applications in every field where spin plays an important role. Introduction.
Recent advances of spin crossover research
Gutlich, P; van Koningsbruggen, PJ; Renz, F; Schonherr, T
2004-01-01
Thermal spin transition (spin crossover), one of the most fascinating dynamic electronic structure phenomena occurring in coordination compounds of third row transition metal ions, mostly of iron(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) with critical ligand field strengths competing with the spin pairing
Spin-glass transition in disordered terbium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauser, J.J.
1985-01-01
While crystalline Tb is a helix antiferromagnet with a Neel temperature of 229 K which becomes ferromagnetic at 222 K, disordered Tb exhibits a spin-glass transition. The spin-glass freezing temperature ranges from 183 to 53 K, the lowest temperatures corresponding to the greatest degree of atomic disorder. These experiments constitute the first evidence for an elemental spin-glass. (author)
Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, R A
1977-01-01
A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...
Electrical detection of spin current and spin relaxation in nonmagnetic semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miah, M Idrish
2008-01-01
We report an electrical method for the detection of spin current and spin relaxation in nonmagnetic semiconductors. Optically polarized spins are dragged by an electric field in GaAs. We use the anomalous Hall effect for the detection of spin current and spin relaxation. It is found that the effect depends on the electric field and doping density as well as on temperature, but not on the excitation power. A calculation for the effect is performed using the measured spin polarization by a pump-probe experiment. The results are also discussed in comparison with a quantitative evaluation of the spin lifetimes of the photogenerated electrons under drift in GaAs
Electrical detection of spin current and spin relaxation in nonmagnetic semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miah, M Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au
2008-09-21
We report an electrical method for the detection of spin current and spin relaxation in nonmagnetic semiconductors. Optically polarized spins are dragged by an electric field in GaAs. We use the anomalous Hall effect for the detection of spin current and spin relaxation. It is found that the effect depends on the electric field and doping density as well as on temperature, but not on the excitation power. A calculation for the effect is performed using the measured spin polarization by a pump-probe experiment. The results are also discussed in comparison with a quantitative evaluation of the spin lifetimes of the photogenerated electrons under drift in GaAs.
Muon spin rotation and other microscopic probes of spin-glass dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacLaughlin, D.E.
1980-01-01
A number of different microscopic probe techniques have been employed to investigate the onset of the spin-glass state in dilute magnetic alloys. Among these are Moessbauer-effect spectroscopy, neutron scattering, ESR of the impurity spins, host NMR and, most recently, muon spin rotation and depolarization. Spin probes yield information on the microscopic static and dynamic behavior of the impurity spins, and give insight into both the spin freezing process and the nature of low-lying excitations in the ordered state. Microscopic probe experiments in spin glasses are surveyed, and the unique advantages of muon studies are emphasized
Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jung-Chuan [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Huang, Leng-Wei [Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China); Hung, Dung-Shing, E-mail: dshung@mail.mcu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Department of Information and Telecommunications Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Tung-Han [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. C. A., E-mail: jcahuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liang, Jun-Zhi [Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei 242, Taiwan (China); Lee, Shang-Fan, E-mail: leesf@phys.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan (China)
2014-02-03
The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered.
Inverse spin Hall effect induced by spin pumping into semiconducting ZnO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jung-Chuan; Huang, Leng-Wei; Hung, Dung-Shing; Chiang, Tung-Han; Huang, J. C. A.; Liang, Jun-Zhi; Lee, Shang-Fan
2014-01-01
The inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) of n-type semiconductor ZnO thin films with weak spin-orbit coupling has been observed by utilizing the spin pumping method. In the ferromagnetic resonance condition, the spin pumping driven by the dynamical exchange interaction of a permalloy film injects a pure spin current into the adjacent ZnO layer. This spin current gives rise to a DC voltage through the ISHE in the ZnO layer, and the DC voltage is proportional to the microwave excitation power. The effect is sizeable even when the spin backflow is considered
Geometrical theory of spin motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, L.
1983-01-01
A discussion of the fundamental interrelation of geometry and physical laws with Lie groups leads to a reformulation and heuristic modification of the principle of inertia and the principle of equivalence, which is based on the simple De Sitter group instead of the Poincare group. The resulting law of motion allows a unified formulation for structureless and spinning test particles. A metrical theory of gravitation is constructed with the modified principle, which is structured after the geometry of the manifold of the De Sitter group. The theory is equivalent to a particular Kaluza-Klein theory in ten dimensions with the Lorentz group as gauge group. A restricted version of this theory excludes torsion. It is shown by a reformulation of the energy momentum complex that this version is equivalent to general relativity with a cosmologic term quadratic in the curvature tensor and in which the existence of spinning particle fields is inherent from first principles. The equations of the general theory with torsion are presented and it is shown in a special case how the boundary conditions for the torsion degree of freedom have to be chosen such as to treat orbital and spin angular momenta on an equal footing. The possibility of verification of the resulting anomalous spin-spin interaction is mentioned and a model imposed by the group topology of SO(3, 2) is outlined in which the unexplained discrepancy between the magnitude of the discrete valued coupling constants and the gravitational constant in Kaluza-Klein theories is resolved by the identification of identical fermions as one orbit. The mathematical structure can be adapted to larger groups to include other degrees of freedom. 41 references
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Gover
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The problems of spin-polarized free-electron beam interaction with electromagnetic wave at electron-spin resonance conditions in a magnetic field and of superradiant spin-flip radiative emission are analyzed in the framework of a comprehensive classical model. The spontaneous emission of spin-flip radiation from electron beams is very weak. We show that the detectivity of electron spin resonant spin-flip and combined spin-flip/cyclotron-resonance-emission radiation can be substantially enhanced by operating with ultrashort spin-polarized electron beam bunches under conditions of superradiant (coherent emission. The proposed radiative spin-state modulation and the spin-flip radiative emission schemes can be used for control and noninvasive diagnostics of polarized electron/positron beams. Such schemes are of relevance in important scattering experiments off nucleons in nuclear physics and off magnetic targets in condensed matter physics.
Spin-photon interface and spin-controlled photon switching in a nanobeam waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Alisa; Ding, Dapeng; Appel, Martin Hayhurst
2018-01-01
Access to the electron spin is at the heart of many protocols for integrated and distributed quantum-information processing [1-4]. For instance, interfacing the spin-state of an electron and a photon can be utilized to perform quantum gates between photons [2,5] or to entangle remote spin states [6......-9]. Ultimately, a quantum network of entangled spins constitutes a new paradigm in quantum optics [1]. Towards this goal, an integrated spin-photon interface would be a major leap forward. Here we demonstrate an efficient and optically programmable interface between the spin of an electron in a quantum dot...... and photons in a nanophotonic waveguide. The spin can be deterministically prepared with a fidelity of 96\\%. Subsequently the system is used to implement a "single-spin photonic switch", where the spin state of the electron directs the flow of photons through the waveguide. The spin-photon interface may...
Electron-Spin Filters Would Offer Spin Polarization Greater than 1
Ting, David Z.
2009-01-01
A proposal has been made to develop devices that would generate spin-polarized electron currents characterized by polarization ratios having magnitudes in excess of 1. Heretofore, such devices (denoted, variously, as spin injectors, spin polarizers, and spin filters) have typically offered polarization ratios having magnitudes in the approximate range of 0.01 to 0.1. The proposed devices could be useful as efficient sources of spin-polarized electron currents for research on spintronics and development of practical spintronic devices.
Comparative Aspects of Spin-Dependent Interaction Potentials for Spin-1/2 and Spin-1 Matter Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. C. Malta
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper sets out to establish a comparative study between classes of spin- and velocity-dependent potentials for spin-1/2 and spin-1 matter currents/sources in the nonrelativistic regime. Both (neutral massive scalar and vector particles are considered to mediate the interactions between (pseudo-scalar sources or (pseudo-vector currents. Though our discussion is more general, we contemplate specific cases in which our results may describe the electromagnetic interaction with a massive (Proca-type photon exchanged between two spin-1/2 or two spin-1 carriers. We highlight the similarities and peculiarities of the potentials for the two different types of charged matter and also focus our attention on the comparison between the particular aspects of two different field representations for spin-1 matter particles. We believe that our results may contribute to a further discussion of the relation between charge, spin, and extensibility of elementary particles.
Minimal model of spin-transfer torque and spin pumping caused by the spin Hall Effect
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chen, W.; Sigrist, M.; Sinova, Jairo; Manske, D.
2016-01-01
Roč. 115, č. 21 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 217203. ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016
Nonlinear spin current generation in noncentrosymmetric spin-orbit coupled systems
Hamamoto, Keita; Ezawa, Motohiko; Kim, Kun Woo; Morimoto, Takahiro; Nagaosa, Naoto
2017-06-01
Spin current plays a central role in spintronics. In particular, finding more efficient ways to generate spin current has been an important issue and has been studied actively. For example, representative methods of spin-current generation include spin-polarized current injections from ferromagnetic metals, the spin Hall effect, and the spin battery. Here, we theoretically propose a mechanism of spin-current generation based on nonlinear phenomena. By using Boltzmann transport theory, we show that a simple application of the electric field E induces spin current proportional to E2 in noncentrosymmetric spin-orbit coupled systems. We demonstrate that the nonlinear spin current of the proposed mechanism is supported in the surface state of three-dimensional topological insulators and two-dimensional semiconductors with the Rashba and/or Dresselhaus interaction. In the latter case, the angular dependence of the nonlinear spin current can be manipulated by the direction of the electric field and by the ratio of the Rashba and Dresselhaus interactions. We find that the magnitude of the spin current largely exceeds those in the previous methods for a reasonable magnitude of the electric field. Furthermore, we show that application of ac electric fields (e.g., terahertz light) leads to the rectifying effect of the spin current, where dc spin current is generated. These findings will pave a route to manipulate the spin current in noncentrosymmetric crystals.
Spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effects in heavy metal/antiferromagnet/Permalloy trilayers
Saglam, Hilal; Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, M. Benjamin; Jiang, Wanjun; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel
Recent work shows efficient spin transfer via spin waves in insulating antiferromagnets (AFMs), suggesting that AFMs can play a more active role in the manipulation of ferromagnets. We use spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments on heavy metal (Pt and W)/AFMs/Py (Ni80Fe20) trilayer structures, to examine the possible spin transfer phenomenon in metallic AFMs, i . e . , FeMn and PdMn. Previous work has studied electronic effects of the spin transport in these materials, yielding short spin diffusion length on the order of 1 nm. However, the work did not examine whether besides diffusive spin transport by the conduction electrons, there are additional spin transport contributions from spin wave excitations. We clearly observe spin transport from the Py spin reservoir to the heavy metal layer through the sandwiched AFMs with thicknesses well above the previously measured spin diffusion lengths, indicating that spin transport by spin waves may lead to non-negligible contributions This work was supported by US DOE, OS, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division. Lithographic patterning was carried out at the CNM, which is supported by DOE, OS under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Inozemtsev's hyperbolic spin model and its related spin chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barba, J.C.; Finkel, F.; Gonzalez-Lopez, A.; Rodriguez, M.A.
2010-01-01
In this paper we study Inozemtsev's su(m) quantum spin model with hyperbolic interactions and the associated spin chain of Haldane-Shastry type introduced by Frahm and Inozemtsev. We compute the spectrum of Inozemtsev's model, and use this result and the freezing trick to derive a simple analytic expression for the partition function of the Frahm-Inozemtsev chain. We show that the energy levels of the latter chain can be written in terms of the usual motifs for the Haldane-Shastry chain, although with a different dispersion relation. The formula for the partition function is used to analyze the behavior of the level density and the distribution of spacings between consecutive unfolded levels. We discuss the relevance of our results in connection with two well-known conjectures in quantum chaos.
Spin Splitting in Different Semiconductor Quantum Wells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Yafei
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate the spin splitting in four undoped asymmetric quantum wells in the absence of external electric field and magnetic field. The quantum well geometry dependence of spin splitting is studied with the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling included. The results show that the structure of quantum well plays an important role in spin splitting. The Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin splitting in four asymmetric quantum wells are quite different. The origin of the distinction is discussed in this work. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
NMR studies of spin dynamics in cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takigawa, M.; Mitzi, D.B.
1994-01-01
The authors report recent NMR results in cuprates. The oxygen Knight shift and the Cu nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in Bi 2.1 Sr 1.94 Ca 0.88 Cu 2.07 O 8+σ single crystals revealed a gapless superconducting state, which can be most naturally explained by a d-wave pairing state and the intrinsic disorder in this material. The Cu nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate in underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.63 shows distinct temperature dependence from the spin-lattice relaxation rate, providing direct evidence for a pseudo spin-gap near the antiferromagnetic wave vector
NMR studies of spin dynamics in cuprates
Takigawa, M.; Mitzi, D. B.
1994-04-01
We report recent NMR results in cuprates. The oxygen Knight shift and the Cu nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in Bi2.1Sr1.94Ca0.88Cu2.07O8+δ single crystals revealed a gapless superconducting state, which can be most naturally explained by a d-wave pairing state and the intrinsic disorder in this material. The Cu nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.63 shows distinct temperature dependence from the spin-lattice relaxation rate, providing direct evidence for a pseudo spin-gap near the antiferromagnetic wave vector.
New Spin Foam Models of Quantum Gravity
Miković, A.
We give a brief and a critical review of the Barret-Crane spin foam models of quantum gravity. Then we describe two new spin foam models which are obtained by direct quantization of General Relativity and do not have some of the drawbacks of the Barret-Crane models. These are the model of spin foam invariants for the embedded spin networks in loop quantum gravity and the spin foam model based on the integration of the tetrads in the path integral for the Palatini action.
Notes on strings and higher spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sagnotti, A
2013-01-01
This review is devoted to the intriguing and still largely unexplored links between string theory and higher spins, the types of excitations that lie behind their most cherished properties. A closer look at higher spin fields provides some further clues that string theory describes a broken phase of a higher spin gauge theory. Conversely, string amplitudes contain a wealth of information on higher spin interactions that can clarify long-standing issues related to their infrared behavior. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’. (review)
Theory of the spin Peltier effect
Ohnuma, Y.; Matsuo, M.; Maekawa, S.
2017-10-01
A microscopic theory of the spin Peltier effect in a bilayer structure comprising a paramagnetic metal (PM) and a ferromagnetic insulator (FI) based on the nonequilibrium Green's function method is presented. Spin current and heat current driven by temperature gradient and spin accumulation are formulated as functions of spin susceptibilities in the PM and the FI, and are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relations. By using the current formulas, we estimate heat generation and absorption at the interface driven by the heat-current injection mediated by spins from PM into FI.
Graphene nanoFlakes with large spin.
Wang, Wei L; Meng, Sheng; Kaxiras, Efthimios
2008-01-01
We investigate, using benzenoid graph theory and first-principles calculations, the magnetic properties of arbitrarily shaped finite graphene fragments to which we refer as graphene nanoflakes (GNFs). We demonstrate that the spin of a GNF depends on its shape due to topological frustration of the pi-bonds. For example, a zigzag-edged triangular GNF has a nonzero net spin, resembling an artificial ferrimagnetic atom, with the spin value scaling with its linear size. In general, the principle of topological frustration can be used to introduce large net spin and interesting spin distributions in graphene. These results suggest an avenue to nanoscale spintronics through the sculpting of graphene fragments.
Brownian motion of spins; generalized spin Langevin equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayannavar, A.M.
1990-03-01
We derive the Langevin equations for a spin interacting with a heat bath, starting from a fully dynamical treatment. The obtained equations are non-Markovian with multiplicative fluctuations and concomitant dissipative terms obeying the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In the Markovian limit our equations reduce to the phenomenological equations proposed by Kubo and Hashitsume. The perturbative treatment on our equations lead to Landau-Lifshitz equations and to other known results in the literature. (author). 16 refs
Quantum Spin Lenses in Atomic Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. W. Glaetzle
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We propose and discuss quantum spin lenses, where quantum states of delocalized spin excitations in an atomic medium are focused in space in a coherent quantum process down to (essentially single atoms. These can be employed to create controlled interactions in a quantum light-matter interface, where photonic qubits stored in an atomic ensemble are mapped to a quantum register represented by single atoms. We propose Hamiltonians for quantum spin lenses as inhomogeneous spin models on lattices, which can be realized with Rydberg atoms in 1D, 2D, and 3D, and with strings of trapped ions. We discuss both linear and nonlinear quantum spin lenses: in a nonlinear lens, repulsive spin-spin interactions lead to focusing dynamics conditional to the number of spin excitations. This allows the mapping of quantum superpositions of delocalized spin excitations to superpositions of spatial spin patterns, which can be addressed by light fields and manipulated. Finally, we propose multifocal quantum spin lenses as a way to generate and distribute entanglement between distant atoms in an atomic lattice array.
Majorana spin in magnetic atomic chain systems
Li, Jian; Jeon, Sangjun; Xie, Yonglong; Yazdani, Ali; Bernevig, B. Andrei
2018-03-01
In this paper, we establish that Majorana zero modes emerging from a topological band structure of a chain of magnetic atoms embedded in a superconductor can be distinguished from trivial localized zero energy states that may accidentally form in this system using spin-resolved measurements. To demonstrate this key Majorana diagnostics, we study the spin composition of magnetic impurity induced in-gap Shiba states in a superconductor using a hybrid model. By examining the spin and spectral densities in the context of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) particle-hole symmetry, we derive a sum rule that relates the spin densities of localized Shiba states with those in the normal state without superconductivity. Extending our investigations to a ferromagnetic chain of magnetic impurities, we identify key features of the spin properties of the extended Shiba state bands, as well as those associated with a localized Majorana end mode when the effect of spin-orbit interaction is included. We then formulate a phenomenological theory for the measurement of the local spin densities with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques. By combining the calculated spin densities and the measurement theory, we show that spin-polarized STM measurements can reveal a sharp contrast in spin polarization between an accidental-zero-energy trivial Shiba state and a Majorana zero mode in a topological superconducting phase in atomic chains. We further confirm our results with numerical simulations that address generic parameter settings.
OPTICS. Quantum spin Hall effect of light.
Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Smirnova, Daria; Nori, Franco
2015-06-26
Maxwell's equations, formulated 150 years ago, ultimately describe properties of light, from classical electromagnetism to quantum and relativistic aspects. The latter ones result in remarkable geometric and topological phenomena related to the spin-1 massless nature of photons. By analyzing fundamental spin properties of Maxwell waves, we show that free-space light exhibits an intrinsic quantum spin Hall effect—surface modes with strong spin-momentum locking. These modes are evanescent waves that form, for example, surface plasmon-polaritons at vacuum-metal interfaces. Our findings illuminate the unusual transverse spin in evanescent waves and explain recent experiments that have demonstrated the transverse spin-direction locking in the excitation of surface optical modes. This deepens our understanding of Maxwell's theory, reveals analogies with topological insulators for electrons, and offers applications for robust spin-directional optical interfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Charge and spin transport in mesoscopic superconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. J. Wolf
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Background: Non-equilibrium charge transport in superconductors has been investigated intensely in the 1970s and 1980s, mostly in the vicinity of the critical temperature. Much less attention has been paid to low temperatures and the role of the quasiparticle spin.Results: We report here on nonlocal transport in superconductor hybrid structures at very low temperatures. By comparing the nonlocal conductance obtained by using ferromagnetic and normal-metal detectors, we discriminate charge and spin degrees of freedom. We observe spin injection and long-range transport of pure, chargeless spin currents in the regime of large Zeeman splitting. We elucidate charge and spin transport by comparison to theoretical models.Conclusion: The observed long-range chargeless spin transport opens a new path to manipulate and utilize the quasiparticle spin in superconductor nanostructures.
Thermal imaging of spin Peltier effect
Daimon, Shunsuke; Iguchi, Ryo; Hioki, Tomosato; Saitoh, Eiji; Uchida, Ken-Ichi
2016-12-01
The Peltier effect modulates the temperature of a junction comprising two different conductors in response to charge currents across the junction, which is used in solid-state heat pumps and temperature controllers in electronics. Recently, in spintronics, a spin counterpart of the Peltier effect was observed. The `spin Peltier effect' modulates the temperature of a magnetic junction in response to spin currents. Here we report thermal imaging of the spin Peltier effect; using active thermography technique, we visualize the temperature modulation induced by spin currents injected into a magnetic insulator from an adjacent metal. The thermal images reveal characteristic distribution of spin-current-induced heat sources, resulting in the temperature change confined only in the vicinity of the metal/insulator interface. This finding allows us to estimate the actual magnitude of the temperature modulation induced by the spin Peltier effect, which is more than one order of magnitude greater than previously believed.
Spin and radiation in intense laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walser, M.W.; Urbach, D.J.; Hatsagortsyan, K.Z.; Hu, S.X.; Keitel, C.H.
2002-01-01
The spin dynamics and its reaction on the particle motion are investigated for free and bound electrons in intense linearly polarized laser fields. Employing both classical and quantum treatments we analytically evaluate the spin oscillation of free electrons in intense laser fields and indicate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the motion of the electron. In Mott scattering an estimation for the spin oscillation is derived. In intense laser ion dynamics spin signatures are studied in detail with emphasis on high-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime. First- and second-order calculations in the ratio of electron velocity and the speed of light show spin signatures in the radiation spectrum and spin-orbit effects in the electron polarization
High spin isomer beam line at RIKEN
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kishida, T.; Ideguchi, E.; Wu, H.Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan)] [and others
1996-12-31
Nuclear high spin states have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical studies. For the production of high spin states, fusion reactions are usually used. The orbital angular momentum brought in the reaction is changed into the nuclear spin of the compound nucleus. However, the maximum induced angular momentum is limited in this mechanism by the maximum impact parameter of the fusion reaction and by the competition with fission reactions. It is, therefore, difficult to populate very high spin states, and as a result, large {gamma}-detector arrays have been developed in order to detect subtle signals from such very high spin states. The use of high spin isomers in the fusion reactions can break this limitation because the high spin isomers have their intrinsic angular momentum, which can bring the additional angular momentum without increasing the excitation energy. There are two methods to use the high spin isomers for secondary reactions: the use of the high spin isomers as a target and that as a beam. A high spin isomer target has already been developed and used for several experiments. But this method has an inevitable shortcoming that only {open_quotes}long-lived{close_quotes} isomers can be used for a target: {sup 178}Hf{sup m2} (16{sup +}) with a half-life of 31 years in the present case. By developing a high spin isomer beam, the authors can utilize various short-lived isomers with a short half-life around 1 {mu}s. The high spin isomer beam line of RIKEN Accelerator Facility is a unique apparatus in the world which provides a high spin isomer as a secondary beam. The combination of fusion-evaporation reaction and inverse kinematics are used to produce high spin isomer beams; in particular, the adoption of `inverse kinematics` is essential to use short-lived isomers as a beam.
Controllability of symmetric spin networks
Albertini, Francesca; D'Alessandro, Domenico
2018-05-01
We consider a network of n spin 1/2 systems which are pairwise interacting via Ising interaction and are controlled by the same electro-magnetic control field. Such a system presents symmetries since the Hamiltonian is unchanged if we permute two spins. This prevents full (operator) controllability, in that not every unitary evolution can be obtained. We prove however that controllability is verified if we restrict ourselves to unitary evolutions which preserve the above permutation invariance. For low dimensional cases, n = 2 and n = 3, we provide an analysis of the Lie group of available evolutions and give explicit control laws to transfer between two arbitrary permutation invariant states. This class of states includes highly entangled states such as Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and W states, which are of interest in quantum information.
Electromagnetic deflection of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1992-01-01
It is shown that it is possible to obtain self-consistent and physically acceptable relativistic classical equations of motion for a point-like spin-half particle possessing an electric charge and magnetic dipole moment, directly from a manifestly covariant Lagrangian, if the classical degrees of freedom are appropriately chosen. The equations obtained encompass the well-tested Lorentz force and Thomas-Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi spin equations, as well as providing a definite specification of the classical magnetic dipole force, whose exact form has been the subject of recent debate. Radiation reaction - the force and torque on an accelerated particle due to its self-interaction - is neglected at this stage. 18 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Close, F.E.
1993-06-01
When the new data on polarised lepton nucleon scattering are compared at the same value of Q{sup 2} and with a common set of assumptions, a consistent picture of the spin content of the nucleon begins to emerge. Higher order effects in O({alpha}{sub s}), higher twist effects, modern data on unpolarised structure functions and an updated value for F/D are all important in analysing the data. The detailed x dependences of the polarisation asymmetry in the valence quark region are shown to confirm 20 year old predictions of the quark model and I argue that these are an important ingredient in decoding the nucleon spin puzzle. (author).
Spinning superfluid 4He nanodroplets
Ancilotto, Francesco; Barranco, Manuel; Pi, Martí
2018-05-01
We have studied spinning superfluid 4He nanodroplets at zero temperature using density functional theory. Due to the irrotational character of the superfluid flow, the shapes of the spinning nanodroplets are very different from those of a viscous normal fluid drop in steady rotation. We show that when vortices are nucleated inside the superfluid droplets, their morphology, which evolves from axisymmetric oblate to triaxial prolate to two-lobed shapes, is in good agreement with experiments. The presence of vortex arrays confers to the superfluid droplets the rigid-body behavior of a normal fluid in steady rotation, and this is the ultimate reason for the surprising good agreement between recent experiments and the classical models used for their description.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mackey, K.; Zoarski, G.; Bentson, J.R.; Lufkin, R.B.; Melki, P.; Jolesz, F.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on a partial radio-frequency (RF) echo-planar pulse sequence called contiguous slice fast spin echo (CSFSE) which is undergoing clinical trials for spine MR imaging. In this variation of rapid acquisition relaxation enhanced (RARE) spin-echo imaging, rapid 180 degrees RF pulse generated refocused echoes, producing T2-weighted images in about one-third the time of conventional double-echo technique. Forty patients with suspected pathology of the spine were imaged with conventional double-echo and closely matched CSFSE techniques on a GE Signa 1.5-T Advantage system. Cases were reviewed by two board-certified neuroradiologists. In all cases the CSFSE images were of equal or superior quality compared with those obtained with the conventional double-echo technique. Pathologic processes that were imaged consisted of inflammatory, neoplastic, posttraumatic, and degenerative conditions
Spin chains and string theory.
Kruczenski, Martin
2004-10-15
Recently, an important test of the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence has been done using rotating strings with two angular momenta. We show that such a test can be described more generally as the agreement between two actions: one a low energy description of a spin chain appearing in the field theory side, and the other a limit of the string action in AdS5xS5. This gives a map between the mean value of the spin in the boundary theory and the position of the string in the bulk, and shows how a string action can emerge from a gauge theory in the large-N limit.
Nuclear spin polarization of targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Happer, W.
1990-01-01
Lasers can be used to produce milligrams to grams of noble gas nuclei with spin polarizations in excess of 50%. These quantities are sufficient to be very useful targets in nuclear physics experiments. Alkali-metal atoms are used to capture the angular momentum of circularly polarized laser photons, and the alkali-metal atoms transfer their angular momentum to noble gas atoms in binary or three-body collisions. Non-radiative collisions between the excited alkali atoms and molecular quenching gases are essential to avoid radiation trapping. The spin exchange can involve gas-phase van der Waals molecules, consisting of a noble gas atom and an alkali metal atom. Surface chemistry is also of great importance in determining the wall-induced relaxation rates of the noble gases
Efficient micromagnetic modelling of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque
Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Suess, Dieter
2018-05-01
While the spin-diffusion model is considered one of the most complete and accurate tools for the description of spin transport and spin torque, its solution in the context of dynamical micromagnetic simulations is numerically expensive. We propose a procedure to retrieve the free parameters of a simple macro-spin like spin-torque model through the spin-diffusion model. In case of spin-transfer torque the simplified model complies with the model of Slonczewski. A similar model can be established for the description of spin-orbit torque. In both cases the spin-diffusion model enables the retrieval of free model parameters from the geometry and the material parameters of the system. Since these parameters usually have to be determined phenomenologically through experiments, the proposed method combines the strength of the diffusion model to resolve material parameters and geometry with the high performance of simple torque models.
Realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ling, Xiaohui [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Laboratory for spin photonics, College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421002 (China); Yi, Xunong [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zhou, Xinxing; Liu, Yachao; Shu, Weixing; Wen, Shuangchun [Laboratory for spin photonics, College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Hailu, E-mail: hailuluo@hnu.edu.cn [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Laboratory for spin photonics, College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)
2014-10-13
We report the realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect. By breaking the rotational symmetry of a cylindrical vector beam, the intrinsic vortex phases that the two spin components of the vector beam carries, which is similar to the geometric Pancharatnam-Berry phase, are no longer continuous in the azimuthal direction, and leads to observation of spin accumulation at the opposite edge of the beam. Due to the inherent nature of the phase and independency of light-matter interaction, the observed photonic spin Hall effect is intrinsic. Modulating the topological charge of the vector beam, the spin-dependent splitting can be enhanced and the direction of spin accumulation is switchable. Our findings may provide a possible route for generation and manipulation of spin-polarized photons, and enables spin-based photonics applications.
Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.
2007-05-01
The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.
Muon spin rotation in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gladisch, M.; Orth, H.; Putlitz, G. zu; Wahl, W.; Wigand, M.; Herlach, D.; Seeger, A.; Metz, H.; Teichler, H.
1979-01-01
By means of the muon spin rotation technique (μ + SR), the temperature dependence of the magnetic field inside the normal-conducting domains of high-purity tantalum crystals in the intermediate state has been measured in the temperature range 2.36 K + SR. Possible applications of these findings to the study of long-range diffusion of positive muons at low temperatures are indicated. (Auth.)
Variational formalism for spin particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvathy, P.
1977-11-01
The geometrical formulation of Hamilton's principle presented in a previous paper has been related to the usual one in terms of Lagrangian functions. The exact conditions for their equivalence are obtained and a method is given for the construction of a Lagrangian function. The formalism is extended to spin particles and a local Lagrangian is constructed in this case, too. However, this function cannot be extended to a global one. (D.P.)
Violent collisions of spinning protons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krisch, A.D. [Michigan Univ., Spin Physics Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2005-07-01
The author draws the history of polarized proton beams that has relied on experiments that took place in different accelerators like ZGS (zero gradient synchrotron, Argonne), AGS (Brookhaven) and Fermilab from 1973 till today. The first studies of the behavior and spin-manipulation of polarized protons helped in developing polarized beams around the world: Brookhaven now has 200 GeV polarized protons in the RHIC collider, perhaps someday the 7 TeV LHC at CERN might have polarized protons.
Spin networks and quantum computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kauffman, L.; Lomonaco, S. Jr.
2008-01-01
We review the q-deformed spin network approach to Topological Quantum Field Theory and apply these methods to produce unitary representations of the braid groups that are dense in the unitary groups. The simplest case of these models is the Fibonacci model, itself universal for quantum computation. We here formulate these braid group representations in a form suitable for computation and algebraic work. (authors)
Spin physics at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkert, V.
1986-01-01
In this session a total of 25 contributed papers were presented studying a broad range of spin effects in nucleons and nuclei using electromagnetic (electrons and photons) and hadronic (pions and nucleons) probes. The status of the theory was characterized by its almost total absence. Only one theoretical contribution was presented at this session. Those experiments examining electromagnetic-, electroweak- and weak-strong interactions were emphasized
Spin precession and spin Hall effect in monolayer graphene/Pt nanostructures
Savero Torres, W.; Sierra, J. F.; Benítez, L. A.; Bonell, F.; Costache, M. V.; Valenzuela, S. O.
2017-12-01
Spin Hall effects have surged as promising phenomena for spin logics operations without ferromagnets. However, the magnitude of the detected electric signals at room temperature in metallic systems has been so far underwhelming. Here, we demonstrate a two-order of magnitude enhancement of the signal in monolayer graphene/Pt devices when compared to their fully metallic counterparts. The enhancement stems in part from efficient spin injection and the large spin resistance of graphene but we also observe 100% spin absorption in Pt and find an unusually large effective spin Hall angle of up to 0.15. The large spin-to-charge conversion allows us to characterise spin precession in graphene under the presence of a magnetic field. Furthermore, by developing an analytical model based on the 1D diffusive spin-transport, we demonstrate that the effective spin-relaxation time in graphene can be accurately determined using the (inverse) spin Hall effect as a means of detection. This is a necessary step to gather full understanding of the consequences of spin absorption in spin Hall devices, which is known to suppress effective spin lifetimes in both metallic and graphene systems.
Spin-independent transparency of pure spin current at normal/ferromagnetic metal interface
Hao, Runrun; Zhong, Hai; Kang, Yun; Tian, Yufei; Yan, Shishen; Liu, Guolei; Han, Guangbing; Yu, Shuyun; Mei, Liangmo; Kang, Shishou
2018-03-01
The spin transparency at the normal/ferromagnetic metal (NM/FM) interface was studied in Pt/YIG/Cu/FM multilayers. The spin current generated by the spin Hall effect (SHE) in Pt flows into Cu/FM due to magnetic insulator YIG blocking charge current and transmitting spin current via the magnon current. Therefore, the nonlocal voltage induced by an inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in FM can be detected. With the magnetization of FM parallel or antiparallel to the spin polarization of pure spin currents ({{\\boldsymbol{σ }}}sc}), the spin-independent nonlocal voltage is induced. This indicates that the spin transparency at the Cu/FM interface is spin-independent, which demonstrates that the influence of spin-dependent electrochemical potential due to spin accumulation on the interfacial spin transparency is negligible. Furthermore, a larger spin Hall angle of Fe20Ni80 (Py) than that of Ni is obtained from the nonlocal voltage measurements. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2015CB921502), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474184 and 11627805), the 111 Project, China (Grant No. B13029), and the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University, China.
Electron spin from self interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spavieri, G.
1992-01-01
The author explores the possibility that the electron self-interaction is the origin of the spin and of the radiative effects of QED. The electron is conceived as a charged, massless, point particle with a quantum or stochastic, internal motion about its center of mass and bound by a self-interaction potential. The hydrodynamic equations of motion describing the electron in its center of mass frame are related to non-Markovian stochastic equations recently used to derive the Schroedinger equation. By averaging over this stochastic internal motion and identifying the energy with the rest mass energy, the angular momentum exhibits properties characteristic of spin. The electromagnetic self-interactions added to the Hamiltonian of the particle correct the g factor to yield the anomalous value (g-2)/2 ∼ 1159.7(2.3) X 10 -6 in agreement with experiment. Calculations of other open-quotes radiativeclose quotes effects including the Lamb shift are presented. The results obtained are finite and suggest that the QED corrections attributed to radiative effects could be obtained classically, i.e., without second quantization and renormalization, by complementing the Dirac theory with this self-interaction mechanism. The g factor dependence on the external magnetic field of this and other spin models is compared with that of QED, showing that these theories can be tested by the present precision measurements of the g factor. 33 refs., 2 tabs
Generalized spins and yours applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melnikoff, M.
1978-01-01
The correlation between the colinear SU(6) sub(W,STRONG) group, of classification, builded by Melosh in 1974 inside th Null-Plane formalism, and the static SU(6) group classical of classification of the Flat-Plane formalism which is a chiral SU(6) x SU(6) algebra sub-group of Feynman-Gell-Mann-Zweig, is analized. It is shown that is possible to define the 'static limit', in the weak sense, for the SU(6) sub(W,STRONG). Furthermore, rotational symmetries of the Hamiltonian H=α vector. p vector + mβ + ω(x) (1+β) + Ω(x)α vector. x vector are wanted. It is possible to define, in the Flat-Plane formalism a conserved spin but that dont't one relate with the canonical spin by no unitary transformations. The generalized operator of total angular momentum which is conserved, in the Null-Plane formalism in its 'non-orthogonal' version, is found. A generalized spin, conserved, obtained by a exact Melosh transformation appropriate for the case is also found [pt
Electrodynamics of quantum spin liquids
Dressel, Martin; Pustogow, Andrej
2018-05-01
Quantum spin liquids attract great interest due to their exceptional magnetic properties characterized by the absence of long-range order down to low temperatures despite the strong magnetic interaction. Commonly, these compounds are strongly correlated electron systems, and their electrodynamic response is governed by the Mott gap in the excitation spectrum. Here we summarize and discuss the optical properties of several two-dimensional quantum spin liquid candidates. First we consider the inorganic material herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 and related compounds, which crystallize in a kagome lattice. Then we turn to the organic compounds -EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2]2, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Ag2(CN)3 and κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3, where the spins are arranged in an almost perfect triangular lattice, leading to strong frustration. Due to differences in bandwidth, the effective correlation strength varies over a wide range, leading to a rather distinct behavior as far as the electrodynamic properties are concerned. We discuss the spinon contributions to the optical conductivity in comparison to metallic quantum fluctuations in the vicinity of the Mott transition.
Maurand, R.; Jehl, X.; Kotekar-Patil, D.; Corna, A.; Bohuslavskyi, H.; Laviéville, R.; Hutin, L.; Barraud, S.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; de Franceschi, S.
2016-11-01
Silicon, the main constituent of microprocessor chips, is emerging as a promising material for the realization of future quantum processors. Leveraging its well-established complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology would be a clear asset to the development of scalable quantum computing architectures and to their co-integration with classical control hardware. Here we report a silicon quantum bit (qubit) device made with an industry-standard fabrication process. The device consists of a two-gate, p-type transistor with an undoped channel. At low temperature, the first gate defines a quantum dot encoding a hole spin qubit, the second one a quantum dot used for the qubit read-out. All electrical, two-axis control of the spin qubit is achieved by applying a phase-tunable microwave modulation to the first gate. The demonstrated qubit functionality in a basic transistor-like device constitutes a promising step towards the elaboration of scalable spin qubit geometries in a readily exploitable CMOS platform.
Local spin valve effect in lateral (Ga,MnAs/GaAs spin Esaki diode devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ciorga
2011-06-01
Full Text Available We report here on a local spin valve effect observed unambiguously in lateral all-semiconductor all-electrical spin injection devices, employing p+ −(Ga,MnAs/n+ −GaAs Esaki diode structures as spin aligning contacts. We discuss the observed local spin-valve signal as a result of the interplay between spin-transport-related contribution and the tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance of the magnetic contacts. The magnitude of the spin-related magnetoresistance change is equal to 30 Ω which is twice the magnitude of the measured non-local signal.
Spin torque on the surface of graphene in the presence of spin orbit splitting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Chen
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We study theoretically the spin transfer torque of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to (deposited onto a graphene surface in the presence of the Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC. We show that the RSOC induces an effective magnetic field, which will result in the spin precession of conduction electrons. We derive correspondingly the generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation, which describes the precessional motion of local magnetization under the influence of the spin orbit effect. Our theoretical estimate indicates that the spin orbit spin torque may have significant effect on the magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic layer coupled to the graphene surface.
Spin Drag and Spin-Charge Separation in Cold Fermi Gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polini, Marco; Vignale, Giovanni
2007-01-01
Low-energy spin and charge excitations of one-dimensional interacting fermions are completely decoupled and propagate with different velocities. These modes, however, can decay due to several possible mechanisms. In this Letter we expose a new facet of spin-charge separation: not only the speeds but also the damping rates of spin and charge excitations are different. While the propagation of long-wavelength charge excitations is essentially ballistic, spin propagation is intrinsically damped and diffusive. We suggest that cold Fermi gases trapped inside a tight atomic waveguide offer the opportunity to measure the spin-drag relaxation rate that controls the broadening of a spin packet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, C.M.; Pang, M.Q.; Liu, S.Y.; Lei, X.L.
2010-01-01
The current-induced spin polarization (CISP) is investigated in a combined Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gas, subjected to a homogeneous out-of-plane magnetization. It is found that, in addition to the usual collision-related in-plane parts of CISP, there are two impurity-density-free contributions, arising from intrinsic and disorder-mediated mechanisms. The intrinsic parts of spin polarization are related to the Berry curvature, analogous with the anomalous and spin Hall effects. For short-range collision, the disorder-mediated spin polarizations completely cancel the intrinsic ones and the total in-plane components of CISP equal those for systems without magnetization. However, for remote disorders, this cancellation does not occur and the total in-plane components of CISP strongly depend on the spin-orbit interaction coefficients and magnetization for both pure Rashba and combined Rashba-Dresselhaus models.
Boekema, C.; Brabers, V.A.M.; Lichti, R.L.; Denison, A.B.; Cooke, D.W.; Heffner, R.H.; Hutson, R.L.; Schillaci, M.E.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Dodds, S.A.
1986-01-01
Zero-field longitudinal muon-spin-relaxation (µSR) experiments have been performed on single crystals of pseudo-brookite (Fe2-xTil+x O 5; x=0.25), an anisotropic spin-glass system. The spinglass temperature (Tg) is determined to be 44.0±0.5K. Above Tg, a distinct exponential muon-spin-relaxation
The kinematic differences between off-spin and leg-spin bowling in cricket.
Beach, Aaron J; Ferdinands, René E D; Sinclair, Peter J
2016-09-01
Spin bowling is generally coached using a standard technical framework, but this practice has not been based upon a comparative biomechanical analysis of leg-spin and off-spin bowling. This study analysed the three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of 23 off-spin and 20 leg-spin bowlers using a Cortex motion analysis system to identify how aspects of the respective techniques differed. A multivariate ANOVA found that certain data tended to validate some of the stated differences in the coaching literature. Off-spin bowlers had a significantly shorter stride length (p = 0.006) and spin rate (p = 0.001), but a greater release height than leg-spinners (p = 0.007). In addition, a number of other kinematic differences were identified that were not previously documented in coaching literature. These included a larger rear knee flexion (p = 0.007), faster approach speed (p < 0.001), and flexing elbow action during the arm acceleration compared with an extension action used by most of the off-spin bowlers. Off-spin and leg-spin bowlers also deviated from the standard coaching model for the shoulder alignment, front knee angle at release, and forearm mechanics. This study suggests that off-spin and leg-spin are distinct bowling techniques, supporting the development of two different coaching models in spin bowling.
Quantum dynamics of nuclear spins and spin relaxation in organic semiconductors
Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Dobrovitski, V. V.
2017-06-01
We investigate the role of the nuclear-spin quantum dynamics in hyperfine-induced spin relaxation of hopping carriers in organic semiconductors. The fast-hopping regime, when the carrier spin does not rotate much between subsequent hops, is typical for organic semiconductors possessing long spin coherence times. We consider this regime and focus on a carrier random-walk diffusion in one dimension, where the effect of the nuclear-spin dynamics is expected to be the strongest. Exact numerical simulations of spin systems with up to 25 nuclear spins are performed using the Suzuki-Trotter decomposition of the evolution operator. Larger nuclear-spin systems are modeled utilizing the spin-coherent state P -representation approach developed earlier. We find that the nuclear-spin dynamics strongly influences the carrier spin relaxation at long times. If the random walk is restricted to a small area, it leads to the quenching of carrier spin polarization at a nonzero value at long times. If the random walk is unrestricted, the carrier spin polarization acquires a long-time tail, decaying as 1 /√{t } . Based on the numerical results, we devise a simple formula describing the effect quantitatively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamanaka, Shusuke; Takeda, Ryo; Nakata, Kazuto; Takada, Toshikazu; Shoji, Mitsuo; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Kizashi
2007-01-01
We present a simple quantum correction scheme for ab initio Kohn-Sham spin density functional theory (KS-SDFT). This scheme is based on a mapping from ab initio results to a Heisenberg model Hamiltonian. The effective exchange integral is estimated by using energies and spin correlation functionals calculated by ab initio KS-SDFT. The quantum-corrected spin-correlation functional is open to be designed to cover specific quantum spin fluctuations. In this article, we present a simple correction for dinuclear compounds having multiple bonds. The computational results are discussed in relation to multireference (MR) DFT, by which we treat the quantum many-body effects explicitly
Muon spin-relaxation measurements of spin-correlation decay in spin-glass AgMn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heffner, R.H.; Cooke, D.W.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Gupta, L.C.
1983-01-01
The field (H) dependence of the muon longitudinal spin-lattice relaxation rate well below the spin-glass temperature in AgMn is found to obey an algebraic form given by (H)/sup nu-1/, with nu = 0.54 +- 0.05. This suggests that Mn spin correlations decay with time as t - /sup nu/, in agreement with mean field theories of spin-glass dynamics which yield nu less than or equal to 0.5. Near the glass temperature the agreement between the data and theory is not as good
Low spin models for higher-spin Lagrangians
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Francia, Dario
2011-01-01
Roč. 2011, č. 188 (2011), s. 94-105 ISSN 0375-9687. [International Conference on String Field Theory and Related Aspects (SFT2010). Kyoto, 18.10.2010-22.10.2010] Grant - others:EUROHORC and ESF(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : higher spin theories * Maxwell's equations * open string theory Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.063, year: 2011 http://ptp.ipap.jp/link?PTPS/188/94/
Spinning relativistic particles in external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomeranskii, Andrei A; Sen'kov, Roman A; Khriplovich, Iosif B
2000-01-01
The motion of spinning relativistic particles in external electromagnetic and gravitational fields is considered. The self-consistent equations of motion are built with the noncovariant description of spin and with the usual, 'naive' definition of the coordinate of a relativistic particle. A simple derivation of the gravitational interaction of first order in spin is presented for a relativistic particle. The approach developed allows one to consider effects of higher order in spin. Concrete calculations are performed for the second order. The gravimagnetic moment is discussed, a special spin effect in general relativity. We also consider the contributions of the spin interactions of first and second order to the gravitational radiation of compact binary stars. (from the current literature)
Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.
Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J
2015-07-31
We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.
Theory of electron spin echoes in solids
Asadullina, N Y; Asadullin, Y Y
2002-01-01
We propose modified Bloch equations (MBEs) with specific power-dependent relaxation and dispersion parameters characteristic for two-pulse excitation and when the magnetic dipole-dipole interactions in the electron spin system control the dephasing. We discriminate between the 'active' (excited by both pulses) and 'passive' (excited by the second pulse only) spins: it is shown that the 'active' spins participate in a new effect, an active spin frequency modulation effect giving rise to the power-dependent dispersion and multiple electron spin echoes (ESEs); the 'passive' spins contribute to the power-dependent relaxation. The MBEs are solved and a general expression for the two-pulse ESEs is obtained. Detailed numerical analysis of this expression gives results in good quantitative agreement with the recent experiments on the two-pulse ESEs at conventional low applied fields. The developed theory is applied also to high field ESEs, which are promising for future investigations. On the basis of published resul...
Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon
Samkharadze, N.; Zheng, G.; Kalhor, N.; Brousse, D.; Sammak, A.; Mendes, U. C.; Blais, A.; Scappucci, G.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.
2018-03-01
Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot–based spin qubit registers.
Cross relaxation in nitroxide spin labels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marsh, Derek
2016-01-01
Cross relaxation, and mI-dependence of the intrinsic electron spin-lattice relaxation rate We, are incorporated explicitly into the rate equations for the electron-spin population differences that govern the saturation behaviour of 14N- and 15N-nitroxide spin labels. Both prove important in spin......-label EPR and ELDOR, particularly for saturation recovery studies. Neither for saturation recovery, nor for CW-saturation EPR and CW-ELDOR, can cross relaxation be described simply by increasing the value of We, the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate. Independence of the saturation recovery rates from...... the hyperfine line pumped or observed follows directly from solution of the rate equations including cross relaxation, even when the intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation rate We is mI-dependent....
Controlling a nuclear spin in a nanodiamond
Knowles, Helena S.; Kara, Dhiren M.; Atatüre, Mete
2017-09-01
The sensing capability of a single optically bright electronic spin in diamond can be enhanced by making use of proximal dark nuclei as ancillary spins. Such systems, so far realized only in bulk diamond, can provide orders of magnitude higher sensitivity and spectral resolution in the case of magnetic sensing, as well as improved readout fidelity and state storage time in quantum information schemes. Nanodiamonds offer opportunities for scanning and embedded nanoscale probes, yet electronic-nuclear spin complexes have so far remained inaccessible. Here, we demonstrate coherent control of a 13C nuclear spin located 4 Å from a nitrogen-vacancy center in a nanodiamond and show coherent exchange between the two components of this hybrid spin system. We extract a free precession time T2* of 26 μ s for the nuclear spin, which exceeds the bare-electron free-precession time in nanodiamond by two orders of magnitude.
Heat-driven spin torques in antiferromagnets
Białek, Marcin; Bréchet, Sylvain; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
2018-04-01
Heat-driven magnetization damping, which is a linear function of a temperature gradient, is predicted in antiferromagnets by considering the sublattice dynamics subjected to a heat-driven spin torque. This points to the possibility of achieving spin torque oscillator behavior. The model is based on the magnetic Seebeck effect acting on sublattices which are exchange coupled. The heat-driven spin torque is estimated and the feasibility of detecting this effect is discussed.
Spin effects in perturbative quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.
1980-12-01
The spin dependence of large momentum transfer exclusive and inclusive reactions can be used to test the gluon spin and other basic elements of QCD. In particular, exclusive processes including hadronic decays of heavy quark resonances have the potential of isolating QCD hard scattering subprocesses in situations where the helicities of all the interacting constituents are controlled. The predictions can be summarized in terms of QCD spin selection rules. The calculation of magnetic moment and other hadronic properties in QCD are mentioned
Prospects for spin physics at RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinett, R.W.; Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA
1995-06-01
The proposal to perform polarized proton-proton collisions at collider energies at RHIC is reviewed. After a brief reminder of the desirability of high energy spin physics measurements, we discuss the machine parameters and detector features which are taken to define a program of spin physics at RHIC. Some of the many physics processes which can provide information on polarized parton distributions and the spin-dependence of QCD and the electroweak model at RHIC energies are discussed
Spin-drift transport in semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miah, M Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)
2008-02-07
We present a study on spin transport in semiconductors under applied electric fields. Our experiments detect photoinjected electron spins and their relaxation during drift transport in intrinsic and moderately n-doped GaAs, based on the extraordinary Hall (eH) effect. For relatively low electric field (E), the optically spin-induced eH effect in n-doped GaAs is found to be enhanced with increasing doping density and not to depend much on E, indicating that a substantial amount of optical spin polarization is preserved during the drift transport in these extrinsic semiconductors. However, when the spin-oriented electrons are injected with a high E, a very significant decrease is observed in the eH voltage (V{sub eH}) due to an increase in the spin precession frequency of the hot electrons. Spin relaxation by the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is calculated, and is suggested to be the reason for such a rapid spin relaxation for hot electrons under a high E. However, in an intrinsic GaAs (i-GaAs), a much weaker V{sub eH} is observed and, as the electron spins scattered by holes due to the Coulomb interaction in i-GaAs, the spin relaxation by the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism is considered. Skew scattering and side jump as possible mechanisms of the optically spin-induced transverse Hall currents are discussed. Based on a spin drift-diffusion model, drift and diffusion contributions to the V{sub eH} are examined. The results are also discussed in comparison with theoretical investigations.
On higher-spin supertranslations and superrotations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campoleoni, Andrea [Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Francia, Dario; Heissenberg, Carlo [Scuola Normale Superiore and INFN,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)
2017-05-22
We study the large gauge transformations of massless higher-spin fields in four-dimensional Minkowski space. Upon imposing suitable fall-off conditions, providing higher-spin counterparts of the Bondi gauge, we observe the existence of an infinite-dimensional asymptotic symmetry algebra. The corresponding Ward identities can be held responsible for Weinberg’s factorisation theorem for amplitudes involving soft particles of spin greater than two.
Dynamics of Coupled Quantum Spin Chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, H.J.
1996-01-01
Static and dynamical properties of weakly coupled antiferromagnetic spin chains are treated using a mean-field approximation for the interchain coupling and exact results for the resulting effective one-dimensional problem. Results for staggered magnetization, Nacute eel temperature, and spin wave excitations are in agreement with experiments on KCuF 3 . The existence of a narrow longitudinal mode is predicted. The results are in agreement with general scaling arguments, contrary to spin wave theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Long-range interaction between spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naik, P.C.; Pradhan, T.
1981-01-01
It is shown that invariance of Lagrangian field theory under a class of the coordinate-dependent Lorentz group of transformations requires the introduction of a massless axial vector gauge field which gives rise to a super-weak long-range spin-spin force between particles in vacuum. Recent experiments demonstrating repulsion and attraction between circularly polarised laser beams are interpreted to be due to such a force enhanced by spin polarisation of sodium vapour, through which these beams pass. (author)
Spin noise measurement with diamagnetic atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeuchi, M.; Ichihara, S.; Takano, T.; Kumakura, M.; Takahashi, Y.
2007-01-01
We report the measurement of the atomic spin noise of the diamagnetic atom ytterbium (Yb). Yb has various merits for utilizing the quantum nature of the atomic spin ensemble compared with the paramagnetic atoms used in all previous experiments. From the magnitude of the noise level and dependence on the detuning, we concluded that we succeeded in the measurement of 171 Yb atomic spin noise in an atomic beam
Spin wave spectrum of magnetic nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, A.L.; Landeros, P.; Nunez, Alvaro S.
2010-01-01
We investigate the spin wave spectra associated to a vortex domain wall confined within a ferromagnetic nanotube. Basing our study upon a simple model for the energy functional we obtain the dispersion relation, the density of states and dissipation induced life-times of the spin wave excitations in presence of a magnetic domain wall. Our aim is to capture the basics spin wave physics behind the geometrical confinement of nobel magnetic textures.
Chaotic spin exchange: is the spin non-flip rate observable?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Senba, Masayoshi
1994-01-01
If spin exchange is of the Poisson nature, that is, if the time distribution of collisions obeys an exponential distribution function and the collision process is random, the muon spin depolarization is determined only by the spin flip rate regardless of the spin non-flip rate. In this work, spin exchange is discussed in the case of chaotic spin exchange, where the distribution of collision time sequences, generated by a deterministic equation, is exponential but not random (deterministic chaos). Even though this process has the same time distribution as a Poisson process, the muon polarization is affected by the spin non-flip rate. Having an exponential time distribution function is not a sufficient condition for the non-observation of the spin non-flip rate and it is essential that the process is also random. (orig.)
Nuclear spin polarized H and D by means of spin-exchange optical pumping
Stenger, Jörn; Grosshauser, Carsten; Kilian, Wolfgang; Nagengast, Wolfgang; Ranzenberger, Bernd; Rith, Klaus; Schmidt, Frank
1998-01-01
Optically pumped spin-exchange sources for polarized hydrogen and deuterium atoms have been demonstrated to yield high atomic flow and high electron spin polarization. For maximum nuclear polarization the source has to be operated in spin temperature equilibrium, which has already been demonstrated for hydrogen. In spin temperature equilibrium the nuclear spin polarization PI equals the electron spin polarization PS for hydrogen and is even larger than PS for deuterium. We discuss the general properties of spin temperature equilibrium for a sample of deuterium atoms. One result are the equations PI=4PS/(3+PS2) and Pzz=PSṡPI, where Pzz is the nuclear tensor polarization. Furthermore we demonstrate that the deuterium atoms from our source are in spin temperature equilibrium within the experimental accuracy.
Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G
2008-01-01
We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons
Spin-wave propagation and spin-polarized electron transport in single-crystal iron films
Gladii, O.; Halley, D.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M.
2017-11-01
The techniques of propagating spin-wave spectroscopy and current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift are applied to a 20-nm-thick Fe/MgO(001) film. The magnetic parameters extracted from the position of the spin-wave resonance peaks are very close to those tabulated for bulk iron. From the zero-current propagating wave forms, a group velocity of 4 km/s and an attenuation length of about 6 μ m are extracted for 1.6-μ m -wavelength spin wave at 18 GHz. From the measured current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift, we extract a surprisingly high degree of spin polarization of the current of 83 % , which constitutes the main finding of this work. This set of results makes single-crystalline iron a promising candidate for building devices utilizing high-frequency spin waves and spin-polarized currents.
Spin-orbit-coupled transport and spin torque in a ferromagnetic heterostructure
Wang, Xuhui; Ortiz Pauyac, Christian; Manchon, Aurelien
2014-01-01
Ferromagnetic heterostructures provide an ideal platform to explore the nature of spin-orbit torques arising from the interplay mediated by itinerant electrons between a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. For such a prototypic system, we develop a set of coupled diffusion equations to describe the diffusive spin dynamics and spin-orbit torques. We characterize the spin torque and its two prominent—out-of-plane and in-plane—components for a wide range of relative strength between the Rashba coupling and ferromagnetic exchange. The symmetry and angular dependence of the spin torque emerging from our simple Rashba model is in an agreement with experiments. The spin diffusion equation can be generalized to incorporate dynamic effects such as spin pumping and magnetic damping.
Spin-orbit-coupled transport and spin torque in a ferromagnetic heterostructure
Wang, Xuhui
2014-02-07
Ferromagnetic heterostructures provide an ideal platform to explore the nature of spin-orbit torques arising from the interplay mediated by itinerant electrons between a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. For such a prototypic system, we develop a set of coupled diffusion equations to describe the diffusive spin dynamics and spin-orbit torques. We characterize the spin torque and its two prominent—out-of-plane and in-plane—components for a wide range of relative strength between the Rashba coupling and ferromagnetic exchange. The symmetry and angular dependence of the spin torque emerging from our simple Rashba model is in an agreement with experiments. The spin diffusion equation can be generalized to incorporate dynamic effects such as spin pumping and magnetic damping.
Spin-orbit-induced spin splittings in polar transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers
Cheng, Yingchun; Zhu, Zhiyong; Tahir, Muhammad; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
. We present ab initio electronic structure, phonon, and molecular-dynamics calculations to study the structural stability and spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers MXY (M = Mo, W and X, Y = S, Se, Te
Electronic Spin Storage in an Electrically Readable Nuclear Spin Memory with a Lifetime >100 Seconds
McCamey, D. R.; Van Tol, J.; Morley, G. W.; Boehme, C.
2010-12-01
Electron spins are strong candidates with which to implement spintronics because they are both mobile and able to be manipulated. The relatively short lifetimes of electron spins, however, present a problem for the long-term storage of spin information. We demonstrated an ensemble nuclear spin memory in phosphorous-doped silicon, which can be read out electrically and has a lifetime exceeding 100 seconds. The electronic spin information can be mapped onto and stored in the nuclear spin of the phosphorus donors, and the nuclear spins can then be repetitively read out electrically for time periods that exceed the electron spin lifetime. We discuss how this memory can be used in conjunction with other silicon spintronic devices.
Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling.
Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G
2008-03-19
We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons.
Charge and Spin Transport in Spin-orbit Coupled and Topological Systems
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-01-01
for next-generation technology, three classes of systems that possibly enhance the spin and charge transport efficiency: (i)- topological insulators, (ii)- spin-orbit coupled magnonic systems, (iii)- topological magnetic textures (skyrmions and 3Q magnetic
Nonequilibrium Spin Dynamics in a Trapped Fermi Gas with Effective Spin-Orbit Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanescu, Tudor D.; Zhang Chuanwei; Galitski, Victor
2007-01-01
We consider a trapped atomic system in the presence of spatially varying laser fields. The laser-atom interaction generates a pseudospin degree of freedom (referred to simply as spin) and leads to an effective spin-orbit coupling for the fermions in the trap. Reflections of the fermions from the trap boundaries provide a physical mechanism for effective momentum relaxation and nontrivial spin dynamics due to the emergent spin-orbit coupling. We explicitly consider evolution of an initially spin-polarized Fermi gas in a two-dimensional harmonic trap and derive nonequilibrium behavior of the spin polarization. It shows periodic echoes with a frequency equal to the harmonic trapping frequency. Perturbations, such as an asymmetry of the trap, lead to the suppression of the spin echo amplitudes. We discuss a possible experimental setup to observe spin dynamics and provide numerical estimates of relevant parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tatara, Gen, E-mail: gen.tatara@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Nakabayashi, Noriyuki [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 Japan (Japan)
2014-05-07
Emergent electromagnetic field which couples to electron's spin in ferromagnetic metals is theoretically studied. Rashba spin-orbit interaction induces spin electromagnetic field which is in the linear order in gradient of magnetization texture. The Rashba-induced effective electric and magnetic fields satisfy in the absence of spin relaxation the Maxwell's equations as in the charge-based electromagnetism. When spin relaxation is taken into account besides spin dynamics, a monopole current emerges generating spin motive force via the Faraday's induction law. The monopole is expected to play an important role in spin-charge conversion and in the integration of spintronics into electronics.
Spin-pump-induced spin transport in a thermally evaporated pentacene film
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tani, Yasuo; Shikoh, Eiji, E-mail: shikoh@elec.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Teki, Yoshio [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)
2015-12-14
We report the spin-pump-induced spin transport properties of a pentacene film prepared by thermal evaporation. In a palladium(Pd)/pentacene/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} tri-layer sample, a pure spin-current is generated in the pentacene layer by the spin-pumping of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}, which is independent of the conductance mismatch problem in spin injection. The spin current is absorbed into the Pd layer, converted into a charge current with the inverse spin-Hall effect in Pd, and detected as an electromotive force. This is clear evidence for the pure spin current at room temperature in pentacene films prepared by thermal evaporation.
Electric dipole spin resonance in a quantum spin dimer system driven by magnetoelectric coupling
Kimura, Shojiro; Matsumoto, Masashige; Akaki, Mitsuru; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Kindo, Koichi; Tanaka, Hidekazu
2018-04-01
In this Rapid Communication, we propose a mechanism for electric dipole active spin resonance caused by spin-dependent electric polarization in a quantum spin gapped system. This proposal was successfully confirmed by high-frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements of the quantum spin dimer system KCuCl3. ESR measurements by an illuminating linearly polarized electromagnetic wave reveal that the optical transition between the singlet and triplet states in KCuCl3 is driven by an ac electric field. The selection rule of the observed transition agrees with the calculation by taking into account spin-dependent electric polarization. We suggest that spin-dependent electric polarization is effective in achieving fast control of quantum spins by an ac electric field.
Quantum correlations in a bipartite multiqubit spin ring system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doronin, S I; Fel’dman, E B; Kuznetsova, E I
2015-01-01
We consider a spin ring with an arbitrary number of spins on the ring and one spin in its center in a strong external magnetic field. The spins on the ring are connected by the secular dipole–dipole interactions and interact with the central spin through the Heisenberg zz-interaction. We show that the quantum discord, describing quantum correlations between the ring and the central spin, can be obtained analytically for an arbitrary number of the spins in the high-temperature approximation. We demonstrate the evolution of quantum correlations at different numbers of the spins. The contributions of longitudinal and transversal spin interactions to the quantum discord are discussed. (paper)
Spin transport and spin torque in antiferromagnetic devices
Železný, J.; Wadley, P.; Olejník, K.; Hoffmann, A.; Ohno, H.
2018-03-01
Ferromagnets are key materials for sensing and memory applications. In contrast, antiferromagnets, which represent the more common form of magnetically ordered materials, have found less practical application beyond their use for establishing reference magnetic orientations via exchange bias. This might change in the future due to the recent progress in materials research and discoveries of antiferromagnetic spintronic phenomena suitable for device applications. Experimental demonstration of the electrical switching and detection of the Néel order open a route towards memory devices based on antiferromagnets. Apart from the radiation and magnetic-field hardness, memory cells fabricated from antiferromagnets can be inherently multilevel, which could be used for neuromorphic computing. Switching speeds attainable in antiferromagnets far exceed those of ferromagnetic and semiconductor memory technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in electronic spin-transport and spin-torque phenomena in antiferromagnets that are dominantly of the relativistic quantum-mechanical origin. We discuss their utility in pure antiferromagnetic or hybrid ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic memory devices.
Microresonators for electron spin qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suter, D.; Stonies, R.; Voges, E.
2005-01-01
Full text: The traditional high-Q EPR resonators are optimized for large samples. For small samples and individual qubits, it is possible to design different resonators that have much better power handling properties, create less interference with other peripheral lines and, if they are used for detection, have better sensitivity. Other parameters being equal, the sensitivity of the resonator can be increased by minimizing its size and thus increasing the filling factor. In contrast to cavity type resonators, microcoils can be made much smaller than the operation wavelength. For this type of resonator, it has been established theoretically and experimentally that the sensitivity varies inversely with its linear dimensions. Moreover, the planar coil geometry is ideal to be manufactured in a small size by means of standard microtechnology. It also offers advantages for the excitation of electron spins in prototype quantum computer systems. High microwave power to the magnetic field conversion factor of the microresonator allows to achieve 24 ns L/2 - pulses with less than 20 mW of incident power. Within the QIPDDF-ROSES project, we are using such resonators to measure the EPR parameters of monolayer molecular films of N at C60 and for excitation of the single electron spin in a defect center in diamond. The microresonator prototypes consisting of a 200 μm planar microcoil tuned and matched at 14 GHz with distributed elements have been fabricated on Si substrate. The sensitivity tests with a DPPH samples resulted in the sensitivity value 10E9 spins/G/Hz1/2 at 300 K. The designed layouts of the microresonator can be scaled down up to a tens of micrometers, and with a different microwave coupling approach hundreds of nanometers could be achieved, allowing the operation frequency up to 100 THz (author)
Higher spin black holes with soft hair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grumiller, Daniel [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Pérez, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Prohazka, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien,Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, Vienna, A-1040 (Austria); Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)
2016-10-21
We construct a new set of boundary conditions for higher spin gravity, inspired by a recent “soft Heisenberg hair”-proposal for General Relativity on three-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of a set of affine û(1) current algebras. Its associated canonical charges generate higher spin soft hair. We focus first on the spin-3 case and then extend some of our main results to spin-N, many of which resemble the spin-2 results: the generators of the asymptotic W{sub 3} algebra naturally emerge from composite operators of the û(1) charges through a twisted Sugawara construction; our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the Euclidean solutions space independently of the values of the charges; solutions, which we call “higher spin black flowers”, are stationary but not necessarily spherically symmetric. Finally, we derive the entropy of higher spin black flowers, and find that for the branch that is continuously connected to the BTZ black hole, it depends only on the affine purely gravitational zero modes. Using our map to W-algebra currents we recover well-known expressions for higher spin entropy. We also address higher spin black flowers in the metric formalism and achieve full consistency with previous results.
Where does the nucleon spin come from?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frois, B.; CEA Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette; Karliner, M.
1994-01-01
This article describes current thinking on exactly how quarks form neutrons and protons, and where nucleon spin is derived. The European Muon Collaboration has recently shown that, contrary to previous thinking, little of the proton spin is carried by quarks, rather that virtual strange quarks in a sea contribute to nucleon spin. Thus a fundamental gap is revealed in our understanding of nucleon structure which is explored in this article, by looking at several ways of accounting for these surprising results using the ''axiaanomaly'' and the idea of gluon polarization. Future experiments already planned, on polarized scattering, should resolve the enigma of proton spin. (UK)
Influence of spin on fission fragments anisotropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghodsi Omid N.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis of selected fission fragment angular distribution when at least one of the spins of the projectile or target is appreciable in induced fission was made by using the statistical scission model. The results of this model predicate that the spins of the projectile or target are affected on the nuclear level density of the compound nucleus. The experimental data was analyzed by means of the couple channel spin effect formalism. This formalism suggests that the projectile spin is more effective on angular anisotropies within the limits of energy near the fusion barrier.
Universal Mechanism of Spin Relaxation in Solids
Chudnovsky, Eugene
2006-03-01
Conventional elastic theory ignores internal local twists and torques. Meantime, spin-lattice relaxation is inherently coupled with local elastic twists through conservation of the total angular momentum (spin + lattice). This coupling gives universal lower bound (free of fitting parameters) on the relaxation of the atomic or molecular spin in a solid [1] and on the relaxation of the electron spin in a quantum dot [2]. [1] E. M. Chudnovsky, D. A. Garanin, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. B 72, 094426 (2005). [2] C. Calero, E. M. Chudnovsky, and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166603 (2005).
Universal spin-momentum locked optical forces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalhor, Farid [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Thundat, Thomas [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Jacob, Zubin, E-mail: zjacob@purdue.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1H9 (Canada); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States)
2016-02-08
Evanescent electromagnetic waves possess spin-momentum locking, where the direction of propagation (momentum) is locked to the inherent polarization of the wave (transverse spin). We study the optical forces arising from this universal phenomenon and show that the fundamental origin of recently reported non-trivial optical chiral forces is spin-momentum locking. For evanescent waves, we show that the direction of energy flow, the direction of decay, and the direction of spin follow a right hand rule for three different cases of total internal reflection, surface plasmon polaritons, and HE{sub 11} mode of an optical fiber. Furthermore, we explain how the recently reported phenomena of lateral optical force on chiral and achiral particles are caused by the transverse spin of the evanescent field and the spin-momentum locking phenomenon. Finally, we propose an experiment to identify the unique lateral forces arising from the transverse spin in the optical fiber and point to fundamental differences of the spin density from the well-known orbital angular momentum of light. Our work presents a unified view on spin-momentum locking and how it affects optical forces on chiral and achiral particles.
Collisional Penrose process with spinning particles
Mukherjee, Sajal
2018-03-01
In this article, we have investigated collisional Penrose process (CPP) using spinning particles in a Kerr spacetime. Recent studies have shown that the collision between two spinning particles can produce a significantly high energy in the center of mass frame. Here, we explicitly compute the energy extraction and efficiency as measured by an observer at infinity. We consider the colliding particles as well as the escaping particles may contain spins. It has been shown that the energy extraction is larger than the non-spinning case and also their possibility to escape to infinity is wider than the geodesics.
Transverse Ising spin-glass model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Raimundo R. dos; Santos, R.M.Z. dos.
1984-01-01
The zero temperature behavior of the Transverse Ising spin-glass (+-J 0 ) model is discussed. The d-dimensional quantum model is shown to be equivalent to a classical (d + 1)- dimensional Ising spin-glass with correlated disorder. An exact Renormalization Group treatment of the one-dimensional quantum model indicates the existence of a spin-glass phase. The Migdal-Kadanoff approximation is used to obtain the phase diagram of the quantum spin-glass in two-dimensions. (Author) [pt
Tunneling spin injection into single layer graphene.
Han, Wei; Pi, K; McCreary, K M; Li, Yan; Wong, Jared J I; Swartz, A G; Kawakami, R K
2010-10-15
We achieve tunneling spin injection from Co into single layer graphene (SLG) using TiO₂ seeded MgO barriers. A nonlocal magnetoresistance (ΔR(NL)) of 130 Ω is observed at room temperature, which is the largest value observed in any material. Investigating ΔR(NL) vs SLG conductivity from the transparent to the tunneling contact regimes demonstrates the contrasting behaviors predicted by the drift-diffusion theory of spin transport. Furthermore, tunnel barriers reduce the contact-induced spin relaxation and are therefore important for future investigations of spin relaxation in graphene.
Abrupt relaxation in high-spin molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.-R.; Cheng, T.C.
2000-01-01
Mean-field model suggests that the rate of resonant quantum tunneling in high-spin molecules is not only field-dependent but also time-dependent. The relaxation-assisted resonant tunneling in high-spin molecules produces an abrupt magnetization change during relaxation. When the applied field is very close to the resonant field, a time-dependent interaction field gradually shifts the energies of different collective spin states, and magnetization tunneling is observed as two energies of the spin states coincide
Evaluation of layback spin in figure skating
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jastšenjski Ksenija
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Layback spin is considered as one of the most beautiful and elegant spins performed in figure skating. It is also one of the required spins in competitive short program in female category. Different techniques of executing layback spin with variations in changing the positions of free parts of the body, as well as the evaluation of layback spin in accordance with ISU rules and regulations, which have been used in all International Skating Federation competitions since 2004 (World and European championships, Olympic Games are presented in this paper. Due to very difficult position of the body while performing a layback spin, it is essential that the skaters who want to master it should have excellent agility (especially of the spinal column and shoulder and knee joints and balance. Layback spin performance requires significant skating knowledge, so it cannot be performed by beginners. Depending on the fl exibility and creativity, a skater can execute various positions of the head, arms, body and free leg while performing a layback spin. In some cases, these variations can increase the level of difficulty, and in others only the mark given for executing this spin.
Handbook of spin transport and magnetism
Tsymbal, Evgeny Y
2011-01-01
In the past several decades, the research on spin transport and magnetism has led to remarkable scientific and technological breakthroughs, including Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg's Nobel Prize-winning discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in magnetic metallic multilayers. Handbook of Spin Transport and Magnetism provides a comprehensive, balanced account of the state of the art in the field known as spin electronics or spintronics. It reveals how key phenomena first discovered in one class of materials, such as spin injection in metals, have been revisited decades later in other materia
Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a spin qubit.
Petersson, K D; McFaul, L W; Schroer, M D; Jung, M; Taylor, J M; Houck, A A; Petta, J R
2012-10-18
Electron spins trapped in quantum dots have been proposed as basic building blocks of a future quantum processor. Although fast, 180-picosecond, two-quantum-bit (two-qubit) operations can be realized using nearest-neighbour exchange coupling, a scalable, spin-based quantum computing architecture will almost certainly require long-range qubit interactions. Circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) allows spatially separated superconducting qubits to interact via a superconducting microwave cavity that acts as a 'quantum bus', making possible two-qubit entanglement and the implementation of simple quantum algorithms. Here we combine the cQED architecture with spin qubits by coupling an indium arsenide nanowire double quantum dot to a superconducting cavity. The architecture allows us to achieve a charge-cavity coupling rate of about 30 megahertz, consistent with coupling rates obtained in gallium arsenide quantum dots. Furthermore, the strong spin-orbit interaction of indium arsenide allows us to drive spin rotations electrically with a local gate electrode, and the charge-cavity interaction provides a measurement of the resulting spin dynamics. Our results demonstrate how the cQED architecture can be used as a sensitive probe of single-spin physics and that a spin-cavity coupling rate of about one megahertz is feasible, presenting the possibility of long-range spin coupling via superconducting microwave cavities.
Flying spin qualities testing of airplane
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kostić Čedomir J.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper is presented the theoretical analysis of origins and characteristics of spinning motion. There are precise explanation of every stage spin flight and basic meaning of notion. Personated equation of motion in spin and equitation of motion airplane in settled spin motion, analysis of them and general recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins. Introduced in valid military and civil specifications flight test demonstration requirements for departure resistance and flying stall and spin qualities testing of airplane. Special attention was given on predicting departure, stall and spin susceptibility and theoretical analysis in the name of magnify flight testing security. There are explanation of test equipment and methodology of flying qualities testing of airplanes. Like a support of this theme are described method and results of flight stall and spin qualities testing of airplane G-4(N-62 super see-gull with precise recommendation for pilots for recovering from spins, from TOC SLI VS (Technical testing center, department for fight testing Air Force of Serbia.
Half-metallic superconducting triplet spin multivalves
Alidoust, Mohammad; Halterman, Klaus
2018-02-01
We study spin switching effects in finite-size superconducting multivalve structures. We examine F1F2SF3 and F1F2SF3F4 hybrids where a singlet superconductor (S) layer is sandwiched among ferromagnet (F) layers with differing thicknesses and magnetization orientations. Our results reveal a considerable number of experimentally viable spin-valve configurations that lead to on-off switching of the superconducting state. For S widths on the order of the superconducting coherence length ξ0, noncollinear magnetization orientations in adjacent F layers with multiple spin axes leads to a rich variety of triplet spin-valve effects. Motivated by recent experiments, we focus on samples where the magnetizations in the F1 and F4 layers exist in a fully spin-polarized half-metallic phase, and calculate the superconducting transition temperature, spatially and energy resolved density of states, and the spin-singlet and spin-triplet superconducting correlations. Our findings demonstrate that superconductivity in these devices can be completely switched on or off over a wide range of magnetization misalignment angles due to the generation of equal-spin and opposite-spin triplet pairings.
Theory of unidirectional spin heat conveyer
Adachi, Hiroto; Maekawa, Sadamichi
2015-05-01
We theoretically investigate the unidirectional spin heat conveyer effect recently reported in the literature that emerges from the Damon-Eshbach spin wave on the surface of a magnetic material. We develop a simple phenomenological theory for heat transfer dynamics in a coupled system of phonons and the Damon-Eshbach spin wave, and demonstrate that there arises a direction-selective heat flow as a result of the competition between an isotropic heat diffusion by phonons and a unidirectional heat drift by the spin wave. The phenomenological approach can account for the asymmetric local temperature distribution observed in the experiment.
RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.
2011-03-28
The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.
Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dominguez Zacarias, G. [PIMAyC, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Apdo. Postal 14-805, D.F. (Mexico); Herrera, G.; Mercado, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Apdo. Postal 14-740, D.F. (Mexico)
2007-08-15
We study single spin asymmetries of D{sup 0} and D{sup -} mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)
Single spin asymmetry for charm mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez Zacarias, G.; Herrera, G.; Mercado, J.
2007-01-01
We study single spin asymmetries of D 0 and D - mesons in polarized proton-proton collisions. A two component model is used to describe charm meson production. The production of D mesons occurs by recombination of the constituents present in the initial state as well as by fragmentation of quarks in the final state. This model has proved to describe the production of charm. The recombination component involves a mechanism of spin alignment that ends up in a single spin asymmetry. Experimental measurements of single spin asymmetry for pions at RHIC are compared with the model. Predictions for the asymmetry in D mesons are presented. (orig.)
Sign rules for anisotropic quantum spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, R. F.; Farnell, D. J. J.; Parkinson, J. B.
2000-01-01
We present exact ''sign rules'' for various spin-s anisotropic spin-lattice models. It is shown that, after a simple transformation which utilizes these sign rules, the ground-state wave function of the transformed Hamiltonian is positive definite. Using these results exact statements for various expectation values of off-diagonal operators are presented, and transitions in the behavior of these expectation values are observed at particular values of the anisotropy. Furthermore, the importance of such sign rules in variational calculations and quantum Monte Carlo calculations is emphasized. This is illustrated by a simple variational treatment of a one-dimensional anisotropic spin model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.A. Baker
Full Text Available Topological insulators (TIs have a large potential for spintronic devices owing to their spin-polarized, counter-propagating surface states. Recently, we have investigated spin pumping in a ferromagnet–TI–ferromagnet structure at room temperature. Here, we present the temperature-dependent measurement of spin pumping down to 10 K, which shows no variation with temperature. Keywords: Topological insulator, Spin pumping, Spintronics, Ferromagnetic resonance
Spin squeezing of atomic ensembles via nuclear-electronic spin entanglement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fernholz, Thomas; Krauter, Hanna; Jensen, Kasper
2008-01-01
quantum limit for quantum memory experiments and applications in quantum metrology and is thus a complementary alternative to spin squeezing obtained via inter-atom entanglement. Squeezing of the collective spin is verified by quantum state tomography.......We demonstrate spin squeezing in a room temperature ensemble of 1012 Cesium atoms using their internal structure, where the necessary entanglement is created between nuclear and electronic spins of each individual atom. This state provides improvement in measurement sensitivity beyond the standard...
Quantum Spin Stabilized Magnetic Levitation
Rusconi, C. C.; Pöchhacker, V.; Kustura, K.; Cirac, J. I.; Romero-Isart, O.
2017-10-01
We theoretically show that, despite Earnshaw's theorem, a nonrotating single magnetic domain nanoparticle can be stably levitated in an external static magnetic field. The stabilization relies on the quantum spin origin of magnetization, namely, the gyromagnetic effect. We predict the existence of two stable phases related to the Einstein-de Haas effect and the Larmor precession. At a stable point, we derive a quadratic Hamiltonian that describes the quantum fluctuations of the degrees of freedom of the system. We show that, in the absence of thermal fluctuations, the quantum state of the nanomagnet at the equilibrium point contains entanglement and squeezing.
Spin chain for quantum strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beisert, N.
2005-01-01
We review and compare the integrable structures in N=4 gauge theory and string theory on AdS 5 x S 5 . Recently, Bethe ansaetze for gauge theory/weak coupling and string theory/strong coupling were proposed to describe scaling dimensions in the su(2) subsector. Here we investigate the Bethe equations for quantum string theory, naively extrapolated to weak coupling. Excitingly, we find a spin chain Hamiltonian similar, but not equal, to the gauge theory dilatation operator. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Spin dynamics on percolating networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aeppli, G.; Guggenheim, H.; Uemura, Y.J.
1985-01-01
We have used inelastic neutron scattering to measure the order parameter relaxation rate GAMMA in the dilute, two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnet Rb 2 CoMg/sub 1-c/F 4 with c very close to the magnetic percolation threshold. Where kappa is the inverse magnetic correlation length, GAMMA approx. kappa/sup z/ with z = 2.4/sub -0.1//sup +0.2/. Our results are discussed in terms of current ideas about spin relaxation on fractals. 13 refs., 1 fig
Experimental Test of the Spin Mixing Interface Conductivity Concept
Weiler, M.; Althammer, M.; Schreier, M.; Lotze, J.; Pernpeintner, M.; Meyer, S.; Huebl, H.; Gross, R.; Kamra, A.; Xiao, J.; Chen, Y.T.; Jiao, H.J.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Goennenwein, S.T.B.
2013-01-01
We perform a quantitative, comparative study of the spin pumping, spin Seebeck, and spin Hall magnetoresistance effects, all detected via the inverse spin Hall effect in a series of over 20??yttrium???iron?garnet/Pt samples. Our experimental results fully support present, exclusively spin
Large spin accumulation due to spin-charge coupling across a break-junction
Chen, Shuhan; Zou, Han; Chui, Siu-Tat; Ji, Yi
2013-03-01
We investigate large spin signals in break-junction nonlocal spin valves (NLSV). The break-junction is a nanometer-sized vacuum tunneling gap between the spin detector and the nonmagnetic channel, formed by electro-static discharge. The spin signals can be either inverted or non-inverted and the magnitudes are much larger than those of standard NLSV. Spin signals with high percentage values (10% - 0%) have been observed. When the frequency of the a.c. modulation is varied, the absolute magnitudes of signals remain the same although the percentage values change. These observations affirm the nonlocal nature of the measurements and rule out local magnetoresistive effects. Owing to the spin-charge coupling across the break-junction, the spin accumulation in a ferromagnet splits into two terms. One term decays on the charge screening length (0.1 nm) and the other decays on the spin diffusion length (10 nm nm). The magnitude of the former is proportional to the resistance of the junction. Therefore a highly resistive break-junction leads to a large spin accumulation and thereby a large spin signal. The signs of the spin signal are determined by the relationship between spin-dependent conductivities, diffusion constants, and density of states of the ferromagnet. This work was supported by US DOE grant No. DE-FG02-07ER46374.
SU (N ) spin-wave theory: Application to spin-orbital Mott insulators
Dong, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Wei; Li, Jian-Xin
2018-05-01
We present the application of the SU (N ) spin-wave theory to spin-orbital Mott insulators whose ground states exhibit magnetic orders. When taking both spin and orbital degrees of freedom into account rather than projecting Hilbert space onto the Kramers doublet, which is the lowest spin-orbital locked energy levels, the SU (N ) spin-wave theory should take the place of the SU (2 ) one due to the inevitable spin-orbital multipole exchange interactions. To implement the application, we introduce an efficient general local mean-field method, which involves all local fluctuations, and develop the SU (N ) linear spin-wave theory. Our approach is tested firstly by calculating the multipolar spin-wave spectra of the SU (4 ) antiferromagnetic model. Then, we apply it to spin-orbital Mott insulators. It is revealed that the Hund's coupling would influence the effectiveness of the isospin-1 /2 picture when the spin-orbital coupling is not large enough. We further carry out the SU (N ) spin-wave calculations of two materials, α -RuCl3 and Sr2IrO4 , and find that the magnonic and spin-orbital excitations are consistent with experiments.
Spin dynamics under local gauge fields in chiral spin-orbit coupling systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Fujita, T.; Liu, X.J.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We derive a modified LLG equation in magnetic systems with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). → Our results are applied to magnetic multilayers, and DMS and magnetic Rashba systems. → SOC mediated magnetization switching is predicted in rare earth metals (large SOC). → The magnetization trajectory and frequency can be modulated by applied voltage. → This facilitates potential application as tunable microwave oscillators. - Abstract: We present a theoretical description of local spin dynamics in magnetic systems with a chiral spin texture and finite spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Spin precession about the relativistic effective magnetic field in a SOC system gives rise to a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field reminiscent of the Yang-Mills field. In addition, the adiabatic relaxation of electron spin along the local spin yields an U(1) x U(1) topological gauge (Berry) field. We derive the corresponding equation of motion i.e. modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, for the local spin under the influence of these effects. Focusing on the SU(2) gauge, we obtain the spin torque magnitude, and the amplitude and frequency of spin oscillations in this system. Our theoretical estimates indicate significant spin torque and oscillations in systems with large spin-orbit coupling, which may be utilized in technological applications such as current-induced magnetization-switching and tunable microwave oscillators.
Classical relativistic spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment: The precession of spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Cruz, M.G.
1993-05-01
The theory of classical relativistic spinning particles with c-number internal spinor variables, modelling accurately the Dirac electron, is generalized to particles with anomalous magnetic moments. The equations of motion are derived and the problem of spin precession is discussed and compared with other theories of spin. (author). 32 refs
Spin manipulation and spin-lattice interaction in magnetic colloidal quantum dots
Moro, F.; Turyanska, L.; Granwehr, J.; Patane, A.
2014-01-01
We report on the spin-lattice interaction and coherent manipulation of electron spins in Mn-doped colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) by electron spin resonance. We show that the phase memory time,TM, is limited by Mn-Mn dipolar interactions, hyperfine interactions of the protons (H1) on the QD capping ligands with Mn ions in their proximity (
Mosendz, O.; Vlaminck, V.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.
2010-01-01
Spin pumping is a mechanism that generates spin currents from ferromagnetic resonance over macroscopic interfacial areas, thereby enabling sensitive detection of the inverse spin Hall effect that transforms spin into charge currents in nonmagnetic conductors. Here we study the spin-pumping-induced
Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors
Li, Hang
2016-06-21
Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read\\' and `write\\' in memory devices can be significantly improved. Hence, the manipulation of electron spin in electronic devices becomes more and more appealing for the advancement of microelectronics. In spin-based devices, the manipulation of ferromagnetic order parameter using electrical currents is a very useful means for current-driven operation. Nowadays, most of magnetic memory devices are based on the so-called spin transfer torque, which stems from the spin angular momentum transfer between a spin-polarized current and the magnetic order parameter. Recently, a novel spin torque effect, exploiting spin-orbit coupling in non-centrosymmetric magnets, has attracted a massive amount of attention. This thesis addresses the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport and torques in non-centrosymmetric magnetic semiconductors. We start with the theoretical study of spin orbit torque in three dimensional ferromagnetic GaMnAs. Using the Kubo formula, we calculate both the current-driven field-like torque and anti-damping-like torque. We compare the numerical results with the analytical expressions in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described. Subsequently we study spin-orbit torques in two dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. This thesis then addresses the influence of the quantum spin Hall
Circuit Simulation of All-Spin Logic
Alawein, Meshal
2016-05-01
With the aggressive scaling of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) nearing an inevitable physical limit and its well-known power crisis, the quest for an alternative/augmenting technology that surpasses the current semiconductor electronics is needed for further technological progress. Spintronic devices emerge as prime candidates for Beyond CMOS era by utilizing the electron spin as an extra degree of freedom to decrease the power consumption and overcome the velocity limit connected with the charge. By using the nonvolatility nature of magnetization along with its direction to represent a bit of information and then manipulating it by spin-polarized currents, routes are opened for combined memory and logic. This would not have been possible without the recent discoveries in the physics of nanomagnetism such as spin-transfer torque (STT) whereby a spin-polarized current can excite magnetization dynamics through the transfer of spin angular momentum. STT have expanded the available means of switching the magnetization of magnetic layers beyond old classical techniques, promising to fulfill the need for a new generation of dense, fast, and nonvolatile logic and storage devices. All-spin logic (ASL) is among the most promising spintronic logic switches due to its low power consumption, logic-in-memory structure, and operation on pure spin currents. The device is based on a lateral nonlocal spin valve and STT switching. It utilizes two nanomagnets (whereby information is stored) that communicate with pure spin currents through a spin-coherent nonmagnetic channel. By using the well-known spin physics and the recently proposed four-component spin circuit formalism, ASL can be thoroughly studied and simulated. Previous attempts to model ASL in the linear and diffusive regime either neglect the dynamic characteristics of transport or do not provide a scalable and robust platform for full micromagnetic simulations and inclusion of other effects like spin Hall
Slave equations for spin models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catterall, S.M.; Drummond, I.T.; Horgan, R.R.
1992-01-01
We apply an accelerated Langevin algorithm to the simulation of continuous spin models on the lattice. In conjunction with the evolution equation for the spins we use slave equations to compute estimators for the connected correlation functions of the model. In situations for which the symmetry of the model is sufficiently strongly broken by an external field these estimators work well and yield a signal-to-noise ratio for the Green function at large time separations more favourable than that resulting from the standard method. With the restoration of symmetry, however, the slave equation estimators exhibit an intrinsic instability associated with the growth of a power law tail in the probability distributions for the measured quantities. Once this tail has grown sufficiently strong it results in a divergence of the variance of the estimator which then ceases to be useful for measurement purposes. The instability of the slave equation method in circumstances of weak symmetry breaking precludes its use in determining the mass gap in non-linear sigma models. (orig.)
Higher spins and Yangian symmetries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaberdiel, Matthias R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Gopakumar, Rajesh [International Centre for Theoretical Sciences-TIFR, Survey No. 151, Shivakote, Hesaraghatta Hobli, Bengaluru North 560 089 (India); Li, Wei [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,100190 Beijing (China); Peng, Cheng [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)
2017-04-26
The relation between the bosonic higher spin W{sub ∞}[λ] algebra, the affine Yangian of gl{sub 1}, and the SH{sup c} algebra is established in detail. For generic λ we find explicit expressions for the low-lying W{sub ∞}[λ] modes in terms of the affine Yangian generators, and deduce from this the precise identification between λ and the parameters of the affine Yangian. Furthermore, for the free field cases corresponding to λ=0 and λ=1 we give closed-form expressions for the affine Yangian generators in terms of the free fields. Interestingly, the relation between the W{sub ∞} modes and those of the affine Yangian is a non-local one, in general. We also establish the explicit dictionary between the affine Yangian and the SH{sup c} generators. Given that Yangian algebras are the hallmark of integrability, these identifications should pave the way towards uncovering the relation between the integrable and the higher spin symmetries.
Magnon condensation and spin superfluidity
Bunkov, Yury M.; Safonov, Vladimir L.
2018-04-01
We consider the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of quasi-equilibrium magnons which leads to spin superfluidity, the coherent quantum transfer of magnetization in magnetic material. The critical conditions for excited magnon density in ferro- and antiferromagnets, bulk and thin films, are estimated and discussed. It was demonstrated that only the highly populated region of the spectrum is responsible for the emergence of any BEC. This finding substantially simplifies the BEC theoretical analysis and is surely to be used for simulations. It is shown that the conditions of magnon BEC in the perpendicular magnetized YIG thin film is fulfillied at small angle, when signals are treated as excited spin waves. We also predict that the magnon BEC should occur in the antiferromagnetic hematite at room temperature at much lower excited magnon density compared to that of ferromagnetic YIG. Bogoliubov's theory of Bose-Einstein condensate is generalized to the case of multi-particle interactions. The six-magnon repulsive interaction may be responsible for the BEC stability in ferro- and antiferromagnets where the four-magnon interaction is attractive.
Spin lattices of walking droplets
Saenz, Pedro; Pucci, Giuseppe; Goujon, Alexis; Dunkel, Jorn; Bush, John
2017-11-01
We present the results of an experimental investigation of the spontaneous emergence of collective behavior in spin lattice of droplets walking on a vibrating fluid bath. The bottom topography consists of relatively deep circular wells that encourage the walking droplets to follow circular trajectories centered at the lattice sites, in one direction or the other. Wave-mediated interactions between neighboring drops are enabled through a thin fluid layer between the wells. The sense of rotation of the walking droplets may thus become globally coupled. When the coupling is sufficiently strong, interactions with neighboring droplets may result in switches in spin that lead to preferred global arrangements, including correlated (all drops rotating in the same direction) or anti-correlated (neighboring drops rotating in opposite directions) states. Analogies with ferromagnetism and anti-ferromagnetism are drawn. Different spatial arrangements are presented in 1D and 2D lattices to illustrate the effects of topological frustration. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.
Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido
2017-10-01
The goal of this article is to review the progress of three-electron spin qubits from their inception to the state of the art. We direct the main focus towards the exchange-only qubit (Bacon et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 1758-61, DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339) and its derived versions, e.g. the resonant exchange (RX) qubit, but we also discuss other qubit implementations using three electron spins. For each three-spin qubit we describe the qubit model, the envisioned physical realization, the implementations of single-qubit operations, as well as the read-out and initialization schemes. Two-qubit gates and decoherence properties are discussed for the RX qubit and the exchange-only qubit, thereby completing the list of requirements for quantum computation for a viable candidate qubit implementation. We start by describing the full system of three electrons in a triple quantum dot, then discuss the charge-stability diagram, restricting ourselves to the relevant subsystem, introduce the qubit states, and discuss important transitions to other charge states (Russ et al 2016 Phys. Rev. B 94 165411). Introducing the various qubit implementations, we begin with the exchange-only qubit (DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339, Laird et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 82 075403), followed by the RX qubit (Medford et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050501, Taylor et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050502), the spin-charge qubit (Kyriakidis and Burkard 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 115324), and the hybrid qubit (Shi et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 140503, Koh et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 250503, Cao et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 086801, Thorgrimsson et al 2016 arXiv:1611.04945). The main focus will be on the exchange-only qubit and its modification, the RX qubit, whose single-qubit operations are realized by driving the qubit at its resonant frequency in the microwave range similar to electron spin resonance. Two different types of two-qubit operations are presented for the exchange
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deorani, Praveen; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)
2013-12-02
From spin pumping measurements in Ta/Py devices for different thicknesses of Ta, we determine the spin Hall angle to be 0.021–0.033 and spin diffusion length to be 8 nm in Ta. We have also studied the effect of changing the properties of non-magnet/ferromagnet interface by adding a Cu interlayer. The experimental results show that the effective spin mixing conductance increases in the presence of Cu interlayer for Ta/Cu/Py devices whereas it decreases in Pt/Cu/Py devices. Our findings allow the tunability of the spin pumping efficiency by adding a thin interlayer at the non-magnet/ferromagnet interface.
Quantum spin liquids in the absence of spin-rotation symmetry: Application to herbertsmithite
Dodds, Tyler; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Kim, Yong Baek
2013-12-01
It has been suggested that the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the Kagome lattice may be a good starting point for understanding the spin-liquid behavior discovered in herbertsmithite. In this work, we investigate possible quantum spin liquid phases in the presence of spin-rotation symmetry-breaking perturbations such as Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya and Ising interactions, as well as second-neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interactions. Experiments suggest that such perturbations are likely to be present in herbertsmithite. We use the projective symmetry group analysis within the framework of the slave-fermion construction of quantum spin liquid phases and systematically classify possible spin liquid phases in the presence of perturbations mentioned above. The dynamical spin-structure factor for relevant spin liquid phases is computed and the effect of those perturbations are studied. Our calculations reveal dispersive features in the spin structure factor embedded in a generally diffuse background due to the existence of fractionalized spin-1/2 excitations called spinons. For two of the previously proposed Z2 states, the dispersive features are almost absent, and diffuse scattering dominates over a large energy window throughout the Brillouin zone. This resembles the structure factor observed in recent inelastic neutron-scattering experiments on singlet crystals of herbertsmithite. Furthermore, one of the Z2 states with the spin structure factor with mostly diffuse scattering is gapped, and it may be adiabatically connected to the gapped spin liquid state observed in recent density-matrix renormalization group calculations for the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. The perturbations mentioned above are found to enhance the diffuse nature of the spin structure factor and reduce the momentum dependencies of the spin gap. We also calculate the electron spin resonance (ESR) absorption spectra that further characterize the role of
Spin-Triplet Pairing Induced by Spin-Singlet Interactions in Noncentrosymmetric Superconductors
Matsuzaki, Tomoaki; Shimahara, Hiroshi
2017-02-01
In noncentrosymmetric superconductors, we examine the effect of the difference between the intraband and interband interactions, which becomes more important when the band splitting increases. We define the difference ΔVμ between their coupling constants, i.e., that between the intraband and interband hopping energies of intraband Cooper pairs. Here, the subscript μ of ΔVμ indicates that the interactions scatter the spin-singlet and spin-triplet pairs when μ = 0 and μ = 1,2,3, respectively. It is shown that the strong antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction reverses the target spin parity of the interaction: it converts the spin-singlet and spin-triplet interactions represented by ΔV0 and ΔVμ>0 into effective spin-triplet and spin-singlet pairing interactions, respectively. Hence, for example, triplet pairing can be induced solely by the singlet interaction ΔV0. We name the pairing symmetry of the system after that of the intraband Cooper pair wave function, but with an odd-parity phase factor excluded. The pairing symmetry must then be even, even for the triplet component, and the following results are obtained. When ΔVμ is small, the spin-triplet p-wave interactions induce spin-triplet s-wave and spin-triplet d-wave pairings in the regions where the repulsive singlet s-wave interaction is weak and strong, respectively. When ΔV0 is large, a repulsive interband spin-singlet interaction can stabilize spin-triplet pairing. When the Rashba interaction is adopted for the spin-orbit interaction, the spin-triplet pairing interactions mediated by transverse magnetic fluctuations do not contribute to triplet pairing.
Intronati, Guido A; Tamborenea, Pablo I; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A
2012-01-06
We identify the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling as the source of the dominant spin-relaxation mechanism in the impurity band of a wide class of n-doped zinc blende semiconductors. The Dresselhaus hopping terms are derived and incorporated into a tight-binding model of impurity sites, and they are shown to unexpectedly dominate the spin relaxation, leading to spin-relaxation times in good agreement with experimental values. This conclusion is drawn from two complementary approaches: an analytical diffusive-evolution calculation and a numerical finite-size scaling study of the spin-relaxation time.
Acharyya, Muktish
2017-07-01
The spin wave interference is studied in two dimensional Ising ferromagnet driven by two coherent spherical magnetic field waves by Monte Carlo simulation. The spin waves are found to propagate and interfere according to the classic rule of interference pattern generated by two point sources. The interference pattern of spin wave is observed in one boundary of the lattice. The interference pattern is detected and studied by spin flip statistics at high and low temperatures. The destructive interference is manifested as the large number of spin flips and vice versa.
Electron and nuclear spin system polarization in semiconductors by light
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakharchenya, B; Flejsher, V
1981-02-01
Discussed are the principles of optical electron spin orientation, dynamic polarization and cooling of nuclear spin systems in optical electron orientation, and behavioural characteristics of bound electron and nuclear spin systems of a semiconductor in the optical orientation situation.
The classical and quantum dynamics of molecular spins on graphene
Cervetti, Christian; Rettori, Angelo; Pini, Maria Gloria; Cornia, Andrea; Repollés, Ana; Luis, Fernando; Dressel, Martin; Rauschenbach, Stephan; Kern, Klaus; Burghard, Marko; Bogani, Lapo
2016-02-01
Controlling the dynamics of spins on surfaces is pivotal to the design of spintronic and quantum computing devices. Proposed schemes involve the interaction of spins with graphene to enable surface-state spintronics and electrical spin manipulation. However, the influence of the graphene environment on the spin systems has yet to be unravelled. Here we explore the spin-graphene interaction by studying the classical and quantum dynamics of molecular magnets on graphene. Whereas the static spin response remains unaltered, the quantum spin dynamics and associated selection rules are profoundly modulated. The couplings to graphene phonons, to other spins, and to Dirac fermions are quantified using a newly developed model. Coupling to Dirac electrons introduces a dominant quantum relaxation channel that, by driving the spins over Villain’s threshold, gives rise to fully coherent, resonant spin tunnelling. Our findings provide fundamental insight into the interaction between spins and graphene, establishing the basis for electrical spin manipulation in graphene nanodevices.
Optical switching of nuclear spin-spin couplings in semiconductors.
Goto, Atsushi; Ohki, Shinobu; Hashi, Kenjiro; Shimizu, Tadashi
2011-07-05
Two-qubit operation is an essential part of quantum computation. However, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing has not been able to fully implement this functionality, because it requires a switchable inter-qubit coupling that controls the time evolutions of entanglements. Nuclear dipolar coupling is beneficial in that it is present whenever nuclear-spin qubits are close to each other, while it complicates two-qubit operation because the qubits must remain decoupled to prevent unwanted couplings. Here we introduce optically controllable internuclear coupling in semiconductors. The coupling strength can be adjusted externally through light power and even allows on/off switching. This feature provides a simple way of switching inter-qubit couplings in semiconductor-based quantum computers. In addition, its long reach compared with nuclear dipolar couplings allows a variety of options for arranging qubits, as they need not be next to each other to secure couplings.
Invariant functionals in higher-spin theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A. Vasiliev
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A new construction for gauge invariant functionals in the nonlinear higher-spin theory is proposed. Being supported by differential forms closed by virtue of the higher-spin equations, invariant functionals are associated with central elements of the higher-spin algebra. In the on-shell AdS4 higher-spin theory we identify a four-form conjectured to represent the generating functional for 3d boundary correlators and a two-form argued to support charges for black hole solutions. Two actions for 3d boundary conformal higher-spin theory are associated with the two parity-invariant higher-spin models in AdS4. The peculiarity of the spinorial formulation of the on-shell AdS3 higher-spin theory, where the invariant functional is supported by a two-form, is conjectured to be related to the holomorphic factorization at the boundary. The nonlinear part of the star-product function F⁎(B(x in the higher-spin equations is argued to lead to divergencies in the boundary limit representing singularities at coinciding boundary space–time points of the factors of B(x, which can be regularized by the point splitting. An interpretation of the RG flow in terms of proposed construction is briefly discussed.
Spin structure of the nucleon and polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prescott, C.Y.
1994-09-01
Recent experiments at CERN and SLAC have added new knowledge about the spin structure of the proton and the deuteron. A brief historical background is presented, the status of experiments is discussed, and progress in the understanding of the spin of the nucleon in the context of the quark parton model is summarized
A New Spin on Photoemission Spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jozwiak, Chris [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2008-12-01
The electronic spin degree of freedom is of general fundamental importance to all matter. Understanding its complex roles and behavior in the solid state, particularly in highly correlated and magnetic materials, has grown increasingly desirable as technology demands advanced devices and materials based on ever stricter comprehension and control of the electron spin. However, direct and efficient spin dependent probes of electronic structure are currently lacking. Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) has become one of the most successful experimental tools for elucidating solid state electronic structures, bolstered by-continual breakthroughs in efficient instrumentation. In contrast, spin-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has lagged behind due to a lack of similar instrumental advances. The power of photoemission spectroscopy and the pertinence of electronic spin in the current research climate combine to make breakthroughs in Spin and Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (SARPES) a high priority . This thesis details the development of a unique instrument for efficient SARPES and represents a radical departure from conventional methods. A custom designed spin polarimeter based on low energy exchange scattering is developed, with projected efficiency gains of two orders of magnitude over current state-of-the-art polarimeters. For energy analysis, the popular hemispherical analyzer is eschewed for a custom Time-of-Flight (TOF) analyzer offering an additional order of magnitude gain in efficiency. The combined instrument signifies the breakthrough needed to perform the high resolution SARPES experiments necessary for untangling the complex spin-dependent electronic structures central to today's condensed matter physics.
Analytical treatment of the spin splitter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conte, M.; Penzo, A.; Pisent, A.; Pusterla, M.
1988-01-01
The spin-orbit coupling associated with the interaction of the magnetic of proton-antiproton, circulating in a low energy storage ring, with appropriate field gradients of quadrupole elements in the machine, is studied analytically. The conditions for a separation of opposite spin states are discussed and methods are proposed for working at very low energies
Lagrangian approach in spin-oscillations problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.V. Pyshkin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Lagrangian of electronic liquid in magneto-inhomogeneous micro-conductor has been constructed. A corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation has been solved. It was shown that the described system has eigenmodes of spin polarization and total electric current oscillations. The suggested approach permits to study the spin dynamics in an open-circuit which contains capacitance and/or inductivity.
Entanglement property in matrix product spin systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Jingmin
2012-01-01
We study the entanglement property in matrix product spin-ring systems systemically by von Neumann entropy. We find that: (i) the Hilbert space dimension of one spin determines the upper limit of the maximal value of the entanglement entropy of one spin, while for multiparticle entanglement entropy, the upper limit of the maximal value depends on the dimension of the representation matrices. Based on the theory, we can realize the maximum of the entanglement entropy of any spin block by choosing the appropriate control parameter values. (ii) When the entanglement entropy of one spin takes its maximal value, the entanglement entropy of an asymptotically large spin block, i.e. the renormalization group fixed point, is not likely to take its maximal value, and so only the entanglement entropy S n of a spin block that varies with size n can fully characterize the spin-ring entanglement feature. Finally, we give the entanglement dynamics, i.e. the Hamiltonian of the matrix product system. (author)
Spin-chemistry concepts for spintronics scientists
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Konstantin L. Ivanov
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Spin chemistry and spintronics developed independently and with different terminology. Until now, the interaction between the two fields has been very limited. In this review, we compile the two “languages” in an effort to enhance communication. We expect that knowledge of spin chemistry will accelerate progress in spintronics.
Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain
Burdík, Čestmír; Fuksa, Jan; Isaev, Alexei
2014-11-01
The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included.
Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burdík, Čestmír; Fuksa, Jan; Isaev, Alexei
2014-01-01
The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included
Statistical mechanics of systems of unbounded spins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebowitz, J L [Yeshiva Univ., New York (USA). Belfer Graduate School of Science; Presutti, E [L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica
1976-11-01
We develop the statistical mechanics of unbounded n-component spin systems interacting via potentials which are superstable and strongly tempered. The uniqueness of the equilibrium state is then proven for one component ferromagnetic spins whose free energy is differentiable with respect to the magnetic field.
Experimental status of high-spin states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephens, F.S.
1975-09-01
Changes occurring in high spin nuclear states are discussed. Experimental methods for studying reduction and eventual quenching of pairing interactions, changes in nuclear shapes, and alignment of individual particle angular momenta with increasing spin are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the study of continuum gamma rays following heavy ion reactions. (12 figures)
About the kinematics of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salesi, G.; Recami, E.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan; Campinas State Univ., SP
1995-06-01
Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of the 4-velocity vμ for spinning particles entails new kinematical properties for v 2 . The well-know constraint (identically true for scalar particles, but entering also the Dirac theory, and assumed a priori in all spinning particle models) P μ v μ =m is here derived in a self-consistent way