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Sample records for spinosad bait sprays

  1. Comparison of food-based attractants for Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and evaluation of mazoferm-spinosad bait spray for field suppression in mango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekesi, Sunday; Mohamed, Samira; Tanga, Chrysantus M

    2014-02-01

    Catches of Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, & White (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Multi-lure traps baited with six commercial food-based attractants, Mazoferm E802, Torula yeast, GF-120, Hymlure, Biolure, and Nulure were compared in mango orchards in Kenya. In 2007, Mazoferm E802 and Torula yeast were the most effective attractants and captured 2.4-2.6 times more females and 3.4-4.0 times more males than the standard Nulure. All attractants captured more females than males (ranging from 63 to 74%). In 2008, Mazoferm E802 was the most effective bait capturing 5.6 and 9.1 times more females and males, respectively, than the standard Nulure. Among all the attractants, in both years, Nulure captured the greatest proportion of females: 74% compared with 51-68% for the other attractants. In 2008, the use of Mazoferm E802 in combination with spinosad as a bait spray in mango orchards reduced B. invadens catches relative to the control by 87% within 4 wk and 90% within 8 wk. At harvest, the proportion of fruit infested was significantly lower in the treated orchards (8%) compared with the control orchards (59%). Estimated mango yield was significantly higher in orchards receiving the bait sprays (12,487 kg/ha) compared with control orchards (3,606 kg/ha). Based on bait spray costs, yield data, and monetary gains, a cost-benefit ratio of 1:9.1 was realized, which is acceptable for growers. In 2009, the experiment was repeated with similar results. We have demonstrated that Mazoferm E802, used alone for monitoring of B. invadens or in conjunction with spinosad for population suppression, shows great promise in Kenya.

  2. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  3. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  4. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Implementing a Spinosad-Based Local Bait Station to Control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in High Rainfall Areas of Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An ‘umbrella trap’ tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  6. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: Effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...

  7. Field evaluation of Mediterranean fruit fly mass trapping with Tripack as alternative to malathion bait-spraying in citrus orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediouni Ben Jemaa, J.; Bachrouch, O.; Allimi, E.; Dhouibi, M. H.

    2010-07-01

    The mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted attractant lure Tri-pack as an alternative to malathion bait-spraying (control treatment) was tested in two citrus orchards in the North of Tunisia against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata during 2006 and 2007. Results of mass trapping trials in 2006 and 2007 indicated that adult males Medfly captures showed reductions respect to control of 37.62% and 40.2% respectively in mandarin orange variety (Citrus reticulata) orchard compared to 36.48% and 47.29% in Washington navel orange variety (Citrus sinensis) field. Fruit damage assessment showed significant differences between the mass trapping with Tripack and malathion bait-spraying techniques in the reduction of the percentage of fruit punctures. The percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field in 2006 and in 2007 in the mandarin orange orchard. Nevertheless, in the Washington navel orange orchard, the percentage of punctured fruit at harvest was significantly different between the treated and the control field only in 2006. Thus, results obtained from this study showed that the mass trapping technique based on the use of the female-targeted lure Tri-pack could be involved as an appropriate strategy for the control of the Medfly and is as effective as malathion bait spraying treatment without leaving pesticide residues on fruit. (Author) 40 refs.

  8. Explaining mycoinsecticide activity: poor performance of spray and bait formulations of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum against Mormon cricket in field cage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were threefold: (1) to evaluate B. bassiana GHA and M. anisopliae F52 for potential use against Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex Haldeman); (2) to compare spray and bait formulations of each fungus against immature and adult Mormon cricket; and (3) to understand the effect of optimal a...

  9. Spinosad resistance, esterase isoenzymes and temporal synergism in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Grant A; Gunning, Robin V; Cottage, Emma L A; Borzatta, Valerio; Gobbi, Carlotta

    2014-09-01

    Spinosad has been widely used in Australia to control western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) but spinosad usefulness is now compromised by resistance. Here we studied a highly spinosad resistant strain of F. occidentalis to explore if esterases had a role in spinosad resistance. Enhanced esterase activity in pressured spinosad-resistant F. occidentalis was confirmed via PAGE electrophoresis and estimated to be approximately three times higher than that in a susceptible strain. Spinosad-esterase inhibition data in the resistant strain, showed a concentration effect with significant esterase-spinosad binding occurring at spinosad concentrations from 6.2× 10(-7) to 1.5× 10(-5) M. Similarly, a spinosad-piperonyl butoxide (PBO) inhibition curve showed a concentration effect, with significant esterase-PBO binding occurring in the resistant strain at PBO concentrations between 3.3× 10(-5) M and 8.4× 10(-4) M. No binding of esterase to spinosad or PBO occurred in the susceptible strain. Results of bioassays in which spinosad resistant F. occidentalis were sprayed with a 4h delayed release formulation of cyclodextrin-complexed spinosad with immediately available PBO demonstrated that spinosad resistance was significantly reduced from 577 to 72-fold. With further development the PBO synergism of spinosad using a delayed release formulation, similar to that used here, may provide effective control for spinosad resistant F. occidentalis. Temporal synergism of spinosad may prove to be effective tactic for the control of spinosad resistant F. occidentalis where the main resistance mechanism involved has been confirmed to be esterase based. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Laboratory and field assessment of cyantraniliprole relative to existing fly baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Amy C; Gerry, Alec C; Gallagher, Nicola T; Peterson, Nyles G; Mullens, Bradley A

    2015-05-01

    Toxic fly baits are commonly used for fly control in California animal operations. However, resistance development has been a problem. Comprehensive laboratory and field studies were conducted to test commercial baits (imidacloprid, methomyl, dinotefuran, spinosad) and one novel cyantraniliprole bait. A susceptible Musca domestica strain was compared with wild-type M. domestica and Fannia canicularis strains in the laboratory using choice/no-choice tests. Field visitation to baits and both short- and longer-term mortality were documented. Susceptible Musca suffered high mortality with all baits after 3 days of choice and no-choice tests. Wild-type Musca mortality was more variable and higher in no-choice relative to choice tests. Fannia were most susceptible to spinosad > dinotefuran = cyantraniliprole > methomyl = imidacloprid. Field Musca were most attracted to spinosad > cyantraniliprole > dinotefuran > sugar > methomyl > imidacloprid. Delayed mortality from bait-fed field flies (captured and held with untreated food and water for 3 days) was ranked spinosad = cyantraniliprole > dinotefuran = methomyl > imidacloprid > sugar. Behavioral resistance of M. domestica to imidacloprid and methomyl persists. Spinosad and cyantraniliprole baits (delayed mortality) performed best. Speed of action may be a factor in use and misuse of baits. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A more economic and practical fruit fly suppression tool is needed to replace conventional aerial and ground bait sprays applications over human settlements, protected natural areas, and difficult to access areas where fruit fly hosts exist. This has been a major request from area-wide integrated pest management action programmes using the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as a component. In recent years, especially in Europe, most conventional insecticides used to control fruit pests have been banned (e.g. malathion, dichlorvos and other organophosphates), therefore areas producing fruits and vegetables for markets that request low insecticide residues or even fruit and vegetable organic farming is seeking for a more economic fruit fly control option to the spinosad-based bait sprays and to the use of mass trapping. To address these requests, bait stations can be one of the most suitable alternatives. The development of these devices needs to take into consideration cost-effectiveness, and long lasting attractants and killing agents, and should target female fruit flies. Recent developments of synthetic food attractants and long-lasting formulations open the possibility to improve the existent baits stations or develop new ones. With this objective the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organized a Consultants Meeting ('Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT'), held in Mazatlan, Mexico, from 30 October to 1 November 2008, with the participation of 14 scientists from the Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria, Argentina; Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Australia; North American Plant Protection Organization, Canada; African Insect Science for Food and Health, Kenya; Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Spain; Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries, Spain, Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y

  12. Susceptibility of Adult Mosquitoes to Insecticides in Aqueous Sucrose Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    malathion- sugar solution. Incorporation of Bacillus sphaericus Meyer and Neide spores with the sucrose/dye solutions provided further evidence with... larvae (Darriet and Corbel 2006, Jiang and Mulla 2009). Previous studies have reported on effective delivery of spinosad in sucrose as oral baits...Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae . Based on topical application of adults, higher efficacy of fipronil than permethrin was reported by Pridgeon et al

  13. Phytotoxicity of GF-120 NF Naturalyte fruit fly bait carrier on sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) foliage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLury, Naomi C; Thistlewood, Howard; Routledge, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Six sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars were tested with GF-120 with spinosad (0.2 g L(-1) spinosad bait) or without it (blank bait) to understand leaf phytotoxicity observed in the field. Spinosad bait and blank bait did not differ significantly with respect to damage observed. Leaf damage was found almost exclusively at the abaxial (lower) surfaces with the doses (0, 17, 20, 25 or 40%) and cultivars tested. The effects of the blank bait on abaxial surfaces increased from 24 to 168 h, and with dose, in terms of the proportion of droplets (0.00, 0.42, 0.52, 0.75 or 0.94) and area (0.0, 18.7, 23.5, 40.5 or 91.6 mm) burned. In addition, chlorophyll was reduced with increasing dose on abaxial surfaces (SPAD = 44.6, 36.1, 34.1, 31.0, 21.5), but not on adaxial (upper) surfaces (SPAD = 44.6, 44.2, 44.0, 44.8, 44.4). The chlorophyll level in undamaged leaves (adaxial surfaces) differed by cultivar. Cherry leaves were less damaged by a 20% bait application in June (0.26) than in July (0.46) and August (0.50). Incidental insect leaf feeding at bait locations occurred at a low rate and was highest on abaxial bait surfaces. Applying GF-120 to the adaxial leaf surface, or at doses of

  14. Honey bee foraging preferences, effects of sugars, and fruit fly toxic bait components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Robert L; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis

    2009-08-01

    Field tests were carried out to evaluate the repellency of the Dow AgroSciences fruit fly toxic bait GF-120 (NF Naturalyte) to domestic honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). GF-120 is an organically registered attractive bait for tephritid fruit flies composed of spinosad, hydrolyzed protein (Solulys), high-fructose corn syrup (ADM CornSweet 42 high-fructose corn syrup, referred to as invertose sugar or invertose here), vegetable oils, adjuvants, humectants, and attractants. Tests were carried out with non-Africanized honey bees in February and March 2005 and 2007 during periods of maximum hunger for these bees. In all tests, bees were first trained to forage from plates of 30% honey-water (2005) or 30% invertose (2007). In 2005 bees were offered choices between honey-water and various bait components, including the complete toxic bait. In 2007, similar tests were performed except bees were attracted with 30% invertose then offered the bait components or complete bait as no-choice tests. Initially, the 2005 tests used all the components of GF-120 except the spinosad as the test bait. After we were convinced that bees would not collect or be contaminated by the bait, we tested the complete GF-120. Behavior of the bees indicated that during initial attraction and after switching the baits, the bait components and the complete bait were repellent to honey bees, but the honey-water remained attractive. Invertose was shown to be less attractive to bees, addition of Solulys eliminated almost all bee activity, and addition of ammonium acetate completely eliminated feeding in both choice and no-choice tests. These results confirm previous tests showing that bees do not feed on GF-120 and also show that honey bees are repelled by the fruit fly attractant components of the bait in field tests.

  15. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  16. Ammonium Acetate Enhances the Attractiveness of a Variety of Protein-Based Baits to Female Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Souder, Steven K; Smith, Trevor R; Fox, Abbie J; Vargas, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used by female fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally based control strategies such as food-based lures and insecticidal baits targeting pestiferous fruit fly species. In field cage studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioral response of laboratory-reared male and female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), to seven commercially available protein baits and to beer waste, a relatively inexpensive and readily available substance. Each material was tested alone or in combination with either ammonium acetate or ammonium carbonate. For the majority of baits evaluated, the presence of ammonium acetate, but not ammonium carbonate, elicited a significantly greater level of response of female C. capitata compared with the protein baits alone. The addition of ammonium acetate to selected baits increased bait attractiveness to a level comparable with that elicited by the most widely used spinosad-based protein bait, GF-120. Our findings indicate that the addition of ammonium acetate to commercially available proteinaceous baits and to beer waste can greatly improve their attractiveness to C. capitata, potentially increasing the bait's effectiveness for fruit fly monitoring and suppression. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Sex-specific spinosad resistance in Danish houseflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Dorte Heidi

    Spinosad is a novel insecticide which is useful for control of multiple insect pests and it was introduced for housefly control within the last decade. Prior to the introduction of spinosad in Denmark, a survey of Danish houseflies from farms all over the country was initiated, and we discovered...... a strain that was resistant to spinosad. However, this cross-resistance was unusual because females were 26-fold resistant, while males were only 6-fold resistant. This pattern of resistance does not match any known resistance to other insecticides and is different from spinosad resistance in other...... countries. Discovering the reasons behind this sex specific resistance will shed some light in mechanisms behind spinosad resistance in the housefly....

  18. Toxicities and effects of insecticidal toxic baits to control Drosophila suzukii and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreazza, Felipe; Bernardi, Daniel; Baronio, Cleber A; Pasinato, Joel; Nava, Dori E; Botton, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is a primary insect pest that causes direct damage to fruits with a thin epidermis such as strawberries, cherries and blueberries. In strawberry fields, the co-occurrence of D. suzukii and Zaprionus indianus has increased production losses. This study evaluated the toxicities and effects of insecticidal baits to control adults and larvae of both D. suzukii and Z. indianus. Organophosphate (dimethoate and malathion), spinosyn (spinosad and spinetoram), pyrethroid (lambda-cyhalothrin) and diamide (cyantraniliprole) insecticides exhibited high toxicity to both adults and larvae of D. suzukii and Z. indianus (mortality >80%) in topical and dip bioassays. However, when the insecticides were mixed with a feeding attractant, a positive effect was observed only for adults of D. suzukii. Insecticides containing neonicotinoids (acetamiprid and thiamethoxam) and pyrolle (chlorfenapyr) caused intermediate mortality to adults of D. suzukii (40-60%) and low mortality for Z. indianus (mortality <23%); however, these compounds reduced the larval infestation of the two species by 55-86%. Botanical (azadirachtin) and sulphur insecticides exhibited low toxicity (mortality <40%) on adults and larvae of both species. Dimethoate, malathion, spinosad, spinetoram, lambda-cyhalothrin and cyantraniliprole are highly toxic to both larvae and adults of D. suzukii and Z. indianus. The use of toxic baits for adults of D. suzukii could be an alternative in management of this species. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Application of spinosad increases the susceptibility of insecticide-resistant Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to pyrethroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambkin, Trevor A; Furlong, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of spinosad exposure on the susceptibility of pyrethroid- and organophosphate-resistant populations of lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to insecticides was investigated in broiler house farm and laboratory studies. A field pyrethroid- and organophosphate-resistant population showed a 3.6-fold increase in susceptibility to gamma-cyhalothrin following spinosad treatment. Overall, cyfluthrin- and fenitrothion-resistant field populations were more susceptible to these insecticides following spinosad treatments, but populations that were not resistant showed no change in susceptibility following spinosad treatment. In a related study, three broiler farm beetle populations with very similar levels of cyfluthrin and gamma-cyhalothrin resistance and similar susceptibilities to spinosad were used to investigate temporal effects of spinosad field treatments on the susceptibility to pyrethroids. Farm insecticide regimes applied at the start of each flock differed: the control broiler house received no insecticide applications, another house was systematically treated with cyfluthrin at the start of each study flock, and the third house was systematically treated with spinosad at the start of five flocks. Afterwards, treatments reverted to cyfluthrin on all farms. At the end of flocks, beetles were tested with cyfluthrin, gamma-cyhalothrin, and spinosad. The control and cyfluthrin house beetles did not change susceptibility to pyrethroids over the period of the study. In the spinosad house, spinosad had no effect on spinosad susceptibility but dramatically increased cyfluthrin and gamma-cyhalothrin susceptibilities. These new susceptibilities were maintained while spinosad applications continued, but pyrethroid susceptibility declined once spinosad applications ceased. This study provides evidence of a synergistic interaction between spinosad and pyrethroids in pyrethroid-resistant beetles. This evidence has significant

  20. Supplemental control of lepidopterous pests on Bt transgenic sweet corn with biologically-based spray treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Robert R; Shepard, B Merle; Shapiro, Martin; Hassell, Richard L; Schaffer, Mark L; Smith, Chad M

    2009-01-01

    Biologically-based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poales: Poaceae), expressing a Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt). Overall, transgenic corn supported lower densities of both pests than did nontransgenic corn. Control of the fall armyworm was improved in both whorl-stage and tassel-stage corn by the use of either a nucleopolyhedrovirus or neem, but the greatest improvement was seen with spinosad. Only spinosad consistently reduced damage to ears, which was caused by both pest species. In general, efficacy of the spray materials did not differ greatly between transgenic and nontransgenic corn.

  1. Compatibility of spinosad with predaceous mites (Acari) used to control Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Touhidur; Spafford, Helen; Broughton, Sonya

    2011-08-01

    Spinosad is a biopesticide widely used for control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). It is reported to be non-toxic to several predatory mite species used for the biological control of thrips. Predatory mites Typhlodromips montdorensis (Schicha), Neoseiulus cucumeris (Oudemans) and Hypoaspis miles (Berlese) have been used for control of F. occidentalis. This study investigated the impact of direct and residual toxicity of spinosad on F. occidentalis and predatory mites. The repellency of spinosad residues to these predatory mites was also investigated. Direct contact to spinosad effectively reduced the number of F. occidentalis adults and larvae, causing > 96% mortality. Spinosad residues aged 2-96 h were also toxic to F. occidentalis. Direct exposure to spinosad resulted in > 90% mortality of all three mite species. Thresholds for the residual toxicity (contact) of spinosad (LT25 ) were estimated as 4.2, 3.2 and 5.8 days for T. montdorensis, N. cucumeris and H. miles respectively. When mites were simultaneously exposed to spinosad residues and fed spinosad-intoxicated thrips larvae, toxicity increased. Residual thresholds were re-estimated as 5.4, 3.9 and 6.1 days for T. montdorensis, N. cucumeris and H. miles respectively. Residues aged 2-48 h repelled T. montdorensis and H. miles, and residues aged 2-24 h repelled N. cucumeris. Predatory mites can be safely released 6 days after spinosad is applied for the management of F. occidentalis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran. Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method. Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas. Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  3. Rapid Elimination of German Cockroach, Blatella germanica, by Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baits have become popular and effective formulations against urban insect pests. Compared with re­sidual sprays toxic gel baits are used more and more frequently to control urban cockroach populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of two commercially available fipronil and imidacloprid gel bait formulations against Blattella germanica field infested in Iran.Methods:  The study was carried out in an urban area at Tehran from March 2004 to September 2005. The 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits were placed continuously in 3 residential German cockroach infested units. Pre- and post-treatment cockroach density was assessed by visual count method.Results: Pre- and post-treatment visual count of cockroaches in treatment and control areas, and percentage reduc­tion in cockroach density in treatment areas in comparison to control areas was showed that density reduction was increased with the 0.05% fipronil and 2.15% imidacloprid gel baits in treated areas from 1st to 9th week in compari­son to control area. After 60 days, German cockroaches eliminated completely from these areas.Conclusion: These results show that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are highly effective in field German cock­roach infested after insecticide spraying control failure German cockroach infested fields where spraying  of pyrethroid insecticides failed to control the situation and confirm previous  reports stating that avermectin and hydramethylnon are more effective than conventional insecticides in baits against cockroaches. Therefore, fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits are appropriate candidates for controlling German cockroach infested dwellings in Iran where control with other insectices failed because of resistance.

  4. Allergy to sea fishing baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Toledo, R; Pagán, J A; Hernández, J; Cardona, G; Postigo, I; Martínez, J

    2005-01-01

    We report a new case of rhinitis and asthma caused by sea fishing baits. The results showed exposure to Sipunculus nudus (Phylum Sipuncula; order Sipunculida: Sipunculidae) to be the main cause of the allergic symptoms. The intervention of IgE was demonstrated, with the presence of cross-reactions with allergenic extracts from other worm species used as baits, belonging to different orders of Annelida.

  5. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step resin adsorption technology was investigated for spinosad production and separation as follows: the first step resin addition into the fermentor at early cultivation period to decrease the timely product concentration in the broth; the second step of resin addition was used after fermentation to adsorb and extract the spinosad. Based on this, a two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process for spinosad fermentation, separation, and purification was established. Spinosad concentration in 5-L fermentor increased by 14.45 % after adding 50 g/L macroporous at the beginning of fermentation. The established two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process got the 95.43 % purity and 87 % yield for spinosad, which were both higher than that of the conventional crystallization of spinosad from aqueous phase that were 93.23 and 79.15 % separately. The two-step macroporous resin adsorption method has not only carried out the coupling of spinosad fermentation and separation but also increased spinosad productivity. In addition, the two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process performs better in spinosad yield and purity.

  6. Thiamethoxam acts as a target-site synergist of spinosad in resistant strains of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén, Juan; Bielza, Pablo

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the resistance mechanism towards spinosad in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an altered target site. Like the neonicotinoids, the spinosyns act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in insects, but at a distinct site. The changes in nAChRs related to spinosad resistance in thrips might involve interaction with neonicotinoids. In this study, the efficacy of spinosad and neonicotinoids, alone and in combination, was evaluated in susceptible and spinosad-resistant thrips strains. The neonicotinoids tested were imidacloprid, thiacloprid, acetamiprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin. No cross-resistance was shown between spinosad and any of the neonicotinoids. However, an increased toxicity was observed when a mixture of spinosad with thiamethoxam or clothianidin was tested. No synergism was found in the susceptible strains. The more spinosad-resistant the thrips strain, the stronger was the synergism. Data suggest that spinosad and thiamethoxam may interact at the nAChRs in spinosad-resistant thrips, facilitating enhanced insecticidal action. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effects of trapping with bait on bait-station indices to black bear abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Indices of relative abundance allow managers and researchers to examine changes in population size over time or compare relative population sizes in different areas. In the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, bait-station surveys were conducted in most years from 1983 to 2000 to follow trends over time in the black bear (Ursus americanus) population. Baited bear trapping also took place in the sanctuary during those years, and some trap lines coincided with bait-station lines. Because the same baits were used for both trapping and bait station lines, we hypothesized that visitation rates of bears to bait stations established in proximity to baited trap lines would differ from rates at bait stations that were not associated with baited trap lines. We modeled probability of bait stations being visited by bears on trapped and untrapped lines to estimate the effect baited trapping had on visitation rates. We found that population trends inferred from bait-station visits in areas that also were trapped with bait were biased high and that bias increased over time. Bears may have become habituated to the bait on trap lines and incorporated it as a regular food source. Bait-station indices should not be conducted near research sites that employ similar bait when both produce a tangible reward for the animals.

  8. THE SIDE-EFFECT OF ORGANIC INSECTICIDE SPINOSAD ON BIOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAY SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Telesiński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of spinosad on soil biochemical and microbiological properties. The experiment was carried out on sandy loam with Corg content 10.91 g·kg-l. Spinosad, as Spintor 240 SC was added into soil in dosages: a recommended field dosage, and fivefold, tenfold, and twenty-fivefold higher dosages. The amount of spinosad introduced into soil was between 12.55 and 313.75 g·kg-l. Moreover, soil samples without spinosad supplement were prepared as a reference. Respective Spintor 240 SC doses were converted into 1 kg soil, taking into account 10 cm depth. After application of insecticide water emulsions, soil moisture was brought to 60% maximum holding water capacity. The soil was thoroughly mixed and stored in tightly-closed polyethylene bags at 20 °C for a period 4 weeks. During the experiment dissipation of spinosad, soil enzymes (dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, urease and number of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes were assayed. Obtained results showed, that dissipation of spinosad in soil was relatively fast – the DT50 of this insecticide was ranged between 1.11 and 2.21 days. Spinosad residues had different effects on soil microbiological and biochemical properties. However, over time the impact of this insecticide definitely decreased. This indicated that the use of spinosad in organic farming, particularly in the field dosage, does not pose a long-term threat to the soil environment.

  9. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  10. Resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in greenhouses of south-eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo; Quinto, Vicente; Contreras, Josefina; Torné, María; Martín, Alberto; Espinosa, Pedro J

    2007-07-01

    Susceptibility to spinosad of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), from south-eastern Spain was determined. LC(50) values of the field populations without previous exposure to spinosad collected in Murcia in 2001 and 2002 ranged from 0.005 to 0.077 mg L(-1). The populations collected in Almeria in 2003 in greenhouses were resistant to spinosad (LC(50) > 54 mg L(-1)) compared with the authors' highly susceptible laboratory strain. The highly sensitive laboratory strain leads to very high resistance ratios for the field populations (>13 500), but these ratios do not necessarily mean resistance problems and control failures (spinosad field rate 90-120 mg L(-1)). The populations collected in Murcia from some greenhouses in 2004 were also resistant to spinosad (RF > 3682). Spinosad overuse, with more than ten applications per crop, produced these resistant populations in some greenhouses. Spinosad showed no cross-resistance to acrinathrin, formetanate or methiocarb in laboratory strains selected for resistance towards each insecticide. Correlation analysis indicated no cross-resistance among spinosad and the other three insecticides in 13 field populations and in nine laboratory strains. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and diethyl maleate (DEM) did not enhance the toxicity of spinosad to the resistant strains, indicating that metabolic-mediated detoxification was not responsible for the spinosad resistance. These findings suggest that rotation with spinosad may be an effective resistance management strategy. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of spinosad on Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China: tolerance status, synergism and enzymatic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Qiu, Xinghui; Ren, Xuexiang; Zhang, Wencheng; Wang, Kaiyun

    2009-09-01

    Spinosad is increasingly used in pest management programmes, and resistance to it has been detected in recent years. However, there is no report on the susceptibilities of field populations of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) from China. Furthermore, the impact of spinosad on metabolic enzymes in this pest remains unknown. Four populations of H. armigera from different locations in China displayed less than 6.5-fold difference in LC(50) to spinosad, the highest being in the Xinjiang population, followed by Xiajin, Taian and Hubei populations, while there was no significant difference at LC(99) level among the four populations. The toxicity of spinosad could be synergised by piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenylphosphate (TPP), but not by diethyl maleate (DEM). Spinosad exposure for 48 h significantly increased the activities of p-nitroanisole O-demethylase (ODM), while no significant changes in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and carboxyl esterase (CarE) were observed. Field populations of H. armigera from China displayed marginally different susceptibilities to spinosad and had a relatively low LC(50). Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase might be involved in the metabolism of, and hence resistance to, spinosad in this pest in China. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Stability of spinosad resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, P; Quinto, V; Grávalos, C; Fernández, E; Abellán, J; Contreras, J

    2008-08-01

    The stability of spinosad resistance in western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), populations with differing initial frequencies of resistance was studied in laboratory conditions. The stability of resistance was assessed in bimonthly residual bioassays in five populations with initial frequencies of 100, 75, 50, 25 and 0% of resistant individuals. There were no consistent changes in susceptibility of the susceptible strain after eight months without insecticide pressure. In the resistant strain, very highly resistant to spinosad (RF50>23,000-fold), resistance was maintained up to eight months without further exposure to spinosad. In the absence of any immigration of susceptible genes into the population, resistance was stable. In the case of the population with different initial frequency of resistant thrips, spinosad resistance declined significantly two months later in the absence of selection pressure. With successive generations, these strains did not change significantly in sensitivity. Spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis declined significantly in the absence of selection pressure and the presence of susceptible WFT. These results suggest that spinosad resistance probably is unstable under field conditions, primarily due to the immigration of susceptible WFT. Factors influencing stability or reversion of spinosad resistance are discussed.

  13. Autosomal male determination in a spinosad-resistant housefly strain from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Dorte H; Scott, Jeffrey G; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a global pest and has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. The insecticide spinosad plays an important role in housefly control. Females of the Danish housefly strain 791spin are threefold more resistant to spinosad than...... males in this strain. The factor responsible for spinosad resistance in the strain is unknown, but previous studies suggest a role of cytochrome P450s for detoxification of spinosad. Sex determination in the housefly is controlled by a male-determining factor (M), either located on the Y chromosome...... or on one of the five autosomes (I to V). RESULTS The authors performed a series of crosses and backcrosses, starting with cross of 791spin and the susceptible reference strain aabys (bearing morphological mutations on each autosome). These flies were evaluated for gender and bioassayed to determine levels...

  14. Toxicity of spinosad to temephos-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Dias, Luciana; Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa Macoris; Otrera, Vanessa Camargo Garbeloto; Dias, Adriana dos Santos; Bauzer, Luiz Guilherme Soares da Rocha; Rodovalho, Cynara de Melo; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2017-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of different arboviruses and represents a major public health problem. Several Brazilian populations of Ae. aegypti have developed resistance to temephos, the most used organophosphate larvicide. New tools which are less harmful to the environment and safer for humans are becoming increasingly important to control this insect vector. Spinosad, an aerobic fermentation product of a soil actinobacteria, has a favorable environmental profile. It presents selective insecticide properties, a mechanism of action that differs from those of many synthetic chemical insecticides. The toxicity of spinosad and temephos to Aedes aegypti populations from Brazil, which were previously exposed to temephos, were investigated in this study. Larval susceptibility (LC50) to temephos varied from 3μg/L for Rockefeller up to 260 μg/L for Santana do Ipanema field derived population. Larval susceptibility (LC50) to spinosad varied from 23μg/L for Rockefeller up to 93μg/L for Marilia field derived population. In addition, a semi-field trial was performed to evaluate spinosad (NatularTM DT) initial efficacy and persistence toward four field-derived lineages and the Rockefeller lineage, used as an internal control. Spinosad was tested at 0.5mg active ingredient/L in 200L capacity water tanks. Mortality was recorded each 24 hours after exposition and tanks were further recolonized once per week with mortality being recorded daily for eight weeks. Spinosad provided a level equal or superior to 80% mortality during a seven to eight week evaluation period. The assessed populations did not present cross-resistance between spinosad and temephos in laboratory conditions. It demonstrates that spinosad may be a promising larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti, especially for populations in which resistance to temephos has been detected. PMID:28301568

  15. Toxicity of spinosad to temephos-resistant Aedes aegypti populations in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dos Santos Dias

    Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of different arboviruses and represents a major public health problem. Several Brazilian populations of Ae. aegypti have developed resistance to temephos, the most used organophosphate larvicide. New tools which are less harmful to the environment and safer for humans are becoming increasingly important to control this insect vector. Spinosad, an aerobic fermentation product of a soil actinobacteria, has a favorable environmental profile. It presents selective insecticide properties, a mechanism of action that differs from those of many synthetic chemical insecticides. The toxicity of spinosad and temephos to Aedes aegypti populations from Brazil, which were previously exposed to temephos, were investigated in this study. Larval susceptibility (LC50 to temephos varied from 3μg/L for Rockefeller up to 260 μg/L for Santana do Ipanema field derived population. Larval susceptibility (LC50 to spinosad varied from 23μg/L for Rockefeller up to 93μg/L for Marilia field derived population. In addition, a semi-field trial was performed to evaluate spinosad (NatularTM DT initial efficacy and persistence toward four field-derived lineages and the Rockefeller lineage, used as an internal control. Spinosad was tested at 0.5mg active ingredient/L in 200L capacity water tanks. Mortality was recorded each 24 hours after exposition and tanks were further recolonized once per week with mortality being recorded daily for eight weeks. Spinosad provided a level equal or superior to 80% mortality during a seven to eight week evaluation period. The assessed populations did not present cross-resistance between spinosad and temephos in laboratory conditions. It demonstrates that spinosad may be a promising larvicide for the control of Ae. aegypti, especially for populations in which resistance to temephos has been detected.

  16. Fitness cost and realized heritability of resistance to spinosad in Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, N; Mansoor, M M; Shad, S A; Pathan, A K; Waheed, A; Ejaz, M; Razaq, M; Zulfiqar, M A

    2014-12-01

    The common green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea is a key biological control agent employed in integrated pest management (IPM) programs for managing various insect pests. Spinosad is used for the management of pests in ornamental plants, fruit trees, vegetable and field crops all over the world, including Pakistan. A field-collected population of C. carnea was selected with spinosad and fitness costs and realized heritability were investigated. After selection for five generations, C. carnea developed 12.65- and 73.37-fold resistance to spinosad compared to the field and UNSEL populations. The resistant population had a relative fitness of 1.47, with substantially higher emergence rate of healthy adults, fecundity and hatchability and shorter larval duration, pupal duration, and development time as compared to a susceptible laboratory population. Mean relative growth rate of larvae, intrinsic rate of natural population increase and biotic potential was higher for the spinosad-selected population compared to the susceptible laboratory population. Chrysoperla species are known to show resistance to insecticides which makes the predator compatible with most IPM systems. The realized heritability (h 2) value of spinosad resistance was 0.37 in spinosad-selected population of C. carnea.

  17. Development of an alginate hydrogel to deliver aqueous bait for pest ant management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jia-Wei; Hoddle, Mark S; Mulchandani, Ashok; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2017-10-01

    Insecticide sprays used for ant control cause environmental contamination. Liquid bait is a safe and effective alternative, but it requires bait stations to dispense the toxicant. We developed a biodegradable hydrogel to deliver liquid bait obviating the need for bait stations. Alginate hydrogel beads with preferred rigidity and maximum hydration in 25% sucrose solution were engineered by optimizing a crosslinking process. The moisture content of the substrate on which the beads were placed and the relative atmospheric humidity significantly influenced water loss dynamics of the hydrated hydrogel beads. Laboratory choice studies indicated that hydrated hydrogel beads had reduced palatability to foraging ants when they lost ≥50% water. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) indicated that the insecticide thiamethoxam added to sucrose solution was absorbed into the hydrogel beads. Hydrogel beads conditioned in sucrose solution with 1 mg L -1 thiamethoxam provided complete control of all castes of Argentine ant Linepithema humile (Mayr) colony by 14 days post treatment in the laboratory trial and provided a 79% reduction in ant activity after 8 weeks in the field trial. Alginate hydrogel beads provided an effective delivery system for liquid baits laced with low concentrations of insecticide to control Argentine ants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Bait Units for Collection of House Flies

    OpenAIRE

    Willson, H. R.; Mulla, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Lurtox™4 is a proteinaceous attractant for Musca domestica L. and other synanthropic Diptera (Mulla et al. 1973: Willson and Mulla 1973a) and is easily mixed with commercial poison sugar baits. The mixture of Lurtox and dichlorvos sugar bait (50:50 by wt) can be administered in measurable quantities into compact bait units where dead flies can be easily recovered for counting and for other studies. While developing Lurtox for control of Hippelates eye gnats, Mulla et al. (1973) found that moi...

  19. Speed of flea knockdown of spinosad compared to afoxolaner, and of spinosad through 28 days post-treatment in controlled laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel E; Rumschlag, Anthony J; Young, Lisa Marie; Ryan, William G

    2015-11-09

    The speed of flea knockdown by different products and their duration of effectiveness are factors which affect veterinarian prescribing decisions. To further validate the month-long pulicidal effectiveness of spinosad and determine its rate of flea knockdown to that of afoxolaner, three studies were conducted in two laboratories in the United States, utilizing flea infestations from colonies which are regularly refreshed through introduction of locally caught fleas. All study assessors were blinded, dogs were ranked by pre-study flea counts and randomized accordingly, and treatments administered on Day 0. All studies included a negative control group; two also included an afoxolaner group. In one study, flea challenges for treated and control dogs (10 per group) were completed 21 and 28 days after treatment and counts were performed 24 h later. In each of two speed-of-knockdown (SOK) studies, 36 dogs were randomized, six dogs per group, to: untreated controls; administered oral afoxolaner (2.6-6.2 mg/kg); or oral spinosad (32.1-59.2 mg/kg). In the SOK studies, live fleas from Day -1 infestations were counted after being combed off at 1 and 3 h after treatment, and after reinfestations on Day 7. There were no treatment-related adverse events. Spinosad was 98.6% effective at 28 days post treatment. For SOK, geometric mean live flea counts for afoxolaner were not different from controls at any assessment. For spinosad, all mean counts were significantly lower than in controls (p ≤ 0.0128) except at 1 h post treatment in both studies. Spinosad was significantly more effective than afoxolaner in both studies at 3 h post treatment (p ≤ 0.0065) and post-Day 7 infestation (p ≤ 0.0054), and at 1 h post treatment (p = 0.0276) and post-Day 7 infestation in one study. These data validate spinosad's faster onset of flea knockdown than afoxolaner against infestations present at the time of treatment, and faster residual speed of flea knockdown for at least

  20. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section... BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part “advertising” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring but...

  1. Fitness Trade-Off Associated With Spinosad Resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wan, Yanran; Yuan, Guangdi; Hussain, Sabir; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Wu, Qingjun

    2017-08-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an economically important pest of agricultural crops. High resistance has been detected in field populations of F. occidentalis against the insecticide spinosad. In this study, we compared life history traits, body sizes, and feeding behaviors (recorded via an electrical penetration graph) of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and spinosad-resistant (NIL-R) near-isogenic lines of F. occidentalis. Life table analysis showed that NIL-R had reduced female longevity and reduced fecundity. The relative fitness of NIL-R (0.43) was less than half that of Ivf03. NIL-R individuals were smaller than Ivf03 individuals, both in body length and body width at every stage. The number and duration of feeding activities were significantly reduced in NIL-R, with the exception of total duration of long-ingestion probes. These results suggest that there is a fitness trade-off associated with spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis, and that the development of resistance in this pest species may be reduced by rotating spinosad with other pesticides lacking cross-resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Residual Toxicity of Abamectin, Chlorpyrifos, Cyromazine, Indoxacarb and Spinosad on Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae in Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Askari Saryazdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Liriomyza trifolii is an important pest of vegetable crops in many parts of the worldincluding Iran. In this study potted bean plants were sprayed with recommended fieldrates of abamectin, chlorpyrifos, cyromazine, indoxacarb and spinosad. To assess the residualactivities of these insecticides, the plants were infested with L. trifolii adults 2 hours; 1, 3,5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 days after insecticidal treatments. The adults were allowed to stayon treated plants for eight hours. The treated plants were kept in a greenhouse. Numberof feeding stipples and larval mines on leaves, as well as pupation and adult eclosion rateswere assessed. Two-way ANOVA procedure of SAS was used for statistical analysis andthe treatment means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test. Abamectin andspinosad severely affected egg hatching and embryonic development. Eggs oviposited inleaves with residues of chlorpyrifos up to 5 days old, had reduced hatching. Larval developmentwas also, affected by residues of chlorpyrifos up to four weeks old. Indoxacarbreduced larval development and adult eclosion in treatments with up to 20 days old residues.Cyromazine had no effect on the number of larval mines, but, pupation was severelyhampered and adult eclosion was completely ceased even in treatments with five weeksold residues. Determining the residual activity of insecticides used for controlling this pestis useful in avoiding unnecessary treatments.

  3. Longevity of Fly Baits Exposed to Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Amy C; Cox, David; Mullens, Bradley A

    2018-02-01

    Insecticidal fly baits are important tools for adult house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae), control, especially on animal operations. Two house fly baits, containing either cyantraniliprole or dinotefuran, were tested on a dairy farm for attractiveness over time compared to a sugar control. Sticky trap and bucket trap house fly catches were recorded for each bait type at 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h. After 1 wk of exposure to flies and field conditions, these 'aged' baits were tested against fresh baits for fly visitation in the field over 1 h. House flies from each bait type (aged and fresh) were collected and kept under laboratory conditions to assess mortality over 3 d. Average visitation of individual flies to each bait type (fresh) in the field was also evaluated. Sticky traps did not show significant fly catch differences among bait types over time, however bucket trap catches did show significant differences for cyantraniliprole bait and dinotefuran bait compared to sugar at 72 h and 168 h. No significant differences among fly visitation to aged or fresh baits were found. Fresh cyantraniliprole bait and dinotefuran bait resulted in greater fly mortality compared to controls, but not compared to aged toxic baits. Average house fly visitation time was greatest for sugar and cyantraniliprole bait. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Spinosad: a biorational mosquito larvicide for use in car tires in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Carlos F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Car tires are important habitats for mosquito development because of the high density populations they can harbor and their presence in urban settings. Water in experimental tires was treated with one of three insecticides or an untreated control. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled at weekly intervals. Eggs, larval and pupal samples were laboratory-reared to estimate seasonal fluctuations in Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus abundance. Results Spinosad treatments at 1 or 5 ppm (mg a.i./liter provided 6–8 weeks of effective control of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, Culex quinquefasiatus and Cx. coronator larvae, both in the dry season and the rainy season when mosquito populations increased markedly in southern Mexico. Spinosad continued to provide partial control of larvae for several weeks after initial recolonization of treated tires. The larvicidal performance of VectoBac 12AS (Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was relatively poor with one week of complete control of Aedes spp. larvae and no discernible control of Culex spp., whereas the duration of larvicidal activity of 1% temephos mineral-based granules was intermediate between those of VectoBac and spinosad treatments. Populations of chironomids, ostracods and Toxorhynchites theobaldi were generally reduced in spinosad and temephos treatments, but were similar in control and VectoBac treatments. Conclusion The present study is the first to report spinosad as an effective larvicide against Cx. coronator, which is currently invading the southern United States. These results substantiate the use of spinosad as a highly effective mosquito larvicide, even in habitats such as unused car tires that can represent prolific sources of adult mosquitoes.

  5. Control of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis vector, Phlebotomus papatasi, using attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedin Saghafipour

    Full Text Available Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB is a new vector control method that meets Integrated Vector Management (IVM goals. In an experimental design, this study aimed to determine effects of ATSB on control of Phlebotomus papatasi, as a main vector of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL, in Qom Province, center of Iran.In a cross-sectional design, boric acid was mixed with brown sugar solution and tested as toxic baits for P. papatasi. Two methods were utilized to use the baits: (a spraying ATSB on vegetation, bushes, and shrubs; and (b setting ATSB-treated barrier fences in front of colonies at 500 m distance from the houses in outskirts of villages. In order to examine the residual efficacy rate of ATSB-treated barrier fences, the bioassay test was used. Density of P. papatasi sandflies was measured using sticky and light traps biweekly. For data analysis, Mann-Whitney U Test and Kruskal-Wallis were used. Results ATSB-treated barrier fences led to 3 times reduction in P. papatasi population. Besides that, ATSB spraying on plants led to more than 5 times reduction in P. papatasi population.Comparing the incidence of leishmaniasis in treated villages before and after the study showed that the incidence was statistically reduced. Therefore, ATSB is an effective method to control vectors and prevent leishmaniasis.

  6. Post-Control Surveillance of Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida with Chemically-Baited Sticky Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Nidia; López, Elsa; González, Nilsa; Zerba, Eduardo; Tarelli, Guillermo; Masuh, Héctor

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease prevention critically depends on keeping houses free of triatomine vectors. Insecticide spraying is very effective, but re-infestation of treated dwellings is commonplace. Early detection-elimination of re-infestation foci is key to long-term control; however, all available vector-detection methods have low sensitivity. Chemically-baited traps are widely used in vector and pest control-surveillance systems; here, we test this approach for Triatoma spp. detection under field conditions in the Gran Chaco. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a repeated-sampling approach and logistic models that explicitly take detection failures into account, we simultaneously estimate vector occurrence and detection probabilities. We then model detection probabilities (conditioned on vector occurrence) as a function of trapping system to measure the effect of chemical baits. We find a positive effect of baits after three (odds ratio [OR] 5.10; 95% confidence interval [CI95] 2.59–10.04) and six months (OR 2.20, CI95 1.04–4.65). Detection probabilities are estimated at p≈0.40–0.50 for baited and at just p≈0.15 for control traps. Bait effect is very strong on T. infestans (three-month assessment: OR 12.30, CI95 4.44–34.10; p≈0.64), whereas T. sordida is captured with similar frequency in baited and unbaited traps. Conclusions/Significance Chemically-baited traps hold promise for T. infestans surveillance; the sensitivity of the system at detecting small re-infestation foci rises from 12.5% to 63.6% when traps are baited with semiochemicals. Accounting for imperfect detection, infestation is estimated at 26% (CI95 16–40) after three and 20% (CI95 11–34) after six months. In the same assessments, traps detected infestation in 14% and 8.5% of dwellings, whereas timed manual searches (the standard approach) did so in just 1.4% of dwellings only in the first survey. Since infestation rates are the main indicator used for decision-making in control

  7. Post-control surveillance of Triatoma infestans and Triatoma sordida with chemically-baited sticky traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas de Arias, Antonieta; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Acosta, Nidia; López, Elsa; González, Nilsa; Zerba, Eduardo; Tarelli, Guillermo; Masuh, Héctor

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease prevention critically depends on keeping houses free of triatomine vectors. Insecticide spraying is very effective, but re-infestation of treated dwellings is commonplace. Early detection-elimination of re-infestation foci is key to long-term control; however, all available vector-detection methods have low sensitivity. Chemically-baited traps are widely used in vector and pest control-surveillance systems; here, we test this approach for Triatoma spp. detection under field conditions in the Gran Chaco. Using a repeated-sampling approach and logistic models that explicitly take detection failures into account, we simultaneously estimate vector occurrence and detection probabilities. We then model detection probabilities (conditioned on vector occurrence) as a function of trapping system to measure the effect of chemical baits. We find a positive effect of baits after three (odds ratio [OR] 5.10; 95% confidence interval [CI(95)] 2.59-10.04) and six months (OR 2.20, CI(95) 1.04-4.65). Detection probabilities are estimated at p ≈ 0.40-0.50 for baited and at just p ≈ 0.15 for control traps. Bait effect is very strong on T. infestans (three-month assessment: OR 12.30, CI(95) 4.44-34.10; p ≈ 0.64), whereas T. sordida is captured with similar frequency in baited and unbaited traps. Chemically-baited traps hold promise for T. infestans surveillance; the sensitivity of the system at detecting small re-infestation foci rises from 12.5% to 63.6% when traps are baited with semiochemicals. Accounting for imperfect detection, infestation is estimated at 26% (CI(95) 16-40) after three and 20% (CI(95) 11-34) after six months. In the same assessments, traps detected infestation in 14% and 8.5% of dwellings, whereas timed manual searches (the standard approach) did so in just 1.4% of dwellings only in the first survey. Since infestation rates are the main indicator used for decision-making in control programs, the approach we present may help improve T

  8. Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h 2 = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = −0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  9. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  10. Evaluation of released malathion and spinosad from chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules against Culex pipiens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawy MEI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed EI Badawy,1 Nehad EM Taktak,2 Osama M Awad,2 Souraya A Elfiki,2 Nadia E Abou El-Ela2 1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 2Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Efficacy of spinosad and malathion loaded in eco-friendly biodegradable formulations was evaluated for controlling Culex pipiens larvae. Malathion (organophosphorus larvicide and spinosad (naturally derived insecticide were loaded on chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules. Capsules were characterized by size measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and water uptake. In vitro release kinetics of the larvicides was studied in the running and stagnant water. Biochemical studies on the larvae treated with technical and formulated insecticides were also demonstrated. The results indicated that the released spinosad was active for a long time up to 48 and 211 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. However, the capsules loaded with malathion showed larvicidal activity for 20 and 27 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. Technical and formulated malathion and spinosad had an inhibition effect on acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, and glutathione S-transferase. The results proved that the prepared capsules consisting of biodegradable polymers containing larvicides could be effective as controlled-release formulation against C. pipiens larvae for a long period. Keywords: chitosan capsules, larvicide, controlled-release formulation, swelling, mosquitocidal activity, Culex pipiens, biochemical study

  11. Metabolomics analysis of the effect of dissolved oxygen on spinosad production by Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunzhe; Yin, Jing; Zhao, Fanglong; Li, Feng; Lu, Wenyu

    2017-05-01

    Spinosad, a universal bio-pesticide, is obtained from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Dissolved oxygen, an important contributing factor in aerobic microbial fermentation, however, is not always available in sufficient amounts. To alleviate oxygen limitation in spinosad production, three different oxygen vectors, namely oleic acid, toluene, and n-dodecane, were added into early fermentation. Results indicated that n-dodecane was the optimal oxygen vector. Spinosad yield was increased by 44.2% compared to that in the control group in the presence of 0.5% n-dodecane, added after 120 h of incubation. Yields of the test group reached 6.52 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW), while that of the control group was limited to 4.52 mg/g DCW. Metabolomics analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was performed to demonstrate the metabolism mechanism in the presence and absence of oxygen vector. In total, 78 principal intracellular metabolites in S. spinosa were detected and quantified in the presence and absence of n-dodecane. Levels of some metabolites that were related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway varied significantly. Aspartic acid and glucose-1-phosphate levels varied significantly and contributed most in the distinction of the fermentation conditions and phases. The above findings give new insights into the improvement and the metabolomic characteristics of industrial spinosad production.

  12. 76 FR 12563 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Spinosad and Milbemycin Oxime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 520 [Docket No... Elanco Animal Health. The NADA provides for veterinary prescription use of chewable tablets containing spinosad and milbemycin oxime in dogs for the treatment and prevention of flea infestations and for the...

  13. Impact of climate change on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and control using bacterial pesticide, spinosad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nareshkumar Arjunan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To show the effect of temperature on the biology of Culex quinquefasciatus and also to show the effect of the bacterial pesticide, spinosad on developmental stages of the filarial vector. Methods: A laboratory colony of mosquito larvae was used for the larvicidal activity of temperature and spinosad. Twenty-five numbers of first, second, third, fourth instar larvae were introduced into the 500 mL glass beaker containing 250 mL of de-chlorinated water with desired temperatures (16 °C, 20 °C, 24 °C, 28 °C, 32 °C, 36 °C, similarly spinosad, at different concentrations. The development was observed for every 24 h. Results: The results showed that the rise in temperature acts as a growth inhibiting factor for mosquitoes. And no development was found in the temperature below 16 °C and above 36 °C. The hatchability was increased as the temperature was increased up to 32 °C, after which eclosion rates dropped gradually. Conclusions: 32 °C was obtained as the maximum sustainable temperature and after which the developmental rate was gradually reduced. The optimal temperature for development was lower than the temperatures at which development was quickest. The bacterial pesticide spinosad showed that it is an effective mosquito control agent and can be used for further integrated pest management programmes.

  14. Evaluation of spinosad for the oral treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, S; Franc, M; Bouhsira, E; Wiseman, S; Hayes, B; Schnitzler, B; Jacobs, D E

    2012-01-01

    The novel ectoparasiticide spinosad is a naturally occurring mixture of spinosyns A and D formed during a fermentation process. The spinosyns are tetracyclic macrolides with a unique ring system. Their mode of action differs from that of other commercially available insecticides. Laboratory and field trials were conducted to evaluate the use of spinosad in a chewable tablet at a dose range of 45 to 70 mg/kg for the treatment and control of flea infestations on dogs in Europe. Laboratory studies with artificially infested dogs confirmed persistent activity against Ctenocephalides felis of higher than 99 per cent at three weeks post-treatment with values of 96.5 to 97.8 per cent at four weeks. Two multicentric field trials with naturally infected client-owned animals in five European countries used selamectin as comparator. Monthly doses were given during the summer when many homes were heavily infested. Households with spinosad-treated dogs showed cumulative benefits with flea burdens reduced by about 97 per cent at 14 and 30 days and by 99.6 per cent at 60 and 90 days. Corresponding figures for selamectin were significantly lower (P<0.05) at all time points: between 88.5 and 91 per cent at 14 and 30 days, then 97.8 and 98.2 per cent at 60 and 90 days. Thus, the performance of spinosad compared favourably with that of the established reference product.

  15. Field evaluation of attractive lures for the fruit fly Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their potential use in spot sprays in Hubei Province (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Wei; Niu, Chang-Ying; Han, Peng; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    The Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) is a univoltine Tephritidae pest that infests Citrus species. Field trials were conducted in 2010 to determine the potential use of a lure based on enzymatical-hydrolyzed beer yeast as liquid bait (hereafter named H-protein bait) for B. minax in the Hubei province, China. In a citrus orchard, we compared the attractiveness among aqueous solutions of H-protein bait, GF-120 fruit fly bait, sugar-vinegar-wine mixture, torula yeast, and Jufeng attractant when used in traps and in spot sprays, that is, lures used in combination with the insecticide trichlorphon. The H-protein bait was the most attractive lure in traps, ensnaring significantly more adults than sugar-vinegar-wine mixture, torula yeast, and Jufeng attractant, in decreasing efficiency order. In spot sprays those with H-protein bait killed significantly more female and male flies within 40 min than those with sugar-vinegar-wine mixture, GF-120, Jufeng attractant, and the control. In addition, the total number of flies killed by H-protein bait during the spot spray duration was higher than other treatments. Our results demonstrated that the H-protein bait may be a useful tool in citrus orchards in China to monitor B. minax populations as well as to manage this pest when used in spot sprays.

  16. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  17. Control of sand flies with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and potential impact on non-target organisms in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Gunter C; Khallaayoune, Khalid; Revay, Edita E; Zhioua, Elyes; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Arheart, Kristopher L; Xue, Rui-De; Schlein, Yosef; Hausmann, Axel; Kline, Daniel L; Beier, John C

    2015-02-08

    The persistence and geographical expansion of leishmaniasis is a major public health problem that requires the development of effective integrated vector management strategies for sand fly control. Moreover, these strategies must be economically and environmentally sustainable approaches that can be modified based on the current knowledge of sand fly vector behavior. The efficacy of using attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) for sand fly control and the potential impacts of ATSB on non-target organisms in Morocco was investigated. Sand fly field experiments were conducted in an agricultural area along the flood plain of the Ourika River. Six study sites (600 m x 600 m); three with "sugar rich" (with cactus hedges bearing countless ripe fruits) environments and three with "sugar poor" (green vegetation only suitable for plant tissue feeding) environments were selected to evaluate ATSB, containing the toxin, dinotefuran. ATSB applications were made either with bait stations or sprayed on non-flowering vegetation. Control sites were established in both sugar rich and sugar poor environments. Field studies evaluating feeding on vegetation treated with attractive (non-toxic) sugar baits (ASB) by non-target arthropods were conducted at both sites with red stained ASB applied to non-flowering vegetation, flowering vegetation, or on bait stations. At both the sites, a single application of ATSB either applied to vegetation or bait stations significantly reduced densities of both female and male sand flies (Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti) for the five-week trial period. Sand fly populations were reduced by 82.8% and 76.9% at sugar poor sites having ATSB applied to vegetation or presented as a bait station, respectively and by 78.7% and 83.2%, respectively at sugar rich sites. The potential impact of ATSB on non-targets, if applied on green non-flowering vegetation and bait stations, was low for all non-target groups as only 1% and 0.7% were stained with non-toxic bait

  18. Toxic effect and biochemical study of chlorfluazuron, oxymatrine, and spinosad on honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabea, Entsar I; Nasr, Hoda M; Badawy, Mohamed E I

    2010-04-01

    Under laboratory conditions, the comparative effects of two insect growth regulators, chlorfluazuron and oxymatrine, and spinosad as a biopesticide were examined on honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.). Separate groups of bees were left for 24 h to feed on 50% sucrose solution containing different concentrations of the tested insecticides, and the lethal concentration that caused 50% mortality (LC(50)) was estimated. The inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities as biochemical indicators were determined in vivo after 24 h in head, thorax, and abdomen of surviving bees obtained after treatments with a view to explore the possible mode of action of these compounds. Results indicated that exposure to spinosad showed toxicity to honey bees with LC(50) value of 7.34 mg L(-1), followed by oxymatrine (LC(50) = 10.68 mg L(-1)), while chlorfluazuron was the least acutely toxic of the tested compounds (LC(50) = 2,526 mg L(-1)). Oxymatrine and spinosad at the same tested concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg L(-1)) significantly inhibited AChE activity in different organs of honey bee workers, and high inhibition percentage was obtained with the enzyme isolated from the thorax. However, chlorfluazuron at 400, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 mg L(-1) caused high inhibition of AChE activity isolated from the head (39.65% and 44.22% at 2,000 and 4,000 mg L(-1), respectively). In addition, the toxic effects of the tested compounds on activity of ATPase indicated that spinosad caused the highest inhibitory effect in different organs compared with oxymatrine at the same concentrations, and high inhibition was found with ATPase isolated from the head. The results also indicated that oxymatrine was the least active compound for inhibition of AChE and ATPase.

  19. Hepato- and nephrotoxicity in male albino rats exposed to malathion and spinosad in stored wheat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Nour El-Hoda A

    2015-06-01

    Adult male albino rats were fed on stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) treated with malathion and spinosad at both 8 and 16 ppm for 90 consecutive days to evaluate their hepatic and renal toxicity. The activity of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both tested pesticides. Biochemical parameters of liver functions [i.e., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, as well as total protein, albumin, bilirubin and cholesterol levels] were severely affected especially at higher concentration. Malathion and spinosad elevated the activity of ALT, AST, ALP and ACP in rats treated with the higher concentration. Also, total and direct bilirubin levels increased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both pesticides. On the contrary, both pesticides decreased total protein and albumin levels in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, malathion was found to be hyperglycemic. Kidney function parameters (i.e., urea and creatinine levels) were increased in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. The above mentioned effects were supported by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. The obtained results indicated also that malathion was able to cause a more pronounced hepato- and renal toxicity in rats than spinosad.

  20. Physiological response of a spinosad-producing strain saccharopolyspora spinosa to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiheng

    This study explored the physiological response of spinosad-producing strain Saccharopolyspora spinosa to space flight environment. The production strain was carried into space by a manned spaceship, `Shenzhou VII' (Divine Vessel VII) and compared with identical ground control strains. The results showed that space flight could induce a significant response in the phys-iological characteristics of S. spinosa, including change of productivity and morphology. The spinosad yield of the mutants increased more than 95% comparing to the original strains. And in the mutant library, a peculiar morphologic strain, F-200, was found. F-200 produced no spinosad, and was much larger than normal ones and spores were lilac, while the others remain white. During fermentation, the color of the entire broth of F-200 had completely changed to purple, whereas the broth of the ground control Zu8 remained yellow. The results demonstrated that the space flight can induce physiological changes of S. spinosa and could potentially serve as mutagenesis tools to improve commercial-significant microbial metabolites.

  1. Demonstration of an adaptive response to preconditioning Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) to sublethal doses of spinosad: a hormetic-dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Xu, Baoyun; Zhang, Youjun; Gao, Xiwu; Wu, Qingjun

    2015-07-01

    Sublethal doses of some insecticides have been reported to either stimulate or reduce the survival and fecundity of insects. Many sublethal-effect studies have been conducted after exposure of only one generation to sublethal insecticides, and there is little information about the sublethal effects on insects after long-term exposure to sublethal insecticides. In this study, changes in biological characteristics were investigated in spinosad-susceptible (Spin-S) and sublethal-spinosad-treated (Spin-Sub) strains of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) after exposure to their corresponding sublethal concentrations of spinosad. The results showed that for the Spin-S strain, the LC10 concentration of spinosad slightly affected the biotic fitness both in parents and offspring of F. occidentalis. The LC25 concentration of spinosad prolonged the development time, reduced the fecundity, and significantly reduced the intrinsic rate of increase, the net reproductive rate and the finite rate of increase in the Spin-S strain. However, the negative effects were not as pronounced in the offspring (F1 generation) as in the parent generation. For the Spin-Sub strain, the LC10 and LC25 concentrations of spinosad had little negative effect on the development and fecundity, and no significant difference was found between the effects of the LC10 and LC25 treatments on the Spin-Sub strain. The Spin-Sub strain exhibited a shorter developmental time, and larger intrinsic rates of increase and net reproductive rates, compared with the corresponding treatments of the Spin-S strain. These findings combined with our previous studies suggest that the biotic fitness increased in the Spin-Sub strain and the strain became more adaptable to sublethal doses of spinosad, compared with the Spin-S strain. Physiological and biochemical adaptation may contribute to these changes after long treatment times at sublethal doses.

  2. A nicotinic acetylcholine receptor transmembrane point mutation (G275E) associated with resistance to spinosad in Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puinean, Alin M; Lansdell, Stuart J; Collins, Toby; Bielza, Pablo; Millar, Neil S

    2013-03-01

    High levels of resistance to spinosad, a macrocyclic lactone insecticide, have been reported previously in western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, an economically important insect pest of vegetables, fruit and ornamental crops. We have cloned the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α6 subunit from F. occidentalis (Foα6) and compared the nucleotide sequence of Foα6 from susceptible and spinosad-resistant insect populations (MLFOM and R1S respectively). A single nucleotide change has been identified in Foα6, resulting in the replacement of a glycine (G) residue in susceptible insects with a glutamic acid (E) in resistant insects. The resistance-associated mutation (G275E) is predicted to lie at the top of the third α-helical transmembrane domain of Foα6. Although there is no direct evidence identifying the location of the spinosad binding site, the analogous amino acid in the C. elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel lies in close proximity (4.4 Å) to the known binding site of ivermectin, another macrocyclic lactone pesticide. The functional consequences of the resistance-associated mutation have been examined in the human nAChR α7 subunit. Introduction of an analogous (A272E) mutation in α7 abolishes the modulatory effects of spinosad whilst having no significant effect upon activation by acetylcholine, consistent with spinosad having an allosteric mechanism of action. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. Performance of pre-commercial release formulations of spinosad against five stored-product insect species on four stored commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Bhadriraju; Hartzer, Michelle; Boina, Dhana Raj

    2012-09-01

    Two liquid and one dry pre-commercial release spinosad formulations were evaluated at the labeled rate of 1 ppm against five stored-grain insect species on wheat, short-grain rice, long-grain rice, and maize. Except on maize, efficacy of spinosad was compared with a currently registered grain protectant, chlorpyrifos-methyl (3 ppm) plus deltamethrin (0.5 ppm). The 7- and 14-day mortalities of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica, were 99.0-100.0% on spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin-treated wheat, short-grain rice, and long-grain rice. Adult progeny of R. dominica after 42 days on these commodities decreased by 99.7-100.0% relative to progeny production on untreated wheat. Mortality and reduction in adult progeny of the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, on the three commodities, and that of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, on maize and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, on wheat were 100.0% only with chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin. The liquid spinosad formulations were most effective against the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, on maize and wheat. Except for R. dominica, the effectiveness of spinosad on the other species varied with the formulation, exposure time, and commodity. Chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin was effective against insect species on the commodities tested.

  4. Comparative attractiveness of CO(2)-baited CDC light traps and animal baits to Phlebotomus duboscqi sandflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasili, Sichangi; Kutima, Helen; Mwandawiro, Charles; Ngumbi, Philip M; Anjili, Christopher O

    2009-09-01

    In order to understand sandfly bionomics, vector species identification, and to develop methods for sandfly control, there is a need to sample sandflies in any particular habitat. This survey was aimed at determining the best method of sampling Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) duboscqi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the field. Different animal baits and CO2-baited CDC light traps were used to attract sandflies released in an insect-proof screen-house located in the sandfly's natural habitat in Marigat, Baringo district of Kenya. Attraction of hungry P. duboscqi female sandflies by the goat (Capra hircis) was significantly higher than that of hamster (Mesocricetus auretus), Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus), gerbil (Tatera robusta) and chicken (Gallus domestica). However, two rodent species, A. niloticus and T. robusta did not differ significantly. A linear regression analysis of weights of animal baits and number of sandflies attracted revealed an insignificant result. The fluorescent dyes used to distinguish sandflies of different day experiments seemed not to influence the sandfly numbers in relation to the studied sandfly behaviour. The similar attraction pattern of P. duboscqi in semi-field environment by CO(2)-baited CDC light trap and the goat provides hope for solution to the problem of fast dissipating dry ice (CO(2) source) in the field. Goats can, therefore, also be utilized as deflectors of vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis from humans in zooprophylaxis in Leishmania major endemic areas where the sandfly is found.

  5. Passive Baited Sequential Filth Fly Trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Robert L; Britch, Seth C; Snelling, Melissa; Gutierez, Arturo; White, Gregory; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-09-01

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted-cone design to passively confine flies in 8 modified collection bottles corresponding to 8 intervals. Efficacy trials in a hot-arid desert environment indicate no significant difference (P  =  0.896) between the modified sequential trap and a Rid-Max® fly trap.

  6. Effect of Common Species of Florida Landscaping Plants on the Efficacy of Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits Against Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Kelly E; Scott, Jodi M; Muller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-06-01

    Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) was applied to 5 different types of commonly found plants in landscaping of northeastern Florida. The ATSB applications were assessed for possible plant effects and preference against Aedes albopictus in semifield evaluations. Positive and negative controls consisted of plants sprayed with attractive sugar bait (no toxicant) and plants with nothing applied. Bioassays were conducted on stems with leaf clippings and on full plants to assess any difference in mosquito mortality on the different plants. Plants utilized in these evaluations were Indian hawthorne, Yaupon holly, Japanese privet, Loropetalum ruby, and podocarpus. In both assays, no significant difference was observed in the effect of ATSBs on adult female mosquitoes based on the type of plant. ATSB could be applied to common landscape plants for adult Ae. albopictus control.

  7. Analysis of differentially expressed genes related to resistance in spinosad- and neonicotinoid-resistant Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castberg, Dorte Heidi Højland; Kristensen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    interesting in terms of neonicotinoid resistance, while cyp4d9 was overexpressed in 791spin compared to spinosad-susceptible strains. GSTs, ESTs and UGTs were mostly overexpressed, but not to the same degree as P450s. We present a comprehensive and comparative picture of gene expression in three housefly......Background The housefly is a global pest that has developed resistance to most insecticides applied against it. Resistance of the spinosad-resistant strain 791spin and the neonicotinoid-resistant 766b strain is believed to be due to metabolism. We investigate differentially expressed genes...... strains differing significantly in their response to insecticides. High differential expression of P450s and genes coding for cuticle protein indicates a combination of factors involved in metabolic neonicotinoid and spinosad resistance. Conclusion Resistance in these strains is apparently not linked...

  8. Using bait lamina and litterbags, two functional methods to monitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... attack bait lamina were not identified but further study could verify if termites, which are the main soil macro-fauna group in savannah, are responsible for these attacks. © 2010 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Keywords: Bait lamina, dieldrin, sahelian zone, biological activity, litter bags, ecotoxicology ...

  9. Bait preference in basket trap fishing operation and heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bait preference of basket traps fishing operation and heavy metal contamination in the trap catches from Lagos Lagoon were carried out between January and June 2011. Sixty baskets traps were used for the fishing operation, twenty basket traps were baited each with soap, coconut and maize. Clibanarius africanus ...

  10. Short Communication Effects of chemicals from longline baits on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings add increasing evidence in support of the idea that the use of fish baits instead of squid baits could be a conservation measure to protect this endangered species from bycatch. Keywords: bycatch mitigation, Caretta caretta, chemoreception, endangered species, fisheries. African Journal of Marine Science ...

  11. Immediate and delayed mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults exposed to spinosad-treated commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Anna Iversen; Subramanyam, Bhadriraju

    2008-06-01

    A series of tests was conducted to characterize differences in the mortality of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), exposed to three commodities treated with a liquid and dry spinosad formulation. In laboratory bioassays, adults of the two insect species were exposed to untreated wheat, Triticum aestivum L., corn, Zea mays L., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench., and to commodities treated with 1 mg (AI)/kg of liquid and dry spinosad formulations. Mortality was assessed from independent samples examined at specific time intervals to determine immediate mortality and after 24 h of recovery on untreated grain at 28 degrees C and 65% RH to determine delayed mortality. Comparison of the time required for 50% (LT50) and 95% (LT95) mortality indicated that R. dominica adults were consistently and significantly more susceptible (died quickly) than S. oryzae adults when exposed to spinosad-treated commodities. In general, the toxicity of liquid and dry spinosad formulations was similar against R. dominica or S. oryzae. The toxicity of spinosad to each species varied slightly among the three commodities, and there were no consistent trends to suggest that spinosad was more effective on one commodity versus another. LT50 values based on immediate mortality for R. dominica on all commodities ranged from 0.45 to 0.74 d; corresponding values based on delayed mortality ranged from 0.04 to 0.23 d, suggesting delayed toxic action of spinosad in R. dominica. LT50 values based on immediate and delayed mortality for S. oryzae on all three commodities treated with the two spinosad formulations were essentially similar and ranged from 2.75 to 4.56 d. LT95 values for R. dominica based on immediate mortality on spinosad-treated commodities ranged from 1.75 to 3.36 d, and those based on delayed mortality ranged from 0.49 to 1.88 d. There were no significant differences in

  12. Effectiveness of bait tubes for brown treesnake control on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, B.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Clark, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    A bait tube is a device with which a toxicant inserted in a dead mouse (Mus musculus) can be delivered to invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) with low risk of non-target bait take. We tested two bait tube designs in a 5ha snake enclosure where the identity of virtually every snake is known. Instead of using toxicants, we implanted radio transmitters in small (6.6±1.4 g) and large (21.8±2.9 g) bait mice. Knowing all snakes present in the population allowed us to characterize not only covariates of snakes taking bait, but also those of snakes evading our mock control effort, and if snake covariates interacted with any design variable in determining targeting rate. Tube design had no effect on take rate. Snake snout-vent length was a strong predictor of success: none of the 29 snakes smaller than 843 mm took any bait, while the 126 snakes ≥843 mm were responsible for a total of 164 bait takes. The smallest of these snakes were able to ingest small and large mice, but tended to consume small bait at a higher rate than large bait. The main reason for our failure to target smallest snakes appears not to be gape limitation, but rather that small snakes prefer other prey (lizards). The time it takes a snake to grow from the size threshold observed to the size of maturation has implications for the interval between discrete efforts using toxic bait. Targeting all snakes before reproduction can occur is highly desirable; otherwise, a new cohort of refractory snakes may enter the population.

  13. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-01-01

    pests in greenhouses, especially on ornamental plants and vegetables. Among the problems faced by farmers are the difficulties in the control of this pest with the use of insecticides because of its preference for the inner parts of the flowers and the evolution of resistance to agrochemicals. The objective of this research was to characterize the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis and to assess the frequency of resistant insects in commercial chrysanthemum fields from several counties in the state of São Paulo (SP. Selections for resistance to spinosad were performed under laboratory conditions, using a population of F. occidentalis collected in 2007 in a commercial chrysanthemum field in Campinas (SP. In the course of seven selections for resistance, the LC50 of spinosad increased from 8.41 mg a.i. L-1 to 1,111 mg a.i. L-1. Comparing the resistant (R and the susceptible (S strains, the resistance ratio (LC50 R / LC50 S reached values up to 280-folds. A discriminating concentration of 98 mg a.i. L-1 was established for monitoring the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis. The survey was conducted by collecting 19 populations of thrips in commercial chrysanthemum fields in the state of São Paulo. The bioassays were conducted with second ínstar nymphs of F. occidentalis, placed in bean leaf disc arenas. The spinosad was sprayed at the discriminating concentration on the nymphs of thrips, using a Potter spray tower. The results indicated high variability in the susceptibility to spinosad among F. occidentalis populations. Populations with up to 40.7% of resistant insects were found. This is the first report on spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis in Brazil.

  14. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-03-01

    pests in greenhouses, especially on ornamental plants and vegetables. Among the problems faced by farmers are the difficulties in the control of this pest with the use of insecticides because of its preference for the inner parts of the flowers and the evolution of resistance to agrochemicals. The objective of this research was to characterize the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis and to assess the frequency of resistant insects in commercial chrysanthemum fields from several counties in the state of São Paulo (SP. Selections for resistance to spinosad were performed under laboratory conditions, using a population of F. occidentalis collected in 2007 in a commercial chrysanthemum field in Campinas (SP. In the course of seven selections for resistance, the LC50 of spinosad increased from 8.41 mg a.i. L-1 to 1,111 mg a.i. L-1. Comparing the resistant (R and the susceptible (S strains, the resistance ratio (LC50 R / LC50 S reached values up to 280-folds. A discriminating concentration of 98 mg a.i. L-1 was established for monitoring the spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis. The survey was conducted by collecting 19 populations of thrips in commercial chrysanthemum fields in the state of São Paulo. The bioassays were conducted with second ínstar nymphs of F. occidentalis, placed in bean leaf disc arenas. The spinosad was sprayed at the discriminating concentration on the nymphs of thrips, using a Potter spray tower. The results indicated high variability in the susceptibility to spinosad among F. occidentalis populations. Populations with up to 40.7% of resistant insects were found. This is the first report on spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis in Brazil.

  15. Effects of spinosad on honey bees (Apis mellifera: Findings from over ten years of testing and commercial use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles, Mark J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinosad is widely used as an insecticide in crop protection against thysanopteran, lepidopteran and dipteran species. As such it is intrinsically toxic to insects and among them to the honey bee (Apis mellifera. An updated risk assessment is presented in the context of the regulatory evaluation of spinosad products and is in accordance with the latest recommendation of regulatory guidance documents. Results: The intrinsic toxicity to the honey bee as observed in laboratory conditions through oral and contact tests on adults does not appear to impair honey bee colonies when exposed to treated attractive crops in tunnel conditions. Reasons for this could include reduced availability of residues of the product on plant surface compared to laboratory conditions, together with a fast dissipation from treated plants and the absence of active degradation products.Conclusions: Spinosad products present a negligible impact on honey bees when used under the current label recommendations and conditions of agricultural use. This conclusion deduced from data available for the regulatory risk assessment has been confirmed by the feedback of surveys on incidents, which address the potential impact of spinosad products under realistic conditions of exposure, including other environmental and chemical factors that are common in cropped areas.

  16. Efficacy of two anthelmintic treatments, spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs with natural Toxocara spp. infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Cardenas, Rafael; Romero Núñez, Camilo; Miranda Contreras, Laura

    2017-11-30

    Toxocara canis is one of the most important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara spp. We studied 200 dogs with a positive diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Through coproparasitoscopic analysis, two study groups of 100 dogs each were assigned: spinosad/milbemycin oxime at a dose of 30-60mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg, respectively, or ivermectin/praziquantel administered at a dose of 0.2mg/kg and 5mg/kg, respectively. Both groups received a single dose. Three stool samples, one at day 0 before treatment, and at 14 and 28days post-treatment were examined using concentration-flotation techniques. In both treatments, the number of Toxocara spp. eggs decreased; with spinosad/milbemycin oxime treatment, eggs decreased by 87% at 14days (P=0.008) and 94% at 28days after treatment, compared with 71% at day 14 and 88% at day 28 in dogs medicated with ivermectin/praziquantel. The spinosad/milbemycin oxime treated group showed a greater decrease in the number of Toxocara spp. positive dogs compared to the group receiving ivermectin/praziquantel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  18. Contamination affects the performance of insecticidal baits against German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Arthur G

    2004-12-01

    The effects of contamination of insecticidal bait formulations, by using mint oil and silica aerogel, were evaluated in a series of laboratory experiments against the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Bait consumption at 3 d for uncontaminated baits ranged from 0.01 g for Avert dust to 0.399 g for Combat dry bait with hydramethylnon presented in a station. LT50 values for uncontaminated gel bait deposits ranged from 0.4 d for PreEmpt containing imidacloprid to 4.1 d for Maxforce containing hydramethylnon. As a group, significantly more gel bait was consumed than solid formulations even when both formulations had similar concentrations of the same active ingredient. As a result, gel baits were significantly more toxic than solid formulations. Application of mint oil directly to bait deposits significantly decreased bait consumption and increased overall LT50 values. When bait formulation types were examined individually, there was no difference in consumption or toxicity between contaminated and uncontaminated gel formulations. Contaminated solid baits, however, had significantly greater LT50 values and less consumption than uncontaminated solid baits. Gel formulations probably absorbed the contaminants and removed them from the surface of the bait deposits resulting in normal bait consumption and toxicity. Gel and solid bait deposits, inside plastic exposure stations or alone with no station and placed onto mint oil-contaminated substrates, had significantly lower bait consumption and greater LT50 values than baits placed on uncontaminated substrates. Contamination of a baited area is more likely than contamination of just the bait deposit and therefore a more realistic test of the effects of contamination on bait performance. The importance of contamination to the performance of cockroach baits is discussed.

  19. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Brown, Nathanael L.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥65/ha (or ≥1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  20. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

  1. USE OF VARIOUS BAITS FOR EXTRACTION OF EARTHWORMS FROM VERMICOMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kostecka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During vermicomposting, earthworm grower has to overcome a lot of different problems. For instance, in case of a sudden requirement to sell earthworms it is useful to have the ability to collect them in one place. Fresh food extraction is an effective and neutral way to do it. The efficiency of gathering and extracting E. fetida from the vermicompost was studied, using a fresh bait method. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory (at the mean temperature of 20±0.5 °C in pots filled with vermicompost. Generally, two hundreds of adult E. fetida were put in every pot and left there for 24 hours. After such acclimatization, various baits were inserted to every pot. Different experiments allowed to conclude that: 1 repeated bait exchange was more efficient in extracting worms from vermicompost than bait laid once for a longer time; 2 extracting worms from the bait in the morning was quicker than extracting them in the evening; 3 addition of valerian (Valeriana officinalis, nettle (Urtica dioica, and flaxseeds to cattle manure could resulted in better extraction than pure manure; 4 dry valerian was more effective than steamed one, but on other hand, steaming of nettle and flaxseeds was giving better results in collecting worms in the bait.

  2. Evaluation of SPLAT with spinosad and methyl eugenol or cue-lure for "attract-and-kill" of oriental and melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Hertlein, Mark; Neto, Agenor Mafra; Coler, Reginald; Piñero, Jaime C

    2008-06-01

    Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology (SPLAT) methyl eugenol (ME) and cue-lure (C-L) "attract-and-kill" sprayable formulations containing spinosad were compared with other formulations under Hawaiian weather conditions against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), respectively. Field tests were conducted with three different dispensers (Min-U-Gel, Acti-Gel, and SPLAT) and two different insecticides (naled and spinosad). SPLAT ME with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel ME with naled formulation up to 12 wk. SPLAT C-L with spinosad was equal in performance to the standard Min-U-Gel C-L with naled formulation during weeks 7 to12, but not during weeks 1-6. In subsequent comparative trials, SPLAT ME + spinosad compared favorably with the current standard of Min-U-Gel ME + naled for up to 6 wk, and it was superior from weeks 7 to 12 in two separate tests conducted in a papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchard and a guava (Psidium guajava L.) orchard, respectively. In outdoor paired weathering tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers (SPLAT + spinosad, SPLAT + naled, and Min-U-Gel + naled) were effective up to 70 d. Weathered ME dispensers with SPLAT + spinosad compared favorably with SPLAT + naled and Min-U-Gel + naled, and they were equal to fresh dispensers for 21-28 d, depending on location. Our current studies indicate that SPLAT ME and SPLAT C-L sprayable attract-and-kill dispensers containing spinosad are a promising substitute for current liquid organophosphate insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii.

  3. The α6 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit of Frankliniella occidentalis is not involved in resistance to spinosad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wenjie; Liu, Qiulei; Tian, Lixia; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Miguel, Keri San; Funderburk, Joe; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2014-05-01

    Insects evolve resistance which constrains the sustainable use of insecticides. Spinosyns, a class of environmentally-friendly macrolide insecticides, is not an exception. The mode of inheritance and the mechanisms of resistance to spinosad (the most common spinosyn insecticide) in Frankliniella occidentalis (Western flower thrips, WFT) were investigated in this study. Resistance (170,000-fold) was autosomal and completely recessive. Recent studies showed that deletion of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit gene resulted in strains of Drosophila melanogaster, Plutella xylostella and Bactrocera dorsalis that are resistant to spinosad, indicating that nAChRα6 subunit maybe important for the toxic action of this insecticide. Conversely, a G275E mutation of this subunit in F. occidentalis was recently proposed as the mechanism of resistance to spinosad. We cloned and characterized nAChRα6 from three susceptible and two spinosad resistant strains from China and the USA. The Foα6 cDNA is 1873bp and the open reading frame is 1458bp which encodes 485 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 53.5-kDa, the 5' and 3' UTRs are 121 and 294bp, respectively. There was no difference in the cDNA sequence between the resistant and susceptible thrips, suggesting the G275E mutation does not confer resistance in these populations. Ten isoforms of Foα6, arising from alternative splicing, were isolated and did not differ between the spinosad-susceptible and resistant strains. Quantitative real time PCR analysis showed Foα6 was highly expressed in the first instar larva, pupa and adult, and the expression levels were 3.67, 2.47, 1.38 times that of the second instar larva. The expression level was not significantly different between the susceptible and resistant strains. These results indicate that Foα6 is not involved in resistance to spinosad in F. occidentalis from China and the USA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors influencing uptake of sylvatic plague vaccine baits by prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Russell, Robin E.; Richgels, Katherine; Tripp, Daniel W.; Matchett, Marc R.; Biggins, Dean E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2017-01-01

    Sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) is a virally vectored bait-delivered vaccine expressing Yersinia pestis antigens that can protect prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) from plague and has potential utility as a management tool. In a large-scale 3-year field trial, SPV-laden baits containing the biomarker rhodamine B (used to determine bait consumption) were distributed annually at a rate of approximately 100–125 baits/hectare along transects at 58 plots encompassing the geographic ranges of four species of prairie dogs. We assessed site- and individual-level factors related to bait uptake in prairie dogs to determine which were associated with bait uptake rates. Overall bait uptake for 7820 prairie dogs sampled was 70% (95% C.I. 69.9–72.0). Factors influencing bait uptake rates by prairie dogs varied by species, however, in general, heavier animals had greater bait uptake rates. Vegetation quality and day of baiting influenced this relationship for black-tailed, Gunnison’s, and Utah prairie dogs. For these species, baiting later in the season, when normalized difference vegetation indices (a measure of green vegetation density) are lower, improves bait uptake by smaller animals. Consideration of these factors can aid in the development of species-specific SPV baiting strategies that maximize bait uptake and subsequent immunization of prairie dogs against plague.

  5. Factors Influencing Uptake of Sylvatic Plague Vaccine Baits by Prairie Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C; Russell, Robin E; Richgels, Katherine L D; Tripp, Daniel W; Matchett, Marc R; Biggins, Dean E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2017-11-20

    Sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) is a virally vectored bait-delivered vaccine expressing Yersinia pestis antigens that can protect prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) from plague and has potential utility as a management tool. In a large-scale 3-year field trial, SPV-laden baits containing the biomarker rhodamine B (used to determine bait consumption) were distributed annually at a rate of approximately 100-125 baits/hectare along transects at 58 plots encompassing the geographic ranges of four species of prairie dogs. We assessed site- and individual-level factors related to bait uptake in prairie dogs to determine which were associated with bait uptake rates. Overall bait uptake for 7820 prairie dogs sampled was 70% (95% C.I. 69.9-72.0). Factors influencing bait uptake rates by prairie dogs varied by species, however, in general, heavier animals had greater bait uptake rates. Vegetation quality and day of baiting influenced this relationship for black-tailed, Gunnison's, and Utah prairie dogs. For these species, baiting later in the season, when normalized difference vegetation indices (a measure of green vegetation density) are lower, improves bait uptake by smaller animals. Consideration of these factors can aid in the development of species-specific SPV baiting strategies that maximize bait uptake and subsequent immunization of prairie dogs against plague.

  6. A three amino acid deletion in the transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit confers high-level resistance to spinosad in Plutella xylostella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Xingliang; Lansdell, Stuart J; Zhang, Jianheng; Millar, Neil S; Wu, Yidong

    2016-04-01

    Spinosad is a macrocyclic lactone insecticide that acts primarily at the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of target insects. Here we describe evidence that high levels of resistance to spinosad in the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) are associated with a three amino acid (3-aa) deletion in the fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) of the nAChR α6 subunit (Pxα6). Following laboratory selection with spinosad, the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella exhibited 940-fold resistance to spinosad. In addition, the selected insect population had 1060-fold cross-resistance to spinetoram but, in contrast, no cross-resistance to abamectin was observed. Genetic analysis indicates that spinosad resistance in SZ-SpinR is inherited as a recessive and autosomal trait, and that the 3-aa deletion (IIA) in TM4 of Pxα6 is tightly linked to spinosad resistance. Because of well-established difficulties in functional expression of cloned insect nAChRs, the analogous resistance-associated deletion mutation was introduced into a prototype nAChR (the cloned human α7 subunit). Two-electrode voltage-clamp recording with wild-type and mutated nAChRs expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that the mutation causes a complete loss of agonist activation. In addition, radioligand binding studies indicated that the 3-aa deletion resulted in significantly lower-affinity binding of the extracellular neurotransmitter-binding site. These findings are consistent with the 3-amino acid (IIA) deletion within the transmembrane domain of Pxα6 being responsible for target-site resistance to spinosad in the SZ-SpinR strain of P. xylostella. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Click Bait: You Won’t Believe What Happens Next!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Alves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this chapter is to investigate Click Bait, one of the strategies most commonly used by online news journalists aiming to make their headlines more attractive to readers. The chapter begins by studying Social Networks and the power they give marketers in spreading information. Next, a historical context to Click Bait is presented through its origins as Yellow Journalism, a 19th century journalism trend focused on hyperbolizing news headlines in order to increase sales. Finally, Click Bait is studied as the online application of techniques like Yellow Journalism. This section analyzes semantics and some of the most popular headline construction formulas. Literature on this matter concluded that the use of certain headline construction formulas yields significant increase in click-through rates. These increases could be beneficial to the publishing organization as they increase advertising impressions, but could also be detrimental, as these hyperbolic headlines may make readers feel manipulated.

  8. Evaluation of Bait Usage in the KwaZulu-Natal Linefishery, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Bait usage in the KwaZulu-Natal recreational and commercial linefishery was assessed using historic fisher-derived data and current sales records of bait providers. Total bait usage in two of the three linefishery components in KZN was estimated to range from 928 - 3,400 tonnes per year. A total of 39 different ...

  9. Bird Feeders as Locations for Skunk Uptake of Oral Rabies Vaccine Baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theimer, Tad; Talk, Tisheena; Johnson, Shylo; Bergman, David L

    2017-04-01

    Significantly more (54%, P=0.003) placebo baits placed under 26 bird feeders in Arizona, US were removed by striped skunks ( Mephitis mephitis ) than at paired, nonfeeder locations (19%). Baiting at bird feeders could supplement traditional oral rabies vaccine bait placement in urban-suburban areas while engaging the public in rabies control efforts.

  10. Validation of the bait test with Rhododendron leaves for Phytophthora diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina Junker; Sabine Werres

    2017-01-01

    Bait tests are very helpful for diagnosis of Phytophthora in for example soil, substrate, water, sediment, and rootball samples (Werres and others 2014). By attracting the motile zoospores of the Phytophthora species with the baits these pathogens can be separated from other organisms. Bait tests are simple and cost...

  11. Hydrodynamic properties and distribution of bait downstream of a zooplankton trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Heuschele, Jan; Larsson, Ann I.

    2017-01-01

    The flow regime around a chemically baited trap is crucial for the trapping process and distribution of bait downstream of traps. We measured the flow field downstream of a trap prototype in flume experiments and mapped the distribution of bait using laser induced fluorescence. The trap produced ...

  12. Microencapsulated bait: Does it work with Red Imported Fire Ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The preference of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta for microencapsulated (MC) pyriproxifen based corn grit baits (P-bait) was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. A positive correlation between the microencapsulation rate and water tolerance ability of P-bait was observed. A 20% in...

  13. Development of a Bait System for the Pharaoh's Ant, Monomorium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The infestation of the Pharaoh's ant, Monomorium pharaonis L. is widespread and, sometimes, very serious in homes, hospitals, restaurants, factories, etc. People are helpless because effective baited traps are not available locally, and little has been done locally to develop effective control strategies for these ants.

  14. Successful removal of German yellowjackets (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) by toxic baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackmann, P; Rabinovich, M; Corley, J C

    2001-08-01

    Vespula germanica (F.) is a social vespid that has invaded many parts of the world, including Argentina. This wasp usually becomes a pest, affecting several economic activities. It also may impact the host community through predation or competition. The purpose of our study was to field test toxic baiting for reduction of wasp abundance. Wasps were poisoned with 0.1% fipronil mixed with raw minced beef in two beech forest sites on 20 February 2000 in northwestern Patagonia. All nests (46) within the two 6-ha sites with poisoned bait stations were killed, whereas Malaise traps in those sites captured 81.1% fewer wasps at the end of the season than traps in the two control sites. The average reduction of forager wasps on nontoxic baits was 87%. Fipronil was very effective in controlling wasp numbers, although there are limitations to the method, especially concerning conservation purposes. Toxic baiting can be useful in controlling wasp numbers in honey bee hive yards, farms, and parks.

  15. Post-larval recruitment and the bait fishery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Le Reste 1981; Gulland & Rothschild 1984). In the Natal province of South Africa the St Lucia Lake system (Figure 1) supports a bait prawn fishery and has provided an annual catch of about 16 t for nearly 30 years. (Forbes & Benfield 1985).

  16. Baited remote underwater video system (BRUVs) survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first baited remote underwater video system (BRUVs) survey of the relative abundance, diversity and seasonal distribution of chondrichthyans in False Bay. Nineteen species from 11 families were recorded across 185 sites at between 4 and 49 m depth. Diversity was greatest in summer, on reefs and in shallow ...

  17. Fixed automated spray technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    This research project evaluated the construction and performance of Boschungs Fixed Automated : Spray Technology (FAST) system. The FAST system automatically sprays de-icing material on : the bridge when icing conditions are about to occur. The FA...

  18. Hair spray poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  19. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxymetazoline nasal spray is used to relieve nasal discomfort caused by colds, allergies, and hay fever. It ... also used to relieve sinus congestion and pressure. Oxymetazoline nasal spray should not be used to treat ...

  20. High-density baiting with ONRAB® rabies vaccine baits to control Arctic-variant rabies in striped skunks in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosatte, R C; Donovan, D; Davies, J C; Brown, L; Allan, M; von Zuben, V; Bachmann, P; Sobey, K; Silver, A; Bennett, K; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Gibson, M; Purvis, M; Beresford, A; Beath, A; Fehlner-Gardiner, C

    2011-04-01

    The Arctic variant of rabies virus has been maintained in striped skunks in small foci in southwestern Ontario, Canada, despite the control of the disease in red foxes. To control the disease in skunks, high-density baiting with ONRAB(®) oral rabies vaccine baits was conducted by air and by hand distribution of baits in the vicinity of skunk cases. During 2009, antibody prevalences in skunks were higher in areas baited at a density of 300 baits/km(2) and flight-line spacing of 0.25 km than at 0.5-km spacing. Once an area containing Arctic-variant cases was treated with high densities of ONRAB baits, the disease did not reoccur in skunks in those areas. During 2009, only eight skunks were diagnosed with the Arctic variant of rabies virus in Ontario.

  1. Grape Juice as a Bait for Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A; Mangan, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as a bait for the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice bait with established A. suspensa protein-based baits (ammonium acetate + putrescine lures, or torula yeast) or wine, a bait found previously to be attractive to Z. indianus. Effects of different preservatives (polypropylene glycol, polyethylene glycol, proxel, or sodium tetraborate) and bait age were also tested. Traps with grape juice baits captured more A. suspensa than unbaited traps, but more were captured in traps with grape juice plus preservative baits and the highest numbers were captured in traps containing the established protein-based baits. In contrast, grape juice baits without preservative that were prepared on the day of deployment (0 d) or that were aged for 3-4 d in the laboratory captured the highest numbers of Z. indianus, while solutions that were aged in the laboratory for 6 or 9 d captured fewer. Although these studies found that aqueous grape juice is a poor bait for A. suspensa, we found that actively fermenting aqueous grape juice may be an effective bait for Z. indianus. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Efficacy of commercial baits and new active ingredients against firebrats and silverfish (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Steven R; Appel, Arthur G

    2012-08-01

    Commercial baits containing boric acid, hydramethynon, and indoxacarb were tested against the firebrat, Thermobia domestica (Packard), and silverfish, Lepisma saccharina L. (both Zygentoma: Lepismatidae), under laboratory conditions. Three boric acid baits were consumed in significantly smaller amounts than untreated control food and did not effectively control either species. Baits containing hydramethylnon and indoxacarb were consumed in greater amounts than boric acid baits, but were relatively ineffective, with LT50 values >9 d. Presence or absence of competitive untreated food did not consistently affect bait efficacy. A ground oat matrix was used to evaluate the potential effectiveness of abamectin, chlorfenapyr, dinotefuran, fipronil, hydramethylnon, metaflumizone, and novaluron baits. The most effective compound was chlorfenapyr. At 0.05 and 0.20% (wt:wt) rates, chlorfenapyr baits produced LT50 values, for both species, ranging from 2 to 4 d. All other compounds had LT50 values >7 d.

  3. Spinosad- and Deltamethrin-Induced Impact on Mating and Reproductive Output of the Maize Weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Mayra; Botina, Lorena L; Turchen, Leonardo M; Barbosa, Wagner F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2018-01-20

    Assessments of acute insecticide toxicity frequently focus on the lethal effects on individual arthropod pest species and populations neglecting the impacts and consequences of sublethal exposure. However, the sublethal effects of insecticides may lead to harmful, neutral, or even beneficial responses that may affect (or not) the behavior and sexual fitness of the exposed insects. Intriguingly, little is known about such effects on stored product insect pests in general and the maize weevil in particular. Thus, we assessed the sublethal effects of spinosad and deltamethrin on female mate-searching, mating behavior, progeny emergence, and grain consumption by maize weevils. Insecticide exposure did not affect the resting time, number of stops, and duration of mate-searching by female weevils, but their walking velocity was compromised. Maize weevil couples sublethally exposed to deltamethrin and spinosad exhibited altered reproductive behavior (walking, interacting, mounting, and copulating), but deltamethrin caused greater impairment. Curiously, higher grain consumption and increased progeny emergence were observed in deltamethrin-exposed insects, suggesting that this pyrethroid insecticide elicits hormesis in maize weevils that may compromise control efficacy by this compound. Although spinosad has less of an impact on weevil reproductive behavior than deltamethrin, this bioinsecticide also benefited weevil progeny emergence, but did not affect grain consumption. Therefore, our findings suggest caution using either compound, and particularly deltamethrin, for controlling the maize weevil, as they may actually favor this species population growth when in sublethal exposure requiring further assessments. The same concern may be valid for other insecticides as well, what deserves future attention. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Laboratory and Field Age of Aqueous Grape Juice Bait and Capture of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epsky, Nancy D; Gill, Micah A

    2017-06-01

    Volatile chemicals produced by actively fermenting aqueous grape juice bait have been found to be highly attractive to the African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta. This is a highly dynamic system and time period of fermentation is an important factor in bait efficacy. A series of field tests were conducted that evaluated effects of laboratory versus field fermentation and sampling period (days after placement [DAP]) on bait effectiveness as the first step in identifying the chemicals responsible for attraction. Tests of traps with bait that had been aged in the laboratory for 0, 3, 6, and 9 d and then sampled 3 DAP found higher capture in traps with 0- and 3-d-old baits than in traps with 6- or 9-d-old baits. To further define the time period that produced the most attractive baits, a subsequent test evaluated baits aged for 0, 2, 4, and 6 d in the laboratory and sampled after 1-4 DAP, with traps sampled and bait discarded at the end of each DAP period. The highest capture was in traps with 4-d-old bait sampled 1 DAP, with the second best capture in traps with 0-d-old bait sampled 3 DAP. However, there tended to be fewer flies as DAP increased, indicating potential loss of identifiable flies owing to decomposition in the actively fermenting solutions. When traps were sampled and bait recycled daily, the highest capture was in 2- and 4-d-old baits sampled 1 DAP and in 0-d-old baits sampled 2-4 DAP. Similar patterns were observed for capture of nontarget drosophilids. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Bait effects in sampling coral reef fish assemblages with stereo-BRUVs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey R Dorman

    Full Text Available Baited underwater video techniques are increasingly being utilised for assessing and monitoring demersal fishes because they are: 1 non extractive, 2 can be used to sample across multiple habitats and depths, 3 are cost effective, 4 sample a broader range of species than many other techniques, 5 and with greater statistical power. However, an examination of the literature demonstrates that a range of different bait types are being used. The use of different types of bait can create an additional source of variability in sampling programs. Coral reef fish assemblages at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, were sampled using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems. One-hour stereo-video recordings were collected for four different bait treatments (pilchards, cat food, falafel mix and no bait (control from sites inside and outside a targeted fishery closure (TFC. In total, 5209 individuals from 132 fish species belonging to 41 families were recorded. There were significant differences in the fish assemblage structure and composition between baited and non-baited treatments (P<0.001, while no difference was observed with species richness. Samples baited with cat food and pilchards contained similar ingredients and were found to record similar components of the fish assemblage. There were no significant differences in the fish assemblages in areas open or closed to fishing, regardless of the bait used. Investigation of five targeted species indicated that the response to different types of bait was species-specific. For example, the relative abundance of Pagrus auratus was found to increase in areas protected from fishing, but only in samples baited with pilchards and cat food. The results indicate that the use of bait in conjunction with stereo-BRUVs is advantageous. On balance, the use of pilchards as a standardised bait for stereo-BRUVs deployments is justified for use along the mid-west coast of Western Australia.

  6. A baiting system for delivery of an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creekmore, Terry E.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Hurley, J.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted between July and October 1999 to identify bait preference, biomarker efficacy, and bait acceptance rates for delivering an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Twenty juvenile captive prairie dogs were offered alfalfa baits containing either alfalfa, alfalfa and 5% molasses, or alfalfa, 5% molasses and 4% salt. Based on the results of these trials we selected a bait containing alfalfa, 7% molasses, and 1% salt for field trials to determine bait acceptance rates by free-ranging animals. The biomarkers DuPont Blue dye, iophenoxic acid, and tetracycline hydrochloride were orally administered to captive prairie dogs to determine their efficacy. Only tetracycline proved effective as a biomarker. Two field trials were conducted at separate prairie dog colonies located at the Buffalo Gap National Grassland (Pennington County, South Dakota, USA). In Trial 1, three baits containing tetracycline were distributed around each active burrow entrance and an additional bait was placed inside the burrow (1,276 baits total). In Trial 2, baits were distributed at the same density per burrow as Trial 1, but along transects spaced 10 m apart (1,744 baits total). Trapping began 3 days after bait distribution, and 30 prairie dogs then were captured at each site to determine the percentage of animals marked. In Trial 1, 67% of the prairie dogs captured had tetracycline deposits indicative of bait consumption. In Trial 2, 83% of the prairie dogs had ingested a bait. Approximately 15% of the animals in both trials ate more than one bait. Fleas (Opisocrostis hirsutus) were found on 64 of 70 (91%) of the prairie dogs captured during this study.

  7. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Bump

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding. The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship

  8. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Joseph K; Murawski, Chelsea M; Kartano, Linda M; Beyer, Dean E; Roell, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation

  9. Development of Non-prey Baits for Delivery of Acetaminophen to Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam. Version 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    behavior and probably had little effect on bait consumption when they were used as solvent extracts of 48h aged DNM in experiment 3. Table 11...non-prey baits will enhance the bait take ( consumption ) by BTS. Technical Approach: Decomposition products from DNM carcasses aged for 48 h in an...from 48h aged DNM enhanced consumption of treated beef baits. In addition, volatile chemical recipes from 24h and 48h aged DNM were not effective bait

  10. Development of an automated dispenser for the delivery of medicinal or vaccine-laden baits to raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyser, Timothy J; Redding, James V; Bevis, Crystal M; Page, L Kristen; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Medicinal baits are distributed to manage zoonotic diseases, including raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies, but efficient distribution strategies are needed for suburban environments. We developed an automated dispenser that transfers fishmeal polymer baits at user-specified intervals from a magazine to a receptacle fitted with a filter that exploits raccoon dexterity to limit consumption by nontarget species. We introduce the concept of automated dispensers and describe bait removal success rates for raccoons versus nontarget species. We monitored visitation with remote cameras after deploying a dispenser, programmed to present two baits per night, in three disjunct forest patches in northwest Indiana. Raccoons removed 72% of baits; nontarget, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) removed 11%; Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) removed 9%. Bait removal success varied significantly between raccoons (76%) and opossums (21%), improving bait delivery specificity relative to hand baiting. Accumulation of baits in receptacles resulted in excess (more than one) bait consumption (39% of baits consumed by raccoons were excess), suggesting design improvements are needed to present additional baits only after previous baits have been consumed. Automated dispensers successfully sustained bait availability throughout the operational period. Subsequent research is needed to determine whether a sustained availability of baits achieved with automated dispensers is more effective for the treatment of raccoons in suburban environments than traditional distribution methods.

  11. Variation in susceptibility of field strains of three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin efficacy at labeled rates on hard red winter wheat was evaluated against 11 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); six strains of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and two strains of the lesser grai...

  12. Assessing anti-rabies baiting--what happens on the ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Selhorst, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Wyszomirski, Tomasz; Müller, Uli; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2004-03-09

    Rabies is one of the most hazardous zoonoses in the world. Oral mass vaccination has developed into the most effective management method to control fox rabies. The future need to control the disease in large countries (i.e. Eastern Europe and the Americas) forces cost-benefit discussions. The 'Increase bait density' option refers to the usual management assumption that more baits per km2 could compensate for high fox abundance and override the imperfect supply of bait pieces to the individual fox. We use a spatial simulation, which combines explicitly fox space use (tessellation polygons) and aeroplane flight lines (straight lines). The number of baits actually falling into each polygon is measured. The manager's strategic options are converted into changes of the resulting bait distribution on the ground. The comparison enables the rating of the options with respect to the management aim (i.e. accessibility of baits). Above 5% (approx. 10%) of all fox groups without any bait (at most 5 baits) relate to the baiting strategy applied in the field (1 km spaced parallel flight lines, 20 baits per km2 distributed) under habitat conditions comparable to middle and western Europe (fox group home-range 1 km2, 2.5 adults; reference strategy). Increasing the bait density on the same flight-line pattern neither reduces the number of under-baited fox group home-ranges, nor improves the management outcome and hence wastes resources. However, reducing the flight line distance provides a more even bait distribution and thus compensates for missed fox groups or extra high fox density.The reference strategy's bait density can be reduced when accounting for the missed fox groups. The management result with the proper strategy is likely the same but with reduced costs. There is no overall optimal strategy for the bait distribution in large areas. For major parts of the landscape, the reference strategy will be more competitive. In situations where set backs are attributed to non

  13. Assessing anti-rabies baiting – what happens on the ground?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyszomirski Tomasz

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabies is one of the most hazardous zoonoses in the world. Oral mass vaccination has developed into the most effective management method to control fox rabies. The future need to control the disease in large countries (i.e. Eastern Europe and the Americas forces cost-benefit discussions. The 'Increase bait density' option refers to the usual management assumption that more baits per km2 could compensate for high fox abundance and override the imperfect supply of bait pieces to the individual fox. Methods We use a spatial simulation, which combines explicitly fox space use (tessellation polygons and aeroplane flight lines (straight lines. The number of baits actually falling into each polygon is measured. The manager's strategic options are converted into changes of the resulting bait distribution on the ground. The comparison enables the rating of the options with respect to the management aim (i.e. accessibility of baits. Results Above 5% (approx. 10% of all fox groups without any bait (at most 5 baits relate to the baiting strategy applied in the field (1 km spaced parallel flight lines, 20 baits per km2 distributed under habitat conditions comparable to middle and western Europe (fox group home-range 1 km2, 2.5 adults; reference strategy. Increasing the bait density on the same flight-line pattern neither reduces the number of under-baited fox group home-ranges, nor improves the management outcome and hence wastes resources. However, reducing the flight line distance provides a more even bait distribution and thus compensates for missed fox groups or extra high fox density. The reference strategy's bait density can be reduced when accounting for the missed fox groups. The management result with the proper strategy is likely the same but with reduced costs. Conclusion There is no overall optimal strategy for the bait distribution in large areas. For major parts of the landscape, the reference strategy will be more

  14. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Beasley

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana, as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14-24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99-240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753 m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations

  15. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Hoffman, Kevin; Mercogliano, Juan; Smith, Trevor R; Hammond, Jack; Davis, Bobbie J; Brodie, Matt; Dripps, James E

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 2013-2014 to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to STATIC Spinosad ME a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment (MAT) formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with methyl eugenol (ME) and spinosad compared with the standard treatment of Min-U-Gel mixed with ME and naled (Dibrom). Our approach used a behavioral methodology for evaluation of slow-acting reduced-risk insecticides. ME treatments were weathered for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d under operational conditions in California and Florida and shipped to Hawaii for bioassays. In field tests using bucket traps to attract and capture wild males, and in toxicity studies conducted in 1-m(3) cages using released males of controlled ages, STATIC Spinosad ME performed equally as well to the standard formulation of Min-U-Gel ME with naled for material aged up to 28 d in both California and Florida. In laboratory feeding tests in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different ME treatments, mortality induced by STATIC Spinosad ME recorded at 24 h did not differ from mortality caused by Min-U-Gel ME with naled at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d in California and was equal to or higher for all weathered time periods in Florida during two trials. Spinosad has low contact toxicity, and when mixed with an attractant and slow release matrix, offers a reduced-risk alternative for eradication of B. dorsalis and related ME attracted species, without many of the potential negative effects to humans and nontargets associated with broad-spectrum contact insecticides such as naled.

  16. Assessment of microbial larvicide spraying with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, for the prevention of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde-Gazard, D; Baglo, T

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of microbial larvicide spraying, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, as prevention strategy against malaria. An experimental study consisted in spraying B. thuringiensis israelensis in a district during 1 year has been conducted. Another district (control) was not sprayed. Eight hundred and two children were evaluated, thick drop and swab examination was performed for those presenting with fever. The larval density was calculated in their habitats as well as larvicide remanence. Capture of mosquitoes with human bait allowed determining human exposure to bites at night, and identifying anopheles after dissection. The incidence of pediatric malaria was 13.8% in the sprayed district and 31.4% in the control district. The parasitic load ranged from 2000 to 42,000 parasites/μL in the sprayed district and 2000 to 576,000 parasites/μL in the control district. Plasmodium falciparum was the most frequent (97.8%) plasmodial species. In the control district, at least 20 larvae by liter of water were counted; anopheles larvae were found in 11 larval habitats out of 15 (73.33%). The human exposure to anopheles bites at night was 14.25 in the sprayed district and 33.13 in the control district. The remanence of B. thuringiensis israelensis was estimated at 9 days in the sprayed district. The larvicide B. thuringiensis israelensis may be used in vector control strategy for the prevention of malaria. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine bait containing ERA strain of attenuated rabies virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, K F; Black, J G; Charlton, K M; Johnston, D H; Rhodes, A J

    1987-01-01

    Ninety percent of foxes fed commercial ERA vaccine in a specially designed bait developed rabies serum neutralizing antibodies. The vaccine bait did not cause clinical signs of rabies when consumed by foxes, raccoons, skunks, dogs, cats, cattle and monkeys. When presented, in the laboratory, to wild rodents of the species Microtus, Mus musculus and Peromyscus, the vaccine baits caused vaccine-induced rabies only in Mus musculus. Laboratory mice of the CD-1 and CLL strain were susceptible to v...

  18. Duration of Fipronil and Imidacloprid Gel Baits Toxicity against Blattella germanica Strains of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasirian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the duration of fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits toxicity against Ger-man cockroach strains in Iran during 2003-2004. In order to conduct this study, nine German cockroach strains were used. Newly emerged adult male German cockroaches starved for one scotophase (12 h, and ingested fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits for 2 h. After the given time was over, the bait was removed and replaced with mouse pellet. Mortality was re-corded at 12 intervals for 144 h (6 days. Mortality data of the replicates were pooled and was tested using probit analysis. Both gel baits were toxic to adult male German cockroaches. In the ingested bait method, the susceptible strain showed LT50 of 47.1 and 11.3 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively, and the average LT90 was 74.2 and 19.3 h, respec¬tively. LT50 of the feral German cockroach strains varied 14.9 h from 30.5 to 45.4 h and 4.4 h from 12.4 to 16.8 h for fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, respectively. All German cockroach strains showed a similar susceptibility to fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits, compared with the susceptible laboratory strain. The steep slopes of ingested bait mortality curves indicated that the feral German cockroach strains were homogenous to fipronil and imidacloprid ingested gel baits. These results suggest that fipronil and imidacloprid gel baits appear to have considerable potential as a bait for insecticide-resistant strains of German cockroach.

  19. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results.

  20. Bait preference by the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Reimer, Neil J.

    1998-01-01

    The Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has proven to be a threat to native arthropod species in Haleakala National Park, Maui, HI, and is also a potential threat to the park's native flora. As it continues to expand its range, an effort has been undertaken to eradicate it, or at the least, control its spread. The 1st part of this effort focused on finding a bait carrier for subsequent toxicant-based control tests. A year-long bait preference test was implemented at each of the ant's 2 infestation sites in Haleakala National Park, in which 6 solid baits and 2 liquid baits were assessed for attractiveness and feasibility for large scale control. At both sites, a toxicant-free formulation of Maxforce, a protein-based granular bait made from ground silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.), pupae, and a 25% sugar water solution were the most attractive baits. Ants took more Maxforce (without toxicant) and sugar water than all other baits, including honey granules and a fish protein bait. Sugar water, however, is difficult to distribute over large natural areas. Maxforce was therefore concluded to be the best bait carrier for toxicant-based control at Haleakala National Park because of its attractiveness and its ease for large scale broadcast dispersal.

  1. Cold spray nozzle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jeffrey D [Stuart, FL; Sanders, Stuart A [Palm Beach Gardens, FL

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  2. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  3. Recovery of brodifacoum in vomitus following induction of emesis in dogs that had ingested rodenticide bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, K H; Willson, E K; Collett, M G; Booth, L H

    2018-01-01

    To assess the benefit of inducing emesis in dogs that have ingested rodenticide bait containing brodifacoum (BDF), by determining the amount of BDF in bait recovered from the vomitus relative to the estimated amount consumed. Between 2014 and 2015 samples of vomitus from seven dogs that ingested rodenticide baits containing BDF were submitted by veterinarians in New Zealand. All seven dogs had been given apomorphine by the veterinarian and vomited within 1 hour of ingesting the bait. Some or all of the bait particles were retrieved from each sample and were analysed for concentrations of BDF using HPLC. Based on estimations of the mass of bait consumed, the concentration of BDF stated on the product label, and the estimated mass of bait in the vomitus of each dog, the amount of BDF in the vomited bait was calculated as a percentage of the amount ingested. For five dogs an estimation of the mass of bait ingested was provided by the submitting veterinarian. For these dogs the estimated percentage of BDF in the bait retrieved from the vomitus was between 10-77%. All dogs were well after discharge but only one dog returned for further testing. This dog had a normal prothrombin time 3 days after ingestion. The induction of emesis within 1 hour of ingestion can be a useful tool in reducing the exposure of dogs to a toxic dose of BDF. The BDF was not fully absorbed within 1 hour of ingestion suggesting that the early induction of emesis can remove bait containing BDF before it can be fully absorbed.

  4. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  5. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  6. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  7. Evaluation of sarolaner and spinosad oral treatments to eliminate fleas, reduce dermatologic lesions and minimize pruritus in naturally infested dogs in west Central Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Niedfeldt, Emily; Kinnon, Amanda; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Foley, Kaitlin M; Smith, Vicki; Bress, Todd S; Smith, Nicole; Endrizzi, Mike; Login, Joyce

    2017-08-17

    An in-home investigation of naturally flea infested dogs was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea adulticides to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus over an 8-week period. Twenty-nine dogs living in 19 homes and another 26 dogs residing in 16 different homes were orally administered either a sarolaner or spinosad chewable, respectively on day 0 and once between days 28-30. Products were administered by study personnel according to label directions. Flea populations on dogs were estimated using visual area counts and flea infestations in the indoor premises were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and once between days 28-30, 40-45, and 56-60. Assessments of dermatologic lesions were conducted monthly during the study and severity of pruritus was evaluated throughout the study on the same schedule as flea counts were conducted. Concurrent treatments for existing skin disease were not allowed. The administration of sarolaner or spinosad reduced flea populations on dogs by 99.0% and 97.3%, respectively within 7 days. Flea infestations on the sarolaner- and spinosad-treated dogs were reduced by > 99% at every counting period from day 14 post-treatment through the end of the 8-week study. At the end of the study 96.4 and 92.0% of the dogs treated with sarolaner and spinosad, respectively were flea-free. Flea populations in the indoor premises were also markedly reduced the end of the study, with 100 and 99.8% reductions in flea trap counts in the sarolaner and spinosad treatment groups, respectively. FAD lesion scores, atopic dermatitis lesions scores (CADESI-4) and pruritus severity scores were also markedly improved with both formulations. An in-home clinical field study conducted during the summer of 2016 in subtropical Florida demonstrated that two-monthly administrations of either sarolaner or spinosad chewables almost

  8. Do Mound Disturbance and Bait Placement Affect Bait Removal and Treatment Efficacy in Red Imported Fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae at Different Seasons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing P. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides empirical evidence that disturbing mound immediately before application, as opposed to label recommendation, did not reduce foraging activity of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, except for about 10-min delay in foraging. Despite the delayed foraging, there was no significant difference in the amount of baits foraged between disturbed and undisturbed colonies. Eventually, >96% of the baits were foraged, with the maximum removal occurred by 2 and 3 h, respectively, in summer and spring trial. The fastest and great amount of bait removal 1 h post-treatment occurred to baits placed on mound, followed by 0.18–0.3-m from mound base, and the slowest 1.08–1.2-m from mound base. All treatment gave 100% control 1 mo later, regardless of the season, without colony relocation or new colony invasion in the test plots.

  9. Laboratory evaluation of insecticide-treated sugar baits for control of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascari, T M; Foil, L D

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of boric acid, imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin incorporated into sugar baits as oral toxicants for adult phlebotomine sand flies. Variable toxicity of insecticide-sugar bait solutions to adult male and female sand flies was demonstrated, based on male female median lethal concentration values of 0.10-0.08, 6.13-9.53, and 9.03-18.11 mg/liter of imidacloprid, ivermectin, and abamectin, respectively. Complete control of sand flies could not be achieved with as high as 40 g/liter of boric acid in sugar bait solution; concentrations >40 g/liter were found repellent to the sand flies. Uranine O (a fluorescent tracer dye that can be used to measure the ingestion of sugar baits by sand flies) did not interact negatively with imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin when it was combined with the insecticides in a sugar bait. Also, incorporation of imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin into sugar baits did not reduce the effect whether adult male and female sand flies fed on these sugar baits. We propose that imidacloprid, ivermectin, or abamectin could be used to control adult sand fly populations with targeted use of insecticide-treated sugar baits.

  10. Evaluation of systemic insecticides mixed in rodenticide baits for plague vector control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Søholt; Lodal, Jens

    1997-01-01

    Rodenticide baits containing systemic insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory for their palatability to the house rat Rattus rattus and for their toxicity against the oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis - both animals are important Vectors of plague in Africa. The test bait and a non...

  11. Baiting Techniques for Control of Coptotermes Species Within Existing Buildings in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R.J. French

    1991-01-01

    Baiting techniques have been developed over the years to control Coptotermes species, the most economically important termite species in Australia. Given the restrictions on organochlorines as termiticides in North America, this paper highlights research that has focussed on baiting programs against Coptotermes as alternatives to...

  12. Rules of attraction: The role of bait in small mammal sampling at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baits or lures are commonly used for surveying small mammal communities, not only because they attract large numbers of these animals, but also because they provide sustenance for trapped individuals. In this study we used Sherman live traps with five bait treatments to sample small mammal populations at three ...

  13. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap-catch and seed predation by ground beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on non-target organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species composition a...

  14. Evaluation of Bait Usage in the KwaZulu-Natal Linefishery, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Bait usage in the KwaZulu-Natal recreational and commercial linefishery was assessed using historic fisher-derived data and current sales records of ... and sardines (Sardinops sagax) sourced from the South African purse-seine fleet, were the most important (used in >79% of fisher outings, >86% of bait sold by ...

  15. Indoor application of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB in combination with mosquito nets for control of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary P Stewart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB sprayed onto vegetation has been successful in controlling Anopheles mosquitoes outdoors. Indoor application of ATSB has yet to be explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATSB stations positioned indoors have the potential to kill host-seeking mosquitoes and constitute a new approach to control of mosquito-borne diseases. METHODS: Insecticides were mixed with dyed sugar solution and tested as toxic baits against Anopheles arabiensis, An. Gambiae s.s. and Culex quinquefasciatus in feeding bioassay tests to identify suitable attractant-insecticide combinations. The most promising ATSB candidates were then trialed in experimental huts in Moshi, Tanzania. ATSB stations were hung in huts next to untreated mosquito nets occupied by human volunteers. The proportions of mosquitoes killed in huts with ATSB treatments relative to huts with non-insecticide control treatments huts were recorded, noting evidence of dye in mosquito abdomens. RESULTS: In feeding bioassays, chlorfenapyr 0.5% v/v, boric acid 2% w/v, and tolfenpyrad 1% v/v, mixed in a guava juice-based bait, each killed more than 90% of pyrethroid-susceptible An. Gambiae s.s. and pyrethroid-resistant An. arabiensis and Cx. quinquefasciatus. In the hut trial, mortality rates of the three ATSB treatments ranged from 41-48% against An. arabiensis and 36-43% against Cx. quinquefasciatus and all were significantly greater than the control mortalities: 18% for An. arabiensis, 7% for Cx. quinquefasciatus (p<0.05. Mortality rates with ATSB were comparable to those with long lasting insecticidal nets previously tested against the same species in this area. CONCLUSIONS: Indoor ATSB shows promise as a supplement to mosquito nets for controlling mosquitoes. Indoor ATSB constitute a novel application method for insecticide classes that act as stomach poisons and have not hitherto been exploited for mosquito control. Combined with LLIN, indoor

  16. Polyacrylamide hydrogels: an effective tool for delivering liquid baits to pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Roper, Elray; Chin, Darren

    2014-04-01

    Ant management in urban and natural areas often relies on toxic baits. Liquid baits are highly attractive to pest ants because they mimic natural food sources such as honeydew and nectar, the principal dietary components of many ants. However, liquid bait use has been limited owing to the lack of bait dispensers that are effective, inexpensive, and easy to service. The current study evaluated the potential of water-storing crystals (polyacrylamide spheres) to effectively deliver liquid thiamethoxam baits to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants, Linepithema humile Mayr. Results of laboratory trials show that bait crystals saturated in 25% sucrose solution containing 0.007% thiamethoxam are highly attractive to Argentine ants and highly effective against all castes and life stages, including workers, queens, and brood. Fresh bait crystals were highly effective and required approximately 2 d to kill all workers and approximately 6 d to achieve complete mortality in queens and brood. Results of bait aging tests show that the crystals lose approximately 70% of moisture in 8 h and the duration of outdoor exposure has a significant effect on moisture loss and subsequently bait acceptance and bait efficacy. A gradual decrease in mortality was observed for all castes and life stages as bait age increased. In general, fresh baits and those aged for < 8 h retained their efficacy and caused substantial mortality. Baits aged longer than 8 h were substantially less attractive and less effective. Horizontal transfer tests examined the transfer of thiamethoxam from live treated donors to live untreated recipients. The results show that donor ants that obtain thiamethoxam by feeding on bait crystals effectively transfer it to untreated recipient ants. The level of secondary mortality depended on the donor:recipient ratio, with approximately 40% recipient worker mortality with the 1:5 ratio and 15% recipient worker mortality with 1:10 or 1:20 ratios. However, no queens died in any

  17. Fentanyl Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl nasal spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  18. Fentanyl Sublingual Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentanyl sublingual spray is used to treat breakthrough pain (sudden episodes of pain that occur despite round ... effects of the medication) to narcotic pain medications. Fentanyl is in a class of medications called narcotic ( ...

  19. Dynamics of flare sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hansen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable pass-band filters, multi-slit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronographs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occured between 1969-1974 we conclude that (i) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (ii) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumably magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the material draining back down along one or both legs of the loop. (orig.)

  20. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... stop using butorphanol nasal spray, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  1. Human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits distributed for wildlife rabies management--Ohio, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    Baits laden with oral rabies vaccines are important for the management of wildlife rabies in the United States. In August 2012, the Wildlife Services program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service began a field trial involving limited distribution of a new oral rabies vaccine bait in five states, including Ohio. The vaccine consisted of live recombinant human adenovirus type 5 vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (AdRG1.3) (Onrab). A previously used oral rabies vaccine consisting of a live recombinant vaccinia vector, expressing rabies virus glycoprotein (V-RG) (Raboral V-RG), was distributed in other areas of Ohio. To monitor human contacts and potential vaccine virus exposure, surveillance was conducted by the Ohio Department of Health, local Ohio health agencies, and CDC. During August 23-September 7, 2012, a total of 776,921 baits were distributed in Ohio over 4,379 square miles (11,341 square kilometers). During August 24-September 12, a total of 89 baits were reported found by the general public, with 55 human contacts with baits identified (some contacts involved more than one bait). In 27 of the 55 human contacts, the bait was not intact, and a barrier (e.g., gloves) had not been used to handle the bait, leaving persons at risk for vaccine exposure and vaccine virus infection. However, no adverse events were reported. Continued surveillance of human contacts with oral rabies vaccine baits and public warnings to avoid contact with baits are needed because of the potential for vaccine virus infection.

  2. Influence of environmental factors on the response of a natural population of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchet, C.; Caquet, Th.; Franquet, E.; Lagneau, C.; Lagadic, L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of a candidate mosquito larvicide, spinosad (8, 17 and 33 μg L -1 ) on a field population of Daphnia magna under natural variations of water temperature and salinity, using Bti (0.16 and 0.50 μL L -1 ) as the reference larvicide. Microcosms (125 L) were placed in a shallow temporary marsh where D. magna was naturally present. The peak of salinity observed during the 21-day observation period may have been partly responsible for the decrease of daphnid population density in all the microcosms. It is also probably responsible for the absence of recovery in the microcosms treated with spinosad which caused a sharp decrease of D. magna abundance within the first two days following treatment whereas Bti had no effect. These results suggest that it may be difficult for a field population of daphnids to cope simultaneously with natural (water salinity and temperature) and anthropogenic (larvicides) stressors. - Significant interaction between salinity and spinosad exposure impairs the recovery of a natural population of Daphnia magna.

  3. Influence of environmental factors on the response of a natural population of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchet, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Caquet, Th. [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Franquet, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Saint Jerome, C31, Marseille F-13397 (France); Lagneau, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); Lagadic, L., E-mail: Laurent.Lagadic@rennes.inra.f [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of a candidate mosquito larvicide, spinosad (8, 17 and 33 mug L{sup -1}) on a field population of Daphnia magna under natural variations of water temperature and salinity, using Bti (0.16 and 0.50 muL L{sup -1}) as the reference larvicide. Microcosms (125 L) were placed in a shallow temporary marsh where D. magna was naturally present. The peak of salinity observed during the 21-day observation period may have been partly responsible for the decrease of daphnid population density in all the microcosms. It is also probably responsible for the absence of recovery in the microcosms treated with spinosad which caused a sharp decrease of D. magna abundance within the first two days following treatment whereas Bti had no effect. These results suggest that it may be difficult for a field population of daphnids to cope simultaneously with natural (water salinity and temperature) and anthropogenic (larvicides) stressors. - Significant interaction between salinity and spinosad exposure impairs the recovery of a natural population of Daphnia magna.

  4. Termite (order Blattodea, infraorder Isoptera) baiting 20 years after commercial release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A; Iqbal, Naeem

    2015-07-01

    Termite baiting is now one of the two main management tools in developed countries after 20 years of commercial release. It has two main goals: to use small amounts of active ingredient and 'colony elimination', i.e. death of all individuals in the colony. We consider how well baiting has been evaluated from 100 studies in the scientific literature. Studies have included 15 active ingredients, 23 termite species and 16 countries, yet most studies have focused on the chitin synthesis inhibitor hexaflumuron, Reticulitermes and the United States. Baiting has mostly met its goals: typically about 0.5 g of active ingredient was used, and colony elimination achieved, albeit with rates varying from 0 to 100%, and sometimes supplemented with liquid insecticide. Baiting was most successful using chitin synthesis inhibitors against Reticulitermes and Coptotermes (Rhinotermitidae), in temperate locations, although colony elimination was usually inferred indirectly - mostly by termite absence from baits - and was often slow, from 25 to 450 days. Baiting has been less tested and less successful against higher termites in tropical locations, where they are most diverse and abundant. Future research may have to consider greater termite species diversity and other active ingredients to reduce control times in order to fulfil the potential of baiting. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Development of virtual bait stations to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in environmentally sensitive habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    A novel bait station referred to as a virtual bait station was developed and tested against field populations of the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), at White Beach, Camp Pendleton, in Oceanside, CA. White Beach is a nesting habitat for an endangered seabird, the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni Mearns). The beach is heavily infested with Argentine ants, one of the threats for the California least tern chicks. Conventional pest control strategies are prohibited because of the existence of the protected bird species and the site's proximity to the ocean. The bait station consisted of a polyvinyl chloride pipe that was treated on the inside with fipronil insecticide at low concentrations to obtain delayed toxicity against ants. The pipe was provisioned with an inverted bottle of 25% sucrose solution, then capped, and buried in the sand. Foraging ants crossed the treated surface to consume the sucrose solution. The delayed toxicity of fipronil deposits allowed the ants to continue foraging on the sucrose solution and to interact with their nestmates, killing them within 3-5 d after exposure. Further modification of the bait station design minimized the accumulation of dead ants in the sucrose solution, significantly improving the longevity and efficacy of the bait station. The virtual bait station exploits the foraging behavior of the ants and provides a low impact approach to control ants in environmentally sensitive habitats. It excluded all insects except ants, required only milligram quantities of toxicant, and eliminated the problem of formulating toxicants into aqueous sugar baits.

  6. Efficiency of baited hoop nets for sampling catfish in southeastern U.S. small impoundments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Benjamin C.; Weaver, Daniel M.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. natural resource agencies stock catfish (Ictaluridae) into small impoundments to provide recreational fishing opportunities. However, effective standardized methods for sampling catfish in small impoundments have not been developed for wide application, particularly in the southeastern United States. We evaluated the efficiency of three bait treatments (i.e., soybean cake, sunflower cake, and no bait) of tandem hoop nets in two North Carolina small impoundments during the fall of 2008 and spring of 2009 in a factorial experimental design. The impoundments were stocked with catchable-size channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus at contrastingly low (5.5 fi sh/ha) and high (90.0 fi sh/ha) rates prior to our sampling. Nets baited with soybean cake consistently sampled more channel catfish than any other treatment. Channel catfish catch ranged as high as 3,251 fi sh per net series during the fall in nets baited with soybean cake in the intensively stocked impoundment and was up to 8.5 and 15.3 times higher during the fall than in the spring in each impoundment. Nets baited with soybean cake sampled significantly (12 and 24 times) more channel catfish than those with no bait in the two impoundments. These trends did not occur among other catfish species. Nonictalurid fish and turtle catch was higher during spring compared to that of fall, corresponding with low channel catfish catches. Our results indicate that tandem hoop nets baited with soybean cake during the fall is a more efficient method for sampling channel catfish compared to nets baited with sunflower cake or no bait in spring or fall. Our findings validate this technique for application in southeastern U.S. small impoundments to assess catfish abundance to guide management and evaluate the success of catfish stocking programs.

  7. Influence of toxic bait type and starvation on worker and queen mortality in laboratory colonies of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Melissa; Toft, Richard; Lester, Philip J

    2012-08-01

    The efficacy of toxic baits should be judged by their ability to kill entire ant colonies, including the colony queen or queens. We studied the efficacy of four toxic baits to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These baits were Xstinguish that has the toxicant fipronil, Exterm-an-Ant that contains both boric acid and sodium borate, and Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena that both have indoxacarb. Experimental nests contained 300 workers and 10 queen ants that were starved for either 24 or 48 h before toxic bait exposure. The efficacy of the toxic baits was strongly influenced by starvation. In no treatment with 24-h starvation did we observe 100% worker death. After 24-h starvation three of the baits did not result in any queen deaths, with only Exterm-an-Ant producing an average of 25% mortality. In contrast, 100% queen and worker mortality was observed in colonies starved for 48 h and given Xstinguish or Exterm-an-Ant. The baits Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena were not effective against Argentine ants in these trials, resulting in ants are likely to be starved. Our results suggest queen mortality must be assessed in tests for toxic bait efficacy. Our data indicate that of these four baits, Xstinguish and Exterm-an-Ant are the best options for control of Argentine ants in New Zealand.

  8. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    entrainment may account for the large discrepancy in energy input for the two systems. In the third study, the temperature dependence of sea spray aerosol production is probed with the use of a highly stable temperature controlled plunging jet. Similar to previous studies, particle production increases...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  9. Droplets and sprays

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Providing a clear and systematic description of droplets and spray dynamic models, this book maximises reader insight into the underlying physics of the processes involved, outlines the development of new physical and mathematical models, and broadens understanding of interactions between the complex physical processes which take place in sprays. Complementing approaches based on the direct application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Droplets and Sprays treats both theoretical and practical aspects of internal combustion engine process such as the direct injection of liquid fuel, subcritical heating and evaporation. Includes case studies that illustrate the approaches relevance to automotive applications,  it is also anticipated that the described models can find use in other areas such as in medicine and environmental science.

  10. Efficacy of milbemycin oxime in combination with spinosad in the treatment of larval and immature adult stages of Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis in experimentally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dwight D; Reinemeyer, Craig R; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2014-09-15

    Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis are two important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The primary objective of these studies were to confirm the oral effectiveness of milbemycin oxime (MO) and spinosad in dogs experimentally infected with immature (L4 and immature adult) stages of T. canis or A. caninum. Both trials were conducted as randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled dose confirmation studies. Treatments using the intended European commercial tablet formulation of Trifexis were administered in a timeframe relative to inoculation so that effectiveness could be assessed against specific immature stages of A. caninum or T. canis. In each study on Day 0, each of 32, 3-4 month old dogs were inoculated with 250 infective eggs of T. canis or 300 infective L3 of the hookworm, A. caninum. All dogs were weighed before their scheduled treatment, randomized to 1 of the 4 treatment groups in each study (8 dogs/group). All dogs were fed just prior to dosing. For T. canis, dogs were treated orally with an MO/spinosad tablet on Day 14 or Day 24. For A. caninum, dogs were treated orally with an MO/spinosad tablet on Day 7 or Day 11. Corresponding control groups in each study received a placebo tablet. Dogs were necropsied 5 or 6 days after their respective treatments. The digestive tract was removed and processed to recover, count, and identify all stages. The GM worm count for the MO/spinosad tablet on Day 14 (L4 T. canis) was 0.0, with efficacy calculated as 100%; however, only 3 of 8 control dogs had adequate infections. The GM worm count for the MO/spinosad tablet on Day 24 (immature adult stage) was 0.30; efficacy calculated at 96.15%. This is based on 5 of the 8 control dogs with adequate infections. In the two A. caninum studies, GM worm counts for the MO/spinosad tablets on Day 7 (L4 efficacy) was 2.37 and 0.8 with efficacy calculated as 98.92% and 99.25%, respectively. The GM count for the group treated with the MO/spinosad combination on Day 11 (immature adult) was 6

  11. Field trials of spinosad as a replacement for naled, DDVP, and malathion in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill male oriental fruit flies and melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Miller, Neil W; Stark, John D

    2003-12-01

    Spinosad was evaluated in Hawaii as a replacement for organophosphate insecticides (naled, dichlorvos [DDVP], and malathion) in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett, respectively. In the first and second methyl eugenol trials with B. dorsalis, naled was in the highest rated group for all evaluation periods (at 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk). Spinosad was equal to naled at 5 and 10 wk during both trials 1 and 2, and compared favorably with malathion during trial 2. During the first cue-lure trial with B. cucurbitae, naled and malathion were in the top rated group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk. Spinosad was equal to naled at 5 wk. During the second cue-lure trial, spinosad and naled were both in the top rated group at 10, 15, and 20 wk. Use of male lure traps with methyl eugenol or cue-lure had no effect on attraction of females into test areas. Our results suggest that spinosad, although not as persistent as naled or malathion, is safer to handle and a more environmentally friendly substitute for organophosphate insecticides in methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps for use in B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae areawide integrated pest management programs in Hawaii.

  12. Sprayed concrete linings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-12-01

    Sprayed concrete, or shotcrete, was invented in the 1920s for preserving dinosaur skeletons and was used underground initially in coalmines for the preservation and fine proofing of timber supports. Its use as a support lining in rock tunnelling was developed in the 1950s and 60s. The article surveys equipment available from major manufacturers and suppliers of concrete spraying equipment (Aliva, Cifa, GIA, Industri, Ingersoll Rand, etc.), specialist cement and additive manufacturers (Castle, Cement, Moria Carbotech). manufacturers of lattice girders and fibre reinforcement, and manufacturers of instrumentation for tunnel linings. 5 tabs., 9 photos.

  13. Anticoagulant Prairie Dog Bait Risk Mitigation Measures to Protect Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page contains information on how certified pesticide applicators can use anticoagulant prairie dog bait products such as Rozol and Kaput-D while minimizing exposure risks to listed and non-target species.

  14. Captive reared loggerhead sea turtles Hook and bait interaction trials From 2004-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hook and bait interaction feeding response data from experiments with captive reared loggerhead sea turtles ranging from 45 - 65 cm straight carapace length) were...

  15. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Swietoslawski, J.; Swietoslawski, J

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: 'Cockroach Kill Gel' for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  16. Were human babies used as bait in crocodile hunts in colonial Sri Lanka?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anslem de Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of live animals as bait is not an uncommon practice in hunting worldwide.  However, some curious accounts of the use of human babies as bait to lure crocodiles in sport hunting exist on the island of Sri Lanka, where sport hunting was common during the British colonial period.  Herein we compile the available records, review other records of the practice, and discuss the likelihood of the exercise actually having taken place. 

  17. An accelerated soil bait assay for the detection of potato mop top virus in agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Triona

    2009-01-01

    An accelerated soil bait test can be used to determine whether a field harbours virus-carrying Spongospora subterranea. S. subterranea is the causal agent of powdery scab and also the only vector of potato mop top virus (PMTV). Real-time RT-PCR can detect PMTV RNA in the roots of bait plants after 2 weeks of growth in viruliferous soil. This test may be used to assess the risk of planting potato crops in a particular field.

  18. Comparison of a synthetic chemical lure and standard fermented baits for trapping Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Dong H; Hesler, Stephen P; Cowles, Richard S; Vogt, Heidrun; Loeb, Gregory M; Landolt, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    We determined the attractiveness of a new chemical lure compared with fermented food baits in use for trapping Drosophila suzukii Matsumura, spotted wing drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in Connecticut, New York, and Washington in the United States and at Dossenheim in Germany. The chemical lure (SWD lure) and food baits were compared in two types of traps: the dome trap and a cup trap. Regardless of trap type, numbers of male and female D. suzukii trapped were greater with the SWD lure compared with apple cider vinegar (ACV) baits at the Washington and New York sites, and were comparable with numbers of D. suzukii captured with a wine plus vinegar bait (W + V) at Germany site and a combination bait meant to mimic W + V at the Connecticut site. Averaged over both types of attractants, the numbers of D. suzukii captured were greater in dome traps than in cup traps in New York and Connecticut for both male and female D. suzukii and in Washington for male D. suzukii. No such differences were found between trap types at the Washington site for female and Germany for male and female D. suzukii. Assessments were also made of the number of large (>0.5 cm) and small (attractant for D. suzukii and could be used in place of fermented food-type baits.

  19. Responses of Tabanidae (Diptera) to canopy traps baited with 4-methylphenol, 3-isopropylphenol, and naphthalene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krcmar, Stjepan

    2007-12-01

    The attraction of female tabanids to unbaited and single-baited canopy traps using 4-methylphenol, 3-isopropylphenol, and naphthalene was studied in three forest localities in eastern Croatia. Tabanids were collected in a significantly higher number in traps baited with these chemicals compared to unbaited control traps. The number of females of Tabanus bromius, Tabanus sudeticus, Tabanus tergestinus, Hybomitra ciureai, Haematopota pluvialis, and Tabanus maculicornis collected from 4-methylphenol baited canopy traps and traps baited with other attractants differed significantly. A total of 89.0% of tabanids collected belonged to these six species. The response of the other species to used chemicals was not analyzed because of small sample sizes. Moreover, the results with 3-isopropylphenol and naphthalene are very similar and not significant for some tabanids. Tabanus bromius was the most abundant species with 48.4% in the sample collected by canopy traps. Finally, the 4-methylphenol baited canopy traps collected 16 times more tabanids than unbaited traps, while 3-isopropylphenol and naphthalene baited traps collected 3.5 and 2 times as many tabanids, respectively, than unbaited traps. Also, 4-methylphenol appeared to be a very effective attractant for Lucilia caesar (Calliphoridae), Sarcophaga carnaria (Sarcophagidae), and Musca domestica (Muscidae).

  20. Use of herring bait to farm lobsters in the Gulf of Maine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H Grabowski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England.We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S.Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions.

  1. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  2. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  3. Comparative in vitro evaluation of contact activity of fluralaner, spinosad, phoxim, propoxur, permethrin and deltamethrin against the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Bradley A; Murillo, Amy C; Zoller, Hartmut; Heckeroth, Anja R; Jirjis, Faris; Flochlay-Sigognault, Annie

    2017-08-03

    Northern fowl mites (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of both feral birds and poultry, particularly chicken layers and breeders. They complete their entire life-cycle on infested birds while feeding on blood. Infestations of O. sylviarum are difficult to control and resistance to some chemical classes of acaricides is a growing concern. The contact susceptibility of O. sylviarum to a new active ingredient, fluralaner, was evaluated, as well as other compounds representative of the main chemical classes commonly used to control poultry mite infestations in Europe and the USA. Six acaricides (fluralaner, spinosad, phoxim, propoxur, permethrin, deltamethrin) were dissolved and serially diluted in butanol:olive oil (1:1) to obtain test solutions used for impregnation of filter paper packets. A carrier-only control was included. Thirty adult northern fowl mites, freshly collected from untreated host chickens, were inserted into each packet for continuous compound exposure. Mite mortality was assessed after incubation of the test packets for 48 h at 75% relative humidity and a temperature of 22 °C. Adult mite LC 50 /LC 99 values were 2.95/8.09 ppm for fluralaner, 1587/3123 ppm for spinosad, 420/750 ppm for phoxim and 86/181 ppm for propoxur. Permethrin and deltamethrin LC values could not be calculated due to lack of mortality observed even at 1000 ppm. Northern fowl mites were highly sensitive to fluralaner after contact exposure. They were moderately sensitive to phoxim and propoxur, and less sensitive to spinosad. Furthermore, the tested mite population appeared to be resistant to the pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin, despite not being exposed to acaricides for at least 10 years.

  4. Sea Spray Aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butcher, Andrew Charles

    emissions produced directly from bubble bursting as the result of air entrainment from breaking waves and particles generated from secondary emissions of volatile organic compounds. In the first paper, we study the chemical properties of particles produced from several sea water proxies with the use...... of a cloud condensation nuclei ounter. Proxy solutions with high inorganic salt concentrations and some organics produce sea spray aerosol particles with little change in cloud condensation activity relative to pure salts. Comparison is made between a frit based method for bubble production and a plunging...... a relationship between plunging jet particle ux, oceanic particle ux, and energy dissipation rate in both systems. Previous sea spray aerosol studies dissipate an order of magnitude more energy for the same particle ux production as the open ocean. A scaling factor related to the energy expended in air...

  5. Flame spraying of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Zeek, D.P.; Couch, K.W.; Benson, D.M.; Kirk, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical design-of-experiment studies of the thermal spraying of polymer powders are presented. Studies of the subsonic combustion (i.e., Flame) process were conducted in order to determine the quality and economics of polyester and urethane coatings. Thermally sprayed polymer coatings are of interest to several industries for anticorrosion applications, including the chemical, automotive, and aircraft industries. In this study, the coating design has been optimized for a site-specific application using Taguchi-type fractional-factorial experiments. Optimized coating designs are presented for the two powder systems. A substantial range of thermal processing conditions and their effect on the resultant polymer coatings is presented. The coatings were characterized by optical metallography, hardness testing, tensile testing, and compositional analysis. Characterization of the coatings yielded the thickness, bond strength, Knoop microhardness, roughness, deposition efficiency, and porosity. Confirmation testing was accomplished to verify the coating designs

  6. Numerical modelling of fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, C.

    1999-06-01

    The way the fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber is one of the most important parameters for the power output and the generation of emissions in the combustion of liquid fuels. The interaction between the turbulent gas flow field and the liquid fuel droplets, the vaporisation of them and the mixing of the gaseous fuel with the ambient air that are vital parameters in the combustion process. The use of numerical calculations is an important tool to better understand these complex interacting phenomena. This thesis reports on the numerical modelling of fuel sprays in non-reacting cases using an own developed spray module. The spray module uses the stochastic parcel method to represent the spray. The module was made in such manner that it could by coupled with different gas flow solver. Results obtained from four different gas flow solvers are presented in the thesis, including the use of two different kinds of turbulence models. In the first part the spray module is coupled with a k-{eta} based 2-D cylindrical gas flow solver. A thorough sensitivity analysis was performed on the spray and gas flow solver parameters, such as grid size dependence and sensitivity to initial values of k-{eta}. The results of the spray module were also compared to results from other spray codes, e.g. the well known KIVA code. In the second part of this thesis the spray was injected into a turbulent and fully developed crossflow studied. The spray module was attached to a LES (Large Eddy Simulation) based flow solvers enabling the study of the complex structures and time dependent phenomena involved in spray in crossflows. It was found that the spray performs an oscillatory motion and that the Strouhal number in the wake was about 0.1. Different spray breakup models were evaluated by comparing with experimental results 66 refs, 56 figs

  7. Comparative speed of kill of sarolaner (Simparica) and spinosad plus milbemycin oxime (Trifexis) against induced infestations of Ctenocephalides felis on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Robert H; Everett, William R; Myers, Melanie R; Mahabir, Sean P

    2016-02-19

    Fleas are a ubiquitous ectoparasite infesting dogs and cause direct discomfort, allergic reactions and are responsible for the transmission of several pathogens. The rapid speed of kill of a parasiticide is important to alleviate the direct deleterious effects of fleas, reduce the impact of allergic responses, and break the flea life cycle. In this study, the speed of kill of a novel orally administered isoxazoline parasiticide, sarolaner (Simparica) against fleas on dogs was evaluated and compared with spinosad in combination with milbemycin oxime (Trifexis) for 5 weeks after a single oral dose. Twenty-four dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with a single oral dose per product label of sarolaner (2 to 4 mg/kg), spinosad/milbemycin oxime (30 to 60 mg/kg / 0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg), or placebo based on pretreatment flea counts. Dogs were combed and live fleas counted at 8, 12, and 24 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations on Days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. Efficacy (reduction in live flea counts) of each treatment was determined at each time point relative to counts for placebo dogs. There were no adverse reactions to treatment. A single oral dose of sarolaner provided ≥94.0 % efficacy (based on geometric means) within 8 h of treatment or subsequent weekly re-infestations of fleas to Day 35. By 12 h, fleas were eradicated from all dogs and they remained flea free at 24 h. Significantly greater numbers of live fleas were recovered from spinosad/milbemycin oxime-treated dogs at 8 h from Day 21 to Day 35 (P ≤ 0.0085), and at 12 and 24 h on Day 35 (P ≤ 0.0002). In this controlled laboratory evaluation, dogs treated with sarolaner had significantly fewer live fleas than spinosad/milbemycin oxime- treated dogs at 8 h after re-infestation from Day 21 after a single oral dose. The rapid and consistent kill of fleas after a single oral dose of sarolaner over 35 days indicates that this treatment should provide highly effective control of flea infestations

  8. Kelvin spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2013-11-21

    A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 μL min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions.

  9. Field evaluation of CDC and Mosquito Magnet X traps baited with dry ice, CO2 sachet, and octenol against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Doyle, Melissa A; Kline, Daniel L

    2008-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnet X (MMX) traps baited with dry ice, octenol, and a new formulation (granular) of carbon dioxide (CO2) were evaluated against adult mosquitoes in the field. The results showed that the MMX traps (68.6%) baited with dry ice collected more mosquitoes compared to the CDC light traps (32.4%) only. The CDC traps baited with dry ice (64%) collected significantly more mosquitoes than traps baited with CO2 sachets (11%) or octenol (23%). The MMX traps baited with dry ice (85.5%) collected significantly more mosquitoes than traps baited with CO2 sachets (6.5%) or octenol (9%). The CDC traps baited with the formulations of normal and slow release CO2 sachets collected more mosquitoes than the formulation of fast release sachets. The CDC traps baited with fresh sachets and 24-h-exposed sachets collected significantly more mosquitoes than the traps baited with 48-h- and 72-h-exposed sachets.

  10. Wildlife Interactions on Baited Places and Waterholes in a French Area Infected by Bovine Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Ariane; Philipon, Sixtine; Hars, Jean; Dufour, Barbara; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Interactions among wildlife species are major drivers for the transmission of multi-host pathogens, such as Mycobacterium bovis , which also affect livestock. Although France is officially free from bovine tuberculosis (bTB), some areas are still harboring infection in cattle and wildlife. We aimed at characterizing the visits of susceptible wild species (badger, red deer, and wild boar) at baited places and waterholes, considered as possible hotspots for contacts. We described the visits in terms of frequency, duration, and number of individuals and studied the influence of the season. Then, we estimated the frequency of intraspecies and interspecies interactions occurring at baited places and waterholes which may lead to bTB transmission, including direct and indirect contacts through the soil or water. We used camera traps placed on baited places and waterholes on 13 locations monitored during 21 months. The number of visits, their duration, and the number of individuals per visit were analyzed by generalized linear mixed models for each targeted species. The frequency of the interspecies and intraspecies interactions was also analyzed separately. The season, the type of site (baited place or waterhole), and the location were the explanatory variables. Badgers' visits and interactions were more frequent than for other species (mean: 0.60 visit/day and 5.42 interactions/day) especially on baited places. Red deer only visited waterholes. Wild boars visited most often baited places in spring-summer and waterholes in autumn-winter. They came in higher number than other species, especially on baited places. Direct interactions were uncommon. The most frequent interspecies interactions occurred between red deer and wild boar (mean: 4.02 interactions/day). Baited places and waterholes are important interfaces between the different wild species involved in the bTB multi-host system in this area. They can thus promote intraspecies and interspecies b

  11. Baiting improves CPUE in nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) minnow trap fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Whether or not baiting influences stickleback catch per unit effort (CPUE) remains a matter of debate among stickleback researchers: While the opinions about the impact of baiting on CPUE differ, supporting quantitative data are scarce. The effect of baiting and trap type on nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) CPUE was studied in a field experiment conducted over four consecutive days in a small pond in northeastern Finland. The results show that baited traps yielded better (mean CPUE = 1.24 fish/trap/d) catches than unbaited traps (mean CPUE = 0.66); however, there were also differences in CPUE depending on the type of collapsible trap that was used. The trap type effect on CPUE seemed to differ among age classes – the finer meshed trap caught more young-of-the-year fish than the coarse-meshed one, whereas the opposite was true for the older and larger individuals. The results agree with those of an earlier more restricted study conducted in the same locality: Together, these results provide strong evidence for the positive impact of baiting on nine-spined stickleback CPUE. PMID:26380701

  12. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R., E-mail: Nancy.Epsky@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Paul.Kendra@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Bob.Heath@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SHRS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    2006-07-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  13. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  14. Application of grain baits to control common vole Microtus arvalis (Pallas, 1778 in alfalfa crops, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić G.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the efficacies of conventional (cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and new (sodium selenite rodenticides, applied in the grain bait formulation on the whole-grain of wheat (Triticum aestivum and triticale (Triticasecale in alfalfa crops, experiments were conducted at two sites near Belgrade, Serbia, in the spring of 2009, using a standard EPPO method. The presence of rodent populations, their spatial distribution and density indices were evaluated by pretreatment census and rodenticide efficacy by counting active holes, 14 and 28 days after treatment. The average Microtus arvalis numbers of 158/ha and 184/ha were found to cause 7.4% and 9.6% alfalfa green biomass yield decreases, respectively. Twenty-eight days after treatment, the average efficacy of grain bait formulation (on wheat and triticale grains of sodium selenite and cholecalciferol was 81%, while bromadiolone which had a higher efficiency, 85%, in the control of the common vole in alfalfa crops. The analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the origin of active substances, bases and associated interactions a.s x based on the efficacy-investigated grain baits did not have a statistically significant impact on the expression efficiency of the tested baits. Triticale grains can be used as carriers of active substances, sodium selenite, cholecalciferol or bromadiolone in preparation baits. Control of M. arvalis with the new rodenticide, sodium selenite, gave efficacy results about equal to that of cholecalciferol and bromadiolone and, therefore, provided a possible alternative rodenticide for vole control in alfalfa.

  15. Immunization of black-tailed prairie dog against plague through consumption of vaccine-laden baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Smith, Susan R; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E

    2008-10-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and, along with other wild rodents, are significant reservoirs of plague for other wildlife and humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to three groups (n = 18, 19, and 20) of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption, either one, two, or three times, at roughly 3-wk intervals. A control group (n = 19) received baits containing raccoon poxvirus without the inserted antigen. Mean antibody titers to Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly in all groups ingesting the vaccine-laden baits, whereas the control group remained negative. Upon challenge with virulent Y. pestis, immunized groups had higher survival rates (38%) than the unimmunized control group (11%). The mean survival time of groups ingesting vaccine-laden baits either two or three times was significantly higher than that of animals ingesting vaccine-laden baits just one time and of animals in the control group. These results show that oral immunization of prairie dogs against plague provides some protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous (3-10) flea bites.

  16. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Disappearance rate of praziquantel-containing bait around villages and small towns in southern Bavaria, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janko, Christof; König, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has increasingly occupied urban areas in central Europe. Meanwhile, prevalence of infection in foxes with the small fox tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis) has increased, thereby increasing the human risk of infection with the parasite, which causes alveolar echinococcosis. Baiting strategies to counteract E. multilocularis have been implemented in cities and the open countryside, but there are few data on the situation in villages and small towns (edges for 7 days after distribution. Disappearance rates were 89.2% in villages, 88.8% in small towns, and 91.8% in settlement edges. More than 75% of the bait was consistently taken within the first three nights. There were no significant differences in disappearance rates between years or among seasons (Cox proportional hazard model). The survival time of the bait in small towns (P=0.021) and villages (P=0.026) depended on the zone (zone 1, first row of houses bordering on open countryside; zone 2, second to fourth rows, zone 3; beyond the fifth row) in which bait was distributed. In villages, the probability of bait being eaten in zone 1 was 119% higher than it was in zone 3 (P=0.007). In small towns, the probability was 60% higher (P=0.006).

  18. Pyrethroid-sprayed tents for malaria control: an entomological evaluation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, S; Rowland, M; Muhammad, N; Kamal, M; Kemp, E

    1995-10-01

    Field trials were undertaken in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan to determine the effects of pyrethroid-sprayed tents on feeding success, mortality and biting-rates of wild mosquitoes attracted to bait cows confined within the tents. Under natural conditions, endophagic mosquitoes rested only briefly in untreated tents during the night, followed by complete exodus at dawn. In tents sprayed on the interior surface with permethrin 0.5 mg/m2 or with deltamethrin 0.03 g/m2 the biting rate of Anopheles stephensi was reduced by about 40%; deterrency against culicines and other anophelines was much less. Mortality-rates of bloodfed mosquitoes from the treated tents were 75% An.stephensi, 65% An.subpictus but only 10% of culicines. Outer fly-sheets prolonged the effective life of the treatment; bioassays on the sprayed inner-sheets showed that insecticidal efficacy remained high for over a year, whereas on tents without fly-sheets permethrin residual efficacy declined rapidly 20-40 weeks post-treatment. It is concluded that tent-spraying with fast-acting photostable residual pyrethroid insecticide would probably provide effective protection against malaria transmission for the inhabitants of tents in any part of the world where the vector mosquitoes are endophilic and susceptible to pyrethroids.

  19. Aerial Prefeeding Followed by Ground Based Toxic Baiting for More Efficient and Acceptable Poisoning of Invasive Small Mammalian Pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morgan

    Full Text Available Introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula and rat species (Rattus spp. are major vertebrate pests in New Zealand, with impacts on conservation and agriculture being managed largely through poisoning operations. Aerial distribution of baits containing sodium fluoroacetate (1080 has been refined to maximise cost effectiveness and minimise environmental impact, but this method is strongly opposed by some as it is perceived as being indiscriminate. Although ground based control enables precise placement of baits, operations are often more than twice as costly as aerial control, mainly due to the high labour costs. We investigated a new approach to ground based control that combined aerial distribution of non-toxic 'prefeed' baits followed by sparse distribution of toxic baits at regular intervals along the GPS tracked prefeeding flight paths. This approach was tested in two field trials in which both 1080 baits and cholecalciferol baits were used in separate areas. Effectiveness of the approach, assessed primarily using 'chewcards', was compared with that of scheduled aerial 1080 operations that were conducted in outlying areas of both trials. Contractors carrying out ground based control were able to follow the GPS tracks of aerial prefeeding flight lines very accurately, and with 1080 baits achieved very high levels of kill of possums and rats similar to those achieved by aerial 1080 baiting. Cholecalciferol was less effective in the first trial, but by doubling the amount of cholecalciferol bait used in the second trial, few possums or rats survived. By measuring the time taken to complete ground baiting from GPS tracks, we predicted that the method (using 1080 baits would be similarly cost effective to aerial 1080 operations for controlling possums and rats, and considerably less expensive than typical current costs of ground based control. The main limitations to the use of the method will be access to, and size of, the operational

  20. Use of fruit bait traps for monitoring of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B. Hughes

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available There exists great interest in using fruit-feeding adult nymphalid butterflies to monitor changes in tropical forest ecosystems. We intensively sampled the butterfly fauna of mid-elevation tropical moist forest in southern Costa Rica with fruit bait traps to address a series of practical issues concerning the development of a robust, efficient sampling program. Variation in the number of captures and escapes of butterflies at the traps was better explained by the time of day than by the age of bait. Species’ escape rates varied widely, suggesting that short term, less intensive surveys aimed at determining presence or absence of species may be biased. Individuals did not appear to become "trap-happy" or to recognize the traps as food sources. Considering the tradeoff between numbers of traps and frequency of trap servicing, the most efficient sampling regime appears to be baiting and sampling the traps once every other day.

  1. Investigations on the use of poison baits and fumigants against indian crested porcupine (Hytsrix indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Hussain, R.; Mian, A.

    2006-01-01

    Preventive methods were investigated against the Indian crested porcupine as it seriously damages trees, field crops, and vegetables. Large-scale field trials were conducted to determine the efficacy of two poison baits (0.0375% coumatetralyl and 2% zinc phosphide) and two fumigants (carbon monoxide and calcium cyanide powder) against the Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica, in forest plantations, barani or drylands, and desert rangelands. On the average, carbon monoxide, calcium cyanide and coumatetralyl caused 95.84, 96.52, and 100% mortality, and were equally effective. The zinc phosphide bait yielded 27.78% mortality, indicating that it was less effective and poorly consumed by the porcupines. Use of the two fumigants and the grain bait of coumatetralyl was found to be excellent for the control of Indian crested porcupines in different habitats. (author)

  2. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  3. Evidence that grey seals (Halichoerus grypus use above-water vision to locate baited buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Fjälling

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishing gear in the Baltic is often raided by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus. The seals remove the fish and damage the nets, or entangle themselves and drown. In order to develop ways of mitigating the seals-fisheries conflict, it is important to know exactly how the seals locate the fishing gear. A field experiment was conducted in order to clarify whether seals use their vision above water to do this. Bait (herring; Clupea harengus was attached to the anchor lines of buoys of the type that is commonly used to mark the position of fishing gear. In all, 643 buoys were set. Some of the buoys (210 were also fitted with camera traps. Weather data were collected from official weather stations nearby. Bait loss (mean 18% was significantly correlated with buoy size (P = 0.002 and wind speed (P = 0.04. There was a significant association between bait loss and seal observations near the buoys (P = 0.05. Five photos of grey seals were obtained from the camera traps. No fish-eating birds, such as cormorants or mergansers, were ever observed near the buoys or caught on camera. It was concluded that a main cause of missing bait was scavenging by grey seals, and that they did use above-water vision to locate the buoys. It was also concluded that wind strength (i.e. wave action contributed tothe bait loss. The camera trap buoys had a somewhat lower bait loss than the other buoys (P = 0.054, which was attributed to a scaring effect. Neither the number of seal observations nor the bait loss differed significantly between the 2 study areas in the experiment (P = 0.43 and P = 0.83, respectively. Bait loss was not affected by the buoy colour (red, white, or grey; P = 0.87. We suggest that the findings of this experiment could be put into practice in a seal-disturbed area by deploying a number of decoy buoys, or by hiding live buoys below the surface of the water. This would increase the cost of foraging for the seals, and hence discourage them from exploiting

  4. Evaluation of Commercial and Field-Expedient Baited Traps for House Flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-09

    baits relied on natural products such as fermented egg slurries (Willson and Mulla 1973) or combinations of such items as molasses, milk , yeast, grain...would result in improved collections, presumably due to fermentation or the presence of decomposing flies in the bait reservoir. An evaluation of long

  5. The association of bait formulation of strychnine with poisonings in nontarget species in Saskatchewan from 1975 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakley, Barry R

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the association of pre-mixed and freshly mixed strychnine baits with poisoning of nontarget animals in Saskatchewan. During years where the formulations were derived from a 2% concentrate, there was a greater than 2-fold increase in case numbers. There were approximately 3-fold fewer cases when the baits were prepared by pest control officers rather than by producers.

  6. Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, c...

  7. Sampling gravid Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Tanzania with traps baited with synthetic oviposition pheromone and grass infusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Takken, W.; Mdira, K.Y.; Pickett, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The effectiveness of traps baited with (5R,6S)-6-acetoxy-5-hexadecanolide (the synthetic oviposition pheromone) and grass infusions in sampling a population of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus Say was conducted in Muheza, Northeast Tanzania. A counterflow geometry (CFG) trap baited with pheromone and

  8. Characteristics of intermittent fuel sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, B.; Gulari, E.; Henein, N. A.

    1992-03-01

    The spray-tip penetrations and the drop sizes of intermittent fuel sprays were measured by using a modified pulsed optical spray sizer. The average spray tip speeds were determined from simultaneously recorded needle lift signals and obscuration traces. The speeds of a sequence of fuel pulses injected at about 1000 Hz were analyzed to elucidate penetration mechanisms. A correlation that relates penetration distance to time, pressure drop across the nozzle, fuel density, and ambient gas density was obtained. The temporal variations of drop size in penetrating pulses of sprays were measured. The concentration of drops were calculated by combining drop size and obscuration data. The Sauter mean diameter of penetrating fuel drops increased with an increase of the chamber pressure and decreased with an increase of the injection pressure.

  9. A Morphological and Morphometric Study of Bite Marks Caused by Mice (Mus Musculus) on Different Baits for Forensic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Víctor A; Fonseca, Gabriel M; González, Paula A; Ibarra, Luis; Torres, Francisco J; Sáez, Pedro L

    2017-03-01

    In animal bites, the dental attributes can be fundamental in identifying the marks made by various species on different matrices. Although rodent bite marks have been studied in the context of postmortem interference, little research has used different baits to analyze these marks linking not only specific behavior patterns but also the possibility of structural damage. Twenty mice (Mus musculus) were exposed to different baits to study their bite marks in a controlled model. The known pattern of parallel and multiple grooves has been seen in all baits, but polyvinyl chloride and fiber-optic cable were significantly different between each other and the other baits. Some baits showed patterns of anchorage of the upper incisors and space between the lower incisors when gnawing. This technical note represents a novel model of analysis where veterinarians and/or dentists may be asked to give an opinion on alleged animal bite marks. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Field Testing of Different Chemical Combinations as Odour Baits for Trapping Wild Mosquitoes in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawara, M.; Awolola, T.S.; Pinder, M.; Jeffries, D.; Smallegange, R.C.; Takken, W.; Conway, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    Odour baited traps have potential use in population surveillance of insect vectors of disease, and in some cases for vector population reduction. Established attractants for human host-seeking mosquitoes include a combination of CO2 with L-lactic acid and ammonia, on top of which additional

  11. Suitability of some seeds of tropical plants as baits for aquatic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some locally available tropical seeds were assessed for their suitability as baits for aquatic fungi in River Ethiope, Delta State. Studies were carried out in four different locations along the river. Among the twenty-one different seeds belonging to twelve families employed in this study, only twelve proved effective in trapping ...

  12. Evaluation of the use of Ogiri from castor oil seed as bait in trapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pitfall traps were used to study insect fauna in a fallow plot at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Temporary site, Awka. The study was carried out for a period of seven weeks in the months of June and July 2013. The pitfall traps were baited using ogiri made from castor oil seed. The pitfall traps were used to investigate the activities ...

  13. 78 FR 77432 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Bait and Tackle Store Cost-Earnings Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Bait and Tackle Store Cost-Earnings Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and... Management Act of 1996 (and reauthorized in 2007), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is required to.... The cost and earnings data collected in this survey will be used to estimate the economic...

  14. Preference by Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) for processed meats: implications for toxic baiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, G M; Hopkins, D C; Schellhorn, N A

    2006-04-01

    The German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), was introduced into Australia in 1959 and has established throughout southern Australia. In urban environments, V. germanica is frequently a nuisance pest at public gatherings and to homeowners. In native environments, it has the potential to pose a threat to native invertebrates. The current practice for controlling the wasps is nest destruction with pesticide. However, locating the nest(s) is not always practical or possible. Meat baits impregnated with an insecticide that foraging wasps cut and carry back to the nest offer a means of suppressing wasps where the nest sites are unknown. The success of meat baits depends on the attractiveness and acceptance of the meat to the wasp and the mode of action of the insecticide. Our objective was to determine wasp preference and acceptance of five processed meats: canned chicken or fish and freeze-dried chicken, fish, or kangaroo. We found that more wasps visited and took freeze-dried kangaroo and canned chicken than the other baits. Canned and freeze-dried fish were similarly preferred, and freeze-dried chicken was the least attractive and accepted by foraging wasps. Our findings demonstrate that wasps prefer some processed meats and hence take more loads back to the nest. By combining a suitable insecticide with a meat bait preferred by wasps, the likelihood of effective suppression of nuisance wasp populations should be increased.

  15. Survey of Hylobius abietis (L.) and associated species in reforestation areas using baited pitfall traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljo Voolma

    2003-01-01

    Intensive logging of pine and spruce forests in Estonia has led to a rapid increase in the populations of some insect species. A survey using ground traps baited with a blend of turpentine and ethanol resulted in the recovery of large numbers of the large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, as well as bark beetles of the genus Hylastes...

  16. Evaluation of Liquid and Bait Insecticides against the Dark Rover Ant (Brachymyrmex patagonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier G. Miguelena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dark rover ants (Brachymyrmex patagonicus, Mayr are an exotic ant species native to South America that has recently spread through the southern US. We evaluated the residual activity of three liquid insecticides (indoxacarb, fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin as potential barrier treatments against these ants. The factors we considered include the use of a porous or non-porous surface, a short or long exposure time and the changes in insecticide activity after treatment during a 90 day period. We also tested the effect of baits containing three different active ingredients (imidacloprid, sodium tetraborate and indoxacarb on colony fragments of this species for a 15 day period. Both lambda-cyhalothrin® and indoxacarb® resulted in high levels of ant mortality up to 90 days after application. The results of exposure to fipronil® resembled those from the control treatment. Application of insecticides on a porous surface and the shorter exposure time generally resulted in greater ant survival. Of the baits tested, only the imidacloprid based one decreased ant survival significantly during the evaluation period. Within three days, the imidacloprid bait produced over 50% mortality which increased to over 95% by the end of the experiment. Results from the other two bait treatments were not significantly different from the control.

  17. Influence of a mineral insecticide particle size on bait efficacy against Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas g. Shelton; Laurent Cartier; Terence L. Wagner; Christian Becker

    2007-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of termiticidal baits comprised of powdered acellulose and a mineral insecticide, cryolite crystals, in laboratory bioassays against pseudergates of Eastern subterranean termites [Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)]. The influence of cryolite crystal size [0 (control), 0.2, and 20 pm diameter particles] on the overall mortality...

  18. Efficacy of Ogiri produced from Mesquite seed as bait in trapping of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was made on the insect fauna in a fallow plot at the temporary site of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka using pitfall traps. The study was carried out for a period of seven weeks in the months of June and July 2013. The pitfall traps were baited using Ogiri (food condiment) made from mesquite seed. A total of ...

  19. A bait for locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) suitable for oral application of juvenile hormone analogues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, Václav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 1 (2003), s. 287-290 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : locust control * bait * oral application Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.183, year: 2003

  20. Comparision of carbon dioxide-baited trapping systems for sampling outdoor mosquito populations in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Knols, B.G.J.; Braks, M.A.H.; Takken, W.

    2000-01-01

    For collecting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) the outdoor catching efficiency of four types of trapping devices baited with carbon dioxide (CO2, 300 ml/min) was evaluated and compared in two areas of Tanzania. The types of traps employed were: the CDC miniature trap with the incandescent light bulb

  1. Effect of trap design, bait type, and age on captures of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in berry crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Lindsy E; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2014-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted in commercial southern highbush blueberries and wild blackberries to evaluate the attractiveness of different trap designs, bait types, and bait age on captures of the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). During the 2012 trap design study, the five treatments evaluated were four 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (with and without a yellow visual stimulus or odorless dish detergent) and the fifth treatment was a Pherocon AM yellow sticky card trap. Cup traps were baited with 150 ml of apple cider vinegar (ACV) and the Pherocon AM trap had a 7.4-ml glass vial containing ACV. In 2013, the Pherocon AM yellow sticky card was omitted because of low spotted wing drosophila captures in 2012. The four treatments evaluated were four 1-liter cup traps with and without a yellow visual stimulus. One cup trap (with a yellow stimulus) was baited with yeast + sugar in place of ACV and the other cup traps were baited with ACV. In both years, there were no differences in spotted wing drosophila captures among cup traps baited with ACV with and without yellow visual stimulus. However, the cup trap baited with yeast + sugar and yellow visual stimulus captured more spotted wing drosophila than the ACV-baited cup traps irrespective of visual stimulus or detergent. In another study, four baits including 1) ACV, 2) yeast + sugar mixture, 3) yeast + flour mixture (yeast, sugar, water, whole wheat flour, and ACV), and 4) wine + vinegar mixture (rice vinegar and merlot wine) were evaluated in a commercial blueberry planting using 1-liter clear plastic cup traps (as described above). The experiment was repeated in wild blackberries but the yeast + flour bait was replaced with ACV + merlot wine + sugar. Results indicated that the two yeast baits captured significantly more spotted wing drosophila and more nontarget organisms than the vinegar baits. In the final study, although we found that the attraction of ACV and

  2. Developing a dispersant spraying capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, S.D.

    1979-01-01

    In developing a national dispersant spraying capability, the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) has undertaken a modification program to enable the conventional offshore spraying gear to be mounted on almost any vessel of convenience. Smaller, more versatile inshore spraying vessels and pumps have been designed and built. With the popularization of concentrated dispersants, the inshore pumping equipment can be used aboard hovercraft for special application situations. A program of acquiring mobile dispersant storage tanks has been undertaken with auxiliary equipment that will facilitate the shipment of dispersants in bulk by air freight. Work also has commenced on extending the dispersant application program to include the CCG fleet of helicopters.

  3. Molluscicide baits impair the life traits of Folsomia candida (Collembola): Possible hazard to the population level and soil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Diogo N; Santos, Miguel J G; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-08-01

    The application of molluscicides baits on the soil surface is the most common practice to control terrestrial gastropods. There seems to be a gap in the accurate evaluation of molluscicidal baits effects to soil arthropods, since their hazard to non-target organisms has been considered low after mixing baits into soil. In this work the ecotoxicological effects of two molluscicide baits (metaldehyde and methiocarb) to the collembolan Folsomia candida were evaluated using two different approaches: (1) molluscicidal baits were applied to the top soil once and only at the beginning of the exposure and avoidance behaviour and reproduction were evaluated; and (2) baits were replaced by new ones after 14-d of exposure, simulating the recommended application rate recommended by the manufacturer and reproduction was assessed (repeated/pulse exposure). A preference for the side contaminated for methiocarb was observed but the distribution of collembolans in the avoidance test with metaldehyde was random. Exposure to metaldehyde resulted in a significant increase in mortality. For methiocarb, a reduction in the juveniles produced but no acute effects were observed. In the bait pulse test, the toxic effects of each chemical was significantly increased compared with the single exposure test, for all treatments used (both reproduction and mortality). In summary, molluscicides have an adverse effect on F. candida, with severe effects on their behaviour (only for methiocarb), reproduction and survival (for both), which can lead to population collapse with time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Efficacy of hand-broadcast application of baits containing 0.005% diphacinone in reducing rat populations in Hawaiian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Lindsey, Gerald D.; Perry, Charlotte F.; Spurr, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Introduced black rats (Rattus rattus), Polynesian rats (R. exulans/i>), and Norway rats (R. norvegicus) impact insular bird, plant, and invertebrate populations worldwide. We investigated the efficacy of hand-broadcast application of Ramik® Green containing 0.005% diphacinone for rodent control in paired 4-ha treatment and non-treatment plots in both wet and mesic forest in Hawaiʽi. Radio telemetry of black rats, the predominant species, indicated 100% mortality in both treatment plots within about one week of bait application. Live trapping and non-toxic census bait block monitoring two to four weeks after each of 12 repeat bait applications in the wet forest, and three repeat bait applications in the mesic forest, indicated rat abundance was reduced on average by 84–88%. However, reinvasion could have occurred within this time. Rat populations in the treatment plots usually recovered to pre-poison levels within two to five months. House mice (Mus musculus), Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus), and feral cats (Felis catus) also ate bait or other animals that had eaten bait. This study demonstrates the efficacy of ground-based broadcast toxicant baits for the control of rats in Hawaiian montane wet forests.

  5. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap catch and seed predation by ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Dennis J; DeFoliart, Linda S; Hagerty, Aaron M

    2013-04-01

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on nontarget organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species and their consumption of weed seeds have not been previously studied in agricultural settings in Alaska. This study examined the effect of grasshopper bran bait on carabid activity-density, as measured by pitfall trap catches, and subsequent predation by invertebrates of seeds of three species of weed. Data were collected in fallow fields in agricultural landscape in the interior of Alaska, near Delta Junction, in 2008 and 2010. Bait applications reduced ground beetle activity-density by over half in each of 2 yr of bait applications. Seed predation was generally low overall (1-10%/wk) and not strongly affected by the bait application, but predation of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) seed was lower on treated plots in 1 yr (340 seeds recovered versus 317 seeds, on treated versus untreated plots, respectively). Predation of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers) seeds was correlated with ground beetle activity-density in 1 yr, and predation of dragonhead mint (Dracocephalum parvifolium Nutt.) seed in the other year. We conclude that applications of carbaryl-bran bait for control of grasshoppers will have only a small, temporary effect on weed seed populations in high-latitude agricultural ecosystems.

  6. Absorption/desorption in sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naimpally, A.

    1987-01-01

    This survey paper shall seek to present the present state of knowledge concerning absorption and desorption in spray chambers. The first part of the paper presents the theories and formulas for the atomization and break-up of sprays in nozzles. Formulas for the average (sauter-mean) diameters are then presented. For the case of absorption processes, the formulas for the dimensionless mass transfer coefficients is in drops. The total; mass transfer is the total of the transfer in individual drops. For the case of desorption of sparingly soluble gases from liquids in a spray chamber, the mass transfer occurs in the spray just at the point of break-up of the jet. Formulas for the desorption of gases are presented

  7. Field evaluation of a dog owner, participation-based, bait delivery system for the oral immunization of dogs against rabies in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Youssef, S; Matter, H C; Schumacher, C L; Kharmachi, H; Jemli, J; Mrabet, L; Gharbi, M; Hammami, S; El Hicheri, K; Aubert, M F; Meslin, F X

    1998-06-01

    We evaluated a dog owner, participation-based, bait delivery system for the oral immunization of dogs against rabies. In a field study in a semirural area of northern Tunisia, dog owners were asked to come to temporary bait delivery sites. A total of 314 baits were given to 178 dog owners in four sites. The experimental baits used consisted of a freeze-dried core unit containing sulfadimethoxine (SDM) as a biological marker and an aromatized paraffin envelope. No vaccine was used. Preliminary tests had shown that by using a rapid commercial card test, positive SDM serum levels were detected in more than 95% of dogs up to two days after bait ingestion. During the two days following bait delivery, we visited more than 95% of all households in the study area and took blood samples from as many owned dogs as possible. Unconsumed baits were recovered and human contacts with the bait matrix were recorded. The campaign required 7.6 person-min per bait and 13.5 person-min per dog owner for providing baits, gloves, and instructions. The estimated average cost effectiveness ratio per dog accepting a bait was 1.7 US dollars. From the indications given by the dog owners and the results of the SDM test, it was concluded that 85-90% of the owned dogs in the study area had consumed a bait at least partially. Of 314 baits delivered, 78.7% were fully consumed by dogs and 4.1% were recovered during the household survey. The remaining baits (17.2%) that were not recovered were either not consumed or only partially consumed by the target dogs (3.7 baits per 100 inhabitants). These baits probably remained within the highly populated areas and were potentially accessible to other domestic animals and other nontarget species, including humans. Twenty-five unprotected human contacts with baits were recorded (1.7% of all inhabitants). Our study has demonstrated the potential of dog owner based bait delivery. This technique is simple and efficient, particularly if the human population is

  8. [Acute lethal effect of the commercial formulation of the insecticides Imidacloprid, Spinosad y Thiocyclam hidrogenoxalate in Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño Jiménez, Diego; Cure, José Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    The effect of insecticides on bees has gained great attention, however, there are few studies that explore this issue on Neotropical bees. Bombus atratus is a neotropical species broadly distributed in Colombia and is considered an important pollinator of both Andean ecosystems and agroecosystems. However, as for many wild bees species, the effect of insecticides on B. atratus is unknow. In this study we determined the acute median lethal dose (LD50) of commercial formulations of insecticides Imidacloprid, Spinosad and Thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate, widely used in Colombia to control several pests of important crops. The LD50 was carried out by oral and contact routes, following and modifying the EPPO and OECD guidelines to perform LD50 on A. mellifera. We evaluated five doses for each route and insecticide, in a total of 25 medium-size workers for each dose by duplicate. Mortality was registered at 24, 48 and 72 hours after the experiment; and data were analyzed with the Probit regression model. For Imidacloprid, contacts and oral LD50 were 0.048 µg/bee and 0.010 µg/bee, respectively. For Thiocyclam hydrogen oxalate, topical and oral LD50 were 0.244 µg/bee and 0.056 µg/bee, respectively. For Spinosad, the oral LD50 corresponded to 0.28 µg/bee; it was not possible to establish the LD50 for the contact route. The Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Index of Relative Toxicity indicated that all three active ingredients are highly toxic. We discussed the risk of the insecticides use on B. atratus, considering their chemical nature.

  9. Efficacy and Cost of Trap-Bait Combinations for Capturing Rhynchophorus palmarum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Ornamental Palm Polycultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía-González, J; Landero-Torres, I; Leyva-Ovalle, O R; Galindo-Tovar, M E; Llarena-Hernández, R C; Presa-Parra, E; García-Martínez, M A

    2018-04-01

    Ornamental palms are an economically important component of international trade yet have recently experienced yield losses in Mexico due to red ring and bud rot diseases, which are spread by Rhynchophorus palmarum L. Considering that massive capture is a common strategy to control this pest and the cost of commercial traps and baits could be inaccessible for small farmers, an inexpensive trap-bait combination is desired. In this study, 16 trap-bait combinations for capturing R. palmarum were assessed in ornamental palm polycultures over the course of 1 year. An expensive yellow bucket trap combined with aggregation pheromone + insecticide + banana was compared with inexpensive, handmade trap-bait combinations. A total of 4712 weevils were collected in all traps, of which 52.7% were male and 47.3% female. The efficacy of the handmade trap made from a colorless polyethylene bottle and baited with banana + pineapple + sugarcane + sugarcane molasses was similar to that of the yellow bucket trap baited with aggregation pheromone + insecticide + banana. These two trap-bait combinations remained effective even when the R. palmarum population significantly decreased during the dry, warm season. The affordable handmade trap baited with food attractants and without insecticides was highly efficient in capturing R. palmarum and therefore represents an effective tool for monitoring weevil populations. As ornamental crops have recently gained greater economic importance in the studied region, the use of a novel and cheap trap-bait combination could offer great benefits to producers and form part of the integrated management of R. palmarum.

  10. Efficacy of locally produced papain enzyme for the production of protein bait for bactrocera invadens (diptera: tephritidae) control in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggrey-Korsah, R.

    2014-07-01

    Autolysed brewery yeast waste is currently being used as cost effective protein bait for Bactrocera invadens control the world over to replace commercial protein hydrolysate bait formulations. However, significant reduction in production cost can be achieved when all the production materials are from local sources. This experiment was aimed at assessing the efficacy of locally produced papain extracted from 'Red lady' pawpaw fruit latex and skin peel to be used for protein bait production. Aqueous two-phase extraction of papain from pawpaw fruit latex with 15 % (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 - 8 % PEG recovered 64.72 ± 2.08 % papain into the supernatant with 7.33 % proteolytic activity yield and a fold purification of 58.11 ± 1.67. Proteolytic activity and protein concentration measured for the aqueous two-phase extracts of pawpaw skin peel were significantly higher (p= 0.00) than crude extracts of skin peel. However, the aqueous two phase extraction of papain from skin peel needs to be optimised further since SDS-PAGE showed no visible bands in the different phase extracts. Gamma irradiation at 10 KGy increased the proteolytic activity of crude papain by 21.69 % of the non-irradiated papain and subsequently increased the specific activity by 18.51 % but the protein concentration was not affected. Protein baits prepared with crude papain extracted from the pawpaw fruit latex and skin peels were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with wild flies reared from field collected infested mangoes. The source of papain did not affect the protein bait recovery, the pH and protein concentration though colour of bait differed for crude fruit latex papain bait (dark brown) and skin peel papain bait (light brown). The bait preparations had equal attractance to male and female B. invadens. Mean attractance to protein baits produced with fruit latex and skin peel papain baits were between 25.00 ± 7.56 % and 47.50 ± 11.09 % respectively for males, 25.00 ± 13.13 % and 32.86 ± 8

  11. Field evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and treatment of intestinal nematode infections in dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brad; Schnitzler, Beate; Wiseman, Scott; Snyder, Daniel E

    2015-01-15

    Two separate randomised, blinded, multicentre field trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of spinosad and milbemycin oxime (MO) (Trifexis(®), Elanco Animal Health) in the treatment and prevention of naturally acquired flea infestations and intestinal nematode infections in European dogs. Treatments using Trifexis(®) and each control veterinary product (CVP) were administered once on Day 0 in both field studies. In the flea field trial, 11 veterinary clinics in France participated in the study. On Day 0, whole body flea comb counts were conducted on all dogs being evaluated for enrolment. Dogs with ≥7 fleas on Day 0 were enrolled, treated once on Day 0 with spinosad/MO or the CVP (Stronghold(®); selamectin) and then underwent post-treatment flea counts on Days 14 and 30. There were 150 spinosad/MO treated dogs and 71 CVP treated dogs included in the flea effectiveness population. Effectiveness against fleas (% reduction in geometric means; GM) was 98.97% and 97.37% for the spinosad/MO treated dogs, and 97.43% and 93.96% for the CVP dogs on Days 14 and 30, respectively, compared to the pre-treatment baseline flea counts. Of the spinosad/MO dogs, 89.3% and 80.0% had no live fleas on Days 14 and 30, compared to 77.5% and 70.4% of the CVP dogs, respectively. In the nematode field trial, data from 10 veterinary clinics in France and 19 in Ireland were pooled. Faecal samples from dogs at each clinic were analysed. A positive result at screening (parasite eggs from Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis or Ancylostoma caninum) allowed for enrolment. Dogs were randomised to spinosad/MO or the CVP (Milbemax(®); MO/praziquantel). On Day 8, a post-treatment faecal sample was taken and analysed. Of 2333 dogs screened for nematode eggs, 238 dogs were positive with one or more of these nematodes, and 229 were enrolled in the study. Of the 229 dogs, 151 were treated with a single dose of spinosad/MO, and 77 were treated with

  12. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and

  13. Feeding Behavior of Subadult Sixgill Sharks (Hexanchus griseus at a Bait Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan McNeil

    Full Text Available This is the first in-situ study of feeding behaviors exhibited by bluntnose sixgill sharks. Bait was placed beneath the Seattle Aquarium pier situated on the waterfront in Elliott Bay, Puget Sound, Washington at 20m of water depth. Cameras and lights were placed around the bait box to record sixgill shark presence and behavior while feeding. Analysis of feeding behavior revealed that sixgills utilize a bite comparable to many other elasmobranchs and aquatic vertebrates, have the ability to protrude their upper jaw, change their feeding behavior based on the situation, and employ sawing and lateral tearing during manipulation. The versatility of their feeding mechanism and the ability of sixgills to change their capture and food manipulation behaviors may have contributed to the species' worldwide distribution and evolutionary success.

  14. Evaluation of different food grains as baits for management of Hystrix indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, A.; Ahmed, S. M.; Ahmad, A.; Ali, Q. M.

    2015-01-01

    Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica is widely distributed and serious rodent pest of orchards, field crops and vegetables in Pakistan. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine highly effective cereal used as bait base for its management. Six locally available food grains viz. wheat, rice, maize, black gram, sorghum and millet were offered in whole/crack form. Under no choice and choice tests, rice was the most preferred food, followed by wheat, maize and others. The present study suggested that rice in whole or cracked form alone or in combination with wheat can be applied as very palatable (32 percentage and 27 percentage, respectively) and cost effective grain as bait base for effective management of Indian porcupine, Hystrix indica, being an economically important rodent pest of agriculture, forestry and irrigation network in Pakistan. (author)

  15. Slug control in Australian canola: monitoring, molluscicidal baits and economic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Michael A; Thomson, Linda J; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2007-09-01

    Exotic slugs have become serious pests of canola, at establishment, in Southern Australian high-rainfall cropping zones. Slugs were monitored using relatively inexpensive 300 mm x 300 mm terracotta tiles acting as refuges. An investigation was made of the effects of the time of application of chelated iron baits on the slug species Deroceras reticulatum Müller and Lehmannia nyctelia Bourguignat. Baits reduced the number of surface-active slug species. A single application at sowing provided greater efficacy than one application before sowing, and efficacy was comparable with that of two applications. Canola seedling densities showed a negative response to D. reticulatum numbers; the presence of even one individual per refuge trap reduced seedling numbers below optimum densities. Thistles and other vegetation were associated with increased numbers of slugs. European guidelines for slug monitoring and damage appear to be at least partly applicable to Australian conditions. 2007 Society of Chemical Industry

  16. Evaluations of dual attractant toxic sugar baits for surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Fiorenzano, Jodi M; Fulcher, Alice P; Seeger, Kelly E; Allan, Sandra A; Kline, Daniel L; Koehler, Philip G; Müller, Günter C; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-01-05

    Dual attractant toxic sugar baits (D-ATSB) containing two host kairomones, L-lactic (LA) and 1-octen-3-ol (O), and fruit-based attractants were evaluated through olfactory, consumption and mortality, and semi-field experiments to determine if host kairomones could first, enhance attraction of a fruit-based (attractant) toxic sugar bait (ATSB), and second, increase the efficacy of a fruit based attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB). Four combinations of LA and O were incorporated into the ATSB and evaluated in an olfactometer to determine if these combinations could enhance attraction of Aedes aegypti (L.) to the bait. Ae. albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. aegypti were used to determine bait consumption through excrement droplet counts and percent mortality, of the most attractive D-ATSB (1% LA and 1% O) from the olfactory study. Semi-field evaluations were conducted in screened portable field cages to determine if the D-ATSB applied to non-flowering plants controlled more mosquitoes than the fruit-based ATSB, and ASB. Mosquitoes were exposed to D-ATSB and the two controls for 48 h and collected with BGS traps. The catch rates of the BGS traps were compared to determine efficacy of the D-ATSB. During olfactometer evaluations of D-ATSB, Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were more attracted to 1% LA and 1% O compared to the fruit-based toxic sugar bait alone. Both species of mosquito consumed more fruit-based non-toxic bait (ASB) and ATSB than the D-ATSB. For both species, percent mortality bioassays indicated D-ATSB controlled mosquitoes, as compared to non-toxic control, but not more than the fruit based ATSB. Semi-field evaluations, BioGents sentinel traps at 48 h confirmed that ATSB (positive control) controlled Ae. albopictus, but there was no statistical difference between ASB (negative control) and the D-ATSB. No differences were observed between the mosquitoes caught in any of the experimental formulations for Ae. aegypti. L-lactic (1%) and 1-octen-3-ol (1%) added to a fruit

  17. Laboratory Tests for Group and Individual Exposures of Arion lusitanicus Mabille Slugs to Different Molluscicide Baits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Stojnić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Molluscicide baits based on different active ingredients were tested in a seven-day laboratory trial on juveniles and young adults of Arion lusitanicus Mabille slug collected in ruderal sites during June and July of 2008. Before setting the trial, the slugs were adapted to laboratory conditions. The testing was conducted using a modified version of the method proposed by Godan (1983 and Wiktor (1989. The slugs were kept in arenas under controlled conditions (20-24oC temperature, 80-90% relative air humidity, no air stream, diffuse daylight. Smaller(15.5 x 15.5 x 7 cm and larger (28 x 17.5 x 7 cm arenas were used, depending on slug numbers, and different rates of food and bait were administered. Plastic boxes with perforated coverage, lined with multi-ply paper moistened on a daily basis, were used as arenas. The slugs were fed on fresh salad daily, while baits were administered in open 35 mm petri dishes once for the duration of experiment. The first trial involved single-slug exposures to bait in 20 arenas per each of four treatments with two replicates and a total of 160 slugs. The second trial, group exposure, involved four treatments of five slugs per arena in six replicates with a total of 120 slugs. The products Arion and Pužomor demonstrated the highest efficacy (77.5% in the single-slug trial. The average efficacy of the product Carakol after seven days of exposure was 60.0%. Regarding group exposure, Pužomor pellets achieved 79.3% efficacy after three days and this efficacy rate remained for the rest of the experiment. On the seventh day ofexposure, Arion and Carakol had 33.3% and 40.0% efficacy, respectively.

  18. Bait stations, hard mast, and black bear population growth in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Pelton, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Bait-station surveys are used by wildlife managers as an index to American black bear (Ursus americanus) population abundance, but the relationship is not well established. Hard mast surveys are similarly used to assess annual black bear food availability which may affect mortality and natality rates. We used data collected in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) from 1989 to 2003 to determine whether changes in the bait-station index (ΔBSI) were associated with estimated rates of bear population growth (λ) and whether hard mast production was related to bear visitation to baits. We also evaluated whether hard mast production from previous years was related to λ. Estimates of λ were based on analysis of capture-recapture data with the Pradel temporal symmetry estimator. Using the Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), our analysis revealed no direct relationship between ΔBSI and λ. A simulation analysis indicated that our data were adequate to detect a relationship had one existed. Model fit was marginally improved when we added total oak mast production of the previous year as an interaction term suggesting that the BSI was confounded with environmental variables. Consequently the utility of the bait-station survey as a population monitoring technique is questionable at the spatial and temporal scales we studied. Mast survey data, however, were valuable covariates of λ. Population growth for a given year was negatively related to oak mast production 4 and 5 years prior. That finding supported our hypothesis that mast failures can trigger reproductive synchrony, which may not be evident from the trapped sample until years later.

  19. Safety and immunogenicity of Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) in the first us field trial in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slate, Dennis; Chipman, Richard B; Algeo, Timothy P; Mills, Samuel A; Nelson, Kathleen M; Croson, Christopher K; Dubovi, Edward J; Vercauteren, Kurt; Renshaw, Randall W; Atwood, Todd; Johnson, Shylo; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    In 2011, we conducted a field trial in rural West Virginia, USA to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live, recombinant human adenovirus (AdRG1.3) rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine (Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait; ONRAB) in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). We selected ONRAB for evaluation because of its effectiveness in raccoon rabies management in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and significantly higher antibody prevalence rates in raccoons compared with a recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, Raboral V-RG®, in US-Canada border studies. Raccoon rabies was enzootic and oral rabies vaccination (ORV) had never been used in the study area. We distributed 79,027 ONRAB baits at 75 baits/km(2) mostly by fixed-wing aircraft along parallel flight lines at 750-m intervals. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher at 49.2% (n=262) in raccoons after ONRAB was distributed than the 9.6% (n=395) before ORV. This was the highest antibody prevalence observed in raccoons by US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services for areas with similar management histories evaluated before and after an initial ORV campaign at 75 baits/km(2) with Raboral V-RG. Tetracycline biomarker (TTCC) was significantly higher among antibody-positive raccoons after ONRAB baiting and was similar among raccoons before ORV had been conducted, an indication of vaccine-induced rabies virus-neutralizing antibody production following consumption of bait containing TTCC. Skunk sample size was inadequate to assess ONRAB effects. Safety and immunogenicity results supported replication of this field trial and led to a recommendation for expanded field trials in 2012 to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of ground-distributed ONRAB at 150 baits/km(2) in residential and commercial habitats in Ohio, USA and aerially distributed ONRAB at 75 baits/km(2) in rural habitats along US-Quebec border.

  20. [Effect of different baits as attractant for blowflies (Diptera) at Valonguinho, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, José M; Fraga, Mariana B

    2007-01-01

    It was carried out a survey of blowflies in an area of the Campus (Valonguinho) of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The collections were performed with traps, using baits of fish (sardine), bovine liver, shrimps and banana. Were collected 6015 flies, Chrysomya megacephala and Lucilia eximia were the most frequent (50.55% and 21.52%, respectively). The flies were more abundant in February and March and the most attractive bait was fish (38.32%).

  1. Gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) flight behavior and phenology based on field-deployed automated pheromone-baited traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Kenneth T. Klein; Donna S. Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Populations of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), are extensively monitored in the United States through the use of pheromone-baited traps.We report on use of automated pheromone-baited traps that use a recording sensor and data logger to record the unique date-time stamp of males as they enter the trap.We deployed a total of 352 automated traps...

  2. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  3. Control of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in Vineyards Using Toxic Baits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondillo, Aline; Andzeiewski, Simone; Bello Fialho, Flávio; Bueno, Odair Correa; Botton, Marcos

    2016-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for dispersal of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a root scale that damages grapevines in southern Brazil. The effects of different formulations of toxic baits based on boric acid and hydramethylnon to control L. micans and E. brasiliensis were evaluated. Toxic baits with boric acid (1.0%) mixed in different concentrations of inverted sugar (20%, 30%, and 40%), and hydramethylnon, mixed with sardines (paste), cassava flour and peanut, brown sugar (sucrose), or sardine oil-based gel, were evaluated in a greenhouse and in the field. In the greenhouse experiment, the number of foraging ants was significantly reduced in the pots where the hydramethylnon in sardine paste (Solid S), sardine oil-brown sugar-based gel (GEL SAM), and peanut oil-brown-sugar gel (GEL AM) formulations were applied. The GEL SAM toxic bait effectively reduced the infestation of L. micans, and could be used for indirect control of E. brasiliensis on young grapevines. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A new approach to determine the capture conditions of bark beetles in pheromone-baited traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Gonca Ece; Cicek, Osman; Enez, Korhan; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2014-11-02

    Forests form an organic unity with a great number of organic and inorganic components and tend to maintain the sustainability of their existing balance. However, some factors which adversely affect the balance of nature may interrupt this sustainability. The epidemic which is formed by bark beetles in their spreading region, due to various factors, changes the stability so much that interference is required. One of the most common methods used to monitor these beetles is pheromone-baited traps. The recognition of parameters, such as date (day/month/year), temperature and humidity, when bark beetles are captured in pheromone-baited traps, especially those used for monitoring will help to increase the trap efficiency on land and to develop an effective strategy for combating pests. In this study, an electronic control unit was added to pheromone-baited traps in order to obtain all of the above mentioned parameters. This unit operates with microcontrollers and data related to the parameters is saved in a storage unit. This is triggered by the beetle at the moment it is captured in the trap. A photovoltaic system was used to meet the energy needed for the system functioning and to complete the counting process in due time.

  5. Aphid Sex Pheromone Compounds Interfere with Attraction of Common Green Lacewings to Floral Bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczor, Sándor; Szentkirályi, Ferenc; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Tóth, Miklós

    2015-06-01

    Common green lacewings (Chrysoperla carnea complex) form a group of generalist predators important for biological control. Several reports show attraction of these insects to plant volatiles, and a highly attractive ternary compound floral bait has been developed. With aphids being a preferred prey of larvae, one might expect these lacewings to be attracted to aphid semiochemicals, for instance, to aphid sex pheromones, as found for several other green lacewing species. However, in a previous study, we found that traps containing aphid sex pheromone compounds (1R,4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactol (NEPOH), (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone (NEPONE), and a ternary floral bait attracted fewer individuals than those containing the ternary floral bait alone. In the present study, possible causes for this effect of NEPOH and NEPONE on trap capture were studied. We established that C. carnea complex catches in traps with a ternary floral lure were not influenced by the presence of Chrysopa formosa individuals in traps (attracted by NEPOH and NEPONE) or by synthetic skatole (a characteristic component of Chrysopa defense secretion). A direct negative effect of NEPOH and NEPONE on attraction of C. carnea complex was found, suggesting active avoidance of these aphid sex pheromone components. This finding is surprising as the larvae of these lacewings prey preferentially on aphids. Possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed.

  6. Experimental study on the efficiency of different types of traps and baits for harvesting Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Bentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is a freshwater prawn endemic to South America with wide distribution in Brazilian Amazon rivers. In estuary and freshwater streams of the Pará State, they are captured with different types of traps locally know matapi. This study evaluated the efficiency of traps of different sizes (large, medium and small and baits (babassu coconut and fish for sampling this shrimp. Samplings were conducted with 24 traps with different treatments (trap size and bait. We captured 909 specimens. Higher mean catches were observed in traps baited with babassu coconut. Interactions between babassu coconut bait and medium matapi (BM-M, and fish bait and large matapi (FISH-L were significant. Carapace length (CL varied significantly between sites (F = 12.74, p < 0.01. The total maximum length was13.65 cm. Medium traps baited with babassu coconut were the most successful in the tested combinations, however, there was a clear correlation between size trap and size of shrimp, for both body weight and carapace length.

  7. Spray coated nanosilver functional layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, J.; Szałapak, J.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, L.; Jakubowska, M.

    2016-09-01

    Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages - it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.

  8. Nasal Sprays: How to Use Them Correctly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sprays the correct way can take some practice. Path to improved health Prescription nasal sprays come in ... thumb at the bottom and your index and middle fingers on top. Insert the canister tip in ...

  9. Center for Cold Spray Research and Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This is the only DoD facility capable of cold spray research and development, production, and field-repair. It features three stationary cold spray systems used for...

  10. Spray casting project final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step

  11. Environmental and bathymetric influences on abyssal bait-attending communities of the Clarion Clipperton Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Astrid B.; Neuheimer, Anna B.; Donlon, Erica; Smith, Craig R.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2017-07-01

    The Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) is one of the richest manganese nodule provinces in the world and has recently become a focus area for manganese nodule mining interests. However, this vast area remains poorly studied and highly undersampled. In this study, the abyssal bait-attending fauna is documented for the first time using a series of baited camera deployments in various locations across the CCZ. A bait-attending community intermediate between those typical of the California margin and Hawaii was found in the larger CCZ area, generally dominated by rattail fishes, dendrobranchiate shrimp, and zoarcid and ophidiid fishes. Additionally, the western and eastern ends of the CCZ had different communities, with the western region characterized by decreased dominance of rattails and small shrimps and increased dominance of ophidiids (especially Bassozetus sp. and Barathrites iris) and large shrimps. This trend may be related to increasing distance from the continental margin. We also test the hypothesis that bait-attending communities change across the CCZ in response to key environmental predictors, especially topography and nodule cover. Our analyses showed that higher nodule cover and elevated topography, as quantified using the benthic positioning index (BPI), increase bait-attending community diversity. Elevated topography generally had higher relative abundances, but taxa also showed differing responses to the BPI metric and bottom temperature, causing significant community compositional change over varying topography and temperatures. Larger individuals of the dominant scavenger in the CCZ, Coryphaenoides spp., were correlated with areas of higher nodule cover and with abyssal hills, suggesting these areas may be preferred habitat. Our results suggest that nodule cover is important to all levels of the benthic ecosystem and that nodule mining could have negative impacts on even the top-level predators and scavengers in the CCZ. Additionally, there is

  12. Bycatch, bait, anglers, and roads: quantifying vector activity and propagule introduction risk across lake ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, D Andrew R; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2014-06-01

    Long implicated in the invasion process, live-bait anglers are highly mobile species vectors with frequent overland transport of fishes. To test hypotheses about the role of anglers in propagule transport, we developed a social-ecological model quantifying the opportunity for species transport beyond the invaded range resulting from bycatch during commercial bait operations, incidental transport, and release to lake ecosystems by anglers. We combined a gravity model with a stochastic, agent-based simulation, representing a 1-yr iteration of live-bait angling and the dynamics of propagule transport at fine spatiotemporal scales (i.e., probability of introducing n propagules per lake per year). A baseline scenario involving round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) indicated that most angling trips were benign; irrespective of lake visitation, anglers failed to purchase and transport propagules (benign trips, median probability P = 0.99912). However, given the large number of probability trials (4.2 million live-bait angling events per year), even the rarest sequence of events (uptake, movement, and deposition of propagules) is anticipated to occur. Risky trips (modal P = 0.00088 trips per year; approximately 1 in 1136) were sufficient to introduce a substantial number of propagules (modal values, Poisson model = 3715 propagules among 1288 lakes per year; zero-inflated negative binomial model = 6722 propagules among 1292 lakes per year). Two patterns of lake-specific introduction risk emerged. Large lakes supporting substantial angling activity experienced propagule pressure likely to surpass demographic barriers to establishment (top 2.5% of lakes with modal outcomes of five to 76 propagules per year; 303 high-risk lakes with three or more propagules, per year). Small or remote lakes were less likely to receive propagules; however, most risk distributions were leptokurtic with a long right tail, indicating the rare occurrence of high propagule loads to most waterbodies

  13. Diesel spray characterization; Dieselmoottorin polttoainesuihkujen ominaisuudet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitkaenen, J.; Turunen, R.; Paloposki, T.; Rantanen, P.; Virolainen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Internal Combustion Engine Lab.

    1997-10-01

    Fuel injection of diesel engines will be studied using large-scale models of fuel injectors. The advantage of large-scale models is that the measurement of large-scale diesel sprays will be easier than the measurement of actual sprays. The objective is to study the break-up mechanism of diesel sprays and to measure drop size distributions in the inner part of the spray. The results will be used in the development of diesel engines and diesel fuels. (orig.)

  14. "Teaching" an Industrial Robot To Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A. R.; Sweet, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Teaching device, consisting of spacer rod or tube with three-pointed tip and line level, is used during pattern "teach-in" to make sure that robot manipulator holds spray gun perpendicular to surface to be sprayed and at right distance from it. For slanted surfaces angle adapter is added between spacer rod and line-level indicator. Angle is determined by slope of surface to be sprayed, thus allowing a perpendicular spray pattern against even slanted surfaces.

  15. Influence of the spray velocity on arc-sprayed coating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, H.-D.; Nassenstein, K.

    1999-09-01

    Thermal spray processes such as plasma spraying and HVOF have gained markets due to a steady process of development of materials and equipment. One disadvantage of thermal spray processes is that costs must be competitive compared to techniques such as PTA and electroplating. In order to reduce costs, the more economical spray processes like conventional wire flame spraying, as well as arc spraying, are becoming more popular. There are modern arc spray gun designs on the market that meet the requirements of modern coating properties, for example aviation overhaul applications as well as the processing of cored wires. Nevertheless, the physical basis of arc spraying is well known. The aim of the present investigation is to show how the influence of spray velocity (not particle velocity) affects coating structure with respect to arc spray parameters.

  16. 14 CFR 23.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 23.239 Section 23.239 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Handling Characteristics § 23.239 Spray characteristics. Spray may not dangerously obscure the vision of...

  17. 14 CFR 29.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 29.239 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 29.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  18. 14 CFR 27.239 - Spray characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray characteristics. 27.239 Section 27... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Ground and Water Handling Characteristics § 27.239 Spray characteristics. If certification for water operation is requested, no spray characteristics...

  19. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  20. Spray solidification of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-08-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine. Operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of high-level and mixed high- and intermediate-level liquid wastes has been demonstrated. Waste concentrations of from near infinite dilution to less than 225 liters per tonne of fuel are calcinable. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Feed concentration, composition, and flowrate can vary rapidly by over a factor of two without requiring operator action. Wastes containing mainly sodium cations can be spray calcined by addition of finely divided silica to the feedstock. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant-scale equipment. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h has been demonstrated in pilot-scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. The volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. Vibrator action maintains the calcine holdup in the calciner at less than 1 kg. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated-wall spray calciner have been demonstrated while processing high-level waste. Radionuclide volatilization was acceptably low

  1. Transdermal Spray in Hormone Delivery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and adverse effects and maximum efficacy as well as patients' compliance [1]. Transdermal dosage forms are .... learning and memory in healthy postmenopausal women stabilized on estrogen, over 26 weeks. When the ... forearm instead until the areolae were the same color again and then applied 1 spray to each forearm ...

  2. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  3. The nano spray dryer B-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Lee, Sie Huey; Ng, Wai Kiong; Tan, Reginald B H

    2011-07-01

    Spray drying is an extremely well-established technology for the production of micro-particulate powders suited for a variety of drug delivery applications. In recent years, the rise in nanomedicine has placed increased pressure on the existing systems to produce nanoparticles in good yield and with a narrow size distribution. However, the separation and collection of nanoparticles with conventional spray dryer set ups is extremely challenging due to their typical low collection efficiency for fine particles spray drying technology is provided in this review with particular emphasis on the novel Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90. Readers will appreciate the limitations of conventional spray drying technology, understand the mechanisms of the Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90, and also learn about the strengths and shortcomings of the system. The Buchi® Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple and alternative approach for the production of nanoparticles suited for a variety of drug delivery applications.

  4. Are we fishing or catching? Evaluating the efficiency of bait capture of CODIS fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Misa; Monroe, Cara; Barta, Jodi Lynn; Kemp, Brian M

    2017-07-01

    This study sought to document the efficiency of DNA bait capture (i.e., "fishing") methods by two measures: (1) its ability to retain targeted DNA molecules, and (2) its ability to remove non-target DNA molecules from a pool containing both. DNA bait capture uses synthetic biotinylated DNA primers to bind target DNA, which are then immobilized onto streptavidin coated magnetic beads and drawn to a magnet. Bound DNA should, therefore, be isolated from non-target DNA and impurities (e.g., PCR inhibitors) and can be later eluted from the beads for downstream applications. Efficiencies were estimated by comparing the number of "copies in" to "copies out" with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Retention of target DNA molecules, ranging from 109 to 288 base pairs (bps) in length, averaged just 9.06-3.53% (i.e., loss of 90.94-96.47%) using the fishing protocol as originally described. Some improvement was achieved by employing a modified protocol (i.e., with a shortened hybridization time, use of twice the amount of M-270 streptavidin-coated beads, and modified bead washing), resulting in average retention of 31.41-12.08% of the same set of targeted molecules. Noted was the lack of efficacy in removing non-target DNA molecules as opposed to targeted molecules. It was also observed that most of the molecules (61.35-69.49%) are "lost" during the essential hybridization step of the fishing protocol, suggesting its suitability for high copy number samples only. While the bait capture method may be useful in the study of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibited DNA samples as previously suggested, it is necessary to carefully weigh this possible advantage against the degree of expected DNA loss and the non-selectivity of the method for targeted over non-targeted DNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Traps and Baits for Luring Grapholita molesta (Busck) Adults in Mating Disruption-Treated Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, A C; Arioli, C J; Boff, M I C; Rosa, J M; Botton, M

    2018-02-01

    Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the main pests in apple crops in Brazil, where it is controlled by mating disruption (MD) with the use of the synthetic sex pheromone. However, sex-pheromone-based monitoring is not effective in MD-treated areas and may result in losses in production. This work has defined a trap model and a bait for luring G. molesta adults in MD apple orchards. The experiments were conducted in commercial apple orchards located in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. Three trap models-McPhail, Pot, and Ajar-and three baits-grape juice (25%) (GJ), sugarcane molasses (25%) (SM), and a solution containing brown sugar (8.69%) and terpinyl acetate (0.05%) (TAS)-were assessed for luring G. molesta adults in areas subjected to the mating disruption. The assessments were performed weekly by collecting the insects caught in the traps. In addition, time needed to replace traps was also assessed, as well as the selectivity of the trap/bait set. In the laboratory, G. molesta adults were sexed, and the females were dissected to confirm reproductive status. We discuss our results and sugarcane molasses (25%) captured the least number of G. molesta adults regardless of the tested traps. The Ajar/TAS, Pot/TAS, and McPhail/GJ captured the largest number of G. molesta adults. The Ajar/TAS was the most selective and easier to handle. TAS was efficient in catching G. molesta until 14 days after preparation of the solution. Ajar/TAS has potential to be used in the monitoring of G. molesta in apple orchards.

  6. Time Spent by Calliphora Spp. Blowflies on Standard Traps Baited with Liver and Ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica Morariu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The larvae of blowflies from the Calliphoridae family cause fly strikes in sheep and other species of economic importance. Impaired wool, decrease of ewe fertility, and even death can occur in heavy infestations. This paper describes the Calliphora spp. blowflies’ behavior on and around a trap baited with liver and ammonia before they entered in. More than half of Calliphora spp. blowflies (50.88% stayed a medium time (eight to fourteen seconds on the standard trap, while only 1.79% of them spent a longer time (26 to 30 seconds before entering the trap.

  7. Construction of C35 gene bait recombinants and T47D cell cDNA library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kun; Xu, Chao; Zhao, Gui-Hua; Liu, Ye; Xiao, Ting; Zhu, Song; Yan, Ge

    2017-11-20

    C35 is a novel tumor biomarker associated with metastasis progression. To investigate the interaction factors of C35 in its high expressed breast cancer cell lines, we constructed bait recombinant plasmids of C35 gene and T47D cell cDNA library for yeast two-hybrid screening. Full length C35 sequences were subcloned using RT-PCR from cDNA template extracted from T47D cells. Based on functional domain analysis, the full-length C35 1-348bp was also truncated into two fragments C351-153bp and C35154-348bp to avoid auto-activation. The three kinds of C35 genes were successfully amplified and inserted into pGBKT7 to construct bait recombinant plasmids pGBKT7-C351-348bp, pGBKT7-C351-153bp and pGBKT7-C35154-348bp, then transformed into Y187 yeast cells by the lithium acetate method. Auto-activation and toxicity of C35 baits were detected using nutritional deficient medium and X-α-Gal assays. The T47D cell ds cDNA was generated by SMART TM technology and the library was constructed using in vivo recombination-mediated cloning in the AH109 yeast strain using a pGADT7-Rec plasmid. The transformed Y187/pGBKT7-C351-348bp line was intensively inhibited while the truncated Y187/pGBKT7-C35 lines had no auto-activation and toxicity in yeast cells. The titer of established cDNA library was 2 × 10 7 pfu/mL with high transformation efficiency of 1.4 × 10 6 , and the insert size of ds cDNA was distributed homogeneously between 0.5-2.0 kb. Our research generated a T47D cell cDNA library with high titer, and the constructed two C35 "baits" contained a respective functional immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif (ITAM) and the conserved last four amino acids Cys-Ile-Leu-Val (CILV) motif, and therefore laid a foundation for screening the C35 interaction factors in a BC cell line.

  8. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Deltamethrin Barrier Sprays for Mosquito Control in Eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Volkan, Josh K; Balanay, Jo Anne G; Vandock, Kurt

    2017-11-07

    Mosquitoes are a nuisance and potentially transmit pathogens causing numerous diseases worldwide. Homeowners and others may hire private companies to alleviate mosquito-related issues. Here, two pyrethroids (Suspend Polyzone [deltamethrin] and Bifen Insecticide/Termiticide [bifenthrin]) were evaluated on properties in North Carolina for 23 wk from 18 May through 19 October 2015. Properties were treated using backpack mist blowers every 21 d. At 17 fixed sampling locations, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention carbon dioxide-baited traps were deployed overnight once/week for the duration of the experiment. Oviposition traps were deployed weekly at the same locations. Differences were observed in mosquito abundance between neighborhoods, treatments, and weeks and differences varied between species. Mosquito abundance was generally significantly higher in traps placed on control properties (no insecticide) compared to traps placed on treatment properties. Bifenthrin and deltamethrin showed differences from each other in efficacy, but this varied between neighborhoods and species. Future studies could test the efficacy of barrier sprays at different application frequencies and/or in conjunction with weather monitoring. Coupled with regular mosquito surveillance and using integrated pest management principles, barrier sprays can be an effective tool for suppression of mosquito populations. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Click bait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Jonas Nygaard; Reinecke Hansen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    This is why you should read this article. Although such an opening statement does not make much sense read in isolation, journalists often write headlines like this on news websites. They use the forward-referring technique as a stylistic and narrative luring device trying to induce anticipation...... and curiosity so the readers click (or tap on) the headline and read on. In this article, we map the use of forward-referring headlines in online news journalism by conducting an analysis of 100,000 headlines from 10 different Danish news websites. The results show that commercialization and tabloidization seem...

  10. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  11. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m 3 /min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures

  12. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vardelle, A.; Moreau, Ch.; Akedo, J.; Ashrafizadeh, H.; Berndt, C. C.; Berghaus-Oberste, J.; Boulos, M.; Brogan, J.; Bourtsalas, A.C.; Dolatabadi, A.; Dorfman, M.; Eden, T.J.; Fauchais, P.; Fisher, G.; Gaertner, F.; Gindrat, M.; Henne, R.; Hyland, M.; Irissou, E.; Jordan, E.H.; Khor, K.A.; Killinger, A.; Lau, Y.C.; Li, C.-J.; Li, L.; Longtin, J.; Markocsan, N.; Masset, P.J.; Matějíček, Jiří; Mauer, G.; McDonald, A.; Mostaghimi, J.; Sampath, S.; Schiller, G.; Shinoda, K.; Smith, M.F.; Syed, A.A.; Themelis, N.J.; Toma, F.-L.; Trelles, J.P.; Vassen, R.; Vuoristo, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2016), s. 1376-1440 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : anti-wear and anti-corrosion coating s * biomedical * electronic s * energy generation * functional coating s * gas turbines * thermal spray processes Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.488, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11666-016-0473-x

  13. Application of Bait Treated with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin for the Control of Microcerotermes diversus Silv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Cheraghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae is considered to be the most destructive termite in Khuzestan province (Iran, and its control by conventional methods is often difficult. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be an alternative management strategy. Performance of a bait matrix treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, Strain Saravan (DEMI 001, against M. diversus was evaluated in this paper. The highest rate of mortality occurred at concentrations of 3.7 × 107 and 3.5 × 108 (conidia per mL. There was no significant difference between treatments, in the rate of feeding on the bait. The fungal pathogen was not repellent to the target termite over the conidial concentrations used. The current results suggest potential of such bait system in controlling termite. However the effectiveness of M. anisopliae as a component of integrated pest management for M. diversus still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  14. Spray granulation for drug formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Zhi Hui; Er, Dawn Z L; Chan, Lai Wah; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2011-12-01

    Granulation is a key unit process in the production of pharmaceutical solid dosage forms and involves the agglomeration of fine particles with the aid of a binding agent. Fluidized bed granulation, a classic example of spray granulation, is a technique of particle agglomeration brought about by the spray addition of the binding liquid onto a stationary bed of powder particles that is transformed to a fluid-like state by the passage of air through it. The basic working principles, equipment set-up, advantages and challenges of fluidized bed granulation are introduced in this review. This is followed by an overview of the formulation and process-related variables affecting granulation performance. Technological advances, particularly in the application of process analytical tools, in the field of fluidized bed granulation research are also discussed. Fluidized bed granulation is a popular technique for pharmaceutical production, as it is a highly economical and efficient one-pot process. The research and development of process analytical technologies (PAT) has allowed greater process understanding and control to be achieved, even for the lesser known fluidized bed techniques, such as bottom spray and fluidized hot melt granulation. In view of its consistent mixing, as well as continuous and concurrent wetting and drying occurring throughout processing, fluidized bed granulation shows great potential for continuous production although more research is required to fully implement, validate and integrate the PAT tools in a production line.

  15. Horizontal transfer of bait in the German cockroach: indoxacarb causes secondary and tertiary mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Scherer, Clay W; Bennett, Gary W

    2008-06-01

    Horizontal transfer of indoxacarb in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), was examined under laboratory conditions. Results show that a single bait-fed adult cockroach (i.e., the donor) transferred indoxacarb to numerous primary recipients (secondary mortality),which then became secondary donors. These recipients subsequently became donors to other cockroaches and caused significant mortality in other members of the aggregation, resulting in tertiary kill. Indoxacarb was effectively transferred among adult cockroaches and resulted in significant secondary mortality. When adult males served as donors and vectored the insecticide to adult males, the donor:recipient ratio affected the mortality of the recipients and the rate of secondary mortality increased with increasing the ratio of donors to recipients. Furthermore, secondary mortality in the untreated cockroaches was significantly affected by the freshness of excretions from the donors, the presence of alternative food, and the duration of contact between the donors and the recipients. Ingested indoxacarb was most effectively translocated when the recipients interacted with freshly symptomatic donors in the absence of alternative food. The transfer of indoxacarb continued beyond secondary mortality and resulted in significant tertiary mortality. Excretions from a single bait-fed adult killed 38/50 (76%) nymphs within 72 h. The dead nymphs then vectored indoxacarb to 20 adult males and killed 16/20 (81%) recipients within 72 h. Behavioral mechanisms involved in the horizontal transfer of indoxacarb may include: contact with excretions, necrophagy, emetophagy, and ingestion of other excretions that originate from the donors.

  16. Efficiency of time-lapse intervals and simple baits for camera surveys of wild pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Growing concerns surrounding established and expanding populations of wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have created the need for rapid and accurate surveys of these populations. We conducted surveys of a portion of the wild pig population on Fort Benning, Georgia, to determine if a longer time-lapse interval than had been previously used in surveys of wild pigs would generate similar detection results. We concurrently examined whether use of soured corn at camera sites affected the time necessary for pigs to locate a new camera site or the time pigs remained at a site. Our results suggest that a 9-min time-lapse interval generated dependable detection results for pigs and that soured corn neither attracted pigs to a site any quicker than plain, dry, whole-kernel corn, nor held them at a site longer. Maximization of time-lapse interval should decrease data and processing loads, and use of a simple, available bait should decrease cost and effort associated with more complicated baits; combination of these concepts should increase efficiency of wild pig surveys. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  17. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  18. 1994 Thermal spray industrial applications: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, C.C.; Sampath, S.

    1994-01-01

    The 7th National Thermal Spray Conference met on June 20--24, 1994, in Boston, Massachusetts. The conference was sponsored by the Thermal Spray Division of ASM International and co-sponsored by the American Welding Society, Deutscher Verband fur Schweisstechnik e.V., High Temperature Society of Japan, International Thermal Spray Association, and Japanese Thermal Spraying Society. The conference covered applications for automobiles, aerospace, petrochemicals, power generation, and biomedical needs. Materials included metals, ceramics, and composites with a broad range of process developments and diagnostics. Other sections included modeling and systems control; spray forming and reactive spraying; post treatment; process, structure and property relationships; mechanical properties; and testing, characterization and wear. One hundred and seventeen papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  19. Effectiveness of containment sprays in containment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Perez, S.E.; Lehner, J.R.

    1993-05-01

    A limited study has been performed assessing the effectiveness of containment sprays-to mitigate particular challenges which may occur during a severe accident. Certain aspects of three specific topics related to using sprays under severe accident conditions were investigated. The first was the effectiveness of sprays connected to an alternate water supple and pumping source because the actual containment spray pumps are inoperable. This situation could occur during a station blackout. The second topic concerned the adverse as well as beneficial effects of using containment sprays during severe accident scenario where the containment atmosphere contains substantial quantities of hydrogen along with steam. The third topic was the feasibility of using containment sprays to moderate the consequences of DCH

  20. High quality ceramic coatings sprayed by high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Sheng; Xu Binshi; Yao JiuKun

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the structure of the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying gun and the effects of hypersonic plasma jet on the sprayed particles. The optimised spraying process parameters for several ceramic powders such as Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 3 C 2 and Co-WC were listed. The properties and microstructure of the sprayed ceramic coatings were investigated. Nano Al 2 O 3 -TiO 2 ceramic coating sprayed by using the high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying was also studied. Compared with the conventional air plasma spraying, high efficiency hypersonic plasma spraying improves greatly the ceramic coatings quality but at low cost. (orig.)

  1. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neena; Kanwar, Deepia

    2014-05-01

    To compare the acceptance and efficacy of cereal bait containing different concentrations of poultry egg components in laboratory and poultry farms to control house rat, Rattus rattus (R. rattus). Acceptance of cereal bait containing different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10%) of poultry egg components such as egg shell powder (ESP), egg albumin (EA) and crushed egg shell as bait additives were studied after exposing them to different groups of rats in bi-choice with bait without additive. Behaviour of rats towards cereal bait containing 2% concentration of different egg components was recorded in no-choice conditions through Food Scale Consumption Monitor. In poultry farm predominantly infested with R. rattus, acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait containing 2% EA and ESP was evaluated. Trap success of single rat traps containing chapatti pieces smeared with 2% EA and 2% ESP was also evaluated in poultry farm. In bi-choice tests, significantly (Pegg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  2. Poultry egg components as cereal bait additives for enhancing rodenticide based control success and trap index of house rat, Rattus rattus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Singla

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Present data support the use of 2% egg albumin and egg shell powder in cereal bait to enhance acceptance and efficacy of 2% zinc phosphide bait against R. rattus. This may further help in checking the spread of rodent borne diseases to animals and humans.

  3. Removal of Molluscicidal Bait Pellets by Earthworms and its Impact on Control of the Gray Field Slug, Derocerus reticulatum Mueller, in Western Oregon Grass Seed Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slugs are common pests of grass seed fields in western Oregon and are currently controlled using bait pellets that often fail to give adequate protection. Here we demonstrate the loss of bait pellet products to earthworms and its adverse effects on controlling slugs. Three years of field and greenho...

  4. A critical investigation into the spray-drying of hydroxyapatite powder for thermal spray applications

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaza, Qasim

    2006-01-01

    This work examines the investigation of the spray drying process of Hydroxyapatite powder (HA) used as a thermal spray deposit in the application of orthopaedic femoral implants. In this research, the Niro- Minor™ mixed spray dryer was used for both modelling and experimental studies. The process parameters investigated included HA slurry viscosity, temperature, and air flowrate. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modelling and validation of the spray drying of HA powder was performed. An anal...

  5. Effect of bait type and size on catch efficiency of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) in the Persian Gulf handline fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eighani, Morteza; Paighambari, Seyed Yousef; Herrmann, Bent

    2018-01-01

    In the Persian Gulf handline fishery, fishers mostly use Cutlassfish (Trichiurus lepturus) bait for targeting narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) However, Cutlassfish are expensive compared to other baits and also a commercially important species that is typically exported...... to Asian countries. In order to conserve Cutlassfish resources and reduce costs of fishing, the effect of changing bait type and size on the catch efficiency and size structure of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel caught in the Persian Gulf handline fishery was investigated. The alternative baits investigated...... affects both overall catch efficiency and size structure of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel caught in the Persian Gulf handline fishery. This implies that managing bait type and size might complement standard harvest regulations and facilitate changing exploitation pattern in the Persian Gulf handline...

  6. Attractiveness of MM-X traps baited with human or synthetic odor to mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Smallegange, R.C.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Spitzen, J.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Jawara, M.; Milligan, P.; Galimard, A.M.S.; Beek, van T.A.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to

  7. Detection of the brown spruce longhorn beetle, Tetropium fuscum (F.) with semiochemical-baited traps, tree bands, and visual surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Sweeney; Jessica Price; Wayne MacKay; Bob Guscott; Peter de Groot; Jerzy Gutowski

    2007-01-01

    The brown spruce longhorn beetle, Tetropium fuscum (F.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), (BSLB) native to northern and central Europe, has been the focus of a containment and eradication program by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency in the city of Halifax, Nova Scotia, since May 2000. Surveys are conducted using host volatile-baited traps and visual...

  8. Efficacy of a fipronil bait in reducing the number of fleas (Oropsylla spp.) infesting wild black-tailed prairie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poché, David M; Hartman, Daniel; Polyakova, Larisa; Poché, Richard M

    2017-06-01

    Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the United States. Systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, Oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. The study was performed in Larimer County, CO, where bait was applied to a treatment area containing a dense prairie dog population, three times over a three-week period. Prairie dogs were captured and combed for fleas during four study periods (pre-, mid-, 1 st post-, and 2 nd post-treatment). Results indicated the use of bait containing fipronil significantly reduced flea burden. The bait containing fipronil was determined to reduce the mean number of fleas per prairie dog >95% for a minimum of 52 days post-initial treatment application and 31 days post-final treatment application. These results suggest the potential for this form of treatment to reduce flea population density on prairie dogs, and subsequently plague transmission, among mammalian hosts across the United States and beyond. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Differential attraction of drosophilids to banana baits inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum within a Neotropical forest remnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R.D. Batista

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Yeasts are a necessary requisite in the diet of most Drosophila species that, in turn, may vector their dispersal in natural environments. Differential attractiveness experiments and the isolation of yeasts consumed by Drosophila may be informative for characterizing this association. Hanseniaspora uvarum is among the most common yeast species isolated from Drosophila crops, with high attractiveness to drosophilids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been widely used to collect flies, and it allows broad sampling of almost all local Drosophila species. Pronounced differences in the field concerning Drosophila attractivity to baits seeded with these yeast species have been previously reported. However, few explicit generalizations have been set. Since late fifties, no field experiments of Drosophila attractivity were carried out in the Neotropical region, which is facing shifts in abiotic and biotic factors. Our objective is to characterize preference behavior that mediates the interaction in the wild among Neotropical Drosophila species and yeasts associated with them. We want to set a broad generalization about drosophilids attracted to these yeasts. Here we present the results of a differential attractiveness experiment we carried out in a natural Atlantic Rainforest fragment to assess the preferences of Drosophila species groups to baits inoculated with H. uvarum and S. cerevisiae. Methods Both yeast species were cultured in GYMP broth and separately poured in autoclaved mashed banana that was left fermenting. In the field, we collected drosophilids over five arrays of three different baits: non-inoculated autoclaved banana and banana inoculated with each yeast. In the laboratory the drosophilids were sorted to five sets according to their external morphology and/or genitalia: tripunctata; guarani; willistoni; exotic; and the remaining flies pooled in others. Results and Conclusions Uninoculated banana baits attracted virtually no flies

  10. Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Population Composition as Determined by Baited Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Schaafsma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two established field populations of bed bugs were sampled using host-mimicking traps baited with a combination of CO2, heat and a synthetic kairomone. The proportion of first instar nymphs (between 52% and 78% of all captured insects was significantly higher than reported in previous studies, which had employed different sampling methods. The proportion of adults was correspondingly much lower than previously reported, between 5% and 7% of total capture. As many as 120 bed bugs were captured in a single trap in one night; the variation in catches between sampling locations within the same room and between days at the same location indicates that multiple nights of trapping may be required to obtain an accurate representation of population structure.

  11. Adverse reactions from consumption of oral rabies vaccine baits in dogs in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokireki, Tiina; Nevalainen, Martti; Sihvonen, Liisa; Gadd, Tuija

    2016-09-15

    Oral rabies vaccination of wildlife has effectively reduced the incidence of rabies in wildlife and has led to the elimination of rabies in large areas of Europe. The safety of oral rabies vaccines has been assessed in both target (red fox and raccoon dog) and several non-target species. Since 2011, the competent authority in Finland has received a few reports of dogs experiencing adverse reactions that have been assumed to be caused by the consumption of baits containing oral rabies vaccine. The dogs usually exhibited gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, inappetence, constipation or diarrhoea) or behavioral symptoms (restlessness, listlessness and unwillingness to continue hunting). Nevertheless, these adverse reactions are transient and non-life threatening. Even though the adverse reactions are unpleasant to individual dogs and their owners, the benefits of oral rabies vaccination clearly outweigh the risks.

  12. Experimental Analysis of Spray Dryer Used in Hydroxyapatite Thermal Spray Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, Q.; Stokes, J.; Ardhaoui, M.

    2012-09-01

    The spray drying process of hydroxyapatite (HA) powder used as a plasma spray powder on human hip implants was examined. The Niro-Minor mixed spray dryer was studied because it incorporates both co-current and counter-current air mixing systems. The process parameters of the spray drying were investigated: temperature, flow rate of the inlet hot air in the spray dryer, viscosity of feed/HA slurry, and responses (chamber and cyclone powder size, deposition of powder on the wall of spray dryer, and overall thermal efficiency). The statistical analysis (ANOVA test) showed that for the chamber particle size, viscosity was the most significant parameter, while for the cyclone particle size, the main effects were temperature, viscosity, and flow rate, but also their interaction effects were significant. The spray dried HA powder showed the two main shapes were a doughnut and solid sphere shape as a result of the different input.

  13. Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

  14. Advanced Nanoscale Coatings with Plasma Spray

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atteridge, David

    2000-01-01

    .... A secondary research charter developed as this program proceeded was the assessment of the feasibility of using cored wire filled with WE-Co powder as a feed-stock for both plasma spray and twin-wire-arc spray (TWAS...

  15. New tools to optimise spray dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschueren, M.; Straatsma, J.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Akkerman, C.; Jong, de P.

    2007-01-01

    Spray drying is an essential unit operation for the manufacture of many products with specific powder properties. It is characterised by atomisation of a solution or suspension into droplets, followed by subsequent drying of these droplets by evaporation of water or other solvents. Spray drying is

  16. Field testing of different chemical combinations as odour baits for trapping wild mosquitoes in The Gambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Jawara

    Full Text Available Odour baited traps have potential use in population surveillance of insect vectors of disease, and in some cases for vector population reduction. Established attractants for human host-seeking mosquitoes include a combination of CO(2 with L-lactic acid and ammonia, on top of which additional candidate compounds are being tested. In this field study in rural Gambia, using Latin square experiments with thorough randomization and replication, we tested nine different leading candidate combinations of chemical odorants for attractiveness to wild mosquitoes including anthropophilic malaria vectors, using modified Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X counterflow traps outside experimental huts containing male human sleepers. Highest catches of female mosquitoes, particularly of An. gambiae s.l. and Mansonia species, were obtained by incorporation of tetradecanoic acid. As additional carboxylic acids did not increase the trap catches further, this 'reference blend' (tetradecanoic acid with L-lactic acid, ammonia and CO(2 was used in subsequent experiments. MM-X traps with this blend caught similar numbers of An. gambiae s.l. and slightly more Mansonia and Culex mosquitoes than a standard CDC light trap, and these numbers were not significantly affected by the presence or absence of human sleepers in the huts. Experiments with CO(2 produced from overnight yeast cultures showed that this organic source was effective in enabling trap attractiveness for all mosquito species, although at a slightly lower efficiency than obtained with use of CO(2 gas cylinders. Although further studies are needed to discover additional chemicals that increase attractiveness, as well as to optimise trap design and CO(2 source for broader practical use, the odour-baited traps described here are safe and effective for sampling host-seeking mosquitoes outdoors and can be incorporated into studies of malaria vector ecology.

  17. Fungal Succession on Keratinous Hair and Nail Baits of Human Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahariya, Sunita; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2017-03-01

    Mycologically, succession is more precisely the sequential occupation of the same site by thalli (normally mycelia) either of different fungi or of different associations of fungi. For the study of fungal succession on hair bait, different soil samples were collected from different habitats of Jaipur. The fungal growth isolated from soil samples was observed macroscopically and microscopically for the appearance of fungi at regular interval of 15 days for more than 6 months. Regular microscopic examination of fungi of soil samples baited with hair showed a successional colonization of non-keratinophilic and keratinophilic fungi. In the first phase of 30-day incubation, five non-keratinophilic fungi appeared. After 45 days, three non-keratinophilic fungi appeared together and three keratinophilic fungi viz. Geotrichum spp., Coccidiodes immitis and Aspergillus niger. In third phase of 60 days, growth of only one Fusarium spp. as non-keratinophilic fungi and four keratinophilic fungi viz. Geotrichum spp. Chrysosporium spp., Chrysosporium indicum and Microsporum gypseum was observed. During the study, Fusarium spp. showed persistent growth from initial phase to third phase of incubation. After 75 days, all the non-keratinophilic fungi disappeared fully and seven fungi viz. Geotrichum spp., Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium evolceanui, C. indicum, Trichophyton simii, Trichophyton terrestre and M. gypseum were observed as keratinophilic fungi. In the last phase of 90-day incubation, three keratinophilic fungi viz. Geotrichum spp., C. evolceanui and M. gypseum were also disappeared and four keratinophilic fungi like C. tropicum, T. simii, C. indicum and T. terrestre were found to be more persistent fungi.

  18. Unforeseen effects of supplementary feeding: ungulate baiting sites as hotspots for ground-nest predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Selva

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity and magnitude of food provision to wildlife, our understanding of its ecological effects and conservation implications is very limited. Supplementary feeding of ungulates, still one of the main paradigms of game management in Europe, occurs in natural areas on an enormous scale. We investigated the indirect effects of this practice on nest predation risk in the Polish Eastern Carpathians (Bieszczady Mountains. We hypothesized that the predators attracted to ungulate baiting sites would also forage for alternative prey nearby, increasing the nest predation risk for ground-nesting birds in the vicinity. We conducted a paired experiment by placing artificial nests (N=120 in feeding and control sites (N=12 at different distances from the ungulate feeding site. We also documented the use of three ungulate feeding sites by potential nest predators with automatic cameras. The proportion of depredated nests was 30% higher in the vicinity of feeding sites than at control sites (65%± 31.5 vs 35%± 32.1. The probability of a nest being depredated significantly increased with time and at shorter distances from the feeding site. We predicted that the area within 1-km distance from the feeding site would have a high risk (>0.5 of nest predation. We recorded 13 species of potential ground-nest predators at ungulate baiting sites. Most frequent were Eurasian jays Garrulus glandarius, mice and voles Muroidea, ravens Corvus corax, brown bears Ursus arctos, and wild boar Sus scrofa. Nest predators made most use of supplementary feeding sites (82% pictures with predators vs 8% with ungulates, the target group. Our study alerts of the impacts of ungulate feeding on alternative prey; this is of special concern when affecting protected species. We urge for a sensible management of ungulate feeding, which considers potential indirect effects on other species and the spatial and temporal components of food provision.

  19. Understanding the long-lasting attraction of malaria mosquitoes to odor baits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins K Mweresa

    Full Text Available The use of odor baits for surveillance and control of malaria mosquitoes requires robust dispensing tools. In this study, the residual activity of a synthetic mosquito attractant blend dispensed from nylon or low density polyethylene (LDPE sachets was evaluated at weekly intervals for one year without re-impregnation. The potential role of bacteria in modulating the attraction of mosquitoes to odor-treated nylon that had been used repeatedly over the one year study period, without re-impregnation, was also investigated. Significantly higher proportions of female Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes were consistently attracted to treated nylon strips than the other treatments, up to one year post-treatment. Additional volatile organic compounds and various bacterial populations were found on the treated nylon strips after one year of repeated use. The most abundant bacteria were Bacillus thuringiensis and Acinetobacter baumannii. Autoclaving of treated nylon strips prior to exposure had no effect on trap collections of laboratory-reared female An. Gambiae (P = 0.17 or wild female An. Gambiae sensu lato (P = 0.26 and Mansonia spp. (P = 0.17 mosquitoes. Trap catches of wild female An. Funestus (P < 0.001 and other anophelines (P < 0.007 were higher when treated strips had been autoclaved prior to deployment as opposed to when the treated nylon strips were not autoclaved. By contrast, wild female Culex mosquitoes were more strongly attracted to non-autoclaved compared to autoclaved treated nylon strips (P < 0.042. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using odor baits for sampling and surveillance of malaria as well as other mosquito vectors over prolonged periods of time. Preliminary evidence points towards the potential role of bacteria in sustaining prolonged use of nylon material for dispensing synthetic attractant odorants for host-seeking malaria and other mosquito vectors but further investigations are required.

  20. Community acceptance of tsetse control baits: a qualitative study in Arua District, North West Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Kovacic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT, including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km(2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and "ghosts from the river" which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early

  1. The erosive potential of candy sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Nieuw Amerongen, A V

    2009-05-23

    To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy volunteers after administration of a single dose of candy spray. Candy sprays have an extremely low pH (1.9-2.3) and a neutralisable acidity varying between 0.8-1.6 ml of 0.25M NaOH. In vivo, candy sprays induced a short-term 3.0 to 5.8-fold increase in salivary flow rate with a concomitant drop in salivary pH to values between 4.4 and 5.8. All candy sprays tested have an erosive potential. This information is of use for clinicians counselling juvenile patients with dental erosion.

  2. Deworming of stray dogs and wild canines with praziquantel-laced baits delivered by an unmanned aerial vehicle in areas highly endemic for echinococcosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qing; Xiao, Ning; Yang, Shi-Jie; Han, Shuai

    2017-06-27

    Canines, the definitive hosts for the parasites causing alveolar (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE), are the main source of this infections playing the key role in the transmission. The ten-year mortality rate of AE is extremely high (94%) if the patients are not given sustained treatment. The aim of this field study is to explore the possibility of delivery of praziquantel-laced baits using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) aimed at deworming wild canines in the endemic areas. UAVs were compared to manual bait delivery in the 1-km 2 test areas followed by testing of canine faeces using an Echinococcus coproantigen ELISA test in the ensuing year. The outcomes of the two approaches were compared with respect to time of delivery and overall cost. Compared to manual bait delivery, delivery by UAVs saved up to 67% of the overall cost. Three times more staff was needed for the former approach compared to the latter and, time wise, UAV bait delivery saved 350% compared to manual bait delivery on average. With regard to investment needed, the use of UAVs showed an efficiency 2.5 times better than manual bait delivery. Compared to the area served by UAVs, the average positive rate for the canine faecal samples was more than 38% higher in the area served manually. The technique of bait delivery with praziquantel using UAVs for canine deworming has a strong potential with regard to savings of manpower, time and overall cost in areas highly endemic for echinococcosis.

  3. Aerial-broadcast application of diphacinone bait for rodent control in Hawai`i: Efficacy and non-target species risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Spurr, Eric B.; Lindsey, Gerald D.; Forbes Perry, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rats (Rattus rattus, R. exulans, and R. norvegicus) have been implicated in the decline or extinction of numerous species of plants and animals in Hawai‘i. This study investigated the efficacy of aerial-broadcast application of Ramik® Green baits containing 50 ppm (0.005%) diphacinone in reducing rat and mouse populations and the risk to non-target species. The study was undertaken in paired 45.56-ha treatment and non-treatment plots in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. All 21 radio-collared rats in the treatment plot died within nine days of bait application, whereas none of the 18 radio-collared rats in the non-treatment plot died. There was a 99% drop in both the rat capture rate and percentage of non-toxic census bait blocks gnawed by rats in the treatment plot relative to the non-treatment plot three weeks after bait application. The only rat captured in the treatment plot three weeks after bait application was not ear-tagged (i.e., it was not a recapture), whereas 44% of the 52 rats captured in the non-treatment plot were ear-tagged. Most of the bait had disappeared from the forest floor within about one month of application. No birds likely to have eaten bait were found dead, although residues of diphacinone were found in the livers of three species of introduced seed-eating/omnivorous birds captured alive after bait application. No predatory birds were found dead one month or three months after bait application. The remains of a Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius) were found six months after bait application, but it was not possible to determine the cause of death. This study demonstrated the efficacy of aerially broadcast diphacinone bait for control of rats and mice in Hawaiian montane forests, and was part of the dataset submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the national registration of a diphacinone bait for the control of rat populations in conservation areas.

  4. Assessment of owner-administered monthly treatments with oral spinosad or topical spot-on fipronil/(S)-methoprene in controlling fleas and associated pruritus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Ryan, William G; Bell, Margie; Rumschlag, Anthony J; Young, Lisa M; Snyder, Daniel E

    2013-01-31

    Monitoring of the performance of flea control products under conditions of natural challenge is valuable in assessing continued effectiveness and determining the ongoing relevance of laboratory studies. A multi-clinic, investigator-blinded study was undertaken in client-owned dogs to investigate and compare the flea control provided by 3 consecutive monthly treatments of oral spinosad (SPN) or fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical (FSM) spot-on. The first household dog meeting enrollment criteria and with at least 10 fleas (whole-body flea count) served as the index dog in a household against which primary objectives were set. Stratification was based on pruritus scores at the enrollment visit and on single or multiple pet household. Index pets were randomized to treatment with either SPN or FSM, dispensed on day 0 for at-home administration by owners. All other household dogs and cats, maximum 4 pets per household, were dispensed the same treatment as the index dog (spinetoram was dispensed for cats in SPN households). Subsequent treatments were dispensed when index dogs were returned for whole-body flea counts and pruritus-scoring at visits on days 30 and 60, with final assessments on day 90 (±5 days on each occasion). Primary endpoints were the number of flea-free index dogs in each group one month after the final treatment, the reduction in owner-reported pruritus, and the reduction from baseline mean flea counts. One hundred twenty eight index dogs were enrolled (65 in the SPN arm; 63 in the FSM arm) at 10 clinics in FL (6), NC (2), LA (1), and TX (1). On day 0, geometric mean flea counts were 57.7 (range: 10-1469) and 44.8 (10-717) for the SPN and FSM groups, respectively. On Day 90, 55 of 58 (95%) and 21 of 55 (38%) index dogs completing the study were flea-free in SPN and FSM groups, respectively; mean SPN pruritus scores declined to 0.92 (6.67 on day 0), and to 3.83 (6.33 on day 0) for FSM; geometric mean flea counts (% control) were 0.08 (99.9%) and 5.19 (88

  5. Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 6/15/2012 – 9/15/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline ” 5a. CONTRACT...this project. The paper, “Sea Spray Generation at Rocky Shoreline ” by Ed Andreas was accepted for publication and as of July 2016 was being...13 Sea Spray Generation at a Rocky Shoreline 14 15 16 17 Edgar L Andreas 18 19 NorthWest Research Associates, Inc. 20 Lebanon, New

  6. Numerical simulation on multiphase spray cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peiliang; Liu, Hong; Cai, Chang; Gao, Jiuliang; Yin, Hongchao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this work is using distilled water as working fluid to study the spray cooling heat transfer characteristics from non-boiling zone to boiling zone by CFD method. Simulation is performed using a Euler-Lagrangian method based on the air and liquid droplet two phase flow dynamics. The results of this simulation are in accordance with the experimental results of the laboratory. The simulation results show that the spray height is an important factor influencing the cooling characteristics. With the decrease of spray height, the heat transfer effect is enhanced.

  7. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, J.; Matejková, M.; Dlouhý, I.; Šiška, Filip; Kay, C.M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovařík, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2015), s. 758-768 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Cold spray * Fatigue * Grit-blast Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2015

  8. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m 3 Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes

  9. Evaluating the feeding preferences of West Nile virus mosquito vectors using bird-baited traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano Llopis, Isis; Tomassone, Laura; Grego, Elena; Serrano, Emmanuel; Mosca, Andrea; Vaschetti, Gabriella; Andrade, Daniela; Rossi, Luca

    2016-08-31

    The total contact rates (TCRs) between mosquito vectors and their potential hosts have a serious impact on disease transmission dynamics. Culex pipiens (sensu stricto) (s.s.) is considered the main vector of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in Europe and birds are the reservoir hosts. The results of our previous study showed that WNV seroreactors are significantly more prevalent among raptors compared to a range of other wild avian groups. The current study aims to assess the role of bird type (raptor vs others) and bird size on mosquito feeding preferences in a free-choice experiment using bird-baited traps. From July to September 2014, a battery of six bird-baited traps was operated in twelve mosquito capture sessions. Eight bird species, belonging to five different orders, including raptors, were used. After each session, the trapped mosquitoes were collected and identified using standard keys. Two sets of independent generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to assess mosquito vector feeding preferences (MFp) among different bird species and types. A total of 304 mosquitoes belonging to seven taxa were collected, C. pipiens being by far the most abundant (84.2 % of the total mosquito catch). Most C. pipiens were engorged (83.59 %). The selected model showed that 25.6 % of the observed variability of MFp is explained by the interaction between bird size and bird type, with C. pipiens preferring to feed on large birds, especially raptors. The proportion of engorged mosquitoes was 1.9-fold higher in large (22.88 %; range 0-42 %) than in medium-sized raptors (11.71 %; range 0-33 %), and was nearly the same in medium-sized (9.08 %; range 0-26 %) and large (8.5 %; 6-24 %) non-raptor species. Culex pipiens showed an obvious preference for large raptors, which concurs with the higher seroprevalence to WNV in our previous study. The appreciable feeding by C. pipiens on large raptors makes them useful alternative sentinels to poultry for WNV surveillance. Thus

  10. Capture of Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in dry traps baited with a food-based attractant and Jackson traps baited with trimedlure during sterile male release in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgarden, David; Ovalle, Oscar; Epsky, Nancy D; Puche, Helena; Kendra, Paul E; Rendon, Pedro; Heath, Robert R

    2004-12-01

    Captures of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in Jackson traps baited with trimedlure were compared with captures in cylindrical open-bottom dry traps baited with a food-based synthetic attractant (ammonium acetate, putrescine, and trimethylamine). Tests were conducted in Guatemala during a sterile male release program in an area where wild flies were present in low numbers. More wild and sterile females were captured in food-based traps, and more wild and sterile males were captured in trimedlure traps. The food-based traps captured almost twice as many total (male plus female) wild flies as the trimedlure traps, but the difference was not significant. Females made up approximately 60% of the wild flies caught in the food-based attractant traps; the trimedlure traps caught no females. The ratio of capture of males in trimedlure traps to food-based traps was 6.5:1 for sterile and 1.7:1 for wild flies. Because fewer sterile males are captured in the food-based traps, there is a reduction in the labor-intensive process of examining flies for sterility. The results indicate that traps baited with food-based attractants could be used in place of the Jackson/trimedlure traps for C. capitata sterile release programs because they can monitor distributions of sterile releases and detect wild fly populations effectively; both critical components of fruit fly eradication programs by using the sterile insect technique.

  11. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  12. Effect of Spray Parameters on the Corrosion Behavior of HVOF Sprayed WC-Co-Cr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sheng; Wu, Yuping; Zheng, Yugui; Wang, Bo; Gao, Wenwen; Li, Gaiye; Ying, Guobing; Lin, Jinran

    2014-04-01

    WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coatings were deposited on the substrate of AISI 1045 steel by using high-velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying process. The Taguchi method including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to optimize the porosity and, in turn, the corrosion resistance of the coatings. The spray parameters evaluated in this study were spray distance, oxygen flow, and kerosene flow. The results indicated that the important sequence of spray parameters on the porosity of the coatings was spray distance > oxygen flow > kerosene flow, and the spray distance was the only significant factor. The optimum spraying condition was 300 mm for the spray distance, 1900 scfh for the oxygen flow, and 6.0 gph for the kerosene flow. The results showed the significant influence of the microstructure on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) results showed that the WC-10Co-4Cr cermet coating obtained by the optimum spraying condition with the lowest porosity exhibits the best corrosion resistance and seems to be an alternative to hard chromium coating.

  13. Trapping of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae with odour-baited MM-X traps in semi-field conditions in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njiru, B.N.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background - The successful development of odour-baited trapping systems for mosquitoes depends on the identification of behaviourally active semiochemicals, besides the design and operating principles of such devices. A large variety of 'attractants' has been identified in laboratory

  14. Efficacy of dry ice-baited traps for sampling Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) varies with life stage but not habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensinger, B J; Allan, B F

    2011-05-01

    The carbon dioxide-baited trap is the most common and effective method for sampling vector life-stage Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), although confounding environmental variables are rarely considered. A mark-recapture experiment was designed to compare recapture proportions of A. americanum nymphs and adults between two habitat types: old field and oak-hickory forest. Powdered fluorescent dye was used to mark A. americanum ticks released in 1-m increments from carbon dioxide-baited traps. Adults were recaptured in significantly higher proportion than nymphs, but habitat type had no significant effect on recapture proportions. Tick abundance is an important parameter in the estimation of human risk of exposure to tick-borne disease and the influence of life stage on capture rates should be considered when calculating entomological risk.

  15. Influence of spray parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of gas-tunnel plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morks, M.F.; Kobayashi, Akira

    2007-01-01

    For biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were deposited on 304 stainless steel substrate by using a gas tunnel type plasma spraying process. The influences of spraying distances and plasma arc currents on the microstructure, hardness and adhesion properties of HA coatings were investigated. Microstructure observation by SEM showed that HA coatings sprayed at low plasma power have a porous structure and poor hardness. HA coatings sprayed at high plasma power and short spraying distance are characterized by good adhesion and low porosity with dense structure. Hardness increased for HA coatings sprayed at shorter spraying distance and higher plasma power, mainly due to the formation of dense coatings

  16. Plasma spray technology process parameters and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Karthikeyan, J.; Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Venkatramani, N.; Chatterjee, U.K.

    1991-01-01

    The current trend in the structural design philosophy is based on the use of substrate with the necessary mechanical properties and a thin coating to exhibit surface properties. Plasma spray process is a versatile surface coating technique which finds extensive application in meeting advance technologies. This report describes the plasma spray technique and its use in developing coatings for various applications. The spray system is desribed in detail including the different variables such as power input to the torch, gas flow rate, powder properties, powder injection, etc. and their interrelation in deciding the quality of the coating. A brief write-up on the various plasma spray coatings developed for different applications is also included. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This purpose of this project is to develop a spray drying prototype to for the recovery and recycle of water from concentrated waste water recovery system brine....

  18. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  19. Plasma-Sprayed Photocatalytic Zinc Oxide Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidpour, A. H.; Kalantari, Y.; Salehi, M.; Salimijazi, H. R.; Amirnasr, M.; Rismanchian, M.; Azarpour Siahkali, M.

    2017-04-01

    Fabrication of semiconductor coatings with photocatalytic action for photodegradation of organic pollutants is highly desirable. In this research, pure zinc oxide, which is well known for its promising photocatalytic activity, was deposited on stainless-steel plates by plasma spraying. The phase composition and microstructure of the deposited films were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Despite the low-energy conditions of the plasma spraying process, the zinc oxide coatings showed good mechanical integrity on the substrate. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using aqueous solution of methylene blue at concentration of 5 mg L-1. The results showed the potential of the plasma spraying technique to deposit zinc oxide coatings with photocatalytic action under ultraviolet illumination. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that the plasma spraying method could deposit zinc oxide films with higher photoabsorption ability relative to the initial powder.

  20. Properties of Plasma and HVOF Sprayed Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Żórawski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The work compares the properties of plasma and HVOF thermally sprayed coatings obtained by blending the NiCrBSi and Fe2O3 powders. The deposition was performed by means of the Plancer PN-120 and the Diamond Jet guns for plasma spraying and HVOF spraying respectively. The SEM (EDS method was employed to study the microstructure of the produced coatings. Although the blended powders differ in particle size, shape, and distribution, it is possible to obtain composite coatings with an NiCrBSi matrix containing iron oxides. Except for a different microstructure, plasma and HVOF coatings have a different phase composition, which was examined using the Bruker D-8 Advance diffractometer. Studies of the coatings wear and scuffing resistance showed that an optimal content of Fe2O3 is about 26 % for plasma sprayed coatings and 22.5 % for HVOF deposited coatings.

  1. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  2. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  3. Evaluation of Oral Bait Vaccine Efficacy Against Classical Swine Fever in Village Backyard Pig Farms in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, V R; Stegeman, J A; Dukpa, K; Gurung, R B; Loeffen, W L A

    2016-12-01

    Control and eradication of classical swine fever (CSF) in countries with a high proportion of backyard holdings is a challenge. Conventional attenuated Chinese C-strain vaccines, though safe and effective, are difficult to use in backyard farms due to various practical reasons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the CSF oral bait vaccine in village backyard pig farms and to assess the farmers' knowledge on CSF and motivation on using oral vaccines. The pigs were fed the bait by the farmers themselves; one bait was given on day 0, followed by second bait on the next day. Seventy-three per cent (140 of 193 pigs) of vaccinated pigs had either a slight (2-fold-3-fold; 60 pigs) or significant (at least 4-fold; 80 pigs) increase of the antibody titre against CSFV. A significant increase of the antibody titres was mainly observed in pigs with no pre-vaccination titre (OR = 12, 95% CI = 4-40). The number of pigs with protective antibody titres (≥40) rose from 47 (24%) to 115 (60%) following vaccination. Only 30% of the farmers claimed to be familiar with CSF, although clinical signs they mentioned were rather unspecific and could relate to many other pig diseases. Most of the farmers claimed to be motivated to use oral vaccines if made available. The oral vaccine could be a substitute for the conventional attenuated CSF vaccines in areas where it is logistically difficult for veterinarians to visit. It may therefore be a useful tool to combat endemic CSF disease in regions where the disease continues to have a serious impact on the backyard farmers who depend on pig farming for their sustenance and livelihoods. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Efficacy of Maxforce bait for control of the Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Reimer, Neil J.

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to develop a chemical control strategy for the invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), in Haleakala National Park, Maxforce, which is formulated with 0.9% hydramethylnon, was used in test plots to determine the efficacy of the ant bait in the field. Initially, Maxforce was tested at 2 application rates: broadcast at 2.25 kg/ha (2 lb/acre) and 4.5 kg/ha (4 lb/acre). Later, the following treatments were also tested: a Maxforce and honey granule mix, Maxforce with 0.5% hydramethylnon, Maxforce with a different solvent, Maxforce distributed in exposed piles, and Maxforce distributed in covered piles. Although there were significant differences in the magnitude of ant reduction among the various treatments, all yielded the same general result. Foraging ant numbers at monitoring bait stations declined an average maximum of 97.0% in the test plots, with no plots achieving 100% reduction. At 2 mo after treatment the mean number of foraging ants was reduced by 92.1%. Nest survival in the plots appeared to be affected to a lesser degree, but could not be monitored accurately over the longer term because of the phenomenon of nest movement. A 2nd identical application 1 mo after the initial application in plots treated with Maxforce at 2.25 and 4.5 kg/ha did not result in eradication. Bait molding, quick mortality, and toxicant breakdown from UV radiation created a short exposure time to the bait and toxicant, which may have been the main obstacle to achieving eradication.

  5. Induced Effects on Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Forager Size Ratios by Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae): Implications on Bait Size Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Puckett, R T; Gold, R E

    2015-10-01

    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are adversely affected by phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon by instigating defensive behaviors in their hosts, and in turn reducing the efficiency of S. invicta foraging. Multiple Pseudacteon species have been released in Texas, and research has been focused on the establishment and spread of these introduced biological control agents. Field experiments were conducted to determine bait particle size selection of S. invicta when exposed to phorid populations. Four different particle sizes of two candidate baits were offered to foragers (one provided by a pesticide manufacturer, and a laboratory-created bait). Foragers selectively were attracted to, and removed more 1-1.4-mm particles than any other bait size. The industry-provided bait is primarily made of particles in the 1.4-2.0 mm size, larger than what was selected by the ants in this study. While there was a preference for foragers to be attracted to and rest on the industry-provided blank bait, S. invicta removed more of the laboratory-created bait from the test vials. There was an abundance of workers with head widths ranging from 0.5-0.75 mm collected from baits. This was dissimilar from a previous study wherein phorid flies were not active and in which large workers were collected in higher abundance at the site. This implies that phorid fly activity caused a shift for red imported fire ant colonies to have fewer large foragers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Efficacy of Light and Nonlighted Carbon Dioxide-Baited Traps for Adult Sand Fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) Surveillance in Three Counties of Mesrata, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    attractants for Phlebotomus papatasi ( Diptera : Psychodidae) in southern Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 20: 130–133. Burkett DA, Knight R, Dennet JA...Dioxide–Baited Traps for Adult Sand Fly ( Diptera : Psychodidae) Surveillance in Three Counties of Mesrata, Libya Author(s): P.J. Obenauer, B.B. Annajar...00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Efficacy of Light and Nonlighted Carbon Dioxide-Baited Traps for Adult Sand Fly ( Diptera : Psychodidae) Surveillance

  7. Effects of Two Temperature Storage Regimes on the Efficacy of 3 Commercial Gel Baits against the German Cockroach, Blattella germanica L. (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Oz, E; Cetin, H; Cilek, J E; Deveci, O; Yanikoglu, A

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground: To compare the effectiveness of 3 commercial gel bait formulations containing fipronil (Goliathã Cockroach Gel 0.05% AI), chlorpyrifos-A (Clean Baitã Gel, 2% AI), and chloropyrifos-B (Serpaã Gel 2% AI) against German cock­roaches (Blattella germanica) when stored at 23°C and 30° C after treatment."nMethods: Laboratory bioassays consisted of placing groups of fifteen cockroaches (a random combination of adult, mix...

  8. Plasma sprayed coatings on crankshaft used steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahu, G.; Munteanu, C.; Istrate, B.; Benchea, M.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma spray coatings may be an alternative to conventional heat treatment of main journals and crankpins of the crankshaft. The applications of plasma coatings are various and present multiple advantages compared to electric arc wire spraying or flame spraying. The study examines the layers sprayed with the following powders: Cr3C2- 25(Ni 20Cr), Al2O3- 13TiO2, Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 on the surface of steels used in the construction of a crankshaft (C45). The plasma spray coatings were made with the Spray wizard 9MCE facility at atmospheric pressure. The samples were analyzed in terms of micro and morphological using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Wear tests on samples that have undergone simulates extreme working conditions of the crankshafts. In order to emphasize adherence to the base material sprayed layer, were carried out tests of microscratches and micro-indentation. Results have showed a relatively compact morphological aspect given by the successive coatings with splat-like specific structures. Following the microscratch analysis it can be concluded that Al2O3-13TiO2 coating has a higher purpose in terms of hardness compared to Cr3C2-(Ni 20Cr) and Cr2O3-SiO2- TiO2 powders. Thermal coatings of the deposited powders have increased the mechanical properties of the material. The results stand to confirm that plasma sprayed Al2O3-13TiO2 powder is in fact a efficient solution for preventing mechanical wear, even with a faulty lubrication system.

  9. Cannabis; adverse effects from an oromucosal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C

    2007-09-22

    An oromucosal spray has been developed from the major components of marijuana (cannabis), including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), in alcohol with a peppermint flavouring, designed to be administered as a spray under the tongue or on the buccal mucosa to relieve pain in multiple sclerosis. Although the available evidence indicates its efficacy in this respect, some patients develop oral burning sensation, stinging or white lesions, probably burns. To investigate the oral side-effects of oromucosal cannabis spray in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A small open observational study. A series of nine patients with MS who had been using a marijuana oromucosal spray for at least four weeks, were asked to attend for oral examination. Patients were asked whether they had ever experienced symptoms (dryness; bad taste; stinging) associated with use of the spray. A standard oral examination was carried out using a dental light, and the presence of any mucosal lesions recorded. Where mucosal lesions were present, patients were advised to discontinue the spray and re-attend after four weeks for re-examination. For ethical reasons, biopsies were not undertaken at the first visit. Of nine patients invited to participate, eight attended. All admitted to a stinging sensation on using the oromucosal cannabis spray, and four had visible oral mucosal white lesions in the floor of the mouth. Although the white lesions observed were almost certainly burns, resolving or improving on discontinuation of use of the medication, the high alcohol concentration of the oromucosal cannabis spray raises concern in relation to chronic oral use.

  10. Hazard Analysis for In Tank Spray Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    The River Protection Project (RPP) Authorization Basis (AB) contains controls that address spray leaks in tanks. However, there are no hazardous conditions in the Hazards Database that specifically identify in-tank spray leak scenarios. The purpose of this Hazards Evaluation is to develop hazardous conditions related to in-tank spray leaks for the Hazards Database and to provide more complete coverage of Tank Farm facilities. Currently, the in-tank spray leak is part of the ''Spray Leak in Structures or From Waste Transfer Lines'' accidents in Section 3.4.2.9 of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG, 2000a). The accident analysis for the ''Spray Leak in Structure or From Waste Transfer Lines'' states the following regarding the location of a possible spray leak: Inside ventilated waste storage tanks (DSTs, DCRTs, and some SSTs). Aerosols could be generated inside a storage tank during a transfer because of a leak from the portion of the transfer pipe inside the tank. The tank ventilation system could help disperse the aerosols to the atmosphere should the vent system HEPA filters fail. This Hazards Evaluation also evaluates the controls currently assigned to the spray leak in structure accident and determines the applicability of the controls to the new hazardous conditions. This comparison reviews both the analysis in the FSAR and the controls found in the Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs) (CHG, 2000h). If the new hazardous conditions do not match the analyzed accident conditions and controls, then additional analysis may be required. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Control decision process as defined in the AB will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis

  11. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, L.A.; Neal, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is described. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun

  12. Culex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Egg Laying in Traps Loaded With Bacillus thuringiensis Variety israelensis and Baited With Skatole

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARBOSA, ROSÂNGELA M. R.; REGIS, LÊDA; VASCONCELOS, ROBERTO; LEAL, WALTER S.

    2010-01-01

    The Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, is an important human health pest as a vector of several pathogens, including agents of lymphatic filariasis and arboviruses like West Nile virus. We conducted preliminary experiments in Recife, Brazil, to explore applications of Culex oviposition attractants in combination with Bacillus thuringiensis variety israelensis (Bti) in an attract- and-kill approach. Simple, cost-effective oviposition traps, BR-OVT, loaded with Bti and baited with or without attractant, were deployed in 10 homes for 30 d in 2 consecutive yr. Significantly higher numbers of egg rafts were deposited in traps baited with skatole or infusion than the control water traps. In the first year, 2006, significantly higher numbers of eggs were deposited in infusion-baited traps, particularly in the first 15 d of the experiment, than in skatole traps, but in the following year no significant difference was observed between synthetic and natural attractants. The tests strongly demonstrate that skatole or infusion can be used to enhance the number of egg rafts deposited on Bti-treated oviposition traps. PMID:20496581

  13. Fine Sprays for Disinfection within Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Nasr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems exist worldwide with Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI's. The Spray Research Group (SRG have been working with relevant industries in developing a product which can provide a delivery system for treatment chemicals for surfaces, including the design and testing of a novel Spill-Return Atomiser (SRA for this purpose. A comprehensive description of this atomiser has already been given. This paper reports on a new application of this atomiser and discusses the problem of spray coating for disinfection that has been considered very little in previous work. The related spray coating performance tests in developing the product are thus provided. The experimental work includes determining the required spray duration and the coverage area produced by different sprays, including the analysis of the effects of atomiser positions, configurations, and the required number of atomisers. Comparison is made with the efficacy of an ultrasonic gas atomiser that is currently used for this purpose. The investigation has found that the utilisation of fine sprays (10μm>D32>25μm at high liquid pressure (<12MPa and low flow rates (<0.3 l/min is suitable for surface disinfection in healthcare applications (i.e. MRSA, VRSA etc.

  14. Odour-baited targets to control New World screwworm: A preliminary field study in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torr, S.J.; Hall, M.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Biconical, F3 and Wind Oriented (WOT) traps and black cloth targets, baited with swormlure-4, were assessed as catching and killing devices for the New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, in Mexico. The WOT was significantly better than the other trap designs, with a mean catch 2.7 and 86.4 times better than those of the Biconical and F3, respectively. It was demonstrated that the release of swormlure-4 could be reduced from the standard 10 ml/day to 2 ml/day without a reduction in the numbers of screwworm caught in a WOT. Use of electric nets demonstrated that a visual target was not necessary for the precise location of a swormlure-4 source by screwworm. Target colour was important with respect to the landing response of screwworms on targets: in a two-choice situation, flies landed much more frequently on black than on blue or yellow, and more on these two colours than they did on white. Screwworm tend not to circle a target before landing on it: about 75% of the flies caught on a combination of electrified black target plus electric flanking net were caught on the target. 6 tabs

  15. [Toxocara canis eggs as bait for soil fungus in a subtropical city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María Viviana; Sarmiento, María Mercedes; Giusiano, Gustavo; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Basualdo, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The use of different isolation techniques allows the recovery of fungi based on their ability to use selective substrates. The sprinkle method is a technique for the recovery of nematophagous fungi in the soil. These fungi are natural predators of nematodes and are widely distributed in nature. To detect possible fungi with nematophagous ability in the soil of city parks in Corrientes (Argentina). The soil samples were taken from an area of ground between two trees and to no more than 2cm deep. The isolation was performed according to the sprinkle method with Toxocara canis eggs as bait. Eighteen soil samples were collected, and 6 genera and 8 species of fungi were isolated. The sprinkle method, simple and efficient, has the advantage of using a small amount of untreated soil for the isolation of fungi that can grow on the eggs of geohelminths. The genera Bipolaris, Fusarium, Purpureocillium, Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium were isolated in this study. No other studies describing the interaction between the genera Curvularia, Phoma and Scytalidium with nematode eggs have been found in the literature, thus more studies are required to determine what is their real action on these eggs. Copyright © 2014 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Worm grunting, fiddling, and charming--humans unknowingly mimic a predator to harvest bait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Catania

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis. This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called "worm grunting". In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that "worm grunters" unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. CONCLUSIONS: Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of "rare predators" in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race.

  17. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5 was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails.

  18. Creep of plasma sprayed zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, R. F.; Logan, W. R.; Adams, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coatings with three different porosities and different initial particle sizes were deformed in compression at initial loads of 1000, 2000, and 3500 psi and temperatures of 1100 C, 1250 C, and 1400 C. The coatings were stabilized with lime, magnesia, and two different concentrations of yttria. Creep began as soon as the load was applied and continued at a constantly decreasing rate until the load was removed. Temperature and stabilization had a pronounced effect on creep rate. The creep rate for 20% Y2O3-80% ZrO2 was 1/3 to 1/2 that of 8% Y2O3-92% ZrO2. Both magnesia and calcia stabilized ZrO2 crept at a rate 5 to 10 times that of the 20% Y2O3 material. A near proportionality between creep rate and applied stress was observed. The rate controlling process appeared to be thermally activated, with an activation energy of approximately 100 cal/gm mole K. Creep deformation was due to cracking and particle sliding.

  19. Development and assessment of plant-based synthetic odor baits for surveillance and control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent O Nyasembe

    Full Text Available Recent malaria vector control measures have considerably reduced indoor biting mosquito populations. However, reducing the outdoor biting populations remains a challenge because of the unavailability of appropriate lures to achieve this. This study sought to test the efficacy of plant-based synthetic odor baits in trapping outdoor populations of malaria vectors.Three plant-based lures ((E-linalool oxide [LO], (E-linalool oxide and (E-β-ocimene [LO + OC], and a six-component blend comprising (E-linalool oxide, (E-β-ocimene, hexanal, β-pinene, limonene, and (E-β-farnesene [Blend C], were tested alongside an animal/human-based synthetic lure (comprising heptanal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal [Blend F] and worn socks in a malaria endemic zone in the western part of Kenya. Mosquito Magnet-X (MM-X and lightless Centre for Disease Control (CDC light traps were used. Odor-baited traps were compared with traps baited with either solvent alone or solvent + carbon dioxide (controls for 18 days in a series of randomized incomplete-block designs of days × sites × treatments. The interactive effect of plant and animal/human odor was also tested by combining LO with either Blend F or worn socks. Our results show that irrespective of trap type, traps baited with synthetic plant odors compared favorably to the same traps baited with synthetic animal odors and worn socks in trapping malaria vectors, relative to the controls. Combining LO and worn socks enhanced trap captures of Anopheles species while LO + Blend F recorded reduced trap capture. Carbon dioxide enhanced total trap capture of both plant- and animal/human-derived odors. However, significantly higher proportions of male and engorged female Anopheles gambiae s.l. were caught when the odor treatments did not include carbon dioxide.The results highlight the potential of plant-based odors and specifically linalool oxide, with or without carbon dioxide, for surveillance and mass trapping of malaria

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIESEL SPRAY IMAGES USING A SHAPE PROCESSING METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Petit

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In Diesel engines, a key element in achieving a clean and efficient combustion process is a proper fuel-air mixing, which is a consequence of the fuel spray development and fuel-air interaction inside the engine combustion chamber. The spray structure and behavior are classically described by the length (penetration and width (angle of the spray plume but these parameters do not give any clue on the geometrical injection center and on the spray symmetry. The purpose of this paper is to find out original tools to characterize the Diesel spray: the virtual spray origin is the geometrical injection center, which may (or may not coincide with the injector axis. Another interesting point is the description of the Diesel spray in terms of symmetry: the spray plume internal and external symmetry characterize the spray and the injector performance. Our approach is first to find out the virtual spray origin: after the image segmentation, the spray is coded with the Freeman code and with an original shape coding from which the moments are derived. The symmetry axes are then computed and the spray plumes are discarded (or not for the virtual spray origin computation, which is derived from a Voronoi diagram. The last step is the internal and external spray plume symmetry characterization thanks to correlation and mathematical distances.

  1. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2018-05-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  2. Experimental characterization of gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Mahabat; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Khalid, Azfar; Lughmani, Waqas Akbar

    2017-12-01

    An experimental investigation of multistream gasoline sprays under highly evaporating conditions is carried out in this paper. Temperature increase of fuel and low engine pressure could lead to flash boiling. The spray shape is normally modified significantly under flash boiling conditions. The spray plumes expansion along with reduction in the axial momentum causes the jets to merge and creates a low-pressure area below the injector's nozzle. These effects initiate the collapse of spray cone and lead to the formation of a single jet plume or a big cluster like structure. The collapsing sprays reduces exposed surface and therefore they last longer and subsequently penetrate more. Spray plume momentum increase, jet plume reduction and spray target widening could delay or prevent the closure condition and limit the penetration (delayed formation of the cluster promotes evaporation). These spray characteristics are investigated experimentally using shadowgraphy, for five and six hole injectors, under various boundary conditions. Six hole injectors produce more collapsing sprays in comparison to five hole injector due to enhanced jet to jet interactions. The spray collapse tendency reduces with increase in injection pressure due high axial momentum of spray plumes. The spray evaporation rates of five hole injector are observed to be higher than six hole injectors. Larger spray cone angles of the six hole injectors promote less penetrating and less collapsing sprays.

  3. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...

  4. Design and Testing of an Agricultural Implement for Underground Application of Rodenticide Bait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malón, Hugo; Aguirre, A. Javier; Boné, Antonio; Vidal, Mariano; García-Ramos, F. Javier

    2015-01-01

    An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus) in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM) and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h), three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m), and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy) were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed. PMID:25602272

  5. Design and Testing of an Agricultural Implement for Underground Application of Rodenticide Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Malón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An agricultural implement for underground application of rodenticide bait to control the Mediterranean pocket gopher (Microtus Duodecimcostatus in fruit orchards has been designed and tested. The main objective of this research was to design and test the implement by using the finite element method (FEM and considering a range of loads generated on most commonly used furrow openers in agricultural implements. As a second step, the prototype was tested in the field by analysing the effects of forward speed and application depth on the mechanical behaviour of the implement structure. The FEM was used in the design phase and a prototype was manufactured. The structural strains on the prototype chassis under working conditions were tested by using strain gauges to validate the design phase. Three forward speeds (4.5, 5.5, and 7.0 km/h, three application depths (0.12, 0.15, and 0.17 m, and two types of soil (clayey-silty-loam and clayey-silty-sandy were considered. The prototype was validated successfully by analysing the information obtained from the strain gauges. The Von Mises stresses indicated a safety coefficient of 1.9 for the most critical load case. Although both forward speed and application depth had a significant effect on the stresses generated on the chassis, the latter parameter critically affected the structural behaviour of the implement. The effects of the application depth on the strains were linear such that strains increased with depth. In contrast, strains remained roughly constant regardless of variation in the forward speed.

  6. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  7. Hermit crab (Decapoda, Anomura attraction to dead gastropod baits in an infralittoral algae bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez C. B. Pezzuti

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hermit crabs use gastropod shells as shelter and are adapted to follow chemical cues released from tissues of dead or injured gastropods as a way to find new and more adequate shells. The species composition, crab size, shell types adequacy and physical condition were compared between attracted individuals and crabs collected in previous samples. The previous sampling was carried out in five areas before each experiment. Then, five baits of crushed gastropods in nylon net bags were installed in these areas. Three samples were taken at 30min intervals, capturing all crabs within a circle of 60cm diameter. Attraction of hermit crabs was tested for four different gastropod baits to verify specificity of the chemical cues. Clibanarius antillensis, Pagurus brevidactylus and Paguristes tortugae were collected in the study area. Pagurus brevidactylus, the smallest species, turned out to be more attracted than the 2 other species. The results showed that attracted crabs utilized more gastropod shell types than that collected in previous samples, however shell utilization pattern did not differ between them. Attracted animals were slightly smaller (shield length than those collected in the previous samples but did not present significant differences in shell adequacy and condition. The four experimental baits attracted the crabs in similar ways not indicating a specific response from the crabs. The fact that attracted animals were smaller suggested that the attraction to dead gastropods might enable the acquisition of a new and larger shell and, consequently, chains of shell exchange between the attracted crabs.Ermitões utilizam conchas de gastrópodes para abrigo. Conchas novas e mais adequadas podem ser encontradas pelos ermitões pois estes são atraídos por substâncias químicas liberadas pelos tecidos de gastrópodes feridos ou mortos. A adequação, condição e tipo das conchas e a composição de espécies e o tamanho dos ermitões foram

  8. Daily activity patterns of visits by males of four species of Eulaema (Apidae: Euglossina to odor baits in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro N. Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted with bees of the subtribe Euglossina using odor baits as attractants. The objective of this study was to analyze the daily activity pattern of visits by males of four species of Eulaema - Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841, Eulaema flavescens (Friese, 1899, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804 and Eulaema bombiformis (Packard, 1869 - to vanillin and benzyl acetate baits, and their relationship with climatic and environmental factors throughout the day in different months of the year in a tropical forest fragment in Bahia. Eulaema nigrita was the most frequent species on vanillin baits and E. flavescens was the most frequent species on benzyl acetate baits. The highest frequency of visits was observed in February and December. Activities started between 5:00 and 9:00 h. In February and November, visits of E. nigrita to the bait were observed daily, following a bimodal pattern. The same activity pattern was observed for E. bombiformis in December. Males of four species of Eulaema occurred in all remaining months in a unimodal daily activity pattern, with a higher frequency before 9:30 h. The correlation between the visiting activity to odor baits and climatic factors was low. This result can be due to bee flight activity occurring within a range of adequate climatic variation, particularly temperature, which in our study ranged from 23 to 32ºC. Daily activity patterns of Euglossina males on odor baits can represent patterns of flower fragrance collection under natural conditions, with visits usually at the time of highest production.

  9. Long-term baited lander experiments at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaleye, Marc; Duineveld, Gerard; Bergman, Magda; van den Beld, Inge

    2017-11-01

    A long-term lander employing a baited camera system was developed to study temporal variation in the presence of scavenging fish and invertebrates at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic). The camera system was tested during two successful long-term deployments for periods of 6 and 12 months respectively. The baited system, consisting of two separate video cameras with infrared lights and a bait dispenser with 24 bait positions, recorded more than 15,500 clips of 17 s, regularly spread over both periods. New bait, consisting of sardines in oil, was offered at regular time intervals, and attracted scavengers over the whole period of deployment, and especially the crab Chaceon affinis did still eat from it till the end of the deployments. However, the attractiveness for some scavengers, i.e. amphipods, diminished quite quickly. In addition to invertebrate scavengers, namely C. affinis, two other crab species, amphipods, a shrimp and a starfish, also 7 species of fish were recorded near the bait, of which Lepidion eques was by far the most common. Though there was no concrete evidence for seasonal patterns, the observations showed substantial temporal variation in the abundance of several species, especially the crabs C. affinis and Bathynectes maravigna and the fish Phycis blennoides. It is concluded that long-term deployments of such a baited camera system can produce novel data. For instance such a system could be employed for monitoring impacts of disturbances on the deep-sea floor (e.g. mining), as we infer that mobile scavengers will be among the first organisms to show a visible reaction to any chemically and physically (noise, vibrations) alteration of the environment similar to a mine canary.

  10. Detection of potato mop-top virus in soils and potato tubers using bait-plant bioassay, ELISA and RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Ali, Murad; Rehman, Anayatur; Fahim, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The hilly region of Northwest of Pakistan is leading seed potato producing areas of the country. Soil and plant samples were collected from the region and tested for PMTV using both conventional and molecular techniques. The bait plants exhibited PMTV-characteristic v-shaped yellow leaf markings in Nicotiana debneyi plants grown in putative viruliferious soils from 20/26 locations. The results were confirmed by back inoculation of sap from both roots and leaves of bait plant on indicator hosts (N. debneyi, Nicotiana benthamiana). The root samples of bait plants grown in soils of 25 locations and leaves of 24 locations reproduced systemic infection on indicator hosts upon back inoculation. The virus was identified in bait plants grown in soils from 25/26 locations using double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS)-ELISA and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The products of the 566bp were amplified from coat protein region of PMTV RNA 3 in both root and leaf samples of baited plants. The virus was detected in 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. The virus was also detected in zoospores of Spongospora subterranea derived from the peels of selected scabby tubers using triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA. The results indicate that a bait plant bioassay, infectivity assay, ELISA and RT-PCR can detect PMTV in roots and leaves of baited plants, field samples, zoospores of S. subterranea and tubers of 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of spray characteristics in a spray-guided DISI engine using PLIF and LDV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y; Gashi, S; Nouri, J M; Lockett, R D; Arcoumanis, C

    2007-01-01

    The spray characteristics of a prototype piezo pintle-type injector are investigated in a single-cylinder optical direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine based on the spray-guided concept where mixture preparation is dominated by the spray dynamics. The high-pressure piezo electric injector has an annular nozzle providing a hollow cone spray. Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and 2-dimensional Mie scattering were used to study the spray structure and characteristics under different in-cylinder back pressures and to obtain cycle resolved measurements of the planar fuel distribution inside the cylinder. The obtained results give information about the extent of charge stratification, spray stability and fuel/air mixture formation process under operating conditions. PLIF results revealed that there is a rich mixture at the spark plug position for all these conditions, ensuring stable combustion over the entire engine operating range. In addition, LDV measurements were carried out in order to provide information on the in-cylinder flow field near the spark plug, and to assess its influence on the mixture formation process. LDV results showed that the influence of the flow field strength during the late compression injection on the liquid fuel spray structure is low. The tumble generated in the cylinder is transformed into turbulence at the end of the compression stroke, which aids fuel evaporation and vapour dispersion just before ignition

  12. Density of Spray-Formed Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Volker Uhlenwinkel; Nils Ellendr

    2008-06-01

    Spray Forming is an advanced materials processing technology that transforms molten metal into a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a substrate. Depending on the application, the spray-formed material may be used in the as-deposited condition or it may undergo post-deposition processing. Regardless, the density of the as-deposited material is an important issue. Porosity is detrimental because it can significantly reduce strength, toughness, hardness and other properties. While it is not feasible to achieve fully-dense material in the as-deposited state, density greater than 99% of theoretical density is possible if the atomization and impact conditions are optimized. Thermal conditions at the deposit surface and droplet impact angle are key processing parameters that influence the density of the material. This paper examines the factors that contribute to porosity formation during spray forming and illustrates that very high as-deposited density is achieved by optimizing processing parameters.

  13. Examining properties of arc sprayed nanostructured coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Czupryński

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of examining properties of arc sprayed coating obtained with nano-alloy on the iron matrix with a high amount of fine carbide precipitates sprayed on non-alloyed steel plates intended for high temperature operation. Powder metal cored wire EnDOtec DO*390N 1,6 mm diameter, was used to produce, dense, very high abrasion and erosion resistant coatings approx. 1,0 mm thick. Nano-material coatings characterization was done to determine abrasion resistance, erosion resistance, adhesion strength, hardness as well as metallographic examinations. Results have proved high properties of arc sprayed nano-material coatings and have shown promising industrial applications.

  14. Analysis of polydisperse fuel spray flame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Ophir; Lehavi, Yaron; Ajadi, Suraju; Gol'dshtein, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we analyzed the model of polydisperse fuel spray flame by using the sectional approach to describe the droplet-droplet interaction within the spray. The radii of the droplets are described by a probability density function. Our numerical simulations include a comparative analysis between three empirical droplet size distributions: the Rosin-Rammler distribution, the log-normal distribution and the Nakiyama-Tanasawa distribution. The log-normal distribution was found to produce a reasonable approximation to both the number and volume size distribution function. In addition our comparative analysis includes the application of the homotopy analysis method which yields convergent solutions for all values of the relevant parameters. We compared the above results to experimental fuel spray data such as {it{Tetralin}}, n-{it{Decane}}, and n-{it{Heptane}}.

  15. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  16. Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, M.; Kaakkunen, J.J.J.; Paivasaari, K.; Vahimaa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We show the novel method to use multibeam processing with ultrashort pulses efficiently. ► Sprayed thin water layer on ablation zone enhances ablation rate and quality. ► In some cases this method also enables ablation of the deeper and straighter holes compared to ones made without the water layer. ► Method also makes possible to directly write features without the self-organizing structures. - Abstract: We have studied femtosecond ablation under sprayed thin water film and its influence and benefits compared with ablation in the air atmosphere. These have been studied in case of the hole and the groove ablation using IR femtosecond laser. Water enhances the ablation rate and in some situations it makes possible to ablate the holes with a higher aspect ratio. While ablating the grooves, the water spray allows using the high fluences without the generation of the self-organized structures.

  17. Are light traps baited with kairomones effective in the capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia intermedia? An evaluation of synthetic human odor as an attractant for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade,Andrey J; Andrade,Mateus R; Dias,Edelberto S; Pinto,Mara C; Eiras,Álvaro E

    2008-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are often captured with human bait and/or light traps, either with or without an animal bait. More recently, synthetic attractants have been used as bait in traps to improve the capture of phlebotomine sand flies as well as other insects of medical and veterinary importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the kairomone 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and the synthetic human odor BG-Mesh LureTM (BGML - lactic acid, caproic acid and ammonia) baited in...

  18. Micrometeorological measurements during the Blackmo 88 spray trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. E. Anderson; D. R. Miller; Y. S. Wang; W. E. Yendol; M. L. McManus

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation was arrayed on a 120 foot tower to detail the local atmospheric conditions during the Blackmo 88 spray experiment. Measurements were continuous for 30 minute periods encompassing each spray pass.

  19. Numerical investigation on particle swelling in spray roasting reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiemann, M; de Haan, A.B.; Wirtz, S.

    2016-01-01

    Spray roasting of metal chloride solutions is frequently used in steel industries to recover pickling liquids. As spray roasting reactors are difficult to characterize experimentally, computational fluid dynamics simu- lations have been used to investigate reactor performance. These simulations

  20. Numerical Study on Fan Spray for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Shirabe, Naotaka; Sato, Takaaki; Murase, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    In gasoline direct injection engines, it is important to optimize fuel spray characteristics, which strongly affect stratified combustion process. Spray simulation is expected as a tool for optimizing the nozzle design. Conventional simulation method, how

  1. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  2. SPIRT-NRC. Containment Spray Iodine Removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postma, A.K. [Benton City Technology, Washington, DC (United States); Sherry, R.R.; Tam, P.S. [United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1988-01-01

    SPIRT predicts the washout of airborne contaminants in containment vessels under postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. SPIRT calculates iodine removal constants (lambdas) for post-LOCA containment spray systems. It evaluates the effect of the spectrum of drop sizes emitted by the spray nozzles,the effect of drop coalescence, and the precise solution of the time-dependent diffusion equation. STEAM-67 routines are included for calculating the properties of steam and water according to the 1967 ASME Steam Tables.

  3. Study on plasma sprayed boron carbide coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Lee, Soo W.; Ding, Chuanxian

    2002-03-01

    The microstructure, phase composition, and mechanical properties of boron carbide coatings formed by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) are studied in the present work. The boron carbide coating with high microhardness and low porosity could be produced by APS. The decomposition of boron carbide powder during the plasma spray process would result in the formation of the BxC phase and an increase of the carbon phase, which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction results.

  4. Attractiveness of MM-X Traps Baited with Human or Synthetic Odor to Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in The Gambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    QIU, YU TONG; SMALLEGANGE, RENATE C.; TER BRAAK, CAJO J. F.; SPITZEN, JEROEN; VAN LOON, JOOP J. A.; JAWARA, MUSA; MILLIGAN, PAUL; GALIMARD, AGNES M.; VAN BEEK, TERIS A.; KNOLS, BART G. J.; TAKKEN, WILLEM

    2013-01-01

    Chemical cues play an important role in the host-seeking behavior of blood-feeding mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). A field study was carried out in The Gambia to investigate the effects of human odor or synthetic odor blends on the attraction of mosquitoes. MM-X traps baited with 16 odor blends to which carbon dioxide (CO2) was added were tested in four sets of experiments. In a second series of experiments, MM-X traps with 14 odor blends without CO2 were tested. A blend of ammonia and l-lactic acid with or without CO2 was used as control odor in series 1 and 2, respectively. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) traps were placed in a traditional house and an experimental house to monitor mosquito densities during the experiments. The MM-X traps caught a total number of 196,756 mosquitoes, with the most abundant species belonging to the genera Mansonia (70.6%), Anopheles (17.5%), and Culex (11.5%). The most abundant mosquito species caught by the CDC traps (56,290 in total) belonged to the genera Mansonia (59.4%), Anopheles (16.0% An. gambiae s.l. Giles, and 11.3% An. ziemanni Grünberg), and Culex (11.6%). MM-X traps baited with synthetic blends were in many cases more attractive than MM-X traps baited with human odors. Addition of CO2 to synthetic odors substantially increased the catch of all mosquito species in the MM-X traps. A blend of ammonia + L-lactic acid + CO2 + 3-methylbutanoic acid was the most attractive odor for most mosquito species. The candidate odor blend shows the potential to enhance trap collections so that traps will provide better surveillance and possible control. PMID:18047195

  5. Tempo-Spatial Dynamics of Adult Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Semiochemical-Baited Trap Captures in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cumplido, Johnattan; Leskey, Tracy C; Holdcraft, Robert; Zaman, Faruque U; Hahn, Noel G; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), has become an important pest of highbush blueberries in the northeastern United States. Here, we conducted experiments in 2010-2013 to compare the efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for C. nenuphar versus conventional (beating cloth) sampling methods in blueberries, and to understand the seasonal abundance and distribution of C. nenuphar adults within and among blueberry fields using these traps. Black pyramid traps baited with the C. nenuphar aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid and the fruit volatile benzaldehyde caught three to four times more adults than unbaited traps without causing an increase in injury to berries in neighboring bushes. Numbers of adult weevils caught in traps correlated with those on bushes (beating cloth samples), indicating that trap counts can predict C. nenuphar abundance in the field. Early in the season, traps placed 20 m from field edges near a forest caught higher C. nenuphar numbers than traps placed at farther distances, suggesting movement of overwintered weevils from outside fields. Using a trapping network across multiple fields in an organic farm, we found evidence of C. nenuphar aggregation in "hotspots"; early in the season, C. nenuphar numbers in traps were higher in the middle of fields, and there was a correlation between these numbers and distance from the forest in 2013 but not in 2012. These results show that semiochemical-baited traps are effective in capturing C. nenuphar adults in blueberries, and that these traps should be placed in the interior of fields preferably, but not exclusively, near wooded habitats to maximize their efficacy. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Host choice of Phlebotomus orientalis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in animal baited experiments: a field study in Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Kirstein, Oscar David; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-03-31

    Host choice and feeding success of sand fly vectors of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are important factors in understanding the epidemiology and for developing efficient control strategies. The aim of the present study was to determine the host preference of Phlebotomus orientalis in the VL focus of Tahtay Adiyabo district, northern Ethiopia. Two separate experiments were conducted testing attraction of P. orientalis to humans, domestic animals, and small wild animals. The host choice of P. orientalis and other sand fly species was assessed using tent traps baited with seven different animals (human, cow, sheep, goat, donkey, dog and chicken) and a blank control. Baited traps were rotated every night in a Latin square design for two consecutive full rounds totaling 16 trap-nights. The second set of experiments tested attraction to small wild animals including; ground squirrel (Xerus rutilus), hare (Lepus sp.), gerbil (Tatera robusta) and spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus). Animals were caged in standard rodent traps or cylindrical wire-mesh cages. The bait animals were placed in agricultural field and the attracted sand flies were collected using unlit CDC traps for 10 trapping nights. Sand fly specimens collected from each of the experiments were identified to species level and counted. Significant difference (P flies). The engorgement rate of P. orientalis on donkey was the highest followed by cow, and much lower on goat, sheep, dog and chicken. In the case of smaller wild animals, more numbers of P. orientalis females were attracted to squirrels followed by hares, gerbils and the spiny rat. However, the engorgement rates for P. orientalis in the smaller animals were very low (1.08%) compared with larger domestic animals (30.53%). The tendency of female P. orientalis to engorge in large numbers on certain species of domestic as well as wild animals strongly indicated that the species is primarily zoophilic in its host preference with feeding habits that may vary

  7. Combination of molluscicides with attractant carbohydrates and amino acids in bait formulation against the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Singh, V K; Singh, D K

    2011-05-01

    Fascioliasis is an important helminth disease caused by Fasciola (F.) hepatica and F gigantica of Asia and Africa. This disease belongs to the plant-borne trematode zoonoses. Human infection has been reported in 51 different countries from 5 continents. One of the possible approaches to control this problem is to interrupt the life cycle of the parasitic trematodes by eliminating the snail. Snails attractant pellets (SAP) were prepared from binary combination of carbohydrate + amino acid (20 mM) in 2% agar solution with active molluscicidal component Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol), Carum carvi (limonene). Attraction of snails to different combinations was studied by using clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Each aquarium was divided into four concentric zones; zone-3 (central zone), zone-2 and zone-1 (middie zone) and zone-0 (outer zone) had a diameter of 13, 18, 24, and 30 cm, respectively. The behavioral responses of snails to these binary combinations of carbohydrate and amino acid in bait formulation were examined. The fraction of snails that was in contact with the SAP at different times was used as a measure of attraction. Among all the binary combination of carbohydrate+amino acid+molluscicide after 2h of experiment, highest attraction of snail (54.71%) was observed towards the SAP containing starch+histidine+limolene. Limonene+ starch+histidine containing SAP emerged as the strongest bait formulation (96h LC50 0.74%) against Lymnaea acuminata. The present study suggested that the molluscicides of plant origin could be used with varying degrees of success in bait formulation.

  8. Deodorant spray: a newly identified cause of cold burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ulrich; Stirner, Karl-Heinz; Lauener, Roger; Ring, Johannes; Möhrenschlager, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    Two patients encountered a first-degree cold burn after use of a deodorant spray. The spray-nozzle to skin-surface distance was approximately 5 cm, and the spraying lasted approximately 15 seconds. Under laboratory conditions, the deodorant in use was able to induce a decline in temperature of >60 degrees C. These 2 cases highlight a little-known potential for skin damage by deodorant sprays if used improperly.

  9. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, D K

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone), Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol) and Carum carvi (limonene) on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM) in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50) doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene). These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  10. Bait formulations of molluscicides and their effects on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata (Mollusca; Gastropoda:Lymnaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sub-lethal feeding of bait formulations containing molluscicidal component of Ferula asafoetida (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, Syzygium aromaticum (eugenol and Carum carvi (limonene on biochemical changes in the ovotestis of snail Lymnaea acuminata were studied. Bait formulations feeding to L. acuminata were studied in clear glass aquaria having diameter of 30 cm. Baits were prepared from different binary combinations of attractant amino acid (valine, aspartic acid, lysine and alanine 10 mM in 100 mL of 2% agar solution + sub-lethal (20% and 60% of 24h LC50 doses of different molluscicides (ferulic acid, umbelliferone, eugenol and limonene. These baits caused maximum significant reduction in free amino acid, protein, DNA, RNA levels i.e. 41.37, 23.56, 48.36 and 14.29% of control in the ovotestis of the snail, respectively. Discontinuation of feeding after treatment of 60% of 96h LC50 of molluscicide containing bait for next 72h caused a significant recovery in free amino acid, protein, DNA and RNA levels in the ovotestis of L. acuminata.

  11. Field experiments of Anopheles gambiae attraction to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants in Mali to optimize strategies for malaria vector control in Africa using attractive toxic sugar bait methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter C; Beier, John C; Traore, Sekou F; Toure, Mahamoudou B; Traore, Mohamed M; Bah, Sekou; Doumbia, Seydou; Schlein, Yosef

    2010-09-20

    Based on recent studies in Israel demonstrating that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods can be used to decimate local anopheline and culicine mosquito populations, an important consideration is whether the same methods can be adapted and improved to attract and kill malaria vectors in Africa. The ATSB approach uses fruit or flower scent as an attractant, sugar solution as a feeding stimulant, and an oral toxin. The ATSB solutions are either sprayed on vegetation or suspended in simple bait stations, and the mosquitoes ingesting the toxic solutions are killed. As such, this approach targets sugar-feeding female and male mosquitoes. This study examines the attractiveness of African malaria vectors to local fruits/seedpods and flowering plants, key biological elements of the ATSB approach for mosquito control. Three field experiments were conducted at sites in Mali. The attraction of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to 26 different local fruits and seedpods was determined at a site in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali. Wire mesh glue traps with fruits/seedpods suspended on skewers inside were set along a seasonal lagoon. Seven replicates of each fruit/seedpod species were tested, with a water-soaked sponge and a sugar-soaked sponge as controls. The attraction of An. gambiae s.l. to 26 different types of flowering plants was determined at a site near Mopti in Mali. The flowering plants held in a water-filled buried container were tested using the same glue traps, with controls including water only and sugar solution. Six replicates of each selected plant type were tested on transects between rice paddies. Additional studies using CDC light traps were done to determine the relative densities and periodicity of An. gambiae s.l. attraction to branches of the most highly attractive flowering plant, branches without flowers, human odor, and candescent light. Of the 26 fruits and seedpods tested, 6 were attractive to An. gambiae s.l. females and males, respectively

  12. Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Structural, electrical and optical studies on spray-deposited ZnO. Table 1. Spray parameters for film deposition. Spray parameter. Value. Concentration of zinc acetate solution. 0.1 M. Nozzle–substrate ..... [13] F Paraguay, D M Miki-Yoshida, J Morales, J Solis and W Estrada, Thin Solid Films 373, 137. (2000). [14] B Baruwati ...

  13. A Grey-Box Model for Spray Drying Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Multi-stage spray drying is an important and widely used unit operation in the production of food powders. In this paper we develop and present a dynamic model of the complete drying process in a multi-stage spray dryer. The dryer is divided into three stages: The spray stage and two fluid bed...

  14. Assessing Fish and Motile Fauna around Offshore Windfarms Using Stereo Baited Video.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A Griffin

    Full Text Available There remains limited knowledge of how offshore windfarm developments influence fish assemblages, particularly at a local scale around the turbine structures. Considering the existing levels of anthropogenic pressures on coastal fish populations it is becoming increasingly important for developers and environmental regulators to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing fish assemblages. Improving our ability to assess such fish populations in close proximity to structures will assist in increasing this knowledge. In the present study we provide the first trial use of Baited Remote Underwater Stereo-Video systems (stereo BRUVs for the quantification of motile fauna in close proximity to offshore wind turbines. The study was conducted in the Irish Sea and finds the technique to be a viable means of assessing the motile fauna of such environments. The present study found a mixture of species including bottom dwellers, motile crustaceans and large predatory fish. The majority of taxa observed were found to be immature individuals with few adult individuals recorded. The most abundant species were the angular crab (Goneplax rhomboides and the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula. Of note in this study was the generally low abundance and diversity of taxa recorded across all samples, we hypothesise that this reflects the generally poor state of the local fauna of the Irish Sea. The faunal assemblages sampled in close proximity to turbines were observed to alter with increasing distance from the structure, species more characteristic of hard bottom environments were in abundance at the turbines (e.g. Homarus gammarus, Cancer pagarus, Scyliorhinus spp. and those further away more characteristic of soft bottoms (e.g. Norwegian Lobster. This study highlights the need for the environmental impacts of offshore renewables on motile fauna to be assessed using targeted and appropriate tools. Stereo BRUVs provide one of those

  15. Initial pen and field assessment of baits to use in oral rabies vaccination of Formosan ferret-badgers in response to the re-emergence of rabies in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M Wallace

    Full Text Available Taiwan had been considered rabies free since 1961, until a newly established wildlife disease surveillance program identified rabies virus transmission within the Formosan ferret-badger (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca in 2013. Ferret-badgers occur throughout southern China and Southeast Asia, but their ecological niche is not well described.As an initial feasibility assessment for potential rabies control measures, field camera trapping and pen assessment of 6 oral rabies vaccine (ORV baits were conducted in Taiwan in 2013. 46 camera nights were recorded; 6 Formosan ferret-badgers and 14 non-target mammals were sighted. No baits were consumed by ferret-badgers and 8 were consumed by non-target mammals. Penned ferret-badgers ingested 5 of the 18 offered baits. When pen and field trials were combined, and analyzed for palatability, ferret-badgers consumed 1 of 9 marshmallow baits (11.1%, 1 of 21 fishmeal baits (4.8%, 0 of 3 liver baits, and 3 of 3 fruit-flavored baits. It took an average of 261 minutes before ferret-badgers made oral contact with the non-fruit flavored baits, and 34 minutes for first contact with the fruit-based bait. Overall, ferret-badgers sought out the fruit baits 8 times faster, spent a greater proportion of time eating fruit baits, and were 7.5 times more likely to have ruptured the vaccine container of the fruit-based bait.Ferret-badgers are now recognized as rabies reservoir species in China and Taiwan, through two independent 'dog to ferret-badger' host-shift events. Species of ferret-badgers can be found throughout Indochina, where they may be an unrecognized rabies reservoir. Findings from this initial study underscore the need for further captive and field investigations of fruit-based attractants or baits developed for small meso-carnivores. Non-target mammals' competition for baits, ants, bait design, and dense tropical landscape represent potential challenges to effective ORV programs that will need to be

  16. Initial pen and field assessment of baits to use in oral rabies vaccination of Formosan ferret-badgers in response to the re-emergence of rabies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Lai, Yuching; Doty, Jeffrey B; Chen, Chen-Chih; Vora, Neil M; Blanton, Jesse D; Chang, Susan S; Cleaton, Julie M; Pei, Kurtis J C

    2018-01-01

    Taiwan had been considered rabies free since 1961, until a newly established wildlife disease surveillance program identified rabies virus transmission within the Formosan ferret-badger (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) in 2013. Ferret-badgers occur throughout southern China and Southeast Asia, but their ecological niche is not well described. As an initial feasibility assessment for potential rabies control measures, field camera trapping and pen assessment of 6 oral rabies vaccine (ORV) baits were conducted in Taiwan in 2013. 46 camera nights were recorded; 6 Formosan ferret-badgers and 14 non-target mammals were sighted. No baits were consumed by ferret-badgers and 8 were consumed by non-target mammals. Penned ferret-badgers ingested 5 of the 18 offered baits. When pen and field trials were combined, and analyzed for palatability, ferret-badgers consumed 1 of 9 marshmallow baits (11.1%), 1 of 21 fishmeal baits (4.8%), 0 of 3 liver baits, and 3 of 3 fruit-flavored baits. It took an average of 261 minutes before ferret-badgers made oral contact with the non-fruit flavored baits, and 34 minutes for first contact with the fruit-based bait. Overall, ferret-badgers sought out the fruit baits 8 times faster, spent a greater proportion of time eating fruit baits, and were 7.5 times more likely to have ruptured the vaccine container of the fruit-based bait. Ferret-badgers are now recognized as rabies reservoir species in China and Taiwan, through two independent 'dog to ferret-badger' host-shift events. Species of ferret-badgers can be found throughout Indochina, where they may be an unrecognized rabies reservoir. Findings from this initial study underscore the need for further captive and field investigations of fruit-based attractants or baits developed for small meso-carnivores. Non-target mammals' competition for baits, ants, bait design, and dense tropical landscape represent potential challenges to effective ORV programs that will need to be considered in future

  17. Copper-Tungsten Composites Sprayed by HVOF

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Zahálka, F.; Bensch, Jan; Chi, W.; Sedláček, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2008), s. 177-180 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermally sprayed coatings * tungsten * copper * HVOF Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2008 http://www.springerlink.com/content/120439/

  18. Commissioning of laser assisted cold spraying technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the potential of a newly designed, assembled and commissioned laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) technology at the National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa, to deposit Al-12wt%Si coatings on stainless steel substrate...

  19. The erosive potential of candy sprays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gambon, D.L.; Brand, H.S.; Nieuw Amerongen, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the erosive potential of seven different commercially available candy sprays in vitro and in vivo. Material and methods The erosive potential was determined in vitro by measuring the pH and neutralisable acidity. The salivary pH and flow rate were measured in healthy

  20. Plasma sprayed basalt/chromium oxide coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageorges, H.; Medarhri, Z.; Ctibor, Pavel; Fauchais, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2007), s. 71-82 ISSN 1093-3611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Chromia, basalt * plasma spraying * microstructure * phase analysis Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.268, year: 2007

  1. Dielectric properties of plasma sprayed silicates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Sedláček, J.; Neufuss, Karel; Dubský, Jiří; Chráska, Pavel

    -, č. 31 (2005), s. 315-321 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Optical microscopy * electrical properties * silicates * insulators * plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.702, year: 2005

  2. Plasma Sprayed Coatings for RF Wave Absorption

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nanobashvili, S.; Matějíček, Jiří; Žáček, František; Stöckel, Jan; Chráska, Pavel; Brožek, Vlastimil

    307-311, - (2002), s. 1334-1338 ISSN 0022-3115 Grant - others:COST(XE) Euratom DV4/04(TWO) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : boron carbide, thermal spray coatings, fusion materials, RF wave absorption Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2002

  3. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH MODIFICATIONS FOR RECIRCULATION VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The control of emissions from spray painting operations has historically been cost prohibitive, due to the high exhaust flow rates coupled with low volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) Concentrations. Past studies, conducted by the U.S. EPA and U.S. ...

  4. Remarks on the 'Spray-Paint' Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Okuno, Tadanori

    1991-01-01

    It is generally believed that the locative variant of the 'spray-paint' construction makesthe object NP partitive in a certain sense while the transposed one makes it holistic.Arguing that there are in fact many more factors operative, this paper attempts to get aclearer perspective on the issue.

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics of swirling spray flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presser, C.; Gupta, A.K.; Semerjian, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the effect of swirl on droplet transport processes is examined in a pressure-atomized, hollow-cone kerosene spray, introduced into coflowing nonswirling and swirling air flow fields. An ensemble light scattering technique, based on measurement of the polarization ratio, provided spatially resolved measurements on the local values of droplet mean size and number density in dense regions of the nonburning spray. Laser velocimetry was employed to measure the axial, radial, and tangential velocity components of the droplets and combustion air stream. Droplet velocity distributions and time histories provided information on the transport of individual droplets under nonburning and burning conditions. high-speed cinemathography, short-exposure photography, and video movies were also employed to observe the global features of the spray flame. The results reveal that the spray flame has a complex three-dimensional structure. The introduction of swirl to the combustion air modifies the droplet/air velocity field in addition to the spatial distribution of droplet size and number density

  6. Consolidation of tungsten disilicide by plasma spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožek, Vlastimil; Ctibor, Pavel; Matějíček, Jiří; Rohan, Pavel; Janča, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2007), s. 311-320 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/0540 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Water stabilized plasma * tungsten disilicide * plasma deposition * thermal spray coatings Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  7. Metallization of Various Polymers by Cold Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Hanqing; Chu, Xin; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Previous results have shown that metallic coatings can be successfully cold sprayed onto polymeric substrates. This paper studies the cold sprayability of various metal powders on different polymeric substrates. Five different substrates were used, including carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), polyethylenimine (PEI); mild steel was also used as a benchmark substrate. The CFRP used in this work has a thermosetting matrix, and the ABS, PEEK and PEI are all thermoplastic polymers, with different glass transition temperatures as well as a number of distinct mechanical properties. Three metal powders, tin, copper and iron, were cold sprayed with both a low-pressure system and a high-pressure system at various conditions. In general, cold spray on the thermoplastic polymers rendered more positive results than the thermosetting polymers, due to the local thermal softening mechanism in the thermoplastics. Thick copper coatings were successfully deposited on PEEK and PEI. Based on the results, a method is proposed to determine the feasibility and deposition window of cold spraying specific metal powder/polymeric substrate combinations.

  8. X-ray vision of fuel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    2005-01-01

    With brilliant synchrotron X-ray sources, microsecond time-resolved synchrotron X-ray radiography and tomography have been used to elucidate the detailed three-dimensional structure and dynamics of high-pressure high-speed fuel sprays in the near-nozzle region. The measurement allows quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in the optically impenetrable region owing to the multiple scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. X-radiographs of the jet-induced shock waves prove that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions and that the quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock waves can also be derived from the most direct measurement. In other situations where extremely axial-asymmetric sprays are encountered, mass deconvolution and cross-sectional fuel distribution models can be computed based on the monochromatic and time-resolved X-radiographic images collected from various rotational orientations of the sprays. Such quantitative analysis reveals the never-before-reported characteristics and most detailed near-nozzle mass distribution of highly transient fuel sprays

  9. Spray Forming Aluminum - Final Report (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. D. Leon

    1999-07-08

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Office of Industrial Technology (DOE) has an objective to increase energy efficient and enhance competitiveness of American metals industries. To support this objective, ALCOA Inc. entered into a cooperative program to develop spray forming technology for aluminum. This Phase II of the DOE Spray Forming Program would translate bench scale spray forming technology into a cost effective world class process for commercialization. Developments under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-94ID13238 occurred during two time periods due to budgetary constraints; April 1994 through September 1996 and October 1997 and December 1998. During these periods, ALCOA Inc developed a linear spray forming nozzle and specific support processes capable of scale-up for commercial production of aluminum sheet alloy products. Emphasis was given to alloys 3003 and 6111, both being commercially significant alloys used in the automotive industry. The report reviews research performed in the following areas: Nozzel Development, Fabrication, Deposition, Metal Characterization, Computer Simulation and Economics. With the formation of a Holding Company, all intellectual property developed in Phases I and II of the Project have been documented under separate cover for licensing to domestic producers.

  10. HVOF Combustion spraying of inconel powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacalle, D. J.; Ortiz, M. G.; Miller, C. S.; Steeper, T. J.; Rotolico, A. J.; Nerz, J.; Rlggs, W. L.

    1993-06-01

    A major trend in the thermal spray industry has been to increase the gas jet velocity to obtain better coating attributes. One emerging technology now used in industry is the high-velocity oxygen fuel process (HVOF). High-velocity spray guns combine oxygen and a fuel gas to generate heat and extremely high particle velocities. In this study, Inconel 718 powder was deposited on steel substrates. The primary coating function was electrical resistivity for a heater application. Experiments were conducted using a Taguchi L8 statistical fractional/factorial design parametric study. The Taguchi experiment evaluated the effect of six HVOF processing variables on the measured responses. The parameters were oxygen flow, fuel flow, air envelope gas flow, powder feed rate, spray distance, and nozzle configuration. The coatings were characterized by hardness tests, surface profilometry, optical metallography, and image analysis. This article investigates coating hardness, porosity, surface roughness, deposition efficiency, and microstructure with respect to the influence of the processing parameters. Analytical studies were conducted to investigate gas, particle, and coating dynamics for two of the HVOF thermal spray experiments.

  11. Computational Modeling of Turbulent Spray Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research presented in this thesis is development and validation of predictive models or modeling approaches of liquid fuel combustion (spray combustion) in hot-diluted environments, known as flameless combustion or MILD combustion. The goal is to combine good physical insight,

  12. Fullerene monolayer formation by spray coating

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červenka, Jiří; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2010), 065302/1-065302/7 ISSN 0957-4484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : monolayer * spray coating * fullerene * atomic force microscopy * scanning tunnelling microscopy * electronic structure * graphite * gold Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  13. Laser treatment of plasma sprayed HA coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khor, KA; Vreeling, A; Dong, ZL; Cheang, P

    1999-01-01

    Laser treatment was conducted on plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings using a Nd-YAG pulse laser. Various laser parameters were investigated. The results showed that the HA surface melted when an energy level of greater than or equal to 2 J and a spot size of 2 mm was employed during

  14. Aplicación de un cebo insecticida para el control de adultos de Tecia solanivora (Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae en papa Application of an insecticidal bait to control adults of Tecia solanivora (Povolny (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becerra Lenna

    2001-12-01

    porcentaje de mortalidad acumulado mayor (72,5% y un porcentaje de eficacia del producto de 69,4%, además se obtuvo un menor porcentaje de infestación del daño de los tubérculos (11,3%. No hubo diferencias significativas entre la aplicación por aspersión y en trampa.
    In order to measure the effect of the application of an
    insecticide bait with the help of a sugary substance to control
    adults of Tecia solanivora (Povolny (Lepidoptera:
    Gelechiidae, tests were carried out in laboratory and under
    greenhouse, at the Agronomy School at the National
    University of Colombia, in Bogotá. A breeding was managed
    in the Laboratory of Entomology to obtain the entomology
    material for the different tests. Four attractants were
    evaluated: Sugar, molasses, honey and panela (a kind of brown sugar. Honey resulted as the most attractive substance. Three insecticides (with and without honey as a bait were tested in the laboratory trial: Beta-cyfluthrin EC 0,25; Chlorpyrifos-Betacyfluthrin EC 450 and Chlorpyrifos-
    Betacyfluthrin EC 262,5, with two doses each: 0,5 cmvl, and
    1,0 cml/l.; with the best two insecticides (Chlorpyrifos-
    Betacyfluthrin EC 450 and Chlorpyrifos-Betacyfluthrin EC
    262,5 we did a greenhouse trial, caging four plants ofpotato,
    variety "parda pastusa", and placing 20 adults of T.
    solanivora (10 females and 10 males inside each cage. Two
    methods were used to apply the treatments: a spray to the
    inferior third of one of the four plants and a recipient trap
    containing the insecticide bait. The design was a completely
    randomized block (RCB with four replications. The variables
    evaluated were per cent mortality to calculate percent
    effectiveness with the Schneider-Orelli method, per cent
    incidence ofthe tubers and per cent infestation ofthe tubers.
    In the greenhouse experiment Chlorpyrifos-Betacyfluthrin EC
    450 (1 ,Ocm3/L with honey gave the highest per cent

  15. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  16. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Steven J.; Mal, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  17. Encountering a bait is necessary but insufficient to explain individual variability in vulnerability to angling in two freshwater benthivorous fish in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Christopher Thomas; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fish personality traits, such as swimming activity, or personality related emergent behavioural properties, such as the degree of space use shown by an individual fish, should affect encounter rates between individual fish and fishing gear. Increased encounters should in turn drive vulnerability to capture by passively operated gears. However, empirical evidence documenting a relationship between activity-based behaviours and vulnerability to capture by passive fishing gear in the wild is limited. Using whole-lake acoustic telemetry, we first documented significant repeatabilities over several months in a suite of encounter rate-associated behaviours (swimming distance, activity space size, time on baited feeding sites, switching frequency among baited feeding sites, distance to the lake bottom) in two recreationally important benthivorous cyprinid species, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and tench (Tinca tinca). We then experimentally targeted both species using stationary angling on baited feeding sites. Individual fish regularly visited the angling sites, documenting that the fishes encountered the angling baits. When attempting to explain individual variation in vulnerability as a function of repeatable behavioural traits, we found no evidence of a significant relationship among various encounter-based behaviours and vulnerability to angling for both species. There was also no evidence for size selection or for energetically less conditioned fish to be more vulnerable. The data cumulatively suggest that fine-scale behaviours after encountering a bait (e.g., frequency of bait intake) may be ultimately decisive for determining vulnerability to angling in benthivorous fish. Based on our work, fishing-induced selection on encounter-based behaviours in recreational angling for benthivorous fish in the wild appears unlikely. PMID:28301558

  18. Optimization of odour-baited resting boxes for sampling malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis Patton, in arid and highland areas of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweka Eliningaya J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Odour baited resting boxes are simple, reliable and important tools for sampling malaria vector mosquitoes in surveillance and control programmes in different parts of Africa. To optimize the use of cow urine baited resting boxes for sampling An. arabiensis, a community-based study was conducted in Mabogini hamlet in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme area. Method Experimental designs using 3 by 3 Latin square were conducted for twenty days to evaluate the following: i the effect of different parameters in the sampling of mosquitoes using odour baited resting boxes; ii the performance of odour baited traps under indoor and outdoor conditions and the effect of people sleeping indoors on mosquito density; iii the effect of position in the placement of traps on collection of mosquitoes; and, iv the efficiency of the trap outdoors at three different distances from the house wall. One extra house served as the sentinel house to monitor species abundance using a CDC-miniature light trap. Results 8581 mosquitoes were sampled by odour baited resting boxes of which, 8051 (93.82% were An. arabiensis and 530 (6.18% Cx. quinquefasciatus. The light trap collected 12,420 mosquitoes, of which 9442 (76.02% were An. arabiensis, 126 (1.01% An. funestus group, 230 (1.85% An. rufipes and 2622 (21.11% Cx. quinquefasciatus. The best height for outdoor mosquitoes sampling was 15 cm and 220 cm while indoors was 105 cm. The difference in mosquito collection between different outdoor and indoor heights was statistically significant (p Conclusions The results of these studies demonstrate an optimal method for sampling during surveillance and control programmes in rural villages of highlands and arid areas of Africa using inexpensive baits and boxes.

  19. Attraction of Tomicus yunnanensis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae to Yunnan Pine Logs with and without Periderm or Phloem: An Effective Monitoring Bait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Chun Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytinae is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (each 10–15 cm diam. × 30-cm long in a trap-log bundle were treated by peeling periderm (outer bark off to expose the phloem, and half of each log was covered with sticky adhesive to capture any attracted adult beetles. Significantly, more beetles were attracted and caught on the periderm-peeled logs (ca 30 beetles/m2 log surface/day than on untreated control logs with adhesive (ca 2.5/m2/day. No significant differences were observed between catches on logs taken from lower or upper halves of Yunnan pines. T. yunnanensis flies mostly during the afternoon according to trap catches throughout the day. Attraction to the periderm-peeled logs decreased considerably when they were peeled further to remove the phloem, indicating phloem volatiles play a role in selection of the host by the beetle. The readily-available log baits appear useful for monitoring pine shoot beetle populations in integrated pest management programs.

  20. Development of odour-baited flytraps for sampling the African latrine fly, Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of enteric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Thomas C; Jawara, Musa; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Pinder, Margaret; Lindsay, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    African pit latrines produce prodigious numbers of the latrine fly, Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of diarrhoeal pathogens. We set out to develop a simple, low-cost odour-baited trap for collecting C. putoria in the field. A series of field experiments was carried out in The Gambia to assess the catching-efficiency of different trap designs. The basic trap was a transparent 3L polypropylene box baited with 50 g of fish, with a white opaque lid with circular entrance holes. We tested variations of the number, diameter, position and shape of the entrance holes, the height of the trap above ground, degree of transparency of the box, its shape, volume, colour, and the attractiveness of gridded surfaces on or under the trap. Traps were rotated between positions on different sampling occasions using a Latin Square design. The optimal trapping features were incorporated into a final trap that was tested against commercially available traps. Features of the trap that increased the number of flies caught included: larger entrance holes (compared with smaller ones, pflies. The optimum trap design was a transparent box, with a white plastic lid on top, perforated with 10 conical entrance holes, placed on the ground. Our simple trap provides a cheap, low-maintenance and effective method of sampling C. putoria in the field.

  1. Development of an odour-baited insecticidal target system for the suppression of adults of the new world screwworm fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsopp, R.

    1992-02-01

    To provide a rapidly deployable supplemental means of effectively suppressing screwworms, the parameters needed to develop an odour-baited insecticidal target system were established. Electro-antennograph studies indicated the relative attractancy of swormlure component, identified candidate attractants and established that 4-methyl phenol and dimethyl sulphide more strongly attract male than female flies. Wind tunnel studies showed that the swormlure stimulates upwind flight and prolonged searching. By means of electric nets it was shown that screwworms fly directly to the target and land without circling. Black is the most effective colour for targets. The optimal size of the target was not identified, but those of 0.25 m 2 were found to be as effective as much larger ones. Targets are effective only when baited with swormlure. Excellent control of the rate of release of the attractant mixture was achieved by placing it in 120 micron thick polyethylene sachets with the exception that dimethyl disulphide must be dispensed separately form 1 mm thick polyethylene sachets. Of the insecticides tested when applied to black cloth targets, deltamethrin proved to be the most effective. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Consumption of baits containing raccoon pox-based plague vaccines protects black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Pussini, Nicola; Smith, Susan R; Williamson, Judy; Powell, Bradford; Osorio, Jorge E

    2010-01-01

    Baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expressing plague antigens (fraction 1 [F1] and a truncated form of the V protein-V307) were offered for voluntary consumption several times over the course of several months to a group of 16 black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). For comparison, another group of prairie dogs (n = 12) was injected subcutaneously (SC) (prime and boost) with 40 microg of F1-V fusion protein absorbed to alum, a vaccine-adjuvant combination demonstrated to elicit immunity to plague in mice and other mammals. Control animals received baits containing RCN without the inserted antigen (n = 8) or injected diluent (n = 7), and as there was no difference in their survival rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis, all of them were combined into one group in the final analysis. Mean antibody titers to Yersinia pestis F1 and V antigen increased (p plague vaccines provides significant protection against challenge at dosages that simulate simultaneous delivery of the plague bacterium by numerous flea bites.

  3. Diversity and composition of demersal fishes along a depth gradient assessed by baited remote underwater stereo-video.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Zintzen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Continental slopes are among the steepest environmental gradients on earth. However, they still lack finer quantification and characterisation of their faunal diversity patterns for many parts of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Changes in fish community structure and diversity along a depth gradient from 50 to 1200 m were studied from replicated stereo baited remote underwater video deployments within each of seven depth zones at three locations in north-eastern New Zealand. Strong, but gradual turnover in the identities of species and community structure was observed with increasing depth. Species richness peaked in shallow depths, followed by a decrease beyond 100 m to a stable average value from 700 to 1200 m. Evenness increased to 700 m depth, followed by a decrease to 1200 m. Average taxonomic distinctness △(+ response was unimodal with a peak at 300 m. The variation in taxonomic distinctness Λ(+ first decreased sharply from 50 to 300 m, then increased beyond 500 m depth, indicating that species from deep samples belonged to more distant taxonomic groups than those from shallow samples. Fishes with northern distributions progressively decreased in their proportional representation with depth whereas those with widespread distributions increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides the first characterization of diversity patterns for bait-attracted fish species on continental slopes in New Zealand and is an imperative primary step towards development of explanatory and predictive ecological models, as well as being fundamental for the implementation of efficient management and conservation strategies for fishery resources.

  4. Protection of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) against plague after voluntary consumption of baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencher, Jordan S; Smith, Susan R; Powell, Tim D; Stinchcomb, Dan T; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2004-09-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis and significant reservoirs of plague for humans in the western United States. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the F1 antigen of Y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to 18 black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption; 18 negative control animals received placebo baits. Antibody titers against Y. pestis F1 antigen increased significantly (P < 0.01) in vaccinees, and their survival was significantly higher upon challenge with Y. pestis than that of negative controls (P < 0.01).

  5. Comparison on Piston Bowl Shape Effect to Diesel Spray Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Sadikin, Azmahani Binti; Norrizam Mohmad Ja'at, Md; Khalid, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Piston bowl geometry plays an important role on the combustion characteristics of diesel engine. There are various design of piston bowl in which each utilize the shape geometry to obtaining the specific required combustion characteristics. This objective of this study is to compare the effect of certain piston bowl shapes, namely Toroidal and Flat Bottom to diesel spray development. Simulation were done using ANSYS FLUENT 16.1 software Computing Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The simulation was performed on different injection pressure of 40 MPa and 100 MPa, with the ambient temperature in the combustion chamber that holding the piston is at 500K and 900K. Results showed that if the pressure and ambient temperature increases, the spray body expand outward from the spray center axis with wider spray cone angle. In addition, the geometry shape of the piston bowl influences the spray velocity distribution and the spray propagation path, indirectly effect the spray area and mass fraction distribution.

  6. An experimental methodology to quantify the spray cooling event at intermittent spray impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Antonio L.N. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal)]. E-mail: moreira@dem.ist.utl.pt; Carvalho, Joao [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal); Panao, Miguel R.O. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Mechanical Engineering Department, Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, IN Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisbon Codex (Portugal)

    2007-04-15

    The present paper describes an experimental methodology devised to study spray cooling with multiple-intermittent sprays as those found in fuel injection systems of spark-ignition and diesel engines, or in dermatologic surgery applications. The spray characteristics and the surface thermal behaviour are measured by combining a two-component phase-Doppler anemometer with fast response surface thermocouples. The hardware allows simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and thermocouple signals which are processed in Matlab to estimate the time-varying heat flux and fluid-dynamic characteristics of the spray during impact. The time resolution of the acquisition system is limited by the data rate of validation of the phase-Doppler anemometer, but it has been shown to be accurate for the characterization of spray-cooling processes with short spurt durations for which the transient period of spray injection plays an important role. The measurements are processed in terms of the instantaneous heat fluxes, from which phase-average values of the boiling curves are obtained. Two of the characteristic parameters used in the thermal analysis of stationary spray cooling events, the critical heat flux (CHF) and Leidenfrost phenomenon, are then inferred in terms of operating conditions of the multiple-intermittent injections, such as the frequency, duration and pressure of injection. An integral method is suggested to describe the overall process of heat transfer, which accounts for the fluid-dynamic heterogeneities induced by multiple and successive droplet interactions within the area of spray impact. The method considers overall boiling curves dependant on the injection conditions and provides an empirical tool to characterize the heat transfer processes on the impact of multiple-intermittent sprays. The methodology is tested in a preliminary study of the effect of injection conditions on the heat removed by a fuel spray striking the back surface of the intake valve as in spark

  7. A simplified model of aerosol removal by containment sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Burson, S.B. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Safety Issue Resolution)

    1993-06-01

    Spray systems in nuclear reactor containments are described. The scrubbing of aerosols from containment atmospheres by spray droplets is discussed. Uncertainties are identified in the prediction of spray performance when the sprays are used as a means for decontaminating containment atmospheres. A mechanistic model based on current knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in spray performance is developed. With this model, a quantitative uncertainty analysis of spray performance is conducted using a Monte Carlo method to sample 20 uncertain quantities related to phenomena of spray droplet behavior as well as the initial and boundary conditions expected to be associated with severe reactor accidents. Results of the uncertainty analysis are used to construct simplified expressions for spray decontamination coefficients. Two variables that affect aerosol capture by water droplets are not treated as uncertain; they are (1) [open quote]Q[close quote], spray water flux into the containment, and (2) [open quote]H[close quote], the total fall distance of spray droplets. The choice of values of these variables is left to the user since they are plant and accident specific. Also, they can usually be ascertained with some degree of certainty. The spray decontamination coefficients are found to be sufficiently dependent on the extent of decontamination that the fraction of the initial aerosol remaining in the atmosphere, m[sub f], is explicitly treated in the simplified expressions. The simplified expressions for the spray decontamination coefficient are given. Parametric values for these expressions are found for median, 10 percentile, and 90 percentile values in the uncertainty distribution for the spray decontamination coefficient. Examples are given to illustrate the utility of the simplified expressions to predict spray decontamination of an aerosol-laden atmosphere.

  8. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  9. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K.; Hoffmann, W. Clint

    2016-01-01

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected. PMID:27684589

  10. Abyssopelagic fauna in the central North Pacific: comparison of acoustic detection and trawl and baited trap collections to 5800 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. L.; Kaufmann, R. S.; Edelman, J. L.; Baldwin, R. J.

    1992-04-01

    An integrated study using an acoustic array, opening-closing trawl and baited traps was conducted at an abyssal station in the central North Pacific (31°N, 159°W) to further characterize the near-bottom community. Two split-beam line arrays with beam patterns narrow in the vertical and omnidirectional in the horizontal were moored at 100 and 600 m above bottom (mab), sampling an insonified volume of 7855 m 3 each. In addition, a multiple opening-closing trawl (10 m 2 mouth opening) and baited traps were used to sample the fauna up to 1800 mab. Fourteen deployments of the acoustic arrays during two cruises detected 26 targets, with twice as many at 100 mab as at 600 mab (2.10 vs 0.97 targets h -1). Backscatter strengths for acoustic targets ranged from -57.2 to -26.8 dB. A total of 31 species, at least eight previously undescribed, were identified from trawl and trap collections within 1800 m of the sea floor. Of these new species, four of the decapod genus Hymenodora and one eel, Monognathus rosenblatti, were the most abundant animals collected by trawl. Other species commonly collected in baited traps included Acanthephyra quadrispinosa (Crustacea, Decapoda), Eurythenes gryllus (Crustacea, Amphipoda), and Coryphaenoides yaquinae (Osteichthyes, Macrouridae). Acoustic target abundances ranged from 0 to 1.6 animals per 10 5 m 3 per deployment, while values measured with the trawl ranged from 1.4 to 11.9 animals per 10 5 m 3. Biomass of the acoustic targets, estimated using a tentative identification based on size, and a series of regressions based on target strength and animal length and weight, ranged from 0 to 72.3 g wet weight per 10 5 m 3. Biomass estimates from the trawl samples ranged from 0.2 to 6.7 g wet weight per 10 5 m 3. The large number of new species collected during this study and the variability in sampling sparse populations using three different sampling techniques illustrate how little we know about the abyssopelagic community.

  11. Introducing a Regulatory Policy Framework of Bait Fishing in European Coastal Lagoons: The Case of Ria de Aveiro in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Xenarios

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The harvesting of bait through digging in coastal mudflats is practiced for recreational and commercial purposes in European coastal systems including the Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon on the northwest Atlantic coast of Portugal. The scale of harvesting in the Ria de Aveiro has recently increased due to the current economic climate in Portugal, with targeting of the polychaete, Diopatra neapolitana species or “casulo” as it is widely known in the Aveiro region. The national authorities have attempted to control casulo digging by issuing a regulation (Ordinance in 2014 on the maximum daily catch limit to be caught by each individual. The daily catch limit is intended to represent the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY for casulo beyond which overfishing will occur. The monitoring of the regulatory measures is expected to be conducted through on-site inspections in the digging areas. However, weak law enforcement was noticed, while there is also controversy over the daily catch limit (quota stipulated by the Ordinance. To this end, the current study attempted to assess digging activities through remote monitoring and random inspections for a better policy enforcement of the national regulation. In addition, different harvesting scenarios were employed through a simplified bioeconomic model to attribute the current and future harvesting trends of bait digging in Aveiro coastal lagoon. The study findings indicate that remote monitoring coupled with some onsite interviews could be a more effective approach for the implementation of the current bait digging policy. Further, the results point to a distinctive discrepancy between the daily catch amount (MSY introduced by the national legislation and the study findings which should be further scrutinized. The diggers seem to have reached the sustainable harvest identified by the present research. The current economic hardship in Portugal and the low profitability in similar employment sectors will

  12. Hair casts due to a deodorant spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ena, Pasquale; Mazzarello, Vittorio; Chiarolini, Fausto

    2005-11-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with itching and greyish-white sleeve-like structures in her hair. After ruling out other possible causes for the symptoms, such as nits and dandruff, it was determined that the patient was affected by hair casts. These are small cylindrical structures resembling louse eggs that encircle individual scalp hairs and are easily movable along the hair shafts. It was concluded that she had induced the condition through misuse of a deodorant body spray. Scanning electron microscopy combined with electron dispersive X-ray analysis (X-ray microanalysis) of the hair casts showed the chemical nature of the structures. Some elements present in the composition of the ingredients of the deodorant spray, such as aluminium, chlorine, silicon, magnesium and carbon, were also present in this uncommon type of hair casts.

  13. Development of process data capturing, analysis and controlling for thermal spray techniques - SprayTracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, C.; Marke, S.; Trommler, U.; Rupprecht, C.; Weis, S.

    2017-03-01

    Thermal spraying processes are becoming increasingly important in high-technology areas, such as automotive engineering and medical technology. The method offers the advantage of a local layer application with different materials and high deposition rates. Challenges in the application of thermal spraying result from the complex interaction of different influencing variables, which can be attributed to the properties of different materials, operating equipment supply, electrical parameters, flow mechanics, plasma physics and automation. In addition, spraying systems are subject to constant wear. Due to the process specification and the high demands on the produced coatings, innovative quality assurance tools are necessary. A central aspect, which has not yet been considered, is the data management in relation to the present measured variables, in particular the spraying system, the handling system, working safety devices and additional measuring sensors. Both the recording of all process-characterizing variables, their linking and evaluation as well as the use of the data for the active process control presuppose a novel, innovative control system (hardware and software) that was to be developed within the scope of the research project. In addition, new measurement methods and sensors are to be developed and qualified in order to improve the process reliability of thermal spraying.

  14. Gas entrainment by one single French PWR spray, SARNET-2 spray benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.; Mimouni, S.; Manzini, G.; Xiao, J.; Vyskocil, L.; Siccama, N.B.; Huhtanen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project. • It concerns momentum transfer between a PWR spray and the surrounding gas. • The entrained gas velocities can vary up to 100% from one code to another. • Simplified boundary conditions for sprays are generally used by the code users. • It is shown how these simplified conditions impact the gas entrainment. - Abstract: This paper presents a benchmark performed in the frame of the SARNET-2 EU project, dealing with momentum transfer between a real-scale PWR spray and the surrounding gas. It presents a description of the IRSN tests on the CALIST facility, the participating codes (8 contributions), code-experiment and code-to-code comparisons. It is found that droplet velocities are almost well calculated one meter below the spray nozzle, even if the spread of the spray is not recovered and the values of the entrained gas velocity vary up to 100% from one code to another. Concerning sensitivity analysis, several ‘simplifications’ have been made by the contributors, especially based on the boundary conditions applied at the location where droplets are injected. It is shown here that such simplifications influence droplet and entrained gas characteristics. The next step will be to translate these conclusions in terms of variables representative of interesting parameters for nuclear safety

  15. Assessment of the Toxicity of Sub-chronic Low and High Doses of the Bio-insecticide Spinosad on the Liver, Kidney and the Cerebellum in Male Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A El-Naggar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Spinosad (SPD is a highly selective insect control product. However, it was reported that SPD has toxicity toward other non-target organisms. This study was conducted to address the toxic effect of two sub-chronic low and high doses; 35 and 350 mg/kg SPD on some biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical parameters of the liver, kidney and cerebellum. Thirty-six male Swiss mice were divided into three groups of 12 mice each; first group (G1 served as a control, second group (G2 received a low sub-chronic dose of SPD that is equal to 35 mg/kg, and third group (G3 received a high sub-chronic dose of SPD that is equal to 350 mg/kg. The results showed that mice which were received 350 mg/kg SPD showed a significant decrease in the body weight and a significant increase in their relative kidney and spleen weights. They also showed a significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT, triglycerides and urea levels. Histopathological examination showed cytoplasmic degeneration and cell necrosis in the liver and kidney. Immunohistochemical examination showed that cerebellum illustrated several neurodegenerative changes and a down-regulation of synaptophysin-Syp. In conclusion, exposure to a high dose of SPD that is equal to 350 mg/kg could cause a marked toxicity on the liver, kidney and cerebellum in male albino mice.

  16. Advanced Diagnostics for High Pressure Spray Combustion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skeen, Scott A.; Manin, Julien Luc; Pickett, Lyle M.

    2014-06-01

    The development of accurate predictive engine simulations requires experimental data to both inform and validate the models, but very limited information is presently available about the chemical structure of high pressure spray flames under engine- relevant conditions. Probing such flames for chemical information using non- intrusive optical methods or intrusive sampling techniques, however, is challenging because of the physical and optical harshness of the environment. This work details two new diagnostics that have been developed and deployed to obtain quantitative species concentrations and soot volume fractions from a high-pressure combusting spray. A high-speed, high-pressure sampling system was developed to extract gaseous species (including soot precursor species) from within the flame for offline analysis by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A high-speed multi-wavelength optical extinction diagnostic was also developed to quantify transient and quasi-steady soot processes. High-pressure sampling and offline characterization of gas-phase species formed following the pre-burn event was accomplished as well as characterization of gas-phase species present in the lift-off region of a high-pressure n-dodecane spray flame. For the initial samples discussed in this work several species were identified, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); however, quantitative mole fractions were not determined. Nevertheless, the diagnostic developed here does have this capability. Quantitative, time-resolved measurements of soot extinction were also accomplished and the novel use of multiple incident wavelengths proved valuable toward characterizing changes in soot optical properties within different regions of the spray flame.

  17. Plasma spraying of cerium-doped YAG

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Kubát, J.; Pala, Zdeněk; Nevrlá, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 19 (2014), s. 2344-2351 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma spraying * water-stabilized plasma Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.647, year: 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.251

  18. Characteristics of wetting temperature during spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, Yuichi; Monde, Masanori; Hidaka, Shinichirou

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been done to elucidate the effects of mass flux and subcooling of liquid and thermal properties of solid on the wetting temperature during cooling of a hot block with spray. A water spray was impinged at one of the end surfaces of a cylindrical block initially heated at 400 or 500degC. The experimental condition was mass fluxes G=1-9 kg/m 2 s and degrees of subcooling ΔT sub =20, 50, 80 K. Three blocks of copper, brass and carbon steel were prepared. During spray cooling internal block temperature distribution and sputtering sound pressure level were recorded and the surface temperature and heat flux were evaluated with 2D inverse heat conducting analysis. Cooling process on cooling curves is divided into four regimes categorized by change in a flow situation and the sound level. The wetting temperature defined as the wall temperature at a minimum heat flux point was measured over an extensive experimental range. The wetting wall temperature was correlated well with the parameter of GΔT sub . The wetting wall temperature increases as GΔT sub increases and reaches a constant value depending on the material of the surface at higher region of GΔT sub . (author)

  19. Evaluation of rodent bait containing imidacloprid for the control of fleas on commensal rodents in a plague-endemic region of northwest Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchert, Jeff N; Enscore, Russell E; Eisen, Rebecca J; Atiku, Linda A; Owor, Nicholas; Acayo, Sarah; Babi, Nackson; Montenieri, John A; Gage, Kenneth L

    2010-09-01

    In recent decades, the majority of human plague cases (caused by Yersinia pestis) have been reported from Africa. In an effort to reduce the risk of the disease in this area, we evaluated the efficacy of a host-targeted rodent bait containing the insecticide imidacloprid for controlling fleas on house-dwelling commensal rodents in a plague-endemic region of northwestern Uganda. Results demonstrated that the use of a palatable, rodent-targeted, wax-based bait cube was effective at reducing the prevalence of fleas on commensal rodents and flea burdens on these animals at day 7 postbait exposure, but lacked significant residual activity, allowing flea populations to rebound in the absence of additional bait applications. Our results indicate the use of a palatable host-targeted bait block containing imidacloprid was an effective technique for quickly reducing flea numbers on rodents in northwest Uganda and, thus, could be useful for lowering the potential risk of human flea bite exposures during plague outbreaks if applied continuously during the period of risk.

  20. Diurnal flight response of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, to pheromone-baited traps in two northern California walnut habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven J. Seybold; Jennifer A. King; Daren R. Harris; Lori J. Nelson; Shakeeb M. Hamud; Yigen. Chen

    2012-01-01

    The diurnal flight response of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was assessed during two seasonal periods at two sites in northern California. Males and females flew primarily at dusk in response to aggregation pheromone-baited traps during late June/early July, and the percentage of beetles that...

  1. The response of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)to traps baited with carbon dioxide, 1-octen-3-ol, acetone, butyric acid and human foot odour in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboera, L.E.G.; Takken, W.; Sambu, E.Z.

    2000-01-01

    The responses of Culex quinquefasciatus Say to traps baited with carbon dioxide, 1-octen-3-ol, acetone, butyric acid and human foot odour were studied in the field in Muheza, north-east Tanzania using Counterflow Geometry (CFG) and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) traps. It was found that

  2. Trapping Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) with pheromone baited multiple-funnel traps does not reduce Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Progar; N. Sturdevant; M.J. Rinella

    2010-01-01

    Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) (DFB) causes considerable mortality to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western North American forests. We evaluated the use of semiochemical-baited multiple-funnel traps for the protection of small, high-value stands of trees, such as those occurring...

  3. Capture of melon flies, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), in a food-baited Multilure trap: influence of distance, diet, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many countries operate trapping programs to detect invasions of pestiferous fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Surveillance relies heavily on traps baited with male lures, which, while powerful, have limited effectiveness, because (i) they are sex-specific and (ii) males of some species do no...

  4. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of Disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick C. Tobin; Aijun Zhang; Ksenia Onufrieva; Donna Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate...

  5. A combination of baiting and different PCR formats, including measurement of real-time quantitative fluorescence, for the detection of Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.J.M.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Hooftman, R.; Cooke, D.E.L.; Guy, D.C.; Duncan, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae, the cause of strawberry red stele disease, is a quarantine pathogen in Europe. Detecting low levels of infection requires sensitive and specific methods. In the past, Dutch and English inspection services have used bait plants to test strawberry propagation stocks destined

  6. Attractive toxic sugar baits: Control of mosquitoes with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on non-target organisms in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the efficacy of ATSB in the laboratory and the field with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. Assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes a...

  7. Fauna and stratification of male orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) and their preference for odor baits in a forest fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M G; de Pinho, O C; Balestieri, J B P; Faccenda, O

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of the population fluctuation of euglossine species, as well as their preferences for scent baits (cineole, eugenol, vanillin and methyl salicylate) in two forest strata (canopy and understory) at the Reserva Florestal do Azulão, a forest fragment located in the municipality of Dourados, MS, Brazil (22°12'S, 54°55'W). We collected a total of 529 males from four genera and eight species. Diversity and equitability for both strata (understory: H' = 1.195 and J' = 0.6139; canopy: H' = 1.193 and J' = 0.6131) did not show a significant difference and a high similarity index was found (P = 87.5%). On the other hand, abundance was substantially higher in the canopy (n = 358) than in the understory (n = 171). From the scents used, eugenol attracted a larger number of individuals (n = 225), but cineole and vanillin attracted a higher number of species.

  8. Automated Plasma Spray (APS) process feasibility study: Plasma spray process development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetheroff, C. W.; Derkacs, T.; Matay, I. M.

    1979-01-01

    An automated plasma spray (APS) process was developed to apply two layer (NiCrAlY and ZrO2-12Y2O3) thermal-barrier coatings to aircraft gas turbine engine blade airfoils. The APS process hardware consists of four subsystems: a mechanical blade positioner incorporating two interlaced six-degree-of-freedom assemblies; a noncoherent optical metrology subsystem; a microprocessor-based adaptive system controller; and commercial plasma spray equipment. Over fifty JT9D first stage turbine blades specimens were coated with the APS process in preliminary checkout and evaluation studies. The best of the preliminary specimens achieved an overall coating thickness uniformity of + or - 53 micrometers, much better than is achievable manually. Factors limiting this performance were identified and process modifications were initiated accordingly. Comparative evaluations of coating thickness uniformity for manually sprayed and APS coated specimens were initiated. One of the preliminary evaluation specimens was subjected to a torch test and metallographic evaluation.

  9. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.

    2018-02-06

    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  10. Monitoring Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) with baited bottom board traps: occurrence and seasonal abundance in honey bee colonies in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Fombong, Ayuka T; Arbogast, Richard T; Teal, Peter E A

    2010-12-01

    The population dynamics of the honey bee pest Aethina tumida Murray (small hive beetle) have been studied in the United States with flight and Langstroth hive bottom board traps baited with pollen dough inoculated with a yeast Kodamaea ohmeri associated with the beetle. However, little is known about the population dynamics of the beetle in its native host range. Similarly baited Langstroth hive bottom board traps were used to monitor the occurrence and seasonal abundance of the beetle in honey bee colonies at two beekeeping locations in Kenya. Trap captures indicated that the beetle was present in honey bee colonies in low numbers all year round, but it was most abundant during the rainy season, with over 80% trapped during this period. The survival of larvae was tested in field releases under dry and wet soil conditions, and predators of larvae were identified. The actvity and survival of the beetle were strongly influenced by a combination of abiotic and biotic factors. Larval survival was higher during wet (28%) than dry (1.1%) conditions, with pupation occurring mostly at 0-15 cm and 11-20 cm, respectively, beneath the surface soil during these periods. The ant Pheidole megacephala was identified as a key predator of larvae at this site, and more active during the dry than wet seasons. These observations imply that intensive trapping during the rainy season could reduce the population of beetles infesting hives in subsequent seasons especially in places where the beetle is a serious pest. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  11. Development of odour-baited flytraps for sampling the African latrine fly, Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of enteric diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Lindsay

    Full Text Available African pit latrines produce prodigious numbers of the latrine fly, Chrysomya putoria, a putative vector of diarrhoeal pathogens. We set out to develop a simple, low-cost odour-baited trap for collecting C. putoria in the field. A series of field experiments was carried out in The Gambia to assess the catching-efficiency of different trap designs. The basic trap was a transparent 3L polypropylene box baited with 50 g of fish, with a white opaque lid with circular entrance holes. We tested variations of the number, diameter, position and shape of the entrance holes, the height of the trap above ground, degree of transparency of the box, its shape, volume, colour, and the attractiveness of gridded surfaces on or under the trap. Traps were rotated between positions on different sampling occasions using a Latin Square design. The optimal trapping features were incorporated into a final trap that was tested against commercially available traps. Features of the trap that increased the number of flies caught included: larger entrance holes (compared with smaller ones, p<0.001, using conical collars inside the holes (compared with without collars, p = 0.01, entrance holes on the top of the trap (compared with the side or bottom, p<0.001, traps placed on the ground (compared with above ground, p<0.001, the box having transparent sides (compared with being opaque, p<0.001, and with no wire grids nearby (compared with those with grids, p = 0.03. This trap collected similar numbers of C. putoria to other common traps for blow flies. The optimum trap design was a transparent box, with a white plastic lid on top, perforated with 10 conical entrance holes, placed on the ground. Our simple trap provides a cheap, low-maintenance and effective method of sampling C. putoria in the field.

  12. Detection and quantification of Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea in bait plants and potato fields in Colombia using QPCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Bastidas, Nevar; Morales, Juan Gonzalo; Gonzalez Jaimes, Paola; Gutierrez, Pablo Andres; Marin Montoya, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, potato crops (Solanum tuberosum, S. phureja) have been seriously affected by powdery scab; a disease caused by Spongospora subterranea f.sp. subterranea (Sss). In Colombia, asymptomatic detection of Sss has been achieved with bait plants, PCR of its regions and ELISA tests. Unfortunately, these techniques have low sensitivity and may require long processing times. In this work, quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was tested for detection of Sss using different sets of primers. Primers SsTQF1-SsTQR1, Spon421F-Spon494R and SscolF-SscolR (designed in this study), were tested using SYBR green, while primers sponfsponr were tested using the Taqman probe sponp. Primers Spon421F-Spon494R was discarded due to lack of specificity. Standard curves were obtained from serial dilutions of Cystosori. the 20 N. benthamiana and potato bait plants evaluated tested positive for Sss using primers SsTQF1-SsTQR1 (Ct: 10.57-29.34) and Sscolf-SscolR (Ct: 14.39-34.08) and 19 samples were positive with primers SponF-SponR-SponP, with Ct values ranging between 15,63 and 38,93. Sss was detected in 17 out of 20 root samples from potato crops in la Union (Antioquia) using primers SscolF-SscolRt with an estimated concentration of 6470 to 1,39x10 1 0 cystosori/ mL. these results suggest high levels of sss in the potato fields from this region and recall the importance of strengthening seed-certification programs in Colombia.

  13. Manuka oil and phoebe oil are attractive baits for Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), the vector of laurel wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian

    2008-12-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a native of Southeast Asia recently established in coastal forests of Georgia, SC and Florida. It vectors a wilt fungus, Raffaelea sp., lethal to redbay trees, Persea borbonia L. Spreng, and certain other Lauraceae. No practical monitoring system exists for this beetle so we conducted studies to identify host attractants and develop lures. Volatiles were collected from redbay wood and bark by steam distillation, direct solvent extraction, and dynamic headspace sampling with a Poropak Q cartridge. Steam, methanol, and pentane extracts were tested as baits in trapping trials but were not attractive to X. glabratus. Major constituents in Poropak aerations identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, delta-3-carene, eucalyptol, p-cymene, alpha-copaene, terpinene-4-ol, linalool, calamenene, and nonanoic acid. We assayed several of these compounds (including eucalyptol, p-cymene, terpinene-4-ol, linalool, nonanoic acid, and caryophyllene oxide) both individually and in combination, but none were attractive at tested doses. Two other redbay odor components, alpha-copaene and calamenene, were unavailable in sufficient quantities commercially so we substituted manuka oil, the essential oil extracted from Leptospermum scoparium Forst. and Forst., which contains high proportions of both compounds. Manuka oil was equally attractive as redbay wood to X. glabratus, but increasing release rates >10-fold did not enhance its activity. Phoebe oil, an extract of Brazilian walnut (Phoebe porosa Mez.), which contains significant quantities of alpha-copaene and calamenene, was also attractive. Fractions of manuka oil were not more attractive than the whole oil. Manuka and phoebe oil are readily available and are good alternatives to redbay wood as a trap bait for monitoring X. glabratus distribution and population trends.

  14. Evaluation of Semiochemical-Baited Traps for Monitoring the Pea Leaf Weevil, Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Field Pea Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Onge, Amanda; Cárcamo, Héctor A; Evenden, Maya L

    2018-02-08

    The pea leaf weevil (PLW), Sitona lineatus L., is a pest of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) that recently invaded the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Although most damage is done by larvae that feed on root nodules, adults are easier to monitor than larvae. Both male and female weevils respond to a male-produced aggregation pheromone and to volatiles released by host plants. The current study tests the attractiveness of synthetic aggregation pheromone, 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione, and host plant volatiles linalool, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate to PLWs in spring when weevils are reproductively active and in fall when weevils seek overwintering sites. Different combinations of semiochemical lures at various doses, released from a variety of devices were tested in pitfall traps. Semiochemical-baited traps captured both male and female weevils in both seasons but the sex ratio varied with season. Weevils did not respond in a dose-dependent manner to pheromone, as all pheromone lures were equally attractive. Pheromone release rate was determined by the release device and not the pheromone dose in the lure. The addition of plant volatiles sometimes increased weevil captures but plant volatiles alone were not attractive to PLW adults. An additional study tested the effect of trap type on weevil capture. Of the 12 different trap types tested, pheromone-baited pitfall traps were most successful in attracting and retaining weevils. Bycatch of other Sitona species was limited to a few specimens of the sweet clover weevil, Sitona cylindricollis Fahraeus. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Large volume water sprays for dispersing warm fogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, V. W.; Anderson, B. J.; Burns, R. A.; Lala, G. G.; Meyer, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    A new method for dispersing of warm fogs which impede visibility and alter schedules is described. The method uses large volume recycled water sprays to create curtains of falling drops through which the fog is processed by the ambient wind and spray-induced air flow; the fog droplets are removed by coalescence/rainout. The efficiency of this fog droplet removal process depends on the size spectra of the spray drops and optimum spray drop size is calculated as between 0.3-1.0 mm in diameter. Water spray tests were conducted in order to determine the drop size spectra and temperature response of sprays produced by commercially available fire-fighting nozzles, and nozzle array tests were utilized to study air flow patterns and the thermal properties of the overall system. The initial test data reveal that the fog-dispersal procedure is effective.

  16. Development of cold sprayed Cu coating for canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Jun; Kang, Yoon Ha

    2010-01-01

    Cold sprayed Cu deposition was studied for the application of outer part of canister for high level nuclear waste. Five commercially available pure Cu powders were analyzed and sprayed by high pressure cold spray system. Electrochemical corrosion test using potentiostat in 3.5% NaCl solution was conducted as well as microstructural analysis including hardness and oxygen content measurements. Overall evaluation of corrosion performance of cold sprayed Cu deposition is inferior to forged and extruded Cu plates, but some of Cu depositions are comparable to Cu plates. The simulated corrosion test in 200m underground cave is still in progress. The effect of cold spray process parameters was also studied and the results show that the type of nozzle is the most important other than powder feed rate, spray distance, and scan speed. 1/10 scale miniature of canister was manufactured confirming that the production of full scale canister is possible

  17. Material design of ceramic coating by plasma spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamichi, M.; Kawamura, H.; Takabatake, T.

    1998-01-01

    In the ceramic coating on substrate, cracking and peeling occur due to the difference of thermal expansion between substrate material and coating material. For evaluation of peeling property of plasma sprayed coating, it is demanded that thermal properties of plasma sprayed coating are estimated in detail. In this study, the results of comparison of thermal properties between bulk material and plasma sprayed material are investigated to design the ceramic coating quantitatively. Thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed MgO.Al 2 O 3 is decreased by approximately 50% to that of sintered MgO.Al 2 O 3 . Thermal conductivity of plasma sprayed 410SS agreed well with the calculation results of relation between porosity and thermal conductivity of iron sintered material. Thermal expansions of atmospheric plasma sprayed MgO.Al 2 O 3 and bulk 410SS, respectively. Therefore, as to material design on ceramic coating, it was made clear that thermal conductivity is more important than thermal expansion. (orig.)

  18. Comparative efficacy of steroid nasal spray versus antihistamine nasal spray in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anand; Das, Balabhadra Prasad; Mishra, Subhash Chandra

    2007-03-01

    This prospective randomized case controlled study was conducted to determine the efficacy of antihistamine (azelastine) nasal spray and compare it to steroid (beclomethasone) nasal spray on the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Seventy five symptomatic patients of allergic rhinitis were included in this study. Diagnosis was made on the basis of history and physical examination. The patients were divided into three groups randomly. Group A was treated with Azelastine nasal spray, Group B was treated with Beclomethasone nasal spray and Group C was control group and only treated with steam inhalation. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed in the terms of Total Rhinitis Symptom Complex (TSC) scores and individual symptom score which was calculated on the basis of Okuda's grading system. Base line total symptom complex (TSC) scores were reduced in group A and group B by 84.0% after 4 week treatment whereas in group C it was reduced by only 38.0%. Decrease in mean score for sneezing was 95.0% in group A and group B whereas it was only 28.3% in group C. Similarly decrease in mean score for rhinorrhoea in azelastine group was 94.4% and in beclomethasone group was 95.3% in comparison to steam inhalation group where it was 25.0%. Only the beclomethasone reduced nasal stuffiness score significantly by 95.0%. No significant adverse effects of the drugs were observed. The present study establishes the relative efficacy and tolerability ofazelastine nasal spray as compared to beclomethasone nasal spray in symptomatic patients of allergic rhinitis.

  19. User friendliness, efficiency & spray quality of stirrup pumps versus hand compression pumps for indoor residual spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kesari, Shreekant; Chowdhury, Rajib; Kumar, Sanjiv; Sinha, Gunjan; Hussain, Saddam; Huda, M Mamun; Kroeger, Axel; Das, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a proven tool to reduce visceral leishmaniasis vectors in endemic villages. In India IRS is being done with stirrup pumps, whereas Nepal, Bangladesh, and other countries use compression pumps. The present study was conducted with the objectives to compare the efficiency, cost and user friendliness of stirrup and compression pumps. The study was carried out in Gorigawan village of the Vaishali district in north Bihar and included a total population of 3259 inhabitants in 605 households. Spraying with 50 per cent DDT was done by two teams with 6 persons per team under the supervision of investigators over 5 days with each type of pump (10 days in total using 2 stirrup pumps and 3 compression pumps) by the same sprayers in an alternate way. The spraying technique was observed using an observation check list, the number of houses and room surfaces sprayed was recorded and an interview with sprayers on their satisfaction with the two types of pumps was conducted. On average, 65 houses were covered per day with the compression pump and 56 houses were covered with the stirrup pump. The surface area sprayed per squad per day was higher for the compression pump (4636 m²) than for the stirrup pump (4102 m²). Observation showed that it was easy to maintain the spray swath with the compression pump but very difficult with the stirrup pump. The wastage of insecticide suspension was negligible for the compression pump but high for the stirrup pump. The compression pump was found to be more user friendly due to its lower weight, easier to operate, lower operation cost, higher safety and better efficiency in terms of discharge rate and higher area coverage than the stirrup pump.

  20. Forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae mate-finding behavior is greatest at intermediate population densities: Implications for interpretation of moth capture in pheromone-baited traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya L. Evenden

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae is a native forest defoliator with a broad geographic range in North America. Forest tent caterpillars experience cyclical population changes and at high densities, repeated defoliation can cause reduced tree growth and tree mortality. Pheromone-based monitoring of forest tent caterpillar moths can provide information on spatial and temporal patterns of incipient outbreaks. Pheromone-baited trap capture of male moths correlates to the number of eggs and pupae in a population but this relationship breaks down at high population densities, when moth trap capture declines. The objective of the current study is to understand the mechanisms that reduce trap capture at high population densities. We tested two different hypotheses: 1 at high population densities, male moth orientation to pheromone sources is reduced due to competition for pheromone plumes; and 2 moths from high density populations will be in poor condition and less likely to conduct mate-finding behaviors than moths from low density populations. A field study showed non-linear effects of density on male moth capture in female-baited traps. The number of males captured increased up to an intermediate density level and declined at the highest densities. Field cage studies showed that female moth density affected male moth orientation to female-baited traps, as more males were recaptured at low than high female densities. There was no effect of male density on the proportion of males that oriented to female-baited traps. Moth condition was manipulated by varying larval food quantity. Although feeding regimes affected the moth condition (size, there was no evidence of an effect of condition on mate finding or close range mating behavior. In the field, it is likely that competition for pheromone plumes at high female densities during population outbreaks reduces the efficacy of pheromone-baited monitoring

  1. COUPLED ATOMIZATION AND SPRAY MODELLING IN THE SPRAY FORMING PROCESS USING OPENFOAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, Rasmus; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Fritsching, Udo

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the atomization, break-up and in-flight spray phenomena in the spray forming process. The model is developed and implemented in the freeware code openFOAM. The focus is on studying the coupling effect of the melt break-up phenomena...... with the local gas and droplets flow fields. The work is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description, which is implemented in a full 3D representation. The gas is described by the incompressible RANS equations, whereas the movement of the droplets is modeled by a tracking approach, together with a full thermal...

  2. High mass throughput particle generation using multiple nozzle spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, David Y.H.; Chen, Da-Ren

    2004-07-20

    Spraying apparatus and methods that employ multiple nozzle structures for producing multiple sprays of particles, e.g., nanoparticles, for various applications, e.g., pharmaceuticals, are provided. For example, an electrospray dispensing device may include a plurality of nozzle structures, wherein each nozzle structure is separated from adjacent nozzle structures by an internozzle distance. Sprays of particles are established from the nozzle structures by creating a nonuniform electrical field between the nozzle structures and an electrode electrically isolated therefrom.

  3. Efficient spray-coated colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.

    2014-11-10

    (Figure Presented). A colloidal quantum dot solar cell is fabricated by spray-coating under ambient conditions. By developing a room-temperature spray-coating technique and implementing a fully automated process with near monolayer control - an approach termed as sprayLD - an electronic defect is eliminated resulting in solar cell performance and statistical distribution superior to prior batch-processed methods along with a hero performance of 8.1%.

  4. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  5. Motion planning for robotic spray cleaning with environmentally safe solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong K.; Meirans, L.; Drotning, W.D.

    1993-09-01

    Automatic motion planning of a spray cleaning robot with collision avoidance is presented in this paper. In manufacturing environments, electronic and mechanical components are traditionally cleaned by spraying or dipping them using chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents. As new scientific data show that such solvents are major causes for stratospheric ozone depletion, an alternate cleaning method is needed. Part cleaning with aqueous solvents is environmentally safe, but can require precision spraying at high pressures for extended time periods. Operator fatigue during manual spraying can decrease the quality of the cleaning process. By spraying with a robotic manipulator, the necessary spray accuracy and consistency to manufacture highreliability components can be obtained. Our motion planner was developed to automatically generate motions for spraying robots based on the part geometry and cleaning process parameters. For spraying paint and other coatings a geometric description of the parts and robot may be sufficient for motion planning, since coatings are usually done over the visible surfaces. For spray cleaning, the requirement to reach hidden surfaces necessitates the addition of a rule-based method to the geometric motion planning.

  6. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    OpenAIRE

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to paint during airless spray painting. It was also investigated whether the observed exposure corresponds with the estimates made by the exposure model EASE. Skin exposure was measured in three offsho...

  7. Optimization of Chitosan Microspheres Spray Drying via 32 Full Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsarov Plamen D.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generally, the preparation of spray-dried microspheres is strongly affected by the process parameters. Particle size and production yield are mainly influenced by the spraying solution concentration and the pump rate of the spray dryer.

  8. PLASMA SPRAYING OF REFRACTORY CERMETS BY THE WATER-STABILIZED SPRAY (WSP®) SYSTEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Brožek, V.; Cheong, D.-I.; Chráska, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2009), s. 241-253 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma spraying * cermet coatings * microhardness * zirconium carbide * tungsten Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  9. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Leeuw, G.; Lewis, E.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; O’Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2011-05-07

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r{sub 80} (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 {micro}m and as small as 0.01 {micro}m. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r{sub 80} < 0.25 {micro}m and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  10. An experimental study on atomizing formation process of diesel spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bong

    2000-02-01

    In this study, the experiment has, been conducted to investigate the spray characteristics under the parameter of an ambient pressure with a single hole nozzle having aspect ratio(L/D) of 5 and diameter of 0.45mm. Under the condition of the injection pressure of 14Mpa, the initial disintegrating process of a diesel spray is investigated and analysized according to change of the ambient pressures, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3Mpa. The double flash method has been employed to visualize the process of the diesel sprays. The results obtained in this study are as follows: 1) After spray starts, the spray is shown as non-disturbance liquid column within about 1∼2mm from the nozzle tip, whose diameter is similar to that of a nozzle. For the same injection pressure, the increase of the ambient pressure makes the length of the non-disturbance liquid column become short. 2) Due to the surface wave, ligaments of the shape thread appear at the boundary of liquid column right after spray. The more developed wave together the progress of spray transforms ligaments into droplets that have generally the uniformed size. 3) In case spraying into chambers having different ambient pressures, 1, 2, and 3Mpa, the spray tip velocities reach up to 1.5, 1.2, and 0.6ms, respectively, and decrease with lapse of time. The spray angle keeps increasing for 0.6, 1.2, and 1.4ms after spray under the various ambient pressures, 3, 2, and 1Mpa, respectively, and begins to decrease and maintains the constant value. Therefore, the transition points appear near the point where the velocity decreases and the spray angle increases, simultaneously. The higher ambient pressure leads to fast appearance of transition under the same spray pressure. 4) The disintegrating mechanism of the liquid spray is two combined effects: a) friction forces between the surface waves generated at the surface of the liquid column and the ambient gas, b) the collisions of liquid droplets and ligaments by spray were overtaking

  11. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits

  12. Field evaluation of two commercial mosquito traps baited with different attractants and colored lights for malaria vector surveillance in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Khongtak, Patcharee; Jaichapor, Boonsong; Pongsiri, Arissara; Evans, Brian P

    2017-08-07

    Sampling for adult mosquito populations is a means of evaluating the efficacy of vector control operations. The goal of this study was to evaluate and identify the most efficacious mosquito traps and combinations of attractants for malaria vector surveillance along the Thai-Myanmar border. In the first part of the study, the BG-Sentinel™ Trap (BGS Trap) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light trap (CDC LT) baited with different attractants (BG-lure® and CO 2 ) were evaluated using a Latin square experimental design. The six configurations were BGS Trap with BG-lure, BGS Trap with BG-lure plus CO 2 , BGS Trap with CO 2 , CDC LT with BG-lure, CDC LT with BG lure plus CO 2 , and CDC LT with CO 2 . The second half of the study evaluated the impact of light color on malaria vector collections. Colors included the incandescent bulb, ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diode (LED), green light stick, red light stick, green LED, and red LED. A total of 8638 mosquitoes consisting of 42 species were captured over 708 trap-nights. The trap types, attractants, and colored lights affected numbers of female anopheline and Anopheles minimus collected (GLM, P BGS Trap captured many anophelines but was significantly less than the CDC LT. The CDC LT, when baited with BG-lure plus CO 2 captured the greatest number of anopheline females with a catch rate significantly higher than the CDC LT baited with BG-lure or CO 2 alone (P < 0.05). The number of anopheline females collected from the CDC LT baited with CO 2 was greater than the CDC LT baited with BG-lure (646 vs 409 females). None of the alternative lights evaluated exceeded the performance of the incandescent light bulb in terms of the numbers of anopheline and An. minimus collected. We conclude that the CDC LT augmented with an incandescent light shows high potential for malaria vector surveillance when baited with CO 2 and the BG-lure in combination and can be effectively used as the new gold standard

  13. Digital Image Processing application to spray and flammability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, M. A.; Parikh, P.; Sarohia, V.

    1985-01-01

    Digital Image Processing has been integrated into a new technique for measurements of fuel spray characteristics. The advantages of this technique are: a wide dynamic range of droplet sizes, accounting for nonspherical droplet shapes not possible with other spray assessment techniques. Finally, the technique has been applied to the study of turbojet engine fuel nozzle atomization performance with Jet A and antimisting fuel.

  14. Tableting properties of an improved spray-dried lactose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassu, G.; Eissens, A. C.; Bolhuis, G. K.

    2006-01-01

    Spray-dried lactose is one of the most widely used filler-binders for direct compaction. The compactibility is a function of both primary particle size and the presence of amorphous lactose. Commercially available spray-dried lactose contains 15-20% amorphous lactose and 80-85% alpha-lactose

  15. Comparison of three fungicide spray advisories for lettuce downy mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.M.; Subbarao, K.V.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Koike, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    Lettuce growers in coastal California have relied mainly on protective fungicide sprays to control downy mildew. Thus, timing of sprays before infection is critical for optimal results. A leaf-wetness-driven, infection-based advisory system, previously developed, did not always perform

  16. Agricultural sprays in cross-flow and drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, M.; Balachandar, R.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai

    2001-01-01

    The droplet size and velocity characteristics of an agricultural spray were studied in a wind tunnel in the presence of a non-uniform cross-flow. The spray was generated at three nozzle-operating pressures. The droplet size and velocity was measured in both the cross-flow direction and the vertical...

  17. A numerical study on dynamics of spray jets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of flow characteristics of spray jets in an injector nozzle, solgel process is very critical for scientific studies. In this communication, we report results from a numerical modeling of spray jet dynamics and its breakup. The nature of instability depends on the density of the jet fluid and the ambient fluid and also on the ...

  18. Single droplet analysis for spray drying of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain

  19. Production of amorphous starch powders by solution spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad B. K.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The spray drying of starch/maltodextrin formulations was evaluated as a potential technology for the manufacturing of amorphous thermoplastic starches. Mixtures of starches with high to low amylose (Am)amylopectin (Ap) ratios were spray-dried from water-based solutions and granular dispersions. The

  20. Screening and spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide a longer shelf life. A major hurdle when applying spray drying is the extensive optimisa tion required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain powders of acceptable quality. Therefore, a high-throughput

  1. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH DESIGN USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many spray painting facility operators have been attempting to reduce the discharge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint spray booths to the atmosphere. Some have been able to convert to lower VOC containing paints and coatings such as powder coating, waterborne coatin...

  2. Application of laser assisted cold spraying process for metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Laser assisted cold spraying (LACS) process is a hybrid technique that uses laser and cold spray to deposit solid powders on metal substrates. For bonding to occur, the particle velocities must be supersonic which are achieved by entraining...

  3. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this

  4. Efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We recommend a new kind of spray made from eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, we aimed to investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray (TCMS) with premature ejaculation desensitization therapy (PEDT) for the treatment of primary premature ejaculation ...

  5. Pesticide spray application, behavior, and assessment: workshop proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard B. Roberts

    1976-01-01

    Experts from relevant disciplines exchanged information on three important problems of pesticide spray technology. The four papers presented are Physical Parameters Relating to Pesticide Applications by N. B. Akesson and W. E. Yates; The Micrometeorology and Physics of Spray Particle Behavior by H. E. Cramer and D. G. Boyle;

  6. Efficacy of preharvest spraying with Pichia guilliermondii on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of preharvest spraying with Pichia guilliermondii on postharvest natural decay of cherry tomato fruit, and evaluated the quality attributes during storage. Preharvest spraying with P. guilliermondii significantly decreased the decay index. Moreover, the efficacy of this biological control was ...

  7. Two intelligent spraying systems developed for tree crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision pesticide application technologies are needed to achieve efficient and effective spray deposition on target areas and minimize off-target losses. Two variable-rate intelligent sprayers were developed as an introduction of new generation sprayers for tree crop applications. The first spraye...

  8. Single droplet analysis for spray drying of foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Many food ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotics, are spray dried to provide shelf-life. Major hurdle to apply spray drying is the lack of scientific insight on the inactivation mechanisms of components and the extensive optimization required for formulation and drying conditions to obtain

  9. Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus casei by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rebeka Cristiane Silva; Finkler, Leandro; Finkler, Christine Lamenha Luna

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of spray drying to produce microparticles of Lactobacillus casei. Microorganism was cultivated in shaken flasks and the microencapsulation process was performed using a laboratory-scale spray dryer. A rotational central composite design was employed to optimise the drying conditions. High cell viability (1.1 × 10(10) CFU/g) was achieved using an inlet air temperature of 70 °C and 25% (w/v) of maltodextrin. Microparticles presented values of solubility, wettability, water activity, hygroscopicity and humidity corresponding to 97.03 ± 0.04%, 100% (in 1.16 min), 0.14 ± 0.0, 35.20 g H2O/100 g and 4.80 ± 0.43%, respectively. The microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and thermally stable. Encapsulation improved the survival of L. casei during storage. After 60 days, the samples stored at -8 °C showed viable cell concentrations of 1.0 × 10(9) CFU/g.

  10. Fractal analysis of agricultural nozzles spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Agüera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fractal scaling of the exponential type is used to establish the cumulative volume (V distribution applied through agricultural spray nozzles in size x droplets, smaller than the characteristic size X. From exponent d, we deduced the fractal dimension (Df which measures the degree of irregularity of the medium. This property is known as 'self-similarity'. Assuming that the droplet set from a spray nozzle is self-similar, the objectives of this study were to develop a methodology for calculating a Df factor associated with a given nozzle and to determine regression coefficients in order to predict droplet spectra factors from a nozzle, taking into account its own Df and pressure operating. Based on the iterated function system, we developed an algorithm to relate nozzle types to a particular value of Df. Four nozzles and five operating pressure droplet size characteristics were measured using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA. The data input consisted of droplet size spectra factors derived from these measurements. Estimated Df values showed dependence on nozzle type and independence of operating pressure. We developed an exponential model based on the Df to enable us to predict droplet size spectra factors. Significant coefficients of determination were found for the fitted model. This model could prove useful as a means of comparing the behavior of nozzles which only differ in not measurable geometric parameters and it can predict droplet spectra factors of a nozzle operating under different pressures from data measured only in extreme work pressures.

  11. Impact Response of Thermally Sprayed Metal Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. L.; Hall, A. C.; Moore, N. W.; Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Scherzinger, W. M.; Brown, D. W.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun experiments have probed the impact response of tantalum specimens that were additively manufactured using a controlled thermal spray deposition process. Velocity interferometer (VISAR) diagnostics provided time-resolved measurements of sample response under one-dimensional (i . e . , uniaxial strain) shock compression to peak stresses ranging between 1 and 4 GPa. The acquired wave-profile data have been analyzed to determine the Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL), Hugoniot equation of state, and high-pressure yield strength of the thermally deposited samples for comparison to published baseline results for conventionally wrought tantalum. The effects of composition, porosity, and microstructure (e . g . , grain/splat size and morphology) are assessed to explain differences in the dynamic mechanical behavior of spray-deposited versus conventional material. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. UVC emitting phosphors obtained by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiut, J.M.A., E-mail: jmacaiut@iq.unesp.b [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CEMES/CNRS-BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Institute of Chemistry, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista, CP 355, Araraquara-SP 14801-970 (Brazil); Lechevallier, S.; Dexpert-Ghys, J. [Centre d' Elaboration de Materiaux et d' Etudes Structurales, CEMES/CNRS-BP 94347, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Caillier, B.; Guillot, Ph. [Diagnostic des Plasmas Hors Equilibre, Universite Jean Francois Champollion, place de Verdun, 81012 Albi Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-04-15

    The broadband inter-configurational (4f{sup 1}5d{sup 1{yields}}4f{sup 2}) emission of Pr{sup 3+} doped in lanthanum orthophosphate (LaPO{sub 4}) and in calcium pyrophosphate (Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) has been investigated under plasma excitation. The synthesis by spray pyrolysis at moderate temperature followed by a controlled annealing proves to be a very efficient way to produce good quality UVC emitting phosphor Ca{sub 1.92}Pr{sub 0.04}Na{sub 0.04}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} ({alpha} phase). The emission of this phosphor in the wavelength range 200-350 nm has been measured with a prototype device, which can be employed for anti-microbial testing. - Research Highlights: {yields} The Pr{sup 3+} doped orthophosphate and pyrophosphate were synthesized by spray pyrolysis. {yields} The dense particles present good quality UVC emitting (200-350 nm). {yields} The prototype device can be employed for anti-microbial testing.

  13. Spray drying of fenofibrate loaded nanostructured lipid carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; Shrestha, Neha; van de Streek, Jacco

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of aqueous dispersion of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) into dry powder by spray drying could be a useful approach to render NLCs with better physical chemical stability than the aqueous dispersion. In this study, aqueous NLC dispersion containing fenofibrate was converted...... into dry, easily reconstitutable powder using spray drying. A central composite face centered design (CCFD) was used to investigate the influence of the ratio of lipid to protectant (mannitol and trehalose) and crystallinity of spray-dried powder on the particle size, yield and residual moisture content...... of the dried powder. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.9915) was established between the crystalline content of the spray-dried powders against the ratio of mannitol to trehalose from 3:7 to 10:0 (w/w). Spray drying of NLC aqueous dispersion using a mannitol and trehalose mixture resulted in an increase...

  14. Laser diagnostics for urea-water solution spray characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapusta Łukasz Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we summarize the laser techniques used for urea-water solution (UWS spray characterization at the Institute of Heat Engineering (ITC, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering at Warsaw University of Technology. In presented studies several techniques for both, global and local spray characterization were used. Shadowgraphy-based long distance microscopy was used to visualize individual droplets and primary breakup. High speed imaging of Mie scattering (scattering on the gas-liquid interface signal was used for global spray characterization. Combination of LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence and Mie scattering allowed to determine qualitative droplet size distribution across the whole spray cloud. The structured illumination technique used to modulate laser light sheet allowed to minimize the effects of multiple scattering in detection of Mie signal, what indicated huge potential of this technique in characterization of UWS sprays. The results presented here prove the importance of laser diagnostics in SCR systems development.

  15. The Influence of Shaping Air Pressure of Pneumatic Spray Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenzhuo; Chen, Yan; Pan, Haiwei; Zhang, Weiming; Li, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The shaping air pressure is a very important parameter in the application of pneumatic spray gun, and studying its influence on spray flow field and film thickness distribution has practical values. In this paper, Euler-Lagrangian method is adopted to describe the two-phase spray flow of pneumatic painting process, and the air flow fields, spray patterns and dynamic film thickness distributions were obtained with the help of the computational fluid dynamics code—ANSYS Fluent. Results show that with the increase of the shaping air pressure, the air phase flow field spreads in the plane perpendicular to the shaping air hole plane, the spray pattern becomes narrower and flatter, and the width of the dynamic film increases with the reduced maximum value of the film thickness. But the film thickness distribution seems to change little with the shaping air pressure decreasing from 0.6bar to 0.9bar.

  16. Thermal Spraying of Bioactive Polymer Coatings for Orthopaedic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebbi, A.; Stokes, J.

    2012-06-01

    Flame sprayed biocompatible polymer coatings, made of biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers, were investigated as single coatings on titanium and as top coatings on plasma sprayed Hydroxyapatite. Biocompatible polymers can act as drug carriers for localized drug release following implantation. The polymer matrix consisted of a biodegradable polymer, polyhydroxybutyrate 98%/ polyhydroxyvalerate 2% (PHBV) and a non-biodegradable polymer, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Screening tests were performed to determine the suitable range of spraying parameters, followed by a Design of Experiments study to determine the effects of spraying parameters on coating characteristics (thickness, roughness, adhesion, wettability), and to optimize the coating properties accordingly. Coatings characterization showed that optimized flame sprayed biocompatible polymers underwent little chemical degradation, did not produce acidic by-products in vitro, and that cells proliferated well on their surface.

  17. Experimental measurements of air cleaning with water sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The effectiveness of water sprays for removal of gaseous and particulate fission products from air was studied experimentally, to determine the value of existing and proposed spray systems at the Savannah River reactors for cleaning the reactor room air following a hypothetical severe accident. The interaction of spray droplets with iodine and with cesium aerosols formed by combustion were measured separately. In the case of iodine, the results were compared to the theoretical treatment of Albert, Wichner, and Baumgarten. Good agreement was found for the smaller drop sizes, and the effect of spray pH predicted by the theoretical model was confirmed. The aerosol studies demonstrated the effectiveness of sprays in removing aerosol particles larger than 1 micrometer

  18. Experimental Analysis of Tensile Mechanical Properties of Sprayed FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP, 13 groups of specimens were tested through uniaxial tensile experiments, being analyzed about stress-strain curve, tensile strength, elastic modulus, breaking elongation, and other mechanical properties. Influencing factors on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP such as fiber type, resin type, fiber volume ratio, fiber length, and composite thickness were studied in the paper too. The results show that both fiber type and resin type have an obvious influence on tensile mechanical properties of sprayed FRP. There will be a specific fiber volume ratio for sprayed FRP to obtain the best tensile mechanical property. The increase of fiber length can lead to better tensile performance, while that of composite thickness results in property degradation. The study can provide reference to popularization and application of sprayed FRP material used in structure reinforcement.

  19. Unit thermal performance of atmospheric spray cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.W.; Jain, M.; Chaturvedi, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal performance of an open atmospheric spray pond or canal depends on the direct-contact evaporative cooling of an individual spray unit (spray nozzle or module) and the interference caused by local heating and humidification. Droplet parameters may be combined into a dimensionless group, number of transfer units (NTU) or equivalent, whereas large-scale air-vapor dynamics determine interference through the local wet-bulb temperature. Quantity NTU were implied from field experiments for a floating module used in steam-condenser spray canals. Previous data were available for a fixed-pipe nozzle assembly used in spray ponds. Quantity NTU were also predicted using the Ranz-Marshall correlations with the Sauter-mean diameter used as the characteristic length. Good agreement with experiments was shown for diameters of 1--1.1 cm (module) and 1.9 mm

  20. Spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anjali; Singh, Satya Vir

    2015-01-01

    The main cause of spray drying is to increase the shelf life and easy handling of juices. In the present paper, the studies carried out so far on spray drying of various fruits and vegetables are reported. The major fruit juices dried are mango, banana, orange, guava, bayberry, watermelon, pineapple, etc. However, study on vegetable juices is limited. In spray drying, the major optimized parameters are inlet air temperature, relative humidity of air, outlet air temperature, and atomizer speed that are given for a particular study. The juices in spray drying require addition of drying agents that include matlodextrin, liquid glucose, etc. The drying agents are added to increase the glass transition temperature. Different approaches for spray dryer design have also been discussed in the present work.

  1. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to

  2. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying to produce an influenza subunit vaccine powder for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, V.; Amorij, J-P.; Kapteyn, J. C.; de Boer, A. H.; Frijlink, H. W.; Hinrichs, W. L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate two different processes to produce a stable influenza subunit vaccine powder for pulmonary immunization i.e. spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). The formulations were analyzed by proteolytic assay, single radial immunodiffusion assay (SRID),

  3. PRN 94-7: Label Improvement Program for the Revision of Use Directions for Commensal Rodenticides and Statement of the Agency's Policies on the Use of Rodenticide Bait Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Notice requires registrants of certain pesticide products claimed to control commensal rodents and registered under FIFRA to revise the labeling of such products to bear certain statements concerning tamper-resistant bait stations.

  4. (Z)-9-Tricosene based Musca domestica lure study on a garbage dump yard using plywood sticky trap baited with fish meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S T Bino; Latha, Bhaskaran Ravi; Vijayashanthi, R; Pandian, Serma Saravana

    2016-03-01

    A study was undertaken to find out the efficacy of (Z)-9-Tricosene in attracting flies in a garbage dump yard using a plywood sticky glue trap with fish meal as a food bait. (Z)-9-Tricosene was dissolved in acetone or hexane before application on a filter paper strip fixed at the centre of the trap. The traps were left in areas of the garbage dump yard of high fly activity for 6 h and then the trapped flies were counted species wise. Significantly more number of Musca domestica flies were caught in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated fish meal baited traps compared to those traps without (Z)-9-Tricosene. No significant difference was noted in trap catches in (Z)-9-Tricosene treated traps between the solvents acetone and hexane. In addition Sarcophaga sp. and Chrysomyia sp. flies were also caught in the traps.

  5. Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field.

  6. New Data on the Distribution and Seasonal Flight of the Vine Bud Moth Theresimima ampellophaga (Bayle-Barelle, 1808) in Bulgaria - Investigations By Pheromone-Baited Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora B. Toshova; Daniela Y. Atanasova; Boyan S. Stalev; Ana Nahirnić

    2017-01-01

    The vine bud moth, Theresimima ampellophaga is considered as a pest species of the grapevine Vitis vinifera in Bulgaria. Delta sticky traps baited with the main synthetic sex pheromone compound, (2R)-butyl (7Z)-tetradecenoate, of Th. ampellophaga were used for detection and seasonal monitoring of this species in vineyards at four sites in Bulgaria – Lozitsa village (Municipality Nikopol) (northern Bulgaria) and Gornoslav village (Municipality Asenovgrad) in 2015 and 2016, and Plovdiv town and...

  7. Notes on Apidae and Vespidae (Hymenoptera) Species Collected by Bait Traps in OrganicVineyard and Orchards of Kemalpaşa (İzmir), Western Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÜZÜM, Ahu; TANYERİ, Rukiye; GÜLPERÇİN, Nilay; TEZCAN, Serdar; YILDIRIM, Erol

    2010-01-01

    Hymenoptera species collected by bait traps during the months of June-October in organic vineyard and orchards in Kemalpaşa district, (İzmir) of Western Turkey were evaluated in this study. As a result, six species belonging 2007 to two families of Hymenoptera were determined. Those were Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, Vespula germanica (Fabricius, 1793), Vespa crabro Linnaeus, 1758, Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Polistes dominulus (Christ, 1791) and Polistes gallicus (Linnaeus, 1767). Amon...

  8. Fish assemblages associated with natural and anthropogenically-modified habitats in a marine embayment: comparison of baited videos and opera-house traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey B Wakefield

    Full Text Available Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment and modified (rockwall and dredge channel habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment.

  9. Evaluation of bait traps as a means to predict initial blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) communities associated with decomposing swine remains in New Jersey, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Lauren M; Gemmellaro, M Denise; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Hamilton, George C

    2017-09-01

    Information about blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species distributions can be valuable for criminal investigations, with regards to determining movement of remains from one location to another and time of colonization estimates, making these data extremely useful. Past work has been conducted on initial species community structure across New Jersey, USA using traps baited with beef liver; however, if these same species frequent vertebrate carrion remains unclear. In order to evaluate these data, piglet carcasses were placed out once every two weeks for a year in New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA. The same methods were implemented as those used for traps baited with beef liver, with length of collections being based on ADD values. Seven calliphorid species, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia coeruleiviridis (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Pollenia pediculata Macquart, Pollenia rudis (F.) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) were collected from the carcasses. During this experiment L. sericata, L. coeruleiviridis and P. regina were the dominant adult blow flies captured, totaling 38.2%, 29.2% and 29.2% respectively of all adults caught. All three species colonized the carcasses as well, although not all were dominant colonizers. C. vicina was recorded ovipositing in December, while the piglet was submerged in approximately 5cm of snow. All species that totaled at least 1% of the total collection (adults captured and larvae reared) were the same across baited traps and carcasses. This study supports the use of beef liver baits for surveying forensically important blow flies and the application of such information to forensic investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fish Assemblages Associated with Natural and Anthropogenically-Modified Habitats in a Marine Embayment: Comparison of Baited Videos and Opera-House Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Corey B.; Lewis, Paul D.; Coutts, Teresa B.; Fairclough, David V.; Langlois, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Marine embayments and estuaries play an important role in the ecology and life history of many fish species. Cockburn Sound is one of a relative paucity of marine embayments on the west coast of Australia. Its sheltered waters and close proximity to a capital city have resulted in anthropogenic intrusion and extensive seascape modification. This study aimed to compare the sampling efficiencies of baited videos and fish traps in determining the relative abundance and diversity of temperate demersal fish species associated with naturally occurring (seagrass, limestone outcrops and soft sediment) and modified (rockwall and dredge channel) habitats in Cockburn Sound. Baited videos sampled a greater range of species in higher total and mean abundances than fish traps. This larger amount of data collected by baited videos allowed for greater discrimination of fish assemblages between habitats. The markedly higher diversity and abundances of fish associated with seagrass and limestone outcrops, and the fact that these habitats are very limited within Cockburn Sound, suggests they play an important role in the fish ecology of this embayment. Fish assemblages associated with modified habitats comprised a subset of species in lower abundances when compared to natural habitats with similar physical characteristics. This suggests modified habitats may not have provided the necessary resource requirements (e.g. shelter and/or diet) for some species, resulting in alterations to the natural trophic structure and interspecific interactions. Baited videos provided a more efficient and non-extractive method for comparing fish assemblages and habitat associations of smaller bodied species and juveniles in a turbid environment. PMID:23555847

  11. Influence of handpiece maintenance sprays on resin bonding to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyotarou Sugawara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Toyotarou Sugawara1, Atsushi Kameyama2, Akiko Haruyama3, Takumi Oishi4, Nobuyuki Kukidome2, Yasuaki Takase2, Masatake Tsunoda21Undergraduate Student, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan; 2Division of General Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital, Chiba, Japan; 3Department of Dental Materials Science, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba, Japan; 4Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanObjective: To investigate the influence of maintenance spray on resin bonding to dentin.Materials and methods: The crown of extracted, caries-free human molars was transversally sectioned with a model trimmer to prepare the dentin surfaces from mid-coronal sound dentin, and then uniformly abraded with #600 silicon carbide paper. The dentin surfaces were randomly divided into three groups: oil-free spray group where maintenance cleaner for air bearing handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; oil-containing spray group where maintenance cleaner for micro motor handpieces was sprayed onto the dentin surface for 1 s and rinsed with water spray for 30 s; and control group where the surface was rinsed with water spray for 30 s and then air-dried. These surfaces were then bonded with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical, and resin composite (Clearfil AP-X, Kuraray Medical build-up crowns were incrementally constructed on the bonded surfaces. After storage for 24 h in 37°C water, the bonded teeth were sectioned into hour-glass shaped slices (0.7-mm thick perpendicular to the bonded surfaces. The specimens were then subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTBS testing at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test.Results: Maintenance spray-contaminated specimens (oil-free and oil-containing spray groups showed significantly lower μTBS than control specimens (P < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference between

  12. Cold spray NDE for porosity and other process anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S. W.; Larche, M. R.; Prowant, M. S.; Suter, J. D.; Lareau, J. P.; Jiang, X.; Ross, K. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a technology review of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods that can be applied to cold spray coatings. Cold spray is a process for depositing metal powder at high velocity so that it bonds to the substrate metal without significant heating that would be likely to cause additional residual tensile stresses. Coatings in the range from millimeters to centimeters are possible at relatively high deposition rates. Cold spray coatings that may be used for hydroelectric components that are subject to erosion, corrosion, wear, and cavitation damage are of interest. The topic of cold spray NDE is treated generally, however, but may be considered applicable to virtually any cold spray application except where there are constraints of the hydroelectric component application that bear special consideration. Optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness tests are shown for one set of good, fair, and poor nickel-chrome (NiCr) on 304 stainless steel (304SS) cold spray samples to demonstrate inspection possibilities. The primary indicator of cold spray quality is the cold spray porosity that is most directly measured with witness-sample destructive examinations (DE)—mostly photo-micrographs. These DE-generated porosity values are correlated with optical profilometry, eddy current, ultrasound, and hardness test NDE methods to infer the porosity and other information of interest. These parameters of interest primarily include: • Porosity primarily caused by improper process conditions (temperature, gas velocity, spray standoff, spray angle, powder size, condition, surface cleanliness, surface oxide, etc.) • Presence/absence of the cold spray coating including possible over-sprayed voids • Coating thicknessOptical profilometry measurements of surface roughness trended with porosity plus, if compared with a reference measurement or reference drawing, would provide information on the coating thickness. Ultrasound could provide similar

  13. Trapping of Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) from Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies with an in-hive baited trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Arbogast, Richard T; Van Engelsdorp, Dennis; Willms, Steven; Purcell, Dusti; Boucias, Drion; Tumlinson, James H; Teal, Peter E A

    2007-10-01

    The effectiveness of two lures for trapping the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, by means of in-hive traps was tested by field trials in apiaries located in Florida, Delaware, and Pennsylvania during 2003-2005. Both lures included a mixture (pollen dough) consisting of bee pollen and commercial pollen substitute formulated with or without glycerol and honey. Before it was used in the traps, the dough was conditioned either by the feeding of adult small hive beetles or by inoculation with the yeast Kodamaea ohmeri (NRRL Y-30722). Traps baited with conditioned dough captured significantly more beetles than unbaited traps, and traps positioned under the bottom board of a hive captured significantly more beetles than traps located at the top of a hive. In fact, baited in-hive bottom board traps nearly eliminated the beetles from colonies at a pollination site in Florida. However, when these honey bee colonies were moved to an apiary, trap catch increased markedly over time, indicating a resurgence of the beetle population produced by immigration of beetles from nearby hives or emerging from the soil. In tests at three Florida apiaries during 2006, yeast-inoculated dough baited bottom board traps captured significantly more beetles than unbaited traps, showing the effectiveness of yeast-inoculated dough as a lure and its potential as a tool in managing the small hive beetle.

  14. Avaliação da Atividade Alimentar dos Invertebrados de Solo em Campos do Sul do Brasil – Bait-Lamina Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Podgaiski

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. The aim of this work is to inform about a pioneer bait-lamina test in the South Brazilian Campos to evaluate the soil invertebrates feeding activity which is an approaching to leaf litter decomposition rates in the ecosystems. The feeding activity was tested during two months, across 8 cm of soil depth and employing a comparison between two techniques of consumption quantification (conservative technique vs. practical technique in two different grassland areas (grazed and not grazed were described. One hundred independent sampling units (s.u. were established on each area, and in each s.u. two bait-lamina were inserted: one horizontally and another vertically. For each sampling date (9, 16, 22, 29 e 65 days of exposition, 20 s.u. were sorted and analyzed. We observed a high feeding activity from the beginning of the experiments, both in the surface and within the soil. Soil fauna feeding activity differed according to soil depth, being higher on the surface and for 6.5-8 cm deep in the soil. Both techniques lead to similar results when the two areas were compared. The grazed site showed lower invertebrate feeding activity than the site not grazed. These findings constitute a basis for future researches in Brazil, relating that the bait-lamina test can offer useful results around fifteen days of exposition.

  15. Attractive toxic sugar baits: control of mosquitoes with the low-risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on nontarget organisms in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaayoune, Khalid; Qualls, Whitney A; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Xue, Rui-De; Schlein, Yosef; Beier, John C; Müller, Günter C

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) in the laboratory and field with the low-risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. Preliminary laboratory assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linnaeus. Field studies demonstrated >70% reduction of mosquito populations at 3 wk post-ATSB application. Nontarget feeding of seven insect orders-Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera, and Neuroptera-was evaluated in the field after application of attractive sugar baits (ASB) on vegetation by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. Nontargets were found stained with ASB 0.9% of the time when the application was applied on green nonflowering vegetation. Only two families were significantly impacted by the ASB application: Culicidae (mosquitoes) and Chironomidae (nonbiting midges) of the order Diptera. Pollinators of the other insect orders were not significantly impacted. No mortality was observed in the laboratory studies with predatory nontargets, wolf spiders or ground beetles, after feeding for 3 d on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB applied to vegetation. Overall, this novel control strategy had little impact on nontarget organisms, including pollinators and beneficial insects, and was effective at controlling mosquito populations, further supporting the development of ATSB for commercial use.

  16. Dilation Behavior of Thermal Spray Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano Lopez, Miryan Lorena

    Thermal Spray (TS) is a very versatile manufacturing process to deposit thick coatings on a variety of substrates. Coatings are used in protective (i.e. wear, chemical attack, high temperature, etc.) and functional (i.e. sensors) applications. TS coatings have a unique lamellar microstructure as a result of the overlapping of millions of molten and partially-molten particles. During processing, high deformation by impact, high temperature, and rapid solidification lead to a complex hierarchical material system that contains a high amount of microstructural defects. The presence of defects in the microstructure contribute to differences in property values in comparison to bulk materials. Thermal stresses and residual strains arise from processing, thermal gradients and thermal exposure. Evaluation of thermal properties, in this case, the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is of vital importance to enhance coating performance. In this dissertation, expansion measurements of various metals, alloys, ceramics, and cermet coatings; were carried out using various techniques (push rod dilatometry, x-ray diffraction XRD, digital image correlation DIC, and curvature method) to determine the dilation behavior at the atomic, micro- and macro-scale levels. The main results were. 1) Mathematical models (Turner and Kerner) used for composite materials, successfully predicted the CTE property of a TS coating where the primary phase is the coating material and the secondary phases can be oxides, precipitates, etc. (formed as a byproduct of the spraying process). CTE was found not to be affected by porosity. 2) Despite the anisotropic behavior characteristic of TS coatings, the experimental results shown that CTE results to be reasonable isotropic within the scope of this study. 3) The curvature method was found to be an alternative technique to obtain the CTE, as well as the Young's modulus of coating in a bi-material strip, with good approximation. 4) An anomalous expansion

  17. Rabies in Estonia: situation before and after the first campaigns of oral vaccination of wildlife with SAG2 vaccine bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niin, Enel; Laine, M; Guiot, A L; Demerson, J M; Cliquet, F

    2008-07-04

    Despite the extermination of stray animals and the compulsory vaccination of companion animals, rabies has been widely distributed over Estonia for more than 30 years. The red fox and the raccoon dog are the rabies virus reservoirs. Through a PHARE project, successive oral vaccination campaigns, using Rabidog SAG2 baits, were implemented in the autumn of 2005 in North Estonia, and in the spring and autumn 2006 throughout the whole territory. After the autumn 2005 campaign, 73.5% of the raccoon dogs and foxes were positive for the tetracycline biomarker. After the campaigns of 2006, the seroconversion rate for rabies virus was 64% in both species. After the vaccination campaigns of 2005 and 2006, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased. Of the 97 cases diagnosed in the whole of Estonia until the end of May 2006, 16 cases (16.5%) occurred within the vaccinated area. Only 17 cases were diagnosed between 1 June and 31 December 2006. In 2007, by the end of May, only two rabies cases have been registered.

  18. Autonomous Precision Spraying Trials Using a Novel Cell Spray Implement Mounted on an Armadillo Tool Carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Midtiby, Henrik

    of weed detection algorithms and spraying strategies is developed. The front part of the cell sprayer implement is a camera module mounted in a shock absorbing frame. The camera module is followed by a spraying module containing nozzles with individual valve control. The implement is designed for use......Precision weeding is one of the most promising applications for autonomous service robots in biological production. Herbicides have been the default weeding solution during the past decades, but there is a growing concern about the environmental impact on drinking water reservoirs etc. The use...... with an Armadillo robotic tool carrier consisting of two battery powered track modules mounted on each side of the implement. This paper focus on the cell sprayer implement design including camera system, sprayer module and integration with the service robot and the robot software. The FroboMind software platform...

  19. Are light traps baited with kairomones effective in the capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia intermedia? An evaluation of synthetic human odor as an attractant for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey J Andrade

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are often captured with human bait and/or light traps, either with or without an animal bait. More recently, synthetic attractants have been used as bait in traps to improve the capture of phlebotomine sand flies as well as other insects of medical and veterinary importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the kairomone 1-octen-3-ol (octenol and the synthetic human odor BG-Mesh LureTM (BGML - lactic acid, caproic acid and ammonia baited in modified CDC light traps on the capture of phlebotomine sand flies. The experiments followed the 5x5 Latin square design. Among the species caught, Lutzomyia intermedia apparently presented a dose-dependent response to octenol. The response obtained with the BGML, alone or in combination with octenol (5 mg/h, indicated some degree of attractiveness of these baits to different phlebotomine sand fly species. Octenol seems to be more attractive to L. intermedia than to Lutzomyia longipalpis, while the BGML presented a higher success in capturing L. longipalpis. When the components of the BGML were used separately, there was no increase in catching the female of L. intermedia. Apparently, there was no synergistic effect between the octenol and the BGML. In conclusion, the octenol and the BGML were demonstrated to be possible baits to attract some phlebotomine sand fly species.

  20. Are light traps baited with kairomones effective in the capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia intermedia? An evaluation of synthetic human odor as an attractant for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Andrey J; Andrade, Mateus R; Dias, Edelberto S; Pinto, Mara C; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2008-06-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are often captured with human bait and/or light traps, either with or without an animal bait. More recently, synthetic attractants have been used as bait in traps to improve the capture of phlebotomine sand flies as well as other insects of medical and veterinary importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the kairomone 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and the synthetic human odor BG-Mesh Lure (BGML--lactic acid, caproic acid and ammonia) baited in modified CDC light traps on the capture of phlebotomine sand flies. The experiments followed the 5x5 Latin square design. Among the species caught, Lutzomyia intermedia apparently presented a dose-dependent response to octenol. The response obtained with the BGML, alone or in combination with octenol (5 mg/h), indicated some degree of attractiveness of these baits to different phlebotomine sand fly species. Octenol seems to be more attractive to L. intermedia than to Lutzomyia longipalpis, while the BGML presented a higher success in capturing L. longipalpis. When the components of the BGML were used separately, there was no increase in catching the female of L. intermedia. Apparently, there was no synergistic effect between the octenol and the BGML. In conclusion, the octenol and the BGML were demonstrated to be possible baits to attract some phlebotomine sand fly species.

  1. Characterization and Analysis of Paper Spray Ionization of Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga-Aguilar, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Paper spray ionization has arisen relatively recently as a complement and alternative to electro- and nanospray ionization with silica capillaries. A majority of the work in the present literature focuses on the chemical aspect of paper spray. In order to study the physical and phenomenological facet of its implementation, we measured current and voltage distributions of Taylor cones. To study transport phenomena on filter paper, we addressed the behavior of large, sparingly soluble tetraalkylammonium ions, which are usually used as mobility standards, in paper spray. The variation of intensity with time of monomers and dimers of these ions was measured with a differential mobility analyzer and compared with that produced by contamination in the paper. At the same time, we evaluated the proficiency of different paper spray techniques for protein analysis using nano spray as a reference. Experiments suggest that Taylor cones in paper spray are subject to hysteresis, whereas transport phenomena in the porous substrate notably affects the ionization of the sample. Additionally, we observed that paper spray tends to favor lower charge states in proteins. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  2. Quantitative and economical assessment of effectiveness of electrostatic pesticide spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Ryo; Fujita, Satoko; Michihara, Shota; Masuoka, Takashi; Kimura, Toshihiro; Yatsuzuka, Shinji; Anaguchi, Shinobu

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic pesticide spraying (EPS) improves the adhesion characteristics of the pesticide solution to agricultural crops. If the adhesion characteristics are improved, the requisite amount of the pesticide to be sprayed can be reduced in comparison with the conventional spraying method that uses non-charged pesticide. In this research, disease (rust) control experiments were carried out to substantiate the effectiveness of the EPS from a statistical point of view. We sprayed pesticide to potted Japanese pear trees under calm condition. The numbers of the rust lesions on the pear leaves were counted at fixed intervals after spraying to investigate the difference of the results of the disease control. The t-tests were carried out for the populations of the various spraying times and applied voltages. It was statistically-derived that EPS can reduce the amounts of pesticide to be sprayed by 50 % in comparison with the non-EPS method. It is also estimated from the results that about 55,000 kL year −1 of pesticides can be reduced for the Japanese pear cultivation in Tottori prefecture. Also, this means that the expense of the pear cultivation can be reduced by about 240 million yen (3 million USD) every year in Tottori prefecture by introducing EPS.

  3. A dermal model for spray painters. Part I: subjective exposure modelling of spray paint deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D H; Semple, S; Marquart, J; Cherrie, J W

    2001-01-01

    The discriminative power of existing dermal exposure models is limited. Most models only allow occupational hygienists to rank workers between and within workplaces according to broad bands of dermal exposure. No allowance is made for the work practices of different individuals. In this study a process-based, structured approach has been used to estimate dermal exposure from overspray generated by a spray painting process. Factors for spray technique, object shape and workers' individual work practices involved in the processes of droplet formation and deposition were incorporated into the model. The model was applied to predict dermal exposure of airless spray painters and the results were compared with exposure data. The predicted levels of exposure showed reasonable rank correlation with the measured exposure, although the model tended to over-predict the actual level of exposure. It was concluded that a structured, process-based approach has the potential to produce reliable estimates of dermal exposure. The reliability of exposure models of this type should be explored further and the relationship between the determinants of exposure should be validated by additional field studies.

  4. To Spray or Not to Spray: A Decision Analysis of Coffee Berry Borer in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John Woodill

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Integrated pest management strategies were adopted to combat the coffee berry borer (CBB after its arrival in Hawaii in 2010. A decision tree framework is used to model the CBB integrated pest management recommendations, for potential use by growers and to assist in developing and evaluating management strategies and policies. The model focuses on pesticide spraying (spray/no spray as the most significant pest management decision within each period over the entire crop season. The main result from the analysis suggests the most important parameter to maximize net benefit is to ensure a low initial infestation level. A second result looks at the impact of a subsidy for the cost of pesticides and shows a typical farmer receives a positive net benefit of $947.17. Sensitivity analysis of parameters checks the robustness of the model and further confirms the importance of a low initial infestation level vis-a-vis any level of subsidy. The use of a decision tree is shown to be an effective method for understanding integrated pest management strategies and solutions.

  5. Influence of Bondcoat Spray Process on Lifetime of Suspension Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Markocsan, N.; Li, X.-H.; Östergren, L.

    2018-01-01

    Development of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) manufactured by suspension plasma spraying (SPS) is of high commercial interest as SPS has been shown capable of producing highly porous columnar microstructures similar to the conventionally used electron beam-physical vapor deposition. However, lifetime of SPS coatings needs to be improved further to be used in commercial applications. The bondcoat microstructure as well as topcoat-bondcoat interface topography affects the TBC lifetime significantly. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of different bondcoat deposition processes for SPS topcoats. In this work, a NiCoCrAlY bondcoat deposited by high velocity air fuel (HVAF) was compared to commercial vacuum plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY and PtAl diffusion bondcoats. All bondcoat variations were prepared with and without grit blasting the bondcoat surface. SPS was used to deposit the topcoats on all samples using the same spray parameters. Lifetime of these samples was examined by thermal cyclic fatigue testing. Isothermal heat treatment was performed to study bondcoat oxidation over time. The effect of bondcoat deposition process and interface topography on lifetime in each case has been discussed. The results show that HVAF could be a suitable process for bondcoat deposition in SPS TBCs.

  6. Thermal Expansion of Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S V.; Palczer, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Metallic Cu-8%Cr, Cu-26%Cr, Cu-8%Cr-1%Al, NiAl and NiCrAlY monolithic coatings were fabricated by vacuum plasma spray deposition processes for thermal expansion property measurements between 293 and 1223 K. The corrected thermal expansion, (DL/L(sub 0) varies with the absolute temperature, T, as (DL/L(sub 0) = A(T - 293)(sup 3) + BIT - 293)(sup 2) + C(T - 293) + D, where, A, B, C and D are thermal, regression constants. Excellent reproducibility was observed for all of the coatings except for data obtained on the Cu-8%Cr and Cu-26%Cr coatings in the first heat-up cycle, which deviated from those determined in the subsequent cycles. This deviation is attributed to the presence of residual stresses developed during the spraying of the coatings, which are relieved after the first heat-up cycle. In the cases of Cu-8%Cr and NiAl, the thermal expansion data were observed to be reproducible for three specimens. The linear expansion data for Cu-8% Cr and Cu-26%Cr agree extremely well with rule of mixture (ROM) predictions. Comparison of the data for the Cu-8%Cr coating with literature data for Cr and Cu revealed that the thermal expansion behavior of this alloy is determined by the Cu-rich matrix. The data for NiAl and NiCrAlY are in excellent agreement with published results irrespective of composition and the methods used for processing the materials. The implications of these results on coating GRCop-84 copper alloy combustor liners for reusable launch vehicles are discussed.

  7. Spray Modeling for Outwardly-Opening Hollow-Cone Injector

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon

    2016-04-05

    The outwardly-opening piezoelectric injector is gaining popularity as a high efficient spray injector due to its precise control of the spray. However, few modeling studies have been reported on these promising injectors. Furthermore, traditional linear instability sheet atomization (LISA) model was originally developed for pressure swirl hollow-cone injectors with moderate spray angle and toroidal ligament breakups. Therefore, it is not appropriate for the outwardly-opening injectors having wide spray angles and string-like film structures. In this study, a new spray injection modeling was proposed for outwardly-opening hollow-cone injector. The injection velocities are computed from the given mass flow rate and injection pressure instead of ambiguous annular nozzle geometry. The modified Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor (KH-RT) breakup model is used with adjusted initial Sauter mean diameter (SMD) for modeling breakup of string-like structure. Spray injection was modeled using a Lagrangian discrete parcel method within the framework of commercial CFD software CONVERGE, and the new model was implemented through the user-defined functions. A Siemens outwardly-opening hollow-cone spray injector was characterized and validated with existing experimental data at the injection pressure of 100 bar. It was found that the collision modeling becomes important in the current injector because of dense spray near nozzle. The injection distribution model showed insignificant effects on spray due to small initial droplets. It was demonstrated that the new model can predict the liquid penetration length and local SMD with improved accuracy for the injector under study.

  8. Plasma sprayed Fe(76)Nd(16)B(8) permanent magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfelt, R. A.; Anderson, C. D.; Flanagan, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Thin coatings (0.16 mm) and thick coatings (0.50 mm) of Fe(76)Nd(16)B(8) were deposited on stainless-steel substrates by low pressure plasma spraying. Microscopic examination of the coatings in a light microscope revealed excessive porosity, but good bonding to the substrate. Fracture cross sections examined in a scanning electron microscope showed the grains to be equiaxed and approximately 1 micron or less in diameter in the as-sprayed condition. The intrinsic coercivities of the as-sprayed coatings varied from 5.8 to 10.9 kOe. The effects of postspray heat treatments on the intrinsic coercivity are also given.

  9. PRODUCING STRAWBERRY (Fragaria chiloensis) DEHYDRATED Spray and lyophilization

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara Pérez, A.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Tecnología de Alimentos.; Rojas Ayerve, T.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Química.; Araujo Vargas, J. M.; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Melina - Lima-Perú. Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos.; Araujo Vargas, J. M.; Facultad de Industrias Alimentarias, Departamento de Ingeniería de Alimentos.

    2014-01-01

    Two methods of dehydration of strawberries (Fragaria chiloensis 1 .) ha ve been studied: spray-drying and freezedrying. It has been found that the optimum sequence for the drying operation is as follows: selection/classification , washing, steaming, pulp-extraction, conditioning and freeze-drying. The efficiency over the total solids obtained with this method is 86.48% compared to 66.02% when using spray-drying. The strawberry pulp was conditioned by water dilution of 1:1. For spray-drying, t...

  10. Performances and reliability of WC based thermal spray coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, A.; Rosso, M.; Salvarani, L.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal spray processes are used for a lot of traditional and innovative applications and their importance is becoming higher and higher. WC/CoCr based thermal spray coatings represent one of the most important class of coatings that find application in a wide range of industrial sectors. This paper will address a review of current applications and characteristics of this kind of coating. The most important spraying processes, namely HVOF (high velocity oxygen fuel) are examined, the characterization of the coatings from the point of view of corrosion and wear resistance is considered. (author)

  11. Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics and Autoignition Process

    OpenAIRE

    Taşkiran, Özgür Oğuz; Ergeneman, Metin

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to get the temporal and spatial spray evolution under diesel-like conditions and to investigate autoignition process of sprays which are injected from different nozzle geometries. A constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and heated internally up to 825 K at 3.5 MPa for experiments. Macroscopic properties of diesel spray were recorded via a high-speed CCD camera by using shadowgraphy technique, and the images were analyzed by using a digital image pr...

  12. Exergy analysis of encapsulation of photochromic dye by spray drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çay, A.; Akçakoca Kumbasar, E. P.; Morsunbul, S.

    2017-10-01

    Application of exergy analysis methodology for encapsulation of photochromic dyes by spray drying was presented. Spray drying system was investigated considering two subsystems, the heater and the dryer sections. Exergy models for each subsystem were proposed and exergy destruction rate and exergy efficiency of each subsystem and the whole system were computed. Energy and exergy efficiency of the system were calculated to be 5.28% and 3.40%, respectively. It was found that 90% of the total exergy inlet was destroyed during encapsulation by spray drying and the exergy destruction of the heater was found to be higher.

  13. Controle de Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae com a isca Landrin-F, em área anteriormente coberta com Eucalyptus Control of Atta laevigata (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, with Landrin-F bait, in areas previously covered with Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cola Zanuncio

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora muitos produtos tenham sido testados como princípio ativo de iscas formicidas, o mercado predominantemente utilizava produtos à base de dodecacloro. Com a proibição deste último composto, surgiram as iscas à base de sulfluramida ou de clorpirifós, constituindo, atualmente, dois dos princípios ativos de iscas formicidas, disponíveis no mercado. Este trabalho objetivou testar a isca Landrin-F (clorpirifós 0,45% no controle da formiga cortadeira Atta laevigata (F. Smith (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, comparado à isca Mirex-S (sulfluramida 0,3%. Foram utilizados tratamentos com a aplicação de 30 a 120 gramas da isca Landrin-F por olheiro; aplicação de 8g/m² de formigueiro da isca Landrin-F; aplicação de 8 g/m² de formigueiro da isca Mirex-S e; testemunha, sem aplicação de isca formicida. Após 24 e 48 horas, avaliaram-se o transporte e/ou devolução das iscas, e aos 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 e 210 dias, a atividade dos formigueiros, os quais foram sondados e escavados, aos 180 dias, e feita a avaliação final de atividade aos 210 dias. A utilização da metodologia de aplicação da isca Landrin-F por olheiro ativo aumentou consideravelmente a quantidade de isca aplicada, em relação à metodologia de aplicação por metro quadrado de formigueiro. Como a isca Landrin-F mostrou eficiência semelhante nas duas metodologias de aplicação, recomenda-se que a mesma seja aplicada na dosagem de 8g/m² de formigueiro para o controle de A. laevigata.Although many insecticides have been tested as baits against leaf cutting ants, the market was dominated by those with dodecachlor. This compound was banned and the new baits for these pests have either sulfluramid or chlorpirifos. The objective of this work was to test the Landrin-F (chlorpirifos 0.45% bait against the leaf cutting ant Atta laevigata (F. Smith, 1858 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae compared to Mirex-S (sulfluramid 0.3% bait. Treatments used were: application of 30 to

  14. Plasma Spray Synthesis of High Purity Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is the efficient synthesis of high quality boron nitride nanotubes (BNNT’s) using the LaRC radio frequency plasma spray (RFPS)...

  15. Nutritional Composition of Liquid and Spray-dried Juices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarindus indica) juices were extracted from the calyces and tamarind pulp respectively. Parts of the extracted juices were spray dried while the remaining parts were preserved as whole juices. The juices and powders were then analyzed for the ...

  16. A Combined Foam-Spray Model for Ocean Microwave Radiometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raizer, Victor

    2005-01-01

    Passive microwave emissions from oceanic dispersed media are considered. The spray is modeled by the aggregates of spherical water droplets, and the foam is represented by a macroscopic system of hollow spherical water shells...

  17. Method and apparatus for heat extraction by controlled spray cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-30

    Two solutions to the problem of cooling a high temperature, high heat flux surface using controlled spray cooling are presented for use on a mandrel. In the first embodiment, spray cooling is used to provide a varying isothermal boundary layer on the side portions of a mandrel by providing that the spray can be moved axially along the mandrel. In the second embodiment, a spray of coolant is directed to the lower temperature surface of the mandrel. By taking advantage of super-Leidenfrost cooling, the temperature of the high temperature surface of the mandrel can be controlled by varying the mass flux rate of coolant droplets. The invention has particular applicability to the field of diamond synthesis using chemical vapor deposition techniques.

  18. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  19. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2014-01-01

    . The main challenge of spray drying is to meet the residual moisture specification and prevent powder from sticking to the chamber walls. By simulation we compare the performance of the MPC against the conventional PID control strategy. During an industrially recorded disturbance scenario, the MPC increases......In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against...... experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Spray drying is a cost-effective method to evaporate water from liquid foods and produces a free flowing powder...

  20. Modular Spray-Cooled Assemblies for High Heat Fluxes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR Phase II project will produce a flight suitable test bench based on a modular spray-cooled assembly that considers NASA power and mass budgets and can...