Niekerk, van J.M.; Bester, W.; Halleen, F.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.
In 2003 and 2004, a survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) trunk pathogens was conducted in 30 vineyards in the Western and Northern Cape and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. In each vineyard, 20 visually healthy plants were sampled randomly by removing the distal part of one cordon arm.
Eble, C.F.; Pierce, B.S.; Grady, W.C.
Forty-two bench samples of the Sewickley coal bed were collected from seven localities in the northern Appalachian Basin and analyzed palynologically, petrographically, and geochemically. The Sewickley coal bed occurs in the middle of the Pittsburgh Formation (Monongahela Group) and is of Late Pennsylvanian age. Palynologically, it is dominated by spores of tree ferns. Tree fern spore taxa in the Sewickley include Punctatisporites minutus, Punctatosporites minutus, Laevigatosporites minimus, Spinosporites exiguus, Apiculatasporites saetiger, and Thymospora spp. In fact, Punctatisporites minutus was so abundant that it had to be removed from the standard counts and recorded separately (average 73.2%). Even when Punctatisporites minutus is removed from the counts, tree fern spores still dominate a majority of the assemblages, averaging 64.4%. Among the tree fern spores identified in the Sewickley coal, Thymospora exhibits temporal and spatial abundance variation. Thymospora usually increases in abundance from the base to the top of the bed. Thymospora is also more abundant in columns that are thick (>100 cm) and low in ash yield (< 12.0%, dry basis). Calamite spores (e.g. Calamospora spp., Laevigatosporites minor, and L. vulgaris) are the next most abundant plant group represented in the Sewickley coal, averaging 20%. Contributions from all other plant groups are minor in comparison. Petrographically, the Sewickley coal contains high percentages of vitrinite (average 82.3%, mineral matter-free (mmf)), with structured forms being more common than unstructured forms. In contrast, liptinite and inertinite macerals both occur in low percentages (average 7.7% and 10.0%, respectively). Geochemically, the Sewickley coal has a moderate ash yield (average 12.4%) and high total sulfur content (average 3.4%). Four localities contained a high ash or carbonaceous shale bench. These benches, which may be coeval, are strongly dominated by tree fern spores. Unlike the lower ash
A new species of Discinites is described from the Late Permian Upper Shihhotse Formation of the Weibei Coalfield, Shaanxi Province, China. D. hanchengensis sp. nov. has decurrent and disk-like sporophylls with deep-toothed apices, elliptical sporangia and rectangular epidermal cells. The spores are generally of the Calamospora type. The megaspores and microspores are 300-380 and 45-90µm in diameter, respectively. The microspores are similar in size to those of all other species of Discinites that contain Calamospora, but the megaspores are remarkably smaller. The new species represents the first record of Discinites with Calamospora from China and from the Cathaysian flora. Finally, we summarize the associated foliages of Discinites in the Cathaysian flora and find that they are all markedly different from those found in the Euramerican flora.
Kosanke, R.M.; Cecil, C.B. [US Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)
A major floral change occurs in the Upper Pennsylvanian strata in the Midcontinent, Illinois basin, and in the northern Appalachian basin of eastern United States. Lycospora spp. (derived from arborescent lycopsids) became extinct along with some other palynomorph taxa. This investigation is concerned with the importance of this major floral change. Samples were studied from western Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio, and West Virgina (from a previous study) cover the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Freeport coal bed, uppermost part of the Allegheny Formation, to the Mahoning, Mason, Brush Creek, Wilgus, and Anderson coal beds in the lower part of the Conemaugh Formation. The floral change occurs either at or below the accepted Desmoinesian-Missourian boundary in the Midcontinent and Illinois basin, whereas in the northern Appalachians this change occurs in the lower part of the Conemaugh Formation, between the Mahoning and Brush Creek coal beds, or when the Mason is present, between the Mahoning and Mason coal beds. The first coal bed above the extinction of Lycospora spp. is dominated by the palynomorph taxon Endosporites globiformis which is derived from a heterosporous, herbaceous lycopsid. However, Sigillaria, another arborescent lycopsid, did not become extinct at this time as evidenced by the presence of the palynomorph genus Crassispora which is derived from Sigillaria. The reason for the survival of Sigillaria is now known, but it may have been able to adapt, in a limited fashion, to some sort of specialized microenvironment. The ferns, based on palynomorph occurrence, become numerically more important throughout the balance of the Conemaugh Formation, and dominate the Pittsburgh No. 8 and Pomeroy coal beds in the overlying Monogahela Formation.
Palynological assemblages from two outcrops of the upper part of the Memorial Formation, the Lost Branch Formation, and the overlying Hepler unit in Kansas were examined to discover which stratigraphic interval marks the change from the lycopod-dominated coal swamp floras of Middle Pennsylvanian (Westphalian D) age to the fern-dominated coal swamp floras of Late Pennsylvanian (Stephanian) age. The Lost Branch Formation underlies the Pleasanton Group, whose base is recognized as the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian boundary in the Midcontinent. The outcrops include the youngest Middle Pennsylvanian coal (Dawson), just below the Lost Branch Formation, and the oldest Upper Pennsylvanian coal ('Hepler') within the Pleasanton Group. Lycospora dominates the spore assemblage in the Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Dawson coal in the Memorial Shale and is abundant in shale between the coal and just below the Glenpool limestone bed at the top of the Lost Branch Formation. It is rare between the limestone and the Upper Pennsylvanian (Missourian) 'Hepler' coal. Granasporites medius and Thymospora pseudothiessenii disappear below the limestone. The 'Hepler' coal is dominated by fern and seed fern spores Cyclogranisporites and Apiculatasporites, and the sphenopsid spore Calamospora is third in abundance. Florinites, Potonieisporites and other gymnospermic monosaccate pollen are abundant between the two coals. Bisaccate conifer-like pollen, such as Protohaploxipinus, are most common between the Dawson coal and Glenpool limestone, but Wilsonites, which is thought to have been produced by seed ferns, is very abundant from the Glenpool limestone to the 'Hepler' coal. On the basis of macroinvertebrate evidence, the Glenpool limestone is Middle Pennsylvanian in age, but the palynological evidence indicates that the floral change took place slightly before deposition of the limestone. Thus, the major change in climate that occurred near the Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian boundary apparently
Kosanke, R.M.; Cecil, C.B.
arborescent lycopsid, did not become extinct at this time as evidenced by the presence of the palynomorph genus Crassispora which is derived from Sigillaria. The reason for the survival of Sigillaria is not known, but it may have been able to adapt, in a limited fashion, to some sort of specialized microenvironment. The ferns, based on palynomorph occurrence, become numerically more important throughout the balance of the Conemaugh Formation, and dominate the Pittsburgh No. 8 and Pomeroy coal beds in the overlying Monogahela Formation.
Eble, C.F.; Greb, S.F.; Williams, D.A.; Hower, J.C.
Eight bench-column samples of the Western Kentucky Number 4 coal bed, collected from an area along the southern margin of the Western Kentucky Coal Field, were analyzed palynologically, petrographically, and geochemically to document both temporal and spatial variability among these parameters. The Western Kentucky Number 4 coal occurs near the top of the Tradewater Formation, is of Early Desmoinesian age, and is correlative with the lower part of the Allegheny Formation of the Appalachian Basin, and Late Bolsovian strata of western Europe. Palynologically, the coal is co-dominated by spores that were produced by lycopod trees (Lycospora and Granasporites medius) and tree ferns. Thin-walled tree fern spores (Punctatisporites minutus, P. minutus, P. rotundus) are more abundant than thick-walled forms (Laevigatosporites globosus, P. granifer). Calamitean spores (Calamospora and Laevigatosporites spp.) are locally abundant as is cordaitean pollen (Florinites). Small fern (Granulatisporites) and small lycopod spores (Densosporites, Cirratriradites, Endosporites and Anacanthotriletes spinosus) are present, but occur in minor amounts. Temporal changes in palynomorph composition occur, but are not uniform between columns. Spatial variability among columns is also evident. Petrographically, the coal is dominated by vitrinite macerals, with telinite and telocollinite generally occurring more commonly than desmocollinite and gelocollinite. Basal benches typically contain high percentages of vitrinite; middle benches usually contain higher percentages of liptinite and inertinite. In about half the studied columns, the terminal coal benches show a slight increase in vitrinite. In the study area, the petrography of the Western Kentucky Number 4 coal is more uniform than the palynology. Ash yields and total sulfur contents are temporally uniform in some columns, but variable in others. In the latter case, higher percentages of ash and sulfur occur at the base of the bed and