WorldWideScience

Sample records for spinning band columns

  1. High spin rotational bands in Zn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here some preliminary results from our studies in the. ~ ¼ region in which we have observed an yrast band structure in Zn extending to spin (41/2 ). ... gaps implies that nuclei may exhibit different shapes at different excitation energies. .... uration, identifying previously unobserved states up to an excitation energy ...

  2. Spins of superdeformed rotational bands in Tl isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadwal, Anshul; Mittal, H.M. [Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar (India)

    2017-01-15

    The two-parameter model defined for even-even nuclei viz. soft-rotor formula is used to assign the band-head spin of the 17 rotational bands in Tl isotopes. The least-squares fitting method is employed to obtain the spins of these bands in the A ∝ 190 mass region. The calculated transition energies are found to depend sensitively on the proposed spin. Whenever a correct spin assignment is made, the calculated and experimental transition energies coincide very well. The dynamic moment of inertia is also calculated and its variation with rotational frequency is explored. (orig.)

  3. Spins of superdeformed band in {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Determination of the spins of SD states is the most important challenge in the study of superdeformation. Knowledge of the spin will provide crucial information on SD bands, in particular on the fascinating phenomenon of bands with identical energies and moments of inertia. Angular distribution coefficients of the {gamma}rays decaying out of the {sup 192}Hg SD band were determined using Eurogam data. These coefficients, as well as the spectral shape and multiplicity of the spectrum, are compared with the results of calculations, thereby providing a check on these calculations. From the measured decay multiplicity and the calculated average spin removed per photon (0.3 h), we deduce the average spin {bar I}{sub decay} removed by the {gamma} rays connecting SD and normal states. The spin I{sub SD} of the SD band from which the decay occurs is given by I{sub SD} = {bar I} decay + {bar I} ND, where {bar I} ND is the average spin removed by the normal yrast states. The state from which the major decay out of the SD band occurs is found to have spin 9.5 {plus_minus} 0.8 h. Since angular momentum is (quantized), this leads to a spin assignment of 9 or 10 h. The latter value is favored since the yrast band in the SD well must have only even spin values. This constitutes the first deduction of spin from data in the mass 150 and 190 regions. The spin of 10 h agrees with the spin which is inferred from a model, using the observed moment of inertia (Im){sup (2)}{omega}.

  4. Semiclassical spin transport in spin-orbit-coupled bands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Culcer, D.; Sinova, J.; Sinitsyn, N. A.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.; Niu, Q.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2004), 046602/1-046602/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0912 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : spin Hall effect * semiconductor spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 7.218, year: 2004

  5. High spin rotational bands in 65 Zn

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nucleus 30 65 Zn was studied using the 52Cr(16O, 2)65Zn reaction at a beam energy of 65 MeV. The level scheme is extended up to an excitation energy of 10.57 MeV for spin-parity (41/2ħ) with several newly observed transitions placed in it.

  6. Rotational bands terminating at maximal spin in the valence space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragnarsson, I.; Afanasjev, A.V. [Lund Institute of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    For nuclei with mass A {le} 120, the spin available in {open_quotes}normal deformation configurations{close_quotes} is experimentally accessible with present detector systems. Of special interest are the nuclei which show collective features at low or medium-high spin and where the corresponding rotational bands with increasing spin can be followed in a continuous way to or close to a non-collective terminating state. Some specific features in this context are discussed for nuclei in the A = 80 region and for {sup 117,118}Xe.

  7. Band head spin assignment of superdeformed bands in 133Pr using two-parameter formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Honey; Mittal, H. M.

    2018-03-01

    The two-parameter formulae viz. the power index formula, the nuclear softness formula and the VMI model are adopted to accredit the band head spin (I0) of four superdeformed rotational bands in 133Pr. The technique of least square fitting is used to accredit the band head spin for four superdeformed rotational bands in 133Pr. The root mean deviation among the computed transition energies and well-known experimental transition energies are attained by extracting the model parameters from the two-parameter formulae. The determined transition energies are in excellent agreement with the experimental transition energies, whenever exact spins are accredited. The power index formula coincides well with the experimental data and provides minimum root mean deviation. So, the power index formula is more efficient tool than the nuclear softness formula and the VMI model. The deviation of dynamic moment of inertia J(2) against the rotational frequency is also examined.

  8. Effect of ferromagnetic exchange field on band gap and spin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Partha Goswami

    2018-02-19

    Feb 19, 2018 ... of an electric-field tunable band gap, but like graphene it is a better .... ate energy dispersion of the pristine, pure graphene. ...... The rotation is known as the Faraday .... pave the way to the efficient control of spin generation.

  9. Band head spin assignment of superdeformed bands in Hg isotopes through power index formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Honey; Mittal, H. M.

    2018-05-01

    The power index formula has been used to obtain the band head spin (I 0) of all the superdeformed (SD) bands in Hg isotopes. A least squares fitting approach is used. The root mean square deviations between the determined and the observed transition energies are calculated by extracting the model parameters using the power index formula. Whenever definite spins are available, the determined and the observed transition energies are in accordance with each other. The computed values of dynamic moment of inertia J (2) obtained by using the power index formula and its deviation with the rotational frequency is also studied. Excellent agreement is shown between the calculated and the experimental results for J (2) versus the rotational frequency. Hence, the power index formula works very well for all the SD bands in Hg isotopes expect for 195Hg(2, 3, 4).

  10. New bands and spin-parity assignments in 111Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Droste, C.; Rohozinski, S.G.; Durell, J.L.; Phillips, W.R.; Smith, A.G.; Varley, B.J.; Schulz, N.; Ahmad, I.; Pinston, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The 111 Ru nucleus, populated in the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm has been studied by means of prompt gamma spectroscopy using the EUROGAM2 array. Spin and parity assignments, based on angular correlations, linear polarization, and conversion coefficient measurements differ from those available in the literature. New bands are reported, which incorporate γ transitions seen previously but not placed in the scheme of 111 Ru or placed incorrectly. The bands are interpreted as neutron excitations into subshells originating predominantly from the h 11/2 , g 7/2 and s 1/2 spherical orbitals. The s 1/2 band, strongly mixed with the d 3/2 , d 5/2 and g 7/2 configurations, is observed for the first time in this region. (orig.)

  11. A spin column-free approach to sodium hydroxide-based glycan permethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueming; Borges, Chad R

    2017-07-24

    Glycan permethylation was introduced as a tool to facilitate the study of glycans in 1903. Since that time, permethylation procedures have been continually modified to improve permethylation efficiency and qualitative applicability. Typically, however, either laborious preparation steps or cumbersome and uneconomical spin columns have been needed to obtain decent permethylation yields on small glycan samples. Here we describe a spin column-free (SCF) glycan permethylation procedure that is applicable to both O- and N-linked glycans and can be employed upstream to intact glycan analysis by MALDI-MS, ESI-MS, or glycan linkage analysis by GC-MS. The SCF procedure involves neutralization of NaOH beads by acidified phosphate buffer, which eliminates the risk of glycan oxidative degradation and avoids the use of spin columns. Optimization of the new permethylation procedure provided high permethylation efficiency for both hexose (>98%) and HexNAc (>99%) residues-yields which were comparable to (or better than) those of some widely-used spin column-based procedures. A light vs. heavy labelling approach was employed to compare intact glycan yields from a popular spin-column based approach to the SCF approach. Recovery of intact N-glycans was significantly better with the SCF procedure (p 0.75; p < 0.01). In summary, the SCF permethylation procedure expedites and economizes both intact glycan analysis and linkage analysis of glycans from whole biospecimens.

  12. A spin column-free approach to sodium hydroxide-based glycan permethylation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueming; Borges, Chad R.

    2018-01-01

    Glycan permethylation was introduced as a tool to facilitate the study of glycans in 1903. Since that time, permethylation procedures have been continually modified to improve permethylation efficiency and qualitative applicability. Typically, however, either laborious preparation steps or cumbersome and uneconomical spin columns have been needed to obtain decent permethylation yields on small glycan samples. Here we describe a spin column-free (SCF) glycan permethylation procedure that is applicable to both O- and N-linked glycans and can be employed upstream to intact glycan analysis by MALDI-MS, ESI-MS, or glycan linkage analysis by GC-MS. The SCF procedure involves neutralization of NaOH beads by acidified phosphate buffer, which eliminates the risk of glycan oxidative degradation and avoids the use of spin columns. Optimization of the new permethylation procedure provided high permethylation efficiency for both hexose (>98%) and HexNAc (>99%) residues—yields which were comparable to (or better than) those of some widely-used spin column-based procedures. A light vs. heavy labelling approach was employed to compare intact glycan yields from a popular spin-column based approach to the SCF approach. Recovery of intact N-glycans was significantly better with the SCF procedure (p 0.75; p < 0.01). In summary, the SCF permethylation procedure expedites and economizes both intact glycan analysis and linkage analysis of glycans from whole biospecimens. PMID:28635997

  13. Quasiparticle semiconductor band structures including spin-orbit interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Brad D; Cohen, Marvin L

    2013-03-13

    We present first-principles calculations of the quasiparticle band structure of the group IV materials Si and Ge and the group III-V compound semiconductors AlP, AlAs, AlSb, InP, InAs, InSb, GaP, GaAs and GaSb. Calculations are performed using the plane wave pseudopotential method and the 'one-shot' GW method, i.e. G(0)W(0). Quasiparticle band structures, augmented with the effects of spin-orbit, are obtained via a Wannier interpolation of the obtained quasiparticle energies and calculated spin-orbit matrix. Our calculations explicitly treat the shallow semicore states of In and Ga, which are known to be important in the description of the electronic properties, as valence states in the quasiparticle calculation. Our calculated quasiparticle energies, combining both the ab initio evaluation of the electron self-energy and the vector part of the pseudopotential representing the spin-orbit effects, are in generally very good agreement with experimental values. These calculations illustrate the predictive power of the methodology as applied to group IV and III-V semiconductors.

  14. Electron spin polarization induced by spin Hall effect in semiconductors with a linear in the momentum spin-orbit splitting of conduction band

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that spin Hall effect creates uniform spin polarization of electrons in semiconductor with a linear in the momentum spin splitting of conduction band. In turn, the profile of the non-uniform spin polarization accumulated at the edge of the sample oscillates in space even in the absence of an external magnetic field.

  15. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baktash, C; Garrett, J D; Winchell, D F; Smith, A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  16. Low-spin identical bands in rare earth nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  17. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Garrett, J.D.; Winchell, D.F.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  18. Low-spin identical bands in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Garrett, J.D.; Winchell, D.F.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally-deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (30% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models, based on the traditional picture of nuclear pair correlation in vogue for more than three decades, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  19. Effect of pre- and post-column band broadening on the performance of high-speed chromatography columns under isocratic and gradient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Kim; Broeckhoven, Ken; Vanderheyden, Yoachim; Desmet, Gert

    2016-04-15

    We report on the results of an experimental and theoretical study of the effect of the extra-column band broadening (ECBB) on the performance of narrow-bore columns filled with the smallest particles that are currently commercially available. Emphasis is on the difference between the effect of ECBB under gradient and isocratic conditions, as well as on the ability to model and predict the ECBB effects using well-established band broadening expressions available from the theory of chromatography. The fine details and assumptions that need to be taken into account when using these expressions are discussed. The experiments showed that, the steeper the gradient, the more pronounced the extra-column band broadening losses become. Whereas the pre-column band broadening can in both isocratic and gradient elution be avoided by playing on the possibilities to focus the analytes on top of the column (e.g. by using the POISe injection method when running isocratic separations), the post-column extra-column band broadening is inescapable in both cases. Inducing extra-column band broadening by changing the inner diameter of the post-column tubing from 65 to 250 μm, we found that all peaks in the chromatogram are strongly affected (around a factor of 1.9 increase in relative peak width) when running steep gradients, while usually only the first eluting peak was affected in the isocratic mode or when running shallow gradients (factor 1.6-1.8 increase in relative peak width for the first eluting analyte). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spin alignment and collective moment of inertia of the basic rotational band in the cranking model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshihide

    1982-01-01

    By making an attempt to separate the intrinsic particle and collective rotational motions in the cranking model, the spin alignment and the collective moment of inertia characterizing the basic rotational bands are defined, and are investigated by using a simple i sub(13/2) shell model. The result of the calculation indicates that the collective moment of inertia decreases under the presence of the quasiparticles which are responsible for the increase of the spin alignment of the band. (author)

  1. K-band single-chip electron spin resonance detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Jens; Angerhofer, Alexander; Boero, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of an integrated detector for electron spin resonance spectroscopy operating at 27 GHz. The microsystem, consisting of an LC-oscillator and a frequency division module, is integrated onto a single silicon chip using a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. The achieved room temperature spin sensitivity is about 10(8)spins/G Hz(1/2), with a sensitive volume of about (100 μm)(3). Operation at 77K is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding and diminishing the extra-column band broadening effects in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Ruben; Shoykhet Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2015-07-17

    Supercritical fluid chromatography, where a low-viscosity mobile phase such as carbon dioxide is used, proves to be an excellent technique for fast and efficient separations, especially when sub-2μm particles are used. However, to achieve high velocities when using these small particles, and in order to stay within the flow rate range of current SFC-instruments, narrow columns (e.g. 2.1mm ID) must be used. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art instrumentation is limiting the full separation power of these narrower columns due to significant extra-column band broadening effects. The present work identifies and quantifies the different contributions to extra-column band broadening in SFC such as the influence of the sample solvent, injection volume, extra-column volumes and detector cell volume/design. When matching the sample solvent to the mobile phase in terms of elution strength and polarity (e.g. using hexane/ethanol/isopropanol 85/10/5vol%) and lowering the injection volume to 0.4μL, the plate count can be increased from 7600 to 21,300 for a low-retaining compound (k'=2.3) on a 2.1mm×150mm column (packed with 1.8μm particles). The application of a water/acetonitrile mixture as sample solvent was also investigated. It was found that when the volumetric ratio of water/acetonitrile was optimized, only a slightly lower plate count was measured compared to the hexane-based solvent when minimizing injection and extra-column volume. This confirms earlier results that water/acetonitrile can be used if water-soluble samples are considered or when a less volatile solvent is preferred. Minimizing the ID of the connection capillaries from 250 to 65μm, however, gives no further improvement in obtained efficiency for early-eluting compounds when a standard system configuration with optimized sample solvent was used. When switching to a state-of-the-art detector design with reduced (dispersion) volume (1.7-0.6μL), an increase in plate count is observed (from 11,000 to 14

  3. Determination of phthalate esters in physiological saline solution by monolithic silica spin column extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Monolithic silica spin column extraction (MonoSpin-SPE was developed as a simple, sensitive, and eco-friendly pretreatment method which combined with ultra-fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS to determine the levels of six phthalate esters, dimethyl-(DMP, diethyl-(DEP, dipropyl- [DPrP], butyl-benzyl-(BBP, dicyclohexyl(DcHP, and di- n-octyl-(DOP phthalate in physiological saline samples. Under optimized experimental conditions, the method was linear in the following ranges: 0.2- 50 μ/L for DMP, DEP, DPrP, DcHP and DOP; 5 – 100 μ/L for BBP. The correlation coefficients (R2 were in the range of O. 9951 – O. 9995 for all the analytes and the limits of detection (LODs and limits of quantification (LOQs were in the ranges of 0.02 – 0.9 μ/L and 0.08 – 2.7 μ/L, respectively. The pretreatment process showed good reproducibility with inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs below 8.5% and 11.2%, respectively. This method was used to determine the levels of six phthalate esters in physiological saline samples and the recoveries ranged from 71.2% to 107. 3%. DMP and DEP were found in actual physical saline samples (brand A and brand B. Keywords: Monolithic silica spin column, Phthalate esters, Physiological saline samples, Ultra fast liquid chromatographymass spectrometry (UFLC-MS

  4. Intrinsic properties of high-spin band structures in triaxial nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehangir, S.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.; Palit, R.; Ganai, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The band structures of 68,70Ge, 128,130,132,134Ce and 132,134,136,138Nd are investigated using the triaxial projected shell model (TPSM) approach. These nuclei depict forking of the ground-state band into several s-bands and in some cases, both the lowest two observed s-bands depict neutron or proton character. It was discussed in our earlier work that this anomalous behaviour can be explained by considering γ-bands based on two-quasiparticle configurations. As the parent band and the γ-band built on it have the same intrinsic structure, g-factors of the two bands are expected to be similar. In the present work, we have undertaken a detailed investigation of g-factors for the excited band structures of the studied nuclei and the available data for a few high-spin states are shown to be in fair agreement with the predicted values.

  5. Synthetical analysis of the spin assignment for the superdeformed bands in A≅190 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Yaomin

    2002-01-01

    The spin assignment for the superdeformed bands of even-even nuclei in A ≅190 region is given by means of using the method of synthetical analysis. The I( I + 1) expression is used to fit the experimental data of the transition γ energies. In contrast to other procedure, the convergence process of the series expansions is put stress upon, whereas taking how many terms exactly in the expression does not emphasized. Moreover as well as the method of fitting the physical quantity, by use of these series expansions the moment of inertia of band heads is also calculated and then the systematics is used for the spin assignments. In practice, when the experimental data is abundant the systematics of the moment of inertia of band heads is more efficient than the method of fitting the physical quantity in the spin assignment. As for a few bands which spin assignment is difficult, the deviation from the typical rotational bands must be considered, which may be judged easily from the second class of moment of inertia of the bands. Finally the results of the spin assignment and the comparison with other literature are presented. These results should be more reliable

  6. Assimilation of ZDR Columns for Improving the Spin-Up and Forecasts of Convective Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, J.; Gao, J.; Snyder, J.; Ryzhkov, A.

    2017-12-01

    A primary motivation for assimilating radar reflectivity data is the reduction of spin-up time for modeled convection. To accomplish this, cloud analysis techniques seek to induce and sustain convective updrafts in storm-scale models by inserting temperature and moisture increments and hydrometeor mixing ratios into the model analysis from simple relations with reflectivity. Polarimetric radar data provide additional insight into the microphysical and dynamic structure of convection. In particular, the radar meteorology community has known for decades that convective updrafts cause, and are typically co-located with, differential reflectivity (ZDR) columns - vertical protrusions of enhanced ZDR above the environmental 0˚C level. Despite these benefits, limited work has been done thus far to assimilate dual-polarization radar data into numerical weather prediction models. In this study, we explore the utility of assimilating ZDR columns to improve storm-scale model analyses and forecasts of convection. We modify the existing Advanced Regional Prediction System's (ARPS) cloud analysis routine to adjust model temperature and moisture state variables using detected ZDR columns as proxies for convective updrafts, and compare the resultant cycled analyses and forecasts with those from the original reflectivity-based cloud analysis formulation. Results indicate qualitative and quantitative improvements from assimilating ZDR columns, including more coherent analyzed updrafts, forecast updraft helicity swaths that better match radar-derived rotation tracks, more realistic forecast reflectivity fields, and larger equitable threat scores. These findings support the use of dual-polarization radar signatures to improve storm-scale model analyses and forecasts.

  7. Predicting superdeformed rotational band-head spin in A ∼ 190 mass region using variable moment of inertia model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, V.S.; Goel, Alpana; Yadav, Archana; Jain, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The band-head spin (I 0 ) of superdeformed (SD) rotational bands in A ∼ 190 mass region is predicted using the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model for 66 SD rotational bands. The superdeformed rotational bands exhibited considerably good rotational property and rigid behaviour. The transition energies were dependent on the prescribed band-head spins. The ratio of transition energies over spin Eγ/ 2 I (RTEOS) vs. angular momentum (I) have confirmed the rigid behaviour, provided the band-head spin value is assigned correctly. There is a good agreement between the calculated and the observed transition energies. This method gives a very comprehensive interpretation for spin assignment of SD rotational bands which could help in designing future experiments for SD bands. (author)

  8. Precision Column CO2 Measurement from Space Using Broad Band LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, William S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand the budget of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere it is necessary to develop a global high precision understanding of the carbon dioxide column. To uncover the missing sink" that is responsible for the large discrepancies in the budget as we presently understand it, calculation has indicated that measurement accuracy of 1 ppm is necessary. Because typical column average CO2 has now reached 380 ppm this represents a precision on the order of 0.25% for these column measurements. No species has ever been measured from space at such a precision. In recognition of the importance of understanding the CO2 budget to evaluate its impact on global warming the National Research Council in its decadal survey report to NASA recommended planning for a laser based total CO2 mapping mission in the near future. The extreme measurement accuracy requirements on this mission places very strong constraints on the laser system used for the measurement. This work presents an overview of the characteristics necessary in a laser system used to make this measurement. Consideration is given to the temperature dependence, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of the CO2 lines themselves and how these impact the laser system characteristics. We are examining the possibility of making precise measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a broad band source of radiation. This means that many of the difficulties in wavelength control can be treated in the detector portion of the system rather than the laser source. It also greatly reduces the number of individual lasers required to make a measurement. Simplifications such as these are extremely desirable for systems designed to operate from space.

  9. Radial distribution of the contributions to band broadening of a silica-based semi-preparative monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Jude A; Mriziq, Khaled S; Guiochon, Georges A

    2009-04-01

    Using an on-column local electrochemical microdetector operated in the amperometric mode, band elution profiles were recorded at different radial locations at the exit of a 10 mm id, 100 mm long silica-based monolithic column. HETP plots were then acquired at each of these locations, and all these results were fitted to the Knox equation. This provided a spatial distribution of the values of the eddy diffusion (A), the molecular diffusion (B), and the resistance to the kinetics of mass transfer (C) terms. Results obtained indicate that the wall region yields higher A values and smaller C values than the central core region. Significant radial fluctuations of these contributions to band broadening occur throughout the exit column cross-section. This phenomenon is due to the structural radial heterogeneity of the column.

  10. Evaluation of SDS depletion using an affinity spin column and IMS-MS detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hengel, Shawna M.; Floyd, Erica A.; Baker, Erin Shammel; Zhao, Rui; Wu, Si; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2012-11-01

    While the use of detergents is necessary for a variety of protein isolation preparation protocols, often prior to mass spectral (MS) analysis, they are not compatible with MS analysis due to ion suppression and adduct formation. This manuscript describes optimization of detergent removal, using commercially available SDS depletion spin columns containing an affinity resin, providing for both increased protein recovery and thorough SDS removal. Ion mobility spectrometry coupled with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) allowed for a concurrent analysis of both analyte and detergent. In the case of both proteins and peptides, higher detergent concentrations than previously reported provided an increase of sample recovery; however there was a limit as SDS was detected by IMS-MS at higher levels of SDS indicating incomplete detergent depletion. The results also suggest optimal conditions for SDS removal are dependent on the sample concentration. Overall, this study provides a useful guide for proteomic studies where SDS is required for efficient sample preparation.

  11. Spin-relaxation time in the impurity band of wurtzite semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborenea, Pablo I.; Wellens, Thomas; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A.

    2017-09-01

    The spin-relaxation time for electrons in the impurity band of semiconductors with wurtzite crystal structure is determined. The effective Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction Hamiltonian is taken as the source of the spin relaxation at low temperature and for doping densities corresponding to the metallic side of the metal-insulator transition. The spin-flip hopping matrix elements between impurity states are calculated and used to set up a tight-binding Hamiltonian that incorporates the symmetries of wurtzite semiconductors. The spin-relaxation time is obtained from a semiclassical model of spin diffusion, as well as from a microscopic self-consistent diagrammatic theory of spin and charge diffusion in doped semiconductors. Estimates are provided for particularly important materials. The theoretical spin-relaxation times compare favorably with the corresponding low-temperature measurements in GaN and ZnO. For InN and AlN we predict that tuning of the spin-orbit coupling constant induced by an external potential leads to a potentially dramatic increase of the spin-relaxation time related to the mechanism under study.

  12. High-spin structure of 121Xe: triaxiality, band termination and signature inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timar, J.; Paul, E.S.; Beausang, C.W.; Joyce, M.J.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    High-spin states of the odd-neutron 121 Xe nucleus have been studied with Eurogam using the 96 Zr( 30 Si, 5n) 121 Xe fusion-evaporation reaction. The level scheme has been extended up to a tentative spin of 67/2h at an excitation energy of ∼ 14 MeV. Several new rotational bands have been observed and the previously known bands extended. Two of them lose their regular character at high spins, which may be interpreted as transition from collective behaviour to a regime of noncollective oblate states. The deduced high-spin structure is compared to Woods-Saxon TRS cranking and CSM calculations. Configurations of the bands have been suggested. The νh 1 1/2 band is interpreted as having a triaxial shape. Signature inversion and an unexpectedly large staggering of the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios has been found for one of the bands. Enhanced E1 transitions have been observed between the νd 5/2 and the νh 1 1/2 bands. (orig.)

  13. Conduction-band valley spin splitting in single-layer H-T l2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yandong; Kou, Liangzhi; Du, Aijun; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying; Heine, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Despite numerous studies, coupled spin and valley physics is currently limited to two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Here, we predict an exceptional 2D valleytronic material associated with the spin-valley coupling phenomena beyond 2D TMDCs—single-layer (SL) H-T l2O . It displays large valley spin splitting (VSS), significantly larger than that of 2D TMDCs, and a finite band gap, which are both critically attractive for the integration of valleytronics and spintronics. More importantly, in sharp contrast to all the experimentally confirmed 2D valleytronic materials, where the strong valence-band VSS (0.15-0.46 eV) supports the spin-valley coupling, the VSS in SL H-T l2O is pronounced in its conduction band (0.61 eV), but negligibly small in its valence band (21 meV), thus opening a way for manipulating the coupled spin and valley physics. Moreover, SL H-T l2O possesses extremely high carrier mobility, as large as 9.8 ×103c m2V-1s-1 .

  14. Magnetization and spin-polarized conductance of asymmetrically hydrogenated graphene nanoribbons: significance of sigma bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Syuta; Inuzuka, Kouhei; Inoshita, Takeshi; Ota, Norio; Sano, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The magnetization and spin transport of asymmetric zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons, terminated by hydrogen on one edge while unterminated on the other edge, were investigated by a combination of first-principles calculations and a tight-binding approach. At the unterminated edge, a spin-polarized σ edge state of minority spin appears near the Fermi level and contributes to spin transport. This state enters the band gap for ribbon widths of less than 15 chains, dominating the spin-polarized current. This indicates the importance of the σ edge states in the design of spintronic devices using graphene nanoribbons. We also examined the case where the ‘unterminated’ edge is partially terminated by hydrogen. (paper)

  15. New high spin states and band termination in 83Y and 84Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.D.; Aprahamian, A.; Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Crowell, B.; Chowdhury, P.; Fallon, P.; Machiavelli, A.O.

    1997-01-01

    The gamma decay of high spin yrast states in 83 Y up to I π =59/2 + and 53/2 - have been observed using the reaction 58 Ni( 29 Si,3p) at 110 MeV and the Gammasphere Early Implementation Array. The level scheme has been substantially extended due to the observations of several new transitions in all of the bands. A sequence of transitions feeding into the positive parity yrast band above I π =47/2 + seems to be consistent with a noncollective oblate structure expected at these high spins. A similar cascade is found in the data for 84 Zr. A new forking of the favored negative parity band is found which may be due to neutron alignment polarizing the core to a different shape. This suggests that the open-quotes isomeric close-quote close-quote band in 83 Y, for which one more connecting transition was found, is of a similar nature to other high-K bands found in this region. Lifetime measurements in the unfavored negative parity band are consistent with cranking calculations which predict a nearly oblate shape with a deformation parameter β 2 ∼0.2. A qualitative analysis of line shapes at very high spins suggests the persistence of collectivity in the yrast sequence to the highest excitations seen. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. New high spin states and band termination in {sup 83}Y and {sup 84}Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T.D.; Aprahamian, A. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Lister, C.J.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Crowell, B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chowdhury, P. [University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Fallon, P.; Machiavelli, A.O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The gamma decay of high spin yrast states in {sup 83}Y up to I{sup {pi}}=59/2{sup +} and 53/2{sup {minus}} have been observed using the reaction {sup 58}Ni({sup 29}Si,3p) at 110 MeV and the Gammasphere Early Implementation Array. The level scheme has been substantially extended due to the observations of several new transitions in all of the bands. A sequence of transitions feeding into the positive parity yrast band above I{sup {pi}}=47/2{sup +} seems to be consistent with a noncollective oblate structure expected at these high spins. A similar cascade is found in the data for {sup 84}Zr. A new forking of the favored negative parity band is found which may be due to neutron alignment polarizing the core to a different shape. This suggests that the {open_quotes}isomeric{close_quote}{close_quote} band in {sup 83}Y, for which one more connecting transition was found, is of a similar nature to other high-K bands found in this region. Lifetime measurements in the unfavored negative parity band are consistent with cranking calculations which predict a nearly oblate shape with a deformation parameter {beta}{sub 2}{approx}0.2. A qualitative analysis of line shapes at very high spins suggests the persistence of collectivity in the yrast sequence to the highest excitations seen. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-06-29

    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  18. Spin-dependent recombination processes in wide band gap II-Mn-VI compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godlewski, M.; Yatsunenko, S.; Khachapuridze, A.; Ivanov, V.Yu.

    2004-01-01

    Mechanisms of optical detection of magnetic resonance in wide band gap II-Mn-VI diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) are discussed based on the results of photoluminescence (PL), PL kinetics, electron spin resonance (ESR) and optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) and optically detected cyclotron resonance (ODCR) investigations. Spin-dependent interactions between localized spins of Mn 2+ ions and spins/magnetic moments of free, localized or bound carriers are responsible for the observed ODMR signals. We conclude that these interactions are responsible for the observed rapid shortening of the PL decay time of 4 T 1 → 6 A 1 intra-shell emission of Mn 2+ ions and also for the observed delocalization of excitons in low dimensional structures

  19. Spin splitting in band structures of BiTeX (X=Cl, Br, I) monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvazdouski, D. C.; Baranava, M. S.; Stempitsky, V. R.

    2018-04-01

    In systems with breaking of inversion symmetry a perpendicular electric field arises that interacts with the conduction electrons. It may give rise to electron state splitting even without influence of external magnetic field due to the spin-orbital interaction (SOI). Such a removal of the spin degeneracy is called the Rashba effect. Nanostructure with the Rashba effect can be part of a spin transistor. Spin degeneracy can be realized in a channel from a material of this type without additive of magnetic ions. Lack of additive increases the charge carrier mobility and reliability of the device. Ab initio simulations of BiTeX (X=Cl, Br, I) monolayers have been carried out using VASP wherein implemented DFT method. The study of this structures is of interest because such sort of structures can be used their as spin-orbitronics materials. The crystal parameters of BiTeCl, BiTeBr, BiTeI have been determined by the ionic relaxation and static calculations. It is necessary to note that splitting of energy bands occurs in case of SOI included. The values of the Rashba coefficient aR (in the range from 6.25 to 10.00 eV·Å) have high magnitudes for spintronics materials. Band structure of monolayers structures have ideal Rashba electron gas, i.e. there no other energy states near to Fermi level except Rashba states.

  20. Properties of rotational bands at the spin limit in A {approximately} 50, A {approximately} 65 and A {approximately} 110 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janzen, V.P.; Andrews, H.R.; Ball, G.C. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    There is now widespread evidence for the smooth termination of rotational bands in A {approx_equal} 110 nuclei at spins of 40-to-50{Dirac_h}s. The characteristics of these bands are compared to those of bands recently observed to high spin in {sup 64}Zn and {sup 48}Cr, studied with the 8{pi} {gamma}-ray spectrometer coupled to the Chalk River miniball charged-particle-detector array.

  1. Pseudo-spin band in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu

    CERN Document Server

    Venkova, T; Gast, W; Podsvirova, E O; Jäger, H M; Mihailescu, L; Bazzacco, D; Menegazzo, R; Lunardi, S; Alvarez, C R; Ur, C; Martínez, T; Angelis, G D; Axiotis, M; Napoli, D; Urban, W; Rzaca-Urban, T; Frauendorf, S

    2003-01-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd nucleus sup 1 sup 7 sup 2 Lu have been populated in a sup 1 sup 7 sup 0 Er( sup 7 Li,5n) reaction and the emitted gamma-radiation was detected with the GASP array. Two sequences of a new identical band have been observed with the transition energies in the favoured and unfavoured sequences being identical within approx 3 keV at low spins and approx 1 keV at high spins over the whole observed spin range. An interpretation as a pseudo-spin singlet band of pi 1/2 sup - [541] x nu 1/2 sup - [420] configuration is proposed. It represents the best example of a pseudo-spin singlet band in normal deformed nuclei known until now.

  2. Dual Band Magnonic Crystals: Model System and Basic Spin Wave Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Montoncello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a special design of two-dimensional magnonic crystal, consisting of two superimposed lattices with different lattice constants, such that spin waves (SWs can propagate either in one or the other sublattice, depending on which of the two frequency bands they belong to. The SW bands are separated by a very large bandgap (in our model system, 6 GHz, easily tunable by changing the direction of an applied magnetic field, and the overlap of their spatial distribution, for any frequency of their bands, is always negligible. These properties make the designed system an ideal test system for a magnonic dual band waveguide, where the simultaneous excitation and subsequent propagation of two independent SW signals are allowed, with no mutual interference.

  3. Spin-parity assignments and extension of the 02+ band in 158Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinoko, T. S.; Orce, J. N.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Wiedeking, M.; Bark, R. A.; Bvumbi, S. P.; Jones, P.; Khaleel, E. A. M. A.; Lawrie, E. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Majola, S. N. T.; Masiteng, P. L.; Mohammed, H.; Ntshangase, S. S.; Papka, P.; Shirinda, O.; Stankiewicz, M.; Zhou, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    Low and medium spin collective structures in 158 Er have been studied using the 150 Sm( 12 C,4nγγ) fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of E lab = 65 MeV. A band built on the 0 2 + excitation has been established and extended to J π = 18 + from the analysis of γ-γ coincidence relationships, intensity arguments and DCO ratios. The 0 2 + band in 158 Er presents a similar trend to the 0 2 + bands in the lighter N = 90 isotones but lies about 125 keV higher. This systematic trend supports a similar configuration for the 0 2 + bands in the N = 90 isotones. (authors)

  4. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure of few-layer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id; Darma, Yudi, E-mail: sahdan89@yahoo.co.id [Department of Physics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Topological insulators are electronic materials that have a bulk band gap like an ordinary insulator but have protected conducting states on their edge or surface. This can be happened due to spin-orbit coupling and time-reversal symmetry. Moreover, the edge current flows through their edge or surface depends on its spin orientation and also it is robust against non-magnetic impurities. Therefore, topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of few-layer graphene by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculations show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point, not only in single layer, but also in bilayer and trilayer graphene.

  5. Pseudo-spin flip in doubly decoupled structures and identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, A.J.; Cardona, M.A.; Somacal, H.; Debray, M.E.; Hojman, D.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.; De Acuna, D.; Napoli, D.R.; Rico, J.; Bazzacco, D.; Burch, R.; Lenzi, S.M.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Blasi, N.; Lo Bianco, G.

    1995-01-01

    Unfavored components of doubly decoupled bands are reported for the first time. They can be interpreted as having the pseudo-spin flipped relative to the orientation in the favored components, i.e. antialigned with respect to the rotation axis. In addition, the differences in consecutive transition energies along the favored and unfavored sequences are strikingly similar among them up to I π =15 + and 14 + respectively. This feature arises from a cancellation of differences in alignments and moments of inertia. ((orig.))

  6. Effective one-band approach for the spin splittings in quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, P. S.; Nestoklon, M. O.

    2017-03-01

    The spin-orbit interaction of two-dimensional electrons in quantum wells grown from the III-V semiconductors consists of two parts with different symmetry: the Bychkov-Rashba and the Dresselhaus terms. The last term is usually attributed to the bulk spin-orbit Hamiltonian which reflects the Td symmetry of the zincblende lattice. While it is known that the quantum well interfaces may also contribute to the Dresselhaus term, the exact structure and relative importance of the interface and bulk contributions are not well understood. To deal with this problem, we perform tight-binding calculations of the spin splittings of the electron levels in [100] GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. We show that the obtained spin splittings can be adequately described within the one-band electron Hamiltonian containing, together with the bulk contribution, the two interface contributions to the Dresselhaus term. The magnitude of the interface contribution to the spin-orbit interaction for sufficiently narrow quantum wells is of the same order as the bulk contribution.

  7. Non-Dirac Chern insulators with large band gaps and spin-polarized edge states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y; Zhang, J Y; Zhao, B; Wei, X Y; Yang, Z Q

    2018-05-10

    Based on first-principles calculations and k·p models, we demonstrate that PbC/MnSe heterostructures are a non-Dirac type of Chern insulator with very large band gaps (244 meV) and exotically half-metallic edge states, providing the possibilities of realizing very robust, completely spin polarized, and dissipationless spintronic devices from the heterostructures. The achieved extraordinarily large nontrivial band gap can be ascribed to the contribution of the non-Dirac type electrons (composed of px and py) and the very strong atomic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction of the heavy Pb element in the system. Surprisingly, the band structures are found to be sensitive to the different exchange and correlation functionals adopted in the first-principles calculations. Chern insulators with various mechanisms are acquired from them. These discoveries show that the predicted nontrivial topology in PbC/MnSe heterostructures is robust and can be observed in experiments at high temperatures. The system has great potential to have attractive applications in future spintronics.

  8. Spin assignment and behavior of superdeformed bands in A∼150 mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, A.; Sirag, M.; Taha, M.

    2012-01-01

    The smoothed experimental dynamical moment of inertia J (2) values were fitted with a theoretical version depend on Harris three parameter formula in even power of angular frequency ω, derived for results from cranking model. The expansion parameters were adjusted by using a computer simulated search program. The best expansion parameters from the fit were used to assign the spins of the superdeformed ( SD ) rotational bands (RB ) by integrating the calculated J (2) . The data set include 23 RB's in 11 SD nuclei, which show no evidence of either irregular behavior near the bottom of the bands or abrupt angular momentum at low rotational frequency in the mass region ranging from A= 142 to A = 154. we used the differences of angular momenta at constant frequency as effective alignment. The relative properties of superdeformed rotational bands (SDRB's) are analyzed in terms of the effective alignment of the valence nucleons. The effective alignment is a powerful tool to assign the configurations, to select the identical bands as well as to predict new SD bands from other combination of the orbitals. The ΔI = 2 energy staggering observed in 3 of our selected SDRB's are also described from a smooth reference representing the finite difference approximation to the fourth derivative of the γ-ray transition energies.

  9. Full-zone analysis of relativistic spin splitting at band anticrossings: The case of zinc-blende semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chantis, Athanasios N.; Christensen, Niels Egede; Svane, Axel

    2010-01-01

    . In the first, the spin splitting is completely suppressed for one of the bands and doubled for the other. In the second, the absolute value of the splitting is markedly enhanced for both bands approaching the magnitude of the hybridization gap. We demonstrate these effects in zinc-blende semiconductors...

  10. Spin excitation and band-narrowing in AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2010-01-01

    We studied the spin excitation in dependences of the applied electric field and lattice temperature (LT) via the measurements of the circularly polarized photoluminescence (CPPL) in Al x Ga 1-x As heterostructures (HSs). The intensity of CPPL was found to strongly depend on the electric field applied to the HSs. The CPPL was also found to enhance with decreasing LT. It was demonstrated that the observed LT dependence might be due to the LT-dependent band-gap shift of the HS materials.

  11. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21% for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority

  12. Low-spin identical bands in neighboring odd-A and even-even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktash, C.; Winchell, D.F.; Garrett, J.D.; Smith, A.

    1993-01-01

    A comprehensive study of odd-A rotational bands in normally deformed rare-earth nuclei indicates that a large number of seniority-one configurations (21 % for odd-Z nuclei) at low spin have moments of inertia nearly identical to that of the seniority-zero configuration of the neighboring even-even nucleus with one less nucleon. It is difficult to reconcile these results with conventional models of nuclear pair correlation, which predict variations of about 15% in the moments of inertia of configurations differing by one unit in seniority. (orig.)

  13. Spin-dependent electron-phonon coupling in the valence band of single-layer WS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsche, Nicki Frank; Ngankeu, Arlette S.; Guilloy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The absence of inversion symmetry leads to a strong spin-orbit splitting of the upper valence band of semiconducting single-layer transition-metal dichalchogenides such as MoS2 or WS2. This permits a direct comparison of the electron-phonon coupling strength in states that only differ by their spin....... Here, the electron-phonon coupling in the valence band maximum of single-layer WS2 is studied by first-principles calculations and angle-resolved photoemission. The coupling strength is found to be drastically different for the two spin-split branches, with calculated values of λK=0.0021 and 0.......40 for the upper and lower spin-split valence band of the freestanding layer, respectively. This difference is somewhat reduced when including scattering processes involving the Au(111) substrate present in the experiment but it remains significant, in good agreement with the experimental results....

  14. Characterization of RNA from Exosomes and Other Extracellular Vesicles Isolated by a Novel Spin Column-Based Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, Daniel; Spiel, Alexandra; Coticchia, Christine M.; Berghoff, Emily; Mueller, Romy; Schlumpberger, Martin; Sprenger-Haussels, Markus; Shaffer, Jonathan M.; Lader, Eric; Skog, Johan; Noerholm, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (commonly referred to as EVs) have generated a lot of attention for their potential applications in both diagnostics and therapeutics. The contents of these vesicles are the subject of intense research, and the relatively recent discovery of RNA inside EVs has raised interest in the biological function of these RNAs as well as their potential as biomarkers for cancer and other diseases. Traditional ultracentrifugation-based protocols to isolate EVs are labor-intensive and subject to significant variability. Various attempts to develop methods with robust, reproducible performance have not yet been completely successful. Here, we report the development and characterization of a spin column-based method for the isolation of total RNA from EVs in serum and plasma. This method isolates highly pure RNA of equal or higher quantity compared to ultracentrifugation, with high specificity for vesicular over non-vesicular RNA. The spin columns have a capacity to handle up to 4 mL sample volume, enabling detection of low-abundance transcripts in serum and plasma. We conclude that the method is an improvement over traditional methods in providing a faster, more standardized way to achieve reliable high quality RNA preparations from EVs in biofluids such as serum and plasma. The first kit utilizing this new method has recently been made available by Qiagen as “exoRNeasy Serum/Plasma Maxi Kit”. PMID:26317354

  15. Spin- and valley-dependent electronic band structure and electronic heat capacity of ferromagnetic silicene in the presence of strain, exchange field and Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen; Kazzaz, Houshang Araghi

    2017-10-01

    We studied how the strain, induced exchange field and extrinsic Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) enhance the electronic band structure (EBS) and electronic heat capacity (EHC) of ferromagnetic silicene in presence of external electric field (EF) by using the Kane-Mele Hamiltonian, Dirac cone approximation and the Green's function approach. Particular attention is paid to investigate the EHC of spin-up and spin-down bands at Dirac K and K‧ points. We have varied the EF, strain, exchange field and RSOC to tune the energy of inter-band transitions and consequently EHC, leading to very promising features for future applications. Evaluation of EF exhibits three phases: Topological insulator (TI), valley-spin polarized metal (VSPM) and band insulator (BI) at given aforementioned parameters. As a new finding, we have found a quantum anomalous Hall phase in BI regime at strong RSOCs. Interestingly, the effective mass of carriers changes with strain, resulting in EHC behaviors. Here, exchange field has the same behavior with EF. Finally, we have confirmed the reported and expected symmetry results for both Dirac points and spins with the study of valley-dependent EHC.

  16. Complex band structures of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers with spin-orbit coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczęśniak, Dominik; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Ahzi, Saïd

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the transition metal dichalcogenides have attracted renewed attention due to the potential use of their low-dimensional forms in both nano- and opto-electronics. In such applications, the electronic and transport properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides play a pivotal role. The present paper provides a new insight into these essential properties by studying the complex band structures of popular transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (MX 2, where M  =  Mo, W; X  =  S, Se, Te) while including spin-orbit coupling effects. The conducted symmetry-based tight-binding calculations show that the analytical continuation from the real band structures to the complex momentum space leads to nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problems. Herein an efficient method for solving such a class of nonlinear problems is presented and yields a complete set of physically relevant eigenvalues. Solutions obtained by this method are characterized and classified into propagating and evanescent states, where the latter states manifest not only monotonic but also oscillatory decay character. It is observed that some of the oscillatory evanescent states create characteristic complex loops at the direct band gap of MX 2 monolayers, where electrons can directly tunnel between the band gap edges. To describe these tunneling currents, decay behavior of electronic states in the forbidden energy region is elucidated and their importance within the ballistic transport regime is briefly discussed.

  17. Dipole bands in high spin states of {sub 57}{sup 135}La{sub 78}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Ritika; Kumar, S.; Saxena, Mansi; Goyal, Savi; Siwal, Davinder; Verma, S.; Mandal, S. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007 (India); Palit, R.; Saha, Sudipta; Sethi, J.; Sharma, Sushil K.; Trivedi, T.; Jadav, S. K.; Donthi, R.; Naidu, B. S. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai - 400005 (India)

    2014-08-14

    High spin states of {sup 135}La have been investigated using the reaction {sup 128}Te({sup 11}B,4n){sup 135}La at a beam energy of 50.5 MeV. Two negative parity dipole bands (ΔI = 1) have been established. Crossover E2 transitions have been observed for the first time in one of the dipole bands. For the Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) calculations, a three-quasiparticle (3qp) configuration π(h{sub 11/2}){sup 1}⊗ν(h{sub 11/2}){sup −2} and a five-quasiparticle (5qp) configuration π(h{sub 11/2}){sup 1}(g{sub 7/2}/d{sub 5/2}){sup 2}⊗ν(h{sub 11/2}){sup −2} have been taken for the two negative parity dipole bands. The comparison of experimental observables with TAC calculations supports the configuration assignments for both the dipole bands.

  18. Rotational bands on few-particle excitations of very high spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, C.G.; Krumlinde, J.; Leander, G.; Szymanski, Z.

    1980-01-01

    An RPA formalism is developed to investigate the existence and properties of slow collective rotation around a non-symmetry axis, when there already exists a large angular momentum K along the symmetry axis built up by aligned single-particle spins. It is found necessary to distinguish between the collectivity and the repeatability of the rotational excitations. First the formalism is applied to bands on hihg-K isomers in the well-deformed nucleus 176 Hf, where the rotational-model picture is reproduced for intermediate K-values in agreement with experiment. At high K there is a suppression of the collectivity corresponding to the diminishing vector-coupling coefficient of the rotational model, but the repeatability actually improves. The moment of inertia is predicted to remain substantially smaller than the rigid-body value so the bands slope up steeply from the yrast line at spins where pairing effects are gone. A second application is to the initially spherical nucleus 212 Rn, which is believed to acquire an oblate deformation that increases steadily with K due to the oblate shape of the aligned orbitals. In this case the repeatable excitations come higher above the yrast line than in 176 Hf, even at comparable deformations. Some collective states may occur very close to yrast, but these are more like dressed singleparticle excitations. The main differences between the two nuclei studied is interpreted as a general consequence of their different shell structure. (author)

  19. Magnonic band structure, complete bandgap, and collective spin wave excitation in nanoscale two-dimensional magnonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, A.; Kłos, J. W.; Krawczyk, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the observation of a complete bandgap and collective spin wave excitation in two-dimensional magnonic crystals comprised of arrays of nanoscale antidots and nanodots, respectively. Considering that the frequencies dealt with here fall in the microwave band, these findings can be used for the development of suitable magnonic metamaterials and spin wave based signal processing. We also present the application of a numerical procedure, to compute the dispersion relations of spin waves for any high symmetry direction in the first Brillouin zone. The results obtained from this procedure have been reproduced and verified by the well established plane wave method for an antidot lattice, when magnetization dynamics at antidot boundaries are pinned. The micromagnetic simulation based method can also be used to obtain iso–frequency contours of spin waves. Iso–frequency contours are analogous of the Fermi surfaces and hence, they have the potential to radicalize our understanding of spin wave dynamics. The physical origin of bands, partial and full magnonic bandgaps have been explained by plotting the spatial distribution of spin wave energy spectral density. Although, unfettered by rigid assumptions and approximations, which afflict most analytical methods used in the study of spin wave dynamics, micromagnetic simulations tend to be computationally demanding. Thus, the observation of collective spin wave excitation in the case of nanodot arrays, which can obviate the need to perform simulations, may also prove to be valuable

  20. Spin, quadrupole moment, and deformation of the magnetic-rotational band head in Pb193

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanski, D. L.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A.; Bazzacco, D.; Brandolini, F.; Bucurescu, D.; Chmel, S.; Danchev, M.; de Poli, M.; Georgiev, G.; Haas, H.; Hübel, H.; Marginean, N.; Menegazzo, R.; Neyens, G.; Pavan, P.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Ur, C. A.; Vyvey, K.; Frauendorf, S.

    2011-01-01

    The spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the T1/2=9.4(5) ns isomer in Pb193 at an excitation energy Eex=(2585+x) keV is measured by the time-differential perturbed angular distribution method as |Qs|=2.6(3) e b. Spin and parity Iπ=27/2- are assigned to it based on angular distribution measurements. This state is the band head of a magnetic-rotational band, described by the 1i13/2 subshell with the (3s1/2-21h9/21i13/2)11- proton excitation. The pairing-plus-quadrupole tilted-axis cranking calculations reproduce the measured quadrupole moment with a moderate oblate deformation ɛ2=-0.11, similar to that of the 11-proton intruder states, which nuclei in the region. This is the first direct measurement of a quadrupole moment and thus of the deformation of a magnetic-rotational band head.

  1. Spin, quadrupole moment, and deformation of the magnetic-rotational band head in (193)Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Balabanski, D L; Iordachescu, A; Bazzacco, D; Brandolini, F; Bucurescu, D; Chmel, S; Danchev, M; De Poli, M; Georgiev, G; Haas, H; Hubel, H; Marginean, N; Menegazzo, R; Neyens, G; Pavan, P; Rossi Alvarez, C; Ur, C A; Vyvey, K; Frauendorf, S

    2011-01-01

    The spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the T(1/2) = 9.4(5) ns isomer in (193)Pb at an excitation energy E(ex) = (2585 + x) keV is measured by the time-differential perturbed angular distribution method as vertical bar Q(s)vertical bar = 2.6(3) e b. Spin and parity I(pi) = 27/2(-) are assigned to it based on angular distribution measurements. This state is the band head of a magnetic-rotational band, described by the coupling of a neutron hole in the 1i(13/2) subshell with the (3s(1/2)(-2)1h(9/2)1i(13/2))(11-) proton excitation. The pairing-plus-quadrupole tilted-axis cranking calculations reproduce the measured quadrupole moment with a moderate oblate deformation epsilon(2) = -0.11, similar to that of the 11(-)proton intruder states, which occur in the even-even Pb nuclei in the region. This is the first direct measurement of a quadrupole moment and thus of the deformation of a magnetic-rotational band head.

  2. CdSe/CdTe interface band gaps and band offsets calculated using spin-orbit and self-energy corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M. [Centro de Pesquisas Avancadas Wernher von Braun, Av. Alice de Castro P.N. Mattosinho 301, CEP 13098-392 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, L.G. [Departamento de Fisica dos Materiais e Mecanica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, L.R.C. [Center for Semiconductor Components, State University of Campinas, R. Pandia Calogeras 90, 13083-870 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramprasad, R. [Department of Chemical, Materials and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, 97 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We performed ab initio calculations of the electronic structures of bulk CdSe and CdTe, and their interface band alignments on the CdSe in-plane lattice parameters. For this, we employed the LDA-1/2 self-energy correction scheme to obtain corrected band gaps and band offsets. Our calculations include the spin-orbit effects for the bulk cases, which have shown to be of importance for the equilibrium systems and are possibly degraded in these strained semiconductors. Therefore, the SO showed reduced importance for the band alignment of this particular system. Moreover, the electronic structure calculated along the transition region across the CdSe/CdTe interface shows an interesting non-monotonic variation of the band gap in the range 0.8-1.8 eV, which may enhance the absorption of light for corresponding frequencies at the interface between these two materials in photovoltaic applications.

  3. Lifetimes of the low spin states in the superdeformed band of {sup 192}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, I Y; Baktash, C; Cullen, D; Garrett, J D; Johnson, N R; McGowan, F K; Winchell, D F [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Yu, C H [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Superdeformed (SD) states with a 2:1 axis ratio have been observed in nuclei in the A = 150, 190, and the actinide regions. These states depopulate into normally deformed (ND) states by gamma decay, but so far the linking transitions have not been observed and the depopulation mechanism is not fully understood. Nuclei in different mass regions decay out at states with different spin (I), excitation energy above the ND yrast line (U) and lifetime {tau}. This variation is due to differences in the nuclear properties such as the barrier penetration probability, the level densities and the gamma transition strength of SD and ND states. One important factor is the competition between the collective E2 decay along the SD band and the statistical decay to the ND states. These transition rates, or the partial lifetimes, can be determined if the lifetime and the intensity of the gamma rays depopulating the SD states are known. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Approximate transient and long time limit solutions for the band broadening induced by the thin sidewall-layer in liquid chromatography columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckhoven, Ken; Desmet, Gert

    2007-11-16

    Using a combination of both analytical and numerical techniques, approximate analytical expressions have been established for the transient and long time limit band broadening, originating from the presence of a thin disturbed sidewall layer in liquid chromatography columns, including packed, monolithic as well as microfabricated columns. The established expressions can be used to compare the importance of a thin disturbed sidewall layer with that of other radial heterogeneity effects (such as transcolumn packing density variations due to the relief of packing stresses). The expressions are independent of the actual velocity profile inside the layer as long as the disturbed sidewall layer occupies less than 2.5% of the column width.

  5. Method Development for Extraction of Butyrylcholin- esterase using Protein-G Agarose Spin Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta S. Indapurkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE is a biomarker of organophosphate (OP poisoning and can be used as a diagnostic marker to measure exposure to OP compounds. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to extract BuChE from human plasma. BuChE was extracted from plasma using the NAb protein-G Agarose Spin Kit. Factors affecting extraction like incubation time, plasma volume and cross-linking of antibodies to agarose beads were evaluated. All samples were analyzed for BuChE activity using the Ellman’s assay. The incubation times of plasma and anti-BuChE antibodies marginally affected the extraction efficiency of BuChE whereas a decrease in plasma volume increased the extraction efficiency. Cross-linking of anti-BuChE antibodies on agarose increased the extraction efficiency. The NAb protein-G Spin Kit can be used successfully to extract BuChE from human plasma. This extraction technique may be coupled to downstream analytical analyses for diagnosing exposure to OP compounds.

  6. Quasiparticle band gap of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites: Crystal structure, spin-orbit coupling, and self-energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Gao, Xiang; Abtew, Tesfaye A.; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai; Zhang, Peihong

    2016-02-01

    The quasiparticle band gap is one of the most important materials properties for photovoltaic applications. Often the band gap of a photovoltaic material is determined (and can be controlled) by various factors, complicating predictive materials optimization. An in-depth understanding of how these factors affect the size of the gap will provide valuable guidance for new materials discovery. Here we report a comprehensive investigation on the band gap formation mechanism in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites by decoupling various contributing factors which ultimately determine their electronic structure and quasiparticle band gap. Major factors, namely, quasiparticle self-energy, spin-orbit coupling, and structural distortions due to the presence of organic molecules, and their influences on the quasiparticle band structure of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites are illustrated. We find that although methylammonium cations do not contribute directly to the electronic states near band edges, they play an important role in defining the band gap by introducing structural distortions and controlling the overall lattice constants. The spin-orbit coupling effects drastically reduce the electron and hole effective masses in these systems, which is beneficial for high carrier mobilities and small exciton binding energies.

  7. Effect of ferromagnetic exchange field on band gap and spin polarisation of graphene on a TMD substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Partha

    2018-03-01

    We calculate the electronic band dispersion of graphene monolayer on a two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide substrate (GrTMD) around K and K^' } points by taking into account the interplay of the ferromagnetic impurities and the substrate-induced interactions. The latter are (strongly enhanced) intrinsic spin-orbit interaction (SOI), the extrinsic Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) and the one related to the transfer of the electronic charge from graphene to substrate. We introduce exchange field ( M) in the Hamiltonian to take into account the deposition of magnetic impurities on the graphene surface. The cavalcade of the perturbations yield particle-hole symmetric band dispersion with an effective Zeeman field due to the interplay of the substrate-induced interactions with RSOI as the prime player. Our graphical analysis with extremely low-lying states strongly suggests the following: The GrTMDs, such as graphene on WY2, exhibit (direct) band-gap narrowing / widening (Moss-Burstein (MB) gap shift) including the increase in spin polarisation ( P) at low temperature due to the increase in the exchange field ( M) at the Dirac points. The polarisation is found to be electric field tunable as well. Finally, there is anticrossing of non-parabolic bands with opposite spins, the gap closing with same spins, etc. around the Dirac points. A direct electric field control of magnetism at the nanoscale is needed here. The magnetic multiferroics, like BiFeO3 (BFO), are useful for this purpose due to the coupling between the magnetic and electric order parameters.

  8. Photo-Induced Electron Spin Polarization in a Narrow Band Gap Semiconductor Nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo

    2012-01-01

    Photo-induced spin dependent electron transmission through a narrow gap InSb/InGa x Sb 1−x semiconductor symmetric well is theoretically studied using transfer matrix formulism. The transparency of electron transmission is calculated as a function of electron energy for different concentrations of gallium. Enhanced spin-polarized photon assisted resonant tunnelling in the heterostructure due to Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling induced splitting of the resonant level and compressed spin-polarization are observed. Our results show that Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is dominant for the photon effect and the computed polarization efficiency increases with the photon effect and the gallium concentration

  9. The perils of pathogen discovery: origin of a novel parvovirus-like hybrid genome traced to nucleic acid extraction spin columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naccache, Samia N; Greninger, Alexander L; Lee, Deanna; Coffey, Lark L; Phan, Tung; Rein-Weston, Annie; Aronsohn, Andrew; Hackett, John; Delwart, Eric L; Chiu, Charles Y

    2013-11-01

    Next-generation sequencing was used for discovery and de novo assembly of a novel, highly divergent DNA virus at the interface between the Parvoviridae and Circoviridae. The virus, provisionally named parvovirus-like hybrid virus (PHV), is nearly identical by sequence to another DNA virus, NIH-CQV, previously detected in Chinese patients with seronegative (non-A-E) hepatitis. Although we initially detected PHV in a wide range of clinical samples, with all strains sharing ∼99% nucleotide and amino acid identity with each other and with NIH-CQV, the exact origin of the virus was eventually traced to contaminated silica-binding spin columns used for nucleic acid extraction. Definitive confirmation of the origin of PHV, and presumably NIH-CQV, was obtained by in-depth analyses of water eluted through contaminated spin columns. Analysis of environmental metagenome libraries detected PHV sequences in coastal marine waters of North America, suggesting that a potential association between PHV and diatoms (algae) that generate the silica matrix used in the spin columns may have resulted in inadvertent viral contamination during manufacture. The confirmation of PHV/NIH-CQV as laboratory reagent contaminants and not bona fide infectious agents of humans underscores the rigorous approach needed to establish the validity of new viral genomes discovered by next-generation sequencing.

  10. Illuminating "spin-polarized" Bloch wave-function projection from degenerate bands in decomposable centrosymmetric lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2018-03-01

    The combination of space inversion and time-reversal symmetries results in doubly degenerate Bloch states with opposite spin. Many lattices with these symmetries can be constructed by combining a noncentrosymmetric potential (lacking this degeneracy) with its inverted copy. Using simple models, we unravel the evolution of local spin splitting during this process of inversion symmetry restoration, in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and sublattice coupling. Importantly, through an analysis of quantum mechanical commutativity, we examine the difficulty of identifying states that are simultaneously spatially segregated and spin polarized. We also explain how surface-sensitive experimental probes (such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, or ARPES) of "hidden spin polarization" in layered materials are susceptible to unrelated spin splitting intrinsically induced by broken inversion symmetry at the surface.

  11. Quantum spin Hall insulator BiXH (XH = OH, SH) monolayers with a large bulk band gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xing-Kai; Lyu, Ji-Kai; Zhang, Chang-Wen; Wang, Pei-Ji; Ji, Wei-Xiao; Li, Ping

    2018-05-16

    A large bulk band gap is critical for the application of two-dimensional topological insulators (TIs) in spintronic devices operating at room temperature. On the basis of first-principles calculations, we predict BiXH (X = OH, SH) monolayers as TIs with an extraordinarily large bulk gap of 820 meV for BiOH and 850 meV for BiSH, and propose a tight-binding model considering spin-orbit coupling to describe the electronic properties of BiXH. These large gaps are entirely due to the strong spin-orbit interaction related to the pxy orbitals of the Bi atoms of the honeycomb lattice. The orbital filtering mechanism can be used to understand the topological properties of BiXH. The XH groups simply remove one branch of orbitals (pz of Bi) and reduce the trivial 6-band lattice into a 4-band, which is topologically non-trivial. The topological characteristics of BiXH monolayers are confirmed by nonzero topological invariant Z2 and a single pair of gapless helical edge states in the bulk gap. Owing to these features, the BiXH monolayers of the large-gap TIs are an ideal platform to realize many exotic phenomena and fabricate new quantum devices working at room temperature.

  12. Determination of the bandheads spin and investigation of identical bands for Even - A nuclei of the superdeformed mass region 190

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Using the three-parameter expression of harris expansion of the rotational energy, the dynamical moment of inertia is represented by a power-series expansion in even powers of the rotational frequency. The three expansion coefficients were determined by using Marquardt method of nonlinear least-squares routines, to fit the proposed dynamical moment of inertia with its recent experimental data for the superdeformed (SD) nuclei in the A 190 mass region. The calculated dynamical moment of inertia with the best parameters is then integrated to obtain the spin, which in turn was used to determine the static moment of inertia. The comparison of the dynamic moment of inertia and spin with their available experimental data shows good agreements between them. These procedures were succeedingly done for nine superdeformed bands in the A 190 nuclei: 1 90Hg(B1, B3), 1 94PB(B1, B2, B3), 1 96PB(B1, B2, B3), 1 94PB(B1, B22, B3), 1 96BP((B1, B2, B3) and 1 98PO. We have also investigated the identity exist among these SD bands. It was shown that some of these SD bands are identical to each other

  13. Band splitting and relative spin alignment in two-layer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, A A

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the single-particle spectra of the low Hubbard zone in the two-layer correlated 2D-systems sharply differ in the case of different relative alignment of the layers spin systems. The behavior of the two-layer splitting in the Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta gives all reasons for the hypothesis on the possible rearrangement of the F sub z -> AF sub z alignment configuration, occurring simultaneously with the superconducting transition. The effects of the spin alignment on the magnetic excitations spectrum, as the way for studying the spin structure of the two-layer systems, are discussed by the example of homogenous solutions for the effective spin models

  14. A rapid silica spin column-based method of RNA extraction from fruit trees for RT-PCR detection of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Guoping; Xu, Wenxing; Hong, Ni

    2017-09-01

    Efficient recovery of high quality RNA is very important for successful RT-PCR detection of plant RNA viruses. High levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides in plant tissues can irreversibly bind to and/or co-precipitate with RNA, which influences RNA isolation. In this study, a silica spin column-based RNA isolation method was developed by using commercially available silica columns combined with the application of a tissue lysis solution, and binding and washing buffers with high concentration guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN, 50% w/v), which helps remove plant proteins, polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds. The method was successfully used to extract high quality RNA from citrus (Citrus aurantifolia), grapevine (Vitis vinifera), peach (Prunus persica), pear (Pyrus spp.), taro (Colocosia esculenta) and tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) samples. The method was comparable to conventional CTAB method in RNA isolation efficiency, but it was more sample-adaptable and cost-effective than commercial kits. High quality RNA isolated using silica spin column-based method was successfully used for the RT-PCR and/or multiplex RT-PCR amplification of woody fruit tree viruses and a viroid. The study provided a useful tool for the detection and characterization of plant viruses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Monolithic silica spin column extraction and simultaneous derivatization of amphetamines and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines in human urine for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Akihiro; Nishida, Manami; Saito, Takeshi; Kishiyama, Izumi; Miyazaki, Shota; Murakami, Katsunori; Nagao, Masataka; Namura, Akira

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, and specific method with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous extraction and derivatization of amphetamines (APs) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs) in human urine by using a monolithic silica spin column. All the procedures, such as sample loading, washing, and elution were performed by centrifugation. APs and MDAs in urine were adsorbed on the monolithic silica and derivatized with propyl chloroformate in the column. Methamphetamine-d 5 was used as an internal standard. The linear ranges were 0.01-5.0 μg mL -1 for methamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 0.02-5.0 μg mL -1 for amphetamine (AP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) (coefficient of correlation ≥0.995). The recovery of APs and MDAs in urine was 84-94%, and the relative standard deviation of the intra- and interday reproducibility for urine samples containing 0.1, 1.0, and 4.0 μg mL -1 of APs and MDAs ranged from 1.4% to 13.6%. The lowest detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio ≥ 3) in urine was 5 ng mL -1 for MA and MDMA and 10 ng mL -1 for AP and MDA. The proposed method can be used to perform simultaneous extraction and derivatization on spin columns that have been loaded with a small quantity of solvent by using centrifugation.

  16. Investigation of optical band gap and device parameters of rubrene thin film prepared using spin coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuğluoğlu, Nihat; Barış, Behzad; Gürel, Hatice; Karadeniz, Serdar; Yüksel, Ömer Faruk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin film of rubrene has been deposited by spin coating technique. • The band gap properties of the film were investigated in the range 200–700 nm. • The analysis of the absorption coefficient revealed indirect allowed transition. • The parameters such as barrier height and ideality factor were determined. -- Abstract: Rubrene thin film has been deposited by spin coating technique. The optical band gap properties of rubrene thin film have been investigated in the spectral range 200–700 nm. The results of the absorption coefficient (α) were analyzed in order to determine the optical band gap and Urbach energy of the film. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV–vis region shows two peaks at 250 nm and 300 nm. The analysis of the spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient (α) in the absorption region revealed indirect allowed transition with corresponding energy 2.31 eV. The value of Urbach energy (E U ) was determined to be 1.169 eV. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics and electrical conduction properties of rubrene/n-Si device fabricated by spin coating method have also been investigated. The I–V characteristic in dark was showed the rectification effect due to the formation of Schottky barrier at rubrene/silicon interface. From analyzing the I-V measurement for the device, the basic device parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance were determined. At the low-voltage region, the current conduction in Au/rubrene/n-Si device is ohmic type. The charge transport phenomenon appears to be space charge limited current (SCLC) at higher-voltage regions

  17. Investigation of optical band gap and device parameters of rubrene thin film prepared using spin coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuğluoğlu, Nihat, E-mail: tugluo@gmail.com [Department of Technology, Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06983 Saray, Ankara (Turkey); Barış, Behzad; Gürel, Hatice [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Giresun University, Gazipaşa Campus, Giresun 28100 (Turkey); Karadeniz, Serdar [Department of Technology, Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06983 Saray, Ankara (Turkey); Yüksel, Ömer Faruk [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Selçuk University, Campus Konya 42075 (Turkey)

    2014-01-05

    Highlights: • Thin film of rubrene has been deposited by spin coating technique. • The band gap properties of the film were investigated in the range 200–700 nm. • The analysis of the absorption coefficient revealed indirect allowed transition. • The parameters such as barrier height and ideality factor were determined. -- Abstract: Rubrene thin film has been deposited by spin coating technique. The optical band gap properties of rubrene thin film have been investigated in the spectral range 200–700 nm. The results of the absorption coefficient (α) were analyzed in order to determine the optical band gap and Urbach energy of the film. The absorption spectra recorded in the UV–vis region shows two peaks at 250 nm and 300 nm. The analysis of the spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient (α) in the absorption region revealed indirect allowed transition with corresponding energy 2.31 eV. The value of Urbach energy (E{sub U}) was determined to be 1.169 eV. The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics and electrical conduction properties of rubrene/n-Si device fabricated by spin coating method have also been investigated. The I–V characteristic in dark was showed the rectification effect due to the formation of Schottky barrier at rubrene/silicon interface. From analyzing the I-V measurement for the device, the basic device parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance were determined. At the low-voltage region, the current conduction in Au/rubrene/n-Si device is ohmic type. The charge transport phenomenon appears to be space charge limited current (SCLC) at higher-voltage regions.

  18. Spin excitation and band-narrowing in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2010-11-01

    We studied the spin excitation in dependences of the applied electric field and lattice temperature (LT) via the measurements of the circularly polarized photoluminescence (CPPL) in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As heterostructures (HSs). The intensity of CPPL was found to strongly depend on the electric field applied to the HSs. The CPPL was also found to enhance with decreasing LT. It was demonstrated that the observed LT dependence might be due to the LT-dependent band-gap shift of the HS materials.

  19. Use of resonance ionization spectroscopy to detect DNA bands on ultrathin spin-coated gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktycz, M J; Gibson, W A; Arlinghaus, H F; Allen, R C; Jacobson, K B

    1993-01-01

    Development of alternative electrophoresis procedures are necessary for large volume sequencing and mapping studies. The use of stable isotopes as DNA labels and ultrathin gels promises to greatly increase the rate of sequencing. Spin coating is presented as an alternative method for producing ultrathin polyacrylamide gels. The technique has the potential of producing gels of micron to submicron thicknesses by varying the viscosity of the acrylamide solution and the spinning speed. Thirty micron thick 6% (weight %) gels were produced in this manner. Tin-labeled DNA oligomers were electrophoresed and detected using sputter-initiated resonance ionization spectroscopy (SIRIS). The usefulness of SIRIS and laser atomization RIS (LARIS) to sample the surface and deeper layers of 240 microns thick gels was investigated. With LARIS, whole cross-sections of the gel can be atomized, possibly allowing complete sampling of labels.

  20. Realization of a broad band neutron spin filter with compressed, polarized 3He gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkau, R.; Otten, E.W.; Steiner, M.; Tasset, F.; Trautmann, N.

    1997-01-01

    The strongly spin dependent absorption of neutrons in nuclear spin polarized 3 -2pt vector He opens the possibility to polarize beams of thermal and epithermal neutrons. An effective 3 He neutron spin filter (NSF) requires high 3 He nuclear polarization as well as a filter thickness corresponding to a gas amount of the order of 1 bar l. We realized such a filter using direct optical pumping of metastable 3 He * atoms in a 3 He plasma at 1 mbar. Metastable exchange scattering transfers the angular momentum to the whole ensemble of 3 He atoms. At present 3 x 10 18 3 He-atoms/s are polarized up to 64%. Subsequent polarization preserving compression by a two stage compressor system enables to prepare NSF cells of about 300 cm 3 volume with 3 bar of polarized 3 He within 2 h. 3 He polarizations up to 53% were measured in a cell with a filter length of about 15 cm. By this cell a thermal neutron beam from the Mainz TRIGA reactor was polarized. A wavelength selective polarization analysis by means of Bragg scattering revealed a neutron polarization of 84% at a total transmission of 12% for a neutron wavelength of 1 A. (orig.)

  1. An algebraic description of identical bands and of high-spin quadrupole collectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM) has been used to describe electric quadrupole transition rates and static moments at high angular momentum in deformed nuclei. A quantitative description of these phenomena appears possible by these means. The formalism accounts naturally for those cases where significant reductions in B(E2) values are accompanied by relatively constant moments of inertia. A discussion of identical bands as being due to a dynamical symmetry will be given. The empirical properties of these bands and general principles of group theory will be used to place constraints on an acceptable symmetry. A model that represents a minimal implementation of these criteria will be presented

  2. Monolithic silica spin column extraction and simultaneous derivatization of amphetamines and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines in human urine for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Akihiro [Scientific Investigation Laboratory, Hiroshima Prefectural Police Headquarters, Kohnan 2-26-3, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0825 (Japan); Nishida, Manami [Hiroshima University Technical Center, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Shimokasuya 143, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1143 (Japan); Kishiyama, Izumi; Miyazaki, Shota [GL Sciences Inc., Sayamagahara 237-2, Iruma, Saitama 358-0032 (Japan); Murakami, Katsunori [Scientific Investigation Laboratory, Hiroshima Prefectural Police Headquarters, Kohnan 2-26-3, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0825 (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan); Namura, Akira, E-mail: namera@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan)

    2010-02-19

    A simple, sensitive, and specific method with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous extraction and derivatization of amphetamines (APs) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs) in human urine by using a monolithic silica spin column. All the procedures, such as sample loading, washing, and elution were performed by centrifugation. APs and MDAs in urine were adsorbed on the monolithic silica and derivatized with propyl chloroformate in the column. Methamphetamine-d{sub 5} was used as an internal standard. The linear ranges were 0.01-5.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for methamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 0.02-5.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for amphetamine (AP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) (coefficient of correlation {>=}0.995). The recovery of APs and MDAs in urine was 84-94%, and the relative standard deviation of the intra- and interday reproducibility for urine samples containing 0.1, 1.0, and 4.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} of APs and MDAs ranged from 1.4% to 13.6%. The lowest detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio {>=} 3) in urine was 5 ng mL{sup -1} for MA and MDMA and 10 ng mL{sup -1} for AP and MDA. The proposed method can be used to perform simultaneous extraction and derivatization on spin columns that have been loaded with a small quantity of solvent by using centrifugation.

  3. Novel room-temperature spin-valve-like magnetoresistance in magnetically coupled nano-column Fe3O4/Ni heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wen; Song, Wendong; Herng, Tun Seng; Qin, Qing; Yang, Yong; Zheng, Ming; Hong, Xiaoliang; Feng, Yuan Ping; Ding, Jun

    2016-08-25

    Herein, we design a room-temperature spin-valve-like magnetoresistance in a nano-column Fe3O4/Ni heterostructure without using a non-magnetic spacer or pinning layer. An Fe3O4 nano-column film is self-assembled on a Ni underlayer by the thermal decomposition method. The wet-chemical self-assembly is facile, economical and scalable. The magnetoresistance (MR) response of the Ni underlayer in the heterostructure under positive and negative out-of-plane magnetic fields differ by ∼0.25 at room temperature and ∼0.43 at 100 K. We attribute the spin-valve-like magnetoresistance to the unidirectional magnetic anisotropy of the Ni underlayer when being magnetically coupled by the Fe3O4 nano-column film. The out-of-plane negative-field magnetization is higher than the positive-field magnetization, affirming the unidirectional magnetic anisotropy of the Fe3O4/Ni heterostructure. Temperature-dependent magnetic and resistivity studies illustrate a close correlation between the magnetization transition of Fe3O4 and resistivity transition of Ni and prove a magnetic coupling between the Fe3O4 and Ni. First-principles calculations reveal that the Fe3O4/Ni model under a negative magnetic field is energetically more stable than that under a positive magnetic field. Furthermore, partial density of states (PDOS) analysis demonstrates the unidirectional magnetic anisotropy of the Ni 3d orbital. This is induced by the strong ferromagnetic coupling between Fe3O4 and Ni via oxygen-mediated Fe 3d-O 2p-Ni 3d hybridizations.

  4. Monolithic silica spin column extraction and simultaneous derivatization of amphetamines and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines in human urine for gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Akihiro; Nishida, Manami; Saito, Takeshi; Kishiyama, Izumi; Miyazaki, Shota; Murakami, Katsunori; Nagao, Masataka; Namura, Akira

    2010-02-19

    A simple, sensitive, and specific method with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous extraction and derivatization of amphetamines (APs) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamines (MDAs) in human urine by using a monolithic silica spin column. All the procedures, such as sample loading, washing, and elution were performed by centrifugation. APs and MDAs in urine were adsorbed on the monolithic silica and derivatized with propyl chloroformate in the column. Methamphetamine-d(5) was used as an internal standard. The linear ranges were 0.01-5.0 microg mL(-1) for methamphetamine (MA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 0.02-5.0 microg mL(-1) for amphetamine (AP) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) (coefficient of correlation > or = 0.995). The recovery of APs and MDAs in urine was 84-94%, and the relative standard deviation of the intra- and interday reproducibility for urine samples containing 0.1, 1.0, and 4.0 microg mL(-1) of APs and MDAs ranged from 1.4% to 13.6%. The lowest detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio > or = 3) in urine was 5 ng mL(-1) for MA and MDMA and 10 ng mL(-1) for AP and MDA. The proposed method can be used to perform simultaneous extraction and derivatization on spin columns that have been loaded with a small quantity of solvent by using centrifugation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting superdeformed rotational band-head spin in A ∼ 190 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PACS No. 21.60.−n. 1. Introduction. Superdeformed (SD) nuclei are one of the most challenging and ... like A ∼ 60, 80, 130, 150 and 190 [2,3]. ..... work and the research is progressing to give systematic features of rotational bands of SD.

  6. Inter-spin distance determination using L-band (1-2 GHz) non-adiabatic rapid sweep electron paramagnetic resonance (NARS EPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittell, Aaron W.; Hustedt, Eric J.; Hyde, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Site-directed spin-labeling electron paramagnetic resonance (SDSL EPR) provides insight into the local structure and motion of a spin probe strategically attached to a molecule. When a second spin is introduced to the system, macromolecular information can be obtained through measurement of inter-spin distances either by continuous wave (CW) or pulsed electron double resonance (ELDOR) techniques. If both methodologies are considered, inter-spin distances of 8 to 80 Å can be experimentally determined. However, there exists a region at the upper limit of the conventional X-band (9.5 GHz) CW technique and the lower limit of the four-pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER) experiment where neither method is particularly reliable. The work presented here utilizes L-band (1.9 GHz) in combination with non-adiabatic rapid sweep (NARS) EPR to address this opportunity by increasing the upper limit of the CW technique. Because L-band linewidths are three to seven times narrower than those at X-band, dipolar broadenings that are small relative to the X-band inhomogeneous linewidth become observable, but the signal loss due to the frequency dependence of the Boltzmann factor, has made L-band especially challenging. NARS has been shown to increase sensitivity by a factor of five, and overcomes much of this loss, making L-band distance determination more feasible [1]. Two different systems are presented and distances of 18–30 Å have been experimentally determined at physiologically relevant temperatures. Measurements are in excellent agreement with a helical model and values determined by DEER. PMID:22750251

  7. Experimental and numerical validation of the effective medium theory for the B-term band broadening in 1st and 2nd generation monolithic silica columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deridder, Sander; Vanmessen, Alison; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Desmet, Gert; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2014-07-18

    Effective medium theory (EMT) expressions for the B-term band broadening in monolithic silica columns are presented at the whole-column as well as at the mesoporous skeleton level. Given the bi-continuous nature of the monolithic medium, regular as well as inverse formulations of the EMT-expressions have been established. The established expressions were validated by applying them to a set of experimental effective diffusion (Deff)-data obtained via peak parking on a number of 1st and 2nd generation monolithic silica columns, as well as to a set of numerical diffusion simulations in a simplified monolithic column representation (tetrahedral skeleton model) with different external porosities and internal diffusion coefficients. The numerically simulated diffusion data can be very closely represented over a very broad range of zone retention factors (up to k″=80) using the established EMT-expressions, especially when using the inverse variant. The expressions also allow representing the experimentally measured effective diffusion data very closely. The measured Deff/Dmol-values were found to decrease significantly with increasing retention factor, in general going from about Deff/Dmol=0.55 to 0.65 at low k″ (k″≅1.5-3.8) to Deff/Dmol=0.25 at very high k″ (k″≅40-80). These values are significantly larger than observed in fully-porous and core-shell particles. The intra-skeleton diffusion coefficient (Dpz) was typically found to be of the order of Dpz/Dmol=0.4, compared to Dpz/Dmol=0.2-0.35 observed in most particle-based columns. These higher Dpz/Dmol values are the cause of the higher Deff/Dmol values observed. In addition, it also appears that the higher internal diffusion is linked to the higher porosity of the mesoporous skeleton that has a relatively open structure with relatively wide pores. The observed (weak) relation between Dpz/Dmol and the zone retention factor appears to be in good agreement with that predicted when applying the regular

  8. The effect of spin-orbit coupling in band structure and edge states of bilayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahdan, Muhammad Fauzi; Darma, Yudi, E-mail: yudi@fi.itb.ac.id [Department of Physics, InstitutTeknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesa 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Topological insulators are predicted to be useful ranging from spintronics to quantum computation. Graphene was first predicted to be the precursor of topological insulator by Kane-Mele. They developed a Hamiltonian model to describe the gap opening in graphene. In this work, we investigate the band structure of bilayer grapheme and also its edge states by using this model with analytical approach. The results of our calculation show that the gap opening occurs at K and K’ point in bilayer graphene.In addition, a pair of gapless edge modes occurs both in the zigzag and arm-chair configurations are no longer exist. There are gap created at the edge even though thery are very small.

  9. Cation-induced band-gap tuning in organohalide perovskites: interplay of spin-orbit coupling and octahedra tilting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, Anna; Mosconi, Edoardo; Ronca, Enrico; Quarti, Claudio; Umari, Paolo; Nazeeruddin, Md K; Grätzel, Michael; De Angelis, Filippo

    2014-06-11

    Organohalide lead perovskites have revolutionized the scenario of emerging photovoltaic technologies. The prototype MAPbI3 perovskite (MA = CH3NH3(+)) has dominated the field, despite only harvesting photons above 750 nm (∼1.6 eV). Intensive research efforts are being devoted to find new perovskites with red-shifted absorption onset, along with good charge transport properties. Recently, a new perovskite based on the formamidinium cation ((NH2)2CH(+) = FA) has shown potentially superior properties in terms of band gap and charge transport compared to MAPbI3. The results have been interpreted in terms of the cation size, with the larger FA cation expectedly delivering reduced band-gaps in Pb-based perovskites. To provide a full understanding of the interplay among size, structure, and organic/inorganic interactions in determining the properties of APbI3 perovskites, in view of designing new materials and fully exploiting them for solar cells applications, we report a fully first-principles investigation on APbI3 perovskites with A = Cs(+), MA, and FA. Our results evidence that the tetragonal-to-quasi cubic structural evolution observed when moving from MA to FA is due to the interplay of size effects and enhanced hydrogen bonding between the FA cations and the inorganic matrix altering the covalent/ionic character of Pb-I bonds. Most notably, the observed cation-induced structural variability promotes markedly different electronic and optical properties in the MAPbI3 and FAPbI3 perovskites, mediated by the different spin-orbit coupling, leading to improved charge transport and red-shifted absorption in FAPbI3 and in general in pseudocubic structures. Our theoretical model constitutes the basis for the rationale design of new and more efficient organohalide perovskites for solar cells applications.

  10. Optical and electronic properties of 2 H -Mo S2 under pressure: Revealing the spin-polarized nature of bulk electronic bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotons-Gisbert, Mauro; Segura, Alfredo; Robles, Roberto; Canadell, Enric; Ordejón, Pablo; Sánchez-Royo, Juan F.

    2018-05-01

    Monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors present spin-valley locked electronic bands, a property with applications in valleytronics and spintronics that is usually believed to be absent in their centrosymmetric (as the bilayer or bulk) counterparts. Here we show that bulk 2 H -Mo S2 hides a spin-polarized nature of states determining its direct band gap, with the spin sequence of valence and conduction bands expected for its single layer. This relevant finding is attained by investigating the behavior of the binding energy of A and B excitons under high pressure, by means of absorption measurements and density-functional-theory calculations. These results raise an unusual situation in which bright and dark exciton degeneracy is naturally broken in a centrosymmetric material. Additionally, the phonon-assisted scattering process of excitons has been studied by analyzing the pressure dependence of the linewidth of discrete excitons observed at the absorption coefficient edge of 2 H -Mo S2 . Also, the pressure dependence of the indirect optical transitions of bulk 2 H -Mo S2 has been analyzed by absorption measurements and density-functional-theory calculations. These results reflect a progressive closure of the indirect band gap as pressure increases, indicating that metallization of bulk Mo S2 may occur at pressures higher than 26 GPa.

  11. Proximity Band Structure and Spin Textures on Both Sides of Topological-Insulator/Ferromagnetic-Metal Interface and Their Charge Transport Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Tejada, Juan Manuel; Dolui, Kapildeb; Lazić, Predrag; Chang, Po-Hao; Smidstrup, Søren; Stradi, Daniele; Stokbro, Kurt; Nikolić, Branislav K

    2017-09-13

    The control of recently observed spintronic effects in topological-insulator/ferromagnetic-metal (TI/FM) heterostructures is thwarted by the lack of understanding of band structure and spin textures around their interfaces. Here we combine density functional theory with Green's function techniques to obtain the spectral function at any plane passing through atoms of Bi 2 Se 3 and Co or Cu layers comprising the interface. Instead of naively assumed Dirac cone gapped by the proximity exchange field spectral function, we find that the Rashba ferromagnetic model describes the spectral function on the surface of Bi 2 Se 3 in contact with Co near the Fermi level E F 0 , where circular and snowflake-like constant energy contours coexist around which spin locks to momentum. The remnant of the Dirac cone is hybridized with evanescent wave functions from metallic layers and pushed, due to charge transfer from Co or Cu layers, a few tenths of an electron-volt below E F 0 for both Bi 2 Se 3 /Co and Bi 2 Se 3 /Cu interfaces while hosting distorted helical spin texture wounding around a single circle. These features explain recent observation of sensitivity of spin-to-charge conversion signal at TI/Cu interface to tuning of E F 0 . Crucially for spin-orbit torque in TI/FM heterostructures, few monolayers of Co adjacent to Bi 2 Se 3 host spectral functions very different from the bulk metal, as well as in-plane spin textures (despite Co magnetization being out-of-plane) due to proximity spin-orbit coupling in Co induced by Bi 2 Se 3 . We predict that out-of-plane tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in Cu/Bi 2 Se 3 /Co vertical heterostructure can serve as a sensitive probe of the type of spin texture residing at E F 0 .

  12. Evolution with Composition of the d-Band Density of States at the Fermi Level in Highly Spin Polarized Co1-xFexS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, P. L.; Hoch, M. J. R.; Reyes, A. P.; Moulton, W. G.; Wang, L.; Leighton, C.

    2006-04-01

    Highly spin polarized (SP) and half-metallic ferromagnetic systems are of considerable current interest and of potential importance for spintronic applications. Recent work has demonstrated that Co1-xFexS2 is a highly polarized ferromagnet (FM) where the spin polarization can be tuned by alloy composition. Using Co59 FM-NMR as a probe, we have measured the low-temperature spin relaxation in this system in magnetic fields from 0 to 1.0 T for 0≤x≤0.3. The Co59 spin-lattice relaxation rates follow a linear T dependence. Analysis of the data, using expressions for a FM system, permits information to be obtained on the d-band density of states at the Fermi level. The results are compared with independent density of states values inferred from electronic specific heat measurements and band structure calculations. It is shown that FM-NMR can be an important method for investigating highly SP systems.

  13. Electrical tuning of the band alignment and magnetoconductance in an n-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (In,Fe)As-based spin-Esaki diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Le Duc; Hai, Pham Nam; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2018-03-01

    We report a strong bias dependence of the magnetoconductance (MC) of a spin-Esaki diode composed of n+-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (FMS) (In,Fe)As and p+-type Be doped InAs grown on a p+-InAs (001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. When the bias voltage V is increased above 450 mV in the forward bias, we found that the MC, measured at 3.5 K under a magnetic field H of 1 T in the in-plane [110] direction, changes its sign from positive to negative and its magnitude rises rapidly from 0.5% at V fluid model, we explain both the magnitude and the anisotropy of the MC based on the evolution of the spin-Esaki diode's band profile with V. This analysis provides insights into the density of states and spin-polarization of the conduction band and the Fe-related impurity band in n-type FMS (In,Fe)As.

  14. Long-range spin-singlet proximity effect for a Josephson system with a single-crystal ferromagnet due to its band-structure features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdeev, M. V.; Proshin, Yu. N.

    2018-03-01

    A possible explanation for the long-range proximity effect observed in single-crystalline cobalt nanowires sandwiched between two tungsten superconducting electrodes [Nat. Phys. 6, 389 (2010), 10.1038/nphys1621] is proposed. The theoretical model uses properties of a ferromagnet band structure. Specifically, to connect the exchange field with the momentum of quasiparticles the distinction between the effective masses in majority and minority spin subbands and the Fermi-surface anisotropy are considered. The derived Eilenberger-like equations allowed us to obtain a renormalized exchange interaction that is completely compensated for some crystallographic directions under certain conditions. The proposed theoretical model is compared with previous approaches.

  15. Effects of strain and quantum confinement in optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance in GaAs: Interpretation guided by spin-dependent band structure calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, R. M.; Saha, D.; McCarthy, L. A.; Tokarski, J. T.; Sanders, G. D.; Kuhns, P. L.; McGill, S. A.; Reyes, A. P.; Reno, J. L.; Stanton, C. J.; Bowers, C. R.

    2014-10-01

    A combined experimental-theoretical study of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR) has been performed in a GaAs /A l0.1G a0.9As quantum well film epoxy bonded to a Si substrate with thermally induced biaxial strain. The photon energy dependence of the Ga OPNMR signal was recorded at magnetic fields of 4.9 and 9.4 T at a temperature of 4.8-5.4 K. The data were compared to the nuclear spin polarization calculated from the electronic structure and differential absorption to spin-up and spin-down states of the electron conduction band using a modified k .p model based on the Pidgeon-Brown model. Comparison of theory with experiment facilitated the assignment of features in the OPNMR energy dependence to specific interband Landau level transitions. The results provide insight into how effects of strain and quantum confinement are manifested in optical nuclear polarization in semiconductors.

  16. Spin dynamics of light-induced charge separation in composites of semiconducting polymers and PC60BM revealed using Q-band pulse EPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, E A; Suturina, E; Reijerse, E; Lubitz, W; Kulik, L V

    2017-08-23

    Light-induced processes in composites of semiconducting polymers and fullerene derivatives have been widely studied due to their usage as active layers of organic solar cells. However the process of charge separation under light illumination - the key process of an organic solar cell is not well understood yet. Here we report a Q-band pulse electron paramagnetic resonance study of composites of the fullerene derivative PC 60 BM ([6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester) with different p-type semiconducting polymers regioregular and regiorandom P3HT (poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl), MEH-PPV (poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]), PCDTBT (poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)]), PTB7 (poly({4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl}{3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl}))), resulting in a detailed description of the in-phase laser flash-induced electron spin echo (ESE) signal. We found that in organic donor-acceptor composites the laser flash simultaneously induces species of two types: a polymer˙ + /fullerene˙ - spin-correlated polaron pair (SCPP) with an initial singlet spin state and (nearly) free polymer˙ + and fullerene˙ - species with non-equilibrium spin polarization. Species of the first type (SCPP) are well-known for polymer/fullerene blends and are usually associated with a charge-separated state. Also, spin polarization of long-living free species (polarons in deep traps) is affected by the laser flash, which is the third contribution to the flash-induced ESE signal. A protocol for extracting the in-phase ESE signal of the SCPP based on the dependence of the microwave nutation frequency on the strength of the spin coupling within the polaron pair was developed. Nutation experiments revealed an unusual pattern of the SCPP in RR-P3HT/PC 60 BM composites, from which the strength of the exchange interaction between the polymer

  17. Permeability studies of redox-sensitive nitroxyl spin probes in corn oil using an L-band ESR spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jebaraj, D. David [Department of Physics, The American College, Madurai-625 002, Tamilnadu (India); Utsumi, Hideo [Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Asath, R. Mohamed; Benial, A. Milton Franklin, E-mail: miltonfranklin@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, NMSSVN College, Madurai-625 019, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for 2mM {sup 14}N labeled {sup 2}H enriched 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) and 3–carboxy-2,2,5,5,-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (carboxy-PROXYL) in pure water and various concentrations of corn oil. The ESR parameters, such as the line width, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, rotational correlation time, partition parameter and permeability were reported for the samples. The line width broadening was observed for both nitroxyl radicals in corn oil solutions. The partition parameter for permeable MC-PROXYL in corn oil increases with increasing concentration of corn oil, which reveals that the nitroxyl spin probe permeates into the oil phase. From the results, the corn oil concentration was optimized as 50 % for phantom studies. The rotational correlation time also increases with increasing concentration of corn oil. The permeable and impermeable nature of nitroxyl spin probes was demonstrated. These results will be useful for the development of ESR/OMR imaging modalities in in vivo and in vitro studies.

  18. Permeability studies of redox-sensitive nitroxyl spin probes in corn oil using an L-band ESR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jebaraj, D. David; Utsumi, Hideo; Asath, R. Mohamed; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for 2mM 14 N labeled 2 H enriched 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) and 3–carboxy-2,2,5,5,-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (carboxy-PROXYL) in pure water and various concentrations of corn oil. The ESR parameters, such as the line width, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, rotational correlation time, partition parameter and permeability were reported for the samples. The line width broadening was observed for both nitroxyl radicals in corn oil solutions. The partition parameter for permeable MC-PROXYL in corn oil increases with increasing concentration of corn oil, which reveals that the nitroxyl spin probe permeates into the oil phase. From the results, the corn oil concentration was optimized as 50 % for phantom studies. The rotational correlation time also increases with increasing concentration of corn oil. The permeable and impermeable nature of nitroxyl spin probes was demonstrated. These results will be useful for the development of ESR/OMR imaging modalities in in vivo and in vitro studies.

  19. Spin polarization, orbital occupation and band gap opening in vanadium dioxide: The effect of screened Hartree-Fock exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2014-07-01

    The metal-insulator transition of VO2 so far has evaded an accurate description by density functional theory. The screened hybrid functional of Heyd, Scuseria and Ernzerhof leads to reasonable solutions for both the low-temperature monoclinic and high-temperature rutile phases only if spin polarization is excluded from the calculations. We explore whether a satisfactory agreement with experiment can be achieved by tuning the fraction of Hartree Fock exchange (α) in the density functional. It is found that two branches of locally stable solutions exist for the rutile phase for 12.5%≤α≤20%. One is metallic and has the correct stability as compared to the monoclinic phase, the other is insulating with lower energy than the metallic branch. We discuss these observations based on the V 3d orbital occupations and conclude that α=10% is the best possible choice for spin-polarized VO2 calculations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. First-principles study of spin-polarized electronic band structures in ferromagnetic Zn1-xTMxS (TM = Fe, Co and Ni)

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir

    2010-10-01

    We report a first-principles study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of crystalline alloys Zn1-xTMxS (TM = Fe, Co and Ni) at x = 0.25. Structural properties are computed from the total ground state energy convergence and it is found that the cohesive energies of Zn 1-xTMxS are greater than that of zincblende ZnS. We also study the spin-polarized electronic band structures, total and partial density of states and the effect of TM 3d states. Our results exhibit that Zn 0.75Fe0.25S, Zn0.75Co0.25S and Zn0.75Ni0.25S are half-metallic ferromagnetic with a magnetic moment of 4μB, 3μB and 2μB, respectively. Furthermore, we calculate the TM 3d spin-exchange-splitting energies Δx (d), Δx (x-d), exchange constants N0α and N0β, crystal field splitting (ΔEcrystEt2g-Eeg), and find that p-d hybridization reduces the local magnetic moment of TM from its free space charge value. Moreover, robustness of Zn1-xTMxS with respect to the variation of lattice constants is also discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing contrast contamination in radial turbo-spin-echo acquisitions by combining a narrow-band KWIC filter with parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Daniel; Breuer, Felix A; Völker, Michael; Brandt, Tobias; Griswold, Mark A; Jakob, Peter M; Blaimer, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Cartesian turbo spin-echo (TSE) and radial TSE images are usually reconstructed by assembling data containing different contrast information into a single k-space. This approach results in mixed contrast contributions in the images, which may reduce their diagnostic value. The goal of this work is to improve the image contrast from radial TSE acquisitions by reducing the contribution of signals with undesired contrast information. Radial TSE acquisitions allow the reconstruction of multiple images with different T2 contrasts using the k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC) filter. In this work, the image contrast is improved by reducing the band-width of the KWIC filter. Data for the reconstruction of a single image are selected from within a small temporal range around the desired echo time. The resulting dataset is undersampled and, therefore, an iterative parallel imaging algorithm is applied to remove aliasing artifacts. Radial TSE images of the human brain reconstructed with the proposed method show an improved contrast when compared with Cartesian TSE images or radial TSE images with conventional KWIC reconstructions. The proposed method provides multi-contrast images from radial TSE data with contrasts similar to multi spin-echo images. Contaminations from unwanted contrast weightings are strongly reduced. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. MODELING THE MULTI-BAND AFTERGLOW OF GRB 130831A: EVIDENCE FOR A SPINNING-DOWN MAGNETAR DOMINATED BY GRAVITATIONAL WAVE LOSSES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q.; Zong, H. S. [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang, Y. F., E-mail: zonghs@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-06-01

    The X-ray afterglow of GRB 130831A shows an “internal plateau” with a decay slope of ∼0.8, followed by a steep drop at around 10{sup 5} s with a slope of ∼6. After the drop, the X-ray afterglow continues with a much shallower decay. The optical afterglow exhibits two segments of plateaus separated by a luminous optical flare, followed by a normal decay with a slope basically consistent with that of the late-time X-ray afterglow. The decay of the internal X-ray plateau is much steeper than what we expect in the simplest magnetar model. We propose a scenario in which the magnetar undergoes gravitational-wave-driven r-mode instability, and the spin-down is dominated by gravitational wave losses up to the end of the steep plateau, so that such a relatively steep plateau can be interpreted as the internal emission of the magnetar wind and the sharp drop can be produced when the magnetar collapses into a black hole. This scenario also predicts an initial X-ray plateau lasting for hundreds of seconds with an approximately constant flux which is compatible with observation. Assuming that the magnetar wind has a negligible contribution in the optical band, we interpret the optical afterglow as the forward shock emission by invoking the energy injection from a continuously refreshed shock following the prompt emission phase. It is shown that our model can basically describe the temporal evolution of the multi-band afterglow of GRB 130831A.

  3. Classical spins in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K

    1968-08-01

    It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.

  4. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  5. Scalability of pre-packed preparative chromatography columns with different diameters and lengths taking into account extra column effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Susanne; Jungbauer, Alois

    2018-02-16

    Small pre-packed columns are commonly used to estimate the optimum run parameters for pilot and production scale. The question arises if the experiments obtained with these columns are scalable, because there are substantial changes in extra column volume when going from a very small scale to a benchtop column. In this study we demonstrate the scalability of pre-packed disposable and non-disposable columns of volumes in the range of 0.2-20 ml packed with various media using superficial velocities in the range of 30-500 cm/h. We found that the relative contribution of extra column band broadening to total band broadening was not only high for columns with small diameters, but also for columns with a larger volume due to their wider diameter. The extra column band broadening can be more than 50% for columns with volumes larger than 10 ml. An increase in column diameter leads to high additional extra column band broadening in the filter, frits, and adapters of the columns. We found a linear relationship between intra column band broadening and column length, which increased stepwise with increases in column diameter. This effect was also corroborated by CFD simulation. The intra column band broadening was the same for columns packed with different media. An empirical engineering equation and the data gained from the extra column effects allowed us to predict the intra, extra, and total column band broadening just from column length, diameter, and flow rate. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  7. A study on relation between nitroxyl radical reduction potency and X-ray irradiation on mouse lung using L-band electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneike, Makoto; Sho, Keizen; Morita, Rikushi

    1999-01-01

    Changes in nitroxy radical reduction potency (''reduction potency''), caused by different doses and different number of fractions of X-ray irradiation were studied using a L-band electron spin resonance system on mouse lungs into which 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (hydroxy-TEMPO) was introduced through the trachea. The ''reduction potency'' lineally decreased as the irradiation dose increased from 1.0 to 5.0 Gy, but no further decrease was observed at higher doses of 7.5 and 10 Gy. The reduction potency'' dropped at 20 min after each irradiation, but it recovered to the control levels after 1 week in all 3 groups of single dose of 10 Gy, 3 fractions and 5 fractions in a similar manner. Although the levels of the ''reduction potency'' were kept high in the groups of fractionated irradiation through 1-4 weeks after irradiation, the levels dropped again in the single dose group at 1 week and the levels were kept significantly low until 4 weeks after irradiation. suggesting that the fractionation of X-ray irradiation would also be effective to prevent the deterioration of the ''reduction potency''. Pre-treatment with sufficient ascorbic acid inhibited the lowering effects of radiation on the ''reduction potency'' in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore the levels of the reduction potency'' ever elevated higher than those of controls with the large amount of ascorbic acid of 750 mg/kg or more, suggesting that the large amounts of ascorbic acid could prevent the adverse effects associated with radiation therapy for the lung malignancy. (author)

  8. Spin polarization and magnetization of conduction-band dilute-magnetic-semiconductor quantum wells with non-step-like density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simserides, Constantinos

    2005-01-01

    We study the magnetization, M, and the spin polarization, ζ, of n-doped non-magnetic-semiconductor (NMS)/narrow to wide dilute-magnetic-semiconductor (DMS)/n-doped NMS quantum wells, as a function of the temperature, T, and the in-plane magnetic field, B. Under such conditions the density of states (DOS) deviates from the occasionally stereotypic step-like form, both quantitatively and qualitatively. The DOS modification causes an impressive fluctuation of M in cases of vigorous competition between spatial and magnetic confinement. At low T, the enhanced electron spin-splitting, U oσ , acquires its bigger value. At higher T, U oσ decreases, augmenting the influence of the spin-up electrons. Increasing B, U oσ increases and accordingly electrons populate spin-down subbands while they abandon spin-up subbands. Furthermore, due to the DOS modification, all energetically higher subbands become gradually depopulated

  9. Spin photocurrent spectra induced by Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs step quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinling; Cheng, Shuying; Lai, Yunfeng; Zheng, Qiao; Chen, Yonghai

    2014-03-19

    : Spin photocurrent spectra induced by Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at inter-band excitation have been experimentally investigated in InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs step quantum wells (QWs) at room temperature. The Rashba- and Dresselhaus-induced CPGE spectra are quite similar with each other during the spectral region corresponding to the transition of the excitonic state 1H1E (the first valence subband of heavy hole to the first conduction subband of electrons). The ratio of Rashba- and Dresselhaus-induced CPGE current for the transition 1H1E is estimated to be 8.8±0.1, much larger than that obtained in symmetric QWs (4.95). Compared to symmetric QWs, the reduced well width enhances the Dresselhaus-type spin splitting, but the Rashba-type spin splitting increases more rapidly in the step QWs. Since the degree of the segregation effect of indium atoms and the intensity of build-in field in the step QWs are comparable to those in symmetric QWs, as proved by reflectance difference and photoreflectance spectra, respectively, the larger Rashba-type spin splitting is mainly induced by the additional interface introduced by step structures.

  10. Multiple band structure in 156Er

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunyar, A.W.; Der Mateosian, E.; Kistner, O.C.; Johnson, A.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Thieberger, P.

    1976-01-01

    The 142 Nd( 18 O,4n) 156 Er reaction at 90-95 MeV was used to study 156 Er high-spin states to spin 24. In addition to the background ground-state band, two well developed off-spin side bands, one of each parity, were observed. (Auth.)

  11. Temperature dependence of spin photocurrent spectra induced by Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect at inter-band excitation in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinling; Cheng, Shuying; Lai, Yunfeng; Zheng, Qiao; Zhu, Laipan; Chen, Yonghai; Ren, Jun

    2015-10-19

    Spin photocurrent spectra induced by Rashba- and Dresselhaus-type circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) at inter-band excitation have been experimentally investigated in InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells at a temperature range of 80 to 290 K. It is found that, the sign of Rashba-type current reverses at low temperatures, while that of Dresselhaus-type remains unchanged. The temperature dependence of ratio of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling parameters, increasing from -6.7 to 17.9, is obtained, and the possible reasons are discussed. We also develop a model to extract the Rashba-type effective electric field at different temperatures. It is demonstrated that excitonic effect will significantly influence the Rashba-type CPGE, while it has little effect on Dresselhaus-type CPGE.

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis and magneto-optical properties of Ni-doped ZnO hexagonal columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xingyan; Cao, Chuanbao

    2015-01-01

    Single crystal Zn 1−x Ni x O (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) hexagonal columns have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal route. The hexagonal columns of the products are about 3 μm in diameter and about 2 μm in thickness. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ni K-edge XANES spectra and TEM indicate that the as-prepared samples are single-crystalline wurtzite structure and no metallic Ni or other secondary phases are found in the hexagonal columns. Optical absorption and Raman results further confirm the incorporation of Ni 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice. Magnetic measurements indicate that the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns exhibited obvious ferromagnetic characteristic at room temperature. The coercive fields (H c ) were obtained to be 135.3, 327.79 and 127.29 Oe for x=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06, respectively. The ferromagnetism was assumed to originate from the exchange interaction between free carriers (holes or electrons) from the valence band and the localized d spins on the Ni ions. - Highlights: • Single crystal Zn 1−x Ni x O (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) hexagonal columns were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • The layer-by-layer growth manner of the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns was proposed. • Obvious room-temperature ferromagnetic characteristic of Zn 1−x Ni x O are observed and the coercivity (H c ) are 135.3,327.79 and 127.29 Oe for x=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06, respectively. • The exchange interaction between local-spin polarized electrons and conduction electrons is responsible for the room-temperature ferromagnetism in the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns

  13. Dipole Bands in 196Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrie, J. J.; Lawrie, E. A.; Newman, R. T.; Sharpey-Schafer, J. F.; Smit, F. D.; Msezane, B.; Benatar, M.; Mabala, G. K.; Mutshena, K. P.; Federke, M.; Mullins, S. M.; Ncapayi, N. J.; Vymers, P.

    2011-01-01

    High spin states in 196 Hg have been populated in the 198 Pt(α,6n) reaction at 65 MeV and the level scheme has been extended. A new dipole band has been observed and a previously observed dipole has been confirmed. Excitation energies, spins and parities of these bands were determined from DCO ratio and linear polarization measurements. Possible quasiparticle excitations responsible for these structures are discussed.

  14. Spin dependence of intra-ground-state-band E2 transitions in the SU(3) limit of the sdg interacting boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, G. L.; Ji, H. Y.

    1998-04-01

    B(E2, L+2-->L) transitions in the sdg interacting boson model SU(3) limit are studied with a general E2 transition operator. Analytical expressions are obtained using a group theoretic method. It is found that when using transition operators of the form (d†g~+g†d~)2 or (g†g~)2, the B(E2, L+2-->L) values in the ground-state band have an L(L+3) dependent term. As L increases, the B(E2) values can be larger than the rigid rotor model value. Application to 236,238U is discussed.

  15. Source of spin polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.T.; Meier, F.A.; Siegmann, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of producing intense beams of polarized free electrons in which a semiconductor with a spin orbit split valence band and negative electron affinity is used as a photocathode and irradiated with circularly polarized light

  16. Modeling Stone Columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jorge

    2017-07-11

    This paper reviews the main modeling techniques for stone columns, both ordinary stone columns and geosynthetic-encased stone columns. The paper tries to encompass the more recent advances and recommendations in the topic. Regarding the geometrical model, the main options are the "unit cell", longitudinal gravel trenches in plane strain conditions, cylindrical rings of gravel in axial symmetry conditions, equivalent homogeneous soil with improved properties and three-dimensional models, either a full three-dimensional model or just a three-dimensional row or slice of columns. Some guidelines for obtaining these simplified geometrical models are provided and the particular case of groups of columns under footings is also analyzed. For the latter case, there is a column critical length that is around twice the footing width for non-encased columns in a homogeneous soft soil. In the literature, the column critical length is sometimes given as a function of the column length, which leads to some disparities in its value. Here it is shown that the column critical length mainly depends on the footing dimensions. Some other features related with column modeling are also briefly presented, such as the influence of column installation. Finally, some guidance and recommendations are provided on parameter selection for the study of stone columns.

  17. Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Christoph

    2012-05-15

    In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.

  18. Quantum spin transport in semiconductor nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we study and quantitatively predict the quantum spin Hall effect, the spin-orbit interaction induced intrinsic spin-Hall effect, spin-orbit induced magnetizations, and spin-polarized electric currents in nanostructured two-dimensional electron or hole gases with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We propose concrete device geometries for the generation, detection, and manipulation of spin polarization and spin-polarized currents. To this end a novel multi-band quantum transport theory, that we termed the multi-scattering Buettiker probe model, is developed. The method treats quantum interference and coherence in open quantum devices on the same footing as incoherent scattering and incorporates inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a gauge-invariant and nonperturbative manner. The spin-orbit interaction parameters that control effects such as band energy spin splittings, g-factors, and spin relaxations are calculated microscopically in terms of an atomistic relativistic tight-binding model. We calculate the transverse electron focusing in external magnetic and electric fields. We have performed detailed studies of the intrinsic spin-Hall effect and its inverse effect in various material systems and geometries. We find a geometry dependent threshold value for the spin-orbit interaction for the inverse intrinsic spin-Hall effect that cannot be met by n-type GaAs structures. We propose geometries that spin polarize electric current in zero magnetic field and analyze the out-of-plane spin polarization by all electrical means. We predict unexpectedly large spin-orbit induced spin-polarization effects in zero magnetic fields that are caused by resonant enhancements of the spin-orbit interaction in specially band engineered and geometrically designed p-type nanostructures. We propose a concrete realization of a spin transistor in HgTe quantum wells, that employs the helical edge channel in the quantum spin Hall effect.

  19. ( Anogeissus leiocarpus ) timber columns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A procedure for designing axially loaded Ayin (Anogeissus leiocarpus) wood column or strut has been investigated. Instead of the usual categorization of columns into short, intermediate and slender according to the value of slenderness ratio, a continuous column formula representing the three categories was derived.

  20. Column Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majors, Ronald E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature covering developments of column liquid chromatography during 1982-83. Areas considered include: books and reviews; general theory; columns; instrumentation; detectors; automation and data handling; multidimensional chromatographic and column switching techniques; liquid-solid chromatography; normal bonded-phase, reversed-phase,…

  1. Decay of superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-01-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in 194 Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs

  2. The study of very high spin states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Some examples are given of the study of very high spin states that decay by discrete line gamma-ray emission. States up to spin 70(h/2π) have been seen in superdeformed bands. In other bands with normal deformation the limit is near 50(h/2π). (Author)

  3. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  4. Geometrical spin symmetry and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, I. B.

    2011-01-01

    Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.

  5. Theory of electrically controlled resonant tunneling spin devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z. -Y.; Cartoixa, Xavier

    2004-01-01

    We report device concepts that exploit spin-orbit coupling for creating spin polarized current sources using nonmagnetic semiconductor resonant tunneling heterostructures, without external magnetic fields. The resonant interband tunneling psin filter exploits large valence band spin-orbit interaction to provide strong spin selectivity.

  6. Small Column Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huff, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) leverages a suite of technologies developed by DOE across the complex to achieve lifecycle savings. Technologies are applicable to multiple sites. Early testing supported multiple sites. Balance of SRS SCIX testing supports SRS deployment. A forma Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) was performed and selected Small Column Ion Exchange columns containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) in a 2-column lead/lag configuration. SEE considered use of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF). Advantages of approach at SRS include: (1) no new buildings, (2) low volume of Cs waste in solid form compared to aqueous strip effluent; and availability of downstream processing facilities for immediate processing of spent resin.

  7. Magnetism and magnetostriction in a degenerate rigid band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakowski, K.; Barbara, B.

    1990-09-01

    We investigate the influence of the spin-orbit coupling on the magnetic and magnetoelastic phenomena in ferromagnetic band systems. The description is within the Stoner model of a degenerate rigid band, for temperature T = O. (author). 14 refs

  8. Universal spin dynamics in quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, E. A.; Zülicke, U.; Winkler, R.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss the universal spin dynamics in quasi-one-dimensional systems including the real spin in narrow-gap semiconductors like InAs and InSb, the valley pseudospin in staggered single-layer graphene, and the combination of real spin and valley pseudospin characterizing single-layer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, WS2, MoS2, and WSe2. All these systems can be described by the same Dirac-like Hamiltonian. Spin-dependent observable effects in one of these systems thus have counterparts in each of the other systems. Effects discussed in more detail include equilibrium spin currents, current-induced spin polarization (Edelstein effect), and spin currents generated via adiabatic spin pumping. Our work also suggests that a long-debated spin-dependent correction to the position operator in single-band models should be absent.

  9. JCE Feature Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jon L.

    1999-05-01

    The Features area of JCE Online is now readily accessible through a single click from our home page. In the Features area each column is linked to its own home page. These column home pages also have links to them from the online Journal Table of Contents pages or from any article published as part of that feature column. Using these links you can easily find abstracts of additional articles that are related by topic. Of course, JCE Online+ subscribers are then just one click away from the entire article. Finding related articles is easy because each feature column "site" contains links to the online abstracts of all the articles that have appeared in the column. In addition, you can find the mission statement for the column and the email link to the column editor that I mentioned above. At the discretion of its editor, a feature column site may contain additional resources. As an example, the Chemical Information Instructor column edited by Arleen Somerville will have a periodically updated bibliography of resources for teaching and using chemical information. Due to the increase in the number of these resources available on the WWW, it only makes sense to publish this information online so that you can get to these resources with a simple click of the mouse. We expect that there will soon be additional information and resources at several other feature column sites. Following in the footsteps of the Chemical Information Instructor, up-to-date bibliographies and links to related online resources can be made available. We hope to extend the online component of our feature columns with moderated online discussion forums. If you have a suggestion for an online resource you would like to see included, let the feature editor or JCE Online (jceonline@chem.wisc.edu) know about it. JCE Internet Features JCE Internet also has several feature columns: Chemical Education Resource Shelf, Conceptual Questions and Challenge Problems, Equipment Buyers Guide, Hal's Picks, Mathcad

  10. Unconventional spin texture of a topologically nontrivial semimetal Sb(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strózecka, A.; Eiguren, A.; Bianchi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The surfaces of antimony are characterized by the presence of spin-split states within the projected bulk band gap and the Fermi contour is thus expected to exhibit a spin texture. Using spin-resolved density functional theory calculations, we determine the spin polarization of the surface bands...... signal.We identify the allowed scattering vectors and analyze their bias evolution in relation to the surface-state dispersion....

  11. Spin dynamics in electron synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Jan Felix

    2017-01-01

    Providing spin polarized particle beams with circular accelerators requires the consideration of depolarizing resonances which may significantly reduce the desired degree of polarization at specific beam energies. The corresponding spin dynamical effects are typically analyzed with numerical methods. In case of electron beams the influence of the emission of synchrotron radiation has to be taken into account. On short timescales, as in synchrotrons with a fast energy ramp or in damping rings, spin dynamics are investigated with spin tracking algorithms. This thesis presents the spin tracking code Polematrix as a versatile tool to study the impact of synchrotron radiation on spin dynamics. Spin tracking simulations have been performed based on the well established particle tracking code Elegant. The numerical studies demonstrate effects which are responsible for beam depolarization: Synchrotron side bands of depolarizing resonances and decoherence of spin precession. Polematrix can be utilized for any electron accelerator with minimal effort as it imports lattice files from the tracking programs MAD-X or Elegant. Polematrix has been published as open source software. Currently, the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA at Bonn University is the only electron synchrotron worldwide providing a polarized beam. Integer and intrinsic depolarizing resonances are compensated with dedicated countermeasures during the fast energy ramp. Polarization measurements from ELSA demonstrate the particular spin dynamics of electrons and confirm the results of the spin tracking code Polematrix.

  12. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  13. Nuclear reactor control column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachovchin, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear reactor control column comprises a column disposed within the nuclear reactor core having a variable cross-section hollow channel and containing balls whose vertical location is determined by the flow of the reactor coolant through the column. The control column is divided into three basic sections wherein each of the sections has a different cross-sectional area. The uppermost section of the control column has the greatest crosssectional area, the intermediate section of the control column has the smallest cross-sectional area, and the lowermost section of the control column has the intermediate cross-sectional area. In this manner, the area of the uppermost section can be established such that when the reactor coolant is flowing under normal conditions therethrough, the absorber balls will be lifted and suspended in a fluidized bed manner in the upper section. However, when the reactor coolant flow falls below a predetermined value, the absorber balls will fall through the intermediate section and into the lowermost section, thereby reducing the reactivity of the reactor core and shutting down the reactor

  14. Improvements in solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aughwane, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Solvent extraction columns are used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. For an effective reprocessing operation a solvent extraction column is required which is capable of distributing the feed over most of the column. The patent describes improvements in solvent extractions columns which allows the feed to be distributed over an increased length of column than was previously possible. (U.K.)

  15. Buckling of liquid columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Rahmani, Y.; Bonn, D.; Ribe, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions, a column of viscous liquid falling onto a rigid surface undergoes a buckling instability. Here we show experimentally and theoretically that liquid buckling exhibits a hitherto unsuspected complexity involving three different modes—viscous, gravitational, and

  16. Solvent extraction columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, P.; Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    In pulsed columns for use in solvent extraction processes, e.g. the reprocessing of nuclear fuel, the horizontal perforated plates inside the column are separated by interplate spacers manufactured from metallic neutron absorbing material. The spacer may be in the form of a spiral or concentric circles separated by radial limbs, or may be of egg-box construction. Suitable neutron absorbing materials include stainless steel containing boron or gadolinium, hafnium metal or alloys of hafnium. (UK)

  17. Decay out of the yrast superdeformed band in 191Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sien, S.; Reiter, P.; Khoo, T.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M. P.; Ahmad, I.; Amro, H.; Calderin, I.; Dossing, T.; Fischer, S. M.; Garg, U.; Gassmann, D.; Hackman, G.; Hannachi, F.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kharraja, B.; Korichi, A.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Moore, E. F.; Nisius, D.; Schuck, C.

    1999-01-01

    The excitation energies and spins of the yrast superdeformed band in 191 Hg have been determined by analyzing the quasicontinuum spectrum connecting the superdeformed and normal-deformed states. The results from this analysis, combined with that given by one-step decay lines, give confident assignments of the spins and energies of the yrast superdeformed band in 191 Hg

  18. Microscopic theory of ultrafast spin linear reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G P, E-mail: gpzhang@indstate.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN 47809 (United States)

    2011-05-25

    A recent experiment (Vahaplar et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 117201) showed that a single femtosecond laser can reverse the spin direction without spin precession, or spin linear reversal (SLR), but its microscopic theory has been missing. Here we show that SLR does not occur naturally. Two generic spin models, the Heisenberg and Hubbard models, are employed to describe magnetic insulators and metals, respectively. We find analytically that the spin change is always accompanied by a simultaneous excitation of at least two spin components. The only model that has prospects for SLR is the Stoner single-electron band model. However, under the influence of the laser field, the orbital angular momenta are excited and are coupled to each other. If a circularly polarized light is used, then all three components of the orbital angular momenta are excited, and so are their spins. The generic spin commutation relation further reveals that if SLR exists, it must involve a complicated multiple state excitation.

  19. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  20. Spin doctoring

    OpenAIRE

    Vozková, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...

  1. Majorana spin in magnetic atomic chain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jeon, Sangjun; Xie, Yonglong; Yazdani, Ali; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we establish that Majorana zero modes emerging from a topological band structure of a chain of magnetic atoms embedded in a superconductor can be distinguished from trivial localized zero energy states that may accidentally form in this system using spin-resolved measurements. To demonstrate this key Majorana diagnostics, we study the spin composition of magnetic impurity induced in-gap Shiba states in a superconductor using a hybrid model. By examining the spin and spectral densities in the context of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) particle-hole symmetry, we derive a sum rule that relates the spin densities of localized Shiba states with those in the normal state without superconductivity. Extending our investigations to a ferromagnetic chain of magnetic impurities, we identify key features of the spin properties of the extended Shiba state bands, as well as those associated with a localized Majorana end mode when the effect of spin-orbit interaction is included. We then formulate a phenomenological theory for the measurement of the local spin densities with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques. By combining the calculated spin densities and the measurement theory, we show that spin-polarized STM measurements can reveal a sharp contrast in spin polarization between an accidental-zero-energy trivial Shiba state and a Majorana zero mode in a topological superconducting phase in atomic chains. We further confirm our results with numerical simulations that address generic parameter settings.

  2. Assembly for connecting the column ends of two capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, B.; Auer, M.; Pospisil, P.

    1984-01-01

    In gas chromatography, the column ends of two capillary columns are inserted into a straight capillary from both sides forming annular gaps. The capillary is located in a tee out of which the capillary columns are sealingly guided, and to which carrier gas is supplied by means of a flushing flow conduit. A ''straight-forward operation'' having capillary columns connected in series and a ''flush-back operation'' are possible. The dead volume between the capillary columns can be kept small

  3. Spin 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, Gisela

    1990-01-01

    The idea of the intrinsic angular momentum, or 'spin', of a particle has played an essential part in fundamental physics for more than 60 years, and its continuing importance was underlined at the 9th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in September in Bonn.

  4. Spin 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Gisela

    1990-12-15

    The idea of the intrinsic angular momentum, or 'spin', of a particle has played an essential part in fundamental physics for more than 60 years, and its continuing importance was underlined at the 9th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in September in Bonn.

  5. Spin tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ariano, G M [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Maccone, L [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Paini, M [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2003-02-01

    We propose a tomographic reconstruction scheme for spin states. The experimental set-up, which is a modification of the Stern-Gerlach scheme, can be easily performed with currently available technology. The method is generalized to multiparticle states, analysing the spin-1/2 case for indistinguishable particles. Some Monte Carlo numerical simulations are given to illustrate the technique.

  6. Spin tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, G M; Maccone, L; Paini, M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a tomographic reconstruction scheme for spin states. The experimental set-up, which is a modification of the Stern-Gerlach scheme, can be easily performed with currently available technology. The method is generalized to multiparticle states, analysing the spin-1/2 case for indistinguishable particles. Some Monte Carlo numerical simulations are given to illustrate the technique

  7. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  8. Spin symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-01-15

    The recent 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota, opened with a bang when L. Pondrom (Wisconsin), donning a hard hat borrowed from construction workers, ventured that 'spin, the notorious inessential complication of hadronic physics, is finally telling us what real QCD (quantum chromodynamics, the field theory of quarks and gluons) looks like.' He was referring to an animated discussion on the meaning of the recent spin oriented (polarized) scattering results from the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) at CERN and reported at the Symposium by R. Garnet (Liverpool) and P. Schuler (Yale) which show that the proton spin is not simply a reflection of the spins of its constituent quarks.

  9. Semiconductors put spin in spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Electrons and holes, which carry the current in semiconductor devices, are quantum-mechanical objects characterized by a set of quantum numbers - the band index, the wave-vector (which is closely related to the electron or hole velocity) and spin. The spin, however, is one of the strangest properties of particles. In simple terms, we can think of the spin as an internal rotation of the electron, but it has no classical counterpart. The spin is connected to a quantized magnetic moment and hence acts as a microscopic magnet. Thus the electron spin can adopt one of two directions (''up'' or ''down'') in a magnetic field. The spin plays no role in conventional electronics and the current in any semiconductor device is made up of a mixture of electrons with randomly oriented spins. However, a new range of electronic devices that transport the spin of the electrons, in addition to their charge, is being developed. But the biggest obstacle to making practical ''spin electronic'' or ''spintronic'' devices so far has been finding a way of injecting spin-polarized electrons or holes into the semiconductor and then detecting them. Recently a team of physicists from the University of Wuerzburg in Germany, and also a collaboration of researchers from Tohoku University in Japan and the University of California at Santa Barbara, have found a way round these problems using either semi-magnetic or ferromagnetic semiconductors as ''spin aligners'' (R Fiederling et al. 1999 Nature 402 787; Y Ohno et al. 1999 Nature 402 790). In this article the author presents the latest breakthrough in spintronics research. (UK)

  10. Bulk and edge spin transport in topological magnon insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rückriegel, A.; Brataas, A.; Duine, R.A.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the spin transport properties of a topological magnon insulator, a magnetic insulator characterized by topologically nontrivial bulk magnon bands and protected magnon edge modes located in the bulk band gaps. Employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, we calculate the spin

  11. Spin qubits in antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2008-01-01

    We suggest and study designed defects in an otherwise periodic potential modulation of a two-dimensional electron gas as an alternative approach to electron spin based quantum information processing in the solid-state using conventional gate-defined quantum dots. We calculate the band structure a...

  12. Columns in Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenhouts, Robin

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a clay project for students studying Greece and Rome. It provides a wonderful way to learn slab construction techniques by making small clay column capitols. With this lesson, students learn architectural vocabulary and history, understand the importance of classical architectural forms and their influence on today's…

  13. Slender CRC Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarup, Bendt; Jensen, Lars Rom; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    CRC is a high-performance steel fibre reinforced concrete with a typical compressive strength of 150 MPa. Design methods for a number of structural elements have been developed since CRC was invented in 1986, but the current project set out to further investigate the range of columns for which...

  14. Practical column design guide

    CERN Document Server

    Nitsche, M

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the aspects that need to be considered when designing distillation columns in practice. It discusses the influencing parameters as well as the equations governing them, and presents several numerical examples. The book is intended both for experienced designers and for those who are new to the subject.

  15. Spin relaxation near the metal-insulator transition: dominance of the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intronati, Guido A; Tamborenea, Pablo I; Weinmann, Dietmar; Jalabert, Rodolfo A

    2012-01-06

    We identify the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling as the source of the dominant spin-relaxation mechanism in the impurity band of a wide class of n-doped zinc blende semiconductors. The Dresselhaus hopping terms are derived and incorporated into a tight-binding model of impurity sites, and they are shown to unexpectedly dominate the spin relaxation, leading to spin-relaxation times in good agreement with experimental values. This conclusion is drawn from two complementary approaches: an analytical diffusive-evolution calculation and a numerical finite-size scaling study of the spin-relaxation time.

  16. Spin-polarized photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1997-01-01

    Spin-polarized photoemission has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this review, we examine the methodology of the technique and its application to a number of different problems, including both valence band and core level studies. After a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements we consider in detail studies of the bulk properties both above and below the Curie temperature. This section also includes a discussion of observations relating to unique metastable phases obtained via epitaxial growth. The application of the technique to the study of surfaces, both clean and adsorbate covered, is reviewed. The report then examines, in detail, studies of the spin-polarized electronic structure of thin films and the related interfacial magnetism. Finally, observations of spin-polarized quantum well states in non-magnetic thin films are discussed with particular reference to their mediation of the oscillatory exchange coupling in related magnetic multilayers. (author)

  17. Spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, W J

    1989-01-01

    This book is about spin systems as models for magnetic materials, especially antiferromagnetic lattices. Spin-systems are well-defined models, for which, in special cases, exact properties may be derived. These special cases are for the greater part, one- dimensional and restricted in their applicability, but they may give insight into general properties that also exist in higher dimension. This work pays special attention to qualitative differences between spin lattices of different dimensions. It also replaces the traditional picture of an (ordered) antiferromagnetic state of a Heisenberg sy

  18. Self-consistent, relativistic, ferromagnetic band structure of gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, B.N.; Schirber, J.; Koelling, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    An initial self-consistent calculation of the ground state magnetic band structure of gadolinium is described. A linearized APW method was used which included all single particle relativistic effects except spin-orbit coupling. The spin polarized potential was obtained in the muffin-tin form using the local spin density approximation for exchange and correlation. The most striking and unorthodox aspect of the results is the position of the 4f spin-down ''bands'' which are required to float just on top of the Fermi level in order to obtain convergence. If the 4f states (l = 3 resonance) are removed from the occupied region of the conduction bands the magnetic moment is approximately .75 μ/sub B//atom; however, as the 4f spin-down states are allowed to find their own position they hybridize with the conduction bands at the Fermi level and the moment becomes smaller. Means of improving the calculation are discussed

  19. Identical and shifted identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, R.S; Jones, E.F.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of 252 Cm was studied with 72 large Compton suppressed Ge detectors in Gamma sphere. New isotopes 160 Sm and 162 Gd were identified. Through X-ray-γ and γ-γ-γ) coincidence measurements, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in 152 , 154 156 60 Nd 92 94 96 , 156 , 158 , 160 62 Sm 94 , 96 , 98 , and 160 , 162 64 Gd 96 , 98 . These nuclei exhibit a remarkable variety of identical bands and bands where the energies and moments of inertia are shifted by the same constant amount for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + for various combinations of nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, and α

  20. Spin Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The 5th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics met in September at Brookhaven. The symposium has evolved to include a number of diverse specialities: theory, including parity violations and proposed quantum chromodynamics (QCD) tests with polarized beams; experiment, including the large spin effects discovered in high transverse momentum elastic scattering and hyperon production, dibaryons, and magnetic moments; acceleration and storage of polarized protons and electrons; and development of polarized sources and targets

  1. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book records the efforts of a one-week joint workshop between Master students from Studio 2B of Arkitektskolen Aarhus and Master students from the Harbin Institute of Technology in Harbin, China. The workshop employed nine action words to instigate team-based investigation into the effects o...... as formwork for the shaping of wood veneer. The resulting columns ‘wear’ every aspect of this design pipeline process and display the power of process towards an architectural resolution....

  2. NMFS Water Column Sonar Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water column sonar data are an important component of fishery independent surveys, habitat studies and other research. NMFS water column sonar data are archived here.

  3. Transport and spin effects in homogeneous magnetic superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, J.L.; Pereyra, P.; Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2000-09-01

    Homogeneous semiconductors under spacially periodic external magnetic fields exhibit spin-band splitting and displacements, more clearly defined than in diluted magnetic semiconductor superlattices. We study the influence of the geometrical parameters and the spin-field interaction on the electronic transport properties. We show that by varying the external magnetic field, one can easily block the transmission of either the spin-up or the spin-down electrons. (author)

  4. Wide band ENDOR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Filho, C.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of an ENDOR spectrometer operating from 0,5 to 75 MHz within a single band, with ore Klystron and homodine detection, and no fundamental changes on the electron spin resonance spectrometer was described. The ENDOR signal can be detected both by amplitude modulation of the frequency field, or direct detection of the ESR output, which is taken to a signal analyser. The signal-to-noise ratio is raised by averaging rather than filtering avoiding the use of long time constants, providing natural line widths. The experimental apparatus and the spectra obtained are described. A discussion, relating the ENDOR line amplitudes with the experimental conditions is done and ENDOR mechanism, in which there is a relevant presence of cross relaxation is proposed

  5. Elevator frames two columns

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Jiménez, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to solve the problem of vertical transport of charges raised by a company with the standard UNE 58-132-91/6. The purpose of this project is the industrial design of a system of load handling by a bi-columned lifting device, tractioned by flat belts and steel cables from a transport level to a different level in order to connect two different assembly lines situated at different heights. The goal of this project is lifting a 780 Kg load at a 2.400 mm height....

  6. Column: Every Last Byte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Inheritance powder is the name that was given to poisons, especially arsenic, that were commonly used in the 17th and early 18th centuries to hasten the death of the elderly. For most of the 17th century, arsenic was deadly but undetectable, making it nearly impossible to prove that someone had been poisoned. The first arsenic test produced a gas—hardly something that a scientist could show to a judge. Faced with a growing epidemic of poisonings, doctors and chemists spent decades searching for something better.(see PDF for full column

  7. Study of total column atmospheric aerosol optical depth, ozone and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Extensive observations of the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD), total column ozone (TCO) and precipitable water content (PWC) have been carried out using the on-line, multi-band solar radiometers onboard ORV Sagar Kanya (Cruise#SK 147B) over Bay of Bengal during 11th-28th August 1999. Aerosol optical and ...

  8. The highest spin discrete levels in 131,132Ce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, E S; Choy, P T W; Andreoiu, C; Boston, A J; Evans, A O; Fox, C; Gros, S; Nolan, P J; Rainovski, G; Sampson, J A; Scraggs, H C; Walker, A; Appelbe, D E; Joss, D T; Simpson, J; Gizon, J; Astier, A; Buforn, N; Prevost, A; Redon, N; Stezowski, O; Nyako, B M; Sohler, D; Timar, J; Zolnai, L; Bazzacco, D; Lunardi, S; Petrache, C M; Bednarczyk, P; Curien, D; Kintz, N; Ragnarsson, I

    2006-01-01

    The three superdeformed (SD) bands in 132 Ce and the two SD bands in 131 Ce have been extended to higher spin following experiments with the EUROBALL IV spectrometer. The two SD bands in 131 Ce have been linked together. However, despite the relatively high population intensity of the bands (up to 5% of the respective channel), it has not been possible to unambiguously link any of the five SD bands into the low-spin, normally deformed structures of 131,132 Ce

  9. Giant spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2011-10-14

    Fully relativistic first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are performed to study the spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in monolayer systems of the transition-metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2. All these systems are identified as direct-band-gap semiconductors. Giant spin splittings of 148–456 meV result from missing inversion symmetry. Full out-of-plane spin polarization is due to the two-dimensional nature of the electron motion and the potential gradient asymmetry. By suppression of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation, spin lifetimes are expected to be very long. Because of the giant spin splittings, the studied materials have great potential in spintronics applications.

  10. Giant spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    Fully relativistic first-principles calculations based on density functional theory are performed to study the spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in monolayer systems of the transition-metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2. All these systems are identified as direct-band-gap semiconductors. Giant spin splittings of 148–456 meV result from missing inversion symmetry. Full out-of-plane spin polarization is due to the two-dimensional nature of the electron motion and the potential gradient asymmetry. By suppression of the Dyakonov-Perel spin relaxation, spin lifetimes are expected to be very long. Because of the giant spin splittings, the studied materials have great potential in spintronics applications.

  11. Annular pulse column development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    The capacity of critically safe cylindrical pulse columns limits the size of nuclear fuel solvent extraction plants because of the limited cross-sectional area of plutonium, U-235, or U-233 processing columns. Thus, there is a need to increase the cross-sectional area of these columns. This can be accomplished through the use of a column having an annular cross section. The preliminary testing of a pilot-plant-scale annular column has been completed and is reported herein. The column is made from 152.4-mm (6-in.) glass pipe sections with an 89-mm (3.5-in.) o.d. internal tube, giving an annular width of 32-mm (1.25-in.). Louver plates are used to swirl the column contents to prevent channeling of the phases. The data from this testing indicate that this approach can successfully provide larger-cross-section critically safe pulse columns. While the capacity is only 70% of that of a cylindrical column of similar cross section, the efficiency is almost identical to that of a cylindrical column. No evidence was seen of any non-uniform pulsing action from one side of the column to the other

  12. Evaluation of layback spin in figure skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastšenjski Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Layback spin is considered as one of the most beautiful and elegant spins performed in figure skating. It is also one of the required spins in competitive short program in female category. Different techniques of executing layback spin with variations in changing the positions of free parts of the body, as well as the evaluation of layback spin in accordance with ISU rules and regulations, which have been used in all International Skating Federation competitions since 2004 (World and European championships, Olympic Games are presented in this paper. Due to very difficult position of the body while performing a layback spin, it is essential that the skaters who want to master it should have excellent agility (especially of the spinal column and shoulder and knee joints and balance. Layback spin performance requires significant skating knowledge, so it cannot be performed by beginners. Depending on the fl exibility and creativity, a skater can execute various positions of the head, arms, body and free leg while performing a layback spin. In some cases, these variations can increase the level of difficulty, and in others only the mark given for executing this spin.

  13. Spin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarde, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of spectra of (p,n) reactions showed that they were very selective in exciting spin modes. Charge exchange reactions at intermediate energies give important new understanding of the M1-type of excitations and of the spin structure of continuum p spectra in general. In this paper, the author discusses three charge exchange reactions: (p,n); ( 3 H,t); and (d,2p) at several targets. Low-lying states and the Δ region are discussed separately. Finally, the charge exchange reaction with heavy ion beams is briefly discussed. (G.J.P./Auth.)

  14. An enhancement of spin polarization by multiphoton pumping in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Multiphoton pumping and spin generation in semiconductors. {yields} Optical selection rules for inter-band transitions. {yields} Calculations of spin polarization using band-energy model and the second order perturbation theory. {yields} Enhancement of the electronic spin polarization. - Abstract: A pump-probe spectroscopic study has been carried out in zinc-blende bulk semiconductors. In the semiconductor samples, a spin-polarized carrier population is produced by the absorption of a monochromatic circularly polarized light beam with two-photon energy above the direct band gap in bulk semiconductors. The production of a carrier population with a net spin is a consequence of the optical selection rules for the heavy-hole and light-hole valence-to-conduction band transitions. This production is probed by the spin-dependent transmission of the samples in the time domain. The spin polarization of the conduction-band-electrons in dependences of delay of the probe beam as well as of pumping photon energy is estimated. The spin polarization is found to depolarize rapidly for pumping energy larger than the energy gap of the split-off band to the conduction band. From the polarization decays, the spin relaxation times are also estimated. Compared to one-photon pumping, the results, however, show that an enhancement of the spin-polarization is achieved by multiphoton excitation of the samples. The experimental results are compared with those obtained in calculations using second order perturbation theory of the spin transport model. A good agreement between experiment and theory is obtained. The observed results are discussed in details.

  15. An enhancement of spin polarization by multiphoton pumping in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Multiphoton pumping and spin generation in semiconductors. → Optical selection rules for inter-band transitions. → Calculations of spin polarization using band-energy model and the second order perturbation theory. → Enhancement of the electronic spin polarization. - Abstract: A pump-probe spectroscopic study has been carried out in zinc-blende bulk semiconductors. In the semiconductor samples, a spin-polarized carrier population is produced by the absorption of a monochromatic circularly polarized light beam with two-photon energy above the direct band gap in bulk semiconductors. The production of a carrier population with a net spin is a consequence of the optical selection rules for the heavy-hole and light-hole valence-to-conduction band transitions. This production is probed by the spin-dependent transmission of the samples in the time domain. The spin polarization of the conduction-band-electrons in dependences of delay of the probe beam as well as of pumping photon energy is estimated. The spin polarization is found to depolarize rapidly for pumping energy larger than the energy gap of the split-off band to the conduction band. From the polarization decays, the spin relaxation times are also estimated. Compared to one-photon pumping, the results, however, show that an enhancement of the spin-polarization is achieved by multiphoton excitation of the samples. The experimental results are compared with those obtained in calculations using second order perturbation theory of the spin transport model. A good agreement between experiment and theory is obtained. The observed results are discussed in details.

  16. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  17. Intruder bands in Z = 51 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFosse, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Recent investigations of h 11/2 proton intruder bands in odd 51 Sb nuclei are reported. In addition to experiments performed at SUNY Stony Brook and Chalk River, data from Early Implementation of GAMMASPHERE (analysis in progress) are presented. In particular, the nuclei 109 Sb and 111 Sb are discussed. Rotational bands based on the πh 11/2 orbital coupled to a 2p2h deformed state of the 50 Sn core have been observed. These bands have been observed to high spin, and in the case of 109 Sb to a rotational frequency of 1.4 MeV, the highest frequency observed in a heavy nucleus. The dynamic moments of inertia in these bands decrease slowly with frequency, suggesting a gradual band termination. The systematics of such bands in 109-119 Sb will be discussed

  18. Excitation spectrum of Heisenberg spin ladders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Dagotto, E.; Riera, J.; Swanson, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin ''ladders'' (two coupled spin chains) are low-dimensional magnetic systems which for S=1/2 interpolate between half-integer-spin chains, when the chains are decoupled, and effective integer-spin one-dimensional chains in the strong-coupling limit. The spin-1/2 ladder may be realized in nature by vanadyl pyrophosphate, (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 . In this paper we apply strong-coupling perturbation theory, spin-wave theory, Lanczos techniques, and a Monte Carlo method to determine the ground-state energy and the low-lying excitation spectrum of the ladder. We find evidence of a nonzero spin gap for all interchain couplings J perpendicular >0. A band of spin-triplet excitations above the gap is also analyzed. These excitations are unusual for an antiferromagnet, since their long-wavelength dispersion relation behaves as (k-k 0 ) 2 (in the strong-coupling limit J perpendicular much-gt J, where J is the in-chain antiferromagnetic coupling). Their band is folded, with a minimum energy at k 0 =π, and a maximum between k 1 =π/2 (for J perpendicular =0) and 0 (for J perpendicular =∞). We also give numerical results for the dynamical structure factor S(q,ω), which can be determined in neutron scattering experiments. Finally, possible experimental techniques for studying the excitation spectrum are discussed

  19. Band structures in near spherical 138Ce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Chanda, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Basu, S. K.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Das, J. J.; Pramanik, U. Datta; Ghugre, S. S.; Madhavan, N.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.

    2009-06-01

    The high spin states of N=80138Ce have been populated in the fusion evaporation reaction 130Te( 12C, 4n) 138Ce at E=65 MeV. The γ transitions belonging to various band structures were detected and characterized using an array of five Clover Germanium detectors. The level scheme has been established up to a maximum spin and excitation energy of 23 ℏ and 9511.3 keV, respectively, by including 53 new transitions. The negative parity ΔI=1 band, developed on the 6536.3 keV 15 level, has been conjectured to be a magnetic rotation band following a semiclassical analysis and comparing the systematics of similar bands in the neighboring nuclei. The said band is proposed to have a four quasiparticle configuration of [πgh]⊗[. Other band structures are interpreted in terms of multi-quasiparticle configurations, based on Total Routhian Surface (TRS) calculations. For the low and medium spin states, a shell model calculation using a realistic two body interaction has been performed using the code OXBASH.

  20. Column-to-column packing variation of disposable pre-packed columns for protein chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Susanne; Hinterberger, Stephan; Jungbauer, Alois

    2017-12-08

    In the biopharmaceutical industry, pre-packed columns are the standard for process development, but they must be qualified before use in experimental studies to confirm the required performance of the packed bed. Column qualification is commonly done by pulse response experiments and depends highly on the experimental testing conditions. Additionally, the peak analysis method, the variation in the 3D packing structure of the bed, and the measurement precision of the workstation influence the outcome of qualification runs. While a full body of literature on these factors is available for HPLC columns, no comparable studies exist for preparative columns for protein chromatography. We quantified the influence of these parameters for commercially available pre-packed and self-packed columns of disposable and non-disposable design. Pulse response experiments were performed on 105 preparative chromatography columns with volumes of 0.2-20ml. The analyte acetone was studied at six different superficial velocities (30, 60, 100, 150, 250 and 500cm/h). The column-to-column packing variation between disposable pre-packed columns of different diameter-length combinations varied by 10-15%, which was acceptable for the intended use. The column-to-column variation cannot be explained by the packing density, but is interpreted as a difference in particle arrangement in the column. Since it was possible to determine differences in the column-to-column performance, we concluded that the columns were well-packed. The measurement precision of the chromatography workstation was independent of the column volume and was in a range of±0.01ml for the first peak moment and±0.007 ml 2 for the second moment. The measurement precision must be considered for small columns in the range of 2ml or less. The efficiency of disposable pre-packed columns was equal or better than that of self-packed columns. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  2. Compact electron beam focusing column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2001-12-01

    A novel design for an electron beam focusing column has been developed at LBNL. The design is based on a low-energy spread multicusp plasma source which is used as a cathode for electron beam production. The focusing column is 10 mm in length. The electron beam is focused by means of electrostatic fields. The column is designed for a maximum voltage of 50 kV. Simulations of the electron trajectories have been performed by using the 2D simulation code IGUN and EGUN. The electron temperature has also been incorporated into the simulations. The electron beam simulations, column design and fabrication will be discussed in this presentation.

  3. Spin helical states and spin transport of the line defect in silicene lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Mou; Chen, Dong-Hai; Wang, Rui-Qiang [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Bai, Yan-Kui, E-mail: ykbai@semi.ac.cn [College of Physical Science and Information Engineering and Hebei Advance Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050024 (China)

    2015-02-06

    We investigated the electronic structure of a silicene-like lattice with a line defect under the consideration of spin–orbit coupling. In the bulk energy gap, there are defect related bands corresponding to spin helical states localized beside the defect line: spin-up electrons flow forward on one side near the line defect and move backward on the other side, and vice versa for spin-down electrons. When the system is subjected to random distribution of spin-flipping scatterers, electrons suffer much less spin-flipped scattering when they transport along the line defect than in the bulk. An electric gate above the line defect can tune the spin-flipped transmission, which makes the line defect as a spin-controllable waveguide. - Highlights: • Band structure of silicene with a line defect. • Spin helical states around the line defect and their probability distribution features. • Spin transport along the line defect and that in the bulk silicene.

  4. Superdeformed bands in 64147Gd83, a possible test of the existence of octupole correlations in superdeformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T.

    1990-01-01

    Two discrete superdeformed bands (SD) have been identified in the nucleus 147 Gd. The transitions energies of the SD yrast band lie halfway between the γ-ray energies of the yrast SD band in 146 Gd while the transition energies of the excited band lie half way between the transition energies of the yrast SD band in 148 Gd. These two bands are shown to exhibit the presence of the pseudo SU(3) symmetry and also indicate the possible existence of octupole correlations at large elongations and high spins. (orig.)

  5. Possible evidence for spin-transfer torque induced by spin-triplet supercurrent

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lailai

    2017-10-04

    Cooper pairs in superconductors are normally spin singlet. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that spin-triplet Cooper pairs can be created at carefully engineered superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces. If Cooper pairs are spin-polarized they would transport not only charge but also a net spin component, but without dissipation, and therefore minimize the heating effects associated with spintronic devices. Although it is now established that triplet supercurrents exist, their most interesting property - spin - is only inferred indirectly from transport measurements. In conventional spintronics, it is well known that spin currents generate spin-transfer torques that alter magnetization dynamics and switch magnetic moments. The observation of similar effects due to spin-triplet supercurrents would not only confirm the net spin of triplet pairs but also pave the way for applications of superconducting spintronics. Here, we present a possible evidence for spin-transfer torques induced by triplet supercurrents in superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/F/S) Josephson junctions. Below the superconducting transition temperature T_c, the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) field at X-band (~ 9.0 GHz) shifts rapidly to a lower field with decreasing temperature due to the spin-transfer torques induced by triplet supercurrents. In contrast, this phenomenon is absent in ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) bilayers and superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/I/F/S) multilayers where no supercurrents pass through the ferromagnetic layer. These experimental observations are discussed with theoretical predictions for ferromagnetic Josephson junctions with precessing magnetization.

  6. Spin-Triplet Pairing Induced by Spin-Singlet Interactions in Noncentrosymmetric Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Tomoaki; Shimahara, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    In noncentrosymmetric superconductors, we examine the effect of the difference between the intraband and interband interactions, which becomes more important when the band splitting increases. We define the difference ΔVμ between their coupling constants, i.e., that between the intraband and interband hopping energies of intraband Cooper pairs. Here, the subscript μ of ΔVμ indicates that the interactions scatter the spin-singlet and spin-triplet pairs when μ = 0 and μ = 1,2,3, respectively. It is shown that the strong antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction reverses the target spin parity of the interaction: it converts the spin-singlet and spin-triplet interactions represented by ΔV0 and ΔVμ>0 into effective spin-triplet and spin-singlet pairing interactions, respectively. Hence, for example, triplet pairing can be induced solely by the singlet interaction ΔV0. We name the pairing symmetry of the system after that of the intraband Cooper pair wave function, but with an odd-parity phase factor excluded. The pairing symmetry must then be even, even for the triplet component, and the following results are obtained. When ΔVμ is small, the spin-triplet p-wave interactions induce spin-triplet s-wave and spin-triplet d-wave pairings in the regions where the repulsive singlet s-wave interaction is weak and strong, respectively. When ΔV0 is large, a repulsive interband spin-singlet interaction can stabilize spin-triplet pairing. When the Rashba interaction is adopted for the spin-orbit interaction, the spin-triplet pairing interactions mediated by transverse magnetic fluctuations do not contribute to triplet pairing.

  7. Spin Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flatte, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    ... dots, tuning of spin coherence times for electron spin, tuning of dipolar magnetic fields for nuclear spin, spontaneous spin polarization generation and new designs for spin-based teleportation and spin transistors...

  8. Analytic expression for the giant fieldlike spin torque in spin-filter magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.-H.; Huang, Z.-W.; Huang, B.-H.

    2017-08-01

    We propose analytic expressions for fieldlike, T⊥, and spin-transfer, T∥, spin torque components in the spin-filter-based magnetic tunnel junction (SFMTJ), by using the single-band tight-binding model with the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. In consideration of multireflection processes between noncollinear magnetization of the spin-filter (SF) barrier and the ferromagnetic (FM) electrode, the central spin-selective SF barrier plays an active role in the striking discovery T⊥≫T∥ , which can be further identified by the unusual barrier thickness dependence of giant T⊥. Our general expressions reveal the sinusoidal angular dependence of both spin torque components, even in the presence of the SF barrier.

  9. Entanglement in 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matern, S.; Hermanns, M.

    2018-06-01

    Quantum spin liquids are highly fascinating quantum liquids in which the spin degrees of freedom fractionalize. An interesting class of spin liquids are the exactly solvable, three-dimensional Kitaev spin liquids. Their fractionalized excitations are Majonara fermions, which may exhibit a variety of topological band structures—ranging from topologically protected Weyl semi-metals over nodal semi-metals to systems with Majorana Fermi surfaces. We study the entanglement spectrum of such Kitaev spin liquids and verify that it is closely related to the topologically protected edge spectrum. Moreover, we find that in some cases the entanglement spectrum contains even more information about the topological features than the surface spectrum, and thus provides a simple and reliable tool to probe the topology of a system.

  10. Safety barriers and lighting columns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    Problems arising from the sitting of lighting columns on the central reserve are reviewed, and remedial measures such as break-away lighting supports and installation of safety fences on the central reserve on both sides of the lighting columns are examined.

  11. Field-induced negative differential spin lifetime in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Qing, Lan; Dery, Hanan; Appelbaum, Ian

    2012-04-13

    We show that the electric-field-induced thermal asymmetry between the electron and lattice systems in pure silicon substantially impacts the identity of the dominant spin relaxation mechanism. Comparison of empirical results from long-distance spin transport devices with detailed Monte Carlo simulations confirms a strong spin depolarization beyond what is expected from the standard Elliott-Yafet theory even at low temperatures. The enhanced spin-flip mechanism is attributed to phonon emission processes during which electrons are scattered between conduction band valleys that reside on different crystal axes. This leads to anomalous behavior, where (beyond a critical field) reduction of the transit time between spin-injector and spin-detector is accompanied by a counterintuitive reduction in spin polarization and an apparent negative spin lifetime.

  12. Thermoelectric effects and spin injection into superconductors with exchange field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, Tero [Dept. Phys., Univ. Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Silaev, Mihail [O.V. Lounasmaa Lab, Aalto Univ. (Finland); Dept. Theor. Physics, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Virtanen, Pauli [O.V. Lounasmaa Lab, Aalto Univ. (Finland); Giazotto, Francesco [NEST CNR-INFM and SNS Pisa (Italy); Ozaeta, Asier; Bergeret, Sebastian [CFM-CSIC and DIPC, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    When a thin superconducting film is exposed to a longitudinal magnetic field or is in proximity to a ferromagnet, an exchange field separating the spin bands emerges in it. For low enough exchange fields superconductivity survives, but its response to external driving is strongly modified. In my talk I will show how at linear response such systems exhibit very strong thermoelectric response with an almost ideal efficiency. For strong driving, this effect creates a spin accumulation that can only relax via thermalization, and therefore at low temperatures has a very long range. Therefore our work explains recent observations of the long-range spin accumulation in spin-split superconductors. When injecting spin from injectors with non-collinear magnetization compared to the exchange field, the spins start to rotate around the latter. I will describe how superconductivity modifies this spin Hanle effect so that the resulting nonlocal magnetoresistance depends on the details of spin relaxation, therefore allowing for probing them.

  13. Excited negative parity bands in 160Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, A.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Curien, D.; Dedes, I.; Mazurek, K.; Banerjee, S. R.; Rajbanshi, S.; Bisoi, A.; de Angelis, G.; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Bhattacharyya, S.; Biswas, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Das Gupta, S.; Dey, B.; Goswami, A.; Mondal, D.; Pandit, D.; Palit, R.; Roy, T.; Singh, R. P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.

    2018-03-01

    Negative parity rotational bands in {} 70160Yb{}90 nucleus have been studied. They were populated in the 148Sm(16O, 4n)160Yb reaction at 90 MeV. The gamma-coincidence data have been collected using Indian National Gamma Array composed of twenty Compton suppressed clover germanium (Ge) detectors. Double gating on triple gamma coincidence data were selectively used to develop the decay scheme for these negative parity bands by identifying and taking care of the multiplet transitions. The even- and odd-spin negative parity bands in 160Yb have been studied by comparing the reduced transition probability ratios with the similar bands in neighbouring even-even rare earth nuclei. It is concluded that the concerned odd-spin and even-spin bands are not signature partners and that their structures are compatible with those of the ‘pear-shape’ and ‘pyramid-shape’ oscillations, respectively, the octupole shapes superposed with the quadrupole shape of the ground-state.

  14. Level Structure of 103Ag at high spins

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, S.; Pattabiraman, N. S.; Krishichayan; Chakraborty, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Ghugre, S. S.; Chintalapudi, S. N.; Sinha, A. K.; Garg, U.; Zhu, S.; Kharraja, B.; Almehed, D.

    2007-01-01

    High spin states in $^{103}$Ag were investigated with the Gammasphere array, using the $^{72}$Ge($^{35}$Cl,$2p2n$)$^{103}$Ag reaction at an incident beam energy of 135 MeV. A $\\Delta J$=1 sequence with predominantly magnetic transitions and two nearly-degenerate $\\Delta J=1$ doublet bands have been observed. The dipole band shows a decreasing trend in the $B(M1)$ strength as function of spin, a well established feature of magnetic bands. The nearly-degenerate band structures satisfy the three...

  15. Generalized seniority scheme for bands in odd-A nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, M.; Arima, A.; Strottman, D.

    1980-01-01

    The microscopic generalized seniority scheme is applied for the description of bands in odd-A nuclei. A perturbation expansion in terms of the core-particle interaction is performed. The first-order correction for the band head and the first member of the band is discussed. The specific band structure of a given nucleus, as well as the systematic trend of bands, is described in an explicit N-dependent analytical formula. This formula involves a linear dependence on N which arises from the first-order perturbation expansion. This term is shown responsible for the large deviation of the 11/2 - ΔJ=2 band spacing in I isotopes from the spacing of the Te core. All observed band structures of an odd-A nucleus arise from one simple core-particle coupling. Hence decoupled-E2 bands and strongly coupled ΔJ=1 bands, particle or hole bands of low-spin or high-spin orbits, all follow one simple N-dependence. This uniformity of bands is manifested in E2 bands in 53 I isotopes and deltaJ=1 bands in 51 Sb that have the same 52 Te cores. For the calculations a particle-particle force with a large contribution from a g delta force is used with a coupling constant that is deduced from 210 Pb. 1 figure

  16. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  17. Topological Hall and Spin Hall Effects in Disordered Skyrmionic Textures

    OpenAIRE

    N'diaye, P. B.; Akosa, C. A.; Manchon, A.

    2016-01-01

    We carry out a throughout study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-B\\"uttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and found that the adiabatic a...

  18. Spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, Abhijit

    1976-01-01

    ''Spin glasses'', are entire class of magnetic alloys of moderate dilution, in which the magnetic atoms are far enough apart to be unlike the pure metal, but close enough so that the indirect exchange energy between them (mediated by the s-d interaction between local moments and conduction electrons) dominates all other energies. Characteristic critical phenomena displayed such as freezing of spin orientation at 'Tsub(c)' and spreading of magnetic ordering, are pointed out. Anomalous behaviour, associated with these critical phenomena, as reflected in : (i) Moessbauer spectroscopy giving hyperfine splitting at Tsub(c), (ii) maxima in susceptibility and remanent magnetism, (iii) thermopower maxima and change in slope, (iv) Characteristic cusp in susceptibility and its removal by very small magnetic fields, and (v) conductivity-resistivity measurements, are discussed. Theoretical developments aimed at explaining these phenomena, in particular, the ideas from percolation and localisation theories, and the approach based on the gellations of polymers, are discussed. Finally, a new approach based on renormalisation group in disordered systems is also briefly mentioned. (K.B.)

  19. Proximity Effect Induced Spin Injection in Phosphorene on Magnetic Insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haoqi; Li, Bin; Yang, Jinlong

    2017-11-08

    Black phosphorus is a promising candidate for future nanoelectronics with a moderate electronic band gap and a high carrier mobility. Introducing the magnetism into black phosphorus will widely expand its application scope and may present a bright prospect in spintronic nanodevices. Here, we report our first-principles calculations of spin-polarized electronic structure of monolayer black phosphorus (phosphorene) adsorbed on a magnetic europium oxide (EuO) substrate. Effective spin injection into the phosphorene is realized by means of interaction with the nearby EuO(111) surface, i.e., proximity effect, which results in spin-polarized electrons in the 3p orbitals of phosphorene, with the spin polarization at Fermi level beyond 30%, together with an exchange-splitting energy of ∼0.184 eV for conduction-band minimum of the adsorbed phosphorene corresponding to an energy region where only one spin channel is conductive. The energy region of these exchange-splitting and spin-polarized band gaps of the adsorbed phosphorene can be effectively modulated by in-plane strain. Intrinsically high and anisotropic carrier mobilities at the conduction-band minimum of the phosphorene also become spin-polarized mainly due to spin polarization of deformation potentials and are not depressed significantly after the adsorption. These extraordinary properties would endow black phosphorus with great potentials in the future spintronic nanodevices.

  20. Column-Oriented Database Systems (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Abadi; P.A. Boncz (Peter); S. Harizopoulos

    2009-01-01

    textabstractColumn-oriented database systems (column-stores) have attracted a lot of attention in the past few years. Column-stores, in a nutshell, store each database table column separately, with attribute values belonging to the same column stored contiguously, compressed, and densely packed, as

  1. Computational Design of Flat-Band Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kawashima, K.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum mechanics states that hopping integral between local orbitals makes the energy band dispersive. However, in some special cases, there are bands with no dispersion due to quantum interference. These bands are called as flat band. Many models having flat band have been proposed, and many interesting physical properties are predicted. However, no real compound having flat band has been found yet despite the 25 years of vigorous researches. We have found that some pyrochlore oxides have quasi-flat band just below the Fermi level by first principles calculation. Moreover, their valence bands are well described by a tight-binding model of pyrochlore lattice with isotropic nearest neighbor hopping integral. This model belongs to a class of Mielke model, whose ground state is known to be ferromagnetic with appropriate carrier doping and on-site repulsive Coulomb interaction. We have also performed a spin-polarized band calculation for the hole-doped system from first principles and found that the ground state is ferromagnetic for some doping region. Interestingly, these compounds do not include magnetic element, such as transition metal and rare-earth elements.

  2. Heat and spin interconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji

    2017-01-01

    Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)

  3. Entangled spins and ghost-spins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep P. Jatkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study patterns of quantum entanglement in systems of spins and ghost-spins regarding them as simple quantum mechanical toy models for theories containing negative norm states. We define a single ghost-spin as in [20] as a 2-state spin variable with an indefinite inner product in the state space. We find that whenever the spin sector is disentangled from the ghost-spin sector (both of which could be entangled within themselves, the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over all the ghost-spins gives rise to positive entanglement entropy for positive norm states, while negative norm states have an entanglement entropy with a negative real part and a constant imaginary part. However when the spins are entangled with the ghost-spins, there are new entanglement patterns in general. For systems where the number of ghost-spins is even, it is possible to find subsectors of the Hilbert space where positive norm states always lead to positive entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins. With an odd number of ghost-spins however, we find that there always exist positive norm states with negative real part for entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins.

  4. Identical gamma-vibrational bands in {sup 165}Ho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Janzen, V.P. [Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The structure of {sup 165}Ho at moderate spins has been investigated by means of Coulomb excitation. Two {gamma}-vibrational bands (K{sup {pi}} = 11/2{sup {minus}} and K{sup {pi}} = 3/2{sup {minus}}) are observed, with very nearly identical in-band {gamma}-ray energies. Gamma-ray branching ratios are analyzed to extract information on Coriolis mixing, and the role of the K quantum number in identical bands is discussed.

  5. Left regular bands of groups of left quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1988-10-01

    A semigroup S which has a left regular band of groups as a semigroup of left quotients is shown to be the semigroup which is a left regular band of right reversible cancellative semigroups. An alternative characterization is provided by using spinned products. These results are applied to the case where S is a superabundant whose set of idempotents forms a left normal band. (author). 13 refs

  6. Spin transport in nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, S.; bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.

    2003-01-01

    We study high-field spin transport of electrons in a quasi one-dimensional channel of a $GaAs$ gate controlled spin interferometer (SPINFET) using a semiclassical formalism (spin density matrix evolution coupled with Boltzmann transport equation). Spin dephasing (or depolarization) is predominantly caused by D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation associated with momentum dependent spin orbit coupling effects that arise due to bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling) and structural inve...

  7. Water Column Sonar Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The collection and analysis of water column sonar data is a relatively new avenue of research into the marine environment. Primary uses include assessing biological...

  8. Hydrogen isotope exchange in metal hydride columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiswall, R.; Reilly, J.; Bloch, F.; Wirsing, E.

    1977-01-01

    Several metal hydrides were shown to act as chromatographic media for hydrogen isotopes. The procedure was to equilibrate a column of hydride with flowing hydrogen, inject a small quantity of tritium tracer, and observe its elution behavior. Characteristic retention times were found. From these and the extent of widening of the tritium band, the heights equivalent to a theoretical plate could be calculated. Values of around 1 cm were obtained. The following are the metals whose hydrides were studied, together with the temperature ranges in which chromatographic behavior was observed: vanadium, 0 to 70 0 C; zirconium, 500 to 600 0 C; LaNi 5 , -78 to +30 0 C; Mg 2 Ni, 300 to 375 0 C; palladium, 0 to 70 0 C. A dual-temperature isotope separation process based on hydride chromatography was demonstrated. In this, a column was caused to cycle between two temperatures while being supplied with a constant stream of tritium-traced hydrogen. Each half-cycle was continued until ''breakthrough,'' i.e., until the tritium concentration in the effluent was the same as that in the feed. Up to that point, the effluent was enriched or depleted in tritium, by up to 20%

  9. New results on the superdeformed {sup 196}Pb nucleus: The decay of the excited bands to the yrast band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouneau, S.; Azaiez, F.; Duprat, J. [IPN, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The study of the superdeformed (SD) {sup 196}Pb nucleus has been revisited using the EUROGAM phase 2 spectrometer. In addition to the known yrast and two lowest excited SD bands, a third excited SD band has been seen. All of the three excited bands were found to decay to the yrast SD band through, presumably, E1 transitions, allowing relative spin and excitation energy assignments. Comparisons with calculations using the random-phase approximation suggest that all three excited bands can be interpreted as octupole vibrational structures.

  10. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  11. Column-Oriented Database Systems (Tutorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi, D.; Boncz, Peter; Harizopoulos, S.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractColumn-oriented database systems (column-stores) have attracted a lot of attention in the past few years. Column-stores, in a nutshell, store each database table column separately, with attribute values belonging to the same column stored contiguously, compressed, and densely packed, as opposed to traditional database systems that store entire records (rows) one after the other. Reading a subset of a table’s columns becomes faster, at the potential expense of excessive disk-head s...

  12. Spin transport in oxygen adsorbed graphene nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin

    2018-04-01

    The spin transport properties of pristine graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) have been most widely studied using theoretical and experimental tools. The possibilities of oxidation of fabricated graphene based nano electronic devices may change the device characteristics, which motivates to further explore the properties of graphene oxide nanoribbons (GONRs). Therefore, we present a systematic computational study on the spin polarized transport in surface oxidized GNR in antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin configuration using density functional theory combined with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method. It is found that the conductance in oxidized GNRs is significantly suppressed in the valance band and the conduction band. A further reduction in the conductance profile is seen in presence of two oxygen atoms on the ribbon plane. This change in the conductance may be attributed to change in the surface topology of the ribbon basal plane due to presence of the oxygen adatoms, where the charge transfer take place between the ribbon basal plane and the oxygen atoms.

  13. High spin structure in 130Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, A.; Singh, Varinderjit; Sandal, Rohit; Kaur, Rajbir; Behera, B.R.; Singh, K.P.; Singh, G.; Shukla, Aaradhya; Sharma, H.P.; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar Raja, M.; Madhusudan Rao, P.V.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, Rakesh; Madhvan, M.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclei with mass A ∼130 has been of great interest to experimental studies on high spin states. This is particularly so for the nuclei in the A∼130 region which exhibit a softness to γ. Evidence for characteristics such as shape coexistence and γ-softness has been gathered during the last two decades for many nuclei from Xe to Nd. Another interesting feature of this mass region is the existence of a regular M1 band which has been considered to be a promising candidate for magnetic rotation. In several nuclei of the A ∼130 mass region M1 bands like those observed in the A < 200 mass region are known. One signature of magnetic rotation is the decrease of the B (M1) values with increasing spin. The aim of the work is to study the high spin states and lifetime measurements using the DSAM technique

  14. k-asymmetric spin splitting at the interface between transition metal ferromagnets and heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Grytsiuk, Sergii

    2016-05-23

    We systematically investigate the spin-orbit coupling-induced band splitting originating from inversion symmetry breaking at the interface between a Co monolayer and 4d (Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag) or 5d (Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au) transition metals. In spite of the complex band structure of these systems, the odd-in-k spin splitting of the bands displays striking similarities with the much simpler Rashba spin-orbit coupling picture. We establish a clear connection between the overall strength of the odd-in-k spin splitting of the bands and the charge transfer between the d orbitals at the interface. Furthermore, we show that the spin splitting of the Fermi surface scales with the induced orbital moment, weighted by the spin-orbit coupling.

  15. k-asymmetric spin splitting at the interface between transition metal ferromagnets and heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Grytsyuk, Sergiy; Belabbes, Abderrezak; Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Stiles, M. D.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Manchon, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    We systematically investigate the spin-orbit coupling-induced band splitting originating from inversion symmetry breaking at the interface between a Co monolayer and 4d (Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag) or 5d (Re, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au) transition metals. In spite of the complex band structure of these systems, the odd-in-k spin splitting of the bands displays striking similarities with the much simpler Rashba spin-orbit coupling picture. We establish a clear connection between the overall strength of the odd-in-k spin splitting of the bands and the charge transfer between the d orbitals at the interface. Furthermore, we show that the spin splitting of the Fermi surface scales with the induced orbital moment, weighted by the spin-orbit coupling.

  16. Congenital Constriction Band Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Gupta, Fareed Malik, Rishabh Gupta, M.A.Basit, Dara Singh

    2008-01-01

    Congenital constriction bands are anomalous bands that encircle a digit or an extremity. Congenitalconstriction band syndrome is rare condition and is mostly associated with other musculoskeletaldisorders.We report such a rare experience.

  17. Electric-field effects in optically generated spin transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Transport of spin-polarized electrons in semiconductors is studied experimentally. Spins are generated by optical excitation because of the selection rules governing optical transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction-band states. Experiments designed for the control of spins in semiconductors investigate the bias-dependent spin transport process and detect the spin-polarized electrons during transport. A strong bias dependence is observed. The electric-field effects on the spin-polarized electron transport are also found to be depended on the excitation photon energy and temperature. Based on a field-dependent spin relaxation mechanism, the electric-field effects in the transport process are discussed.

  18. Electric-field effects in optically generated spin transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2009-05-25

    Transport of spin-polarized electrons in semiconductors is studied experimentally. Spins are generated by optical excitation because of the selection rules governing optical transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction-band states. Experiments designed for the control of spins in semiconductors investigate the bias-dependent spin transport process and detect the spin-polarized electrons during transport. A strong bias dependence is observed. The electric-field effects on the spin-polarized electron transport are also found to be depended on the excitation photon energy and temperature. Based on a field-dependent spin relaxation mechanism, the electric-field effects in the transport process are discussed.

  19. Reversible spin texture in ferroelectric Hf O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L. L.; Paudel, Tula R.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2017-06-01

    Spin-orbit coupling effects occurring in noncentrosymmetric materials are known to be responsible for nontrivial spin configurations and a number of emergent physical phenomena. Ferroelectric materials may be especially interesting in this regard due to reversible spontaneous polarization making possible a nonvolatile electrical control of the spin degrees of freedom. Here, we explore a technologically relevant oxide material, Hf O2 , which has been shown to exhibit robust ferroelectricity in a noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic phase. Using theoretical modelling based on density-functional theory, we investigate the spin-dependent electronic structure of the ferroelectric Hf O2 and demonstrate the appearance of chiral spin textures driven by spin-orbit coupling. We analyze these spin configurations in terms of the Rashba and Dresselhaus effects within the k .p Hamiltonian model and find that the Rashba-type spin texture dominates around the valence-band maximum, while the Dresselhaus-type spin texture prevails around the conduction band minimum. The latter is characterized by a very large Dresselhaus constant λD= 0.578 eV Å, which allows using this material as a tunnel barrier to produce tunneling anomalous and spin Hall effects that are reversible by ferroelectric polarization.

  20. Spin Dynamics in Highly Spin Polarized Co1-xFexS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Michael J. R.; Kuhns, Philip L.; Moulton, William G.; Reyes, Arneil P.; Lu, Jun; Wang, Lan; Leighton, Chris

    2006-09-01

    Highly spin polarized or half-metallic systems are of considerable current interest because of their potential for spin injection in spintronics applications. The ferromagnet (FM) CoS2 is close to being a half-metal. Recent theoretical and experimental work has shown that the alloys Co1-xFexS2 (0.07 < x < 0.9) are highly spin polarized at low temperatures. The Fe concentration may be used to tune the spin polarization. Using 59Co FM- NMR we have investigated the spin dynamics in this family of alloys and have obtained information on the evolution of the d-band density of states at the Fermi level with x in the range 0 to 0.3. The results are compared with available theoretical predictions.

  1. Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Farle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.

  2. Radiotracer Imaging of Sediment Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. W.; O'Neil, J. P.; Boutchko, R.; Nico, P. S.; Druhan, J. L.; Vandehey, N. T.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear medical PET and SPECT cameras routinely image radioactivity concentration of gamma ray emitting isotopes (PET - 511 keV; SPECT - 75-300 keV). We have used nuclear medical imaging technology to study contaminant transport in sediment columns. Specifically, we use Tc-99m (T1/2 = 6 h, Eγ = 140 keV) and a SPECT camera to image the bacteria mediated reduction of pertechnetate, [Tc(VII)O4]- + Fe(II) → Tc(IV)O2 + Fe(III). A 45 mL bolus of Tc-99m (32 mCi) labeled sodium pertechnetate was infused into a column (35cm x 10cm Ø) containing uranium-contaminated subsurface sediment from the Rifle, CO site. A flow rate of 1.25 ml/min of artificial groundwater was maintained in the column. Using a GE Millennium VG camera, we imaged the column for 12 hours, acquiring 44 frames. As the microbes in the sediment were inactive, we expected most of the iron to be Fe(III). The images were consistent with this hypothesis, and the Tc-99m pertechnetate acted like a conservative tracer. Virtually no binding of the Tc-99m was observed, and while the bolus of activity propagated fairly uniformly through the column, some inhomogeneity attributed to sediment packing was observed. We expect that after augmentation by acetate, the bacteria will metabolically reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), leading to significant Tc-99m binding. Imaging sediment columns using nuclear medicine techniques has many attractive features. Trace quantities of the radiolabeled compounds are used (micro- to nano- molar) and the half-lives of many of these tracers are short (Image of Tc-99m distribution in a column containing Rifle sediment at four times.

  3. Performance evaluation of a rectifier column using gamma column scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Denis D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rectifier columns are considered to be a critical component in petroleum refineries and petrochemical processing installations as they are able to affect the overall performance of these facilities. It is deemed necessary to monitor the operational conditions of such vessels to optimize processes and prevent anomalies which could pose undesired consequences on product quality that might lead to huge financial losses. A rectifier column was subjected to gamma scanning using a 10-mCi Co-60 source and a 2-inch-long detector in tandem. Several scans were performed to gather information on the operating conditions of the column under different sets of operating parameters. The scan profiles revealed unexpected decreases in the radiation intensity at vapour levels between trays 2 and 3, and between trays 4 and 5. Flooding also occurred during several scans which could be attributed to parametric settings.

  4. EPR and NMR spectroscopy on spin-labeled proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finiguerra, Michelina Giuseppina

    2011-01-01

    Spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) have been employed to study structure and dynamics of proteins. The surface polarity of four single cysteine mutants of the Zn-azurin in frozen solution were studied using 275 GHz EPR (J-band), with the advantage compared to 9 GHz (X-band) and

  5. 3 QP plus rotor model and high spin states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Tripti

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear models are approximate methods to describe certain properties of a large number of nuclei. In this paper details of 3 QP (three quasi particle) plus rotor model and high spin state are discussed. The band head energies for the 3 QP rotational bands for 157 Ho and 159 Tm are also given. 5 refs., 8 figs

  6. Post column derivatisation analyses review. Is post-column derivatisation incompatible with modern HPLC columns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew; Pravadali-Cekic, Sercan; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2015-08-19

    Post Column derivatisation (PCD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography is a powerful tool in the modern analytical laboratory, or at least it should be. One drawback with PCD techniques is the extra post-column dead volume due to reaction coils used to enable adequate reaction time and the mixing of reagents which causes peak broadening, hence a loss of separation power. This loss of efficiency is counter-productive to modern HPLC technologies, -such as UHPLC. We reviewed 87 PCD methods published from 2009 to 2014. We restricted our review to methods published between 2009 and 2014, because we were interested in the uptake of PCD methods in UHPLC environments. Our review focused on a range of system parameters including: column dimensions, stationary phase and particle size, as well as the geometry of the reaction loop. The most commonly used column in the methods investigated was not in fact a modern UHPLC version with sub-2-micron, (or even sub-3-micron) particles, but rather, work-house columns, such as, 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. columns packed with 5 μm C18 particles. Reaction loops were varied, even within the same type of analysis, but the majority of methods employed loop systems with volumes greater than 500 μL. A second part of this review illustrated briefly the effect of dead volume on column performance. The experiment evaluated the change in resolution and separation efficiency of some weak to moderately retained solutes on a 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. column packed with 5 μm particles. The data showed that reaction loops beyond 100 μL resulted in a very serious loss of performance. Our study concluded that practitioners of PCD methods largely avoid the use of UHPLC-type column formats, so yes, very much, PCD is incompatible with the modern HPLC column. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Finite dipolar hexagonal columns on piled layers of triangular lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Katsuyoshi; Sugano, Ryoko; Kuroda, Akiyoshi; Tomita, Yusuke; Takayama, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated, by the Monte Carlo simulation, spin systems which represent moments of arrayed magnetic nanoparticles interacting with each other only by the dipole-dipole interaction. In the present paper we aim the understanding of finite size effects on the magnetic nanoparticles arrayed in hexagonal columns cut out from the close-packing structures or from those with uniaxial compression. In columns with the genuine close-packing structures, we observe a single vortex state which is also observed previously in finite two-dimensional systems. On the other hand in the system with the inter-layer distance set 1/2 times of the close-packing one, we found ground states which depend on the number of layers. The dependence is induced by a finite size effect and is related to a orientation transition in the corresponding bulk system

  8. Hemifield columns co-opt ocular dominance column structure in human achiasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olman, Cheryl A; Bao, Pinglei; Engel, Stephen A; Grant, Andrea N; Purington, Chris; Qiu, Cheng; Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Tjan, Bosco S

    2018-01-01

    In the absence of an optic chiasm, visual input to the right eye is represented in primary visual cortex (V1) in the right hemisphere, while visual input to the left eye activates V1 in the left hemisphere. Retinotopic mapping In V1 reveals that in each hemisphere left and right visual hemifield representations are overlaid (Hoffmann et al., 2012). To explain how overlapping hemifield representations in V1 do not impair vision, we tested the hypothesis that visual projections from nasal and temporal retina create interdigitated left and right visual hemifield representations in V1, similar to the ocular dominance columns observed in neurotypical subjects (Victor et al., 2000). We used high-resolution fMRI at 7T to measure the spatial distribution of responses to left- and right-hemifield stimulation in one achiasmic subject. T 2 -weighted 2D Spin Echo images were acquired at 0.8mm isotropic resolution. The left eye was occluded. To the right eye, a presentation of flickering checkerboards alternated between the left and right visual fields in a blocked stimulus design. The participant performed a demanding orientation-discrimination task at fixation. A general linear model was used to estimate the preference of voxels in V1 to left- and right-hemifield stimulation. The spatial distribution of voxels with significant preference for each hemifield showed interdigitated clusters which densely packed V1 in the right hemisphere. The spatial distribution of hemifield-preference voxels in the achiasmic subject was stable between two days of testing and comparable in scale to that of human ocular dominance columns. These results are the first in vivo evidence showing that visual hemifield representations interdigitate in achiasmic V1 following a similar developmental course to that of ocular dominance columns in V1 with intact optic chiasm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental study of the retention properties of a cyclo olefin polymer pillar array column in reversed-phase mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illa, Xavi; de Malsche, Wim; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Desmet, Gert; Romano-Rodriguez, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Experimental measurements to study the retention capacity and band broadening under retentive conditions using micromachined non-porous pillar array columns fabricated in cyclo olefin polymer are presented. In particular, three columns with different depths but with the same pillar structure have

  10. Optimal Charge-to-Spin Conversion in Graphene on Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offidani, Manuel; Milletarı, Mirco; Raimondi, Roberto; Ferreira, Aires

    2017-11-01

    When graphene is placed on a monolayer of semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) its band structure develops rich spin textures due to proximity spin-orbital effects with interfacial breaking of inversion symmetry. In this work, we show that the characteristic spin winding of low-energy states in graphene on a TMD monolayer enables current-driven spin polarization, a phenomenon known as the inverse spin galvanic effect (ISGE). By introducing a proper figure of merit, we quantify the efficiency of charge-to-spin conversion and show it is close to unity when the Fermi level approaches the spin minority band. Remarkably, at high electronic density, even though subbands with opposite spin helicities are occupied, the efficiency decays only algebraically. The giant ISGE predicted for graphene on TMD monolayers is robust against disorder and remains large at room temperature.

  11. Structure of dipole bands in 106In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, A. Y.; Palit, R.; Naik, Z.; Joshi, P. K.; Mazumdar, I.; Sihotra, S.; Mehta, D.; Kumar, S.; Chakrabarti, R.; Kshetri, R.; Jain, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    High spin states in neutron-deficient 106 In were investigated using 78 Se( 32 S,p3n) reaction at 125 MeV. The level scheme is extended up to 7 MeV of excitation energy for the negative parity states constituting four dipole bands, and the positive parity states which mainly exhibit single-particle excitations are extended up to 5 MeV. Projected deformed Hartree-Fock calculations were carried out to understand the configurations of different bands in this nucleus.

  12. Itinerant ferromagnetism in the narrow band limit

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, S H

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that in the narrow band, strong interaction limit the paramagnetic state of an itinerant ferromagnet is described by the disordered local moment state. As a result, the Curie temperature is orders of magnitude lower than what is expected from the large exchange splitting of the spin bands. An approximate analysis has also been carried out for the partially ordered state, and the result explains the temperature evolvement of the magnetic contributions to the resistivity and low-energy optical conductivity of CrO sub 2.

  13. NOx retention in scrubbing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazone, A.K.; Costa, R.E.; Lobao, A.S.T.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F.

    1988-07-01

    During the UO 2 dissolution in nitric acid, some different species of NO x are released. The off gas can either be refluxed to the dissolver or be released and retained on special columns. The final composition of the solution is the main parameter to take in account. A process for nitrous gases retention using scubber columns containing H 2 O or diluted HNO 3 is presented. Chemiluminescence measurement was employed to NO x evalution before and after scrubbing. Gas flow, temperature, residence time are the main parameters considered in this paper. For the dissolution of 100g UO 2 in 8M nitric acid, a 6NL/h O 2 flow was the best condition for the NO/NO 2 oxidation with maximum adsorption in the scrubber columns. (author) [pt

  14. Spin transport in non-inertial frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Debashree, E-mail: debashreephys@gmail.com; Basu, B., E-mail: sribbasu@gmail.com

    2014-09-01

    The influence of acceleration and rotation on spintronic applications is theoretically investigated. In our formulation, considering a Dirac particle in a non-inertial frame, different spin related aspects are studied. The spin current appearing due to the inertial spin–orbit coupling (SOC) is enhanced by the interband mixing of the conduction and valence band states. Importantly, one can achieve a large spin current through the k{sup →}.p{sup →} method in this non-inertial frame. Furthermore, apart from the inertial SOC term due to acceleration, for a particular choice of the rotation frequency, a new kind of SOC term can be obtained from the spin rotation coupling (SRC). This new kind of SOC is of Dresselhaus type and controllable through the rotation frequency. In the field of spintronic applications, utilizing the inertial SOC and SRC induced SOC term, theoretical proposals for the inertial spin filter, inertial spin galvanic effect are demonstrated. Finally, one can tune the spin relaxation time in semiconductors by tuning the non-inertial parameters.

  15. MR imaging studies of multiple myeloma in the vertebral column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, S.; Leeds, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper studies the sensitivity and characteristics of MR imaging in the diagnosis of myeloma in the vertebral column. The cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines of 12 patients with known multiple myeloma were imaged with small flip angle, fast gradient-echo, proton-density (FPD) as well as spin-echo T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and intermediate (SE 2,000/20-30) imaging. The FPD images were acquired with pulse sequence gradient recalled acquisition in a steady state at a magnetic field strength of 1.5T with use of a license-plate and a circular surface coil

  16. Spin-polarized spin excitation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2010-01-01

    We report on the spin dependence of elastic and inelastic electron tunneling through transition metal atoms. Mn, Fe and Cu atoms were deposited onto a monolayer of Cu 2 N on Cu(100) and individually addressed with the probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Electrons tunneling between the tip and the substrate exchange energy and spin angular momentum with the surface-bound magnetic atoms. The conservation of energy during the tunneling process results in a distinct onset threshold voltage above which the tunneling electrons create spin excitations in the Mn and Fe atoms. Here we show that the additional conservation of spin angular momentum leads to different cross-sections for spin excitations depending on the relative alignment of the surface spin and the spin of the tunneling electron. For this purpose, we developed a technique for measuring the same local spin with a spin-polarized and a non-spin-polarized tip by exchanging the last apex atom of the probe tip between different transition metal atoms. We derive a quantitative model describing the observed excitation cross-sections on the basis of an exchange scattering process.

  17. Temperature-assisted On-column Solute Focusing: A General Method to Reduce Pre-column Dispersion in Capillary High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groskreutz, Stephen R.; Weber, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Solvent-based on-column focusing is a powerful and well known approach for reducingthe impact of pre-column dispersion in liquid chromatography. Here we describe an orthogonal temperature-based approach to focusing called temperature-assisted on-column solute focusing (TASF). TASF is founded on the same principles as the more commonly used solvent-based method wherein transient conditions are created thatlead to high solute retention at the column inlet. Combining the low thermal mass of capillary columns and the temperature dependence of solute retentionTASF is used effectivelyto compress injection bands at the head of the column through the transient reduction in column temperature to 5 °C for a defined 7 mm segment of a 6 cm long 150 μm I.D. column. Following the 30 second focusing time, the column temperature is increased rapidly to the separation temperature of 60 °C releasing the focused band of analytes. We developed a model tosimulate TASF separations based on solute retention enthalpies, focusing temperature, focusing time, and column parameters. This model guides the systematic study of the influence of sample injection volume on column performance.All samples have solvent compositions matching the mobile phase. Over the 45 to 1050 nL injection volume range evaluated, TASF reducesthe peak width for all soluteswith k’ greater than or equal to 2.5, relative to controls. Peak widths resulting from injection volumes up to 1.3 times the column fluid volume with TASF are less than 5% larger than peak widths from a 45 nL injection without TASF (0.07 times the column liquid volume). The TASF approach reduced concentration detection limits by a factor of 12.5 relative to a small volume injection for low concentration samples. TASF is orthogonal to the solvent focusing method. Thus, it canbe used where on-column focusing is required, but where implementation of solvent-based focusing is difficult. PMID:24973805

  18. Detection and study of photo-generated spin currents in nonmagnetic semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish; Kityk, I.V.; Gray, E. MacA.

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal current in Si-doped gallium arsenide was spin-polarized using circularly polarized light. The spin current was detected by the extraordinary Hall effect. An enhancement of Hall conductivity with increasing moderately Si-doping was found, indicating that the introduction of dopants increases the electronic spin polarization. This finding may provide an opportunity for controlling and manipulating nonmagnetic semiconductors via electron spin for operating device applications. Band energy calculations using pseudopotentials confirm the influence of Si content and electron-phonon interaction on the behaviour of the spin current and hence on the spin-dependent Hall voltage

  19. Detection and study of photo-generated spin currents in nonmagnetic semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au; Kityk, I.V. [Institute of Physics, J. Dlugosz University Czestochowa, PL-42201 Czestochowa (Poland); Gray, E. MacA. [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2007-10-15

    The longitudinal current in Si-doped gallium arsenide was spin-polarized using circularly polarized light. The spin current was detected by the extraordinary Hall effect. An enhancement of Hall conductivity with increasing moderately Si-doping was found, indicating that the introduction of dopants increases the electronic spin polarization. This finding may provide an opportunity for controlling and manipulating nonmagnetic semiconductors via electron spin for operating device applications. Band energy calculations using pseudopotentials confirm the influence of Si content and electron-phonon interaction on the behaviour of the spin current and hence on the spin-dependent Hall voltage.

  20. Tunable spin-charge conversion through topological phase transitions in zigzag nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2016-06-29

    We study spin-orbit torques and charge pumping in magnetic quasi-one-dimensional zigzag nanoribbons with a hexagonal lattice, in the presence of large intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Such a system experiences a topological phase transition from a trivial band insulator to a quantum spin Hall insulator by tuning of either the magnetization direction or the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-charge conversion efficiency (i.e., spin-orbit torque and charge pumping) is dramatically enhanced at the topological transition, displaying a substantial angular anisotropy.

  1. Tunable spin-charge conversion through topological phase transitions in zigzag nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang; Manchon, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    We study spin-orbit torques and charge pumping in magnetic quasi-one-dimensional zigzag nanoribbons with a hexagonal lattice, in the presence of large intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Such a system experiences a topological phase transition from a trivial band insulator to a quantum spin Hall insulator by tuning of either the magnetization direction or the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-charge conversion efficiency (i.e., spin-orbit torque and charge pumping) is dramatically enhanced at the topological transition, displaying a substantial angular anisotropy.

  2. Tropical intercontinental optical measurement network of aerosol, precipitable water and total column ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, B. N.; Tanre, D.; Reagan, J. A.; Eck, T. F.; Setzer, A.; Kaufman, Y. A.; Vermote, E.; Vassiliou, G. D.; Lavenu, F.

    1992-01-01

    A new generation of automatic sunphotometers is used to systematically monitor clear sky total column aerosol concentration and optical properties, precipitable water and total column ozone diurnally and annually in West Africa and South America. The instruments are designed to measure direct beam sun, solar aureole and sky radiances in nine narrow spectral bands from the UV to the near infrared on an hourly basis. The instrumentation and the algorithms required to reduce the data for subsequent analysis are described.

  3. Spin nematics next to spin singlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuto; Hotta, Chisa

    2018-05-01

    We provide a route to generate nematic order in a spin-1/2 system. Unlike the well-known magnon-binding mechanism, our spin nematics requires neither the frustration effect nor spin polarization in a high field or in the vicinity of a ferromagnet, but instead appears next to the spin singlet phase. We start from a state consisting of a quantum spin-1/2 singlet dimer placed on each site of a triangular lattice, and show that interdimer ring exchange interactions efficiently dope the SU(2) triplets that itinerate and interact, easily driving a stable singlet state to either Bose-Einstein condensates or a triplet crystal, some hosting a spin nematic order. A variety of roles the ring exchange serves includes the generation of a bilinear-biquadratic interaction between nearby triplets, which is responsible for the emergent nematic order separated from the singlet phase by a first-order transition.

  4. Magnon Spin-Momentum Locking: Various Spin Vortices and Dirac magnons in Noncollinear Antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-01

    We generalize the concept of the spin-momentum locking to magnonic systems and derive the formula to calculate the spin expectation value for one-magnon states of general two-body spin Hamiltonians. We give no-go conditions for magnon spin to be independent of momentum. As examples of the magnon spin-momentum locking, we analyze a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with the Néel order and two-dimensional kagome lattice antiferromagnets with the 120° structure. We find that the magnon spin depends on its momentum even when the Hamiltonian has the z -axis spin rotational symmetry, which can be explained in the context of a singular band point or a U (1 ) symmetry breaking. A spin vortex in momentum space generated in a kagome lattice antiferromagnet has the winding number Q =-2 , while the typical one observed in topological insulator surface states is characterized by Q =+1 . A magnonic analogue of the surface states, the Dirac magnon with Q =+1 , is found in another kagome lattice antiferromagnet. We also derive the sum rule for Q by using the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem.

  5. Magnon Spin-Momentum Locking: Various Spin Vortices and Dirac magnons in Noncollinear Antiferromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-08

    We generalize the concept of the spin-momentum locking to magnonic systems and derive the formula to calculate the spin expectation value for one-magnon states of general two-body spin Hamiltonians. We give no-go conditions for magnon spin to be independent of momentum. As examples of the magnon spin-momentum locking, we analyze a one-dimensional antiferromagnet with the Néel order and two-dimensional kagome lattice antiferromagnets with the 120° structure. We find that the magnon spin depends on its momentum even when the Hamiltonian has the z-axis spin rotational symmetry, which can be explained in the context of a singular band point or a U(1) symmetry breaking. A spin vortex in momentum space generated in a kagome lattice antiferromagnet has the winding number Q=-2, while the typical one observed in topological insulator surface states is characterized by Q=+1. A magnonic analogue of the surface states, the Dirac magnon with Q=+1, is found in another kagome lattice antiferromagnet. We also derive the sum rule for Q by using the Poincaré-Hopf index theorem.

  6. Two-photon spin generation and detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2009-02-21

    A time- and polarization-resolved two-photon pump-probe investigation is performed in lightly doped GaAs. We generate spin-polarized electrons in bulk GaAs at various temperatures using right-circularly polarized two-photon excitation and detect them by probing the spin-dependent transmission of the sample. The spin polarization (P) of conduction band electrons, as measured using probe pulses with the same (right) and opposite (left) circular polarization, is measured in dependences of pump-probe delay ({Delta}t), lattice temperature (T{sub L}), doping density (n) as well as of the excess photon energy {Delta}E{sub 2{omega}}= {h_bar}2{omega} - E{sub g}, where E{sub g} is the band gap energy. P is found to be decayed with {Delta}t and enhanced with the decrease in T{sub L} or the increase in n. It is also found that P decreases with the increase in {Delta}E{sub 2{omega}}and depolarizes rapidly for {Delta}E{sub 2{omega}}> {Delta}E{sub SO}, where {Delta}E{sub SO} is the spin-orbit splitting energy. The results demonstrate that due to a much longer absorption depth highly polarized spins can be generated optically by two-photon pumping of bulk semiconductors.

  7. Two-photon spin generation and detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-01-01

    A time- and polarization-resolved two-photon pump-probe investigation is performed in lightly doped GaAs. We generate spin-polarized electrons in bulk GaAs at various temperatures using right-circularly polarized two-photon excitation and detect them by probing the spin-dependent transmission of the sample. The spin polarization (P) of conduction band electrons, as measured using probe pulses with the same (right) and opposite (left) circular polarization, is measured in dependences of pump-probe delay (Δt), lattice temperature (T L ), doping density (n) as well as of the excess photon energy ΔE 2ω = ℎ2ω - E g , where E g is the band gap energy. P is found to be decayed with Δt and enhanced with the decrease in T L or the increase in n. It is also found that P decreases with the increase in ΔE 2ω and depolarizes rapidly for ΔE 2ω > ΔE SO , where ΔE SO is the spin-orbit splitting energy. The results demonstrate that due to a much longer absorption depth highly polarized spins can be generated optically by two-photon pumping of bulk semiconductors.

  8. Chromatographic properties PLOT multicapillary columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, O A; Patrushev, Y V; Sidelnikov, V N

    2017-03-10

    Multicapillary columns (MCCs) for gas chromatography make it possible to perform high-speed analysis of the mixtures of gaseous and volatile substances at a relatively large amount of the loaded sample. The study was performed using PLOT MCCs for gas-solid chromatography (GSC) with different stationary phases (SP) based on alumina, silica and poly-(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne) (PTMSP) polymer as well as porous polymers divinylbenzene-styrene (DVB-St), divinylbenzene-vinylimidazole (DVB-VIm) and divinylbenzene-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DVB-EGD). These MCCs have the efficiency of 4000-10000 theoretical plates per meter (TP/m) and at a column length of 25-30cm can separate within 10-20s multicomponent mixtures of substances belonging to different classes of chemical compounds. The sample amount not overloading the column is 0.03-1μg and depends on the features of a porous layer. Examples of separations on some of the studied columns are considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. How to realize a spin-dependent Seebeck diode effect in metallic zigzag γ-graphyne nanoribbons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan-Dan; Liu, Qing-Bo; Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Ruqian

    2017-11-30

    The spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE) is one of the core topics of spin caloritronics. In the traditional device designs of spin-dependent Seebeck rectifiers and diodes, finite spin-dependent band gaps of materials are required to realize the on-off characteristic in thermal spin currents, and nearly zero charge current should be achieved to reduce energy dissipation. Here, we propose that two ferromagnetic zigzag γ-graphyne nanoribbons (ZγGNRs) without any spin-dependent band gaps around the Fermi level can not only exhibit the SDSE, but also display rectifier and diode effects in thermal spin currents characterized by threshold temperatures, which originates from the compensation effect occurring in spin-dependent transmissions but not from the spin-splitting band gaps in materials. The metallic characteristics of ZγGNRs bring about an advantage that the gate voltage is an effective route to adjust the symmetry of spin-splitting bands to obtain pure thermal spin currents. The results provide a new mechanism to realize spin-Seebeck rectifier and diode effects in 2D materials and expand material candidates towards spin-Seebeck device applications.

  10. Gate tunable spin transport in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Litao

    2016-10-01

    Recently, it attracts much attention to study spin-resolved transport properties in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). One remarkable finding is that Klein tunneling in single layer graphene (SLG) with RSOC (SLG + R for short below) behaves as in bi-layer graphene (BLG). Based on the effective Dirac theory, we reconsider this tunneling problem and derive the analytical solution for the transmission coefficients. Our result shows that Klein tunneling in SLG + R and BLG exhibits completely different behaviors. More importantly, we find two new transmission selection rules in SLG + R, i.e., the single band to single band (S → S) and the single band to multiple bands (S → M) transmission regimes, which strongly depend on the relative height among Fermi level, RSOC, and potential barrier. Interestingly, in the S → S transmission regime, only normally incident electrons have capacity to pass through the barrier, while in the S → M transmission regime the angle-dependent tunneling becomes very prominent. Using the transmission coefficients, we also derive spin-resolved conductance analytically, and conductance oscillation with the increasing barrier height and zero conductance gap are found in SLG + R. The present study offers new insights and opportunities for developing graphene-based spin devices.

  11. Photoluminescence emission at room temperature in zinc oxide nano-columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, L.S.R.; Deus, R.C.; Foschini, C.R.; Moura, F.; Garcia, F. Gonzalez; Simões, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. • X-ray diffraction reveals a hexagonal structure. • Photoluminescence emission evidenced two absorption peaks, at around 480 nm and 590 nm wavelengths. - Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-columns at the temperature of 120 °C with a soaking time of 8 min. ZnO nano-columns were characterized by using X-ray analyses (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTA), field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy (FEG-SEM and TEM) and photoluminescence properties (PL). XRD results indicated that the ZnO nano-columns are free of any impurity phase and crystallize in the hexagonal structure. Typical FT-IR spectra for ZnO nano-columns presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. PL spectra consist of a broad band at 590 nm and narrow band at 480 nm corresponding to a near-band edge emission related to the recombination of excitons and level emission related to structural defects. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain ZnO nano-columns in the temperature of 120 °C for 8 min

  12. Photoluminescence emission at room temperature in zinc oxide nano-columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, L.S.R.; Deus, R.C. [Universidade Estadual Paulista – Unesp, Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Portal das Colinas, CEP 12516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Foschini, C.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista – Unesp, Instituto de Química, Laboratório Interdisciplinar em Cerâmica (LIEC), Rua Professor Francisco Degni s/n, CEP 14800-90 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Moura, F.; Garcia, F. Gonzalez [Universidade Federal de Itajubá – Unifei, Campus Itabira, Rua São Paulo, 377, Bairro Amazonas, CEP 35900-37 Itabira, MG (Brazil); Simões, A.Z., E-mail: alezipo@yahoo.com [Universidade Estadual Paulista – Unesp, Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá, Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha, 333, Bairro Portal das Colinas, CEP 12516-410 Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by microwave-hydrothermal method. • X-ray diffraction reveals a hexagonal structure. • Photoluminescence emission evidenced two absorption peaks, at around 480 nm and 590 nm wavelengths. - Abstract: Hydrothermal microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-columns at the temperature of 120 °C with a soaking time of 8 min. ZnO nano-columns were characterized by using X-ray analyses (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analyses (TG-DTA), field emission gun and transmission electron microscopy (FEG-SEM and TEM) and photoluminescence properties (PL). XRD results indicated that the ZnO nano-columns are free of any impurity phase and crystallize in the hexagonal structure. Typical FT-IR spectra for ZnO nano-columns presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. PL spectra consist of a broad band at 590 nm and narrow band at 480 nm corresponding to a near-band edge emission related to the recombination of excitons and level emission related to structural defects. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could be used as an alternative to obtain ZnO nano-columns in the temperature of 120 °C for 8 min.

  13. Edge-defect induced spin-dependent Seebeck effect and spin figure of merit in graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Bo; Wu, Dan-Dan; Fu, Hua-Hua

    2017-10-11

    By using the first-principle calculations combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function approach, we have studied spin caloritronic properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with different edge defects. The theoretical results show that the edge-defected GNRs with sawtooth shapes can exhibit spin-dependent currents with opposite flowing directions by applying temperature gradients, indicating the occurrence of the spin-dependent Seebeck effect (SDSE). The edge defects bring about two opposite effects on the thermal spin currents: the enhancement of the symmetry of thermal spin-dependent currents, which contributes to the realization of pure thermal spin currents, and the decreasing of the spin thermoelectric conversion efficiency of the devices. It is fortunate that applying a gate voltage is an efficient route to optimize these two opposite spin thermoelectric properties towards realistic device applications. Moreover, due to the existence of spin-splitting band gaps, the edge-defected GNRs can be designed as spin-dependent Seebeck diodes and rectifiers, indicating that the edge-defected GNRs are potential candidates for room-temperature spin caloritronic devices.

  14. Spin-Mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Mamoru; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the interconversion phenomena between spin and mechanical angular momentum in moving objects. In particular, the recent results on spin manipulation and spin-current generation by mechanical motion are examined. In accelerating systems, spin-dependent gauge fields emerge, which enable the conversion from mechanical angular momentum into spins. Such a spin-mechanical effect is predicted by quantum theory in a non-inertial frame. Experiments which confirm the effect, i.e., the resonance frequency shift in nuclear magnetic resonance, the stray field measurement of rotating metals, and electric voltage generation in liquid metals, are discussed.

  15. Super rigid nature of super-deformed bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Neha; Mittal, H.M.; Jain, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of high-spin super-deformation represents one of the most remarkable discoveries in nuclear physics. A large number of SD bands have been observed in A = 60, 80, 130, 150, 190 mass regions. The cascades of SD bands are known to be connected by electric quadruple E2 transitions. Because of absence of linking transitions between superdeformed (SD) and normal deformed (ND) levels, the spin assignments of most of these bands carry a minimum uncertainty ≈ 1-2ħ. It was found in an analysis of SD bands in the context of semi classical approach that moment of inertia comes close to the rigid body value in most of the cases. Lack of knowledge of spins has led to an emphasis on the study of dynamical moment of inertia of SD bands and systematic of kinematic moment of inertia has not been examined so far. In this paper, we extract the band moment of inertia J 0 and softness parameter (σ) of all the SD bands corresponding to axes ratio (x) = 1.5 and present their systematic

  16. A technique using a stellar spectrographic plate to measure terrestrial ozone column depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Alec Y. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This thesis examines the feasibility of a technique to extract ozone column depths from photographic stellar spectra in the 5000--7000 Angstrom spectral region. A stellar spectrographic plate is measured to yield the relative intensity distribution of a star`s radiation after transmission through the earth`s atmosphere. The amount of stellar radiation absorbed by the ozone Chappuis band is proportional to the ozone column depth. The measured column depth is within 10% the mean monthly value for latitude 36{degree}N, however the uncertainty is too large to make the measurement useful. This thesis shows that a 10% improvement to the photographic sensitivity uncertainty can decrease the column depth uncertainty to a level acceptable for climatic study use. This technique offers the possibility of measuring past ozone column depths.

  17. Valley and spin thermoelectric transport in ferromagnetic silicene junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping Niu, Zhi; Dong, Shihao

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the valley and spin resolved thermoelectric transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction. Due to the coupling between the valley and spin degrees of freedom, thermally induced pure valley and spin currents can be demonstrated. The magnitude and sign of these currents can be manipulated by adjusting the ferromagnetic exchange field and local external electric field, thus the currents are controllable. We also find fully valley and/or spin polarized currents. Similar to the currents, owing to the band structure symmetry, tunable pure spin and/or valley thermopowers with zero charge counterpart are generated. The results obtained here suggest a feasible way of generating a pure valley (spin) current and thermopower in silicene

  18. Superdeformed bands in sub 64 sup 147 Gd sub 83 , a possible test of the existence of octupole correlations in superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, K.; Balouka, D.; Beck, F.A.; Byrski, T.; Curien, D.; Duchene, G.; Gehringer, C.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Romain, P.; Santos, D.; Styczen, J.; Vivien, J.P.; Dudek, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Werner, T. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires)

    1990-12-24

    Two discrete superdeformed bands (SD) have been identified in the nucleus {sup 147}Gd. The transitions energies of the SD yrast band lie halfway between the {gamma}-ray energies of the yrast SD band in {sup 146}Gd while the transition energies of the excited band lie half way between the transition energies of the yrast SD band in {sup 148}Gd. These two bands are shown to exhibit the presence of the pseudo SU(3) symmetry and also indicate the possible existence of octupole correlations at large elongations and high spins. (orig.).

  19. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  20. Absence of paired crossing in the positive parity bands of 124Cs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. K.; Basu, A.; Nag, Somnath; Hübel, H.; Domscheit, J.; Ragnarsson, I.; Al-Khatib, A.; Hagemann, G. B.; Herskind, B.; Elema, D. R.; Wilson, J. N.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Görgen, A.; Lee, I.-Y.; Ward, D.; Ma, W. C.

    2018-02-01

    High-spin states in 124Cs were populated in the 64Ni(64Ni,p 3 n ) reaction and the Gammasphere detector array was used to measure γ -ray coincidences. Both positive- and negative-parity bands, including bands with chiral configurations, have been extended to higher spin, where a shape change has been observed. The configurations of the bands before and after the alignment are discussed within the framework of the cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky model. The calculations suggest that the nucleus undergoes a shape transition from triaxial to prolate around spin I ≃22 of the positive-parity states. The alignment gain of 8 ℏ , observed in the positive-parity bands, is due to partial alignment of several valence nucleons. This indicates the absence of band crossing due to paired nucleons in the bands.

  1. Gamma decay and band structures in 46Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Radford, D.C.; Poletti, A.R.

    1978-03-01

    The states of 46 Ti have been studied using the 43 Ca(α,nγ) reaction. The level and decay scheme of 46 Ti was deduced from γ-γ coincidence, γ-ray energy and intensity measurements. Spins are suggested on the basis of the γ-ray angular distribution, supported by relative excitation functions. The ground state band has been extended to spin 10 + , and about 20 new states are observed. Some of these can be grouped into rotational-like bands based on the 3 - state at 3.059 MeV and other excited states

  2. Ozone measurement using the Chappuis band in the visible spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBaron, B.A.; Michalsky, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    Our goal in this paper is to investigate methods of estimating total column ozone abundance using the Chappuis band especially in the presence of a severe perturbation to the stratospheric aerosol layer. 9 refs., 4 figs

  3. Time-resolved lateral spin-caloric transport of optically generated spin packets in n-GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbbels, Stefan; Güntherodt, Gernot; Beschoten, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    We report on lateral spin-caloric transport (LSCT) of electron spin packets which are optically generated by ps laser pulses in the non-magnetic semiconductor n-GaAs at K. LSCT is driven by a local temperature gradient induced by an additional cw heating laser. The spatio-temporal evolution of the spin packets is probed using time-resolved Faraday rotation. We demonstrate that the local temperature-gradient induced spin diffusion is solely driven by a non-equilibrium hot spin distribution, i.e. without involvement of phonon drag effects. Additional electric field-driven spin drift experiments are used to verify directly the validity of the non-classical Einstein relation for moderately doped semiconductors at low temperatures for near band-gap excitation.

  4. Electron band theory 1952-1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomer, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Work undertaken by the Theoretical Physics Division between 1952 and 1965 to obtain an understanding of electrons in metals, with uranium and the actinides and the structurally-important transition metals as the main targets is examined. A main result of that period was a conviction that the majority of the physical properties of all metals, except the 4f rare-earth series and the actinides beyond uranium, were dominated by band effects which could be described well enough for most purposes by simple one-electron calculations with simple self-consistent fields. The period from 1960 on showed increasingly clearly the necessity of incorporating relativistic spin-orbit coupling terms in the heavy metals, and some 'local exchange field' correction to the fields close to nuclei. The problems of the non-local interaction of spins - highly important for alloy theory and for antiferromagnetic instability -required the evolution of computers large enough to produce wave-functions at all wave-vectors for all bands so that the susceptibility at arbitrary wave-vector could be computed. This work has not proved to be very illuminating so far, and much interest again focusses today on heuristic arguments that give qualitative descriptions of band structures, such as canonical d-bands to account for crystal structure. (UK)

  5. Transition quadrupole moments in the superdeformed band of 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiara, C.J.; Ideguchi, E.; Devlin, M.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.; Reviol, W.; Ryu, S.K.; Sarantites, D.G.; Baktash, C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C.J.; Reiter, P.; Seweryniak, D.; Fallon, P.; Goergen, A.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Rudolph, D.

    2003-01-01

    The transition quadrupole moments Q t for the superdeformed band in 40 Ca have been determined through thin-target Doppler-shift attenuation analyses. A best-fit value of Q t =1.30±0.05 e b is obtained when a single value is assumed for the entire band. Fitting separate quadrupole moments for in-band transitions decaying from the high-spin states and the presumably admixed low-spin states results in Q t (high)=1.81 -0.26 +0.41 e b and Q t (low)=1.18 -0.05 +0.06 e b, respectively. Q t values extracted for individual transitions in a Doppler-broadened line-shape analysis also indicate smaller Q t values at lower spins. These results are consistent with the interpretation of this band as an eight-particle-eight-hole superdeformed band with a significant admixture of less-collective configurations at low spins

  6. Spin in hadron physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The following topics were ealt with: Hadron physics with proton and deuteron probes, physics projects with Georgian participation, spin physics with antiprotons and leptons, spin filtering experiments, ISTC projects, technical issues for FAIR. (HSI)

  7. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  8. Semiclassical treatment of transport and spin relaxation in spin-orbit coupled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueffe, Matthias Clemens

    2012-02-10

    -state system in which effects of (pseudo)spin-orbit coupling come to light is monolayer graphene. The graphene Hamiltonian entirely consists of pseudospin-orbit coupling, yielding the peculiar Dirac-cone band structure. In the second part of this thesis, we have calculated corrections to the electrical conductivity of graphene in the Boltzmann regime, which are due to pseudospin coherences. We have found that several generally well-established formalisms for the derivation of kinetic equations yield different results for this problem. We cannot resolve this discrepancy, but we make propose an alternative ansatz for the nonequilibrium Green function, which would resolve some contradictions. The calculated corrections could possibly explain a part of the experimentally observed residual conductivity in graphene.

  9. Multiple triaxial bands and abnormal signature inversion in 7433As

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Shi-Peng; Ma, Hai-Liang; Cao, Xue-Peng; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Hua, Hui; Sun, Jun-Jie; Sun, Hui-Bin; He, Chuang-Ye; Zheng, Yun; Li, Guang-Sheng; Li, Cong-Bo; Yao, Shun-He; Yu, Bei-Bei; Wang, Jin-Long; Li, Hong-We; Wu, Yi-Heng; Liu, Jia-Jian; Luo, Peng-Wei; Xu, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Excited states of the odd–odd nucleus 74 As have been investigated via heavy ion fusion evaporation reaction 70 Zn( 7 Li,3n) 74 As at beam energy of 30 MeV. The properties of the positive- and the negative- parity bands can be interpreted in terms of the Cranked Nilsson–Strutinsky (CNS) model calculations which show that the observed bands are built on the triaxial deformed shape. The inversion of the favored and unfavored signature branches observed in the positive-parity bands presents at high spins rather than normal signature inversion occurs at low spins. This phenomenon may be explained as the origin of unpaired band crossing in a highly rotating triaxial nucleus.

  10. Quantitative analysis on electric dipole energy in Rashba band splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisook; Rhim, Jun-Won; Kim, Changyoung; Ryong Park, Seung; Hoon Shim, Ji

    2015-09-01

    We report on quantitative comparison between the electric dipole energy and the Rashba band splitting in model systems of Bi and Sb triangular monolayers under a perpendicular electric field. We used both first-principles and tight binding calculations on p-orbitals with spin-orbit coupling. First-principles calculation shows Rashba band splitting in both systems. It also shows asymmetric charge distributions in the Rashba split bands which are induced by the orbital angular momentum. We calculated the electric dipole energies from coupling of the asymmetric charge distribution and external electric field, and compared it to the Rashba splitting. Remarkably, the total split energy is found to come mostly from the difference in the electric dipole energy for both Bi and Sb systems. A perturbative approach for long wave length limit starting from tight binding calculation also supports that the Rashba band splitting originates mostly from the electric dipole energy difference in the strong atomic spin-orbit coupling regime.

  11. Modeling of column apparatus processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boyadjiev, Christo; Boyadjiev, Boyan; Popova-Krumova, Petya

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new approach for the modeling of chemical and interphase mass transfer processes in industrial column apparatuses, using convection-diffusion and average-concentration models. The convection-diffusion type models are used for a qualitative analysis of the processes and to assess the main, small and slight physical effects, and then reject the slight effects. As a result, the process mechanism can be identified. It also introduces average concentration models for quantitative analysis, which use the average values of the velocity and concentration over the cross-sectional area of the column. The new models are used to analyze different processes (simple and complex chemical reactions, absorption, adsorption and catalytic reactions), and make it possible to model the processes of gas purification with sulfur dioxide, which form the basis of several patents.

  12. A Beautiful Spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiangdong

    2003-01-01

    Spin is a beautiful concept that plays an ever important role in modern physics. In this talk, I start with a discussion of the origin of spin, and then turn to three themes in which spin has been crucial in subatomic physics: a lab to explore physics beyond the standard model, a tool to measure physical observables that are hard to obtain otherwise, a probe to unravel nonperturbative QCD. I conclude with some remarks on a world without spin

  13. Studies of column supported towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, D.; Costaz, J.-L.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of a research and development programme into the civil engineering of cooling towers launched in 1978 by Electricite de France, very high cooling towers were built at Golfech and Chooz, in France, using column supports. This paper discusses the evolution of this new type of support from classical diagonal supports, presents some of the results of design calculations and survey measurements taken during construction of the shell and analyses the behaviour of the structure. (author)

  14. SPEEDUPtrademark ion exchange column model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, T.

    2000-01-01

    A transient model to describe the process of loading a solute onto the granular fixed bed in an ion exchange (IX) column has been developed using the SpeedUptrademark software package. SpeedUp offers the advantage of smooth integration into other existing SpeedUp flowsheet models. The mathematical algorithm of a porous particle diffusion model was adopted to account for convection, axial dispersion, film mass transfer, and pore diffusion. The method of orthogonal collocation on finite elements was employed to solve the governing transport equations. The model allows the use of a non-linear Langmuir isotherm based on an effective binary ionic exchange process. The SpeedUp column model was tested by comparing to the analytical solutions of three transport problems from the ion exchange literature. In addition, a sample calculation of a train of three crystalline silicotitanate (CST) IX columns in series was made using both the SpeedUp model and Purdue University's VERSE-LC code. All test cases showed excellent agreement between the SpeedUp model results and the test data. The model can be readily used for SuperLigtrademark ion exchange resins, once the experimental data are complete

  15. Spin at Lausanne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    From 25 September to 1 October, some 150 spin enthusiasts gathered in Lausanne for the 1980 International Symposium on High Energy Physics with Polarized Beams and Polarized Targets. The programme was densely packed, covering physics interests with spin as well as the accelerator and target techniques which make spin physics possible

  16. Spin-Caloritronic Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Qin; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Su, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The thermoelectric performance of a topological energy converter is analyzed. The H-shaped device is based on a combination of transverse topological effects involving the spin: the inverse spin Hall effect and the spin Nernst effect. The device can convert a temperature drop in one arm into an e...

  17. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  18. Spin dynamics in electron synchrotrons; Spindynamik in Elektronensynchrotronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Jan Felix

    2017-07-14

    Providing spin polarized particle beams with circular accelerators requires the consideration of depolarizing resonances which may significantly reduce the desired degree of polarization at specific beam energies. The corresponding spin dynamical effects are typically analyzed with numerical methods. In case of electron beams the influence of the emission of synchrotron radiation has to be taken into account. On short timescales, as in synchrotrons with a fast energy ramp or in damping rings, spin dynamics are investigated with spin tracking algorithms. This thesis presents the spin tracking code Polematrix as a versatile tool to study the impact of synchrotron radiation on spin dynamics. Spin tracking simulations have been performed based on the well established particle tracking code Elegant. The numerical studies demonstrate effects which are responsible for beam depolarization: Synchrotron side bands of depolarizing resonances and decoherence of spin precession. Polematrix can be utilized for any electron accelerator with minimal effort as it imports lattice files from the tracking programs MAD-X or Elegant. Polematrix has been published as open source software. Currently, the Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA at Bonn University is the only electron synchrotron worldwide providing a polarized beam. Integer and intrinsic depolarizing resonances are compensated with dedicated countermeasures during the fast energy ramp. Polarization measurements from ELSA demonstrate the particular spin dynamics of electrons and confirm the results of the spin tracking code Polematrix.

  19. Observation of spin-selective tunneling in SiGe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, G; Golovach, V N; Spathis, P; Ares, N; Stoffel, M; Fournel, F; Schmidt, O G; Glazman, L I; De Franceschi, S

    2011-12-09

    Spin-selective tunneling of holes in SiGe nanocrystals contacted by normal-metal leads is reported. The spin selectivity arises from an interplay of the orbital effect of the magnetic field with the strong spin-orbit interaction present in the valence band of the semiconductor. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that spin-selective tunneling in semiconductor nanostructures can be achieved without the use of ferromagnetic contacts. The reported effect, which relies on mixing the light and heavy holes, should be observable in a broad class of quantum-dot systems formed in semiconductors with a degenerate valence band.

  20. Spin texture of the surface state of three-dimensional Dirac material Ca3PbO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyado, Toshikaze

    2015-04-01

    The bulk and surface electronic structures of a candidate three-dimensional Dirac material Ca3PbO and its family are discussed especially focusing on the spin texture on the surface states. We first explain the basic features of the bulk band structure of Ca3PbO, such as emergence of Dirac fermions near the Fermi energy, and compare it with the other known three-dimensional Dirac semimetals. Then, the surface bands and spin-texture on them are investigated in detail. It is shown that the surface bands exhibit strong momentum-spin locking, which may be useful in some application for spin manipulation, induced by a combination of the inversion symmetry breaking at the surface and the strong spin-orbit coupling of Pb atoms. The surface band structure and the spin-textures are sensitive to the surface types.

  1. Spin texture of the surface state of three-dimensional Dirac material Ca3PbO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariyado, Toshikaze

    2015-01-01

    The bulk and surface electronic structures of a candidate three-dimensional Dirac material Ca 3 PbO and its family are discussed especially focusing on the spin texture on the surface states. We first explain the basic features of the bulk band structure of Ca 3 PbO, such as emergence of Dirac fermions near the Fermi energy, and compare it with the other known three-dimensional Dirac semimetals. Then, the surface bands and spin-texture on them are investigated in detail. It is shown that the surface bands exhibit strong momentum-spin locking, which may be useful in some application for spin manipulation, induced by a combination of the inversion symmetry breaking at the surface and the strong spin-orbit coupling of Pb atoms. The surface band structure and the spin-textures are sensitive to the surface types. (paper)

  2. High-spin structure of yrast-band in Kr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    320(70) fs was obtained from the present data at 75. ° for the 24. + level. Zeigler's stopping powers have been used for the calculation of the energy loss parameters of the recoiling nuclei. The experimental data along with the theoretical fits for the lifetimes measured can be seen in figure 1. The present lifetime values up to ...

  3. High-spin rotational states in {sup 179}Os

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burde, J [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics; Deleplanque, M A; Diamond, R M; Macchiavelli, A O; Stephens, F S; Beausang, C W [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The rotational bands of the osmium isotopes display very interesting properties that vary with the neutron number. On the one hand the yrast bands of {sup 182,184,186}Os display a sudden and rather strong gain in aligned angular momentum,, whereas the lighter osmium nuclei such as {sup 176,178,180}Os show a more gradual increase of alignment characteristic of strongly interacting bands. In addition, an unusual rotational band has been found in {sup 178}Os. It consists of seven regularly spaced transitions about 36 keV apart which correspond closely to the spacing of the superdeformed band in {sup 152}Dy after an A{sup 5/3} normalization. this band populates the yrast band directly, and the moment of inertia J{sup (1)} is found to be much smaller than J{sup (2)}. The most likely interpretation of this is a band with large deformation which is undergoing systematic changes in deformation, pairing and/or alignment. This latter finding in particular motivated us to carry out research on the higher spin states in {sup 179}Os. Dracoulis et al. have published their results on 5 rotational bands in {sup 179}Os. In the present work we found six new bands and extended appreciably the spin limits in the other five. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Physics of high spin nuclear states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, R [Joint Inst. for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); [MSI, Frescativ, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1992-08-01

    High spin physics is a vast topic addressing the variety of nuclear excitation modes. In the present paper, some general aspects related to recent highlights of nuclear spectroscopy are discussed. The relation between signature splitting and shape changes in the unique parity orbitals is elucidated. The relevance of the Pseudo SU(3) symmetry in the understanding of rotational band structure is addressed. Specific features of rotational bands of intruder configurations are viewed as a probe of the neutron-proton interaction. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Two generalizations of column-convex polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, Svjetlan; Guttmann, Anthony J

    2009-01-01

    Column-convex polygons were first counted by area several decades ago, and the result was found to be a simple, rational, generating function. In this work we generalize that result. Let a p-column polyomino be a polyomino whose columns can have 1, 2, ..., p connected components. Then column-convex polygons are equivalent to 1-convex polyominoes. The area generating function of even the simplest generalization, namely 2-column polyominoes, is unlikely to be solvable. We therefore define two classes of polyominoes which interpolate between column-convex polygons and 2-column polyominoes. We derive the area generating functions of those two classes, using extensions of existing algorithms. The growth constants of both classes are greater than the growth constant of column-convex polyominoes. Rather tight lower bounds on the growth constants complement a comprehensive asymptotic analysis.

  6. Defect-band mediated ferromagnetism in Gd-doped ZnO thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Venkatesh, S.; Franklin, J. B.; Ryan, M. P.; Lee, J.-S.; Ohldag, Hendrik; McLachlan, M. A.; Alford, N. M.; Roqan, Iman S.

    2015-01-01

    . %) at low oxygen deposition pressure (<25 mTorr) were ferromagnetic at room temperature. Negative magnetoresistance, electric transport properties showed that the ferromagnetic exchange is mediated by a spin-split defect band formed due to oxygen deficiency

  7. Organic Spin-Valves and Beyond: Spin Injection and Transport in Organic Semiconductors and the Effect of Interfacial Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyuk-Jae; Richter, Curt A

    2017-01-01

    Since the first observation of the spin-valve effect through organic semiconductors, efforts to realize novel spintronic technologies based on organic semiconductors have been rapidly growing. However, a complete understanding of spin-polarized carrier injection and transport in organic semiconductors is still lacking and under debate. For example, there is still no clear understanding of major spin-flip mechanisms in organic semiconductors and the role of hybrid metal-organic interfaces in spin injection. Recent findings suggest that organic single crystals can provide spin-transport media with much less structural disorder relative to organic thin films, thus reducing momentum scattering. Additionally, modification of the band energetics, morphology, and even spin magnetic moment at the metal-organic interface by interface engineering can greatly impact the efficiency of spin-polarized carrier injection. Here, progress on efficient spin-polarized carrier injection into organic semiconductors from ferromagnetic metals by using various interface engineering techniques is presented, such as inserting a metallic interlayer, a molecular self-assembled monolayer (SAM), and a ballistic carrier emitter. In addition, efforts to realize long spin transport in single-crystalline organic semiconductors are discussed. The focus here is on understanding and maximizing spin-polarized carrier injection and transport in organic semiconductors and insight is provided for the realization of emerging organic spintronics technologies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Theory of the Spin Galvanic Effect at Oxide Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Götz; Caprara, Sergio; Grilli, Marco; Raimondi, Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The spin galvanic effect (SGE) describes the conversion of a nonequilibrium spin polarization into a transverse charge current. Recent experiments have demonstrated a large conversion efficiency for the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the interface between two insulating oxides, LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 . Here, we analyze the SGE for oxide interfaces within a three-band model for the Ti t2 g orbitals which displays an interesting variety of effective spin-orbit couplings in the individual bands that contribute differently to the spin-charge conversion. Our analytical approach is supplemented by a numerical treatment where we also investigate the influence of disorder and temperature, which turns out to be crucial to providing an appropriate description of the experimental data.

  9. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Column anchorage. 1926.755 Section 1926.755 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.755 Column anchorage. (a) General requirements for erection stability. (1) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor...

  11. Adsorption columns for use in radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Adsorption columns are provided which can be utilized in radioimmunoassay systems such as those involving the separation of antibody-antigen complexes from free antigens. The preparation of the columns includes the treatment of retaining substrate material to render it hydrophilic, preparation and degassing of the separation material and loading the column

  12. Thermal process of an air column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, F.T.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal process of a hot air column is discussed based on laws of thermodynamics. The kinetic motion of the air mass in the column can be used as a power generator. Alternatively, the column can also function as a exhaust/cooler

  13. Nonreciprocity of spin waves in metallized magnonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mruczkiewicz, M; Krawczyk, M; Gubbiotti, G; Tacchi, S; Filimonov, Yu A; Kalyabin, D V; Lisenkov, I V; Nikitov, S A

    2013-01-01

    The nonreciprocal properties of spin waves in metallized one-dimensional bi-component magnonic crystal composed of two materials with different magnetizations are investigated numerically. Nonreciprocity leads to the appearance of indirect magnonic band gaps for magnonic crystals with both low and high magnetization contrast. Specific features of the nonreciprocity in low contrast magnonic crystals lead to the appearance of several magnonic band gaps located within the first Brillouin zone for waves propagating along the metallized surface. Analysis of the spatial distribution of dynamic magnetization amplitudes explains the mechanism of dispersion band formation and hybridization between magnonic bands in magnonic crystals with metallization. (paper)

  14. Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.

  15. 'Static' octupole deformation at high spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1985-01-01

    Rotational bands characterized by spin states of alternating parity p=(-1) I connected by enhanced E1 transitions have recently been observed in several nuclei from the Ra-Th region. They can be interpreted by means of a reflection asymmetric mean field theory. The interplay between octupole deformation and rotation is briefly discussed. For nuclei with ground state octupole deformation a transition to a reflection symmetric shape is expected around I=22. (orig.)

  16. A microscopic study of the S band in the generator co-ordinate approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, E.; Ansari, A.

    1985-04-01

    Using particle number and spin projected cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogolubov (CHFB) wave functions in the generator co-ordinate method (GCM) with the cranking frequency as a GC the shortcomings of the usual CHFB theory are removed and the ground as well as the s band are studied simultaneously. In particular, low-spin properties of the s band are discussed for a backbending nucleus 158 Dy. (author)

  17. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a non-equilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known equilibrium polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  18. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2006-07-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a nonequilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known “equilibrium” polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  19. Spin dependence in the neutralization of He+ ions in metals: An analysis of different contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alducin, M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the spin polarization of the Auger electrons produced during the neutralization of He + ions in a free electron gas. In this process, one metal electron decays to the unoccupied state and a second electron is promoted to a continuum excited state. Although the spin of the decaying electron is fixed, both spins are allowed for the excited one. The states of the electrons involved in this Auger capture process are described by the spin-dependent Kohn-Sham orbitals obtained from density functional theory and the local spin approximation. The Auger capture rates indicate a strong polarization of the excited electron. In a paramagnetic free electron gas, there are two mechanisms accounting for this effect, the spin-dependent screening and the interference between indistinguishable processes when the involved electrons are in the same spin state. In a spin-polarized medium, the difference in the density of spin-up and spin-down electrons is a new ingredient to be considered. As a result, the excited electrons preferably come from the majority band, even in the case of He + ions with spin opposite to that of the majority band embedded in a low spin-polarized free electron gas

  20. Flow rate dependent extra-column variance from injection in capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pankaj; Liu, Kun; Sharma, Sonika; Lawson, John S; Dennis Tolley, H; Lee, Milton L

    2015-02-06

    Efficiency and resolution in capillary liquid chromatography (LC) can be significantly affected by extra-column band broadening, especially for isocratic separations. This is particularly a concern in evaluating column bed structure using non-retained test compounds. The band broadening due to an injector supplied with a commercially available capillary LC system was characterized from experimental measurements. The extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to have an extra-column contribution independent of the injection volume, showing an exponential dependence on flow rate. The overall extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to vary from 34 to 23 nL. A new mathematical model was derived that explains this exponential contribution of extra-column variance on chromatographic performance. The chromatographic efficiency was compromised by ∼130% for a non-retained analyte because of injection valve dead volume. The measured chromatographic efficiency was greatly improved when a new nano-flow pumping system with integrated injection valve was used. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Muon spin relaxation in random spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu Yamazaki

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal relaxation function Gsub(z)(t) of the positive muon can reflect dynamical characters of local field in a unique way even when the correlation time is longer than the Larmor period of local field. This method has been applied to studies of spin dynamics in spin glass systems, revealing sharp but continuous temperature dependence of the correlation time. Its principle and applications are reviewed. (author)

  2. High spin states in 162Lu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.L.; Pancholi, S.C.; Juneja, P.; Mehta, D.; Kumar, A.; Bhowmik, R.K.; Muralithar, S.; Rodrigues, G.; Singh, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the odd-odd 162 Lu nucleus, following the 148 Sm( 19 F,5n) reaction at beam energy E lab =112MeV, has been performed through in-beam gamma-ray spectroscopy. It revealed three signature-split bands. The yrast band based on πh 11/2 circle-times νi 13/2 configuration exhibits anomalous signature splitting (the unfavored signature Routhian lying lower than the favored one) whose magnitude Δe ' ∼25keV, is considerably reduced in contrast to sizable normal signature splitting Δe ' ∼125 and 60 keV observed in the yrast πh 11/2 bands of the neighboring odd-A 161,163 Lu nuclei, respectively. The signature inversion in this band occurs at spin ∼20ℎ (frequency=0.37MeV). The second signature-split band, observed above the band crossing associated with the alignment of a pair of i 13/2 quasineutrons, is a band based on the four-quasiparticle [πh 11/2 [523]7/2 - times νh 9/2 [521]3/2 - times(νi 13/2 ) 2 ], i.e., EABA p (B p ), configuration. The third signature-split band is also likely to be a four-quasiparticle band with configuration similar to the second band but involving F quasineutron, i.e., FABA p (B p ). The experimental results are discussed in comparison with the existing data in the neighboring nuclei and in the framework of the cranking shell model. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. A new perspective of ground band energy formulae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J B GUPTA

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... Nuclear structure; ground band; moment of inertia; softness parameter. PACS Nos 21.60 ... mary data on the spectral properties of atomic nuclei. ... poorer at higher spins and for shape transitional (in ... 25 and figure 4.11 on p.

  4. Bulk band structure of Bi2Te3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiardi, Matteo; Aguilera, Irene; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    -electron full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FLAPW) formalism, fully taking into account spin-orbit coupling. Quasiparticle effects produce significant changes in the band structure of Bi2Te3 when compared to LDA. Experimental and calculated results are compared in the spectral regions where...

  5. Spin-polarized photoemission from SiGe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A.; Bottegoni, F.; Isella, G.; Cecchi, S.; Chrastina, D.; Finazzi, M.; Ciccacci, F. [LNESS-Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-04

    We apply the principles of Optical Orientation to measure by Mott polarimetry the spin polarization of electrons photoemitted from different group-IV heterostructures. The maximum measured spin polarization, obtained from a Ge/Si{sub 0.31}Ge{sub 0.69} strained film, undoubtedly exceeds the maximum value of 50% attainable in bulk structures. The explanation we give for this result lies in the enhanced band orbital mixing between light hole and split-off valence bands as a consequence of the compressive strain experienced by the thin Ge layer.

  6. Flight test of a spin parachute for use with a Super Arcas sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, M. N.

    1975-01-01

    The development and flight testing of a specially configured 16.6 ft Disc Band Gap (DBG) Spin Parachute is discussed. The parachute is integrated with a modified Super Arcas launch vehicle. Total payload weight was 17.6 lbs including the Spin Parachute and a scientific payload, and lift-off weight was 100.3 lbs. The Super Arcas vehicle was despun from 18.4 cps. After payload separation at 244,170 ft the Spin Parachute and its payload attained a maximum spin rate of 2.4 cps. Total suspended weight of the Spin Parachute and its payload was 14.64 lbs.

  7. Spin-resolved photoemission of surface states of W(110)-(1x1)H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochstrasser, M.; Tobin, J.G.; Rotenberg, Eli; Kevan, S.D.

    2002-01-01

    The surface electronic states of W(110)-(1x1)H have been measured using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission. We directly demonstrate that the surface bands are both split and spin-polarized by the spin-orbit interaction in association with the loss of inversion symmetry near a surface. We observe 100 percent spin polarization of the surface states, with the spins aligned in the plane of the surface and oriented in a circular fashion relative to the S-bar symmetry point. In contrast, no measurable polarization of nearby bulk states is observed

  8. Spin-dependent Peltier effect in 3D topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Parijat; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2013-03-01

    The Peltier effect represents the heat carrying capacity of a certain material when current passes through it. When two materials with different Peltier coefficients are placed together, the Peltier effect causes heat to flow either towards or away from the interface between them. This work utilizes the spin-polarized property of 3D topological insulator (TI) surface states to describe the transport of heat through the spin-up and spin-down channels. It has been observed that the spin channels are able to carry heat independently of each other. Spin currents can therefore be employed to supply or extract heat from an interface between materials with spin-dependent Peltier coefficients. The device is composed of a thin film of Bi2Se3 sandwiched between two layers of Bi2Te3. The thin film of Bi2Se3serves both as a normal and topological insulator. It is a normal insulator when its surfaces overlap to produce a finite band-gap. Using an external gate, Bi2Se3 film can be again tuned in to a TI. Sufficiently thick Bi2Te3 always retain TI behavior. Spin-dependent Peltier coefficients are obtained and the spin Nernst effect in TIs is shown by controlling the temperature gradient to convert charge current to spin current.

  9. Soft spin-dipole resonances in 40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhl, L; Krasznahorkay, A; Csatlós, M; Gulyás, J; Marketin, T; Litvinova, E; Adachi, T; Fujita, H; Hatanaka, K; Hirota, K; Ong, H J; Ishikawa, D; Matsubara, H; Algora, A; Estevez, E; Molina, F; Daeven, J; Guess, C; Meharchand, R; Fujita, Y

    2012-01-01

    High resolution experimental data has been obtained for the 40,42,44,48 Ca( 3 He,t)Sc charge exchange reaction at 420 MeV beam energy, which favors the spin-isospin excitations. The measured angular distributions were analyzed for each state separately, and the relative spin dipole strength has been extracted for the first time. The low-lying spin-dipole strength distribution in 40 Sc shows some interesting periodic gross feature. It resembles to a soft, damped multi-phonon vibrational band with hω= 1.8 MeV, which might be associated to pairing vibrations around 40 Ca.

  10. Donor-driven spin relaxation in multivalley semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Chalaev, Oleg; Dery, Hanan

    2014-10-17

    The observed dependence of spin relaxation on the identity of the donor atom in n-type silicon has remained without explanation for decades and poses a long-standing open question with important consequences for modern spintronics. Taking into account the multivalley nature of the conduction band in silicon and germanium, we show that the spin-flip amplitude is dominated by short-range scattering off the central-cell potential of impurities after which the electron is transferred to a valley on a different axis in k space. Through symmetry arguments, we show that this spin-flip process can strongly affect the spin relaxation in all multivalley materials in which time-reversal cannot connect distinct valleys. From the physical insights gained from the theory, we provide guidelines to significantly enhance the spin lifetime in semiconductor spintronics devices.

  11. Spin Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  12. The susceptibilities in the spin-S Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainane, A.; Saber, M.

    1995-08-01

    The susceptibilities of the spin-S Ising model are evaluated using the effective field theory introduced by Tucker et al. for studying general spin-S Ising model. The susceptibilities are studied for all spin values from S = 1/2 to S = 5/2. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  13. Two band model for the cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiu; White, Steven

    2009-03-01

    We use a numerical canonical transformation approach to derive an effective two-band model for the hole-doped cuprates, which keeps both oxygen and copper orbitals but removes double occupancy from each. A similar model was considered previously by Frenkel, Gooding, Shraiman, and Siggia (PRB 41, number 1, page 350). We compare the numerically derived model with previously obtained analytical results. In addition to the usual hopping terms between oxygens tpp and Cu-Cu exchange terms Jdd, the model also includes a strong copper-oxygen exchange interaction Jpd and a Kondo-like spin-flip oxygen-oxygen hopping term Kpdp. We use the density matrix renormalization group to study the charge, spin, and pairing properties of the derived model on ladder systems.

  14. Band magnetism due to f-electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, M.B.; Trainor, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Specific heat data illustrate several types of itinerant or band magnetism in actinide intermetallic compounds. The results show ferromagnetic spin fluctuations in UAl 2 with T/sub sf/ equals 25K, itinerant antiferromagnetism in NpSn 3 with T/sub N/ equals 9.5K and itinerant ferromagnetism in NpOs 2 with T/sub C/ equals 7.9K. Specific heat studies of dilute U/sub 1-x/Th/sub x/Al 2 show the theoretically predicted modifications due to impurity scattering in a spin fluctuation system. For NpSn 3 it is possible to show the BCS nature of the transition due to the gap formation

  15. Neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters and a phase-spin echo interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Toru; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawai, Takeshi; Hino, Masahiro; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Achiwa, Norio; Otake, Yoshie; Funahashi, Haruhiko.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron spin quantum precession by multilayer spin splitter has been demonstrated using a new spin interferometer. The multilayer spin splitter consists of a magnetic multilayer mirror on top, followed by a gap layer and a non magnetic multilayer mirror which are evaporated on a silicon substrate. Using the multilayer spin splitter, a polarized neutron wave in a magnetic field perpendicular to the polarization is split into two spin eigenstates with a phase shift in the direction of the magnetic field. The spin quantum precession is equal to the phase shift, which depends on the effective thickness of the gap layer. The demonstration experiments verify the multilayer spin splitter as a neutron spin precession device as well as the coherent superposition principle of the two spin eigenstates. We have developed a new phase-spin echo interferometer using the multilayer spin splitters. We present successful performance tests of the multilayer spin splitter and the phase-spin echo interferometer. (author)

  16. The high-spin structure of 158Er - a theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, Tord.

    1990-01-01

    To demonstrate the use of diabatic orbitals in high-spin calculations, the yrast structure of 158 Er is calculated and compared to experiment. A very satisfactory reproduction of the observed spectra is obtained form lowest spins through the collective bands up to band terminations. From results like this, a detailed understanding of the observed features emerge. In this case for example, the different alignment properties in negative parity bands can be understood as due to deformation differences and the existence of additional bands are predicted. Furthermore, the limitations of the cranked mean field approach can be investigated due to the high level of detail in this approach. (author)

  17. Magnonic quantum spin Hall state in the zigzag and stripe phases of the antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Hoon; Chung, Suk Bum; Park, Kisoo; Park, Je-Geun

    2018-05-01

    We investigated the topological property of magnon bands in the collinear magnetic orders of zigzag and stripe phases for the antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattice and identified Berry curvature and symmetry constraints on the magnon band structure. Different symmetries of both zigzag and stripe phases lead to different topological properties, in particular, the magnon bands of the stripe phase being disentangled with a finite Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) term with nonzero spin Chern number. This is corroborated by calculating the spin Nernst effect. Our study establishes the existence of a nontrivial magnon band topology for all observed collinear antiferromagnetic honeycomb lattices in the presence of the DM term.

  18. Wide Band to ''Double Band'' upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasper, P.; Currier, R.; Garbincius, P.; Butler, J.

    1988-06-01

    The Wide Band beam currently uses electrons obtained from secondary photon conversions to produce the photon beam incident on the experimental targets. By transporting the positrons produced in these conversions as well as the electrons it is possible to almost double the number of photons delivered to the experiments per primary beam proton. 11 figs

  19. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  20. High spin structure in 130,131Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, A.; Singh, Amandeep; Kumar, S.; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Varinderjit; Behera, B.R.; Singh, K.P.; Singh, G.; Mukherjee, G.; Sharma, H.P.; Kumar, Suresh; Kumar Raju, M.; Madhusudhan Rao, P.V.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, Rakesh; Madhvan, N.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    High spin states of 130,131 Ba have been investigated via fusion evaporation reactions 122 Sn( 13 C,4n) 131 Ba and 122 Sn( 13 C, 5n) 130 Ba at E beam =65 MeV. The level schemes of 130,131 Ba have been extended by placing several new γ transitions. A few interband transitions connecting two negative-parity bands, which are the experimental fingerprints of signature partners, have been established in 130 Ba. Spin and parity of a side band have been assigned in 131 Ba and this dipole band is proposed to have a three-quasiparticle configuration, νh 11/2 x πh 11/2 x πg 7/2 . The observed band structures and nuclear shape evolution as a function of the angular momentum have been discussed in the light of Total-Routhian-Surface calculations. (orig.)

  1. Quantum Point Contacts as Spin Injectors and Detectors for Studying Rasha Spin Precession in Semiconductor Quantum Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debray, Philippe; Shorubalko, Ivan; Xu, Hongqi

    2007-03-01

    We have studied polarized spin transport in a device consisting of three quantum point contacts (QPCs) in series made on InGaAs/InP quantum-well (QW) structures. The QPCs were created by independent pairs of side gates, each pair for one QPC. By adjusting the bias voltages of the side gates, the widths of the QPCs are independently tuned to have transport in the fundamental mode. An external magnetic field of a few T causes spin splitting of the lowest one-dimensional (1D) subbands. The widths of the end QPCs are adjusted to position the Fermi level in the spin-split energy gap, while that of the central QPC is kept wide enough to populate both spin-split bands. Measurement of the conductance of the end QPCs at low temperatures (spinFET.

  2. The Nuclear Spin Nanomagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2007-01-01

    Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei brings the optical transition energy into resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of...

  3. Mesoscopic spin Hall effect in semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbo, Liviu

    , appeared in 1970s, it is only in the past few years that advances in optical detection of nonequilibrium magnetization in semiconductors have made possible the detection of such extrinsic SHE in groundbreaking experiments. The experimental pursuits of SHE have, in fact, been largely motivated by very recent theoretical speculations for several order of magnitude greater spin Hall currents driven by intrinsic SO mechanisms due to SO couplings existing not only around the impurity but also throughout the sample. The homogeneous intrinsic SO couplings are capable of spin-splitting the band structure and appear as momentum-dependent magnetic field within the sample which causes spin non-conservation due to precession of injected spins which are not in the eigenstates of the corresponding Zeeman term. Besides deepening our understanding of subtle relativistic effects in solids, SHE has attracted a lot of attention since it offers an all-electrical way of generating pure spin currents in semiconductors. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. Vortex excitations and identical superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddington, J C; Bhaduri, R K [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Striking relationships exist amongst the transition energies of the identical superdeformed bands (SDB). In this paper, the authors suggest that all of these bands in both the mass 150 and mass 190 regions can be explained as excitations of the specially stable doubly closed shell {sup 152}Dy. Typical of these bands is the case of {sup 153}Dy. Two excited SDB`s were observe which not only have a moment of inertia identical to that of {sup 152}Dy, but the transition energies are shifted by exactly {+-}1/4 of a rotational spacing. It is as though the spin 1/2 of the last neutron had been added directly to the angular momentum of the core, but the mass of this last particle had not contributed to the moment of inertia. The possibility is being investigated that the identical SDBs arise from an equivalent picture under the strong rotation of the specially stable {sup 152}Dy. The rotation renders the 3-dimensional space topologically nontrivial. The moment of inertia of {sup 192}Hg extrapolated to zero spin is identical to that of {sup 152}Dy at high spin. This suggests that a superfluid is formed as particles are added to {sup 152}Dy to make {sup 192}Hg. It is proposed that as the rotational frequency of {sup 192}Hg is increased, quantized vortices are formed, like vortices in superfluid {sup 4}He. These vortices lead to an additional alignment in{sup 192}Hg relative to the {sup 152} core, increasing as I{sup 2}, reaching a value of 4{Dirac_h} at I = 48. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  5. A controllable spin prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakioglu, T

    2009-01-01

    Based on Khodas et al (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 086602), we propose a device acting like a controllable prism for an incident spin. The device is a large quantum well where Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are present and controlled by the plunger gate potential, the electric field and the barrier height. A totally destructive interference can be manipulated externally between the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The spin-dependent transmission/reflection amplitudes are calculated as the control parameters are changed. The device operates as a spin prism/converter/filter in different regimes and may stimulate research in promising directions in spintronics in analogy with linear optics.

  6. Operator spin foam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kaminski, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin

  7. PREFACE: Spin Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.

    2007-04-01

    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  8. Spin-wave propagation spectrum in magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-xiong; Wang, Meng-ning; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Xia, Qing-lin [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Spin-wave propagation in periodic magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires is studied by micromagnetic simulation. Spin wave scattering at the interface of two magnetization segments causes a spin-wave band structure, which can be effectively tuned by changing either the magnetization modulation level or the period of the cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal. The bandgap width is oscillating with either the period or magnetization modulation due to the oscillating variation of the spin wave transmission coefficient through the interface of the two magnetization segments. Analytical calculation based on band theory is used to account for the micromagnetic simulation results. - Highlights: • A magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal is proposed. • Propagating characteristics of spin waves in such magnonic crystal are studied. • Spin-wave spectra can be manipulated by changing modulation level and period.

  9. Temperature dependent spin momentum densities in Ni-Mn-In alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, B L; Dashora, Alpa; Vadkhiya, L; Heda, N L; Priolkar, K R; Lobo, Nelson; Itou, M; Sakurai, Y; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Singh, Sanjay; Barman, S R

    2010-01-01

    The spin-dependent electron momentum densities in Ni 2 MnIn and Ni 2 Mn 1.4 In 0.6 shape memory alloy using magnetic Compton scattering with 182.2 keV circularly polarized synchrotron radiation are reported. The magnetic Compton profiles were measured at different temperatures ranging between 10 and 300 K. The profiles have been analyzed mainly in terms of Mn 3d electrons to determine their role in the formation of the total spin moment. We have also computed the spin polarized energy bands, partial and total density of states, Fermi surfaces and spin moments using full potential linearized augmented plane wave and spin polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker methods. The total spin moments obtained from our magnetic Compton profile data are explained using both the band structure models. The present Compton scattering investigations are also compared with magnetization measurements.

  10. Evaluation of Packed Distillation Columns I - Atmospheric Pressure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, Thaine

    1951-01-01

    .... Four column-packing combinations of the glass columns and four column-packing combinations of the steel columns were investigated at atmospheric pressure using a test mixture of methylcyclohexane...

  11. "Supermarket Column Chromatography of Leaf Pigments" Revisited: Simple and Ecofriendly Separation of Plant Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, and Flavonoids from Green and Red Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Alice M.; Ferreira, Maria La Salete

    2015-01-01

    A simple and ecofriendly procedure was developed in order to prepare extracts from red and green leaves. This procedure enables the separation of yellow, green, and red band pigments and optimizes the previously reported baking soda "supermarket column". The same extract also led to a novel and colorful potato starch column, which can…

  12. Topologically Massive Higher Spin Gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, A.; Lal, S.; Saha, A.; Sahoo, B.

    2011-01-01

    We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the

  13. Oscillating water column structural model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Guild [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jepsen, Richard Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    An oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter is a structure with an opening to the ocean below the free surface, i.e. a structure with a moonpool. Two structural models for a non-axisymmetric terminator design OWC, the Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) are discussed in this report. The results of this structural model design study are intended to inform experiments and modeling underway in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated Reference Model Project (RMP). A detailed design developed by Re Vision Consulting used stiffeners and girders to stabilize the structure against the hydrostatic loads experienced by a BBDB device. Additional support plates were added to this structure to account for loads arising from the mooring line attachment points. A simplified structure was designed in a modular fashion. This simplified design allows easy alterations to the buoyancy chambers and uncomplicated analysis of resulting changes in buoyancy.

  14. Amniotic constriction bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Amniotic band sequence URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/ ... birth. The baby should be delivered in a medical center that has specialists experienced in caring for babies ... or partial loss of function of a body part. Congenital bands affecting large parts of the body cause the ...

  15. Characterization of the efficiency of microbore liquid chromatography columns by van Deemter and kinetic plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Terence; Loeker, Denise; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-10-01

    The efficiency of miniaturized liquid chromatography columns with inner diameters between 200 and 300 μm has been investigated using a dedicated micro-liquid chromatography system. Fully porous, core-shell and monolithic commercially available stationary phases were compared applying van Deemter and kinetic plot analysis. The sub-2 μm fully porous as well as the 2.7 μm core-shell particle packed columns showed superior efficiency and similar values for the minimum reduced plate heights (2.56-2.69) before correction for extra-column contribution compared to normal-bore columns. Moreover, the influence of extra-column contribution was investigated to demonstrate the difference between apparent and intrinsic efficiency by replacing the column by a zero dead volume union to determine the band spreading caused by the system. It was demonstrated that 72% of the intrinsic efficiency could be reached. The results of the kinetic plot analysis indicate the superior performance of the sub-2 μm fully porous particle packed column for ultra-fast liquid chromatography. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Spin-orbit and spin-lattice coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Gerrit E.W.; Ziman, Timothy; Mori, Michiyasu

    2014-01-01

    We pursued theoretical research on the coupling of electron spins in the condensed matter to the lattice as mediated by the spin-orbit interaction with special focus on the spin and anomalous Hall effects. (author)

  17. The two bands model for the high temperature conductivity of the binary rare earth alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgiel, W.

    1983-09-01

    The formula for the high temperature spin disorder resistivity for the concentrated Asub(1-x)Bsub(x)C alloys where A,B is an element of Rare Earth (RE) is determined on the basis of two bands model and the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The conductivity given by the 5d bands coming from the RE compounds has been taken into account

  18. Spin Current Noise of the Spin Seebeck Effect and Spin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, M.; Ohnuma, Y.; Kato, T.; Maekawa, S.

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the fluctuation of a pure spin current induced by the spin Seebeck effect and spin pumping in a normal-metal-(NM-)ferromagnet(FM) bilayer system. Starting with a simple ferromagnet-insulator-(FI-)NM interface model with both spin-conserving and non-spin-conserving processes, we derive general expressions of the spin current and the spin-current noise at the interface within second-order perturbation of the FI-NM coupling strength, and estimate them for a yttrium-iron-garnet-platinum interface. We show that the spin-current noise can be used to determine the effective spin carried by a magnon modified by the non-spin-conserving process at the interface. In addition, we show that it provides information on the effective spin of a magnon, heating at the interface under spin pumping, and spin Hall angle of the NM.

  19. Physics at low spin in the mass 160 region: the search for tetrahedral shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bark, R.A.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Maliage, S.M.; Madiba, T.E.; Komati, F.S.; Lawrie, E.A.; Lawrie, J.J.; Lindasy, R.; Maine, P.; Mullins, S.M.; Murray, S.H.T.; Ncapayi, N.J.; Ramashidza, T.M.; Smit, F.D.; Vymers, P.

    2010-01-01

    The low-lying, odd-spin negative parity bands in the mass 160 region have been identified as candidates for the rotation of a tetrahedral shape, as they have very weak in-band E2 transitions. We report the observation of such bands in 160 Yb and 154 Gd. They are crossed by 2 quasiparticle bands which allow band mixing calculations to be carried out to derive relative quadrupole moments. However, those studied are not consistent with zero, as required for tetrahedral shape. The aligned angular momenta of the bands suggest an octupole vibrational assignment.

  20. Spin echo dynamics under an applied drift field in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay, E-mail: sprabhakar@wlu.ca [M 2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Melnik, Roderick [M 2NeT Laboratory, Wilfrid Laurier University, 75 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Gregorio Millan Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Bonilla, Luis L. [Gregorio Millan Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Raynolds, James E. [Drinker Biddle and Reath LLP, Washington, DC 20005 (United States)

    2013-12-02

    We investigate the evolution of spin dynamics in graphene nanoribbon superlattices (GNSLs) with armchair and zigzag edges in the presence of a drift field. We determine the exact evolution operator and show that it exhibits spin echo phenomena due to rapid oscillations of the quantum states along the ribbon. The evolution of the spin polarization is accompanied by strong beating patterns. We also provide detailed analysis of the band structure of GNSLs with armchair and zigzag edges.

  1. Spin echo dynamics under an applied drift field in graphene nanoribbon superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis L.; Raynolds, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of spin dynamics in graphene nanoribbon superlattices (GNSLs) with armchair and zigzag edges in the presence of a drift field. We determine the exact evolution operator and show that it exhibits spin echo phenomena due to rapid oscillations of the quantum states along the ribbon. The evolution of the spin polarization is accompanied by strong beating patterns. We also provide detailed analysis of the band structure of GNSLs with armchair and zigzag edges

  2. Band mixing effects in mean field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.; Morrison, I.

    1989-01-01

    The 1/N expansion method, which is an angular momentum projected mean field theory, is used to investigate the nature of electromagnetic transitions in the interacting boson model (IBM). Conversely, comparison with the exact IBM results sheds light on the range of validity of the mean field theory. It is shown that the projected mean field results for the E2 transitions among the ground, β and γ bands are incomplete for the spin dependent terms and it is essential to include band mixing effect for a correct (Mikhailov) analysis of E2 data. The algebraic expressions derived are general and will be useful in the analysis of experimental data in terms of both the sd and sdg boson models. 17 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  3. Proximity effect in semiconductor films with spin-splitting and spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, Jens; Grein, Roland [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Superconducting heterostructures with spin-active materials have emerged as promising platforms for engineering topological superconductors featuring Majorana bound states at surfaces, edges and vortices. Here we present a method for evaluating, from a microscopic model, the band structure of a semiconductor film of finite thickness deposited on top of a conventional superconductor. Analytical expressions for the proximity induced gap openings are presented in terms of microscopic parameters and the proximity effect in presence of spin-orbit and exchange splitting is visualized in terms of Andreev reflection processes. An expression for the topological invariant, associated with the existence of Majorana bound states, is shown to depend only on parameters of the semiconductor film. The finite thickness of the film leads to resonant states in the film giving rise to a complex band structure with the topological phase alternating between trivial and non-trivial as the parameters are tuned of the film are tuned.

  4. Building blocks of topological quantum chemistry: Elementary band representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Jennifer; Bradlyn, Barry; Wang, Zhijun; Elcoro, L.; Vergniory, M. G.; Felser, C.; Aroyo, M. I.; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2018-01-01

    The link between chemical orbitals described by local degrees of freedom and band theory, which is defined in momentum space, was proposed by Zak several decades ago for spinless systems with and without time reversal in his theory of "elementary" band representations. In a recent paper [Bradlyn et al., Nature (London) 547, 298 (2017), 10.1038/nature23268] we introduced the generalization of this theory to the experimentally relevant situation of spin-orbit coupled systems with time-reversal symmetry and proved that all bands that do not transform as band representations are topological. Here we give the full details of this construction. We prove that elementary band representations are either connected as bands in the Brillouin zone and are described by localized Wannier orbitals respecting the symmetries of the lattice (including time reversal when applicable), or, if disconnected, describe topological insulators. We then show how to generate a band representation from a particular Wyckoff position and determine which Wyckoff positions generate elementary band representations for all space groups. This theory applies to spinful and spinless systems, in all dimensions, with and without time reversal. We introduce a homotopic notion of equivalence and show that it results in a finer classification of topological phases than approaches based only on the symmetry of wave functions at special points in the Brillouin zone. Utilizing a mapping of the band connectivity into a graph theory problem, we show in companion papers which Wyckoff positions can generate disconnected elementary band representations, furnishing a natural avenue for a systematic materials search.

  5. Spin temperature concept verified by optical magnetometry of nuclear spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, M.; Cronenberger, S.; Scalbert, D.; Ryzhov, I. I.; Zapasskii, V. S.; Kozlov, G. G.; Lemaître, A.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a method of nonperturbative optical control over adiabatic remagnetization of the nuclear spin system and apply it to verify the spin temperature concept in GaAs microcavities. The nuclear spin system is shown to exactly follow the predictions of the spin temperature theory, despite the quadrupole interaction that was earlier reported to disrupt nuclear spin thermalization. These findings open a way for the deep cooling of nuclear spins in semiconductor structures, with the prospect of realizing nuclear spin-ordered states for high-fidelity spin-photon interfaces.

  6. Effect of spin rotation coupling on spin transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the spin rotation coupling (SRC) as an ingredient to explain different spin-related issues. This special kind of coupling can play the role of a Dresselhaus like coupling in certain conditions. Consequently, one can control the spin splitting, induced by the Dresselhaus like term, which is unusual in a semiconductor heterostructure. Within this framework, we also study the renormalization of the spin-dependent electric field and spin current due to the k → ⋅p → perturbation, by taking into account the interband mixing in the rotating system. In this paper we predict the enhancement of the spin-dependent electric field resulting from the renormalized spin rotation coupling. The renormalization factor of the spin electric field is different from that of the SRC or Zeeman coupling. The effect of renormalized SRC on spin current and Berry curvature is also studied. Interestingly, in the presence of this SRC-induced SOC it is possible to describe spin splitting as well as spin galvanic effect in semiconductors. -- Highlights: •Studied effect of spin rotation coupling on the spin electric field, spin current and Berry curvature. •In the k → ⋅p → framework we study the renormalization of spin electric field and spin current. •For an inertial system we have discussed the spin splitting. •Expression for the Berry phase in the inertial system is discussed. •The inertial spin galvanic effect is studied

  7. Effect of spin rotation coupling on spin transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Debashree, E-mail: debashreephys@gmail.com; Basu, B., E-mail: sribbasu@gmail.com

    2013-12-15

    We have studied the spin rotation coupling (SRC) as an ingredient to explain different spin-related issues. This special kind of coupling can play the role of a Dresselhaus like coupling in certain conditions. Consequently, one can control the spin splitting, induced by the Dresselhaus like term, which is unusual in a semiconductor heterostructure. Within this framework, we also study the renormalization of the spin-dependent electric field and spin current due to the k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} perturbation, by taking into account the interband mixing in the rotating system. In this paper we predict the enhancement of the spin-dependent electric field resulting from the renormalized spin rotation coupling. The renormalization factor of the spin electric field is different from that of the SRC or Zeeman coupling. The effect of renormalized SRC on spin current and Berry curvature is also studied. Interestingly, in the presence of this SRC-induced SOC it is possible to describe spin splitting as well as spin galvanic effect in semiconductors. -- Highlights: •Studied effect of spin rotation coupling on the spin electric field, spin current and Berry curvature. •In the k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} framework we study the renormalization of spin electric field and spin current. •For an inertial system we have discussed the spin splitting. •Expression for the Berry phase in the inertial system is discussed. •The inertial spin galvanic effect is studied.

  8. Picobubble enhanced column flotation of fine coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Yu, S.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The purpose is to study the effectiveness of picobubbles in the column flotation of -28 mesh fine coal particles. A flotation column with a picobubble generator was developed and tested for enhancing the recovery of ultrafine coal particles. The picobubble generator was designed using the hydrodynamic cavitation principle. A metallurgical and a steam coal were tested in the apparatus. The results show that the use of picobubbles in a 2in. flotation column increased the recovery of fine coal by 10 to 30%. The recovery rate varied with feed rate, collector dosage, and other column conditions. 40 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Thermally stable dexsil-400 glass capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Olerich, G.

    1980-01-01

    The factors affecting efficiency, thermal stability, and reproducibility of Dexsil-400 glass capillary columns for gas chromatography in general, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular were investigated. Columns were drawn from Kimble KG-6 (soda-lime) glass or Kimox (borosilicate) glass. All silylation was carried out at 200 0 C. Columns were coated according to the static method. Freshly prepared, degassed solutions of Dexsil-400 in pentane or methylene chloride were used. Thermal stability of the Dexsil 400 columns with respect to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were tested. Column-to-column variability is a function of each step in the fabrication of the columns. The degree of etching, extent of silylation, and stationary phase film thickness must be carefully controlled. The variability in two Dexsil-400 capillary column prepared by etching, silylation with solution of hexa methyl disilazone (HMDS), and static coating is shown and also indicates the excellent selectivity of Dexsil-400 for the separation of alkylated aromatic compounds. The wide temperature range of Dexsil-400 and the high efficiency of the capillary columns also allow the analysis of complex mixtures with minimal prefractionation. Direct injection of a coal liquefaction product is given. Analysis by GC/MS indicated the presence of parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles, and their alkylated derivatives. 4 figures

  10. Laser surface wakefield in a plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, L.M.; Mora, P.; Ramazashvili, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    The structure of the wakefield in a plasma column, produced by a short intense laser pulse, propagating through a gas affected by tunneling ionization is investigated. It is shown that besides the usual plasma waves in the bulk part of the plasma column [see Andreev et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 3999 (2002)], the laser pulse also generates electromagnetic surface waves propagating along the column boundary. The length of the surface wake wave substantially exceeds the length of the plasma wake wave and its electromagnetic field extends far outside the plasma column

  11. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  12. Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.

  13. Spin-orbit-induced spin splittings in polar transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2013-06-01

    The Rashba effect in quasi two-dimensional materials, such as noble metal surfaces and semiconductor heterostructures, has been investigated extensively, while interest in real two-dimensional systems has just emerged with the discovery of graphene. We present ab initio electronic structure, phonon, and molecular-dynamics calculations to study the structural stability and spin-orbit-induced spin splitting in the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers MXY (M = Mo, W and X, Y = S, Se, Te). In contrast to the non-polar systems with X = Y, in the polar systems with X ≠ Y the Rashba splitting at the Γ-point for the uppermost valence band is caused by the broken mirror symmetry. An enhancement of the splitting can be achieved by increasing the spin-orbit coupling and/or the potential gradient. © Copyright EPLA, 2013.

  14. Physics lab in spin

    CERN Multimedia

    Hawkes, N

    1999-01-01

    RAL is fostering commerical exploitation of its research and facilities in two main ways : spin-out companies exploit work done at the lab, spin-in companies work on site taking advantage of the facilities and the expertise available (1/2 page).

  15. Summary: Symmetries and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity nonconservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence. 28 refs., 1 fig

  16. Spin, mass, and symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics

  17. Spin, mass, and symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.

  18. More spinoff from spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaike, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Despite playing a major role in today's Standard Model, spin - the intrinsic angular momentum carried by particles - is sometimes dismissed as an inessential complication. However several major spin questions with important implications for the Standard Model remain unanswered, and recent results and new technological developments made the 10th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in Nagoya, Japan, in November, highly topical. The symposium covered a wide range of physics, reflecting the diversity of spin effects, however four main themes were - the spin content of the nucleon, tests of symmetries and physics beyond standard models, intermediate energy physics, and spin technologies. Opening the meeting, T. Kinoshita reviewed the status of measurements of the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of the electron and the muon. The forthcoming experiment at Brookhaven (September 1991, page 23) will probe beyond the energy ranges open to existing electronpositron colliders. For example muon substructure will be opened up to 5 TeV and Ws to 2 TeV. R.L. Jaffe classified quark-parton distributions in terms of their spin dependence, pointing out their leftright attributes, and emphasized the importance of measuring transverse spin distributions through lepton pair production

  19. Robust band gap and half-metallicity in graphene with triangular perforations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    . The inclusion of spin polarization within a mean-field Hubbard approach gives rise to a large overall magnetic moment at each antidot due to the sublattice imbalance imposed by the triangular geometry. Half-metallic behavior arises from the formation of spin-split dispersive states near the Fermi energy...... disorders. Here we study a rectangular array of triangular antidots with zigzag edge geometries and show that their band gap behavior qualitatively differs from the standard behavior which is exhibited, e.g., by rectangular arrays of armchair-edged triangles. In the spin unpolarized case, zigzag......, and furthermore, of exploiting the strong spin dependence of the system for spintronic applications....

  20. Spin-Wave Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lan (兰金

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A diode, a device allowing unidirectional signal transmission, is a fundamental element of logic structures, and it lies at the heart of modern information systems. The spin wave or magnon, representing a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, is a promising candidate for an information carrier for the next-generation energy-saving technologies. Here, we propose a scalable and reprogrammable pure spin-wave logic hardware architecture using domain walls and surface anisotropy stripes as waveguides on a single magnetic wafer. We demonstrate theoretically the design principle of the simplest logic component, a spin-wave diode, utilizing the chiral bound states in a magnetic domain wall with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and confirm its performance through micromagnetic simulations. Our findings open a new vista for realizing different types of pure spin-wave logic components and finally achieving an energy-efficient and hardware-reprogrammable spin-wave computer.

  1. Spin physics at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenstein, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    Spin Physics at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory is the most recent of new capabilities being explored at this facility. During the summer of 1984 the AGS accelerated beams of polarized protons to 16.5 GeV/c at 40% polarization to two experiments (E782, E785). These experiments; single spin asymmetry in inclusive polarized pp interactions; and spin-spin effects in polarized pp elastic scattering, operated at the highest polarized proton energy ever achieved by any accelerator in the world. These experiments are reviewed after the complementary spin physics program with unpolarized protons, and the future possibilities with a booster injector for the AGS and the secondary benefits of a Relativisitic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), are placed within the context of the present physics program

  2. Superconductivity and spin fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalapino, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The organizers of the Memorial Session for Herman Rietschel asked that the author review some of the history of the interplay of superconductivity and spin fluctuations. Initially, Berk and Schrieffer showed how paramagnon spin fluctuations could suppress superconductivity in nearly-ferromagnetic materials. Following this, Rietschel and various co-workers wrote a number of papers in which they investigated the role of spin fluctuations in reducing the Tc of various electron-phonon superconductors. Paramagnon spin fluctuations are also believed to provide the p-wave pairing mechanism responsible for the superfluid phases of 3 He. More recently, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations have been proposed as the mechanism for d-wave pairing in the heavy-fermion superconductors and in some organic materials as well as possibly the high-Tc cuprates. Here the author will review some of this early history and discuss some of the things he has learned more recently from numerical simulations

  3. Band inversion mechanism in topological insulators: A guideline for materials design

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong

    2012-06-01

    Alteration of the topological order by band inversion is a key ingredient of a topologically nontrivial material. Using first-principles calculations for HgTe, PtScBi, and Bi2Se3, we argue that it is not accurate to ascribe the band inversion to the spin-orbit coupling. Instead, scalar relativistic effects and/or lattice distortions are found to be essential. Therefore, the search for topologically nontrivial materials should focus on band shifts due to these mechanisms rather than spin-orbit coupling. We propose an effective scheme to search for new topological insulators.

  4. Band inversion mechanism in topological insulators: A guideline for materials design

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    Alteration of the topological order by band inversion is a key ingredient of a topologically nontrivial material. Using first-principles calculations for HgTe, PtScBi, and Bi2Se3, we argue that it is not accurate to ascribe the band inversion to the spin-orbit coupling. Instead, scalar relativistic effects and/or lattice distortions are found to be essential. Therefore, the search for topologically nontrivial materials should focus on band shifts due to these mechanisms rather than spin-orbit coupling. We propose an effective scheme to search for new topological insulators.

  5. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-01

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  6. Orbital selective spin-texture in a topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Bahadur, E-mail: bahadursingh24@gmail.com; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Three-dimensional topological insulators support a metallic non-trivial surface state with unique spin texture, where spin and momentum are locked perpendicular to each other. In this work, we investigate the orbital selective spin-texture associated with the topological surface states in Sb2Te{sub 3}, using the first principles calculations. Sb2Te{sub 3} is a strong topological insulator with a p-p type bulk band inversion at the Γ-point and supports a single topological metallic surface state with upper (lower) Dirac-cone has left (right) handed spin-texture. Here, we show that the topological surface state has an additional locking between the spin and orbitals, leading to an orbital selective spin-texture. The out-of-plane orbitals (p{sub z} orbitals) have an isotropic orbital texture for both the Dirac cones with an associated left and right handed spin-texture for the upper and lower Dirac cones, respectively. In contrast, the in-planar orbital texture (p{sub x} and p{sub y} projections) is tangential for the upper Dirac-cone and is radial for the lower Dirac-cone surface state. The dominant in-planar orbital texture in both the Dirac cones lead to a right handed orbital-selective spin-texture.

  7. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-15

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  8. Energy spectrum, the spin polarization, and the optical selection rules of the Kronig-Penney superlattice model with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui

    2018-02-01

    The Kronig-Penney model, an exactly solvable one-dimensional model of crystal in solid physics, shows how the allowed and forbidden bands are formed in solids. In this paper, we study this model in the presence of both strong spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman field. We analytically obtain four transcendental equations that represent an implicit relation between the energy and the Bloch wave vector. Solving these four transcendental equations, we obtain the spin-orbital bands exactly. In addition to the usual band gap opened at the boundary of the Brillouin zone, a much larger spin-orbital band gap is also opened at some special sites inside the Brillouin zone. The x component of the spin-polarization vector is an even function of the Bloch wave vector, while the z component of the spin-polarization vector is an odd function of the Bloch wave vector. At the band edges, the optical transition rates between adjacent bands are nonzero.

  9. Band parameters of phosphorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew Yan Voon, L C; Wang, J; Zhang, Y; Willatzen, M

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene. (paper)

  10. Infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galazutdinov, G. A.; Lee, Jae-Joon; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Valyavin, G.; Krełowski, J.

    2017-05-01

    We present high-resolution (R ˜ 45 000) profiles of 14 diffuse interstellar bands in the ˜1.45 to ˜2.45 μm range based on spectra obtained with the Immersion Grating INfrared Spectrograph at the McDonald Observatory. The revised list of diffuse bands with accurately estimated rest wavelengths includes six new features. The diffuse band at 15 268.2 Å demonstrates a very symmetric profile shape and thus can serve as a reference for finding the 'interstellar correction' to the rest wavelength frame in the H range, which suffers from a lack of known atomic/molecular lines.

  11. Band parameters of phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorene is a two-dimensional nanomaterial with a direct band-gap at the Brillouin zone center. In this paper, we present a recently derived effective-mass theory of the band structure in the presence of strain and electric field, based upon group theory. Band parameters for this theory...... are computed using a first-principles theory based upon the generalized-gradient approximation to the density-functional theory. These parameters and Hamiltonian will be useful for modeling physical properties of phosphorene....

  12. Spin valley and giant quantum spin Hall gap of hydrofluorinated bismuth nanosheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Heng; Wu, Wei; Hu, Tao; Stroppa, Alessandro; Wang, Xinran; Wang, Baigeng; Miao, Feng; Ren, Wei

    2018-05-09

    Spin-valley and electronic band topological properties have been extensively explored in quantum material science, yet their coexistence has rarely been realized in stoichiometric two-dimensional (2D) materials. We theoretically predict the quantum spin Hall effect (QSHE) in the hydrofluorinated bismuth (Bi 2 HF) nanosheet where the hydrogen (H) and fluorine (F) atoms are functionalized on opposite sides of bismuth (Bi) atomic monolayer. Such Bi 2 HF nanosheet is found to be a 2D topological insulator with a giant band gap of 0.97 eV which might host room temperature QSHE. The atomistic structure of Bi 2 HF nanosheet is noncentrosymmetric and the spontaneous polarization arises from the hydrofluorinated morphology. The phonon spectrum and ab initio molecular dynamic (AIMD) calculations reveal that the proposed Bi 2 HF nanosheet is dynamically and thermally stable. The inversion symmetry breaking together with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) leads to the coupling between spin and valley in Bi 2 HF nanosheet. The emerging valley-dependent properties and the interplay between intrinsic dipole and SOC are investigated using first-principles calculations combined with an effective Hamiltonian model. The topological invariant of the Bi 2 HF nanosheet is confirmed by using Wilson loop method and the calculated helical metallic edge states are shown to host QSHE. The Bi 2 HF nanosheet is therefore a promising platform to realize room temperature QSHE and valley spintronics.

  13. Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Pauyac, C. O.

    2017-12-08

    A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.

  14. Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Pauyac, C. O.; Chshiev, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Nikolaev, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.

  15. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra; Saeed, Yasir; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under

  16. Quasiparticle band structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manghi, F., E-mail: franca.manghi@unimore.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41125 Modena (Italy); CNR – Institute of NanoSciences – S3 (Italy); Boni, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41125 Modena (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • We review many body techniques for quasiparticle calculations. • We focus on transition metals and transition metal oxides. • We discuss spin dependent energy renormalization and quasiparticle quenching. • We present a detailed comparison between two methods (DMFT and 3BS).

  17. Quasiparticle band structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manghi, F.; Boni, V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We review many body techniques for quasiparticle calculations. • We focus on transition metals and transition metal oxides. • We discuss spin dependent energy renormalization and quasiparticle quenching. • We present a detailed comparison between two methods (DMFT and 3BS).

  18. Column: Factors Affecting Data Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fairbanks

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In nuclear physics, the phrase decay rate is used to denote the rate that atoms and other particles spontaneously decompose. Uranium-235 famously decays into a variety of daughter isotopes including Thorium and Neptunium, which themselves decay to others. Decay rates are widely observed and wildly different depending on many factors, both internal and external. U-235 has a half-life of 703,800,000 years, for example, while free neutrons have a half-life of 611 seconds and neutrons in an atomic nucleus are stable.We posit that data in computer systems also experiences some kind of statistical decay process and thus also has a discernible decay rate. Like atomic decay, data decay fluctuates wildly. But unlike atomic decay, data decay rates are the result of so many different interplaying processes that we currently do not understand them well enough to come up with quantifiable numbers. Nevertheless, we believe that it is useful to discuss some of the factors that impact the data decay rate, for these factors frequently determine whether useful data about a subject can be recovered by forensic investigation.(see PDF for full column

  19. Gaseous carbon dioxide absorbing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashina, Heihachi.

    1994-01-01

    The absorbing column of the present invention comprises a cyclone to which CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 are blown to form CaCO 3 , a water supply means connected to an upper portion of the cyclone for forming a thin water membrane on the inner wall thereof, and a water processing means connected to a lower portion of the cyclone for draining water incorporating CaCO 3 . If a mixed fluid of CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 is blown in a state where a flowing water membrane is formed on the inner wall of the cyclone, formation of CaCO 3 is promoted also in the inside of the cyclone in addition to the formation of CaCO 3 in the course of blowing. Then, formed CaCO 3 is discharged from the lower portion of the cyclone together with downwardly flowing water. With such procedures, solid contents such as CaCO 3 separated at the inner circumferential wall are sent into the thin water membrane, adsorbed and captured, and the solid contents are successively washed out, so that a phenomenon that the solid contents deposit and grow on the inner wall of the cyclone can be prevented effectively. (T.M.)

  20. CSF oligoclonal banding - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100145.htm CSF oligoclonal banding - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... 5 out of 5 Overview The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves to supply nutrients to the central nervous ...

  1. Laparoscopic gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat by making you feel full after eating small amounts of food. After surgery, your doctor can adjust the band ... You will feel full after eating just a small amount of food. The food in the small upper pouch will ...

  2. Bulk and edge spin transport in topological magnon insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriegel, Andreas; Brataas, Arne; Duine, Rembert A.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the spin transport properties of a topological magnon insulator, a magnetic insulator characterized by topologically nontrivial bulk magnon bands and protected magnon edge modes located in the bulk band gaps. Employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert phenomenology, we calculate the spin current driven through a normal metal |topological magnon insulator |normal metal heterostructure by a spin accumulation imbalance between the metals, with and without random lattice defects. We show that bulk and edge transport are characterized by different length scales. This results in a characteristic system size where the magnon transport crosses over from being bulk dominated for small systems to edge dominated for larger systems. These findings are generic and relevant for topological transport in systems of nonconserved bosons.

  3. Rasch models with exchangeable rows and columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    The article studies distributions of doubly infinite binary matrices with exchangeable rows and columns which satify the further property that the probability of any $m \\times n$ submatrix is a function of the row- and column sums of that matrix. We show that any such distribution is a (unique...

  4. The general packed column : an analytical solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, J.L.W.

    2000-01-01

    The transient behaviour of a packed column is considered. The column, uniformly packed on a macroscopic scale, is multi-structured on the microscopic level: the solid phase consists of particles, which may differ in incidence, shape or size, and other relevant physical properties. Transport in the

  5. Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavor, M.I.; Weick, H.; Wollnik, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns are investigated, based on the fringing-field integral method. Transfer matrices at the effective boundaries of the acceleration column are obtained, as well as the general transfer matrix of the region separating two homogeneous electrostatic fields with different field strengths. The accuracy of the fringing-field integral method is investigated

  6. Collective motions and band structures in A = 60 to 80, even--even nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.; Robinson, R.L.; Ramayya, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    Evidence for and the theoretical understanding of the richness of the collective band structures as illustrated by at least seven bands seen in levels of 68 Ge, 74 Se are reviewed. The experimental data on even-even nuclei in the A = 60 to 80 region have now revealed a wide variety of collective bands with different structures. The even parity yrast cascades alone are seen to involve multiple collective structures. In addition to the ground-state bands, strong evidence is presented for both neutron and proton rotation-aligned bands built on the same orbital, (g 9 / 2 ) 2 , in one nucleus. Several other nuclei also show the crossing of RAL bands around the 8 + level in this region. Evidence continues to be strong experimentally and supported theoretically that there is some type of shape transition and shape coexistence occurring now both in the Ge and Se isotopes around N = 40. Negative parity bands with odd and even spins with very collective nature are seen in several nuclei to high spin. These bands seem best understood in the RAL model. Very collective bands with ΔI = 1, extending from 2 + to 9 + are seen with no rotation-alignment. The purity of these bands and their persistence to such high spin establish them as an independent collective mode which is best described as a gamma-type vibration band in a deformed nucleus. In addition to all of the above bands, new bands are seen in 76 Kr and 74 Se. The nature of these bands is not presently known. 56 references

  7. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  8. Nuclear spins in nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coish, W.A.; Baugh, J.

    2009-01-01

    We review recent theoretical and experimental advances toward understanding the effects of nuclear spins in confined nanostructures. These systems, which include quantum dots, defect centers, and molecular magnets, are particularly interesting for their importance in quantum information processing devices, which aim to coherently manipulate single electron spins with high precision. On one hand, interactions between confined electron spins and a nuclear-spin environment provide a decoherence source for the electron, and on the other, a strong effective magnetic field that can be used to execute local coherent rotations. A great deal of effort has been directed toward understanding the details of the relevant decoherence processes and to find new methods to manipulate the coupled electron-nuclear system. A sequence of spectacular new results have provided understanding of spin-bath decoherence, nuclear spin diffusion, and preparation of the nuclear state through dynamic polarization and more general manipulation of the nuclear-spin density matrix through ''state narrowing.'' These results demonstrate the richness of this physical system and promise many new mysteries for the future. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Study of intruder band in 112Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Banerjee, P.; Ray, I.; Kshetri, R.; Raut, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Saha-Sarkar, M.; Goswami, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Basu, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    Excited states of the positive-parity intruder band in 112 Sn, populated in the 100 Mo( 20 Ne,α4n) reaction at a beam energy of 136 MeV, have been studied. The band has been observed up to 11570.0 keV with spin (24 + ). Mean lifetimes have been measured for six states up to the 22 + , 10335.1 keV level and an upper limit of the lifetime has been estimated for the 11570.0 keV (24 + ) state. The B(E2) values, derived from the present lifetime results, correspond to a moderate quadrupole deformation of β 2 ∼0.18 for states with spin J π >=12 + , and the decrease in B(E2) for the 14 + ->12 + transition is consistent with a ν(h 11/2 ) 2 alignment at ω∼0.35 MeV, predicted by a cranked shell-model calculation. Total Routhian surface calculations predict a triaxial shape following the alignment

  10. Collectivity of dipole bands in {sup 196}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Liang, Y.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The region of nuclei with mass {approximately} 190 was studied extensively over the last few years following the discovery of superdeformation in {sup 190}Hg. More recently, considerable interest in the neutron-deficient Pb isotopes developed with the discover of a number of bands at high spin connected by dipole transitions in both even {sup 192-200}Pb and odd {sup 197-201}Pb nuclei. The majority of the dipole bands are regular in character (i.e. transition energies increase smoothly with spin) while the remaining bands are referred to as irregular in character, due to the fact that the transition energies do not increase smoothly with spin. The properties of the dipole bands were interpreted in terms of high-K, moderately-deformed oblate states built on configurations involving high-J, shape-driving quasiproton excitations coupled to rotation-aligned quasineutrons. It was suggested that the difference between the regular and irregular dipole sequences is related to the deformation where the irregular sequences are thought to be less collective than their regular counterparts.

  11. Center column design of the PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrolo, J.; Frankenberg, J.

    1975-01-01

    The center column of the PLT machine is a secondary support member for the toroidal field coils. Its purpose is to decrease the bending moment at the nose of the coils. The center column design was to have been a stainless steel casting with the toroidal field coils grouped around the casting at installation, trapping it in place. However, the castings developed cracks during fabrication and were unsuitable for use. Installation of the coils proceeded without the center column. It then became necessary to redesign a center column which would be capable of installation with the toroidal field coils in place. The final design consists of three A-286 forgings. This paper discusses the final center column design and the influence that new knowledge, obtained during the power tests, had on the new design

  12. Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrish Miah, M [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2008-09-15

    On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.

  13. Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Idrish Miah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.

  14. Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrish Miah, M

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.

  15. Quantifying Spin Hall Angles from Spin Pumping : Experiments and Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosendz, O.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2010-01-01

    Spin Hall effects intermix spin and charge currents even in nonmagnetic materials and, therefore, ultimately may allow the use of spin transport without the need for ferromagnets. We show how spin Hall effects can be quantified by integrating Ni80Fe20|normal metal (N) bilayers into a coplanar

  16. Compound nucleus effects in spin-spin cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    By comparison with recent data, it is shown that spin-spin cross sections for low-energy neutrons may be dominated by a simple compound-elastic level-density effect, independent of spin-spin terms in the nucleon-nucleus optical-model potential. (Auth.)

  17. Admittance Scanning for Whole Column Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

    2017-07-05

    Whole column detection (WCD) is as old as chromatography itself. WCD requires an ability to interrogate column contents from the outside. Other than the obvious case of optical detection through a transparent column, admittance (often termed contactless conductance) measurements can also sense changes in the column contents (especially ionic content) from the outside without galvanic contact with the solution. We propose here electromechanically scanned admittance imaging and apply this to open tubular (OT) chromatography. The detector scans across the column; the length resolution depends on the scanning velocity and the data acquisition frequency, ultimately limited by the physical step resolution (40 μm in the present setup). Precision equal to this step resolution was observed for locating an interface between two immiscible liquids inside a 21 μm capillary. Mechanically, the maximum scanning speed was 100 mm/s, but at 1 kHz sampling rate and a time constant of 25 ms, the highest practical scan speed (no peak distortion) was 28 mm/s. At scanning speeds of 0, 4, and 28 mm/s, the S/N for 180 pL (zone length of 1.9 mm in a 11 μm i.d. column) of 500 μM KCl injected into water was 6450, 3850, and 1500, respectively. To facilitate constant and reproducible contact with the column regardless of minor variations in outer diameter, a double quadrupole electrode system was developed. Columns of significant length (>1 m) can be readily scanned. We demonstrate its applicability with both OT and commercial packed columns and explore uniformity of retention along a column, increasing S/N by stopped-flow repeat scans, etc. as unique applications.

  18. Frustrated spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book covers all principal aspects of currently investigated frustrated systems, from exactly solved frustrated models to real experimental frustrated systems, going through renormalization group treatment, Monte Carlo investigation of frustrated classical Ising and vector spin models, low-dimensional systems, spin ice and quantum spin glass. The reader can - within a single book - obtain a global view of the current research development in the field of frustrated systems.This new edition is updated with recent theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in the field of frustrated

  19. SPINning parallel systems software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlin, O.S.; Lusk, E.; McCune, W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our experiences in using Spin to verify parts of the Multi Purpose Daemon (MPD) parallel process management system. MPD is a distributed collection of processes connected by Unix network sockets. MPD is dynamic processes and connections among them are created and destroyed as MPD is initialized, runs user processes, recovers from faults, and terminates. This dynamic nature is easily expressible in the Spin/Promela framework but poses performance and scalability challenges. We present here the results of expressing some of the parallel algorithms of MPD and executing both simulation and verification runs with Spin

  20. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  1. NUCLEON SPIN: Enigma confirmed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In 1987 the European Muon Collaboration (EMC - June 1988, page 9) reported results from a polarized muon-proton scattering experiment at CERN which puzzled the particle and nuclear physics communities. Contrary to the prediction of the naive quark model, the EMC found that little of the proton spin seemed to be carried by the spins of the quarks. An extensive experimental programme was therefore immediately proposed at CERN, SLAC (Stanford) and DESY (Hamburg) to measure the spin structure function of the neutron and to repeat the proton measurement with improved accuracy

  2. Spin-polarized SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoto, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Development of highly effective evaluation technology of magnetic structures on a nanometric scale is a key to understanding spintronics and related phenomena. A high-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscope (spin SEM) developed recently is quite suitable for probing such nanostructures because of the capability of analyzing local magnetization vectors in three dimensions. Utilizing the spin SEM, a layered antiferromagnetic structure with the 1nm-alternation of bilayer-sheet magnetization has been successfully resolved. The real-space imaging with full analysis of the temperature-dependent magnetization vectors will be demonstrated. (author)

  3. High spin structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis explores deep inelastic scattering of a lepton beam from a polarized nuclear target with spin J=1. After reviewing the formation for spin-1/2, the structure functions for a spin-1 target are defined in terms of the helicity amplitudes for forward compton scattering. A version of the convolution model, which incorporates relativistic and binding energy corrections is used to calculate the structure functions of a neutron target. A simple parameterization of these structure functions is given in terms of a few neutron wave function parameters and the free nucleon structure functions. This allows for an easy comparison of structure functions calculated using different neutron models. (author)

  4. Spin Hall effect transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, Joerg; Park, B.G.; Irvine, A.C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Rozkotová, E.; Němec, P.; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 6012 (2010), s. 1801-1804 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 31.364, year: 2010

  5. Spinning of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Wenkua; Zheng Han

    1989-01-01

    The effects of spinning process parameters including max. pass percentage reduction, spinning temperature, feed rate, lubricant and annealing technology on the quality of shaped components are summarized and discussed in the present paper. The above mentioned parameters are adopted in the process of spinning of barrel-shaped and specially shaped components of refractory metals and their alloys W, Mo, Nb, Zr, TZM molybdenum alloy, C-103, C-752 niobium alloy etc. The cause of leading to usual defects of spun products of refractory metals such as lamellar as 'scaling', crack, swelling, wrinkle, etc. have been analysed and the ways to eliminate the defects have been put forward. 8 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  6. Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2012-08-09

    Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin diffusion is considered theoretically. Combining ballistic tunneling across the barrier and diffusive transport in the electrodes, we solve the spin dynamics equation in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque, as well as a nonconventional thickness dependence of both spin torque components.

  7. Electron spin and nuclear spin manipulation in semiconductor nanosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Yoshiro; Yusa, Go; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Manipulations of electron spin and nuclear spin have been studied in AlGaAs/GaAs semiconductor nanosystems. Non-local manipulation of electron spins has been realized by using the correlation effect between localized and mobile electron spins in a quantum dot- quantum wire coupled system. Interaction between electron and nuclear spins was exploited to achieve a coherent control of nuclear spins in a semiconductor point contact device. Using this device, we have demonstrated a fully coherent manipulation of any two states among the four spin levels of Ga and As nuclei. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Investigation of high spin structure of N ∼ 28 nuclei with PHF model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Nucleus in 50 mass shows verity of high spin phenomena. Some of them are K-Isomer, Band termination, States Beyond Band termination, Superdeformed Structure, Shape co-existence and many more. Some of these phenomena with Projected Hartree-Fock (PHF) model are addressed and the microscopic structure associate with them is discussed

  9. Shape evolution in 76,78Kr nuclei at high spins in tilted axis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    band with J = 20–30 lying below the observed ground band is predicted. ... a given value of the quadrupole deformation parameter and pairing gaps for the ... about the oblate symmetry axis, i.e., the spin generated by rotation alignment of.

  10. High spin states in 143Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, R.; Ganguly, S.; Kshetri, R.; Banerjee, P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, G.; Sarkar, M. Saha; Goswami, A.; Gangopadhyay, G.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Krishichayan,; Chakraborty, A.; Ghughre, S. S.; Bhattacharjee, T.; Basu, S. K.

    2006-01-01

    The high spin states of 143 Sm have been studied by in-beam γ-spectroscopy following the reaction 130 Te( 20 Ne,7n) 143 Sm at E lab =137 MeV, using a Clover detector array. More than 50 new gamma transitions have been placed above the previously known J π =23/2 - , 30 ms isomer at 2795 keV. The level scheme of 143 Sm has been extended up to 12 MeV and spin-parity assignments have been made to most of the newly proposed level. Theoretical calculation with the relativistic mean field approach using blocked BCS method, has been performed. A sequence of levels connected by M1 transitions have been observed at an excitation energy ∼8.6 MeV. The sequence appears to be a magnetic rotational band from systematics

  11. Recent trends in spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Taichi

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the Rashba effect on crystal surfaces and also the discovery of topological insulators, spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) has become more and more important, as the technique can measure directly the electronic band structure of materials with spin resolution. In the same way that the discovery of high-Tc superconductors promoted the development of high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, the discovery of this new class of materials has stimulated the development of new SARPES apparatus with new functions and higher resolution, such as spin vector analysis, ten times higher energy and angular resolution than conventional SARPES, multichannel spin detection, and so on. In addition, the utilization of vacuum ultra violet lasers also opens a pathway to the realization of novel SARPES measurements. In this review, such recent trends in SARPES techniques and measurements will be overviewed.

  12. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  13. Spin polarization of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) and Ni(111) observed by spin-polarized surface positronium spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, A.; Maekawa, M.; Wada, K.; Kawasuso, A.; Watanabe, T.; Entani, S.; Sakai, S.

    2018-05-01

    In spin-polarized surface positronium annihilation measurements, the spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) were higher than those on Ni(111), while no significant differences were seen between graphene and h -BN on the same metal. The obtained spin polarizations agreed with those expected from first-principles calculations considering the positron wave function and the electron density of states from the first surface layer to the vacuum region. The higher spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) as compared to Ni(111) simply reflect the spin polarizations of these metals. The comparable spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on the same metal are attributed to the creation of similar electronic states due to the strong influence of the metals: the Dirac cone of graphene and the band gap of h -BN disappear as a consequence of d -π hybridization.

  14. Emergent reduced dimensionality by vertex frustration in artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Ian; Lao, Yuyang; Carrasquillo, Isaac; O'Brien, Liam; Watts, Justin D.; Manno, Michael; Leighton, Chris; Scholl, Andreas; Nisoli, Cristiano; Schiffer, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Reducing the dimensionality of a physical system can have a profound effect on its properties, as in the ordering of low-dimensional magnetic materials, phonon dispersion in mercury chain salts, sliding phases, and the electronic states of graphene. Here we explore the emergence of quasi-one-dimensional behaviour in two-dimensional artificial spin ice, a class of lithographically fabricated nanomagnet arrays used to study geometrical frustration. We extend the implementation of artificial spin ice by fabricating a new array geometry, the so-called tetris lattice. We demonstrate that the ground state of the tetris lattice consists of alternating ordered and disordered bands of nanomagnetic moments. The disordered bands can be mapped onto an emergent thermal one-dimensional Ising model. Furthermore, we show that the level of degeneracy associated with these bands dictates the susceptibility of island moments to thermally induced reversals, thus establishing that vertex frustration can reduce the relevant dimensionality of physical behaviour in a magnetic system.

  15. Giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3: Tl

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2014-07-25

    First-principles calculations are employed to demonstrate a giant Rashba spin splitting in Bi2Se3:Tl. Biaxial tensile and compressive strain is used to tune the splitting by modifying the potential gradient. The band gap is found to increase under compression and decreases under tension, whereas the dependence of the Rashba spin splitting on the strain is the opposite. Large values of αR = 1.57 eV Å at the bottom of the conduction band (electrons) and αR = 3.34 eV Å at the top of the valence band (holes) are obtained without strain. These values can be further enhanced to αR = 1.83 eV Å and αR = 3.64 eV Å, respectively, by 2% tensile strain. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. High spin states in odd-odd {sup 132}Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Takehito [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Lu, J; Furuno, K [and others

    1998-03-01

    Excited states with spin larger than 5 {Dirac_h} were newly established in the {sup 132}Cs nucleus via the {sup 124}Sn({sup 11}B,3n) reaction. Rotational bands built on the {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}d{sub 5/2}, {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} configurations were observed up to spin I {approx} 16 {Dirac_h}. The {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {pi}h{sub 11/2} band shows inverted signature splitting below I < 14 {Dirac_h}. A dipole band was firstly observed in doubly odd Cs nuclei. (author)

  17. Spin-4 extended conformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakas, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    We construct spin-4 extended conformal algebras using the second hamiltonian structure of the KdV hierarchy. In the presence of a U(1) current a family of spin-4 algebras exists but the additional requirement that the spin-1 and spin-4 currents commute fixes the algebra uniquely. (orig.)

  18. Anisotropic spin relaxation in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombros, N.; Tanabe, S.; Veligura, A.; Jozsa, C.; Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Spin relaxation in graphene is investigated in electrical graphene spin valve devices in the nonlocal geometry. Ferromagnetic electrodes with in-plane magnetizations inject spins parallel to the graphene layer. They are subject to Hanle spin precession under a magnetic field B applied perpendicular

  19. Spin squeezing and quantum correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 states. A coherent spin-s state. (CSS) θ φ can then be thought of as having no quantum correlations as the constituent. 2s elementary spins point in the same direction ˆn(θ φ) which is the mean spin direction. 2. State classification and squeezing. In order to discuss squeezing, we begin with the squeezing condition itself.

  20. Geometry of spin coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssomalakos, C.; Guzmán-González, E.; Serrano-Ensástiga, E.

    2018-04-01

    Spin states of maximal projection along some direction in space are called (spin) coherent, and are, in many respects, the ‘most classical’ available. For any spin s, the spin coherent states form a 2-sphere in the projective Hilbert space \

  1. Terwilliger and spin physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'FAllon, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The history of spin physics experiments is presented, with emphasis of Kent Terwilliger's involvement. Development of polarized beams and targets at the ZGS and AGS is recalled. P-P elastic scattering experiments are reviewed

  2. Transverse spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the role that transverse spin physics can play in providing information on the bound state dynamics in hadronic physics. Care is taken to distinguish between single- and double-spin measurements, each being discussed separately. In the case of single-spin effects it is stressed that as yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided within the framework if perturbative QCD which in fact generally predicts negligible effects. In order to clarify the situation experimental data at yet higher p T are necessary and semi-leptonic data could shed some light on the underlying scattering mechanisms. As regards double-spin correlations, the theoretical picture (although clouded by some ill-informed, often erroneous statements and even recent papers) is rather well understood and what is dearly missing is the experimental study of, for example, g 2 in deep-inelastic scattering. (author). 31 refs

  3. Spin polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Several ground state properties of (electron) spin-polarized deuterium (D) such as the energy, single quasiparticle energies and lifetimes, Landau parameters and sound velocities are evaluated. The calculations begin with the Kolos-Wolneiwicz potential and use the Galitskii-FeynmanHartree-Fock (GFHF) approximation. The deuteron nucleas has spin I = 1, and spin states I/sub z/ = 1,0,-1. We explore D 1 , D 2 and D 3 in which, respectively, one spin state only is populated, two states are equally populated, and three states are equally populated. We find the GFHF describes D 1 well, but D 2 and D 3 less well. The Landau parameters, F/sub L/, are small compared to liquid 3 He and very small for doubly polarized D 1 (i.e. the F/sub L/ decrease with nuclear polarization)

  4. Observation of high spin states in 117Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.; Yuan, G.J.; Li, G.S.; Yang, C.X.; Luo, W.D.; Chen, Y.S.

    1995-01-01

    High spin states of 117 Xe have been investigated by means of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy using the reaction 92 Mo( 28 Si, 2pn) at beam energies of 100 to 120 MeV. The previously known νh 11/2 bands are confirmed and the νg 7/2 favored-signature band is extended up to 47/2 + , in which two band crossings are observed at hω=0.33 and 0.44 MeV, respectively. Two new positive-parity bands have been established, one of which is most likely the νg 7/2 unfavored-signature band. A new transition cascade with irregular level spacings is also observed. (orig.)

  5. Band-Structure of Thallium by the LMTO Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtham, P. M.; Jan, J. P.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1977-01-01

    by an energy gap. The 6d and 7s bands were found to be far above the Fermi level and the 5d states were found to be far below it. Fermi surface properties and the electronic specific heat are computed and compared with experiment. The joint density of states has also been computed and is in reasonable...... and p bands for the HCP structure. Energy bands have been evaluated both with and without spin-orbit coupling which is particularly large in thallium. Energy bands close to the Fermi level were found to be mainly 6p like in character. The 6s states lay below the 6p bands and were separated from them......The relativistic band structure of thallium has been calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method. The positions and extents of the bands were found to follow the Wigner-Seitz rule approximately, and the origin of the dispersion of the bands was established from the canonical s...

  6. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris, E-mail: hammel@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  7. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  8. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems

  9. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  10. Field Applications of Gamma Column Scanning Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Denis D.; Mallilin, Janice P.; Nuñez, Ivy Angelica A.; Bulos, Adelina DM.

    2015-01-01

    The Isotope Techniques Section (ITS) under the Nuclear Service Division (NSD) of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) conducts services, research and development on radioisotope and sealed source application in the industry. This aims to benefit the manufacturing industries such as petroleum, petrochemical, chemical, energy, waste, column treatment plant, etc. through on line inspection and troubleshooting of a process vessel, column or pipe that could optimize the process operation and increase production efficiency. One of the most common sealed source techniques for industrial applications is the gamma column scanning technology. Gamma column scanning technology is an established technique for inspection, analysis and diagnosis of industrial columns for process optimization, solving operational malfunctions and management of resources. It is a convenient non-intrusive, cost effective and cost-efficient technique to examine inner details of an industrial process vessel such as a distillation column while it is in operation. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) recognize the importance and benefits of this technology and has implemented activities to make gamma column scanning locally available to benefit the Philippine industries. Continuous effort for capacity building is being pursued thru the implementation of in-house and on-the-job training abroad and upgrading of equipment. (author)

  11. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24?48 hours after attending a spi...

  12. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  13. Multiphoton electronic-spin generation and transmission spectroscopy in n-type GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrish Miah, M., E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2011-01-17

    Multiphoton electronic-spin generation in semiconductors was investigated using differential transmission spectroscopy. The generation of the electronic spins in the semiconductor samples were achieved by multiphoton pumping with circularly polarized light beam and was probed by the spin-resolved transmission of the samples. The electronic spin-polarization of conduction band was estimated and was found to depend on the delay of the probe beam, temperature as well as on the multiphoton pumping energy. The temperature dependence showed a decrease of the spin-polarization with increasing temperature. The electronic spin-polarization was found to depolarize rapidly for multiphoton pumping energy larger than the energy gap of the split-off band to the conduction band. The results were compared with those obtained in one-photon pumping, which shows that an enhancement of the electronic spin-polarization was achieved in multiphoton pumping. The findings resulting from this investigation might have potential applications in opto-spintronics, where the generation of highly polarized electronic spins is required.

  14. Multiphoton electronic-spin generation and transmission spectroscopy in n-type GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrish Miah, M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton electronic-spin generation in semiconductors was investigated using differential transmission spectroscopy. The generation of the electronic spins in the semiconductor samples were achieved by multiphoton pumping with circularly polarized light beam and was probed by the spin-resolved transmission of the samples. The electronic spin-polarization of conduction band was estimated and was found to depend on the delay of the probe beam, temperature as well as on the multiphoton pumping energy. The temperature dependence showed a decrease of the spin-polarization with increasing temperature. The electronic spin-polarization was found to depolarize rapidly for multiphoton pumping energy larger than the energy gap of the split-off band to the conduction band. The results were compared with those obtained in one-photon pumping, which shows that an enhancement of the electronic spin-polarization was achieved in multiphoton pumping. The findings resulting from this investigation might have potential applications in opto-spintronics, where the generation of highly polarized electronic spins is required.

  15. Majorana surface modes of nodal topological pairings in spin-3/2 semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wang; Xiang, Tao; Wu, Congjun

    2017-10-01

    When solid state systems possess active orbital-band structures subject to spin-orbit coupling, their multicomponent electronic structures are often described in terms of effective large-spin fermion models. Their topological structures of superconductivity are beyond the framework of spin singlet and triplet Cooper pairings for spin-1/2 systems. Examples include the half-Heusler compound series of RPtBi, where R stands for a rare-earth element. Their spin-orbit coupled electronic structures are described by the Luttinger-Kohn model with effective spin-3/2 fermions and are characterized by band inversion. Recent experiments provide evidence to unconventional superconductivity in the YPtBi material with nodal spin-septet pairing. We systematically study topological pairing structures in spin-3/2 systems with the cubic group symmetries and calculate the surface Majorana spectra, which exhibit zero energy flat bands, or, cubic dispersion depending on the specific symmetry of the superconducting gap functions. The signatures of these surface states in the quasiparticle interference patterns of tunneling spectroscopy are studied, which can be tested in future experiments.

  16. Spin-splitting calculation for zincblende semiconductors using an atomic bond-orbital model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Hsiu-Fen; Lo, Ikai; Chiang, Jih-Chen; Wang, Wan-Tsang; Hsu, Yu-Chi; Wu, Chieh-Lung; Gau, Ming-Hong; Chen, Chun-Nan; Ren, Chung-Yuan; Lee, Meng-En

    2012-01-01

    We develop a 16-band atomic bond-orbital model (16ABOM) to compute the spin splitting induced by bulk inversion asymmetry in zincblende materials. This model is derived from the linear combination of atomic-orbital (LCAO) scheme such that the characteristics of the real atomic orbitals can be preserved to calculate the spin splitting. The Hamiltonian of 16ABOM is based on a similarity transformation performed on the nearest-neighbor LCAO Hamiltonian with a second-order Taylor expansion over k-vector at the Γ point. The spin-splitting energies in bulk zincblende semiconductors, GaAs and InSb, are calculated, and the results agree with the LCAO and first-principles calculations. However, we find that the spin-orbit coupling between bonding and antibonding p-like states, evaluated by the 16ABOM, dominates the spin splitting of the lowest conduction bands in the zincblende materials.

  17. Retrospective biodosimetry with small tooth enamel samples using K-Band and X-Band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Jorge A.; Kinoshita, Angela; Leonor, Sergio J.; Belmonte, Gustavo C.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to make the in vitro electron spin resonance (ESR) retrospective dosimetry of the tooth enamel a lesser invasive method, experiments using X-Band and K-Band were performed, aiming to determine conditions that could be used in cases of accidental exposures. First, a small prism from the enamel was removed and ground with an agate mortar and pestle until particles reach a diameter of approximately less than 0.5 mm. This enamel extraction process resulted in lower signal artifact compared with the direct enamel extraction performed with a diamond burr abrasion. The manual grinding of the enamel does not lead to any induced ESR signal artifact, whereas the use of a diamond burr at low speed produces a signal artifact equivalent to the dosimetric signal induced by a dose of 500 mGy of gamma irradiation. A mass of 25 mg of enamel was removed from a sound molar tooth previously irradiated in vitro with a dose of 100 mGy. This amount of enamel was enough to detect the dosimetric signal in a standard X-Band spectrometer. However using a K-Band spectrometer, samples mass between 5 and 10 mg were sufficient to obtain the same sensitivity. An overall evaluation of the uncertainties involved in the process in this and other dosimetric assessments performed at our laboratory indicates that it is possible at K-Band to estimate a 100 mGy dose with 25% accuracy. In addition, the use of K-Band also presented higher sensitivity and allowed the use of smaller sample mass in comparison with X-Band. Finally, the restoration process performed on a tooth after extraction of the 25 mg of enamel is described. This was conducted by dental treatment using photopolymerizable resin which enabled complete recovery of the tooth from the functional and aesthetic viewpoint showing that this procedure can be minimally invasive.

  18. Retrospective biodosimetry with small tooth enamel samples using K-Band and X-Band

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Jorge A. [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kinoshita, Angela [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade Sagrado Coracao - USC, 17011-160 Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Leonor, Sergio J. [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Belmonte, Gustavo C. [Universidade Sagrado Coracao - USC, 17011-160 Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo, E-mail: baffa@usp.br [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-09-15

    In an attempt to make the in vitro electron spin resonance (ESR) retrospective dosimetry of the tooth enamel a lesser invasive method, experiments using X-Band and K-Band were performed, aiming to determine conditions that could be used in cases of accidental exposures. First, a small prism from the enamel was removed and ground with an agate mortar and pestle until particles reach a diameter of approximately less than 0.5 mm. This enamel extraction process resulted in lower signal artifact compared with the direct enamel extraction performed with a diamond burr abrasion. The manual grinding of the enamel does not lead to any induced ESR signal artifact, whereas the use of a diamond burr at low speed produces a signal artifact equivalent to the dosimetric signal induced by a dose of 500 mGy of gamma irradiation. A mass of 25 mg of enamel was removed from a sound molar tooth previously irradiated in vitro with a dose of 100 mGy. This amount of enamel was enough to detect the dosimetric signal in a standard X-Band spectrometer. However using a K-Band spectrometer, samples mass between 5 and 10 mg were sufficient to obtain the same sensitivity. An overall evaluation of the uncertainties involved in the process in this and other dosimetric assessments performed at our laboratory indicates that it is possible at K-Band to estimate a 100 mGy dose with 25% accuracy. In addition, the use of K-Band also presented higher sensitivity and allowed the use of smaller sample mass in comparison with X-Band. Finally, the restoration process performed on a tooth after extraction of the 25 mg of enamel is described. This was conducted by dental treatment using photopolymerizable resin which enabled complete recovery of the tooth from the functional and aesthetic viewpoint showing that this procedure can be minimally invasive.

  19. Entangled spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salberger, Olof; Korepin, Vladimir

    We introduce a new model of interacting spin 1/2. It describes interactions of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of Fredkin gates. The Fredkin gate (also known as the controlled swap gate) is a computational circuit suitable for reversible computing. Our construction generalizes the model presented by Peter Shor and Ramis Movassagh to half-integer spins. Our model can be solved by means of Catalan combinatorics in the form of random walks on the upper half plane of a square lattice (Dyck walks). Each Dyck path can be mapped on a wave function of spins. The ground state is an equally weighted superposition of Dyck walks (instead of Motzkin walks). We can also express it as a matrix product state. We further construct a model of interacting spins 3/2 and greater half-integer spins. The models with higher spins require coloring of Dyck walks. We construct a SU(k) symmetric model (where k is the number of colors). The leading term of the entanglement entropy is then proportional to the square root of the length of the lattice (like in the Shor-Movassagh model). The gap closes as a high power of the length of the lattice [5, 11].

  20. Microscopic origin of marginal Fermi-liquid in strongly correlated spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protogenov, A.P.; Ryndyk, D.A.

    1992-08-01

    We consider the consequences of separation of spin and charge degrees of freedom in 2+1D strongly correlated spin systems. Self-consistent spin and charge motions induced by doping in sites of ground and dual lattices form such a spectrum of quasiparticles which together with the dispersionless character of the collective excitation spectrum and the chemical potential pinning in the band centre yield the necessary behavior of charge and spin polarizability to support the theory of marginal liquid formulated by C.M. Varma et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1996 (1989)). (author). 28 refs, 4 figs

  1. Dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation emphasizing the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, first-principle model has been formulated, which is flexible enough to describe various diabatic distillation configurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found and control...

  2. Dynamic Effects of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic eects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation with primary focus on the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, rst-principle model has been formulated, which is exible to describe various diabatic distillation congurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found. Control...

  3. Column-oriented database management systems

    OpenAIRE

    Možina, David

    2013-01-01

    In the following thesis I will present column-oriented database. Among other things, I will answer on a question why there is a need for a column-oriented database. In recent years there have been a lot of attention regarding a column-oriented database, even if the existence of a columnar database management systems dates back in the early seventies of the last century. I will compare both systems for a database management – a colum-oriented database system and a row-oriented database system ...

  4. Theory of spin Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.

    2007-01-01

    An extension of Drude model is proposed that accounts for spin and spin-orbit interaction of charge carriers. Spin currents appear due to combined action of the external electric field, crystal field and scattering of charge carriers. The expression for spin Hall conductivity is derived for metals and semiconductors that is independent of the scattering mechanism. In cubic metals, spin Hall conductivity $\\sigma_s$ and charge conductivity $\\sigma_c$ are related through $\\sigma_s = [2 \\pi \\hbar...

  5. Nuclear moments of inertia at high spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deleplanque, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    The competition between collective motion and alignment at high spin can be evaluated by measuring two complementary dynamic moments of inertia. The first, I band, measured in γ-γ correlation experiments, relates to the collective properties of the nucleus. A new moment of inertia I/sub eff/ is defined here, which contains both collective and alignment effects. Both of these can be measured in continuum γ-ray spectra of rotational nuclei up to high frequencies. The evolution of γ-ray spectra for Er nuclei from mass 160 to 154 shows that shell effects can directly be observed in the spectra of the lighter nuclei

  6. Search for the characters of chiral rotation in excited bands for the idea chiral nuclei with A ∼ 130

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qibo; Yao Jiangming; Meng Jie; Zhang Shuangquan; Qi Bin

    2010-01-01

    Since the occurrence of chirality was originally suggested in 1997 by Frauendorf and Meng [1] and experimentally observed in 2001 [2] , the investigation of chiral symmetry in atomic nuclei becomes one of the most important topics in nuclear physics. More and more chiral doublet bands [3-7] in atomic nuclei [8] have been reported. There are also many discussions about the fingerprints of chirality. In the pioneer paper [1] , the two lowest near degenerate bands given by the particle-rotor model (PRM) are interpreted as chiral doublet bands. If the nucleus has chiral geometry with proper configuration, the character of chiral rotation may appear not only in the two lowest bands, but also in the other bands. Therefore, it is interesting to search for the character of chiral rotation, Based on the PRM model with configuration corresponding to A ∼ 130 mass region, we examine the theoretical spectroscopy of higher excited bands (band3, band4, band5 and band6) beyond the two lowest bands (bandl and band2), including energies, spin-alignments, projection of total angular momentum and electromagnetic transition probabilities. The results show that band3 and band4 have characters of chirality in some spin region. (authors)

  7. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  8. Spin Orbit Coupling Gap and Indirect Gap in Strain-Tuned Topological Insulator-Antimonene

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Chi-Ho; Fuh, Huei-Ru; Hsu, Ming-Chien; Lin, Yeu-Chung; Chang, Ching-Ray

    2016-01-01

    Recently, searching large-bulk band gap topological insulator (TI) is under intensive study. Through k?P theory and first-principles calculations analysis on antimonene, we find that ?-phase antimonene can be tuned to a 2D TI under an in-plane anisotropic strain and the magnitude of direct bulk band gap (SOC gap) depends on the strength of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) which is strain-dependent. As the band inversion of this TI accompanies with an indirect band gap, the TI bulk band gap is the in...

  9. Integer Quantum Magnon Hall Plateau-Plateau Transition in a Spin Ice Model

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Baolong; Ohtsuki, Tomi; Shindou, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Low-energy magnon bands in a two-dimensional spin ice model become integer quantum magnon Hall bands. By calculating the localization length and the two-terminal conductance of magnon transport, we show that the magnon bands with disorders undergo a quantum phase transition from an integer quantum magnon Hall regime to a conventional magnon localized regime. Finite size scaling analysis as well as a critical conductance distribution shows that the quantum critical point belongs to the same un...

  10. Spin-current emission governed by nonlinear spin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Takaharu; Matsuura, Saki; Nomura, Akiyo; Watanabe, Shun; Kang, Keehoon; Sirringhaus, Henning; Ando, Kazuya

    2015-10-16

    Coupling between conduction electrons and localized magnetization is responsible for a variety of phenomena in spintronic devices. This coupling enables to generate spin currents from dynamical magnetization. Due to the nonlinearity of magnetization dynamics, the spin-current emission through the dynamical spin-exchange coupling offers a route for nonlinear generation of spin currents. Here, we demonstrate spin-current emission governed by nonlinear magnetization dynamics in a metal/magnetic insulator bilayer. The spin-current emission from the magnetic insulator is probed by the inverse spin Hall effect, which demonstrates nontrivial temperature and excitation power dependences of the voltage generation. The experimental results reveal that nonlinear magnetization dynamics and enhanced spin-current emission due to magnon scatterings are triggered by decreasing temperature. This result illustrates the crucial role of the nonlinear magnon interactions in the spin-current emission driven by dynamical magnetization, or nonequilibrium magnons, from magnetic insulators.

  11. Investigations of low- and high-spin states of sup 1 sup 3 sup 2 La

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, V; Singh, R P; Muralithar, S; Bhowmik, R K

    2003-01-01

    The fusion evaporation reaction sup 1 sup 2 sup 2 Sn( sup 1 sup 4 N,4n) sup 1 sup 3 sup 2 La was used to populate the high-spin states of sup 1 sup 3 sup 2 La at the beam energy of 60 MeV. A new band consisting of mostly E2 transitions has been discovered. This band has the interesting links to the ground state 2 sup - and the isomeric state 6 sup -. A new transition of energy 351 keV connecting the low-spin states of the positive-parity band based on the pi h sub 1 sub 1 sub / sub 2 x nu h sub 1 sub 1 sub / sub 2 particle configuration, has been found. This has played a very important role in resolving the existing ambiguities and inconsistencies in the spin assignment of the band head. (orig.)

  12. Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian

    2016-06-19

    In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the field of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin filtering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin filtering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic films, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall effect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic films, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.

  13. Family of columns isospectral to gravity-loaded columns with tip force: A discrete approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Nirmal; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2018-06-01

    A discrete model is introduced to analyze transverse vibration of straight, clamped-free (CF) columns of variable cross-sectional geometry under the influence of gravity and a constant axial force at the tip. The discrete model is used to determine critical combinations of loading parameters - a gravity parameter and a tip force parameter - that cause onset of dynamic instability in the CF column. A methodology, based on matrix-factorization, is described to transform the discrete model into a family of models corresponding to weightless and unloaded clamped-free (WUCF) columns, each with a transverse vibration spectrum isospectral to the original model. Characteristics of models in this isospectral family are dependent on three transformation parameters. A procedure is discussed to convert the isospectral discrete model description into geometric description of realistic columns i.e. from the discrete model, we construct isospectral WUCF columns with rectangular cross-sections varying in width and depth. As part of numerical studies to demonstrate efficacy of techniques presented, frequency parameters of a uniform column and three types of tapered CF columns under different combinations of loading parameters are obtained from the discrete model. Critical combinations of these parameters for a typical tapered column are derived. These results match with published results. Example CF columns, under arbitrarily-chosen combinations of loading parameters are considered and for each combination, isospectral WUCF columns are constructed. Role of transformation parameters in determining characteristics of isospectral columns is discussed and optimum values are deduced. Natural frequencies of these WUCF columns computed using Finite Element Method (FEM) match well with those of the given gravity-loaded CF column with tip force, hence confirming isospectrality.

  14. Unbonded Prestressed Columns for Earthquake Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Modern structures are able to survive significant shaking caused by earthquakes. By implementing unbonded post-tensioned tendons in bridge columns, the damage caused by an earthquake can be significantly lower than that of a standard reinforced concr...

  15. PRTR ion exchange vault column sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents ion exchange column sampling and Non Destructive Assay (NDA) results from activities in 1994, for the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. The objective was to obtain sufficient information to prepare disposal documentation for the ion exchange columns found in the PRTR Ion exchange vault. This activity also allowed for the monitoring of the liquid level in the lower vault. The sampling activity contained five separate activities: (1) Sampling an ion exchange column and analyzing the ion exchange media for purpose of waste disposal; (2) Gamma and neutron NDA testing on ion exchange columns located in the upper vault; (3) Lower vault liquid level measurement; (4) Radiological survey of the upper vault; and (5) Secure the vault pending waste disposal

  16. Topological magnon bands in ferromagnetic star lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-05-10

    The experimental observation of topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect in a kagomé lattice ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc) has inspired the search for topological magnon effects in various insulating ferromagnets that lack an inversion center allowing a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction. The star lattice (also known as the decorated honeycomb lattice) ferromagnet is an ideal candidate for this purpose because it is a variant of the kagomé lattice with additional links that connect the up-pointing and down-pointing triangles. This gives rise to twice the unit cell of the kagomé lattice, and hence more interesting topological magnon effects. In particular, the triangular bridges on the star lattice can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically which is not possible on the kagomé lattice ferromagnets. Here, we study DM-induced topological magnon bands, chiral edge modes, and thermal magnon Hall effect on the star lattice ferromagnet in different parameter regimes. The star lattice can also be visualized as the parent material from which topological magnon bands can be realized for the kagomé and honeycomb lattices in some limiting cases.

  17. Surface band structures on Nb(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, B.; Lo, W.; Chien, T.; Leung, T.C.; Lue, C.Y.; Chan, C.T.; Ho, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    We report the joint studies of experimental and theoretical surface band structures of Nb(001). Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy was used to determine surface-state dispersions along three high-symmetry axes bar Γ bar M, bar Γ bar X, and bar M bar X in the surface Brillouin zone. Ten surface bands have been identified. The experimental data are compared to self-consistent pseudopotential calculations for the 11-layer Nb(001) slabs that are either bulk terminated or fully relaxed (with a 12% contraction for the first interlayer spacing). The band calculations for a 12% surface-contracted slab are in better agreement with the experimental results than those for a bulk-terminated slab, except for a surface resonance near the Fermi level, which is related to the spin-orbit interaction. The charge profiles for all surface states or resonances have been calculated. Surface contraction effects on the charge-density distribution and the energy position of surface states and resonances will also be discussed

  18. Topological phases in superconductor-noncollinear magnet interfaces with strong spin-orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menke, H.; Schnyder, A.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Toews, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Quantum Matter Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2016-07-01

    Majorana fermions are predicted to emerge at interfaces between conventional s-wave superconductors and non-collinear magnets. In these heterostructures, the spin moments of the non-collinear magnet induce a low-energy band of Shiba bound states in the superconductor. Depending on the type of order of the magnet, the band structure of these bound states can be topologically nontrivial. Thus far, research has focused on systems where the influence of spin-orbit coupling can be neglected. Here, we explore the interplay between non-collinear (or non-coplanar) spin textures and Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction. This situation is realized, for example, in heterostructures between helical magnets and heavy elemental superconductors, such as Pb. Using a unitary transformation in spin space, we show that the effects of Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling are equivalent to the effects of the non-collinear spin texture of the helical magnet. We explore the topological phase diagram as a function of spin-orbit coupling, spin texture, and chemical potential, and find many interesting topological phases, such as p{sub x}-, (p{sub x} + p{sub y})-, and (p{sub x} + i p{sub y})-wave states. Conditions for the formation and the nature of Majorana edge channels are examined. Furthermore, we study the topological edge currents of these phases.

  19. Mapping of spin wave propagation in a one-dimensional magnonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordóñez-Romero, César L., E-mail: cloro@fisica.unam.mx; Lazcano-Ortiz, Zorayda; Aguilar-Huerta, Melisa; Monsivais, Guillermo [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Drozdovskii, Andrey; Kalinikos, Boris [St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); International laboratory “MultiferrLab,” ITMO University, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Domínguez-Juárez, J. L. [Cátedras CONACyT, CFATA, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Juriquilla, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Lopez-Maldonado, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Lerma de Villada, 52006 Estado de México (Mexico); Qureshi, Naser; Kolokoltsev, Oleg [CCADET, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2016-07-28

    The formation and evolution of spin wave band gaps in the transmission spectrum of a magnonic crystal have been studied. A time and space resolved magneto inductive probing system has been used to map the spin wave propagation and evolution in a geometrically structured yttrium iron garnet film. Experiments have been carried out using (1) a chemically etched magnonic crystal supporting the propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves, (2) a short microwave pulsed excitation of the spin waves, and (3) direct spin wave detection using a movable magneto inductive probe connected to a synchronized fast oscilloscope. The results show that the periodic structure not only modifies the spectra of the transmitted spin waves but also influences the distribution of the spin wave energy inside the magnonic crystal as a function of the position and the transmitted frequency. These results comprise an experimental confirmation of Bloch′s theorem in a spin wave system and demonstrate good agreement with theoretical observations in analogue phononic and photonic systems. Theoretical prediction of the structured transmission spectra is achieved using a simple model based on microwave transmission lines theory. Here, a spin wave system illustrates in detail the evolution of a much more general physical concept: the band gap.

  20. Capacity of columns with splice imperfections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, E.P.; Stephen, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    To study the behavior of spliced columns subjected to tensile forces simulating situations which may develop in an earthquake, all of the spliced specimens were tested to failure in tension after first having been subjected to large compressive loads. The results of these tests indicate that the lack of perfect contact at compression splices of columns may not be important, provided that the gaps are shimmed and welding is used to maintain the sections in alignment

  1. Optical spin generation/detection and spin transport lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2011-01-01

    We generate electron spins in semiconductors by optical pumping. The detection of them is also performed by optical technique using time-resolved pump-probe photoluminescence polarization measurements in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the generated spin. The spin polarization in dependences of the pulse length, pump-probe delay and external magnetic field is studied. From the dependence of spin-polarization on the delay of the probe, the electronic spin transport lifetimes and the spin relaxation frequencies as a function of the strength of the magnetic field are estimated. The results are discussed based on hyperfine effects for interacting electrons.

  2. Optical spin generation/detection and spin transport lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2011-02-25

    We generate electron spins in semiconductors by optical pumping. The detection of them is also performed by optical technique using time-resolved pump-probe photoluminescence polarization measurements in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the generated spin. The spin polarization in dependences of the pulse length, pump-probe delay and external magnetic field is studied. From the dependence of spin-polarization on the delay of the probe, the electronic spin transport lifetimes and the spin relaxation frequencies as a function of the strength of the magnetic field are estimated. The results are discussed based on hyperfine effects for interacting electrons.

  3. Magnetocaloric effect in quantum spin-s chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Honecker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We compute the entropy of antiferromagnetic quantum spin-s chains in an external magnetic field using exact diagonalization and Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetocaloric effect, i. e., temperature variations during adiabatic field changes, can be derived from the isentropes. First, we focus on the example of the spin-s=1 chain and show that one can cool by closing the Haldane gap with a magnetic field. We then move to quantum spin-s chains and demonstrate linear scaling with s close to the saturation field. In passing, we propose a new method to compute many low-lying excited states using the Lanczos recursion.

  4. Rotational Invariance of the 2d Spin - Spin Correlation Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Haru

    2012-09-01

    At the critical temperature in the 2d Ising model on the square lattice, we establish the rotational invariance of the spin-spin correlation function using the asymptotics of the spin-spin correlation function along special directions (McCoy and Wu in the two dimensional Ising model. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1973) and the finite difference Hirota equation for which the spin-spin correlation function is shown to satisfy (Perk in Phys Lett A 79:3-5, 1980; Perk in Proceedings of III international symposium on selected topics in statistical mechanics, Dubna, August 22-26, 1984, JINR, vol II, pp 138-151, 1985).

  5. The importance of system band broadening in modern size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, Alexandre; Guillarme, Davy; Fekete, Szabolcs

    2017-02-20

    In the last few years, highly efficient UHP-SEC columns packed with sub-3μm particles were commercialized by several providers. Besides the particle size reduction, the dimensions of modern SEC stationary phases (150×4.6mm) was also modified compared to regular SEC columns (300×6 or 300×8mm). Because the analytes are excluded from the pores in SEC, the retention factors are very low, ranging from -1 column band variance. Therefore, the contribution of the system itself to peak variance can become significant under UHP-SEC conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the loss of efficiency observed with three different instruments (regular HPLC, non-optimized UHPLC and fully optimized UHPLC) offering different system variances. It appears that the new 150×4.6mm, sub-3μm SEC columns cannot be employed on a regular HPLC instrument, since the efficiency loss was equal to 60-85%, when analyzing mAb sample. Optimized UHPLC systems having very low extra-column volumes (typicallyV ec <10μL) have therefore to be used to properly operate these columns. Due to the instrument contribution to band broadening, the apparent efficiency of SEC columns packed with sub-2μm particles can indeed be hampered when using inappropriate system. Considering the extra-column band broadening contribution of current UHPLC instruments, a further decrease of SEC column dimension is therefore not desired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Superconductivity switch from spin-singlet to -triplet pairing in a topological superconducting junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ze; Chen, F. J.; Zhou, L. Y.; Li, Bin; Tao, Y. C.; Wang, J.

    2018-06-01

    The interedge coupling is the cardinal characteristic of the narrow quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator, and thus could bring about exotic transport phenomena. Herein, we present a theoretical investigation of the spin-resolved Andreev reflection (AR) in a QSH insulator strip touching on two neighbouring ferromagnetic insulators and one s-wave superconductor. It is demonstrated that, due to the interplay of the interedge coupling and ferromagnetic configuration, there could be not only usual local ARs leading to the spin-singlet pairing with the incident electron and Andreev-reflected hole from different spin subbands, but also novel local ARs giving rise to the spin-triplet pairing from the same spin subband. However, only the latter exists in the absence of the interedge coupling, and therefore the two pairings in turn testify the helical spin texture of the edge states. By proper tuning of the band structures of the ferromagnetic layers, under the resonance bias voltage, the usual and novel local ARs of can be all exhibited, resulting in fully spin-polarized pure spin-singlet superconductivity and pure spin-triplet superconductivity, respectively, which suggests a superconductivity switch from spin-singlet to -triplet pairing by electrical control. The results can be experimentally confirmed by the tunneling conductance and the noise power.

  7. Gas Chromatograph Method Optimization Trade Study for RESOLVE: 20-meter Column v. 8-meter Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huz, Kateryna

    2014-01-01

    RESOLVE is the payload on a Class D mission, Resource Prospector, which will prospect for water and other volatile resources at a lunar pole. The RESOLVE payload's primary scientific purpose includes determining the presence of water on the moon in the lunar regolith. In order to detect the water, a gas chromatograph (GC) will be used in conjunction with a mass spectrometer (MS). The goal of the experiment was to compare two GC column lengths and recommend which would be best for RESOLVE's purposes. Throughout the experiment, an Inficon Fusion GC and an Inficon Micro GC 3000 were used. The Fusion had a 20m long column with 0.25mm internal diameter (Id). The Micro GC 3000 had an 8m long column with a 0.32mm Id. By varying the column temperature and column pressure while holding all other parameters constant, the ideal conditions for testing with each column length in their individual instrument configurations were determined. The criteria used for determining the optimal method parameters included (in no particular order) (1) quickest run time, (2) peak sharpness, and (3) peak separation. After testing numerous combinations of temperature and pressure, the parameters for each column length that resulted in the most optimal data given my three criteria were selected. The ideal temperature and pressure for the 20m column were 95 C and 50psig. At this temperature and pressure, the peaks were separated and the retention times were shorter compared to other combinations. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 operated better at lower temperature mainly due to the shorter 8m column. The optimal column temperature and pressure were 70 C and 30psig. The Inficon Micro GC 3000 8m column had worse separation than the Inficon Fusion 20m column, but was able to separate water within a shorter run time. Therefore, the most significant tradeoff between the two column lengths was peak separation of the sample versus run time. After performing several tests, it was concluded that better

  8. The handedness of historiated spiral columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzin, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Trajan's Column in Rome (AD 113) was the model for a modest number of other spiral columns decorated with figural, narrative imagery from antiquity to the present day. Most of these wind upwards to the right, often with a congruent spiral staircase within. A brief introductory consideration of antique screw direction in mechanical devices and fluted columns suggests that the former may have been affected by the handedness of designers and the latter by a preference for symmetry. However, for the historiated columns that are the main focus of this article, the determining factor was likely script direction. The manner in which this operated is considered, as well as competing mechanisms that might explain exceptions. A related phenomenon is the reversal of the spiral in a non-trivial number of reproductions of the antique columns, from Roman coinage to Renaissance and baroque drawings and engravings. Finally, the consistent inattention in academic literature to the spiral direction of historiated columns and the repeated publication of erroneous earlier reproductions warrants further consideration.

  9. Interpretation of the lime column penetration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liyanapathirana, D S; Kelly, R B

    2010-01-01

    Dry soil mix (DSM) columns are used to reduce the settlement and to improve the stability of embankments constructed on soft clays. During construction the shear strength of the columns needs to be confirmed for compliance with technical assumptions. A specialized blade shaped penetrometer known as the lime column probe, has been developed for testing DSM columns. This test can be carried out as a pull out resistance test (PORT) or a push in resistance test (PIRT). The test is considered to be more representative of average column shear strength than methods that test only a limited area of the column. Both PORT and PIRT tests require empirical correlations of measured resistance to an absolute measure of shear strength, in a similar manner to the cone penetration test. In this paper, finite element method is used to assess the probe factor, N, for the PORT test. Due to the large soil deformations around the probe, an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) based finite element formulation has been used. Variation of N with rigidity index and the friction at the probe-soil interface are investigated to establish a range for the probe factor.

  10. Mini-column assay for rapid detection of malachite green in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Ali R; Emam, Wafaa H; Anwar, Mervat M

    2017-07-01

    A simple, rapid and economical mini-column method for detecting malachite green (MG) residue in fish was developed. The method used a column with 2mm ID that was tightly packed with silica gel followed by alumina. Detection of MG was performed by viewing the developed mini-column at visible light by naked eye; where MG was seen as compact green band at the confluence of the silica gel layer with alumina layer. The limit of detection of the assay was 2ng which conform the minimum required performance limit (MRPL). Evaluation utility of the method indicated that all blank and spiked samples at levels below MRPL were assessed as accepted. The intensity of the green band increased whenever MG level in the extract increased; indicated that suggested mini-column technique could be used for semi-quantitative determination of MG in fish samples. The method can be used to select the questionable samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  12. Band-notched spiral antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jae; Chang, John

    2018-03-13

    A band-notched spiral antenna having one or more spiral arms extending from a radially inner end to a radially outer end for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic radiation over a frequency range, and one or more resonance structures positioned adjacent one or more segments of the spiral arm associated with a notch frequency band or bands of the frequency range so as to resonate and suppress the transmission or reception of electromagnetic radiation over said notch frequency band or bands.

  13. Mass transfer model liquid phase catalytic exchange column simulation applicable to any column composition profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busigin, A. [NITEK USA Inc., Ocala, FL (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) is a key technology used in water detritiation systems. Rigorous simulation of LPCE is complicated when a column may have both hydrogen and deuterium present in significant concentrations in different sections of the column. This paper presents a general mass transfer model for a homogenous packed bed LPCE column as a set of differential equations describing composition change, and equilibrium equations to define the mass transfer driving force within the column. The model is used to show the effect of deuterium buildup in the bottom of an LPCE column from non-negligible D atom fraction in the bottom feed gas to the column. These types of calculations are important in the design of CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) water detritiation systems.

  14. Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system. Performance evaluation of zeolite column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Hidenori; Uozumi, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    At electrorefining process, fission products(FPs) accumulate in molten salt. To avoid influence on heating control by decay heat and enlargement of FP amount in the recovered fuel, FP elements must be removed from the spent salt of the electrorefining process. For the removal of the FPs from the spent salt, we are investigating the availability of zeolite column system. For obtaining the basic data of the column system, such as flow property and ion-exchange performance while high temperature molten salt is passing through the column, and experimental apparatus equipped with fraction collector was developed. By using this apparatus, following results were obtained. 1) We cleared up the flow parameter of column system with zeolite powder, such as flow rate control by argon pressure. 2) Zeolite 4A in the column can absorb cesium that is one of the FP elements in molten salt. From these results, we got perspective on availability of the zeolite column system. (author)

  15. ΔI = 2 Nuclear Staggering in Superdeformed Rotational Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okasha M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A four parameters model including collective rotational en ergies to fourth order is ap- plied to reproduce the ∆ I = 2 staggering in transition energies in four selected super deformed rotational bands, namely, 148 Gd (SD6, 194 Hg (SD1, SD2, SD3. The model parameters and the spin of the bandhead have been extracted a ssuming various val- ues to the lowest spin of the bandhead at nearest integer, in o rder to obtain a minimum root mean square deviation between calculated and the exper imental transition energies. This allows us to suggest the spin values for the energy level s which are experimentally unknown. For each band a staggering parameter represent the deviation of the transition energies from a smooth reference has been determined by calc ulating the fourth order derivative of the transition energies at a given spin. The st aggering parameter contains five consecutive transition energies which is denoted here a s the five-point formula. In order to get information about the dynamical moment of ine rtia, the two point for- mula which contains only two consecutive transition energi es has been also considered. The dynamical moment of inertia decreasing with increasing rotational frequency for A ∼ 150, while increasing for A ∼ 190 mass regions.

  16. Overview of spin physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1992-01-01

    Spin physics activities at medium and high energies became significantly active when polarized targets and polarized beams became accessible for hadron-hadron scattering experiments. My overview of spin physics will be inclined to the study of strong interaction using facilities at Argonne ZGS, Brookhaven AGS (including RHIC), CERN, Fermilab, LAMPF, an SATURNE. In 1960 accelerator physicists had already been convinced that the ZGS could be unique in accelerating a polarized beam; polarized beams were being accelerated through linear accelerators elsewhere at that time. However, there was much concern about going ahead with the construction of a polarized beam because (i) the source intensity was not high enough to accelerate in the accelerator, (ii) the use of the accelerator would be limited to only polarized-beam physics, that is, proton-proton interaction, and (iii) p-p elastic scattering was not the most popular topic in high-energy physics. In fact, within spin physics, π-nucleon physics looked attractive, since the determination of spin and parity of possible πp resonances attracted much attention. To proceed we needed more data beside total cross sections and elastic differential cross sections; measurements of polarization and other parameters were urgently needed. Polarization measurements had traditionally been performed by analyzing the spin of recoil protons. The drawbacks of this technique are: (i) it involves double scattering, resulting in poor accuracy of the data, and (ii) a carbon analyzer can only be used for a limited region of energy

  17. Noise in tunneling spin current across coupled quantum spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftergood, Joshua; Takei, So

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically study the spin current and its dc noise generated between two spin-1 /2 spin chains weakly coupled at a single site in the presence of an over-population of spin excitations and a temperature elevation in one subsystem relative to the other, and we compare the corresponding transport quantities across two weakly coupled magnetic insulators hosting magnons. In the spin chain scenario, we find that applying a temperature bias exclusively leads to a vanishing spin current and a concomitant divergence in the spin Fano factor, defined as the spin current noise-to-signal ratio. This divergence is shown to have an exact analogy to the physics of electron scattering between fractional quantum Hall edge states and not to arise in the magnon scenario. We also reveal a suppression in the spin current noise that exclusively arises in the spin chain scenario due to the fermion nature of the spin-1/2 operators. We discuss how the spin Fano factor may be extracted experimentally via the inverse spin Hall effect used extensively in spintronics.

  18. Two-Dimensional Metallicity with a Large Spin-Orbit Splitting: DFT Calculations of the Atomic, Electronic, and Spin Structures of the Au/Ge(111-(3×3R30° Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Fleszar

    2015-01-01

    of the many-body effects (self-interaction corrections beyond the LDA or GGA approximations. The most interesting property of this surface system is the large spin splitting of its metallic surface bands and the undulating spin texture along the hexagonal Fermi contours, which highly resembles the spin texture at the Dirac state of the topological insulator Bi2Te3. These properties make this system particularly interesting from both fundamental and technological points of view.

  19. Band structure in 83Rb from lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Banerjee, P.; Ray, I.; Kshetri, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Saha-Sarkar, M.; Goswami, A.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, R.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Excited states of 83 Rb, populated in the 76 Ge( 11 B,-bar 4nγ) reaction at a beam energy of 50 MeV, have been studied. The unfavoured signature partner (α=-1/2) of the πg 9/2 yrast band is proposed up to an excitation energy of 6669.4 keV and spin (31/2 + ). Lifetimes have been estimated for three states belonging to the favoured α=+1/2 band. The B(E2) values deduced from these lifetimes indicate a moderate quadrupole deformation of β 2 =0.20. Theoretical calculations within the framework of the particle-rotor-model suggest that low energy states before the onset of the νg 9/2 alignment at a rotational frequency of ∼0.5 MeV are prolate while those above this frequency have an oblate shape. The excited ΔI=1 band has been extended up to 5422.7 keV and spin 25/2 - . The B(M1) rates derived from the measured lifetimes decrease with spin. The results are in general agreement with an earlier TAC calculation, suggesting the interpretation of these states as arising from magnetic rotation

  20. Band structure in {sup 83}Rb from lifetime measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Banerjee, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India)]. E-mail: polash.banerjee@saha.ac.in; Ray, I. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Kshetri, R. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Saha-Sarkar, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Goswami, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Muralithar, S. [Nuclear Science Centre, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, R.P. [Nuclear Science Centre, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, R. [Nuclear Science Centre, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Bhowmik, R.K. [Nuclear Science Centre, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2006-03-20

    Excited states of {sup 83}Rb, populated in the {sup 76}Ge({sup 11}B,-bar 4n{gamma}) reaction at a beam energy of 50 MeV, have been studied. The unfavoured signature partner ({alpha}=-1/2) of the {pi}g{sub 9/2} yrast band is proposed up to an excitation energy of 6669.4 keV and spin (31/2{sup +}). Lifetimes have been estimated for three states belonging to the favoured {alpha}=+1/2 band. The B(E2) values deduced from these lifetimes indicate a moderate quadrupole deformation of {beta}{sub 2}=0.20. Theoretical calculations within the framework of the particle-rotor-model suggest that low energy states before the onset of the {nu}g{sub 9/2} alignment at a rotational frequency of {approx}0.5 MeV are prolate while those above this frequency have an oblate shape. The excited {delta}I=1 band has been extended up to 5422.7 keV and spin 25/2{sup -}. The B(M1) rates derived from the measured lifetimes decrease with spin. The results are in general agreement with an earlier TAC calculation, suggesting the interpretation of these states as arising from magnetic rotation.

  1. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  2. Identicity in high-K three quasiparticle rotational bands: a theoretical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harjeet; Singh, Pardeep; Malik, Sham S

    2015-01-01

    The systematics are studied for the identical band phenomenon in high-K three quasiparticle rotational bands. The identical rotational bands based on the same bandhead spin are analyzed on the basis of similarities in γ-ray energies, dynamic moment of inertia and kinematic moment of inertia in particular, which is a function of deformation degrees of freedom, pairing strengths and Nilsson orbitals in nuclei. It is established that a combined effect of all these parameters decides the identicity of the moment of inertia in high-K three quasiparticle rotational bands as the systematics are backed by the Tilted Axis Cranking model calculations. (paper)

  3. Spin Structures in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Brok, Erik; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Spin structures in nanoparticles of ferrimagnetic materials may deviate locally in a nontrivial way from ideal collinear spin structures. For instance, magnetic frustration due to the reduced numbers of magnetic neighbors at the particle surface or around defects in the interior can lead to spin...... canting and hence a reduced magnetization. Moreover, relaxation between almost degenerate canted spin states can lead to anomalous temperature dependences of the magnetization at low temperatures. In ensembles of nanoparticles, interparticle exchange interactions can also result in spin reorientation....... Here, we give a short review of anomalous spin structures in nanoparticles....

  4. Column Selection for Biomedical Analysis Supported by Column Classification Based on Four Test Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenis, Alina; Rekowska, Natalia; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-01-21

    This article focuses on correlating the column classification obtained from the method created at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL), with the chromatographic resolution attained in biomedical separation. In the KUL system, each column is described with four parameters, which enables estimation of the FKUL value characterising similarity of those parameters to the selected reference stationary phase. Thus, a ranking list based on the FKUL value can be calculated for the chosen reference column, then correlated with the results of the column performance test. In this study, the column performance test was based on analysis of moclobemide and its two metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography (LC), using 18 columns. The comparative study was performed using traditional correlation of the FKUL values with the retention parameters of the analytes describing the column performance test. In order to deepen the comparative assessment of both data sets, factor analysis (FA) was also used. The obtained results indicated that the stationary phase classes, closely related according to the KUL method, yielded comparable separation for the target substances. Therefore, the column ranking system based on the FKUL-values could be considered supportive in the choice of the appropriate column for biomedical analysis.

  5. High-fidelity adiabatic inversion of a {sup 31}P electron spin qubit in natural silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laucht, Arne, E-mail: a.laucht@unsw.edu.au; Kalra, Rachpon; Muhonen, Juha T.; Dehollain, Juan P.; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Hudson, Fay; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, Andrea [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N. [Centre for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-03-03

    The main limitation to the high-fidelity quantum control of spins in semiconductors is the presence of strongly fluctuating fields arising from the nuclear spin bath of the host material. We demonstrate here a substantial improvement in single-qubit inversion fidelities for an electron spin qubit bound to a {sup 31}P atom in natural silicon, by applying adiabatic sweeps instead of narrow-band pulses. We achieve an inversion fidelity of 97%, and we observe signatures in the spin resonance spectra and the spin coherence time that are consistent with the presence of an additional exchange-coupled donor. This work highlights the effectiveness of simple adiabatic inversion techniques for spin control in fluctuating environments.

  6. SPIN-selling

    CERN Document Server

    Rackham, Neil

    1995-01-01

    True or false? In selling high-value products or services: "closing" increases your chance of success; it is essential to describe the benefits of your product or service to the customer; objection handling is an important skill; and open questions are more effective than closed questions. All false, says Neil Rackham. He and his team studied more than 35,000 sales calls made by 10,000 sales people in 23 countries over 12 years. Their findings revealed that many of the methods developed for selling low-value goods just don't work for major sales. Rackham went on to introduce his SPIN-selling method, where SPIN describes the whole selling process - Situation questions, Problem questions, Implication questions, Need-payoff questions. SPIN-selling provides you with a set of simple and practical techniques which have been tried in many of today's leading companies with dramatic improvements to their sales performance.

  7. Perspectives on spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Contucci, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Presenting and developing the theory of spin glasses as a prototype for complex systems, this book is a rigorous and up-to-date introduction to their properties. The book combines a mathematical description with a physical insight of spin glass models. Topics covered include the physical origins of those models and their treatment with replica theory; mathematical properties like correlation inequalities and their use in the thermodynamic limit theory; main exact solutions of the mean field models and their probabilistic structures; and the theory of the structural properties of the spin glass phase such as stochastic stability and the overlap identities. Finally, a detailed account is given of the recent numerical simulation results and properties, including overlap equivalence, ultrametricity and decay of correlations. The book is ideal for mathematical physicists and probabilists working in disordered systems.

  8. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-11-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24-48 hours after attending a spinning class at a local gymnasium. Paired with key laboratory findings, her symptoms were suggestive of rhabdomyolysis. She required hospital admission to sustain renal function through fluid resuscitation therapy and fluid balance monitoring. Because exertional rhabdomyolysis may occur in any unfit but otherwise healthy individual who indulges in stationary cycling, the potential health risks of this activity must be considered.

  9. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden

    1975-01-01

    The selection rules for the linear couplings between magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of a simple basal-plane hcp ferromagnet are determined by general symmetry considerations. The acoustic-optical magnon-phonon interactions observed in the heavy-rare-earth metals have been...... explained by Liu as originating from the mixing of the spin states of the conduction electrons due to the spin-orbit coupling. We find that this coupling mechanism introduces interactions which violate the selection rules for a simple ferromagnet. The interactions between the magnons and phonons propagating...... in the c direction of Tb have been studied experimentally by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The magnons are coupled to both the acoustic- and optical-transverse phonons. By studying the behavior of the acoustic-optical coupling, we conclude that it is a spin-mixed-induced coupling as proposed...

  10. Spin-Resolved Photoemission on Anti-Ferromagnets: Direct Observation of Zhang-Rice Singlets in CuO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeng, L.H.; Sinkovic, B.; Brookes, N.B.; Goedkoop, J.B.; Hesper, R.; Pellegrin, E.; Groot, F.M.F. de; Altieri, S.; Hulbert, S.L.; Shekel, E.; Sawatzky, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain spin-resolved valence band spectra with a very high degree of spin polarization from antiferromagnetic transition metal materials if the excitation light is circularly polarized and has an energy close to the cation 2p3/2 (L3) white line. We are able to

  11. Search for superdeformed bands in {sup 154}Dy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The island of superdeformation in the vicinity of the doubly magic {sup 152}Dy yrast superdeformed (SD) band is thought to be well understood in the framework of cranked mean field calculations. In particular, the calculations suggested that in {sup 154}Dy there should be no yrast or near yrast SD minimum in the 40-60 h spin range, where SD bands in this mass region are thought to be {sup 153}Dy nucleus, it is populated. However, with the presence of five SD bands in the neighboring necessary to ascertain if the addition of one single neutron diminishes the importance of shell effects to the extent that superdeformation can no longer be sustained. In an experiment utilizing the increased resolving power of the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, the reaction {sup 122}Sn({sup 36}S,4n) at 165 MeV was employed to populate high spin states in {sup 154}Dy. In a four-day run with 36 detectors, over one billion triple and higher fold coincidence events were recorded. One new SD band was identified and was assigned to {sup 154}Dy. From comparisons with the Im{sup (2)} moments of inertia of the SD bands in {sup 152}Dy and {sup 153}Dy, a configuration based on (514)9/2{sup 2} neutrons coupled to the {sup 152}Dy SD core was proposed. One unexpected and as yet unexplained feature of this new SD band is that the transition energies are almost identical to those of an excited SD band in {sup 153}Dy. It is also worth noting that the feeding of the yrast states is similar to that achieved by the deexcitation from the ensemble of all entry states in the reaction. This observation emphasizes the statistical nature of the decay-out process. A paper reporting these results was accepted for publication.

  12. Signature inversion of the semi-decoupled band in the odd-odd nucleus 170Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Yang Chunxiang; Zhou Hongyu; Sun Huibin; Lu Jingbin; Zhao Guangyi; Yin Lichang; Liu Yunzuo

    2001-01-01

    The high-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus 170 Ta have been studied by the 155 Gd( 19 F, 4n) 170 Ta reaction at the beam energy of 97 MeV. The α = 1 sequence of the semi-decoupled band has been pushed to higher-spin states and the signature inversion point was observed at 19.5 ℎ. the results are compared with those of the neighbouring odd-odd nuclei

  13. Spin Physics at COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment is a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS using muon and hadron beams for the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon and hadron spectroscopy. The main objective of the muon physics program is the study of the spin of the nucleon in terms of its constituents, quarks and gluons. COMPASS has accumulated data during 6 years scattering polarized muons off longitudinally or transversely polarized deuteron ( 6 LiD) or proton (NH 3 ) targets. Results for the gluon polarization are obtained from longitudinal double spin cross section asymmetries using two different channels, open charm production and high transverse momentum hadron pairs, both proceeding through the photon-gluon fusion process. Also, the longitudinal spin structure functions of the proton and the deuteron were measured in parallel as well as the helicity distributions for the three lightest quark flavours. With a transversely polarized target, results were obtained with proton and deuteron targets for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons as well as for identified kaons and pions. The Collins asymmetry is sensitive to the transverse spin structure of the nucleon, while the Sivers asymmetry reflects correlations between the quark transverse momentum and the nucleon spin. Recently, a new proposal for the COMPASS II experiment was accepted by the CERN SPS which includes two new topics: Exclusive reactions like DVCS and DVMP using the muon beam and a hydrogen target to study generalized parton distributions and Drell-Yan measurements using a pion beam and a polarized NH 3 target to study transverse momentum dependent distributions.

  14. Electronic transport through EuO spin-filter tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Jutong, Nuttachai

    2012-11-12

    Epitaxial spin-filter tunnel junctions based on the ferromagnetic semiconductor europium monoxide (EuO) are investigated by means of density functional theory. In particular, we focus on the spin transport properties of Cu(100)/EuO(100)/Cu(100) junctions. The dependence of the transmission coefficient and the current-voltage curves on the interface spacing and EuO thickness is explained in terms of the EuO density of states and the complex band structure. Furthermore, we also discuss the relation between the spin transport properties and the Cu-EuO interface geometry. The level alignment of the junction is sensitively affected by the interface spacing, since this determines the charge transfer between EuO and the Cu electrodes. Our calculations indicate that EuO epitaxially grown on Cu can act as a perfect spin filter, with a spin polarization of the current close to 100%, and with both the Eu-5d conduction-band and the Eu-4f valence-band states contributing to the coherent transport. For epitaxial EuO on Cu, a symmetry filtering is observed, with the Δ1 states dominating the transmission. This leads to a transport gap larger than the fundamental EuO band gap. Importantly, the high spin polarization of the current is preserved up to large bias voltages.

  15. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath

  16. Spin Physics at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    The physics goals that will be addressed by colliding polarized protons at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are described. The RHIC spin program provides a new generation of experiments that will unfold the quark, anti-quark and gluon contributions to the proton's spin. In addition to these longer term goals, this paper describes what was learned from the first polarized proton collisions at √(s)=200 GeV. These collisions took place in a five-week run during the second year of RHIC operation

  17. CONFERENCE: Muon spin rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Erik

    1986-11-15

    An international physics conference centred on muons without a word about leptons, weak interactions, EMC effects, exotic decay modes or any other standard high energy physics jargon. Could such a thing even have been imagined ten years ago? Yet about 120 physicists and chemists from 16 nations gathered at the end of June in Uppsala (Sweden) for their fourth meeting on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance, without worrying about the muon as an elementary particle. This reflects how the experimental techniques based on the muon spin interactions have reached maturity and are widely recognized by condensed matter physicists and specialized chemists as useful tools.

  18. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1975-01-01

    with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results......, which are corrected for the effect of the direct coupling between the magnons and the phonons, and for the field dependence of the relative magnetization at finite temperatures. A large q⃗-dependent difference between the two energy components is observed, showing that the anisotropy of the two...

  19. Spin puzzle in nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, R.

    1994-09-01

    The object of this brief review is to reconcile different points of view on how the spin of proton is made up from its constituents. On the basis of naive quark model with flavour symmetry such as isospin or SU(3) one finds a static description. On the contrary the local SU(3) colour symmetry gives a dynamical view. Both these views are contrasted and the role of U(1) axial anomaly and the ambiguity for the measurable spin content is discussed. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig

  20. The hierarchically organized splitting of chromosome bands into sub-bands analyzed by multicolor banding (MCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H; Weise, A; Michel, S; Starke, H; Mrasek, K; Heller, A; Kuechler, A; Claussen, U; Liehr, T

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the nature of chromosome sub-bands in more detail, the multicolor banding (MCB) probe-set for chromosome 5 was hybridized to normal metaphase spreads of GTG band levels at approximately 850, approximately 550, approximately 400 and approximately 300. It could be observed that as the chromosomes became shorter, more of the initial 39 MCB pseudo-colors disappeared, ending with 18 MCB pseudo-colored bands at the approximately 300-band level. The hierarchically organized splitting of bands into sub-bands was analyzed by comparing the disappearance or appearance of pseudo-color bands of the four different band levels. The regions to split first are telomere-near, centromere-near and in 5q23-->q31, followed by 5p15, 5p14, and all GTG dark bands in 5q apart from 5q12 and 5q32 and finalized by sub-band building in 5p15.2, 5q21.2-->q21.3, 5q23.1 and 5q34. The direction of band splitting towards the centromere or the telomere could be assigned to each band separately. Pseudo-colors assigned to GTG-light bands were resistant to band splitting. These observations are in concordance with the recently proposed concept of chromosome region-specific protein swelling. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel