WorldWideScience

Sample records for spin-polarized free-electron beam

  1. Spin-polarized free electron beam interaction with radiation and superradiant spin-flip radiative emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gover

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of spin-polarized free-electron beam interaction with electromagnetic wave at electron-spin resonance conditions in a magnetic field and of superradiant spin-flip radiative emission are analyzed in the framework of a comprehensive classical model. The spontaneous emission of spin-flip radiation from electron beams is very weak. We show that the detectivity of electron spin resonant spin-flip and combined spin-flip/cyclotron-resonance-emission radiation can be substantially enhanced by operating with ultrashort spin-polarized electron beam bunches under conditions of superradiant (coherent emission. The proposed radiative spin-state modulation and the spin-flip radiative emission schemes can be used for control and noninvasive diagnostics of polarized electron/positron beams. Such schemes are of relevance in important scattering experiments off nucleons in nuclear physics and off magnetic targets in condensed matter physics.

  2. Electron emission in the Auger neutralization of a spin-polarized He+ ion embedded in a free electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juaristi, J.I.; Alducin, M.; Diez Muino, R.; Roesler, M.

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented for the energy distribution and spin polarization of the electrons excited during the Auger neutralization of a spin polarized He + ion embedded in a paramagnetic free electron gas. The screening of the He + ion is calculated using density functional theory within the local spin density approximation. The Auger rates, the energy distribution and the spin polarization of the excited electrons are obtained using the Fermi golden rule. The transport of the electrons is calculated within the Boltzmann transport equation formalism. The spin-polarization of the initially excited electrons is very high (>70%) and parallel to that of the electron bound to the He + ion. Nevertheless, the emitted electrons show a much lower degree of polarization, mainly in the low energy range, due to the creation of the unpolarized cascade of secondaries in the transport process

  3. Development of spin polarized electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tsutomu

    2001-01-01

    Physical structure of the polarized electron beam production is explained in this paper. Nagoya University group has been improving the quality of beam. The present state of quality and the development objects are described. The new results of the polarized electron reported in 'RES-2000 Workshop' in October 2000, are introduced. The established ground of GaAs type polarized electron beam source, observation of the negative electron affinity (NEA) surface, some problems of NEA surface of high energy polarized electron beam such as the life, time response, the surface charge limited phenomena of NEA surface are explained. The interested reports in the RES-2000 Workshop consisted of observation by SPLEEM (Spin Low Energy Electron Microscope), Spin-STM and Spin-resolved Photoelectron Spectroscopy. To increase the performance of the polarized electron source, we will develop low emittance and large current. (S.Y.)

  4. Free-electron laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    2003-01-01

    The principle and history of free-electron laser (FEL), first evidenced in 1977, the relationship between FEL wavelength and output power, the high-power FEL driven by the superconducting linac, the X-ray FEL by the linac, and the medical use are described. FEL is the vacuum oscillator tube and essentially composed from the high-energy linac, undulator and light-resonator. It utilizes free electrons in the vacuum to generate the beam with wavelength ranging from microwave to gamma ray. The first high-power FEL developed in Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is based on the development of superconducting linac for oscillating the highest power beam. In the medical field, applications to excise brain tumors (in US) and to reconstruct experimentally blood vessels in the pig heart (in Gunma University) by lasing and laser coagulator are in progress with examinations to remove intra-vascular cholesterol mass by irradiation of 5.7μm FEL beam. Cancer cells are considered diagnosed by FEL beam of far-infrared-THz range. The FEL beam CT is expected to have a wide variety of application without the radiation exposure and its resolution is equal or superior to that of usual imaging techniques. (N.I.)

  5. POLARIZED BEAMS: 1 - Longitudinal electron spin polarization at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-09-15

    Wednesday 4 May marked a turning point in the art of the manipulation of spins in electron storage rings: longitudinal electron spin polarization (with the spins oriented along the electrons' direction of motion) was established in the electron ring of HERA, the electronproton collider at DESY in Hamburg. A polarization level of about 55% was obtained and polarizations of over 60% were reproducibly obtained in the following days. The beam energy was 27.52 GeV, corresponding to half integer spin tune of 62.5.

  6. Determination of the spin polarization of a 4He+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yamauchi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the spin polarization of a 4 He + ion beam (P He + ) can be determined from the spin dependence of the electron emission in the deexcitation process of spin-polarized He metastable atoms (He*, 2 3 S 1 ) and spin-polarized He + ions on Fe (100) surfaces. On Fe (100) surfaces, both He* and He + deexcite via Auger neutralization, and therefore, the spin asymmetry obtained from spin-polarized He + ion neutralization spectroscopy should be equal to that from spin-polarized metastable He* deexcitation spectroscopy. The spin polarization of He* was obtained from Stern-Gerlach measurements. P He + was finally determined to be 0.19±0.02

  7. Optically pumped electron spin polarized targets for use in the production of polarized ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    The production of relatively dense electron spin polarized alkali metal vapor targets by optical pumping with intense cw dye lasers is discussed. The target density and electron spin polarization depend on the dye laser intensity and bandwidth, the magnetic field at the target, and the electron spin depolarization time. For example in a magnetic field of 1.5 x 10 3 G, and using 1 W dye laser with a bandwidth of 10 10 Hz one can construct an electron spin polarized Na vapor target with a target thickness of 1.6 x 10 13 atoms/cm 2 and an average electron spin polarization of about 90% even though the Na atoms are completely depolarized at every wall collision. Possible uses of the electron spin polarized targets for the production of intense beams of polarized H - or 3 He - ions are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Construction of the spin-polarized slow positron beam with the RI source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajyo, Terunobu; Tashiro, Mutsumi; Kanazawa, Ikuzo [Tokyo Gakugei Univ., Koganei (Japan); Komori, Fumio; Murata, Yoshimasa; Ito, Yasuo

    1997-03-01

    The electrostatic slow-positron beam is constructed by using {sup 22}Na source. We design the electrostatic lens, the system of the detector, and the Wien filter for the experiment`s system of the spin-polarized slow positron beam. The reemitted spin-polarized slow-positron spectroscopy is proposed for studying magnetic thin films and magnetic multilayers. We calculated the depolarized positron fractions in the Fe thin film Fe(10nm)/Cu(substrate) and the multilayers Cu(1nm)/Fe(10nm)/Cu(substrate). (author)

  9. Rippled beam free electron laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a TM.sub.0n mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and, a solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.

  10. Antihydrogen atom formation in a CUSP trap towards spin polarized beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, N., E-mail: kuroda@radphys4.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Enomoto, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Michishio, K. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Kim, C. H. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Higaki, H. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter (Japan); Nagata, Y.; Kanai, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Science Institute (Japan); Torii, H. A. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Corradini, M.; Leali, M.; Lodi-Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N. [Universita di Brescia and Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica per l' Ingegneria e per i Materiali (Italy); Fujii, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Tanaka, K. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Imao, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (Japan); Nagashima, Y. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan); Juhasz, B. [Stefan Meyer Institut fuer Subatomare Physik (Austria); and others

    2012-12-15

    The ASACUSA collaboration has been making a path to realize high precision microwave spectroscopy of ground-state hyperfine transitions of antihydrogen atom in flight for stringent test of the CPT symmetry. For this purpose, an efficient extraction of a spin polarized antihydrogen beam is essential. In 2010, we have succeeded in synthesizing our first cold antihydrogen atoms employing a CUSP trap. The CUSP trap confines antiprotons and positrons simultaneously with its axially symmetric magnetic field to form antihydrogen atoms. It is expected that antihydrogen atoms in the low-field-seeking states are preferentially focused along the cusp magnetic field axis whereas those in the high-field-seeking states are defocused, resulting in the formation of a spin-polarized antihydrogen beam.

  11. The Two-Beam Free Electron Laser Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Neil R

    2004-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of a free-electron laser operating simultaneously with two electron beams of different energies [1] is extended to an oscillator configuration. The electron beam energies are chosen so that an harmonic of the lower energy beam is at the fundamental radiation wavelength of the higher energy beam. Potential benefits over a single-beam free-electron laser oscillator are discussed.

  12. Prebunched-beam free electron maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbel, M.; Ben-Chaim, D.; Cohen, M.; Draznin, M.; Eichenbaum, A.; Gover, Abraham; Kleinman, H.; Kugel, A.; Pinhasi, Yosef; Witman, S.; Yakover, Y. M.

    1994-05-01

    The development status of a prebunched FEM is described. We are developing a 70 KeV FEM to allow high gain wideband operation and to enable variation of the degree of prebunching. We intend to investigate its operation as an amplifier and as an oscillator. Effects of prebunching, frequency variation, linear and nonlinear effects, will be investigated. The prebuncher consists of a Pierce e-gun followed by a beam modulating section. The prebunched beam is accelerated to 70 KeV and injected into a planar wiggler containing a waveguide. The results obtained to date will be presented. These include: characterization of the e-gun, e-beam transport to and through the wiggler, use of field modifying permanent magnets near the entrance and along the wiggler to obtain good e-beam transport through the wiggler, waveguide selection and characterization.

  13. Compact two-beam push-pull free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Andrew [Yorktown, VA

    2009-03-03

    An ultra-compact free electron laser comprising a pair of opposed superconducting cavities that produce identical electron beams moving in opposite directions such that each set of superconducting cavities accelerates one electron beam and decelerates the other electron beam. Such an arrangement, allows the energy used to accelerate one beam to be recovered and used again to accelerate the second beam, thus, each electron beam is decelerated by a different structure than that which accelerated it so that energy exchange rather than recovery is achieved resulting in a more compact and highly efficient apparatus.

  14. Beam conditioner for free electron lasers and synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Neil, G.R.

    1998-01-01

    A focused optical has been used to introduce an optical pulse, or electromagnetic wave, collinear with the electron beam in a free electron laser or synchrotron thereby adding an axial field component that accelerates the electrons on the radial outside of the distribution of electrons in the electron beam. This invention consists of using the axial electrical component of a TEM 10 mode Gaussian beam in vacuum to condition the electron beam and speed up the outer electrons in the beam. The conditioning beam should possess about the same diameter as the electron beam. The beam waist of the conditioning wave must be located around the entrance of the undulator longitudinally to have a net energy exchange between the electrons in the outer part of the distribution and the conditioning wave owing to the natural divergence of a Gaussian beam. By accelerating the outer electrons, the outer and core electrons are caused to stay in phase. This increases the fraction of the electron beam energy that is converted to light thereby improving the efficiency of conversion of energy to light and therefore boosting the power output of the free electron laser and synchrotron. 4 figs

  15. Charged beam dynamics, particle accelerators and free electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Sabia, Elio; Artioli, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Charged Beam Dynamics, Particle Accelerators and Free Electron Lasers summarises different topics in the field of accelerators and of Free Electron Laser (FEL) devices. It is intended as a reference manual for the different aspects of FEL devices, explaining how to design both a FEL device and the accelerator providing the driving beam. It covers both theoretical and experimental aspects, allowing researchers to attempt a first design of a FEL device in different operating conditions. It provides an analysis of what is already available, what is needed, and what the challenges are to determine new progress in this field. All chapters contain complements and exercises that are designed in such a way that the reader will gradually acquire self-confidence with the matter treated in the book.

  16. Vibrational analysis of a shipboard free electron laser beam path

    OpenAIRE

    Gallant, Bryan M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the deployment of a free electron laser (FEL) weapon system in a shipboard vibration environment. A concept solid model of a shipboard FEL is developed and used as a basis for a finite element model which is subjected to vibration simulation in MATLAB. Vibration input is obtained from ship shock trials data and wave excited motion data from ship motion simulation software. Emphasis is placed on the motion of electron beam path components of the FEL and the feasibility of ...

  17. Transient analysis of a bunched beam free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.M.; Yu, L.H.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of the bunched beam operation of a free electron laser was studied. Assuming the electron beam to be initially monoenergetic, the Maxwell-Vlasov equations describing the system reduce to a third order partial differential equation for the envelope of the emitted light. The Green's function corresponding to an arbitrary shape of the electron bunch, which describes the transient behavior of the system, is obtained. The Green's function was used to discuss the start up problem as well as the power output and the power specrum of a self-amplified spontaneous emission

  18. Simple and efficient method of spin-polarizing a metastable helium beam by diode laser optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granitza, B.; Salvietti, M.; Torello, E.; Mattera, L.; Sasso, A.

    1995-01-01

    Diode laser optical pumping to produce a highly spin-polarized metastable He beam to be used in a spin-polarized metastable atom deexcitation spectroscopy experiment on magnetized surfaces is described. Efficient pumping of the beam is performed by means of an SDL-6702 distributed Bragg reflector diode laser which yields 50 mW of output power in a single longitudinal mode at 1083 nm, the resonance wavelength for the 2 3 S→2 3 P 0,1,2 (D 0 , D 1 , and D 2 ) transitions of He*. The light is circularly polarized by a quarter-wave plate, allowing easy change of the sense of atomic polarization. The laser frequency can be locked to the atomic transition for several hours by phase-sensitive detection of the saturated absorption signal in a He discharge cell. Any of the three transitions of the triplet system can be pumped with the laser but the maximum level of atomic polarization of 98.5% is found pumping the D 2 line. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Optical guiding and beam bending in free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The electron beam in a free-electron laser (FEL) can act as an optical fiber, guiding or bending the optical beam. The refractive and gain effects of the bunched electron beam can compensate for diffraction, making possible wigglers that are many Rayleigh ranges (i.e., characteristic diffraction lengths) long. The origin of optical guiding can be understood by examining gain and refractive guiding in a fiber with a complex index of refraction, providing a mathematical description applicable also to the FEL, with some extensions. In the exponential gain regime of the FEL, the electron equations of motion must be included, but a self-consistent description of exponential gain with diffraction fully included becomes possible. The origin of the effective index of refraction of an FEL is illustrated with a simple example of bunched, radiating dipoles. Some of the properties of the index of refraction are described. The limited experimental evidence for optical beam bending is summarized. The evidence does not yet provide conclusive proof of the existence of optical guiding, but supports the idea. Finally, the importance of refractive guiding for the performance of a high-gain tapered-wiggler FEL amplifier is illustrated with numerical simulations

  20. Free-electron laser and related quantum beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2003-01-01

    Past, present and future development programs of the JAERI super-conducting rf linac-based FELs and light sources with and without energy recovery have been discussed and introduced briefly. The JAERI FEL group has successfully discovered, and realized the brand-new FEL lasing mode of 255 fs ultra fast pulse, 6-9% high-efficiency, one GW high peak power, a few kW average power, and wide tunability of medium and far infrared wavelength regions at the same time. Using the new lasing, we could realize a powerful and efficient free-electron laser (FEL) for industrial uses near future. In order to realize such a tunable, ultra-short-pulse, high averaged-power FEL, we have needed the efficient and powerful CW FEL driver of the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero-boil-off super-conducting rf linac with an energy-recovery geometry. The JAERI energy-recovery and/or super-conducting rf linac driver has been developed to use as an industrial electron irradiator, and millimeter-wave, far-infrared, mid-infrared, near-infrared and shorter wavelength quantum beam sources. (author)

  1. Free-electron laser and related quantum beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minehara, Eisuke J [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-07-01

    Past, present and future development programs of the JAERI super-conducting rf linac-based FELs and light sources with and without energy recovery have been discussed and introduced briefly. The JAERI FEL group has successfully discovered, and realized the brand-new FEL lasing mode of 255 fs ultra fast pulse, 6-9% high-efficiency, one GW high peak power, a few kW average power, and wide tunability of medium and far infrared wavelength regions at the same time. Using the new lasing, we could realize a powerful and efficient free-electron laser (FEL) for industrial uses near future. In order to realize such a tunable, ultra-short-pulse, high averaged-power FEL, we have needed the efficient and powerful CW FEL driver of the JAERI compact, stand-alone and zero-boil-off super-conducting rf linac with an energy-recovery geometry. The JAERI energy-recovery and/or super-conducting rf linac driver has been developed to use as an industrial electron irradiator, and millimeter-wave, far-infrared, mid-infrared, near-infrared and shorter wavelength quantum beam sources. (author)

  2. Collisional pumping for the production of intense spin-polarized neutral beams: target considerations. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, J.W.; Burrell, C.F.; Kaplan, S.N.; Pyle, R.V.; Ruby, L.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    Polarized beams at intensity levels heretofore not considered feasible have recently been proposed for heating and fueling fusion plasmas. Polarized-beam fueling could increase fusion rates by 50% as well as allow control of the directionality of the fusion products. A process which we have recently described, and called collisional pumping, promises to produce beams of polarized ions vastly more intense than producible by current methods

  3. Generation of intense spin-polarized electron beams at the electron accelerator facility ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiliger, Dominik

    2014-08-01

    The inverted source of polarized electrons at the electron accelerator ELSA in Bonn routinely provides a pulsed and low energetic beam of polarized electrons (100 mA, 48 keV) by irradiating a GaAs strained-layer superlattice photocathode with laser light. Due to the beam energy of 48 keV the beam transport to the linear accelerator is strongly space charge dominated and the actual beam current has an impact on the beam dynamics. Thus, the optics of the transfer line to the linear accelerator must be optimized with respect to the chosen beam intensity. An intensity upgrade including numerical simulations of the beam transport as well as a generation and a transport of a beam current of nearly 200 mA was successfully operated. In order to enhance the reliability and uptime of the source, a new extreme high vacuum load lock system was installed and commissioned. It consists of an activation chamber for heat cleaning of the photocathodes and activation with cesium and oxygen, a storage in which different types of photocathodes can be stored and a loading chamber in which an atomic hydrogen source is used to remove nearly any remaining surface oxidation. The new cleaning procedure with atomic hydrogen was investigated regarding its potential to restore the initial quantum efficiency of the photocathode after many activations.

  4. Nuclear spin polarized alkali beams (Li and Na): Production and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaensch, H.; Becker, K.; Blatt, K.; Leucker, H.; Fick, D.

    1987-01-01

    Recent improvements of the Heidelberg source for polarized heavy ions (PSI) are described. By means of optical pumping in combination with the existing multipole separation magnet the beam figure of merit (polarization 2 x intensity) was doubled. 7 Li and 23 Na atomic beams can now be produced in pure hyperfine magnetic substates. Fast switching of the polarization is achieved by an adiabatic medium field transition. The hyperfine magnetic substate population is determined by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. In routine operation atomic beams with nuclear polarization p α ≥0.85 (α=z, zz) are obtained. The acceleration of polarized 23 Na - ions by a 12 MV tandem accelerator introduces a new problem: the energy at the terminal stripper foil is not sufficient to produce a usable yield of naked ions. For partially stripped ions hyperfine interaction of the remaining electrons with the nuclear spin reduces the nuclear polarization. Using in addition the Heidelberg postaccelerator 23 Na 9+ beams of energies between 49 and 184 MeV were obtained with an alignment on target of P zz ≅0.45. 7 Li beams have also been accelerated up to 45 MeV with an alignment of P zz =0.69. (orig.)

  5. Experimental realization of millimeter-wave amplification by a sheet beam free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.; Rodgers, J.; Cheng, S.

    1994-01-01

    We report an observation of millimeter-wave (94 GHz) amplification in a sheet beam, short period, planar wiggler, free electron laser amplifier. The observed gain is about 5 dB for a 530 keV, 4 A beam through a 54 cm wiggler. Wave energy absorption was also observed when the beam energy is off-resonance. Experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulation. This amplifier configuration has potential for producing equally high output power but at relatively low voltage compared with longer period free electron lasers

  6. Modified two beam accelerator driven by a D.C. pelletron free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.

    1985-01-01

    Assembling the next generation of linear particle accelerators requires progress in three areas. (1) Sources must be developed to provide the coherent electromagnetic radiation used to power the device. (2) Physical structures must be designed which efficiently transfer the power to the high energy beam. (3) Cooling techniques must be developed in order to enhance beam transport and to provide sufficient luminosity. This paper will describe a method of obtaining a highly efficient coherent radiation source by using a continuous wave Free Electron Laser (FEL). Several possibilities exist for an accelerating structure which could use this radiation as a power source. These include scaling down the size of traditional RF cavities, inverse free electron lasers, and surface grating schemes. Inverse free electron lasers have the possibility of intrinsic cooling of the high energy beam

  7. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  8. Electron beam properties and impedance characterization for storage rings used for free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Mezi, L.; Renieri, A.; Migliorati, M.; Walker, R.

    2000-01-01

    Good electron beam qualities and stability are the crucial features of Storage Rings dedicated to synchrotron radiation sources or to Free Electron Laser. Most of these characteristics depends on the coupling of the e-beam with the machine environment, which can be in turn modelled in terms of a characteristic impedance, whose absolute value and structure can be used to specify both the stability (longitudinal and transverse) of the beam and its qualities (energy spread, bunch length, peak current ...). In this paper are considered two specific examples of Storage Rings used for FEL operation and analyze their performances by means of semi analytical and numerical methods. The analysis is aimed at clarifying the dependence of beam energy spread and bunch length on beam current and at providing a set of parameters useful for the optimization of Free Electron Laser or synchrotron radiation sources [it

  9. Source of spin polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.T.; Meier, F.A.; Siegmann, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of producing intense beams of polarized free electrons in which a semiconductor with a spin orbit split valence band and negative electron affinity is used as a photocathode and irradiated with circularly polarized light

  10. Beam dynamics and rf evolution in a multistage klystron-like free- electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, S.

    1991-01-01

    Current understandings of beam dynamics and RF evolution in a klystron-like free-electron laser are present. Phase sensitiveness to injection jitters estimated by existing two theories is discussed. BBU suppression due to linear detuning is proposed as an alternative of ever proposed techniques. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Electron beam requirements for soft x-ray/XUV free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A discussion of the electron beam quality (peak current, energy spread, and transverse emittance) required to drive short wavelength free-electron lasers in the XUV (10-100 nm) and soft x-ray (<10 nm) optical wavelength ranges is presented

  12. Preliminary experiments on a planar electron beam for an intense free electron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsumasa; Iwata, Kazuma; Kitamura, Taro; Yamada, Naohisa; Soga, Yukihiro; Kamada, Keiichi; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Ginzburg, Naum S.

    2013-01-01

    A planar wiggler magnetic field was used to increase the output power of an intense free electron maser. As a preliminary experiment, a cylindrical electron beam was injected into a planar wiggler field with an axial magnetic field. Without the axial magnetic field, the cylindrical beam could not propagate through the wiggler field with length of 1 m. The microwave with frequency of 40 GHz was observed only when the beam propagates through the wiggler field. The frequency was nearly equal to the expected frequency of the free electron maser interaction. Though a sheet electron beam with nearly the same energy propagated through the planar wiggler field with deformation of its cross section, the microwave with frequency of 40 GHz was not observed. (author)

  13. Achromatic and isochronous electron beam transport for tunable free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, J.; Kim, K.J.

    1991-09-01

    We have continued the study of a suitable electron beam transport line, which is both isochronous and achromatic, for the free electron laser being designed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. A refined version of the beam transport optics is discussed that accommodates two different modes of FEL wavelength tuning. For the fine tuning involving a small change of the electron beam energy, sextupoles are added to cancel the leading nonlinear dispersion. For the main tuning involving the change of the undulator gap, a practical solution of maintaining the beam matching condition is presented. Calculation of the higher order aberrations is facilitated by a newly developed code. 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Spin-Polarization in Quasi-Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng-Wei; Li, Ling

    2017-05-01

    Spin polarization in ferromagnetic metal/insulator/spin-filter barrier/nonmagnetic metal, referred to as quasi-magnetic tunnel junctions, is studied within the free-electron model. Our results show that large positive or negative spin-polarization can be obtained at high bias in quasi-magnetic tunnel junctions, and within large bias variation regions, the degree of spin-polarization can be linearly tuned by bias. These linear variation regions of spin-polarization with bias are influenced by the barrier thicknesses, barrier heights and molecular fields in the spin-filter (SF) layer. Among them, the variations of thickness and heights of the insulating and SF barrier layers have influence on the value of spin-polarization and the linear variation regions of spin-polarization with bias. However, the variations of molecular field in the SF layer only have influence on the values of the spin-polarization and the influences on the linear variation regions of spin-polarization with bias are slight. Supported by the Key Natural Science Fund of Sichuan Province Education Department under Grant Nos 13ZA0149 and 16ZA0047, and the Construction Plan for Scientific Research Innovation Team of Universities in Sichuan Province under Grant No 12TD008.

  15. Spin-polarized photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1997-01-01

    Spin-polarized photoemission has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this review, we examine the methodology of the technique and its application to a number of different problems, including both valence band and core level studies. After a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements we consider in detail studies of the bulk properties both above and below the Curie temperature. This section also includes a discussion of observations relating to unique metastable phases obtained via epitaxial growth. The application of the technique to the study of surfaces, both clean and adsorbate covered, is reviewed. The report then examines, in detail, studies of the spin-polarized electronic structure of thin films and the related interfacial magnetism. Finally, observations of spin-polarized quantum well states in non-magnetic thin films are discussed with particular reference to their mediation of the oscillatory exchange coupling in related magnetic multilayers. (author)

  16. Electron beam halo monitor for a compact x-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Aoyagi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An electron beam halo monitor using diamond-based detectors, which are operated in the ionization mode, has been developed for the SPring-8 Angstrom compact free-electron laser (SACLA to protect its undulator magnets from radiation damage. Diamond-based detectors are inserted in a beam duct to measure the intensity of the beam halo directly. To suppress the degradation of the electron beam due to the installation of the beam halo monitor, rf fingers with aluminum windows are newly employed. We evaluated the effect of radiation from the Al windows on the output signal both experimentally and by simulation. The operational results of the beam halo monitor employed in SACLA are presented.

  17. High resolution beam profiling of X-ray free electron laser radiation by polymer imprint development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösner, Benedikt; Döring, Florian; Ribič, Primož R; Gauthier, David; Principi, Emiliano; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Zangrando, Marco; Vila-Comamala, Joan; De Ninno, Giovanni; David, Christian

    2017-11-27

    High resolution metrology of beam profiles is presently a major challenge at X-ray free electron lasers. We demonstrate a characterization method based on beam imprints in poly (methyl methacrylate). By immersing the imprints formed at 47.8 eV into organic solvents, the regions exposed to the beam are removed similar to resist development in grayscale lithography. This allows for extending the sensitivity of the method by more than an order of magnitude compared to the established analysis of imprints created solely by ablation. Applying the Beer-Lambert law for absorption, the intensity distribution in a micron-sized focus can be reconstructed from one single shot with a high dynamic range, exceeding 10 3 . The procedure described here allows for beam characterization at free electron lasers revealing even faint beam tails, which are not accessible when using ablation imprint methods. We demonstrate the greatly extended dynamic range on developed imprints taken in focus of conventional Fresnel zone plates and spiral zone plates producing beams with a topological charge.

  18. A study of phase control in the FEL [free electron laser] two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.; Whittum, D.H.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1989-08-01

    A formalism is developed for the analysis of a steady-state free electron laser (FEL) and is applied to the two-beam accelerator (TBA). Conditions are derived for the design of a FEL TBA with rf output power and phase insensitive to errors in both beam current and energy. An example is presented of a suitably phase insensitive TBA design with 100 reaccelerations employing untapered FEL sections and with low power rf input to each section. The theoretical analysis is confirmed by a single particle FEL simulations. 9 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Facility for low-temperature spin-polarized-scanning tunneling microscopy studies of magnetic/spintronic materials prepared in situ by nitride molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Foley, Andrew; Alam, Khan; Wang, Kangkang; Liu, Yinghao; Chen, Tianjiao; Pak, Jeongihm; Smith, Arthur R., E-mail: smitha2@ohio.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Based on the interest in, as well as exciting outlook for, nitride semiconductor based structures with regard to electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications, it is compelling to investigate these systems using the powerful technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a technique capable of achieving magnetic resolution down to the atomic scale. However, the delicate surfaces of these materials are easily corrupted by in-air transfers, making it unfeasible to study them in stand-alone ultra-high vacuum STM facilities. Therefore, we have carried out the development of a hybrid system including a nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy/pulsed laser epitaxy facility for sample growth combined with a low-temperature, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope system. The custom-designed molecular beam epitaxy growth system supports up to eight sources, including up to seven effusion cells plus a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source, for epitaxially growing a variety of materials, such as nitride semiconductors, magnetic materials, and their hetero-structures, and also incorporating in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The growth system also enables integration of pulsed laser epitaxy. The STM unit has a modular design, consisting of an upper body and a lower body. The upper body contains the coarse approach mechanism and the scanner unit, while the lower body accepts molecular beam epitaxy grown samples using compression springs and sample skis. The design of the system employs two stages of vibration isolation as well as a layer of acoustic noise isolation in order to reduce noise during STM measurements. This isolation allows the system to effectively acquire STM data in a typical lab space, which during its construction had no special and highly costly elements included, (such as isolated slabs) which would lower the environmental noise. The design further enables tip exchange and tip coating without

  20. Facility for low-temperature spin-polarized-scanning tunneling microscopy studies of magnetic/spintronic materials prepared in situ by nitride molecular beam epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Foley, Andrew; Alam, Khan; Wang, Kangkang; Liu, Yinghao; Chen, Tianjiao; Pak, Jeongihm; Smith, Arthur R

    2014-04-01

    Based on the interest in, as well as exciting outlook for, nitride semiconductor based structures with regard to electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications, it is compelling to investigate these systems using the powerful technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a technique capable of achieving magnetic resolution down to the atomic scale. However, the delicate surfaces of these materials are easily corrupted by in-air transfers, making it unfeasible to study them in stand-alone ultra-high vacuum STM facilities. Therefore, we have carried out the development of a hybrid system including a nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy/pulsed laser epitaxy facility for sample growth combined with a low-temperature, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope system. The custom-designed molecular beam epitaxy growth system supports up to eight sources, including up to seven effusion cells plus a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source, for epitaxially growing a variety of materials, such as nitride semiconductors, magnetic materials, and their hetero-structures, and also incorporating in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The growth system also enables integration of pulsed laser epitaxy. The STM unit has a modular design, consisting of an upper body and a lower body. The upper body contains the coarse approach mechanism and the scanner unit, while the lower body accepts molecular beam epitaxy grown samples using compression springs and sample skis. The design of the system employs two stages of vibration isolation as well as a layer of acoustic noise isolation in order to reduce noise during STM measurements. This isolation allows the system to effectively acquire STM data in a typical lab space, which during its construction had no special and highly costly elements included, (such as isolated slabs) which would lower the environmental noise. The design further enables tip exchange and tip coating without

  1. Facility for low-temperature spin-polarized-scanning tunneling microscopy studies of magnetic/spintronic materials prepared in situ by nitride molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Foley, Andrew; Alam, Khan; Wang, Kangkang; Liu, Yinghao; Chen, Tianjiao; Pak, Jeongihm; Smith, Arthur R.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the interest in, as well as exciting outlook for, nitride semiconductor based structures with regard to electronic, optoelectronic, and spintronic applications, it is compelling to investigate these systems using the powerful technique of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a technique capable of achieving magnetic resolution down to the atomic scale. However, the delicate surfaces of these materials are easily corrupted by in-air transfers, making it unfeasible to study them in stand-alone ultra-high vacuum STM facilities. Therefore, we have carried out the development of a hybrid system including a nitrogen plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy/pulsed laser epitaxy facility for sample growth combined with a low-temperature, spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope system. The custom-designed molecular beam epitaxy growth system supports up to eight sources, including up to seven effusion cells plus a radio frequency nitrogen plasma source, for epitaxially growing a variety of materials, such as nitride semiconductors, magnetic materials, and their hetero-structures, and also incorporating in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction. The growth system also enables integration of pulsed laser epitaxy. The STM unit has a modular design, consisting of an upper body and a lower body. The upper body contains the coarse approach mechanism and the scanner unit, while the lower body accepts molecular beam epitaxy grown samples using compression springs and sample skis. The design of the system employs two stages of vibration isolation as well as a layer of acoustic noise isolation in order to reduce noise during STM measurements. This isolation allows the system to effectively acquire STM data in a typical lab space, which during its construction had no special and highly costly elements included, (such as isolated slabs) which would lower the environmental noise. The design further enables tip exchange and tip coating without

  2. Suppression of beam-break-up in a standing wave free electron laser two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Kim, J.S.

    1994-03-01

    Various schemes are examined in this study on the suppression of beam break-up (BBU) in a standing wave free electron laser two-beam accelerator (SWFEL/TBA). Two schemes are found to be not only able to effectively suppress the BBU but at the same time have minimum effect on the microwave generation process inside the SWFEL cavities. One is making the cavity-iris junction sufficiently gradual and the other is stagger-tuning the cavities

  3. Single-shot beam-position monitor for x-ray free electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tono, Kensuke; Kudo, Togo; Yabashi, Makina; Tachibana, Takeshi; Feng, Yiping; Fritz, David; Hastings, Jerome; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2011-02-01

    We have developed an x-ray beam-position monitor for detecting the radiation properties of an x-ray free electron laser (FEL). It is composed of four PIN photodiodes that detect backscattered x-rays from a semitransparent diamond film placed in the beam path. The signal intensities from the photodiodes are used to compute the beam intensity and position. A proof-of-principle experiment at a synchrotron light source revealed that the error in the beam position is reduced to below 7 μm by using a nanocrystal diamond film prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Owing to high dose tolerance and transparency of the diamond film, the monitor is suitable for routine diagnostics of extremely intense x-ray pulses from the FEL.

  4. Beam manipulation for compact laser wakefield accelerator based free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loulergue, A; Labat, M; Benabderrahmane, C; Couprie, M E; Evain, C; Malka, V

    2015-01-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) are a unique source of light, particularly in the x-ray domain. After the success of FELs based on conventional acceleration using radio-frequency cavities, an important challenge is the development of FELs based on electron bunching accelerated by a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). However, the present LWFA electron bunch properties do not permit use directly for a significant FEL amplification. It is known that longitudinal decompression of electron beams delivered by state-of-the-art LWFA eases the FEL process. We propose here a second order transverse beam manipulation turning the large inherent transverse chromatic emittances of LWFA beams into direct FEL gain advantage. Numerical simulations are presented showing that this beam manipulation can further enhance by orders of magnitude the peak power of the radiation. (paper)

  5. High-power, high-frequency, annular-beam free-electron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, M.V.; Carlsten, B.E.; Earley, L.M.; Fortgang, C.M.; Haynes, W.B.; Haddock, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have developed a 15--17 GHz free electron maser (FEM) capable of producing high power pulses with a phase stability appropriate for linear collider applications. The electron beam source is a 1 micros, 800 kV, 5 kA, 6-cm-dia annular electron beam machine called BANSHEE. The beam interacts with the TM 02 mode Raman FEM amplifier in a corrugated cylindrical waveguide where the beam runs close to the interaction device walls to reduce the power density in the fields. They studied the phase stability by analyzing the dispersion relation for an axial FEL, in which the rf field was transversely wiggled and the electron trajectories were purely longitudinal. Detailed particle-in-cell simulations demonstrated the transverse wiggling of the rf mode and the axial FEL interaction and explicit calculations of the growing root of the dispersion relation are included to verify the phase stability

  6. Spin-polarized SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoto, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Development of highly effective evaluation technology of magnetic structures on a nanometric scale is a key to understanding spintronics and related phenomena. A high-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscope (spin SEM) developed recently is quite suitable for probing such nanostructures because of the capability of analyzing local magnetization vectors in three dimensions. Utilizing the spin SEM, a layered antiferromagnetic structure with the 1nm-alternation of bilayer-sheet magnetization has been successfully resolved. The real-space imaging with full analysis of the temperature-dependent magnetization vectors will be demonstrated. (author)

  7. Alignment of Duke free electron laser storage ring and optical beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emamian, M.; Hower, N.

    1999-01-01

    Duke Free Electron Laser Laboratory (DFELL) hosts a 1.1 GeV electron beam storage ring facility which is capable of generating beams in the range of nearly monochromatic gamma rays to high peak power infra red (IR) laser. In this report specifications and procedures for alignment of OK-4 /Duke storage ring FEL wiggler and optical cavity mirrors will be discussed. The OK-4 FEL lasing has demonstrated a series of world record in the last few years. In August of this year the OK-4 FEL successfully commissioned to laser at 193.7 nm. Also in this article, alignment of the γ-ray and UV optical beam delivery system that is currently in progress will be described. (authors)

  8. Beam Transport Devices for the 10 kW IR Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Dillon-Townes; Michael Bevins; David Kashy; Stephanie Slachtouski; Ronald Lassiter; George Neil; Michelle Shinn; Joseph Gubeli; Christopher Behre; David Douglas; David W. Waldman; George Biallas; Lawrence Munk; Christopher Gould

    2005-01-01

    Beam transport components for the 10kW IR Free Electron Laser (FEL) at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) were designed to manage (1) electron beam transport and (2) photon beam transport. An overview of the components will be presented in this paper. The electron beam transport components were designed to address RF heating, maintain an accelerator transport vacuum of 1 x 10 -8 torr, deliver photons to the optical cavity, and provide 50 kW of beam absorption during the energy recovery process. The components presented include a novel shielded bellows, a novel zero length beam clipper, a one decade differential pumping station with a 7.62 cm (3.0 inch) aperture, and a 50 kW beam dump. The photon beam transport components were designed to address the management of photons delivered by the accelerator transport. The optical cavity manages the photons and optical transport delivers the 10 kW of laser power to experimental labs. The optical cavity component presented is a unique high reflector vessel and the optical transport component presented is a turning mirror cassette

  9. Compact compressive arc and beam switchyard for energy recovery linac-driven ultraviolet free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, J. A. G.; Di Mitri, S.; Douglas, D.; Setija, I. D.

    2017-08-01

    High gain free electron lasers (FELs) driven by high repetition rate recirculating accelerators have received considerable attention in the scientific and industrial communities in recent years. Cost-performance optimization of such facilities encourages limiting machine size and complexity, and a compact machine can be realized by combining bending and bunch length compression during the last stage of recirculation, just before lasing. The impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on electron beam quality during compression can, however, limit FEL output power. When methods to counteract CSR are implemented, appropriate beam diagnostics become critical to ensure that the target beam parameters are met before lasing, as well as to guarantee reliable, predictable performance and rapid machine setup and recovery. This article describes a beam line for bunch compression and recirculation, and beam switchyard accessing a diagnostic line for EUV lasing at 1 GeV beam energy. The footprint is modest, with 12 m compressive arc diameter and ˜20 m diagnostic line length. The design limits beam quality degradation due to CSR both in the compressor and in the switchyard. Advantages and drawbacks of two switchyard lines providing, respectively, off-line and on-line measurements are discussed. The entire design is scalable to different beam energies and charges.

  10. Monitoring the electron beam position at the TESLA test facility free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamps, T

    2000-06-14

    The operation of a free electron laser working in the Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission mode (SASE FEL) requires the electron trajectory to be aligned with very high precision in overlap with the photon beam. In order to ensure this overlap, one module of the SASE FEL undulator at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) is equipped with a new type of waveguide beam position monitor (BPM). Four waveguides are arranged symmetrically around the beam pipe, each channel couples through a small slot to the electromagnetic beam field. The induced signal depends on the beam intensity and on the transverse beam position in terms of beam-to-slot distance. With four slot--waveguide combinations a linear position sensitive signal can be achieved, which is independent of the beam intensity. The signals transduced by the slots are transferred by ridged waveguides through an impedance matching stage into a narrowband receiver tuned to 12 GHz. The present thesis describes design, tests, and implementation of this new type of BPM. (orig.)

  11. A high-power millimeter-wave sheet beam free-electron laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Antonsen, T.M.; Levush, B.; Rodgers, J.; Zhang, Z.X.

    1996-01-01

    The results of experiments with a short period (9.6 mm) wiggler sheet electron beam (1.0 mm x 2.0 cm) millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) amplifier are presented. This FEL amplifier utilized a strong wiggler field for sheet beam confinement in the narrow beam dimension and an offset-pole side-focusing technique for the wide dimension beam confinement. The beam analysis herein includes finite emittance and space-charge effects. High-current beam propagation was achieved as a result of extensive analytical studies and experimental optimization. A design optimization resulted in a low sensitivity to structure errors and beam velocity spread, as well as a low required beam energy. A maximum gain of 24 dB was achieved with a 1-kW injected signal power at 86 GHz, a 450-kV beam voltage, 17-A beam current, 3.8-kG wiggler magnetic field, and a 74-period wiggler length. The maximum gain with a one-watt injected millimeter-wave power was observed to be over 30 dB. The lower gain at higher injection power level indicates that the device has approached saturation. The device was studied over a broad range of experimental parameters. The experimental results have a good agreement with expectations from a one-dimensional simulation code. The successful operation of this device has proven the feasibility of the original concept and demonstrated the advantages of the sheet beam FEL amplifier. The results of the studies will provide guidelines for the future development of sheet beam FEL's and/or other kinds of sheet beam devices. These devices have fusion application

  12. Characterization and control of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) open up new frontiers in photon science, and in order to take full advantage of these unique accelerator-based light sources, the characterization and control of the femtosecond electron and X-ray beams is essential. Within this cumulative thesis, recent results achieved within the active research field of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at FELs are reported.The basic principles of X-ray FELs are described, and concepts of longitudinal electron beam diagnostics with femtosecond accuracy are covered. Experimental results obtained with a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) and spectroscopy of coherent terahertz radiation are presented, and the suppression of coherent optical radiation effects, required for diagnostics utilizing a TDS, is demonstrated. Control of the longitudinal phase space by using multiple radio frequencies for longitudinal electron beam tailoring is presented, and a new technique of reversible electron beam heating with two TDSs is described. For the characterization of femtosecond X-ray pulses, a novel method based on dedicated longitudinal phase space diagnostics for electron beams is introduced, and recent measurements with a streaking technique using external terahertz fields are presented.

  13. Characterization and control of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher

    2012-11-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) open up new frontiers in photon science, and in order to take full advantage of these unique accelerator-based light sources, the characterization and control of the femtosecond electron and X-ray beams is essential. Within this cumulative thesis, recent results achieved within the active research field of femtosecond electron and X-ray beams at FELs are reported.The basic principles of X-ray FELs are described, and concepts of longitudinal electron beam diagnostics with femtosecond accuracy are covered. Experimental results obtained with a transverse deflecting structure (TDS) and spectroscopy of coherent terahertz radiation are presented, and the suppression of coherent optical radiation effects, required for diagnostics utilizing a TDS, is demonstrated. Control of the longitudinal phase space by using multiple radio frequencies for longitudinal electron beam tailoring is presented, and a new technique of reversible electron beam heating with two TDSs is described. For the characterization of femtosecond X-ray pulses, a novel method based on dedicated longitudinal phase space diagnostics for electron beams is introduced, and recent measurements with a streaking technique using external terahertz fields are presented.

  14. First operation of a wiggler-focused, sheet beam free electron laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destler, W.W.; Cheng, S.; Zhang, Z.X.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.; Rodgers, J.

    1994-01-01

    A wiggler-focused, sheet beam free electron laser (FEL) amplifier utilizing a short-period wiggler magnet has been proposed as a millimeter-wave source for current profile modification and/or electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas. As proposed, such an amplifier would operate at a frequency of approximately 100--200 GHz with an output power of 1--10 MW CW. Electron beam energy would be in the range 500--1000 keV. To test important aspects of this concept, an initial sheet beam FEL amplifier experiment has been performed using a 1 mmx2 cm sheet beam produced by a pulse line accelerator with a pulse duration of 100 ns. The 500--570 keV, 4--18 A sheet beam is propagated through a 56 period uniform wiggler (λ w =9.6 mm) with a peak wiggler amplitude of 2--5 kG. Linear amplification of a 5--10 W, 94 GHz signal injected in the TE 01 rectangular mode is observed. All features of the amplified signal, including pulse shape and duration, are in accordance with the predictions of numerical simulation. Amplified signal gain has been measured as a function of injected beam energy, current, and wiggler field amplitude and is also in good agreement with simulation results. Continuation of this experiment will involve studying nonlinear amplifier operation and adding a section of tapered wiggler

  15. Standing-wave free-electron laser two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.; Whittum, D.H.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    A free-electron laser (FEL) two-beam accelerator (TBA) is proposed, in which the FEL interaction takes place in a series of drive cavities, rather than in a waveguide. Each drive cavity is 'beat-coupled' to a section of the accelerating structure. This standing-wave TBA is investigated theoretically and numerically, with analyses included of microwave extraction, growth of the FEL signal through saturation, equilibrium longitudinal beam dynamics following saturation, and sensitivity of the microwave amplitude and phase to errors in current and energy. It is found that phase errors due to current jitter are substantially reduced from previous versions of the TBA. Analytic scalings and numerical simulations are used to obtain an illustrative TBA parameter set. (orig.)

  16. Spin polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Several ground state properties of (electron) spin-polarized deuterium (D) such as the energy, single quasiparticle energies and lifetimes, Landau parameters and sound velocities are evaluated. The calculations begin with the Kolos-Wolneiwicz potential and use the Galitskii-FeynmanHartree-Fock (GFHF) approximation. The deuteron nucleas has spin I = 1, and spin states I/sub z/ = 1,0,-1. We explore D 1 , D 2 and D 3 in which, respectively, one spin state only is populated, two states are equally populated, and three states are equally populated. We find the GFHF describes D 1 well, but D 2 and D 3 less well. The Landau parameters, F/sub L/, are small compared to liquid 3 He and very small for doubly polarized D 1 (i.e. the F/sub L/ decrease with nuclear polarization)

  17. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  18. Multiobjective genetic algorithm optimization of the beam dynamics in linac drivers for free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bartolini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Linac driven free electron lasers (FELs operating in the x-ray region require a high brightness electron beam in order to reach saturation within a reasonable distance in the undulator train or to enable sophisticated seeding schemes using external lasers. The beam dynamics optimization is usually a time consuming process in which many parameters of the accelerator and the compression system have to be controlled simultaneously. The requirements on the electron beam quality may also vary significantly with the particular application. For example, the beam dynamics optimization strategy for self-amplified spontaneous emission operation and seeded operation are rather different: seeded operation requires a more careful control of the beam uniformity over a relatively large portion of the longitudinal current distribution of the electron bunch and is therefore more challenging from an accelerator physics point of view. Multiobjective genetic algorithms are particularly well suited when the optimization of many parameters is targeting several objectives simultaneously, often with conflicting requirements. In this paper we propose a novel optimization strategy based on a combination of multiobjective optimization with a fast computation of the FEL performance. The application to the proposed UK’s New Light Source is reported and the benefits of this method are highlighted.

  19. Determination of the analyzing power of the A4 Compton-backscattering polarimeter for the measurement of the longitudinal spin polarization of the MAMI electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diefenbacher, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    The A4 experiment determines the strange quark contribution to the electromagnetic from factors of the nucleon by measuring the parity violation in elastic electron nucleon scattering. These measurements are carried out using the spin polarized electron beam of the Mainzer Mikrotron (MAMI) with beam energies in the range from 315 to 1508 MeV. For the data analysis it is essential to determine the degree of polarization of the electron beam in order to extract the physics asymmetry from the measured parity violating asymmetry. For this reason the A4 collaboration has developed a novel type of Compton laser backscattering polarimeter that allows for a non-destructive measurement of the beam polarization in parallel to the running parity experiment. In the scope of this work the polarimeter was refined in order to enable reliable continuous operation of the polarimeter. The data acquisition system for the photon and electron detector was re-designed and optimized to cope with high count rates. A novel detector (LYSO) for the backscattered photons was commissioned. Furthermore, GEANT4 simulations of the detectors have been performed and an analysis environment for the extraction of Compton asymmetries from the backscattered photon data has been developed. The analysis makes use of the possibility to detect backscattered photons in coincidence with the scattered electrons, thus tagging the photons. The tagging introduces a differential energy scale which enables the precise determination of the analyzing power. In this work the analyzing power of the polarimeter has been determined. Therefore, at a beam current of 20 μA the product of electron and laser polarization can be determined, while the parity experiment is running, with a statistical accuracy of 1 % in 24 hours at 855 MeV or 2 =0.6 (GeV/c) 2 the analysis yields a raw asymmetry of A Roh PV =(-20.0±0.9 stat ) x 10 -6 at the moment. For a beam polarization of 80 % the total error would be 1,68 x 10 -6 with ΔP e

  20. Beam energy distribution influences on density modulation efficiency in seeded free-electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The beam energy spread at the entrance of an undulator system is of paramount importance for efficient density modulation in high-gain seeded free-electron lasers (FELs. In this paper, the dependences of high harmonic bunching efficiency in high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG, echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG and phase-merging enhanced harmonic generation (PEHG schemes on the electron beam energy spread distribution are studied. Theoretical investigations and multidimensional numerical simulations are applied to the cases of uniform and saddle beam energy distributions and compared to a traditional Gaussian distribution. It shows that the uniform and saddle electron energy distributions significantly enhance the bunching performance of HGHG FELs, while they almost have no influence on EEHG and PEHG schemes. A further start-to-end simulation example demonstrated that, with the saddle distribution of sliced beam energy spread controlled by a laser heater, the 30th harmonic can be directly generated by a single-stage HGHG scheme for a soft x-ray FEL facility.

  1. Self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser devices and nonideal electron beam transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Lazzarino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have developed, at the SPARC test facility, a procedure for a real time self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (FEL device performance control. We describe an actual FEL, including electron and optical beam transport, through a set of analytical formulas, allowing a fast and reliable on-line “simulation” of the experiment. The system is designed in such a way that the characteristics of the transport elements and the laser intensity are measured and adjusted, via a real time computation, during the experimental run, to obtain an on-line feedback of the laser performances. The detail of the procedure and the relevant experimental results are discussed.

  2. High Power Amplifiers Chain nonlinearity influence on the accelerating beam stability in free electron laser (FLASH)

    CERN Document Server

    Cichalewski, w

    2010-01-01

    The high power amplifiers transfer characteristics nonlinearities can have a negative influence on the overall system performance. This is also true for the TESLA superconducting cavities accelerating field parameters control systems. This Low Level Radio Frequency control systems uses microwave high power amplifiers (like 10 MW klystrons) as actuators in the mentioned feedback loops. The amplitude compression and phase deviations phenomena introduced to the control signals can reduce the feedback performance and cause electron beam energy instabilities. The transfer characteristics deviations in the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg experiment have been investigated. The outcome of this study together with the description of the developed linearization method based on the digital predistortion approach have been described in this paper. Additionally, the results from the linearization tool performance tests in the FLASH's RF systems have been placed.

  3. Basic design considerations for free-electron lasers driven by electron beams from RF accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A.; Freund, H.; Granatstein, V. L.; McAdoo, J. H.; Tang, C.-M.

    A design procedure and design criteria are derived for free-electron lasers driven by electron beams from RF accelerators. The procedure and criteria permit an estimate of the oscillation-buildup time and the laser output power of various FEL schemes: with waveguide resonator or open resonator, with initial seed-radiation injection or with spontaneous-emission radiation source, with a linear wiggler or with a helical wiggler. Expressions are derived for computing the various FEL parameters, allowing for the design and optimization of the FEL operational characteristics under ideal conditions or with nonideal design parameters that may be limited by technological or practical constraints. The design procedure enables one to derive engineering curves and scaling laws for the FEL operating parameters. This can be done most conveniently with a computer program based on flowcharts given in the appendices.

  4. Rf transfer in the Coupled-Cavity Free-Electron Laser Two-Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowski, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A significant technical problem associated with the Coupled-Cavity Free-Electron Laser Two-Beam Accelerator is the transfer of RF energy from the drive accelerator to the high-gradient accelerator. Several concepts have been advanced to solve this problem. This paper examines one possible solution in which the drive and high-gradient cavities are directly coupled to one another by means of holes in the cavity walls or coupled indirectly through a third intermediate transfer cavity. Energy cascades through the cavities on a beat frequency time scale which must be made small compared to the cavity skin time but large compared to the FEL pulse length. The transfer is complicated by the fact that each of the cavities in the system can support many resonant modes near the chosen frequency of operation. A generalized set of coupled-cavity equations has been developed to model the energy transfer between the various modes in each of the cavities. For a two cavity case transfer efficiencies in excess of 95% can be achieved. 3 refs., 2 figs

  5. Symmetric grey box identification and distributed beam-based controller design for free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, Sven

    2014-09-15

    The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchtrotron (DESY) in Hamburg will, starting in 2015, open up completely new research opportunities for scientist and industrial users by exploiting ultrashort X-ray laser pulses. Bunches of electrons are accelerated by a radio frequency field inside superconducting cavities up to an energy of 17.5 GeV. A periodic arrangement of magnets forces the accelerated electrons onto a tight slalom path leading to a process in that the electrons emit extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. The generation of equidistant X-ray flashes with a constant intensity requires an extremely high precision field control in combination with beam-based signals. FLASH, which can be seen as a pilot test facility, allows to develop and test controller concepts even before the European XFEL is in operation. In this thesis it is shown that a physical white box model structure, which describes the behavior of each subsystem within the radio frequency field control loop, obeys as first-order approximation the special orthogonal group of dimension two (SO(2)). Presented is a grey box identification approach, which combines the physical model structure with general identification methods. The accelerator modules are operated in a pulsed mode. Thus, the excitation of the system and therefore the identification of the input-output behavior is only possible within a short time period. Developed is an adaptive identification approach with a specified SO(2) symmetric model structure. The proposed controller design strategy fulfills the requirements of a high precision field performance. Adapting the feedforward signal by using an iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm reduces remaining repetitive field errors from pulse to pulse. It is shown, that exploiting the SO(2) symmetric structure and using the developed tensor based ILC representation simplifies the feedforward update computation. Magnetic chicanes, so

  6. Symmetric grey box identification and distributed beam-based controller design for free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, Sven

    2014-09-01

    The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchtrotron (DESY) in Hamburg will, starting in 2015, open up completely new research opportunities for scientist and industrial users by exploiting ultrashort X-ray laser pulses. Bunches of electrons are accelerated by a radio frequency field inside superconducting cavities up to an energy of 17.5 GeV. A periodic arrangement of magnets forces the accelerated electrons onto a tight slalom path leading to a process in that the electrons emit extremely short and intense X-ray flashes. The generation of equidistant X-ray flashes with a constant intensity requires an extremely high precision field control in combination with beam-based signals. FLASH, which can be seen as a pilot test facility, allows to develop and test controller concepts even before the European XFEL is in operation. In this thesis it is shown that a physical white box model structure, which describes the behavior of each subsystem within the radio frequency field control loop, obeys as first-order approximation the special orthogonal group of dimension two (SO(2)). Presented is a grey box identification approach, which combines the physical model structure with general identification methods. The accelerator modules are operated in a pulsed mode. Thus, the excitation of the system and therefore the identification of the input-output behavior is only possible within a short time period. Developed is an adaptive identification approach with a specified SO(2) symmetric model structure. The proposed controller design strategy fulfills the requirements of a high precision field performance. Adapting the feedforward signal by using an iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm reduces remaining repetitive field errors from pulse to pulse. It is shown, that exploiting the SO(2) symmetric structure and using the developed tensor based ILC representation simplifies the feedforward update computation. Magnetic chicanes, so

  7. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guimei

    2011-01-01

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q ext with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam energy

  8. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guimei [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2011-12-31

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Q{sub ext} with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam

  9. Common analysis of the relativistic klystron and the standing-wave free-electron laser two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtele, J.S.; Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.

    1992-07-01

    This paper summarizes a new formalism which makes the analysis and understanding of both the relativistic klystron (RK) and the standing-wave free-electron laser (SWFEL) two-beam accelerator (TBA) available to a wide audience of accelerator physicists. A ''coupling impedance'' for both the RK and SWFEL is introduced, which can include realistic cavity features, such as beam and vacuum ports, in a simple manner. The RK and SWFEL macroparticle equations, which govern the energy and phase evolution of successive bunches in the beam, are of identical form, differing only by multiplicative factors. The analysis allows, for the first time, a relative comparison of the RF and SWFEL TBAs

  10. Compensating microphonics in SRF cavities to ensure beam stability for future free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Axel

    2008-07-21

    In seeded High-Gain-Harmonic-Generation free electron lasers or energy recovery linear accelerators the requirements for the bunch-to-bunch timing and energy jitter of the beam are in the femtosecond and per mill regime. This implies the ability to control the cavity radiofrequency (RF) field to an accuracy of 0.02 in phase and up to 1.10{sup -4} in amplitude. For the planned BESSY-FEL it is envisaged to operate 144 superconducting 1.3 GHz cavities of the 2.3 GeV driver linac in continuous wave mode and at a low beam current. The cavity resonance comprises a very narrow bandwidth of the order of tens of Hertz. Such cavities have been characterized under accelerator like conditions in the HoBiCaT test facility. It was possible to measure the error sources affecting the field stability in continuous wave (CW) operation. Microphonics, the main error source for a mechanical detuning of the cavities, lead to an average fluctuation of the cavity resonance of 1-5 Hz rms. Furthermore, the static and dynamic Lorentz force detuning and the helium pressure dependance of the cavity resonance have been measured. Single cavity RF control and linac bunch-to-bunch longitudinal phase space modeling containing the measured properties showed, that it is advisable to find means to minimize the microphonics detuning by mechanical tuning. Thus, several fast tuning systems have been tested for CW operation. These tuners consist of a motor driven lever for slow and coarse tuning and a piezo that is integrated into the tuner support for fast and fine tuning. Regarding the analysis of the detuning spectrum an adaptive feedforward method based on the least-mean-square filter algorithm has been developed for fast cavity tuning. A detuning compensation between a factor of two and up to a factor of seven has been achieved. Modeling the complete system including the fast tuning scheme, showed that the requirements of the BESSY-FEL are attainable. (orig.)

  11. Compensating microphonics in SRF cavities to ensure beam stability for future free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, Axel

    2008-01-01

    In seeded High-Gain-Harmonic-Generation free electron lasers or energy recovery linear accelerators the requirements for the bunch-to-bunch timing and energy jitter of the beam are in the femtosecond and per mill regime. This implies the ability to control the cavity radiofrequency (RF) field to an accuracy of 0.02 in phase and up to 1.10 -4 in amplitude. For the planned BESSY-FEL it is envisaged to operate 144 superconducting 1.3 GHz cavities of the 2.3 GeV driver linac in continuous wave mode and at a low beam current. The cavity resonance comprises a very narrow bandwidth of the order of tens of Hertz. Such cavities have been characterized under accelerator like conditions in the HoBiCaT test facility. It was possible to measure the error sources affecting the field stability in continuous wave (CW) operation. Microphonics, the main error source for a mechanical detuning of the cavities, lead to an average fluctuation of the cavity resonance of 1-5 Hz rms. Furthermore, the static and dynamic Lorentz force detuning and the helium pressure dependance of the cavity resonance have been measured. Single cavity RF control and linac bunch-to-bunch longitudinal phase space modeling containing the measured properties showed, that it is advisable to find means to minimize the microphonics detuning by mechanical tuning. Thus, several fast tuning systems have been tested for CW operation. These tuners consist of a motor driven lever for slow and coarse tuning and a piezo that is integrated into the tuner support for fast and fine tuning. Regarding the analysis of the detuning spectrum an adaptive feedforward method based on the least-mean-square filter algorithm has been developed for fast cavity tuning. A detuning compensation between a factor of two and up to a factor of seven has been achieved. Modeling the complete system including the fast tuning scheme, showed that the requirements of the BESSY-FEL are attainable. (orig.)

  12. Detailed characterization of electron sources yielding first demonstration of European X-ray Free-Electron Laser beam quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stephan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The photoinjector test facility at DESY, Zeuthen site (PITZ, was built to develop and optimize photoelectron sources for superconducting linacs for high-brilliance, short-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL applications like the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH and the European x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL. In this paper, the detailed characterization of two laser-driven rf guns with different operating conditions is described. One experimental optimization of the beam parameters was performed at an accelerating gradient of about 43  MV/m at the photocathode and the other at about 60  MV/m. In both cases, electron beams with very high phase-space density have been demonstrated at a bunch charge of 1 nC and are compared with corresponding simulations. The rf gun optimized for the lower gradient has surpassed all the FLASH requirements on beam quality and rf parameters (gradient, rf pulse length, repetition rate and serves as a spare gun for this facility. The rf gun studied with increased accelerating gradient at the cathode produced beams with even higher brightness, yielding the first demonstration of the beam quality required for driving the European XFEL: The geometric mean of the normalized projected rms emittance in the two transverse directions was measured to be 1.26±0.13  mm mrad for a 1-nC electron bunch. When a 10% charge cut is applied excluding electrons from those phase-space regions where the measured phase-space density is below a certain level and which are not expected to contribute to the lasing process, the normalized projected rms emittance is about 0.9 mm mrad.

  13. Inducing Strong Density Modulation with Small Energy Dispersion in Particle Beams and the Harmonic Amplifier Free Electron Laser

    CERN Document Server

    McNeil, Brian W J; Robb, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    We present a possible method of inducing a periodic density modulation in a particle beam with little increase in the energy dispersion of the particles. The flow of particles in phase space does not obey Liouville's Theorem. The method relies upon the Kuramoto-like model of collective synchronism found in free electron generators of radiation, such as Cyclotron Resonance Masers and the Free Electron Laser. For the case of an FEL interaction, electrons initially begin to bunch and emit radiation energy with a correlated energy dispersion which is periodic with the FEL ponderomotive potential. The relative phase between potential and particles is then changed by approximately 180 degrees. The particles continue to bunch, however, there is now a correlated re-absorption of energy from the field. We show that, by repeating this relative phase change many times, a significant density modulation of the particles may be achieved with only relatively small energy dispersion. A similar method of repeated relative ele...

  14. An enhancement of spin polarization by multiphoton pumping in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Multiphoton pumping and spin generation in semiconductors. {yields} Optical selection rules for inter-band transitions. {yields} Calculations of spin polarization using band-energy model and the second order perturbation theory. {yields} Enhancement of the electronic spin polarization. - Abstract: A pump-probe spectroscopic study has been carried out in zinc-blende bulk semiconductors. In the semiconductor samples, a spin-polarized carrier population is produced by the absorption of a monochromatic circularly polarized light beam with two-photon energy above the direct band gap in bulk semiconductors. The production of a carrier population with a net spin is a consequence of the optical selection rules for the heavy-hole and light-hole valence-to-conduction band transitions. This production is probed by the spin-dependent transmission of the samples in the time domain. The spin polarization of the conduction-band-electrons in dependences of delay of the probe beam as well as of pumping photon energy is estimated. The spin polarization is found to depolarize rapidly for pumping energy larger than the energy gap of the split-off band to the conduction band. From the polarization decays, the spin relaxation times are also estimated. Compared to one-photon pumping, the results, however, show that an enhancement of the spin-polarization is achieved by multiphoton excitation of the samples. The experimental results are compared with those obtained in calculations using second order perturbation theory of the spin transport model. A good agreement between experiment and theory is obtained. The observed results are discussed in details.

  15. An enhancement of spin polarization by multiphoton pumping in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Multiphoton pumping and spin generation in semiconductors. → Optical selection rules for inter-band transitions. → Calculations of spin polarization using band-energy model and the second order perturbation theory. → Enhancement of the electronic spin polarization. - Abstract: A pump-probe spectroscopic study has been carried out in zinc-blende bulk semiconductors. In the semiconductor samples, a spin-polarized carrier population is produced by the absorption of a monochromatic circularly polarized light beam with two-photon energy above the direct band gap in bulk semiconductors. The production of a carrier population with a net spin is a consequence of the optical selection rules for the heavy-hole and light-hole valence-to-conduction band transitions. This production is probed by the spin-dependent transmission of the samples in the time domain. The spin polarization of the conduction-band-electrons in dependences of delay of the probe beam as well as of pumping photon energy is estimated. The spin polarization is found to depolarize rapidly for pumping energy larger than the energy gap of the split-off band to the conduction band. From the polarization decays, the spin relaxation times are also estimated. Compared to one-photon pumping, the results, however, show that an enhancement of the spin-polarization is achieved by multiphoton excitation of the samples. The experimental results are compared with those obtained in calculations using second order perturbation theory of the spin transport model. A good agreement between experiment and theory is obtained. The observed results are discussed in details.

  16. Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor; Kuba, J.; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Hájková, Věra; Koptyaev, Sergey; Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy; Bergh, M.; Caleman, C.; Hajdu, J.; Bionta, R.M.; Chapman, H.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; London, R.A.; Jurek, M.; Krzywinski, J.; Nietubyc, R.; Pelka, J. B.; Sobierajski, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Tronnier, A.; Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Stojanovic, N.; Tiedtke, K.; Toleikis, S.; Tschentscher, T.; Wabnitz, H.; Zastrau, U.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 10 (2007), s. 6036-6042 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P04LA235; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR KAN300100702 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 1K05026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : free-electron laser * soft X-rays * focusing * beam profile * ablation threshold * laser-matter interaction Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.709, year: 2007

  17. High-power free-electron laser amplifier using a scalloped electron beam and a two-stage wiggler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Nguyen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available High-power free-electron laser (FEL amplifiers present many practical design and construction problems. One such problem is possible damage to any optical beam control elements beyond the wiggler. The ability to increase the optical beam’s divergence angle after the wiggler, thereby reducing the intensity on the first optical element, is important to minimize such damage. One proposal to accomplish this optical beam spreading is to pinch the electron beam thereby focusing the radiation as well. In this paper, we analyze an approach that relies on the natural betatron motion to pinch the electron beam near the end of the wiggler. We also consider a step-tapered, two-stage wiggler to enhance the efficiency. The combination of a pinched electron beam and step-taper wiggler leads to additional optical guiding of the optical beam. This novel configuration is studied in simulation using the MEDUSA code. For a representative set of beam and wiggler parameters, we discuss (i the effect of the scalloped beam on the interaction in the FEL and on the focusing and propagation of the radiation, and (ii the efficiency enhancement in the two-stage wiggler.

  18. Core Technology Development of Nuclear spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung Duk; Gwon, Sung Ok; Kwon, Duck Hee; Lee, Sung Man

    2009-12-01

    In order to study nuclear spin polarization, we need several core technologies such as laser beam source to polarize the nuclear spin, low pressured helium cell development whose surface is essential to maintain polarization otherwise most of the polarized helium relaxed in short time, development of uniform magnetic field system which is essential for reducing relaxation, efficient vacuum system, development of polarization measuring system, and development of pressure raising system about 1000 times. The purpose of this study is to develop resonable power of laser system, that is at least 5 watt, 1083 nm, 4GHz tuneable. But the limitation of this research fund enforce to develop amplifying system into 5 watt with 1 watt system utilizing laser-diod which is already we have in stock. We succeeded in getting excellent specification of fiber laser system with power of 5 watts, 2 GHz linewidth, more than 80 GHz tuneable

  19. Optimization of power output and study of electron beam energy spread in a Free Electron Laser oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovich, A.; Pinhasi, Y.; Yahalom, A.; Bar-Lev, D.; Efimov, S.; Gover, A.

    2001-01-01

    Design of a multi-stage depressed collector for efficient operation of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) oscillator requires knowledge of the electron beam energy distribution. This knowledge is necessary to determine the voltages of the depressed collector electrodes that optimize the collection efficiency and overall energy conversion efficiency of the FEL. The energy spread in the electron beam is due to interaction in the wiggler region, as electrons enter the interaction region at different phases relative to the EM wave. This interaction can be simulated well by a three-dimensional simulation code such as FEL3D. The main adjustable parameters that determine the electron beam energy spread after interaction are the e-beam current, the initial beam energy, and the quality factor of the resonator out-coupling coefficient. Using FEL3D, we study the influence of these parameters on the available radiation power and on the electron beam energy distribution at the undulator exit. Simulations performed for I=1.5 A, E=1.4 MeV, L=20% (Internal loss factor) showed that the highest radiated output power and smallest energy spread are attained for an output coupler transmission coefficient T m congruent with 30%

  20. Design of the extraction arc for the 2nd beam line of the free-electron laser FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I deal with the design of the extraction arc for the second beam line of FLASH, an FEL (Free-Electron Laser) user facility at DESY Hamburg. Both beam lines will use the same linear accelerator and their separation will take place behind the last accelerating module. I present the constraints for the extraction arc given by the beam line layout of the existing machine, by the building environment of the new beam line and in particular, by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). The impact from CSR is presented, and I show how to mitigate these effects and what that means for the beam line design. The optimization of the extraction arc was done applying the downhill simplex algorithm which is presented, first in its basic form to explain the operation principle and then in a more advanced version as used in the applied program. I introduce in this thesis the final layout of the extraction arc including the following matching section. This layout fulfills all given constraints and can provide the required electron beam quality for FEL operation. In order to prove this, I present start-to-end simulations for different bunch charges and for two different wavelengths.

  1. Optimization of power output and study of electron beam energy spread in a Free Electron Laser oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Abramovich, A; Efimov, S; Gover, A; Pinhasi, Y; Yahalom, A

    2001-01-01

    Design of a multi-stage depressed collector for efficient operation of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) oscillator requires knowledge of the electron beam energy distribution. This knowledge is necessary to determine the voltages of the depressed collector electrodes that optimize the collection efficiency and overall energy conversion efficiency of the FEL. The energy spread in the electron beam is due to interaction in the wiggler region, as electrons enter the interaction region at different phases relative to the EM wave. This interaction can be simulated well by a three-dimensional simulation code such as FEL3D. The main adjustable parameters that determine the electron beam energy spread after interaction are the e-beam current, the initial beam energy, and the quality factor of the resonator out-coupling coefficient. Using FEL3D, we study the influence of these parameters on the available radiation power and on the electron beam energy distribution at the undulator exit. Simulations performed for I=1.5 A, E...

  2. Wake field of electron beam accelerated in a RF-gun of free electron laser 'ELSA'

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    1999-01-01

    Wake field effects driven by a coasting relativistic charged particle beam have been studied for various cavity geometries. In the particular case of a cylindrical 'pill-box' cavity, an analytical expression of the (E, B)(x, t) map has been obtained as a development on the complete base cavity normal modes. We extend this method to the case of an accelerated beam, which leaves the downstream face of the cavity with a thermal velocity, and becomes relativistic in a few cm. This situation is very different from the classical wake of an ultrarelativistic beam for two reasons: (a) in the case of an ultrarelativistic beam, the field directly generated by beam particles in their wake can be neglected, and the so-called wake field is the electromagnetic linear response of the cavity to the exciting signal which is the beam. For a transrelativistic beam, the direct field must be taken into account and added to cavity response, which is no longer linear, except for low-intensity beam; (b) causality prevents any beam's...

  3. Beam-breakup calculations for the Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to the usual circularly symmetric TM/sub 010/ mode used to accelerate particles in an rf linac, there is a large number of modes with cos phi or sin phi dependence, for example the TM/sub 1xx/ modes. These latter modes possess a uniform magnetic (dipole) field near the axis of symmetry and therefore can deflect the beam away from the axis. Any portion of an accelerated beam that is off-axis will drive these modes, so that subsequent portions of the beam will be deflected. This deflected beam will then resonantly drive the same modes in downstream cavities, so that still later portions of the beam will be more severely deflected, and so on. In this paper are reported the results of numerical simulations of this so-called cumulative beam-breakup instability. The simulation assumes that only the TM/sub 110/ mode acts to deflect the beam, and further assumes that this mode does not couple from one accelerating cavity to the next

  4. Nuclear spin polarization of targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Happer, W.

    1990-01-01

    Lasers can be used to produce milligrams to grams of noble gas nuclei with spin polarizations in excess of 50%. These quantities are sufficient to be very useful targets in nuclear physics experiments. Alkali-metal atoms are used to capture the angular momentum of circularly polarized laser photons, and the alkali-metal atoms transfer their angular momentum to noble gas atoms in binary or three-body collisions. Non-radiative collisions between the excited alkali atoms and molecular quenching gases are essential to avoid radiation trapping. The spin exchange can involve gas-phase van der Waals molecules, consisting of a noble gas atom and an alkali metal atom. Surface chemistry is also of great importance in determining the wall-induced relaxation rates of the noble gases

  5. Spontaneous spin polarization in quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilchenko, A.A., E-mail: a_vas2002@mail.ru

    2015-12-04

    The total energy of a quasi-one-dimensional electron system was calculated using the density functional theory. In the absence of a magnetic field, we have found that ferromagnetic state occurs in the quantum wires. The phase diagram of the transition into the spin-polarized state is constructed. The critical electron density below which electrons are in spin-polarized state is estimated analytically. - Highlights: • Density functional theory used to study a spin-polarized state in quantum wires. • The Kohn–Sham equation for quasi-one-dimensional electrons solved numerically. • The phase diagram of the transition into the spin-polarized state is constructed. • The electron density below which electrons are in a spin-polarized state was found. • The critical density of electrons was estimated analytically.

  6. Spontaneous spin polarization in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilchenko, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    The total energy of a quasi-one-dimensional electron system was calculated using the density functional theory. In the absence of a magnetic field, we have found that ferromagnetic state occurs in the quantum wires. The phase diagram of the transition into the spin-polarized state is constructed. The critical electron density below which electrons are in spin-polarized state is estimated analytically. - Highlights: • Density functional theory used to study a spin-polarized state in quantum wires. • The Kohn–Sham equation for quasi-one-dimensional electrons solved numerically. • The phase diagram of the transition into the spin-polarized state is constructed. • The electron density below which electrons are in a spin-polarized state was found. • The critical density of electrons was estimated analytically.

  7. Beam monitor system for an x-ray free electron laser and compact laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Otake

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A beam-monitor system for XFEL/SPring 8, “SACLA,” has been constructed. In order to maintain a stable self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE interaction, the straightness and overlap of the axes to within 3  μm between the electron beams and the radiated x rays for an undulator section of about 100 m length is necessary. This straightness means relative alignment to an experimental target sample. Furthermore, a temporal stability of 30 fs in order to maintain a constant peak beam current is also necessary to conduct stable SASE lasing. The monitor system was developed to satisfy these spatial and temporal stability and resolution criteria. The system comprises spatial monitors, such as cavity-type beam-position monitors and screen monitors, as well as temporal measurement instruments, such as current monitors, waveguide spectrometers, coherent synchrotron-radiation detectors, a streak camera, and an rf deflector. Commissioning of SACLA started from March 2011, and the monitors performed sufficient roles to tune the beams for lasing. The achieved overall performances of the system, including data acquisition, are: the beam position monitor has a spatial resolution of 600 nm in rms; the bunch-length monitors show ability to observe bunch lengths from 1 ns in an injector with velocity bunching to less than 30 fs after three-stage bunch compressors. The less than 3  μm spatial resolution of the screen monitor was also confirmed during practical beam operation. Owing to these fulfilled performances, such as the high spatial and temporal resolutions, stable lasing of SACLA has been achieved.

  8. Study of beam transverse properties of a thermionic electron gun for application to a compact THz free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Tongning; Qin, Bin; Tan, Ping; Chen, Qushan; Yang, Lei; Pei, Yuanji; Li, Ji

    2014-01-01

    A novel thermionic electron gun adopted for use in a high power THz free electron laser (FEL) is proposed in this paper. By optimization of the structural and radiofrequency (RF) parameters, the physical design of the gun is performed using dynamic calculations. Velocity bunching is used to minimize the bunch's energy spread, and the dynamic calculation results indicate that high quality beams can be provided. The transverse properties of the beams generated by the gun are also analyzed. The novel RF focusing effects of the resonance cavity are investigated precisely and are used to establish emittance compensation, which enables the injector length to be reduced. In addition, the causes of the extrema of the beam radius and the normalized transverse emittance are analyzed and interpreted, respectively, and slice simulations are performed to illustrate how the RF focusing varies along the bunch length and to determine the effects of that variation on the emittance compensation. Finally, by observation of the variations of the beam properties in the drift tube behind the electron gun, prospective assembly scenarios for the complete THz-FEL injector are discussed, and a joint-debugging process for the injector is implemented

  9. Analytic model of bunched beams for harmonic generation in the low-gain free electron laser regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Penn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available One scheme for harmonic generation employs free electron lasers (FELs with two undulators: the first uses a seed laser to modulate the energy of the electron beam; following a dispersive element which acts to bunch the beam, the second undulator radiates at a higher harmonic. These processes are currently evaluated using extensive calculations or simulation codes which can be slow to evaluate and difficult to set up. We describe a simple algorithm to predict the output of a harmonic generation beam line in the low-gain FEL regime, based on trial functions for the output radiation. Full three-dimensional effects are included. This method has been implemented as a Mathematica® package, named CAMPANILE, which runs rapidly and can be generalized to include effects such as asymmetric beams and misalignments. This method is compared with simulation results using the FEL code GENESIS, both for single stages of harmonic generation and for the LUX project, a design concept for an ultrafast x-ray facility, where multiple stages upshift the input laser frequency by factors of up to 200.

  10. 'Diffraction-free' optical beams in inverse free electron laser accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, S.Y.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Marshall, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    'Diffraction-free' optical beams correspond to exact solutions of the wave equation in free space with the remarkable property that they propagate with negligible transverse spreading for distances much larger than the Rayleigh range. The requirement for this to occur is a large aperture. Using a 2D computer code, we find that these optical beams will also propagate with negligible diffraction even when perturbed by the electron beam in an IFEL; indeed they match well the FEL requirement for the accelerator. The numerical simulations are performed for the proposed facility at Brookhaven in which λ s =10 μm, B=1.5 T (linearly tapered l w =1.31-6.28 cm) and the optical beam power is either 8x10 11 W or 2.3x10 10 W. Approximately 70% of the electrons constituting a beam of current 5 mA or 15 A, radius 0.14 mm and initial energy of 50 MeV is accelerated at 50 MeV/m. (orig.)

  11. Study of the nuclear structure far from stability: Coulomb excitation of neutron-rich Rb isotopes around N=60; Production of nuclear spin polarized beams using the tilted foils technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotty, C.

    2013-01-01

    The underlying structure in the region A ∼ 100, N ∼ 60 has been under intensive and extensive investigation, mainly by β-decay and γ-ray spectroscopy from fission processes. Around N ∼ 60, by adding just few neutrons, protons a rapid shape change occurs from spherical-like to well deformed g.s. shape. Shape coexistence has been observed in the Sr and Zr nuclei, and is expected to take place in the whole region. The mechanisms involved in the appearance of the deformation is not well understood. The interplay between down-sloping and up-sloping neutron Nilsson orbital is evoked as one of the main reasons for the sudden shape change. However, a clear identification of the active proton and neutron orbitals was still on-going. For that purpose, the neutron rich 93;95;97;99 Rb isotopes have been studied by Coulomb excitation at CERN (ISOLDE) using the REX-ISOLDE post-accelerator and the MINIBALL setup. The completely unknown structures of 97;99 Rb have been populated and observed. Prompt γ-ray coincidences of low-lying states have been observed and time-correlated in order to build level schemes. The associated transition strengths have been extracted with the GOSIA code. The observed matrix elements of the electromagnetic operator constituted new inputs of further theoretical calculations giving new insight on the involved orbitals. The sensitivity of such experiment can be increased using nuclear spin polarized radioactive ion beam. For that purpose the Tilted Foils Technique (TFT) of polarization has been investigated at CERN. This technique consists to spin polarize the ion beam, passing through thin foils tilted at an oblique angle with respect to the beam direction. The initially obtained atomic polarization is transferred to the nucleus by hyperfine interaction. This technique does not depend on the chemical nature of the element. Short lived nuclei can be polarized in-flight without any need to be stopped in a catcher. It opens up the possibility to

  12. Exact and variational calculations of eigenmodes for three-dimensional free electron laser interaction with a warm electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    I present an exact calculation of free-electron-laser (FEL) eigenmodes (fundamental as well as higher order modes) in the exponential-gain regime. These eigenmodes specify transverse profiles and exponential growth rates of the laser field, and they are self-consistent solutions of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations describing the FEL interaction taking into account the effects due to energy spread, emittance and betatron oscillations of the electron beam, and diffraction and guiding of the laser field. The unperturbed electron distribution is assumed to be of Gaussian shape in four dimensional transverse phase space and in the energy variable, but uniform in longitudinal coordinate. The focusing of the electron beam is assumed to be matched to the natural wiggler focusing in both transverse planes. With these assumptions the eigenvalue problem can be reduced to a numerically manageable integral equation and solved exactly with a kernel iteration method. An approximate, but more efficient solution of the integral equation is also obtained for the fundamental mode by a variational technique, which is shown to agree well with the exact results. Furthermore, I present a handy formula, obtained from interpolating the numerical results, for a quick calculation of FEL exponential growth rate. Comparisons with simulation code TDA will also be presented. Application of these solutions to the design and multi-dimensional parameter space optimization for an X-ray free electron laser driven by SLAC linac will be demonstrated. In addition, a rigorous analysis of transverse mode degeneracy and hence the transverse coherence of the X-ray FEL will be presented based on the exact solutions of the higher order guided modes.

  13. Development of spin-polarized transmission electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, M; Saitoh, K; Tanaka, N; Takeda, Y; Ujihara, T; Asano, H; Nakanishi, T

    2011-01-01

    In order to study spin related phenomena in nano-size materials, spin-polarized electron source (PES) has been employed for the incident beam in transmission electron microscope (TEM). The PES has been designed and constructed with optimizing for spin-polarized TEM. The illuminating system of TEM is also designed to focus the spin-polarized electron beam emitted from a semiconductor photocathode with a negative electron affinity (NEA) surface. The beam energy is set to below 40 keV which is lower energy type as a TEM, because the spin interaction with condensed matters is very small corresponding with a Coulomb interaction. The polarized electron gun has realized in an extra high vacuum (XHV) condition and high field gradient of 4 MV/m on a surface of photocathode. Furthermore, it demonstrated that 40-keV polarized electron beam was operated with a sub-milli second pulse mode by using the backside excitation type photocathode. This high performance PES will make it possible to observe dynamically a magnetic field images with high contrast and highspeed temporal imaging in TEM.

  14. Free electron laser small signal dynamics and inclusion of electron-beam energy phase correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Giannessi, L.; Ottaviani, P. L.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper are analyzed the problems associated with the generation of coherent radiation by an e-beam, traversing an undulator magnet, with an initial energy-phase correlation. The mechanism of the process are explained and the role played by the bunching is clarified. The effect of the correlation on the stimulated part of the emission is also discussed [it

  15. Start-Up of a Pulsed Beam Free Electron Laser (FEL) Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    By slightly increasing the frequency of the R.F. accelerating field, Wacc during the start-up period, i.e., decreasing the beam pulse separation, the...levels. The required fractional increase in Wacc is 16L 1- 6L2 1/Lbow 10 - 6 for the parameters of ref. (3,4). The same 6 effect may also be realized

  16. Exploring vacuum birefringence based on a 100 PW laser and an x-ray free electron laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Baifei; Bu, Zhigang; Xu, Jiancai; Xu, Tongjun; Ji, Liangliang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2018-04-01

    Exploring vacuum birefringence with the station of extreme light at Shanghai Coherent Light Facility is considered. Laser pulses of intensity beyond 1023 W cm-2 are capable of polarizing the vacuum due to the ultra-strong electro-magnetic fields. The subtle difference of the vacuum refractive indexes along electric and magnetic fields leads to a birefringence effect for lights propagating through. The vacuum birefringence effect can now be captured by colliding a hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) beam with a high-power laser. The initial XFEL beam of pure linear polarization is predicated to gain a very small ellipticity after passing through the laser stimulated vacuum. Various interaction geometries are considered, showing that the estimated ellipticity lies between 1.8 × 10-10 and 10-9 for a 100 PW laser interacting with a 12.9 keV XFEL beam, approaching the threshold for todays’ polarity detection technique. The detailed experimental set-up is designed, including the polarimeter, the focusing compound refractive lens and the optical path. When taking into account the efficiencies of the x-ray instruments, it is found that about 10 polarization-flipped x-ray photons can be detected for a single shot for our design. Considering the background noise level, accumulating runs are necessary to obtain high confident measurement.

  17. Optical beam transport to a remote location for low jitter pump-probe experiments with a free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cinquegrana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a scheme that allows a strong reduction of the timing jitter between the pulses of a free electron laser (FEL and external laser pulses delivered simultaneously at the FEL experimental stations for pump-probe–type experiments. The technique, applicable to all seeding-based FEL schemes, relies on the free-space optical transport of a portion of the seed laser pulse from its optical table to the experimental stations. The results presented here demonstrate that a carefully designed laser beam transport, incorporating also a transverse beam position stabilization, allows one to keep the timing fluctuations, added by as much as 150 m of free space propagation and a number of beam folding mirrors, to less than 4 femtoseconds rms. By its nature our scheme removes the major common timing jitter sources, so the overall jitter in pump-probe measurements done in this way will be below 10 fs (with a margin to be lowered to below 5 fs, much better than the best results reported previously in the literature amounting to 33 fs rms.

  18. A new version of a free electron laser Two-Beam Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.; Sternbach, E.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1988-09-01

    A new version of a Two-Beam Accelerator is proposed in which in each period of the drive structure a very small input microwave signal is amplified to a large power level and then completely removed and transferred to the accelerating structure. In this manner a number of difficulties with the original version are eliminated or greatly relieved; namely, rf phase and amplitude sensitivity, growth of sidebands, and rf manipulation (removal of the microwaves from the drive structure, and transmission of microwave power through the accelerating cavities). 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Thermal stability of tunneling spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, C.H.; Kohlhepp, J.T.; Paluskar, P.V.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Jonge, W.J.M. de

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal stability of tunneling spin polarization in Al/AlOx/ferromagnet junctions based on the spin-polarized tunneling technique, in which the Zeeman-split superconducting density of states in the Al electrode is used as a detector for the spin polarization. Thermal robustness of the polarization, which is of key importance for the performance of magnetic tunnel junction devices, is demonstrated for post-deposition anneal temperatures up to 500 o C with Co and Co 90 Fe 10 top electrodes, independent of the presence of an FeMn layer on top of the ferromagnet

  20. Design and optimization of a modular setup for measurements of three-dimensional spin polarization with ultrafast pulsed sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincelli, T; Petrov, V N; Brajnik, G; Ciprian, R; Lollobrigida, V; Torelli, P; Krizmancic, D; Salvador, F; De Luisa, A; Sergo, R; Gubertini, A; Cautero, G; Carrato, S; Rossi, G; Panaccione, G

    2016-03-01

    ULTRASPIN is an apparatus devoted to the measurement of the spin polarization (SP) of electrons ejected from solid surfaces in a UHV environment. It is designed to exploit ultrafast light sources (free electron laser or laser high harmonic generation) and to perform (photo)electron spin analysis by an arrangement of Mott scattering polarimeters that measure the full SP vector. The system consists of two interconnected UHV vessels: one for surface science sample cleaning treatments, e-beam deposition of ultrathin films, and low energy electron diffraction/AES characterization. The sample environment in the polarimeter allows for cryogenic cooling and in-operando application of electric and magnetic fields. The photoelectrons are collected by an electrostatic accelerator and transport lens that form a periaxial beam that is subsequently directed by a Y-shaped electrostatic deflector to either one of the two orthogonal Mott polarimeters. The apparatus has been designed to operate in the extreme conditions of ultraintense single-X-ray pulses as originated by free electron lasers (up to 1 kHz), but it allows also for the single electron counting mode suitable when using statistical sources such as synchrotron radiation, cw-laser, or e-gun beams (up to 150 kcps).

  1. Design and optimization of a modular setup for measurements of three-dimensional spin polarization with ultrafast pulsed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincelli, T.; Rossi, G.; Petrov, V. N.; Brajnik, G.; Carrato, S.; Ciprian, R.; Torelli, P.; Krizmancic, D.; Salvador, F.; De Luisa, A.; Panaccione, G.; Lollobrigida, V.; Sergo, R.; Gubertini, A.; Cautero, G.

    2016-01-01

    ULTRASPIN is an apparatus devoted to the measurement of the spin polarization (SP) of electrons ejected from solid surfaces in a UHV environment. It is designed to exploit ultrafast light sources (free electron laser or laser high harmonic generation) and to perform (photo)electron spin analysis by an arrangement of Mott scattering polarimeters that measure the full SP vector. The system consists of two interconnected UHV vessels: one for surface science sample cleaning treatments, e-beam deposition of ultrathin films, and low energy electron diffraction/AES characterization. The sample environment in the polarimeter allows for cryogenic cooling and in-operando application of electric and magnetic fields. The photoelectrons are collected by an electrostatic accelerator and transport lens that form a periaxial beam that is subsequently directed by a Y-shaped electrostatic deflector to either one of the two orthogonal Mott polarimeters. The apparatus has been designed to operate in the extreme conditions of ultraintense single-X-ray pulses as originated by free electron lasers (up to 1 kHz), but it allows also for the single electron counting mode suitable when using statistical sources such as synchrotron radiation, cw-laser, or e-gun beams (up to 150 kcps).

  2. Design and optimization of a modular setup for measurements of three-dimensional spin polarization with ultrafast pulsed sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincelli, T.; Petrov, V. N.; Brajnik, G.; Ciprian, R.; Lollobrigida, V.; Torelli, P.; Krizmancic, D.; Salvador, F.; De Luisa, A.; Sergo, R.; Gubertini, A.; Cautero, G.; Carrato, S.; Rossi, G.; Panaccione, G.

    2016-03-01

    ULTRASPIN is an apparatus devoted to the measurement of the spin polarization (SP) of electrons ejected from solid surfaces in a UHV environment. It is designed to exploit ultrafast light sources (free electron laser or laser high harmonic generation) and to perform (photo)electron spin analysis by an arrangement of Mott scattering polarimeters that measure the full SP vector. The system consists of two interconnected UHV vessels: one for surface science sample cleaning treatments, e-beam deposition of ultrathin films, and low energy electron diffraction/AES characterization. The sample environment in the polarimeter allows for cryogenic cooling and in-operando application of electric and magnetic fields. The photoelectrons are collected by an electrostatic accelerator and transport lens that form a periaxial beam that is subsequently directed by a Y-shaped electrostatic deflector to either one of the two orthogonal Mott polarimeters. The apparatus has been designed to operate in the extreme conditions of ultraintense single-X-ray pulses as originated by free electron lasers (up to 1 kHz), but it allows also for the single electron counting mode suitable when using statistical sources such as synchrotron radiation, cw-laser, or e-gun beams (up to 150 kcps).

  3. Design and optimization of a modular setup for measurements of three-dimensional spin polarization with ultrafast pulsed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincelli, T., E-mail: pincelli@iom.cnr.it; Rossi, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Petrov, V. N. [Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University, Politechnicheskaya Street 29, 195251 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Brajnik, G.; Carrato, S. [Università degli Studi di Trieste, Piazzale Europa 1, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Ciprian, R.; Torelli, P.; Krizmancic, D.; Salvador, F.; De Luisa, A.; Panaccione, G. [Laboratorio TASC, IOM-CNR, S.S. 14 km 163.5, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Lollobrigida, V. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Sergo, R.; Gubertini, A.; Cautero, G. [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A, Strada Statale 14-km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, Basovizza, 34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    ULTRASPIN is an apparatus devoted to the measurement of the spin polarization (SP) of electrons ejected from solid surfaces in a UHV environment. It is designed to exploit ultrafast light sources (free electron laser or laser high harmonic generation) and to perform (photo)electron spin analysis by an arrangement of Mott scattering polarimeters that measure the full SP vector. The system consists of two interconnected UHV vessels: one for surface science sample cleaning treatments, e-beam deposition of ultrathin films, and low energy electron diffraction/AES characterization. The sample environment in the polarimeter allows for cryogenic cooling and in-operando application of electric and magnetic fields. The photoelectrons are collected by an electrostatic accelerator and transport lens that form a periaxial beam that is subsequently directed by a Y-shaped electrostatic deflector to either one of the two orthogonal Mott polarimeters. The apparatus has been designed to operate in the extreme conditions of ultraintense single-X-ray pulses as originated by free electron lasers (up to 1 kHz), but it allows also for the single electron counting mode suitable when using statistical sources such as synchrotron radiation, cw-laser, or e-gun beams (up to 150 kcps).

  4. Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohashi, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Spin-Polarized Scanning Electron Microscopy (Spin SEM) is one way for observing magnetic domain structures taking advantage of the spin polarization of the secondary electrons emitted from a ferromagnetic sample. This principle brings us several excellent capabilities such as high-spatial resolution better than 10 nm, and analysis of magnetization direction in three dimensions. In this paper, the principle and the structure of the spin SEM is briefly introduced, and some examples of the spin SEM measurements are shown. (author)

  5. High peak current operation of x-ray free-electron laser multiple beam lines by suppressing coherent synchrotron radiation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru; Kondo, Chikara; Inagaki, Takahiro; Togawa, Kazuaki; Fukami, Kenji; Nakazawa, Shingo; Hasegawa, Taichi; Morimoto, Osamu; Yoshioka, Masamichi; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Otake, Yuji; Tanaka, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    The parallel operation of multiple beam lines is an important means to expand the opportunity of user experiments at x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facilities. At SPring-8 Angstrom free-electron laser (SACLA), the multi-beam-line operation had been tested using two beam lines, but transverse coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effects at a dogleg beam transport severely limited the laser performance. To suppress the CSR effects, a new beam optics based on two double bend achromat (DBA) structures was introduced for the dogleg. After the replacement of the beam optics, high peak current bunches of more than 10 kA are now stably transported through the dogleg and the laser pulse output is increased by a factor of 2-3. In the multi-beam-line operation of SACLA, the electron beam parameters, such as the beam energy and peak current, can be adjusted independently for each beam line. Thus the laser output can be optimized and wide spectral tunability is ensured for all beam lines.

  6. Inter-dependence of the electron beam excitations with the free electron laser stability on the super-ACO storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle; Nutarelli, D; Renault, E; Billardon, M

    1999-01-01

    Storage ring free electron lasers have a complex dynamics as compared to the LINAC driven FEL sources since both the laser and the recirculating electron beam behaviours are involved. Electron beam perturbations can strongly affect the FEL operation (start-up, stability) whereas the FEL can stabilize beam instabilities. Experimental analysis together with simulations are reported here. Improvements of the Super-ACO FEL for users is discussed, and consequences are given in terms of electron beam tolerances for a source development for users.

  7. Time-resolved electron beam phase space tomography at a soft x-ray free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Röhrs

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs in the ultraviolet and x-ray regime put stringent demands on the peak current, transverse emittance, and energy spread of the driving electron beam. At the soft x-ray FEL FLASH, a transverse deflecting microwave structure (TDS has been installed to determine these parameters for the longitudinally compressed bunches, which are characterized by a narrow leading peak of high charge density and a long tail. The rapidly varying electromagnetic field in the TDS deflects the electrons vertically and transforms the time profile into a streak on an observation screen. The bunch current profile was measured single shot with an unprecedented resolution of 27 fs under FEL operating conditions. A precise single-shot measurement of the energy distribution along a bunch was accomplished by using the TDS in combination with an energy spectrometer. Variation of quadrupole strengths allowed for a determination of the horizontal emittance as a function of the longitudinal position within a bunch, the so-called slice emittance. In the bunch tail, a normalized slice emittance of about 2  μm was found, in agreement with expectations. In the leading spike, however, surprisingly large emittance values were observed, in apparent contradiction with the low emittance deduced from the measured FEL gain. By applying three-dimensional phase space tomography, we were able to show that the bunch head contains a central core of low emittance and high local current density, which is presumably the lasing part of the bunch.

  8. Versatile spin-polarized electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozwiak, Chris; Park, Cheol -Hwan; Gotlieb, Kenneth; Louie, Steven G.; Hussain, Zahid; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2015-09-22

    One or more embodiments relate generally to the field of photoelectron spin and, more specifically, to a method and system for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source comprising the following steps: providing one or more materials, the one or more materials having at least one surface and a material layer adjacent to said surface, wherein said surface comprises highly spin-polarized surface electrons, wherein the direction and spin of the surface electrons are locked together; providing at least one incident light capable of stimulating photoemission of said surface electrons; wherein the photon polarization of said incident light is tunable; and inducing photoemission of the surface electron states.

  9. Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process where photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allow the production of greater than 10 18 polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed

  10. Spin-polarized fuel in ICF pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakuta, Yoshihisa; Emoto, Nobuya; Nakao, Yasuyuki; Honda, Takuro; Honda, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Hideki.

    1990-01-01

    The use of parallel spin-polarized DT or D 3 He fuel increases the fusion cross-section by 50%. By implosion-burn simulation for inertially confined fusion (ICF) pellets of the spin-polarized fuels, we found that the input energy requirement could be reduced by nearly a fact of two. These pellets taken up here include large-high-aspect-ratio DT target proposed in ILE Osaka University and DT ignitor/D 3 He fuel pellet proposed by our group. We also found that the polarized state could survive during the implosion-burn phase. (author)

  11. Magnetoresistance through spin-polarized p states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nikos

    2003-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the ballistic magnetoresistance in Ni contacts using first-principles, atomistic, electronic structure calculations. In particular we investigate the role of defects in the contact region with the aim of explaining the recently observed spectacular magnetoresistance ratio. Our results predict that the possible presence of spin-polarized oxygen in the contact region could explain conductance changes by an order of magnitude. Electronic transport essentially occurs through spin-polarized oxygen p states, and this mechanism gives a much higher magnetoresistance than that obtained assuming clean atomically sharp domain walls alone

  12. Spin polarization of electrons in quantum wires

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilchenko, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The total energy of a quasi-one-dimensional electron system is calculated using density functional theory. It is shown that spontaneous ferromagnetic state in quantum wire occurs at low one-dimensional electron density. The critical electron density below which electrons are in spin-polarized state is estimated analytically.

  13. Langmuir instability in partially spin polarized bounded degenerate plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Z.; Jamil, M.; Murtaza, G.

    2018-04-01

    Some new features of waves inside the cylindrical waveguide on employing the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamic model are evoked. Primarily, the instability of Langmuir wave due to the electron beam in a partially spin polarized degenerate plasma considering a nano-cylindrical geometry is discussed. Besides, the evolution of a new spin-dependent wave (spin electron acoustic wave) due to electron spin polarization effects in the real wave spectrum is elaborated. Analyzing the growth rate, it is found that in the absence of Bohm potential, the electron spin effects or exchange interaction reduce the growth rate as well as k-domain but the inclusion of Bohm potential increases both the growth rate and k-domain. Further, we investigate the geometry effects expressed by R and pon and find that they have opposite effects on the growth rate and k-domain of the instability. Additionally, how the other parameters like electron beam density or streaming speed of beam electrons influence the growth rate is also investigated. This study may find its applications for the signal analysis in solid state devices at nanoscales.

  14. Role of spin polarized tunneling in magnetoresistance and low

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Role of spin polarized tunneling in magnetoresistance and low temperature minimum of polycrystalline La1–KMnO3 ( = 0.05, 0.1, ... Manganites; magnetoresistance; low temperature resistivity; spin polarized tunneling. ... Current Issue

  15. Production of spin-polarized unstable nuclei by using polarized electron capture process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, S.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of emitted radiation from spin polarized nuclei are used to get information on electromagnetic moment of ground state unstable nuclei together with spin or parity state of excited states of their decayed (daughter) nuclei. These data are known to be useful for experimental investigation into the structure of unstable nuclei far from the stability line. The present study aims to establish a general method applicable to 11 Be and 16 N nuclei. To produce spin polarization, a new method in which the electron spin polarization of Rb is firstly produced by laser pumping, then the electron is transferred to the unstable nuclear beam (RNB) when they passes through the Rb vapor is proposed. Finally the polarized RNB will be implanted into superfluid helium to remain with a long spin-relaxation time. Future experimental set up for the above measurement adopted in the available radioactive nuclear beam facilities is briefly described. (Ohno, S.)

  16. Antiresonance induced spin-polarized current generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sun; Min, Wen-Jing; Gao, Kun; Xie, Shi-Jie; Liu, De-Sheng

    2011-12-01

    According to the one-dimensional antiresonance effect (Wang X R, Wang Y and Sun Z Z 2003 Phys. Rev. B 65 193402), we propose a possible spin-polarized current generation device. Our proposed model consists of one chain and an impurity coupling to the chain. The energy level of the impurity can be occupied by an electron with a specific spin, and the electron with such a spin is blocked because of the antiresonance effect. Based on this phenomenon our model can generate the spin-polarized current flowing through the chain due to different polarization rates. On the other hand, the device can also be used to measure the generated spin accumulation. Our model is feasible with today's technology.

  17. From epitaxial growth of ferrite thin films to spin-polarized tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussy, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the research which is focused on ferrite thin films for spintronics. First, I will describe the potential of ferrite layers for the generation of spin-polarized currents. In the second step, the structural and chemical properties of epitaxial thin films and ferrite-based tunnel junctions will be presented. Particular attention will be given to ferrite systems grown by oxygen-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The analysis of the structure and chemistry close to the interfaces, a key-point for understanding the spin-polarized tunnelling measurements, will be detailed. In the third part, the magnetic and magneto-transport properties of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) thin films as a function of structural defects such as the antiphase boundaries will be explained. The spin-polarization measurements (spin-resolved photoemission, tunnel magnetoresistance) on this oxide predicted to be half-metallic will be discussed. Fourth, the potential of magnetic tunnel barriers, such as CoFe 2 O 4 , NiFe 2 O 4 or MnFe 2 O 4 , whose insulating behaviour and the high Curie temperatures make it exciting candidates for spin filtering at room temperature will be described. Spin-polarized tunnelling experiments, involving either Meservey–Tedrow or tunnel magnetoresistance measurements, will reveal significant spin-polarizations of the tunnelling current at low temperatures but also at room temperatures. Finally, I will mention a few perspectives with ferrite-based heterostructures. (topical review)

  18. Physics Of, and Science With, the X-Ray Free-Electron Laser: 19th Advanced ICFA Beam Dynamics Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.

    2003-01-01

    The workshop brought together scientists working on the development of x-ray free-electron lasers, and its applications. X-ray free-electron lasers produce high intensity, subpicosecond long, coherent, X-ray pulses, and will open a new frontier to study the structure of matter at the molecular and atomic levels. Some fields of interest are structural changes in chemical reactions, single biological molecule, warm plasmas, nanosystems. Summary of discussions and conclusions of Group 1: Physics and Technology of the XFEL - The main issues that were discussed by the 50 participants in this group were the photo-injector, the production of ultra-short pulses, the effects of wake-fields induced by the electron bunch, the operation at lower charge and emittance, the possibility of harmonic generation and the diagnostics in the undulator. The following is a short summary of the discussions and their conclusions. Summary of discussions and conclusions of Group 2: Science with the XFEL - About 25 people attended sessions to discuss the possible scientific applications of a x-ray FEL. Because of the recent focus on the first experiments with the proposed Linac Coherent Light Source at Stanford, the discussions were mainly focussed on these proposals. The extension of the characteristics beyond the initial stage and the further developments of the source were also part of the program. Six scientific areas were discussed: Atomic Physics, Warm Dense Matter, Femtosecond Chemistry, Imaging/Holography, Bio-molecular Structures and X-Ray Fluctuations Spectroscopy.

  19. Photonic Free-Electron Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Denis, T.; Lee, J.H.H.; van Dijk, M.W.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    A photonic free-electron laser (pFEL) produces coherent Cerenkov radiation from a set of parallel electron beams streaming through a photonic crystal. The function of the crystal is to slow down the phase velocity of a copropagating electromagnetic wave, such that also mildly relativistic electrons

  20. A soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) using a two-beam elliptical pill-box wake-field cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    Stimulated bremsstrahlung in an undulating electric field in the lasing beam direction (electric wiggler) was shown to be possible from the quantum- mechanical viewpoint. Herein, this possibility is scrutinized from the viewpoint of classical electrodynamics. It is found that if stimulated bremsstrahlung in a transverse undulating magnetic field (magnetic wiggler) occurs, stimulated bremsstrahlung in the electric wiggler must also occur. We further show that a free electron laser (FEL) using a magnetic wiggler to provide a catalyzer field for stimulated bremsstrahlung cannot serve as a practical FEL operating in the soft x-ray region from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. On the other hand, the authors demonstrate that the FEL using a traveling wake field in a two-beam elliptical pill-box cavity is well suited as a source of coherent radiation in the soft x-ray region

  1. Continuous control of spin polarization using a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, J. A.; Zhao, G. J.; Li, B. C.; Tracy, Brian D.; Zhang, J.; Kim, D. R.; Smith, David J.; Chen, T. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of a point contact between a Co/Cu multilayer and a superconductor tip varies for different bias voltage. Direct measurement of spin polarization by Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals that the GMR change is due to a change in spin polarization. This work demonstrates that the GMR structure can be utilized as a spin source and that the spin polarization can be continuously controlled by using an external magnetic field.

  2. Continuous control of spin polarization using a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gifford, J. A.; Zhao, G. J.; Li, B. C.; Tracy, Brian D.; Zhang, J.; Kim, D. R.; Smith, David J.; Chen, T. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of a point contact between a Co/Cu multilayer and a superconductor tip varies for different bias voltage. Direct measurement of spin polarization by Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals that the GMR change is due to a change in spin polarization. This work demonstrates that the GMR structure can be utilized as a spin source and that the spin polarization can be continuously controlled by using an external magnetic field.

  3. Continuous control of spin polarization using a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, J. A.; Zhao, G. J.; Li, B. C.; Tracy, Brian D.; Zhang, J.; Kim, D. R.; Smith, David J.; Chen, T. Y., E-mail: tingyong.chen@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2016-05-23

    The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of a point contact between a Co/Cu multilayer and a superconductor tip varies for different bias voltage. Direct measurement of spin polarization by Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals that the GMR change is due to a change in spin polarization. This work demonstrates that the GMR structure can be utilized as a spin source and that the spin polarization can be continuously controlled by using an external magnetic field.

  4. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a non-equilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known equilibrium polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  5. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2006-07-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a nonequilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known “equilibrium” polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  6. Spin-polarized spin excitation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2010-01-01

    We report on the spin dependence of elastic and inelastic electron tunneling through transition metal atoms. Mn, Fe and Cu atoms were deposited onto a monolayer of Cu 2 N on Cu(100) and individually addressed with the probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Electrons tunneling between the tip and the substrate exchange energy and spin angular momentum with the surface-bound magnetic atoms. The conservation of energy during the tunneling process results in a distinct onset threshold voltage above which the tunneling electrons create spin excitations in the Mn and Fe atoms. Here we show that the additional conservation of spin angular momentum leads to different cross-sections for spin excitations depending on the relative alignment of the surface spin and the spin of the tunneling electron. For this purpose, we developed a technique for measuring the same local spin with a spin-polarized and a non-spin-polarized tip by exchanging the last apex atom of the probe tip between different transition metal atoms. We derive a quantitative model describing the observed excitation cross-sections on the basis of an exchange scattering process.

  7. Generation of strong electromagnetic power at 35 GHz from the interaction of a resonant cavity with a relativistic electron beam generated by a free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, Thibaut

    2000-01-01

    The next generation of electron-positron linear colliders must reach the TeV energy range. For this, one requires an adequate RF power source to feed the accelerating cavities of the collider. One way to generate this source is to use the Two Beam Accelerator concept in which the RF power is produced in resonant cavities driven by an intense bunched beam. In this thesis, I present the experimental results obtained at the CEA/CESTA using an electron beam generated by an induction linac. First, some studies were performed with the LELIA induction linac (2.2 MeV, 1 kA, 80 ns) using a Free Electron Laser (FEL) as a buncher at 35 GHz. A second part relates the experiment made with the PIVAIR induction linac (7 MeV, 1 kA, 80 ns) in order to measure the RF power extracted from a resonant cavity at 35 GHz, which is driven by the bunches produced in the FEL. One can also find a simple theoretical modeling of the beam-cavity interaction, and the numerical results dealing with the design of the cavity we tested. (author) [fr

  8. Focusing peculiarities of ion-channel guiding on a relativistic electron beam in a free-electron laser with a three-dimensional wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Zhang, Shi-Chang

    2014-01-01

    In a free-electron laser the ‘natural focusing’ effect of a three-dimensional wiggler is too weak to confine the transport of a relativistic electron beam when the beam has a high current and consequently an external focusing system is often needed. In this paper we study the focusing peculiarities of an ion-channel guide field on an electron beam. Nonlinear simulations of an electron beam transport show that, compared to an axial guide magnetic field, the ion-channel guide field results in smaller velocity–space and configuration–space spreads. The intrinsic mechanism of this physical phenomenon is that the ion-channel guide field confines the trajectory of the electron motion resulting in a smaller instantaneous curvature radius and a slighter curvature-center excursion than an axial guide magnetic field does. It is also found that, unlike with an axial guide magnetic field, over-focusing may occur if the ion-channel guide field is too strong. (paper)

  9. The FERMI@Elettra free-electron-laser source for coherent X-ray physics: photon properties, beam transport system, and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allaria, Enrico; Callegari, Carlo; Cocco, Daniele; Fawley, William M.; Kiskinova, Maya; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2010-04-05

    FERMI@Elettra is comprised of two free electron lasers (FELs) that will generate short pulses (tau ~;; 25 to 200 fs) of highly coherent radiation in the XUV and soft X-ray region. The use of external laser seeding together with a harmonic upshift scheme to obtain short wavelengths will give FERMI@Elettra the capability to produce high quality, longitudinal coherent photon pulses. This capability together with the possibilities of temporal synchronization to external lasers and control of the output photon polarization will open new experimental opportunities not possible with currently available FELs. Here we report on the predicted radiation coherence properties and important configuration details of the photon beam transport system. We discuss the several experimental stations that will be available during initial operations in 2011, and we give a scientific perspective on possible experiments that can exploit the critical parameters of this new light source.

  10. Warm Dense Matter and Strongly Coupled Plasmas Created by Intense Heavy Ion Beams and XUV-Free Electron Laser: An Overview of Spectroscopic Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmej, F B [University of Provence et CNRS, Centre St. Jerome, PIIM-DGP, case 232, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Lee, R W [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Riley, D [Queens University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Meyer-ter-Vehn, J [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Krenz, A [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tschentscher, T [HASYLAB at DESY, Nothkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Tauschwitz, An [University of Frankfurt, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt (Germany); Tauschwitz, A [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung GSI, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lisitsa, V S [Russian Research Center Kurchatov, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Faenov, A Ya [VNIIFTRI, Multi Charged Ion Spectra Data Center, 141570 Mendeleevo (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15

    High density plasma physics, radiation emission/scattering and related atomic physics, spectroscopy and diagnostics are going to make large steps forward due to new experimental facilities providing beams of intense heavy ions and X/XUV free electron laser radiation. These facilities are currently being established at GSI-Darmstadt and DESY-Hamburg in Germany to access new and complementary parameter regimes for basic research which have never been obtained in laboratories so far: homogenous benchmark samples near solid density and temperatures from eV up to keV. This will provide important impact to many disciplines like astrophysics, atomic physics in dense environments, dense and strongly coupled plasma effects, radiation emission, equation of state. The spectroscopic analysis of the radiation emission plays a key role in this research to investigate the dynamics of electric fields in multi-particle coupled Coulomb systems and the modification of plasma statistics.

  11. Organic light emitting diodes with spin polarized electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arisi, E.; Bergenti, I.; Dediu, V.; Loi, M.A.; Muccini, M.; Murgia, M.; Ruani, G.; Taliani, C.; Zamboni, R.

    2003-01-01

    Electrical and optical properties of Alq3 based organic light emitting diodes with normal and spin polarized electrodes are presented. Epitaxial semitransparent highly spin polarized La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 were used as hole injector, substituting the traditional indium tin oxide electrode. A comparison of

  12. Detecting Spin-Polarized Currents in Ballistic Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potok, R.; Folk, J.; M. Marcus, C.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate a mesoscopic spin polarizer/analyzer system that allows the spin polarization of current from a quantum point contact in an in-plane magnetic field to be measured. A transverse focusing geometry is used to couple current from an emitter point contact into a collector point contact....

  13. Spin polarization of electrons in a magnetic impurity doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A theoretical model is presented in this paper for degree of spin polarization in a light emitting diode (LED) whose epitaxial region contains quantum dots doped with magnetic impurity. The model is then used to investigate the effect of electron–phonon interaction on degree of spin polarization at different ...

  14. Spin polarization at the interface and tunnel magnetoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, H.; Inoue, J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose that interfacial states of imperfectly oxidized Al ions may exist in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions with Al-O barrier and govern both the spin polarization and tunnel conductance. It is shown that the spin polarization is positive independent of materials and correlates well with the tunnel magnetoresistance

  15. Spin polarization of electrons in a magnetic impurity doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A theoretical model is presented in this paper for degree of spin polarization in alight emitting diode (LED) whose epitaxial region contains quantum dots doped with magnetic impurity. The model is then used to investigate the effect of electron–phonon interaction on degree of spin polarization at different temperatures and ...

  16. Diffusion equation and spin drag in spin-polarized transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, Karsten; Jensen, Thomas Stibius; Mortensen, Asger

    2001-01-01

    We study the role of electron-electron interactions for spin-polarized transport using the Boltzmann equation, and derive a set of coupled transport equations. For spin-polarized transport the electron-electron interactions are important, because they tend to equilibrate the momentum of the two-s...

  17. Kinetic equation for spin-polarized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Valeo, E.

    1984-07-01

    The usual kinetic description of a plasma is extended to include variables to describe the spin. The distribution function, over phase-space and the new spin variables, provides a sufficient description of a spin-polarized plasma. The evolution equation for the distribution function is given. The equations derived are used to calculate depolarization due to four processes, inhomogeneous fields, collisions, collisions in inhomogeneous fields, and waves. It is found that depolarization by field inhomogeneity on scales large compared with the gyroradius is totally negligible. The same is true for collisional depolarization. Collisions in inhomogeneous fields yield a depolarization rate of order 10 -4 S -1 for deuterons and a negligible rate for tritons in a typical fusion reactor design. This is still sufficiently small on reactor time scales. However, small amplitude magnetic fluctuations (of order one gauss) resonant with the spin precession frequency can lead to significant depolarization (depolarises triton in ten seconds and deuteron in a hundred seconds.)

  18. Monte Carlo simulation for scanning technique with scattering foil free electron beam: A proof of concept study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonmo Sung

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential of a newly proposed scattering foil free (SFF electron beam scanning technique for the treatment of skin cancer on the irregular patient surfaces using Monte Carlo (MC simulation. After benchmarking of the MC simulations, we removed the scattering foil to generate SFF electron beams. Cylindrical and spherical phantoms with 1 cm boluses were generated and the target volume was defined from the surface to 5 mm depth. The SFF scanning technique with 6 MeV electrons was simulated using those phantoms. For comparison, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT plans were also generated with two full arcs and 6 MV photon beams. When the scanning resolution resulted in a larger separation between beams than the field size, the plan qualities were worsened. In the cylindrical phantom with a radius of 10 cm, the conformity indices, homogeneity indices and body mean doses of the SFF plans (scanning resolution = 1° vs. VMAT plans were 1.04 vs. 1.54, 1.10 vs. 1.12 and 5 Gy vs. 14 Gy, respectively. Those of the spherical phantom were 1.04 vs. 1.83, 1.08 vs. 1.09 and 7 Gy vs. 26 Gy, respectively. The proposed SFF plans showed superior dose distributions compared to the VMAT plans.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation for scanning technique with scattering foil free electron beam: A proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Wonmo; Park, Jong In; Kim, Jung-In; Carlson, Joel; Ye, Sung-Joon; Park, Jong Min

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of a newly proposed scattering foil free (SFF) electron beam scanning technique for the treatment of skin cancer on the irregular patient surfaces using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. After benchmarking of the MC simulations, we removed the scattering foil to generate SFF electron beams. Cylindrical and spherical phantoms with 1 cm boluses were generated and the target volume was defined from the surface to 5 mm depth. The SFF scanning technique with 6 MeV electrons was simulated using those phantoms. For comparison, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were also generated with two full arcs and 6 MV photon beams. When the scanning resolution resulted in a larger separation between beams than the field size, the plan qualities were worsened. In the cylindrical phantom with a radius of 10 cm, the conformity indices, homogeneity indices and body mean doses of the SFF plans (scanning resolution = 1°) vs. VMAT plans were 1.04 vs. 1.54, 1.10 vs. 1.12 and 5 Gy vs. 14 Gy, respectively. Those of the spherical phantom were 1.04 vs. 1.83, 1.08 vs. 1.09 and 7 Gy vs. 26 Gy, respectively. The proposed SFF plans showed superior dose distributions compared to the VMAT plans.

  20. Ultra-Short Electron Beam Compression and Phase Locking Using an Inverse Free Electron Laser Interaction in the THz Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J. T.; Musumeci, P.; Scoby, C. M.; To, H.; Marcoux, C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of a THz-based IFEL compressor at the UCLA Pegasus photoinjector laboratory is explored. A 3.5 MeV sub-picosecond electron beam generated in the photoinjector blowout regime can be compressed to femtosecond timescales by a THz IFEL interaction.

  1. Spin polarized electron tunneling and magnetoresistance in molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczewski, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reviews tunneling of spin-polarized electrons through molecules positioned between ferromagnetic electrodes, which gives rise to tunneling magnetoresistance. Such measurements yield important insight into the factors governing spin-polarized electron injection into organic semiconductors, thereby offering the possibility to manipulate the quantum-mechanical spin degrees of freedom for charge carriers in optical/electrical devices. In the first section of the chapter a brief description of the Jullière model of spin-dependent electron tunneling is reviewed. Next, a brief description of device fabrication and characterization is presented. The bulk of the review highlights experimental studies on spin-polarized electron tunneling and magnetoresistance in molecular junctions. In addition, some experiments describing spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy on single molecules are mentioned. Finally, some general conclusions and prospectus on the impact of spin-polarized tunneling in molecular junctions are offered.

  2. Conductance and spin polarization for a quantum wire with the competition of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xi; Chen Zeshun; Zhong Feng; Zhou Guanghui

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin transport of a quantum wire (QW) with weak Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (SOC) nonadiabatically connected to two normal leads. Using scattering matrix method and Landauer-Buettiker formula within effective free-electron approximation, we have calculated spin-dependent conductances G ↑ and G ↓ , total conductance G and spin polarization P z for a hard-wall potential confined QW. It is demonstrated that, the SOCs induce the splitting of G ↑ and G ↓ and form spin polarization P z . Moreover, the conductances present quantized plateaus, the plateaus and P z show oscillation structures near the subband edges. Furthermore, with the increase of QW width a strong spin polarization (P z ∼1) gradually becomes weak, which can be used to realize a spin filter. When the two SOCs coexist, the total conductance presents an isotropy transport due to the Rashba and Dresselhaus Hamiltonians being fixed, and the alteration of two SOCs strength ratio changes the sign of spin polarization. This may provide a way of realizing the expression of unit information by tuning gate voltage.

  3. Free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J.M.; Billardon, M.

    1986-01-01

    Operation principle of a laser and an oscillator are recalled together with the klystron one. In the free electron laser, electrons go through an undulator or an optical klystron. Principles of the last one are given. The two distinct ways of producing coherent radiation with an undulator and an optical klystron are presented. The first one is the use of the free electron laser, the second is to make use of the spontaneous emission generation (harmonics generation). The different current types of free electron lasers are presented (Stanford, Los Alamos, Aco at Orsay). Prospects and applications are given in conclusion [fr

  4. Free-electron laser results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, W.E.; Brau, C.A.; Newnam, B.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.; Young, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) amplifier experiment was designed to demonstrate high efficiency for transfer of energy from an electron beam to a light beam in the magnetic field of a tapered wiggler. Initial results indicate an energy transfer consistent with theory. Distinct groups of decelerated electrons as well as accelerated electrons are clearly present in the energy spectrum of electrons emerging from the wiggler when the laser light is present. The observed energy decrease for the electrons captured in the decelerating bucket is approx. 6% and the average decrease of the entire energy distribution is approx. 2% for the conditions of these initial measurements

  5. Change in operating parameters of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility and Free Electron Laser, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    In this environmental assessment (EA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) reports the results of an analysis of the potential environmental impacts from a proposed change in operating parameters of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), and operation of the Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility beyond the initial demonstration period. With this proposal, DOE intends to increase CEBAF operating range from its current operating maximum beam energy of 4.0 GeV [giga-(billion) electron volts] to 8.0 GeV at a beam power of no greater than 1,000 kW [1 megawatt (MW)], its maximum attainable level, based on current technology and knowledge, without significant, costly equipment modifications. DOE has prepared an EA for this action to determine the potential for adverse impacts from operation of CEBAF and the FEL at the proposed levels. Changing the operating parameters of CEBAF would require no new major construction and minor modifications to the accelerator, its support systems, the FEL, and onsite utility systems. Modifications and performance improvements would be made to (1) the accelerator housed in the underground tunnels, (2) its support systems located in the above ground service buildings, and (3) the water and equipment cooling systems both in the tunnel and at the ground surface. All work would be performed on previously disturbed land and in, on, or adjacent to existing buildings, structures, and equipment. With the proposed action, the recently constructed FEL facility at the Jefferson Lab would operate in concert with CEBAF beyond its demonstration period and up to its maximum effective electron beam power level of 210 kW. In this EA, DOE evaluates the impacts of the no-action alternative and the proposed action alternative. Alternatives considered, but dismissed from further evaluation, were the use of another accelerator facility and the use of another technology.

  6. Change in operating parameters of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility and Free Electron Laser, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    In this environmental assessment (EA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) reports the results of an analysis of the potential environmental impacts from a proposed change in operating parameters of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), and operation of the Free Electron Laser (FEL) facility beyond the initial demonstration period. With this proposal, DOE intends to increase CEBAF operating range from its current operating maximum beam energy of 4.0 GeV [giga-(billion) electron volts] to 8.0 GeV at a beam power of no greater than 1,000 kW [1 megawatt (MW)], its maximum attainable level, based on current technology and knowledge, without significant, costly equipment modifications. DOE has prepared an EA for this action to determine the potential for adverse impacts from operation of CEBAF and the FEL at the proposed levels. Changing the operating parameters of CEBAF would require no new major construction and minor modifications to the accelerator, its support systems, the FEL, and onsite utility systems. Modifications and performance improvements would be made to (1) the accelerator housed in the underground tunnels, (2) its support systems located in the above ground service buildings, and (3) the water and equipment cooling systems both in the tunnel and at the ground surface. All work would be performed on previously disturbed land and in, on, or adjacent to existing buildings, structures, and equipment. With the proposed action, the recently constructed FEL facility at the Jefferson Lab would operate in concert with CEBAF beyond its demonstration period and up to its maximum effective electron beam power level of 210 kW. In this EA, DOE evaluates the impacts of the no-action alternative and the proposed action alternative. Alternatives considered, but dismissed from further evaluation, were the use of another accelerator facility and the use of another technology

  7. Development of an S-band cavity-type beam position monitor for a high power THz free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Seon Yeong; Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@knu.ac.kr; Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Heo, A.; Won, Jang Si [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Vinokurov, Nikolay A.; Jeong, Young UK, E-mail: yujung@kaeri.re.kr; Hee Park, Seong; Jang, Kyu-Ha [WCI Center for Quantum-Beam-based Radiation Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-Daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    A cavity-type beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for a compact terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) system and ultra-short pulsed electron Linac system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Compared with other types of BPMs, the cavity-type BPM has higher sensitivity and faster response time even at low charge levels. When electron beam passes through the cavity-type BPM, it excites the dipole mode of the cavity of which amplitude depends linearly on the beam offset from the center of the cavity. Signals from the BPM were measured as a function of the beam offset by using an oscilloscope. The microtron accelerator for the KAERI THz FEL produces the electron beam with an energy of 6.5 MeV and pulse length of 5 μs with a micropulse of 10-20 ps at the frequency of 2.801 GHz. The macropulse beam current is 40 mA. Because the microtron provides multi-bunch system, output signal would be the superposition of each single bunch. So high output signal can be obtained from superposition of each single bunch. The designed position resolution of the cavity-type BPM in multi-bunch is submicron. Our cavity-type BPM is made of aluminum and vacuum can be maintained by indium sealing without brazing process, resulting in easy modification and cost saving. The resonance frequency of the cavity-type BPM is 2.803 GHz and the cavity-type BPM dimensions are 200 × 220 mm (length × height) with a pipe diameter of 38 mm. The measured position sensitivity was 6.19 (mV/mm)/mA and the measured isolation between the X and Y axis was −39 dB. By measuring the thermal noise of system, position resolution of the cavity-type BPM was estimated to be less than 1 μm. In this article, we present the test results of the S-band cavity-type BPM and prove the feasibility of the beam position measurement with high resolution using this device.

  8. Development of an S-band cavity-type beam position monitor for a high power THz free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seon Yeong; Kim, Eun-San; Hwang, Ji-Gwang; Heo, A.; won Jang, Si; Vinokurov, Nikolay A.; Jeong, Young UK; Hee Park, Seong; Jang, Kyu-Ha

    2015-01-01

    A cavity-type beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for a compact terahertz (THz) free-electron laser (FEL) system and ultra-short pulsed electron Linac system at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Compared with other types of BPMs, the cavity-type BPM has higher sensitivity and faster response time even at low charge levels. When electron beam passes through the cavity-type BPM, it excites the dipole mode of the cavity of which amplitude depends linearly on the beam offset from the center of the cavity. Signals from the BPM were measured as a function of the beam offset by using an oscilloscope. The microtron accelerator for the KAERI THz FEL produces the electron beam with an energy of 6.5 MeV and pulse length of 5 μs with a micropulse of 10-20 ps at the frequency of 2.801 GHz. The macropulse beam current is 40 mA. Because the microtron provides multi-bunch system, output signal would be the superposition of each single bunch. So high output signal can be obtained from superposition of each single bunch. The designed position resolution of the cavity-type BPM in multi-bunch is submicron. Our cavity-type BPM is made of aluminum and vacuum can be maintained by indium sealing without brazing process, resulting in easy modification and cost saving. The resonance frequency of the cavity-type BPM is 2.803 GHz and the cavity-type BPM dimensions are 200 × 220 mm (length × height) with a pipe diameter of 38 mm. The measured position sensitivity was 6.19 (mV/mm)/mA and the measured isolation between the X and Y axis was -39 dB. By measuring the thermal noise of system, position resolution of the cavity-type BPM was estimated to be less than 1 μm. In this article, we present the test results of the S-band cavity-type BPM and prove the feasibility of the beam position measurement with high resolution using this device.

  9. Evaluation of radiative spin polarization in an electron storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A W [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA)

    1981-02-15

    We have developed a matrix formalism that provides an accurate way of evaluating the degree of spin polarization built up through the process of synchrotron radiation under a wide variety of storage ring operation conditions.

  10. Neutron stars with spin polarized self-interacting dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Zeinab

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter, one of the important portion of the universe, could affect the visible matter in neutron stars. An important physical feature of dark matter is due to the spin of dark matter particles. Here, applying the piecewise polytropic equation of state for the neutron star matter and the equation of state of spin polarized self-interacting dark matter, we investigate the structure of neutron stars which are influenced by the spin polarized self-interacting dark matter. The behavior of the...

  11. Free-electron lasers considered for CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Spinoff development of industrial free-electron lasers is in prospect for an industry-universitylaboratory consortium centred at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, site of the CEBAF 4 GeV superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator, now being commissioned (see page 42). Together with several US corporations and universities, the Laboratory is now also addressing the potential of smaller SRF electron accelerators for ''driving'' free-electron lasers (FELs)

  12. A study of beam position diagnostics using beam-excited dipole modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at a free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Pei [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M.; Shinton, Ian R. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Flisgen, Thomas; Glock, Hans-Walter [Institut fuer Allgemeine Elektrotechnik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    We investigate the feasibility of beam position diagnostics using higher order mode (HOM) signals excited by an electron beam in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, three modal choices have been narrowed down to fulfill different diagnostics requirements. These are localized dipole beam-pipe modes, trapped cavity modes from the fifth dipole band, and propagating modes from the first two dipole bands. These modes are treated with various data analysis techniques: modal identification, direct linear regression (DLR), and singular value decomposition (SVD). Promising options for beam diagnostics are found from all three modal choices. This constitutes the first prediction, subsequently confirmed by experiments, of trapped HOMs in third harmonic cavities, and also the first direct comparison of DLR and SVD in the analysis of HOM-based beam diagnostics.

  13. A study of beam position diagnostics using beam-excited dipole modes in third harmonic superconducting accelerating cavities at a free-electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M; Shinton, I R R; Flisgen, T; Glock, H W

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of beam position diagnostics using Higher Order Mode (HOM) signals excited by an electron beam in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, three modal choices have been narrowed down to fulfill different diagnostics requirements. These are localized dipole beam-pipe modes, trapped cavity modes from the fifth dipole band and propagating modes from the first two dipole bands. These modes are treated with various data analysis techniques: modal identification, direct linear regression (DLR) and singular value decomposition (SVD). Promising options for beam diagnostics are found from all three modal choices. This constitutes the first prediction, subsequently confirmed by experiments, of trapped HOMs in third harmonic cavities, and also the first direct comparison of DLR and SVD in the analysis of HOM-based beam diagnostics.

  14. Role of spin polarization in FM/Al/FM trilayer film at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ning; Webb, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of electronic transport in diffusive FM/normal metal/FM trilayer film are performed at temperature ranging from 2K to 300K to determine the behavior of the spin polarized current in normal metal under the influence of quantum phase coherence and spin-orbital interaction. Ten samples of Hall bar with length of 200 micron and width of 20 micron are fabricated through e-beam lithography followed by e-gun evaporation of Ni0.8Fe0.2, aluminum and Ni0.8Fe0.2 with different thickness (5nm to 45nm) in vacuum. At low temperature of 4.2K, coherent backscattering, Rashba spin-orbital interaction and spin flip scattering of conduction electrons contribute to magnetoresistance at low field. Quantitative analysis of magnetoresistance shows transition between weak localization and weak anti-localization for samples with different thickness ratio, which indicates the spin polarization actually affects the phase coherence length and spin-orbital scattering length. However, at temperature between 50K and 300K, only the spin polarization dominates the magnetoresistance.

  15. Recent advances in atomic-scale spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur R; Yang, Rong; Yang, Haiqiang; Dick, Alexey; Neugebauer, Joerg; Lambrecht, Walter R L

    2005-02-01

    The Mn3N2 (010) surface has been studied using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy at the atomic scale. The principle objective of this work is to elucidate the properties and potential of this technique to measure atomic-scale magnetic structures. The experimental approach involves the use of a combined molecular beam epitaxy/scanning tunneling microscopy system that allows the study of atomically clean magnetic surfaces. Several key findings have been obtained. First, both magnetic and non-magnetic atomic-scale information has been obtained in a single spin-polarized image. Magnetic modulation of the height profile having an antiferromagnetic super-period of c = 12.14 A (6 atomic rows) together with a non-magnetic superstructure having a period of c/2 = 6.07 A (3 atomic rows) was observed. Methods of separation of magnetic and non-magnetic profiles are presented. Second, bias voltage-dependent spin-polarized images show a reversal of the magnetic modulation at a particular voltage. This reversal is clearly due to a change in the sign of the magnetic term in the tunnel current. Since this term depends on both the tip's as well as the sample's magnetic local density of states, the reversal can be caused by either the sample or the tip. Third, the shape of the line profile was found to vary with the bias voltage, which is related to the energy-dependent spin contribution from the 2 chemically inequivalent Mn sites on the surface. Overall, the results shown here expand the application of the method of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy to measure atomic-scale magnetic structures. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Spin-polarized hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium : I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, M.; Ostgaard, E.

    1989-01-01

    The ground-state energy of spin-polarized hydrogen, deuterium and tritium is calculated by means of a modified variational lowest order constrained-variation method, and the calculations are done for five different two-body potentials. Spin-polarized H is not self-bound according to our theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy. For spin-polarized D, however, we obtain theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy per particle from -0.4 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.25 σ -3 or a molar volume of 121 cm 3 /mol to +0.32 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.21 σ -3 or a molar volume of 142 cm 3 /mol, where σ = 3.69 A (1A = 10 -10 m). It is, therefore, not clear whether spin-polarized deuterium should be self-bound or not. For spin-polarized T, we obtain theoretical results for the ground-state binding energy per particle from -4.73 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.41 σ -3 or a molar volume of 74 cm 3 /mol to -1.21 K at an equilibrium particle density of 0.28 σ -3 or a molar volume of 109 cm 3 /mol. (Author) 27 refs., 9 figs., tab

  17. Spin effects in the screening and Auger neutralization of He+ ions in a spin-polarized electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alducin, M.; Diez Muino, R.; Juaristi, J.I.

    2005-01-01

    The screening of a He + ion embedded in a free electron gas is studied for different spin-polarizations of the medium. Density functional theory and the local spin density approximation are used to calculate the induced electronic density for each spin orientation, i.e. parallel or antiparallel to the spin of the electron bound to the ion. Since both the He + ion and the electron gas are spin-polarized, we analyze in detail the spin state of the screening cloud for the two different possibilities: the spin of the bound electron can be parallel to either the majority spin or the minority spin in the medium. Finally, the spin-dependent Kohn-Sham orbitals are used to calculate the Auger neutralization rate of the He + ion. The polarization of the Auger excited electron is influenced by the spin-polarization of the medium. The results are discussed in terms of the spin-dependent screening and the indistinguishability of electrons with the same spin state

  18. Spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A.A.; Yang, J.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of appearance of spin polarized states in strongly asymmetric nuclear matter is analyzed within the framework of a Fermi liquid theory with the Skyrme effective interaction. The zero temperature dependence of the neutron and proton spin polarization parameters as functions of density is found for SLy4 and SLy5 effective forces. It is shown that at some critical density strongly asymmetric nuclear matter undergoes a phase transition to the state with the oppositely directed spins of neutrons and protons while the state with the same direction of spins does not appear. In comparison with neutron matter, even small admixture of protons strongly decreases the threshold density of spin instability. It is clarified that protons become totally polarized within a very narrow density domain while the density profile of the neutron spin polarization parameter is characterized by the appearance of long tails near the transition density

  19. Spin polarization in rare earth intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenwijk, F.J. van

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis the results of Moessbauer experiments performed on a series of intermetallic compounds of europium and gadolinium are reported. For each of these compounds the magnetic hyperfine field, the electric field gradient at the nuclear site and the isomer shift were determined. For most of the compounds the magnetic ordering temperature was also measured. For some of the europium compounds (e.g. EuAu 5 , EuAg 5 , and EuCu 5 ) it could be derived from the measurements that the easy direction of magnetization falls along the crystallographic c-axis. In a number of compounds (e.g. EuCu 5 , EuZn 5 , EuAu 2 and GdCu 5 ), the various contributions to the magnetic hyperfine field were disentangled by the investigation of suitable pseudobinary compounds that are dilute in Eu. The neighbour contribution Hsub(N) and the paramagnetic Curie temperature thetasub(p) were compared with each other in terms of the RKKY model for EuCu 5 and GdCu 5 . Since the correspondence was found to be poor it was concluded that the magnetic behaviour in these compounds cannot be described by a simple free electron picture as is the basis for the RKKY model

  20. Spin-polarized photoemission from SiGe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, A.; Bottegoni, F.; Isella, G.; Cecchi, S.; Chrastina, D.; Finazzi, M.; Ciccacci, F. [LNESS-Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2013-12-04

    We apply the principles of Optical Orientation to measure by Mott polarimetry the spin polarization of electrons photoemitted from different group-IV heterostructures. The maximum measured spin polarization, obtained from a Ge/Si{sub 0.31}Ge{sub 0.69} strained film, undoubtedly exceeds the maximum value of 50% attainable in bulk structures. The explanation we give for this result lies in the enhanced band orbital mixing between light hole and split-off valence bands as a consequence of the compressive strain experienced by the thin Ge layer.

  1. Spin-polarized inelastic tunneling through insulating barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; Tran, M; Jaffrès, H; Seneor, P; Deranlot, C; Petroff, F; George, J-M; Lépine, B; Ababou, S; Jézéquel, G

    2009-05-01

    Spin-conserving hopping transport through chains of localized states has been evidenced by taking benefit of the high degree of spin-polarization of CoFeB-MgO-CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions. In particular, our data show that relatively thick MgO barriers doped with boron favor the activation of spin-conserving inelastic channels through a chain of three localized states and leading to reduced magnetoresistance effects. We propose an extension of the Glazman-Matveev theory to the case of ferromagnetic reservoirs to account for spin-polarized inelastic tunneling through nonmagnetic localized states embedded in an insulating barrier.

  2. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Letzring, S.; Skupsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    Our experimental efforts over the past 5 years have been aimed at cazrying out ICF shots with spin-polarized 0 fuel. We successfully prepared polarized 0 in HD, and solved the problems of loading target shells with our carefully prepared isotopic -rnixt.l.l?-es, polarizing them so that the 0 polarization remains metastably frozen-in for about half a day, and carrying out the various cold transfer requirements at Syracuse, where the target is prepared, and at Rochester, where the cold target is inserted fusion chamber. Upon shooting the accurately positioned unpolarized high density cold target, no neutron yield was observed. Inspection inside the OMEGA tank after the shot indicated the absence of neutron yield was dus to mal-timing or insufficient retraction rate of OMEGA'S fast shroud mechanism, resulting in interception of at least 20 of the 24 laser beams by the faulty shroud. In spits of this, all alements of the complex experiment we originally undertook have been successfully demonstrated, and the cold retrieval concepts and methods we developed are being utilized on the ICF upgrades at Rochester and at Livermore. In addition to the solution of the interface problems, we obtained novel results on polymer shell characteristics at low temperatures, and continuation of these experiments is c = ently supported by KLUP. Extensive additional mappings were ca=ied out of nuclear spin relaxation rates of H and D in solid HD in the temperature-magnetic field rangs of 0.01 to 4.2K and 0 - 13 Tesla. New phenomena were discovered, such as association of impurity clustering with very low temperature motion, and inequality of the growth-rate and decay-rate of the magnetization

  3. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.; Letzring, S.; Skupsky, S.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental efforts over the past 5 years have been aimed at carrying out ICF shots with spin-polarized D fuel. The authors successfully prepared polarized D in HD, and solved the problems of loading target shells with their carefully prepared isotopic mixtures, polarizing them so that the D polarization remains metastably frozen-in for about half a day, and carrying out the various cold transfer requirements at Syracuse, where the target is prepared, and at Rochester, where the cold target is inserted into the OMEGA fusion chamber. A principal concern during this past year was overcoming difficulties encountered in maintaining the integrity of the fragile cold target during the multitude of cold-transfers required for the experiment. These difficulties arose from insufficient rigidity of the cold transfer systems, which were constrained to be of small diameter by the narrow central access bore of the dilution refrigerator, and were exacerbated by the multitude of required target shell manipulations between different environments, each with different coupling geometry, including target shell permeation, polarization, storage, transport, retrieval and insertion into OMEGA. The authors did solve all of these problems, and were able to position a cold, high density but unpolarized target with required precision in OMEGA. Upon shooting the accurately positioned unpolarized high density cold target, no neutron yield was observed. Inspection inside the OMEGA tank after the shot indicated the absence of neutron yield was due to mal-timing or insufficient retraction rate of OMEGA's fast shroud mechanism, resulting in interception of at least 20 of the 24 laser beams by the faulty shroud. In spite of this, all elements of the complex experiment the authors originally undertook have been successfully demonstrated, and the cold retrieval concepts and methods they developed are being utilized on the ICF upgrades at Rochester and at Livermore

  4. Estimate of spin polarization for PEP using generalized transformation matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1978-04-01

    The spin polarization for PEP has been estimated before by using simplified models. The main difficulty in the previous estimates is that the strength of depolarization effects caused by various electromagnetic field errors could not be specified accurately. To overcome this difficulty, a matrix formalism for depolarization calculation was developed recently. One basic ingredient of this theory is to represent an electron by an 8-dimensional state vector, X = (x,x',y,y',z,δ,α,β) where the first six coordinates are the usual transverse and longitudinal canonical coordinates, while α and β are the two components of the electron's spin vector perpendicular to the equilibrium direction of polarization /cflx n/. The degree of depolarization is specified by 1/2(α 2 + β 2 ). The state vector X will be transformed by an 8 x 8 matrix as the electron passes through a beam-line element such as a bending magnet or an rf cavity. From any position s, one multiplies successively the 8 x 8 matrices around one revolution of the storage ring to obtain the total transformation T(s). Any impulse perturbation ΔX to the electron's state vector occurring at s will be transformed repeatedly by T(s) as the electron circulates around the storage ring. Another basic ingredient is to decompose ΔX into 8 eigenstate components with eigenvectors determined from T(s). Six of these eigenstate components corresponding to the space states will be damped out by the usual radiation damping. The projections of ΔX onto the remaining two spin eigenstates are directly related to the loss of polarization due to the impulse perturbation ΔX. Depolarization effects can thus be calculated directly once all perturbations are specified. 7 refs., 4 figs

  5. Spin polarized electrons in surface science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The potentialities of spin-polarised electron beams as a probe of surface magnetic properties are outlined. Elastic as well as inelastic scattering of electrons from solid surfaces are considered. (G.Q.)

  6. Current-induced spin polarization in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.M.; Pang, M.Q.; Liu, S.Y.; Lei, X.L.

    2010-01-01

    The current-induced spin polarization (CISP) is investigated in a combined Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gas, subjected to a homogeneous out-of-plane magnetization. It is found that, in addition to the usual collision-related in-plane parts of CISP, there are two impurity-density-free contributions, arising from intrinsic and disorder-mediated mechanisms. The intrinsic parts of spin polarization are related to the Berry curvature, analogous with the anomalous and spin Hall effects. For short-range collision, the disorder-mediated spin polarizations completely cancel the intrinsic ones and the total in-plane components of CISP equal those for systems without magnetization. However, for remote disorders, this cancellation does not occur and the total in-plane components of CISP strongly depend on the spin-orbit interaction coefficients and magnetization for both pure Rashba and combined Rashba-Dresselhaus models.

  7. A cryostat to hold frozen-spin polarized HD targets in CLAS: HDice-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, M.M., E-mail: mlowry@jlab.org [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Bass, C.D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); D' Angelo, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Universita' di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’, and INFN Sezione di Roma ‘Tor Vergata’, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Deur, A.; Dezern, G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Hanretty, C. [University of Virginia, 1400 University Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ho, D. [Carnegie-Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Kageya, T.; Kashy, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Khandaker, M. [Norfolk State University, 700 Park Avenue, Norfolk, VA 23504 (United States); Laine, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Université Blaise Pascal, 34 Avenue Carnot, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); O' Connell, T. [University of Connecticut, 115 N Eagleville Road, Storrs-Mansfield, CT 06269 (United States); Pastor, O. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Peng, P. [University of Virginia, 1400 University Avenue, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Sandorfi, A.M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Sokhan, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Bat 100 – M053, Orsay 91406 (France); and others

    2016-04-11

    The design, fabrication, operation, and performance of a {sup 3/4}He dilution refrigerator and superconducting magnet system for holding a frozen-spin polarized hydrogen deuteride target in the Jefferson Laboratory CLAS detector during photon beam running is reported. The device operates both vertically (for target loading) and horizontally (for target bombardment). The device proves capable of maintaining a base temperature of 50 mK and a holding field of 1 T for extended periods. These characteristics enabled multi-month polarization lifetimes for frozen spin HD targets having proton polarization of up to 50% and deuteron up to 27%.

  8. Control system for JAERI Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    A control system comprising of the personal computers network and the CAMAC stations for the JAERI Free Electron Laser is designed and is in the development stage. It controls the equipment and analyzes the electron and optical beam experiments. The concept and the prototype of the control system are described. (author)

  9. Experiment on the melting pressure of spin polarized He3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapellier, M.; Olsen, M.; Rasmussen, Finn Berg

    1981-01-01

    In liquid He in a Pomeranchuk cell, the melting curve has been observed to be suppressed, presumably in regions with a strong local spin polarization. In the temperature range 30-50 mK the observed suppression was 60-80 kPa. The corresponding local polarization is estimated, in a crude model...

  10. Current-Induced Spin Polarization at a Single Heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silov, A.; Blajnov, P.; Wolter, J.H.; Hey, R.; Ploog, K.; Averkiev, N.S.; Menendez, J.; Walle, van der C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We have experimentally achieved spin-polarization by a lateral current in a single non-magnetic semiconductor heterojunction. The effect does not require an applied magnetic field or ferromagnetic contacts. The current-induced spin orientation can be seen as the inverse of the circular

  11. Spin-polarized tunneling through a ferromagnetic insulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Kok, M.; Beukers, J.N.; Brinkman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The polarization of the tunnel conductance of spin-selective ferromagnetic insulators is modeled, providing a generalized concept of polarization including both the effects of electrode and barrier polarization. The polarization model is extended to take additional non-spin-polarizing insulating

  12. Spin-polarized current generated by magneto-electrical gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Minjie; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Tan, Seng Ghee

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study spin-polarized current through a single electron tunneling transistor (SETT), in which a quantum dot (QD) is coupled to non-magnetic source and drain electrodes via tunnel junctions, and gated by a ferromagnetic (FM) electrode. The I–V characteristics of the device are investigated for both spin and charge currents, based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The FM electrode generates a magnetic field, which causes a Zeeman spin-splitting of the energy levels in the QD. By tuning the size of the Zeeman splitting and the source–drain bias, a fully spin-polarized current is generated. Additionally, by modulating the electrical gate bias, one can effect a complete switch of the polarization of the tunneling current from spin-up to spin-down current, or vice versa. - Highlights: ► The spin polarized transport through a single electron tunneling transistor is systematically studied. ► The study is based on Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function and equation of motion method. ► A fully spin polarized current is observed. ► We propose to reverse current polarization by the means of gate voltage modulation. ► This device can be used as a bi-polarization current generator.

  13. Fusion with highly spin polarized HD and D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics relating to inertial confinement with spin polarized hydrogen targets: low temperature implementation of mating a target to omega; dilution-refrigerator cold-entry and retrieval system; target shell tensile strength characterization at low temperatures; and proton and deuteron spin-lattice relaxation measurements in HD in the millikelvin temperature range

  14. Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Sandweiss, J.

    1992-09-01

    The study of the INVERSE FREE ELECTRON LASER, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, is being pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent studies have focussed on the development of a low energy, high gradient, multi stage linear accelerator. The elementary ingredients for the IFEL interaction are the 50 MeV Linac e - beam and the 10 11 Watt CO 2 laser beam of BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), Center for Accelerator Physics (CAP) and a wiggler. The latter element is designed as a fast excitation unit making use of alternating stacks of Vanadium Permendur (VaP) ferromagnetic laminations, periodically interspersed with conductive, nonmagnetic laminations, which act as eddy current induced field reflectors. Wiggler parameters and field distribution data will be presented for a prototype wiggler in a constant period and in a ∼ 1.5 %/cm tapered period configuration. The CO 2 laser beam will be transported through the IFEL interaction region by means of a low loss, dielectric coated, rectangular waveguide. Short waveguide test sections have been constructed and have been tested using a low power cw CO 2 laser. Preliminary results of guide attenuation and mode selectivity will be given, together with a discussion of the optical issues for the IFEL accelerator. The IFEL design is supported by the development and use of 1D and 3D simulation programs. The results of simulation computations, including also wiggler errors, for a single module accelerator and for a multi-module accelerator will be presented

  15. Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes based on organic bipolar spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardeny, Zeev Valentine; Nguyen, Tho Duc; Ehrenfreund, Eitan Avraham

    2017-10-25

    Spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes are provided. Such spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes incorporate ferromagnetic electrodes and show considerable spin-valve magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-conductivity responses, with voltage and temperature dependencies that originate from the bipolar spin-polarized space charge limited current.

  16. Spin polarization of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) and Ni(111) observed by spin-polarized surface positronium spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, A.; Maekawa, M.; Wada, K.; Kawasuso, A.; Watanabe, T.; Entani, S.; Sakai, S.

    2018-05-01

    In spin-polarized surface positronium annihilation measurements, the spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) were higher than those on Ni(111), while no significant differences were seen between graphene and h -BN on the same metal. The obtained spin polarizations agreed with those expected from first-principles calculations considering the positron wave function and the electron density of states from the first surface layer to the vacuum region. The higher spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on Co(0001) as compared to Ni(111) simply reflect the spin polarizations of these metals. The comparable spin polarizations of graphene and h -BN on the same metal are attributed to the creation of similar electronic states due to the strong influence of the metals: the Dirac cone of graphene and the band gap of h -BN disappear as a consequence of d -π hybridization.

  17. Photoinduced spin polarization and microwave technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antipov, Sergey; Poluektov, Oleg; Schoessow, Paul; Kanareykin, Alexei; Jing, Chunguang

    2013-01-01

    We report here on studies of optically pumped active microwave media based on various fullerene derivatives, with an emphasis on the use of these materials in microwave electronics. We have investigated a class of optically excited paramagnetic materials that demonstrate activity in the X-band as candidate materials. We found that a particular fullerene derivative, Phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), produced the largest electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) emission signal compared to other organic compounds that have been suggested for use as microwave active materials. We also studied the effects of concentration, temperature, solvent etc. on the activity of the material. In these experiments, EPR studies using a commercial spectrometer were followed up by measurements of an RF signal reflected from a resonator loaded with the PCBM-based material. The activity was directly demonstrated through the change in the quality factor and RF coupling between the resonator and waveguide feed. At the inception of these experiments the primary interest was the development of a microwave PASER. The PASER (particle acceleration by stimulated emission of radiation [1]) is a novel acceleration concept that is based on the direct energy transfer from an active medium to a charged particle beam. While the previous work on the PASER has emphasized operations at infrared or visible wavelengths, operating in the microwave regime has significant advantages in terms of the less stringent quality requirements placed on the electron beam provided an appropriate microwave active medium can be found. This paper is focused on our investigation of the possibility of a PASER operating in the microwave frequency regime [2] using active paramagnetic materials. While a high level of gain for PCBM was demonstrated compared to other candidate materials, dielectric losses and quenching effects were found to negatively impact its performance for PASER applications. We present results on

  18. Spin-polarized gapped Dirac spectrum of unsupported silicene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podsiadły-Paszkowska, A., E-mail: agata.podsiadly@gmail.com; Krawiec, M., E-mail: mariusz.krawiec@umcs.pl

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Effects of spin–orbit interaction and atomic reconstruction of silicene on its electronic properties have been studied. • Spin-polarized gapped Dirac spectrum has been revealed. • Two different AFM phases have been obtained. - Abstract: We study effects of the spin–orbit interaction and the atomic reconstruction of silicene on its electronic spectrum. As an example we consider unsupported silicene pulled off from Pb(111) substrate. Using first principles density functional theory we show that the inversion symmetry broken arrangement of atoms and the spin–orbit interaction generate a spin-polarized electronic spectrum with an energy gap in the Dirac cone. These findings are particularly interesting in view of the quantum anomalous and quantum valley Hall effects and should be observable in weakly interacting silicene-substrate systems.

  19. Widespread spin polarization effects in photoemission from topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozwiak, C.; Chen, Y. L.; Fedorov, A. V.; Analytis, J. G.; Rotundu, C. R.; Schmid, A. K.; Denlinger, J. D.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-H.; Fisher, I. R.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Hussain, Z.; Lanzara, A.

    2011-06-22

    High-resolution spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (spin-ARPES) was performed on the three-dimensional topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} using a recently developed high-efficiency spectrometer. The topological surface state's helical spin structure is observed, in agreement with theoretical prediction. Spin textures of both chiralities, at energies above and below the Dirac point, are observed, and the spin structure is found to persist at room temperature. The measurements reveal additional unexpected spin polarization effects, which also originate from the spin-orbit interaction, but are well differentiated from topological physics by contrasting momentum and photon energy and polarization dependencies. These observations demonstrate significant deviations of photoelectron and quasiparticle spin polarizations. Our findings illustrate the inherent complexity of spin-resolved ARPES and demonstrate key considerations for interpreting experimental results.

  20. High frequency free-electron laser results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.; Brau, C.A.; Newman, B.E.; Stein, W.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.G.; Young, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    By looking at the free-electron laser as a particle accelerator working backwards, Morton realized that the techniques used to accelerate particles could be used to improve the performance of free-electron lasers. In particular, he predicted the capture of electrons in ''stable-phase'' regions, or ''buckets'' in the electron phase space, and proposed that by decelerating the buckets, the trapped electrons could be decelerated to extract significant amounts of their energy as optical radiation. In fact, since electrons not trapped in the stable regions are forever excluded from them--at least in the adiabatic approximation--displacement techniques could also be used to accelerate or decelerate electrons in a free-electron laser. This paper explains the principle behind ''phase-displacement'' acceleration and details an experiment carried out with a 20-MeV electron beam to test these predictions. Results obtained with a tapered-wiggler free-electron laser demonstrate the concepts proposed by Morton for enhanced efficiency. They show deceleration of electrons by as much as 7% and extraction of more than 3% of the total electron-beam energy as laser energy when the laser is operated as an amplifier. The experiment is presently being reconfigured to examine its performance as a laser oscillator

  1. Application of spin-polarized fuel to fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakuta, Y.; Nakao, Y.; Honda, T.; Honda, Y.; Nakashima, H.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the application of the polarized fuel to the inertial fusion reaction have been carried out. It is shown that the use of the spin-polarized fuel D vector·T vector or D vector· 3 (He)vector reduces the irradiating laser power more than 50% compared with the use of the unpolarized fuel. The depolarization rate of the polarized fuel during the fusing process is found to be almost negligible. (author)

  2. Injection of spin-polarized current into semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedyayev, A.V.; Dieny, B.; Ryzhanova, N.V.; Zhukov, I.V.; Zhuravlev, M.Ye.; Lutz, H.O.

    2003-01-01

    A quantum-statistical theory of injection of spin-polarized current into a semiconductor in ferromagnet/tunnel barrier/semiconductor system is presented. The presence of Schottky barrier in the semiconductor is taken into account. The case of degenerated and non-degenerated semiconductors are considered. Both the diffusive and ballistic transport regime are investigated. The dependence of current polarization on barrier thickness and temperature is calculated

  3. Spin polarized semimagnetic exciton-polariton condensate in magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Mateusz; Mirek, Rafał; Lekenta, Katarzyna; Rousset, Jean-Guy; Stephan, Daniel; Nawrocki, Michał; Matuszewski, Michał; Szczytko, Jacek; Pacuski, Wojciech; Piętka, Barbara

    2018-04-27

    Owing to their integer spin, exciton-polaritons in microcavities can be used for observation of non-equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation in solid state. However, spin-related phenomena of such condensates are difficult to explore due to the relatively small Zeeman effect of standard semiconductor microcavity systems and the strong tendency to sustain an equal population of two spin components, which precludes the observation of condensates with a well defined spin projection along the axis of the system. The enhancement of the Zeeman splitting can be achieved by introducing magnetic ions to the quantum wells, and consequently forming semimagnetic polaritons. In this system, increasing magnetic field can induce polariton condensation at constant excitation power. Here we evidence the spin polarization of a semimagnetic polaritons condensate exhibiting a circularly polarized emission over 95% even in a moderate magnetic field of about 3 T. Furthermore, we show that unlike nonmagnetic polaritons, an increase on excitation power results in an increase of the semimagnetic polaritons condensate spin polarization. These properties open new possibilities for testing theoretically predicted phenomena of spin polarized condensate.

  4. Development of a LabVIEW-based surface with innovative controls for the control system of the spin-polarized electron test source Photo-CATCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesch, Heidi Ayse; Enders, Joachim; Espig, Martin; Fritzsche, Yuliya; Wagner, Markus [TU Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Operations of the spin-polarized electron source of the S-DALINAC will be supported by a photo-cathode activation, test and cleaning system, Photo-CATCH. Besides cathode-performance studies, this teststand produces spin-polarized electron bunches from a GaAs photo-cathode that are then transported, manipulated, and characterized by devices in a low-energy beam line. To set and monitor the various components of the beamline, a control system was developed, based on the EPICS framework. As interfaces, LabVIEW was used in combination with a gamepad as a controlling device.

  5. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  6. Kinetic theory of free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafizi, B. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Roberson, C.W. [Office of Naval Research, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We have developed a relativistic kinetic theory of free electron lasers (FELs). The growth rate, efficiency, filling factor and radius of curvature of the radiation wave fronts are determined. We have used the theory to examine the effects of beam compression on growth rate. The theory has been extended to include self field effects on FEL operation. These effects are particularly important in compact, low voltage FELs. The surprising result is that the self field contribution to the beam quality is opposite to the emittance contribution. Hence self fields can improve beam quality, particularly in compact, low voltage FELs.

  7. Determination of the analyzing power of the A4 Compton-backscattering polarimeter for the measurement of the longitudinal spin polarization of the MAMI electron beam; Bestimmung der Analysierstaerke des A4-Compton-Rueckstreupolarimeters zur Messung der longitudinalen Spinpolarisation des MAMI-Elektronenstrahls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenbacher, Juergen

    2010-08-22

    The A4 experiment determines the strange quark contribution to the electromagnetic from factors of the nucleon by measuring the parity violation in elastic electron nucleon scattering. These measurements are carried out using the spin polarized electron beam of the Mainzer Mikrotron (MAMI) with beam energies in the range from 315 to 1508 MeV. For the data analysis it is essential to determine the degree of polarization of the electron beam in order to extract the physics asymmetry from the measured parity violating asymmetry. For this reason the A4 collaboration has developed a novel type of Compton laser backscattering polarimeter that allows for a non-destructive measurement of the beam polarization in parallel to the running parity experiment. In the scope of this work the polarimeter was refined in order to enable reliable continuous operation of the polarimeter. The data acquisition system for the photon and electron detector was re-designed and optimized to cope with high count rates. A novel detector (LYSO) for the backscattered photons was commissioned. Furthermore, GEANT4 simulations of the detectors have been performed and an analysis environment for the extraction of Compton asymmetries from the backscattered photon data has been developed. The analysis makes use of the possibility to detect backscattered photons in coincidence with the scattered electrons, thus tagging the photons. The tagging introduces a differential energy scale which enables the precise determination of the analyzing power. In this work the analyzing power of the polarimeter has been determined. Therefore, at a beam current of 20 {mu}A the product of electron and laser polarization can be determined, while the parity experiment is running, with a statistical accuracy of 1 % in 24 hours at 855 MeV or <1 % in 12 hours at 1508 MeV. Combining this with the determination of the laser polarization carried out in parallel work (Y. Imai), the uncertainty of the electron beam polarization in

  8. Linac technology for free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Morton, P.L.; Wilson, P.B.; Keefe, D.; Faltens, A.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to concentrate on the properties of high-energy electron linear accelerators for use in free-electron lasers operating principally in the Compton regime. To fix our focus somewhat, we shall consider electron energies in the 20- to 200-MeV range and consider requirements for high-power free-electron lasers operating in the 0.5- to 10-μm range. Preliminary remarks are made on high-power free-electron laser amplifiers and oscillators and some desirable characteristics of the linacs that deliver electron beams for these devices. Both the high peak-current requirements of the amplifier and the high pulse-repetition frequency requirements of the oscillator can be met by present-day linac technology, although not necessarily by the same machine. In this papers second and third section, the technology of two rather different types of linear accelerators, the rf linac and the induction linac, is reviewed. In conclusion, applications to the Free Electron Lasers are stated

  9. Harmonics generation of a terahertz wakefield free-electron laser from a dielectric loaded waveguide excited by a direct current electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Lu, Yalin; He, Zhigang; Jia, Qika; Wang, Lin

    2016-06-01

    We propose to generate high-power terahertz (THz) radiation from a cylindrical dielectric loaded waveguide (DLW) excited by a direct-current electron beam with the harmonics generation method. The DLW supports a discrete set of modes that can be excited by an electron beam passing through the structure. The interaction of these modes with the co-propagating electron beam results in micro-bunching and the coherent enhancement of the wakefield radiation, which is dominated by the fundamental mode. By properly choosing the parameters of DLW and beam energy, the high order modes can be the harmonics of the fundamental one; thus, high frequency radiation corresponding to the high order modes will benefit from the dominating bunching process at the fundamental eigenfrequency and can also be coherently excited. With the proposed method, high power THz radiation can be obtained with an easily achievable electron beam and a large DLW structure.

  10. New materials research for high spin polarized current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, Nobuki

    2012-01-01

    The author reports here a thorough investigation of structural and magnetic properties of Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 Heusler alloy films, and the tunnel magnetoresistance effect for junctions with Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 electrodes, spin injection into GaAs semiconductor from Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 , and spin filtering phenomena for junctions with CoFe 2 O 4 ferrite barrier. It was observed that tunnel magnetoresistance ratio up to 832%(386%) at 9 K (room temperature), which corresponds to the tunnel spin polarization of 0.90 (0.81) for the junctions using Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 Heusler electrodes by optimizing the fabrication condition. It was also found that the tunnel magnetoresistance ratio are almost the same between the junctions with Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 Heusler electrodes on Cr buffered (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) MgO substrates, which indicates that tunnel spin polarization of Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 for these two direction are almost the same. The next part of this paper is a spin filtering effect using a Co ferrite. The spin filtering effect was observed through a thin Co-ferrite barrier. The inverse type tunnel magnetoresistance ratio of −124% measured at 10 K was obtained. The inverse type magnetoresistance suggests the negative spin polarization of Co-ferrite barrier. The magnetoresistance ratio of −124% corresponds to the spin polarization of −0.77 by the Co-ferrite barrier. The last part is devoted to the spin injection from Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 into GaAs. The spin injection signal was clearly obtained by three terminal Hanle measurement. The spin relaxation time was estimated to be 380 ps measured at 5 K.

  11. Generation and detection of spin polarization in parallel coupled double quantum dots connected to four terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Xing-Tao; Mu, Hui-Ying; Li, Yu-Xian; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A four-terminal parallel double quantum dots (QDs) device is proposed to generate and detect the spin polarization in QDs. It is found that the spin accumulation in QDs and the spin-polarized currents in the upper and down leads can be generated when a bias voltage is applied between the left and right leads. It is more interesting that the spin polarization in the QDs can be detected using the upper and down leads. Moreover, the direction and magnitude of the spin polarization in the QDs, and in the upper and down leads can be tuned by the energy levels of QDs and the bias. -- Highlights: → The spin polarization in the quantum dots can be generated and controlled. → The spin polarization in quantum dots can be detected by the nonferromagnetic leads. → The system our studied is a discrete level spin Hall system.

  12. Electron-Spin Filters Would Offer Spin Polarization Greater than 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2009-01-01

    A proposal has been made to develop devices that would generate spin-polarized electron currents characterized by polarization ratios having magnitudes in excess of 1. Heretofore, such devices (denoted, variously, as spin injectors, spin polarizers, and spin filters) have typically offered polarization ratios having magnitudes in the approximate range of 0.01 to 0.1. The proposed devices could be useful as efficient sources of spin-polarized electron currents for research on spintronics and development of practical spintronic devices.

  13. Smith-Purcell free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, K.J.; Walsh, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The term Smith-Purcell free electron laser can be employed generally to describe any coherent radiation source in which a diffraction grating is used to couple an electron beam with the electromagnetic field. To date, most practical developments of this concept have focused on devices which operate in the millimeter spectral regime. In this paper construction of a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser operating in the far-infrared (FIR) region using a novel resonator cavity design and the electron beam from a low energy (0.5-5 MeV) radio-frequency accelerator will be discussed. A tunable source in this region would have many applications and since the beam energy is low, the small size and low overall cost of such a device would make it a laboratory instrument. Current projects which are progressing towards developing a FIR source are the programs at Stanford and CREOL. Both of these projects are using permanent magnet undulators to couple the electron beam with the electromagnetic field. An alternative approach is to use an electron beam passing over a diffraction grating as the radiating mechanism. This phenomenon is known as Smith-Purcell radiation and was first demonstrated for incoherent emission at visible wavelengths. The addition of feedback enhances the stimulated component of the emission which leads to the growth of coherence. Recent calculations for spontaneous emission have shown that the wiggler parameter and the grating efficiency are analogous. This result has important implications for the development of a Smith-Purcell FEL because a grating based free-electron laser would offer a greater range of tunability at a lower cost than its wiggler based counterpart

  14. Spin polarized electron source technology transferred from HE accelerators to electron microscopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tsutomu

    2009-01-01

    For many years, we have developed a technology of spin-polarized-electron-source (PES) for a future linear collider project (ILC). Various new techniques for achieving high polarization, high quantum efficiency, high current density, sub-nanosecond multi-bunch generation etc. were developed. Two fundamental technologies; reduction of dark current and preparation of extremely high vacuum environment to protect the Negative Electron Affinity (NEA) surface have been also developed. Using these PES technologies and a new transmission type photocathode, we recently succeeded in producing the high brightness and high polarization electron beam for the low energy electron microscope (LEEM). Our Spin-LEEM system enables the world-first dynamic observation of surface magnetic domain formed by evaporation on the metal substrate with ∼ 20 nm space resolutions. (author)

  15. RKKY interaction in spin polarized armchair graphene nanoribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezania, Hamed, E-mail: rezania.hamed@gmail.com; Azizi, Farshad

    2016-11-01

    We present the Ruderman–Kittle–Kasuya–Yosida (RKKY) interaction in the presence of magnetic long range ordered armchair graphene nanoribbon. RKKY interaction as a function of distance between localized moments has been analyzed. It has been shown that a magnetic ordering along the z-axis mediates an anisotropic interaction which corresponds to a XXZ model interaction between two magnetic moments. In order to calculate the exchange interaction along arbitrary direction between two magnetic moments, we should obtain the static spin susceptibilities of armchair graphene nanoribbon. The spin susceptibility components are calculated using Green's function approach for tight binding model Hamiltonian. The effects of spin polarization on the dependence of exchange interaction on distance between moments are investigated via calculating correlation function of spin density operators. Our results show that the chemical potential impacts the spatial behavior of RKKY interaction. - Highlights: • Theoretical calculation of RKKY interaction of armchair graphene nanoribbon. • The investigation of the effect of spin polarization on RKKY interaction. • The investigation of electronic concentration on RKKY interaction of armchair graphene nanoribbon.

  16. Tuning spin-polarized transport in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, Richard; Galbiati, Marta; Delprat, Sophie; Tatay, Sergio; Deranlot, Cyrile; Seneor, Pierre; Petroff, Frederic

    Molecular spintronics is an emerging research field at the frontier between organic chemistry and the spintronics. Compared to traditional inorganic materials molecules are flexible and can be easily tailored by chemical synthesis. Due to their theoretically expected very long spin lifetime, they were first only seen as the ultimate media for spintronics devices. It was recently that new spintronics tailoring could arise from the chemical versatility brought by molecules. The hybridization between a ferromagnet and molecules induces a spin dependent broadening and energy shifting of the molecular orbitals leading to an induced spin polarization on the first molecular layer. This spin dependent hybridization can be used to tailor the spin dependent transport in organic spintronics devices. We have studied vertical Co/Alq3/Co organic spin valves. The negative magnetoresistance observed is the signature of different coupling strengths at the top and bottom interfaces. We have then inserted an inorganic tunnel barrier at the bottom interface in order to suppress the spin-dependent hybridization. In this case we restore a positive magnetoresistance. This demonstrates that at the bottom Co/Alq3 interface a stronger coupling occurs which induces an inversion of the spin polarization.

  17. The impact of structural relaxation on spin polarization and magnetization reversal of individual nano structures studied by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Dirk; Phark, Soo-Hyon; Corbetta, Marco; Fischer, Jeison A; Oka, Hirofumi; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    The application of low temperature spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy in magnetic fields for the quantitative characterization of spin polarization, magnetization reversal and magnetic anisotropy of individual nano structures is reviewed. We find that structural relaxation, spin polarization and magnetic anisotropy vary on the nm scale near the border of a bilayer Co island on Cu(1 1 1). This relaxation is lifted by perimetric decoration with Fe. We discuss the role of spatial variations of the spin-dependent electronic properties within and at the edge of a single nano structure for its magnetic properties.

  18. Free-electron laser system with Raman amplifier outcoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.J.

    1988-05-03

    A free-electron laser system is described comprising: a free-electron laser pump beam generator producing a high-power optical output beam in a vacuum environement; a Raman amplifier cell located in the path of the output beam from the pump beam generator; means for generating and introducing a Stokes seed beam into the Raman amplifier cell, a pair of gaseous windows through which the output beam enters and leaves the Raman amplifier cell, each window having a stream of gas moving continuously in a direction generally perpendicular to the beam; and a mirror positioned in the path of the output beam from the Raman amplifier, the mirror functioning to reflect and further direct the output beam, but not the unwanted spectral components.

  19. Emittance growth due to the wake field driven by an electron beam accelerated in an RF-gun of free electron laser 'ELSA'

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    2000-01-01

    It appears that the ease of the parameter chosen for 'ELSA' photo injector, the influence of the exit aperture, in terms of beam quality, is slight concerning the transverse emittance: (DELTA epsilon sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r /epsilon sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub = = r)(z)approx 3% at maximum, and negligible concerning the axial emittance. To complete this paper, we recall the results previously obtained concerning the wake field of a closed or open cavity for a beam approaching the anode . They had quantitatively specified the expected deep asymmetry between the conducting walls regarding their contribution to the total wake field, besides the space-charge contribution. (Given that the radial walls have no time to contribute, these conducting walls are the cathode and the anode.) Thus, concerning the effects on whole-beam emittances, the correction (DELTA epsilon sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i ...

  20. Gigantic 2D laser-induced photovoltaic effect in magnetically doped topological insulators for surface zero-bias spin-polarized current generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikin, A. M.; Voroshin, V. Yu; Rybkin, A. G.; Kokh, K. A.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Ishida, Y.; Kimura, A.

    2018-01-01

    A new kind of 2D photovoltaic effect (PVE) with the generation of anomalously large surface photovoltage up to 210 meV in magnetically doped topological insulators (TIs) has been studied by the laser time-resolved pump-probe angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The PVE has maximal efficiency for TIs with high occupation of the upper Dirac cone (DC) states and the Dirac point located inside the fundamental energy gap. For TIs with low occupation of the upper DC states and the Dirac point located inside the valence band the generated surface photovoltage is significantly reduced. We have shown that the observed giant PVE is related to the laser-generated electron-hole asymmetry followed by accumulation of the photoexcited electrons at the surface. It is accompanied by the 2D relaxation process with the generation of zero-bias spin-polarized currents flowing along the topological surface states (TSSs) outside the laser beam spot. As a result, the spin-polarized current generates an effective in-plane magnetic field that is experimentally confirmed by the k II-shift of the DC relative to the bottom non-spin-polarized conduction band states. The realized 2D PVE can be considered as a source for the generation of zero-bias surface spin-polarized currents and the laser-induced local surface magnetization developed in such kind 2D TSS materials.

  1. Resonant tunneling via spin-polarized barrier states in a magnetic tunnel junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.; Lodder, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Resonant tunneling through states in the barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction has been analyzed theoretically for the case of a spin-polarized density of barrier states. It is shown that for highly spin-polarized barrier states, the magnetoresistance due to resonant tunneling is enhanced compared

  2. Interplay between spin polarization and color superconductivity in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2013-01-01

    Here, it is suggested that a four-point interaction of the tensor type may lead to spin polarization in quark matter at high density. It is found that the two-flavor superconducting phase and the spin polarized phase correspond to distinct local minima of a certain generalized thermodynamical pot...

  3. Highly spin-polarized materials and devices for spintronics∗.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Koichiro; Ikeda, Naomichi; Tezuka, Nobuki; Goto, Ryogo; Sugimoto, Satoshi; Wojcik, Marek; Jedryka, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The performance of spintronics depends on the spin polarization of the current. In this study half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys and a spin filtering device (SFD) using a ferromagnetic barrier have been investigated as highly spin-polarized current sources. The multilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering in an ultrahigh vacuum and microfabricated using photolithography and Ar ion etching. We investigated two systems of Co-based full-Heusler alloys, Co 2 Cr 1 - x Fe x Al (CCFA( x )) and Co 2 FeSi 1 - x Al x (CFSA( x )) and revealed the structure and magnetic and transport properties. We demonstrated giant tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of up to 220% at room temperature and 390% at 5 K for the magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) using Co 2 FeSi 0.5 Al 0.5 (CFSA(0.5)) Heusler alloy electrodes. The 390% TMR corresponds to 0.81 spin polarization for CFSA(0.5) at 5 K. We also investigated the crystalline structure and local structure around Co atoms by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses, respectively, for CFSA films sputtered on a Cr-buffered MgO (001) substrate followed by post-annealing at various temperatures in an ultrahigh vacuum. The disordered structures in CFSA films were clarified by NMR measurements and the relationship between TMR and the disordered structure was discussed. We clarified that the TMR of the MTJs with CFSA(0.5) electrodes depends on the structure, and is significantly higher for L2 1 than B2 in the crystalline structure. The second part of this paper is devoted to a SFD using a ferromagnetic barrier. The Co ferrite is investigated as a ferromagnetic barrier because of its high Curie temperature and high resistivity. We demonstrate the strong spin filtering effect through an ultrathin insulating ferrimagnetic Co-ferrite barrier at a low temperature. The barrier was prepared by the surface plasma oxidization of a CoFe 2 film deposited on a MgO (001) single crystal substrate, wherein the spinel

  4. SPIN-POLARIZED PHOTOCURRENT THROUGH QUANTUM DOT PHOTODETECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Hieu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the photocurrent through the photodetector based on a two-level semiconductor quantum dot (QD is presented. The analytical expressions of the matrix elements of the electronic transitions generated by the absorption of the circularly polarized photons are derived in the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the electron tunneling interaction as well as the electron-photon interaction. From these expressions the mechanism of the generation of the spin-polarized of electrons in the photocurrent is evident. It follows that the photodetector based on the two-level semiconductor QD can be used as the model of a source of highly spinpolarized electrons.

  5. Laser driven source of spin polarized atomic deuterium and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, M.; Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical pumping of potassium atoms in the presence of a high magnetic field followed by spin exchange collisions with deuterium (hydrogen) is shown to yield a high flux of spin polarized atomic deuterium (hydrogen). The performance of the laser driven source has been characterized as a function of deuterium (hydrogen) flow rate, potassium density, pump laser power, and magnetic field. Under appropriate conditions, the authors have observed deuterium atomic polarization as high as 75% at a flow rate 4.2x10 17 atoms/second. Preliminary results suggest that high nuclear polarizations are obtained in the absence of weak field rf transitions as a result of a spin temperature distribution that evolves through frequent H-H (D-D) collisions

  6. Anomalous scattering of neutrons in spin-polarized media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    A new exchange mechanism of inelastic scattering with spin flip for slow neutrons propagating through a spin-polarized medium is studied. The scattering is accompanied by emission or absorption of thermal fluctuations of the transverse magnetization of the medium; the weakly damped Larmor precession of nuclear spins in the external magnetic field plays the main role in these fluctuations. Under the conditions of giant opalescence the effect is enormous and the corresponding cross sections are significantly greater than the standard elastic scattering cross sections. Thus in the case of 29 Si↑ and 3 He↑ under typical experimental conditions the cross sections of these inelastic processes are of the order of 10 5 -10 6 b

  7. An inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernick, I.; Marshall, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    A free electron laser was configured as an autoaccelerator to test the principle of accelerating electrons by stimulated absorption of radiation (λ = 1.65mm) by an electron beam (750kV) traversing an undulator. Radiation is produced in the first section of a constant period undulator (1 w1 = 1.43cm) and then absorbed (∼ 40%) in a second undulator, having a tapered period (1 w2 = 1.8 - 2.25cm), which results in the acceleration of a subgroup (∼ 9%) of electrons to ∼ 1MeV

  8. Free electron lasers on superconducting linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapierrre, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Analysing the results of several Free Electron Laser experiments, we show that the best accelerator should be a superconducting linear accelerator: it can provide a c.w. high quality beam (energy spread and emittance). The technology of RF superconductivity provide the opportunity to build such an accelerator. In this paper, we present the foreseen results one can expect from a FEL based on such a machine: - Average power > 1 Kw, - Total efficiency > 2.5%, - Tunability between 0.6 and 5 μm [fr

  9. The waveguide Free-Electron Laser. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The general characteristics of free-electron lasers (FELs) which employ a waveguiding structure to confine electromagnetic fields and to couple them to the electron beam is discussed. The mode structure of the basic parallel plate waveguide and its adaptation via quasi-optical techniques to FEL resonator design are considered in detail. A summary of the theory of FEL systems which depend intrinsically on a guide structure (micro-undulator, Cerenkov and metal-grating FELs) and a review of progress on waveguide FEL experiments are also presented. (author). 44 refs.; 16 figs

  10. Theoretical approach of the photoinjector exit aperture influence on the wake field driven by an electron beam accelerated in an RF gun of free-electron laser 'ELSA'

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    2000-01-01

    The wake field generated in the cylindrical cavity of an RF photoinjector, by a strongly accelerated electron beam, has been analytically calculated (Salah, Dolique, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 437 (1999) 27) under the assumption that the perturbation of the field map by the exit hole is negligible as long as the ratio: exit hole radius/cavity radius is lower than approximately 1/3. Shown experimentally in the different context of a long accelerating structure formed by a sequence of bored pill-box cavity (Figuera et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 (1988) 2144; Kim et al., J. Appl. Phys. 68 (1990) 4942), this often-quoted result must be checked for the wake field map excited in a photo injector cavity. Further, in the latter case, the empirical rule in question can be broken more easily because, due to causality, the cavity radius to be considered is not the physical radius but that of the part of the anode wall around the exit hole reached by the beam electromagnetic influence. We present an analytical treatment of th...

  11. Electron ionization and spin polarization control of Fe atom adsorbed graphene irradiated by a femtosecond laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Dong; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Feng; Li, Xin; Qu, Liangti; Lu, Yongfeng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structural properties and ionized spin electrons of an Fe–graphene system, in which the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) within the generalized gradient approximation is used. The electron dynamics, including electron ionization and ionized electron spin polarization, is described for Fe atom adsorbed graphene under femtosecond laser irradiation. The theoretical results show that the electron ionization and ionized electron spin polarization are sensitive to the laser parameters, such as the incident angle and the peak intensity. The spin polarization presents the maximum value under certain laser parameters, which may be used as a source of spin-polarized electrons. - Highlights: • The structural properties of Fe–graphene system are investigated. • The electron dynamics of Fe–graphene system under laser irradiation are described. • The Fe–graphene system may be used as a source of spin-polarized electrons

  12. Free electron laser amplifier driven by an induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of a free-electron laser amplifier as a means of converting the kinetic energy of an electron beam into coherent radiation. In particular, the use of an induction linear accelerator is discussed. The motion of the elections in the tapered and untapered wiggler magnets is discussed as well as the beam emittance, and the radiation fields involved

  13. Free-electron lasers 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroff, Y.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents papers on free-electron laser technology. The authors cover technological developments on existing FELs, new FEL research, and the use of FELs in experimental investigations. Among the studies reported are lasing in the visible and UV on the Novosibirsk VEPP-3 storage ring, description of Japanese FEL research, and Mark III FEL, and the Paladin results

  14. Free Electron Lasers in 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Colson, W B; Voughs, T

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-eight years after the first operation of the short wavelength free electron laser (FEL) at Stanford University, there continue to be many important experiments, proposed experiments, and user facilities around the world. Properties of FELs in the infrared, visible, UV, and x-ray wavelength regimes are listed and discussed.

  15. Free Electron Lasers in 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Colson, William B

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-seven years after the first operation of the short wavelength free electron laser (FEL) at Stanford University, there continue to be many important experiments, proposed experiments, and user facilities around the world. Properties of FELs operating in the infrared, visible, UV, and x-ray wavelength regimes are listed and discussed.

  16. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  17. Free electron laser variable bridge coupler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalek, G.; Billen, J.H.; Garcia, J.A.; McMurry, D.E.; Harnsborough, L.D.; Giles, P.M.; Stevens, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    The Los Alamos free-electron laser (FEL) is being modified to test a scheme for recovering most of the power in the residual 20-MeV electron beam by decelerating the microbunches in a linear standing-wave accelerator and using the recovered energy to accelerate new beam. A variable-coupler low-power model that resonantly couples the accelerator and decelerator structures has been built and tested. By mixing the TE 101 and TE 102 modes, this device permits continuous variation of the decelerator fields relative to the accelerator fields through a range of 1:1 to 1:2.5. Phase differences between the two structures are kept below 1 0 and are independent of power-flow direction. The rf power is also fed to the two structures through this coupling device. Measurements were also made on a three-post-loaded variable coupler that is a promising candidate for the same task

  18. Los Alamos advanced free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. C. D.; Kraus, R. H.; Ledford, J.; Meier, K. L.; Meyer, R. E.; Nguyen, D.; Sheffield, R. L.; Sigler, F. L.; Young, L. M.; Wang, T. S.; Wilson, W. L.; Wood, R. L.

    1992-07-01

    Los Alamos researchers are building a free-electron laser (FEL) for industrial, medical, and research applications. This FEL, which will incorporate many of the new technologies developed over the last decade, will be compact, robust, and user-friendly. Electrons produced by a photocathode will be accelerated to 20 MeV by a high-brightness accelerator and transported by permanent-magnet quadrupoles and dipoles. The resulting electron beam will have an excellent instantaneous beam quality of 10πmm mrad in transverse emittance and 0.3% in energy spread at a peak current up to 300 A. Including operation at higher harmonics, the laser wavelength extends from 3.7 μm to 0.4 μm.

  19. Inverse free-electron laser accelerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; Steenbergen, A. van; Sandweiss, J.; Fang, J.M.

    1994-06-01

    The study of the Inverse Free-Electron Laser, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, has been pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory for a number of years. More recent studies focused on the development of a low energy (few GeV), high gradient, multistage linear accelerator. The authors are presently designing a short accelerator module which will make use of the 50 MeV linac beam and high power (2 x 10 11 W) CO 2 laser beam of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the Center for Accelerator Physics (CAP), Brookhaven National Laboratory. These elements will be used in conjunction with a fast excitation (300 μsec pulse duration) variable period wiggler, to carry out an accelerator demonstration stage experiment

  20. High gain free electron laser at ETA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzechowski, T.J.; Prosnitz, D.; Halbach, K.

    1983-01-01

    A single pass, tapered electron wiggler and associated beam transport has been constructed at the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The system is designed to transport 1 kA of 4.5 MeV electrons with an emittance of 30 millirad-cm. The planar wiggler is provided by a pulsed electromagnet. The interaction region is an oversized rectangular waveguide. Quadrupole fields stabilize the beam in the plane parallel to the wiggler field. The 3 meter long wiggler has a 9.8 cm period. The Free Electron Laser (FEL) will serve as an amplifier for input frequencies of 35 GHz and 140 GHz. The facility is designed to produce better than 500 Megawatts peak power

  1. Spin-polarized states in neutron matter in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isayev, A. A.; Yang, J.

    2009-01-01

    Spin-polarized states in neutron matter in strong magnetic fields up to 10 18 G are considered in the model with the Skyrme effective interaction. By analyzing the self-consistent equations at zero temperature, it is shown that a thermodynamically stable branch of solutions for the spin-polarization parameter as a function of density corresponds to the negative spin polarization when the majority of neutron spins are oriented opposite to the direction of the magnetic field. Besides, beginning from some threshold density dependent on magnetic field strength, the self-consistent equations also have two other branches of solutions for the spin-polarization parameter with the positive spin polarization. The free energy corresponding to one of these branches turns out to be very close to that of the thermodynamically preferable branch. As a consequence, in a strong magnetic field, the state with the positive spin polarization can be realized as a metastable state in the high-density region in neutron matter, which, under decreasing density, at some threshold density changes to a thermodynamically stable state with the negative spin polarization.

  2. Spin-polarized transport properties of Fe atomic chain adsorbed on zigzag graphene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z L; Chen, Y P; Xie, Y E; Zhang, M; Zhong, J X

    2011-01-01

    The spin-polarized transport properties of Fe atomic chain adsorbed on zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) are investigated using the density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We find that the Fe chain has drastic effects on spin-polarized transport properties of ZGNRs compared with a single Fe atom adsorbed on the ZGNRs. When the Fe chain is adsorbed on the centre of the ZGNR, the original semiconductor transforms into metal, showing a very wide range of spin-polarized transport. Particularly, the spin polarization around the Fermi level is up to 100%. This is because the adsorbed Fe chain not only induces many localized states but also has effects on the edge states of ZGNR, which can effectively modulate the spin-polarized transports. The spin polarization of ZGNRs is sensitive to the adsorption site of the Fe chain. When the Fe chain is adsorbed on the edge of ZGNR, the spin degeneracy of conductance is completely broken. The spin polarization is found to be more pronounced because the edge state of one edge is destroyed by the additional Fe chain. These results have direct implications for the control of the spin-dependent conductance in ZGNRs with the adsorption of Fe chains.

  3. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Sheet, Goutam; Singh, Chandan K.; Kabir, Mukul; Thakur, Gohil S.; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (∼47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  4. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Sheet, Goutam, E-mail: goutam@iisermohali.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Sector 81, S. A. S. Nagar, Manauli PO 140306 (India); Singh, Chandan K.; Kabir, Mukul [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411008 (India); Thakur, Gohil S.; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ganguli, Ashok K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Institute of Nano Science & Technology, Mohali 160064 (India)

    2016-06-13

    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (∼47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  5. Beamline for X-ray Free Electron Laser of SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tono, K; Togashi, T; Ohashi, H; Kimura, H; Takahashi, S; Takeshita, K; Tomizawa, H; Goto, S; Inubushi, Y; Sato, T; Yabashi, M

    2013-01-01

    A beamline for X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) has been developed at SACLA, SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser. The beamline delivers and diagnoses an XFEL beam without degrading the beam quality. The transport optics are applicable in the range of 4–30 keV with a double-crystal monochromator or 4–15 keV with either of two double-mirror systems. A photon diagnostic system of the beamline monitors intensity, photon energy, center-of-mass position, and spatial profile in shot-by-shot and non-destructive manners.

  6. Spin-polarization reversal at the interface between benzene and Fe(100)

    KAUST Repository

    Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2013-01-03

    The spin-polarization at the interface between Fe(100) and a benzene is investigated theoretically using density functional theory for two positions of the organic molecule: planar and perpendicular with respect to the substrate. The electronic and magnetic properties as well as the spin-polarization close to the Fermi level strongly depend on the benzene position on the iron surface. An inversion of the spin-polarization is induced by p-d hybridization and charge transfer from the iron to the carbon sites in both configurations.

  7. Influence of temperature on spin polarization dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors—Role of nonparamagnetic centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, M.; Misiewicz, J. [Laboratory for Optical Spectroscopy of Nanostructures, Department of Experimental Physics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze, Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-10-21

    We report theoretical studies of spin polarization dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors. We develop a commonly used rate equation model [Lagarde et al., Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 208 (2007) and Kunold et al. Phys. Rev. B 83, 165202 (2011)] to take into account the influence of shallow localizing states on the temperature dependence of spin polarization dynamics and a spin filtering effect. Presented investigations show that the experimentally observed temperature dependence of a spin polarization lifetime in dilute nitrides can be related to the electron capture process by shallow localizing states without paramagnetic properties. This process reduces the efficiency of spin filtering effect by deep paramagnetic centers, especially at low temperatures.

  8. Spin Polarization Inversion at Benzene-Absorbed Fe4N Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qian; Mi, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaocha; Wang, Xuhui

    2015-01-01

    We report a first-principle study on electronic structure and simulation of the spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy graphic of a benzene/Fe4N interface. Fe4N is a compound ferromagnet suitable for many spintronic applications. We found that, depending on the particular termination schemes and interface configurations, the spin polarization on the benzene surface shows a rich variety of properties ranging from cosine-type oscillation to polarization inversion. Spin-polarization inversion above benzene is resulting from the hybridizations between C pz and the out-of-plane d orbitals of Fe atom.

  9. Nuclear reactivity indices in the context of spin polarized density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas, Carlos; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Fuentealba, Patricio

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the nuclear reactivity indices of density functional theory have been generalized to the spin polarized case and their relationship to electron spin polarized indices has been established. In particular, the spin polarized version of the nuclear Fukui function has been proposed and a finite difference approximation has been used to evaluate it. Applications to a series of triatomic molecules demonstrate the ability of the new functions to predict the geometrical changes due to a change in the spin multiplicity. The main equations in the different ensembles have also been presented

  10. Spin Polarization Inversion at Benzene-Absorbed Fe4N Surface

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qian

    2015-05-27

    We report a first-principle study on electronic structure and simulation of the spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy graphic of a benzene/Fe4N interface. Fe4N is a compound ferromagnet suitable for many spintronic applications. We found that, depending on the particular termination schemes and interface configurations, the spin polarization on the benzene surface shows a rich variety of properties ranging from cosine-type oscillation to polarization inversion. Spin-polarization inversion above benzene is resulting from the hybridizations between C pz and the out-of-plane d orbitals of Fe atom.

  11. Spin-polarization reversal at the interface between benzene and Fe(100)

    KAUST Repository

    Goumri-Said, Souraya; Benali Kanoun, Mohammed; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The spin-polarization at the interface between Fe(100) and a benzene is investigated theoretically using density functional theory for two positions of the organic molecule: planar and perpendicular with respect to the substrate. The electronic and magnetic properties as well as the spin-polarization close to the Fermi level strongly depend on the benzene position on the iron surface. An inversion of the spin-polarization is induced by p-d hybridization and charge transfer from the iron to the carbon sites in both configurations.

  12. Quantum aspects of the free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiba, R.

    2007-03-15

    We study the role of Quantum Mechanics in the physics of Free Electron Lasers. While the Free Electron Laser (FEL) is usually treated as a classical device, we review the advantages of a quantum formulation of the FEL. We then show the existence of a regime of operation of the FEL that can only be described using Quantum Mechanics: if the dimensionless quantum parameter anti {rho} is smaller than 1, then in the 1-dimensional approximation the Hamiltonian that describes the FEL becomes equivalent to the Hamiltonian of a two-level system coupled to a radiation field. We give analytical and numerical solutions for the photon statistics of a Free Electron Laser operating in the quantum regime under various approximations. Since in the quantum regime the momentum of the electrons is discrete, we give a description of the electrons in phase space by introducing the Discrete Wigner Function. We then drop the assumption of a mono-energetic electron beam and describe the general case of a initial electron energy spread G({gamma}). Numerical analysis shows that the FEL quantum regime is observed only when the width of the initial momentum distribution is smaller than the momentum of the emitted photons. Both the analytical results in the linear approximation and the numerical simulations show that only the electrons close to a certain resonant energy start to emit photons. This generates the so-called Hole-burning effect in the electrons energy distribution, as it can be seen in the simulations we provide. Finally, we present a brief discussion about a fundamental uncertainty relation that ties the electron energy spread and the electron bunching. (orig.)

  13. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy: breakthroughs and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The principle of scanning tunneling microscopy, an imaging method with atomic resolution capability invented by Binnig and Rohrer in 1982, can be adapted for surface magnetism studies by using magnetic probe tips. The contrast mechanism of this so-called spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy, or SP-STM, relies on the tunneling magneto-resistance effect, i.e. the tip-sample distance as well as the differential conductance depend on the relative magnetic orientation of tip and sample. To illustrate the working principle and the unique capabilities of SP-STM, this compilation presents some key experiments which have been performed on various magnetic surfaces, such as the topological antiferromagnet Cr(001), a double-layer of Fe which exhibits a stripe- domain pattern with about 50 nm periodicity, and the Mn monolayer on W(110), where the combination of experiment and theory reveal an antiferromagnetic spin cycloid. Recent experimental results also demonstrate the suitability of SP-STM for studies of dynamic properties, such as the spin relaxation time of single magnetic nanostructures.

  14. Spin polarization and magnetic effects in radical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salikhov, K.M.; Molin, Yu.N.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Buchachenko, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on the effects of chemically induced dynamic nuclear and electron polarizations (CIDNP and CIDEP), and magnetic effects in radical reactions, have given rise to a new rapidly-progressing field of chemical physics. It came into being about ten years ago and has been attracting the ever-growing attention of researchers in related areas. The present book is a fairly all-embracing review of the state of affairs in this field. The book presents the physical background (both theoretical and experimental) of CIDNP and CIDEP, of the effects of an external magnetic field and magnetic nuclear moment (magnetic isotope effects) on radical reactions in solutions. Great attention has been paid to the application of chemical spin polarization and magnetic effects to solving various problems of chemical kinetics, structural chemistry, molecular physics, magnetobiology, and radiospectroscopy. The book will be useful for physicists, chemists and biologists employing CIDNP, CIDEP and magnetic effects in their investigations, as well as for researchers in related fields of chemical physics. The book can be also recommended for postgraduates and senior undergraduate students. (Auth.)

  15. The theoretical study of the optical klystron free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhenhua

    2001-01-01

    The work of the theoretical study and numerical simulation of optical klystron free electron laser is supported by National 863 Research Development Program and National Science Foundation of China. The object of studying UV band free electron laser (FEL) is to understand the physical law of optical klystron FEL and to gain experience for design. A three-dimensional code OPFEL are made and it is approved that the code is correct completely. The magnetic field of the optical klystron, the energy modulation of the electron beam, the density modulation of the electron beam, spontaneous emission of the electron beam in optical klystron, the harmonic super-radiation of the electron beam, and the effects of the undulator magnetic field error on modulation of the electron beam energy are simulated. These results are useful for the future experiments

  16. Spin-polarized ballistic conduction through correlated Au-NiMnSb-Au heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Morari, C.

    2017-11-20

    We examine the ballistic conduction through Au-NiMnSb-Au heterostructures consisting of up to four units of the half-metallic NiMnSb in the scattering region, using density functional theory (DFT) methods. For a single NiMnSb unit the transmission function displays a spin polarization of around 50% in a window of 1eV centered around the Fermi level. By increasing the number of layers, an almost complete spin polarization of the transmission is obtained in this energy range. Supplementing the DFT calculations with local electronic interactions, of Hubbard-type on the Mn sites, leads to a hybridization between the interface and many-body states. The significant reduction of the spin polarization seen in the density of states is not apparent in the spin polarization of the conduction electron transmission, which suggests that the hybridized interface and many-body induced states are localized.

  17. Peculiarities of spin polarization inversion at a thiophene/cobalt interface

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    We perform ab initio calculations to investigate the spin polarization at the interface between a thiophene molecule and cobalt substrate. We find that the reduced symmetry in the presence of a sulfur atom (in the thiophene molecule) leads to a

  18. Modelization of nanospace interaction involving a ferromagnetic atom: a spin polarization effect study by thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, K S V; Chen, Xu; Gupta, S

    2014-04-01

    Ab initio studies of ferromagnetic atom interacting with carbon nanotubes have been reported in the literature that predict when the interaction is strong, a higher hybridization with confinement effect will result in spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom. The spin polarization effect on the thermal oxidation to form its oxide is modeled here for the ferromagnetic atom and its alloy, as the above studies predict the 4s electrons are polarized in the atom. The four models developed here provide a pathway for distinguishing the type of interaction that exists in the real system. The extent of spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom has been examined by varying the amount of carbon nanotubes in the composites in the thermogravimetric experiments. In this study we report the experimental results on the CoNi alloy which appears to show selective spin polarization. The products of the thermal oxidation has been analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  19. Free-electron laser theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.

    1989-01-01

    The essential features of the theory of the free electron laser (FEL) are given in some detail. Beginning with an explanation of the basic gain mechanism, the lectures continue with a discussion of the problems associated with single-passage and recirculated (storage-ring) operation. Pulse propagation effects and the so-called 'lethargic' behaviour are analysed more completely. Finally, elements of FEL quantum theory are reported, in order to clarify the laser process from the microscopic point of view. Appendices give a fuller treatment of optical cavities and undulator magnets. (orig.)

  20. Free Electron Laser in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    The idea of building a new IVth generation of light sources of high luminosity, which use accelerators, arose in the 80ties of XXth century. Now, in a numerable synchrotron and laser laboratories in Europe, there is carried out, since a couple of years, intense applied research on free electron lasers (FEL) [17,18]. Similarly, in this country, free electron laser in Poland – POLFEL [9] is, in a design, a coherent light source of the IVth generation, characterized by very short pulses in the range of 10-100fs, of big power 0,2GW and UV wavelength of 27nm, of average power 1W, with effective high power third harmonic of 9nm. The laser consists of a linear superconducting accelerator 100m in length, undulator and experimental lines. It generates a monochromatic and coherent radiation and can be tuned from THz range via IR, visible to UV, and potentially to X-rays. The linac works in quasi-CW or real-CW mode. It is planned by IPJ [9,10] and XFEL-Poland Consortium [16] as a part of the ESFRI [1] priority EuroFEL...

  1. The spin polarized linear response from density functional theory: Theory and application to atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fias, Stijn, E-mail: sfias@vub.ac.be; Boisdenghien, Zino; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul [General Chemistry (ALGC), Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Free University Brussels – VUB), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-11-14

    Within the context of spin polarized conceptual density functional theory, the spin polarized linear response functions are introduced both in the [N, N{sub s}] and [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representations. The mathematical relations between the spin polarized linear response functions in both representations are examined and an analytical expression for the spin polarized linear response functions in the [N{sub α}, N{sub β}] representation is derived. The spin polarized linear response functions were calculated for all atoms up to and including argon. To simplify the plotting of our results, we integrated χ(r, r′) to a quantity χ(r, r{sup ′}), circumventing the θ and ϕ dependence. This allows us to plot and to investigate the periodicity throughout the first three rows in the periodic table within the two different representations. For the first time, χ{sub αβ}(r, r{sup ′}), χ{sub βα}(r, r{sup ′}), and χ{sub SS}(r, r{sup ′}) plots have been calculated and discussed. By integration of the spin polarized linear response functions, different components to the polarisability, α{sub αα}, α{sub αβ}, α{sub βα}, and α{sub ββ} have been calculated.

  2. High-efficiency free-electron-laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.; Brau, C.A.; Goldstein, J.C.; Hohla, K.L.; Newnam, B.E.; Stein, W.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments with a tapered-wiggler free-electron laser have demonstrated extraction of about 3% of the energy from the electron beam and measured the corresponding optical emission. These results are in excellent agreement with theory and represent an order-of-magnitude improvement over all previous results

  3. Coherent Startup of an Infrared Free-Electron Laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, D. A.; Bakker, R. J.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Oepts, D.; van Amersfoort, P. W.

    1993-01-01

    Coherent enhancement of the spontaneous undulator radiation by several orders of magnitude has been observed in a free-electron laser at wavelengths from 40 to 100 mum. The coherent emission can be explained by details of the electron-beam micropulse structure. Furthermore, it has been found that

  4. Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, J.G.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Volokhine, I.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for

  5. XUV/VUV free-electron laser oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, J.C.; Newnam, B.E.; Cooper, R.K.; Comly, J.C. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    It is shown, from computations based on a detailed theoretical model, that modest improvements in electron beam and optical mirror technologies will enable a free-electron laser, driven by an rf linear accelerator, to operate in the 50 to 200-nm range of optical wavelengths. 10 references

  6. Rotatable spin-polarized electron source for inverse-photoemission experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolwijk, S. D.; Wortelen, H.; Schmidt, A. B.; Donath, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a ROtatable Spin-polarized Electron source (ROSE) for the use in spin- and angle-resolved inverse-photoemission (SR-IPE) experiments. A key feature of the ROSE is a variable direction of the transversal electron beam polarization. As a result, the inverse-photoemission experiment becomes sensitive to two orthogonal in-plane polarization directions, and, for nonnormal electron incidence, to the out-of-plane polarization component. We characterize the ROSE and test its performance on the basis of SR-IPE experiments. Measurements on magnetized Ni films on W(110) serve as a reference to demonstrate the variable spin sensitivity. Moreover, investigations of the unoccupied spin-dependent surface electronic structure of Tl/Si(111) highlight the capability to analyze complex phenomena like spin rotations in momentum space. Essentially, the ROSE opens the way to further studies on complex spin-dependent effects in the field of surface magnetism and spin-orbit interaction at surfaces

  7. Low energy collisions of spin-polarized metastable argon atoms with ground state argon atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillandier-Loize, T.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Bocvarski, V.; Ducloy, M.; Correia, F.; Fabre, N.; Dutier, G.

    2018-04-01

    The collision between a spin-polarized metastable argon atom in Ar* (3p54s, 3P2, M = +2) state slightly decelerated by the Zeeman slower-laser technique and a co-propagating thermal ground state argon atom Ar (3p6, 1S0), both merged from the same supersonic beam, but coming through adjacent slots of a rotating disk, is investigated at the center of mass energies ranging from 1 to 10 meV. The duration of the laser pulse synchronised with the disk allows the tuning of the relative velocity and thus the collision energy. At these sub-thermal energies, the ‘resonant metastability transfer’ signal is too small to be evidenced. The explored energy range requires using indiscernibility amplitudes for identical isotopes to have a correct interpretation of the experimental results. Nevertheless, excitation transfers are expected to increase significantly at much lower energies as suggested by previous theoretical predictions of potentials 2g(3P2) and 2u(3P2). Limits at ultra-low collisional energies of the order of 1 mK (0.086 μeV) or less, where gigantic elastic cross sections are expected, will also be discussed. The experimental method is versatile and could be applied using different isotopes of Argon like 36Ar combined with 40Ar, as well as other rare gases among which Krypton should be of great interest thanks to the available numerous isotopes present in a natural gas mixture.

  8. Dynamically polarized hydrogen target as a broadband, wavelength-independent thermal neutron spin polarizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkui; Garamus, Vasil M.; Mueller, Wilhelm; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    A hydrogen-rich sample with dynamically polarized hydrogen nuclei was tested as a wavelength-independent neutron transmission spin polarizer. The experiment used a modified setup of the dynamic nuclear polarization target station at the GKSS research center. The standard solvent sample at the GKSS DNP station was used. It is 2.8mm thick and consists of 43.4wt% water, 54.6wt% glycerol, and 2wt% of EHBA-Cr(v) complex. The wavelength of the incident neutrons for the transmission experiment was λ=8.1A with Δλ/λ=10%. The polarization of neutron beam after the target sample was analyzed with a supermirror analyzer. A neutron polarization of -52% was achieved at the hydrogen polarization of -69%. Further experiments will test the feasibility of other hydrogen-rich materials, such as methane, as the polarizer. A theoretical calculation shows that a polarized methane target would allow over 95% neutron polarizations with more than 30% transmission

  9. Short wavelength optics for future free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.

    1984-04-01

    Although much free-electron laser work is directed toward achieving sufficient single-pass gain to be useful for research purposes, the availability of mirrors of high reflectance for the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regime would make resonant cavities a possibility. In addition, as in ordinary synchrotron radiation work, mirrors are required for the construction of realistic experiments and for beam manipulation purposes such as folding and extraction. The Working Group discussed a number of approaches to reflecting optics for free electron lasers, which are summarized here, and described in some detail. 16 references, 2 figures

  10. X-ray Free-electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldhaus, J.; /DESY; Arthur, J.; Hastings, J.B.; /SLAC

    2007-02-23

    In a free-electron laser (FEL) the lasing medium is a high-energy beam of electrons flying with relativistic speed through a periodic magnetic field. The interaction between the synchrotron radiation that is produced and the electrons in the beam induces a periodic bunching of the electrons, greatly increasing the intensity of radiation produced at a particular wavelength. Depending only on a phase match between the electron energy and the magnetic period, the wavelength of the FEL radiation can be continuously tuned within a wide spectral range. The FEL concept can be adapted to produce radiation wavelengths from millimeters to Angstroms, and can in principle produce hard x-ray beams with unprecedented peak brightness, exceeding that of the brightest synchrotron source by ten orders of magnitude or more. This paper focuses on short-wavelength FELs. It reviews the physics and characteristic properties of single-pass FELs, as well as current technical developments aiming for fully coherent x-ray radiation pulses with pulse durations in the 100 fs to 100 as range. First experimental results at wavelengths around 100 nm and examples of scientific applications planned on the new, emerging x-ray FEL facilities are presented.

  11. Short Rayleigh length free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. Colson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional free electron laser (FEL oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third to one half of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. We model this interaction using a coordinate system that expands with the rapidly diffracting optical mode from the ends of the undulator to the mirrors. Simulations show that the interaction of the strongly focused optical mode with a narrow electron beam inside the undulator distorts the optical wave front so it is no longer in the fundamental Gaussian mode. The simulations are used to study how mode distortion affects the single-pass gain in weak fields, and the steady-state extraction in strong fields.

  12. Polarization-dependent pump-probe studies in atomic fine-structure levels: towards the production of spin-polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokell, E.; Zamith, S.; Bouchene, M.A.; Girard, B.

    2000-01-01

    The precession of orbital and spin angular momentum vectors has been observed in a pump-probe study of the 4P fine-structure states of atomic potassium. A femtosecond pump pulse prepared a coherent superposition of the two fine-structure components. A time-delayed probe pulse then ionized the system after it had been allowed to evolve freely. Oscillations recorded in the ion signal reflect the evolution of the orientation of the orbital and spin angular momentum due to spin-orbit coupling. This interpretation gives physical insight into the cause of the half-period phase shift observed when the relative polarizations of the laser pulses were changed from parallel to perpendicular. Finally, it is shown that these changes in the orientation of the spin momentum vector of the system can be utilized to produce highly spin-polarized free electrons on the femtosecond scale. (author)

  13. Spin polarized and density modulated phases in symmetric electron-electron and electron-hole bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishan; Moudgil, R K

    2012-10-17

    We have studied symmetric electron-electron and electron-hole bilayers to explore the stable homogeneous spin phase and the feasibility of inhomogeneous charge-/spin-density ground states. The former is resolved by comparing the ground-state energies in states of different spin polarizations, while the latter is resolved by searching for a divergence in the wavevector-dependent static charge/spin susceptibility. For this endeavour, we have used the dielectric approach within the self-consistent mean-field theory of Singwi et al. We find that the inter-layer interactions tend to change an abrupt spin-polarization transition of an isolated layer into a nearly gradual one, even though the partially spin-polarized phases are not clearly stable within the accuracy of our calculation. The transition density is seen to decrease with a reduction in layer spacing, implying a suppression of spin polarization by inter-layer interactions. Indeed, the suppression shows up distinctly in the spin susceptibility computed from the spin-polarization dependence of the ground-state energy. However, below a critical layer spacing, the unpolarized liquid becomes unstable against a charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state at a density preceding full spin polarization, with the transition density for the CDW state increasing on further reduction in the layer spacing. Due to attractive e-h correlations, the CDW state is found to be more pronounced in the e-h bilayer. On the other hand, the static spin susceptibility diverges only in the long-wavelength limit, which simply represents a transition to the homogeneous spin-polarized phase.

  14. Measurement of transverse emittance at the source of spin-polarized electrons at the S-DALINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, Christian; Barday, Roman; Bonnes, Uwe; Eichhorn, Ralf; Enders, Joachim; Hessler, Christoph; Patalakha, Oleksandr; Platz, Markus; Poltoratska, Yuliya; Rick, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Ackermann, Wolfgang; Mueller, Wolfgang F.O.; Steiner, Bastian; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    A new injector concept for 100 keV spin-polarized electrons (SPIN) at the S-DALINAC has been developed. The transverse emittance was measured for beam characterization. The emittance is a quantity concerning the quality of the beam, describing the phase space area. Determination of the emittance requires measurement of the beam profile and knowledge of the focal length of a beam focussing device. A wire scanner unit consisting of two 50 {mu}m diameter tungsten wires is used for the beam-profile measurement. Data analysis is performed by fitting a gaussian model distribution to estimate the 1{sigma} beam radius. Each determined beam width is correlated to the corresponding focal length of a magnetic lens, and a parabola fit is applied to calculate the parameters of the {sigma}-matrix. The square root of the determinant of the {sigma}-matrix defines the emittance. The results of the calculation are presented and the emittance is compared to theoretical estimates.

  15. Dual descriptors within the framework of spin-polarized density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, E; Pérez, P; Duque, M; De Proft, F; Geerlings, P

    2008-08-14

    Spin-polarized density functional theory (SP-DFT) allows both the analysis of charge-transfer (e.g., electrophilic and nucleophilic reactivity) and of spin-polarization processes (e.g., photophysical changes arising from electron transitions). In analogy with the dual descriptor introduced by Morell et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 205 (2005)], we introduce new dual descriptors intended to simultaneously give information of the molecular regions where the spin-polarization process linking states of different multiplicity will drive electron density and spin density changes. The electronic charge and spin rearrangement in the spin forbidden radiative transitions S(0)-->T(n,pi(*)) and S(0)-->T(pi,pi(*)) in formaldehyde and ethylene, respectively, have been used as benchmark examples illustrating the usefulness of the new spin-polarization dual descriptors. These quantities indicate those regions where spin-orbit coupling effects are at work in such processes. Additionally, the qualitative relationship between the topology of the spin-polarization dual descriptors and the vertical singlet triplet energy gap in simple substituted carbene series has been also discussed. It is shown that the electron density and spin density rearrangements arise in agreement with spectroscopic experimental evidence and other theoretical results on the selected target systems.

  16. Injection and detection of a spin-polarized current in a light-emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiederling, R.; Keim, M.; Reuscher, G.; Ossau, W.; Schmidt, G.; Waag, A.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    1999-12-01

    The field of magnetoelectronics has been growing in practical importance in recent years. For example, devices that harness electronic spin-such as giant-magnetoresistive sensors and magnetoresistive memory cells-are now appearing on the market. In contrast, magnetoelectronic devices based on spin-polarized transport in semiconductors are at a much earlier stage of development, largely because of the lack of an efficient means of injecting spin-polarized charge. Much work has focused on the use of ferromagnetic metallic contacts, but it has proved exceedingly difficult to demonstrate polarized spin injection. More recently, two groups have reported successful spin injection from an NiFe contact, but the observed effects of the spin-polarized transport were quite small (resistance changes of less than 1%). Here we describe a different approach, in which the magnetic semiconductor BexMnyZn1-x-ySe is used as a spin aligner. We achieve injection efficiencies of 90% spin-polarized current into a non-magnetic semiconductor device. The device used in this case is a GaAs/AlGaAs light-emitting diode, and spin polarization is confirmed by the circular polarization state of the emitted light.

  17. Unique spin-polarized transmission effects in a QD ring structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, Eric; Joe, Yong

    2010-10-01

    Spintronics is an emerging field in which the spin of the electron is used for switching purposes and to communicate information. In order to obtain spin-polarized electron transmission, the Zeeman effect is employed to produce spin-split energy states in quantum dots which are embedded in the arms of a mesoscopic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) ring heterostructure. The Zeeman splitting of the QD energy levels can be induced by a parallel magnetic field, or by a perpendicular field which also produces AB-effects. The combination of these effects on the transmission resonances of the structure is studied analytically and several parameter regimes are identified which produce a high degree of spin-polarized output. Contour and line plots of the weighted spin polarization as a function of electron energy and magnetic field are presented to visualize the degree of spin-polarization. Taking advantage of these unique parameter regimes shows the potential promise of such devices for producing spin-polarized currents.

  18. Conductivity of a spin-polarized two-dimensional hole gas at very low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlimi, S., E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Kaaouachi, A. El, E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Limouny, L., E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Sybous, A.; Narjis, A.; Errai, M.; Daoudi, E. [Research Group ESNPS , Physics department, University Ibn Zohr, Faculty of Sciences, B.P 8106, Hay Dakhla, 80000 Agadir (Morocco); Idrissi, H. El [Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Mohammedia, Département de physique. BP 146 Quartier Yasmina Mohammedia (Morocco); Zatni, A. [Laboratoire MSTI. Ecole de technologied' Agadir, B.P33/S Agadir (Morocco)

    2014-01-27

    In the ballistic regime where k{sub B}Tτ / ħ ≥1, the temperature dependence of the metallic conductivity in a two-dimensional hole system of gallium arsenide, is found to change non-monotonically with the degree of spin polarization. In particular, it fades away just before the onset of complete spin polarization, but reappears again in the fully spin-polarized state, being, however, suppressed relative to the zero magnetic field case. The analysis of the degree of suppression can distinguish between screening and interaction-based theories. We show that in a fully polarized spin state, the effects of disorder are dominant and approach a strong localization regime, which is contrary to the behavior of 2D electron systems in a weakly disordered unpolarized state. It was found that the elastic relaxation time correction, depending on the temperature, changed significantly with the degree of spin polarization, to reach a minimum just below the start of the spin-polarized integer, where the conductivity is practically independent of temperature.

  19. Induced spin-polarization of EuS at room temperature in Ni/EuS multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulopoulos, P., E-mail: poulop@upatras.gr [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Materials Science Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Goschew, A.; Straub, A.; Fumagalli, P. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem (Germany); Kapaklis, V.; Wolff, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Delimitis, A. [Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute (CPERI), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), B.P.220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Pappas, S. D. [Laboratory of High-Tech Materials, School of Engineering, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-03-17

    Ni/EuS multilayers with excellent multilayer sequencing are deposited via e-beam evaporation on the native oxide of Si(100) wafers at 4 × 10{sup −9} millibars. The samples have very small surface and interface roughness and show sharp interfaces. Ni layers are nanocrystalline 4–8 nm thick and EuS layers are 2–4 nm thick and are either amorphous or nanocrystalline. Unlike for Co/EuS multilayers, all Eu ions are in divalent (ferromagnetic) state. We show a direct antiferromagnetic coupling between EuS and Ni layers. At room temperature, the EuS layers are spin-polarized due to the proximity of Ni. Therefore, Ni/EuS is a candidate for room-temperature spintronics applications.

  20. A hemispherical photoelectron spectrometer with 2-dimensional delay-line detector and integrated spin-polarization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plucinski, L.; Oelsner, A.; Matthes, F.; Schneider, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Photoelectron spectrometers usually allow detection of either spin-resolved energy-distribution curves (EDCs) at single emission angle, or 2D angle-vs.-energy images without spin-resolution. We have combined the two detection schemes into one spectrometer system which permits simultaneous detection of a 1D spin-resolved EDC and a 2D angular map. A state-of-the-art hemispherical analyzer is used as an energy filter. Its original scintillator detector has been replaced by a delay-line-detector (DLD), and part of the electron beam is allowed to pass through to reach the spin-polarized low energy electron diffraction (SPLEED) spin-detector mounted subsequently. The electron-optics between DLD and SPLEED contains a 90 o deflector to feature simultaneous detection of in-plane and out-of-plane spin components. These electron-optics have been optimized for high transmission to reduce acquisition times in the spin-resolved mode.

  1. Two-stage free electron laser research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, S. B.

    1984-10-01

    KMS Fusion, Inc. began studying the feasibility of two-stage free electron lasers for the Office of Naval Research in June, 1980. At that time, the two-stage FEL was only a concept that had been proposed by Luis Elias. The range of parameters over which such a laser could be successfully operated, attainable power output, and constraints on laser operation were not known. The primary reason for supporting this research at that time was that it had the potential for producing short-wavelength radiation using a relatively low voltage electron beam. One advantage of a low-voltage two-stage FEL would be that shielding requirements would be greatly reduced compared with single-stage short-wavelength FEL's. If the electron energy were kept below about 10 MeV, X-rays, generated by electrons striking the beam line wall, would not excite neutron resonance in atomic nuclei. These resonances cause the emission of neutrons with subsequent induced radioactivity. Therefore, above about 10 MeV, a meter or more of concrete shielding is required for the system, whereas below 10 MeV, a few millimeters of lead would be adequate.

  2. Free electron laser and superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, A

    2003-01-01

    The lasing of the first free-electron laser (FEL) in the world was successfully carried out in 1977, so the history of FELs as a light source is not so long. But FELs are now utilized for research in many scientific and engineering fields owing to such characteristics as tunability of the wavelength, and short pulse and high peak power, which is difficult utilizing a common light source. Research for industrial applications has also been carried out in some fields, such as life sciences, semiconductors, nano-scale measurement, and others. The task for the industrial use of FEL is the realization of high energy efficiency and high optical power. As a means of promoting realization, the combining of an FEL and superconducting linac is now under development in order to overcome the thermal limitations of normal-conducting linacs. Further, since tuning the wavelength is carried out by changing the magnetic density of the undulator, which is now induced by moving part of the stack of permanent magnets, there is un...

  3. Switching Magnetism and Superconductivity with Spin-Polarized Current in Iron-Based Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seokhwan; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ok, Jong Mok; Lee, Yeonghoon; Jang, Won-Jun; Lee, Alex Taekyung; Kuk, Young; Lee, SungBin; Heinrich, Andreas J; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bang, Yunkyu; Johnston, Steven; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-12-01

    We explore a new mechanism for switching magnetism and superconductivity in a magnetically frustrated iron-based superconductor using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM). Our SPSTM study on single-crystal Sr_{2}VO_{3}FeAs shows that a spin-polarized tunneling current can switch the Fe-layer magnetism into a nontrivial C_{4} (2×2) order, which cannot be achieved by thermal excitation with an unpolarized current. Our tunneling spectroscopy study shows that the induced C_{4} (2×2) order has characteristics of plaquette antiferromagnetic order in the Fe layer and strongly suppresses superconductivity. Also, thermal agitation beyond the bulk Fe spin ordering temperature erases the C_{4} state. These results suggest a new possibility of switching local superconductivity by changing the symmetry of magnetic order with spin-polarized and unpolarized tunneling currents in iron-based superconductors.

  4. Nuclear spin polarized H and D by means of spin-exchange optical pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Jörn; Grosshauser, Carsten; Kilian, Wolfgang; Nagengast, Wolfgang; Ranzenberger, Bernd; Rith, Klaus; Schmidt, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Optically pumped spin-exchange sources for polarized hydrogen and deuterium atoms have been demonstrated to yield high atomic flow and high electron spin polarization. For maximum nuclear polarization the source has to be operated in spin temperature equilibrium, which has already been demonstrated for hydrogen. In spin temperature equilibrium the nuclear spin polarization PI equals the electron spin polarization PS for hydrogen and is even larger than PS for deuterium. We discuss the general properties of spin temperature equilibrium for a sample of deuterium atoms. One result are the equations PI=4PS/(3+PS2) and Pzz=PSṡPI, where Pzz is the nuclear tensor polarization. Furthermore we demonstrate that the deuterium atoms from our source are in spin temperature equilibrium within the experimental accuracy.

  5. Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G

    2008-01-01

    We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons

  6. Design and performance of a spin-polarized electron energy loss spectrometer with high momentum resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilyev, D.; Kirschner, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    We describe a new “complete” spin-polarized electron energy loss spectrometer comprising a spin-polarized primary electron source, an imaging electron analyzer, and a spin analyzer of the “spin-polarizing mirror” type. Unlike previous instruments, we have a high momentum resolution of less than 0.04 Å{sup −1}, at an energy resolution of 90-130 meV. Unlike all previous studies which reported rather broad featureless data in both energy and angle dependence, we find richly structured spectra depending sensitively on small changes of the primary energy, the kinetic energy after scattering, and of the angle of incidence. The key factor is the momentum resolution.

  7. Effects of spin-polarized current on pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-fu Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate effects of a small DC spin-polarized current on the pulse field-induced precessional magnetization reversal in a thin elliptic magnetic element by micromagnetic simulations. We find that the spin-polarized current not only broadens the time window of the pulse duration, in which a successful precessional reversal is achievable, but also significantly suppresses the magnetization ringing after the reversal. The pulse time window as well as the decay rate of the ringing increase with increasing the current density. When a spin-polarized current with 5 MA/cm2 is applied, the time window increases from 80 ps to 112 ps, and the relaxation time of the ringing decreases from 1.1 ns to 0.32 ns. Our results provide useful information to achieve magnetic nanodevices based on precessional switching.

  8. In situ scanning tunneling microscope tip treatment device for spin polarization imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An-Ping [Oak Ridge, TN; Jianxing, Ma [Oak Ridge, TN; Shen, Jian [Knoxville, TN

    2008-04-22

    A tip treatment device for use in an ultrahigh vacuum in situ scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The device provides spin polarization functionality to new or existing variable temperature STM systems. The tip treatment device readily converts a conventional STM to a spin-polarized tip, and thereby converts a standard STM system into a spin-polarized STM system. The tip treatment device also has functions of tip cleaning and tip flashing a STM tip to high temperature (>2000.degree. C.) in an extremely localized fashion. Tip coating functions can also be carried out, providing the tip sharp end with monolayers of coating materials including magnetic films. The device is also fully compatible with ultrahigh vacuum sample transfer setups.

  9. Spin-Polarized Hybridization at the interface between different 8-hydroxyquinolates and the Cr(001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingying; Deloach, Andrew; Dougherty, Daniel B.; Dougherty Lab Team

    Organic materials attract a lot of attention due to their promising applications in spintronic devices. It is realized that spin-polarized metal/organic interfacial hybridization plays an important role to improve efficiency of organic spintronic devices. Hybridized interfacial states help to increase spin injection at the interface. Here we report spin-resolved STM measurements of single tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum molecules adsorbed on the antiferromagnetic Cr(001). Our observations show a spin-polarized interface state between Alq3 and Cr(001). Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato) chromium has also been studied and compared with Alq3, which exhibits different spin-polarized hybridization with the Cr(001) surface state than Alq3. We attribute the differences to different character of molecular orbitals in the two different quinolates.

  10. Spin Dynamics in Highly Spin Polarized Co1-xFexS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Michael J. R.; Kuhns, Philip L.; Moulton, William G.; Reyes, Arneil P.; Lu, Jun; Wang, Lan; Leighton, Chris

    2006-09-01

    Highly spin polarized or half-metallic systems are of considerable current interest because of their potential for spin injection in spintronics applications. The ferromagnet (FM) CoS2 is close to being a half-metal. Recent theoretical and experimental work has shown that the alloys Co1-xFexS2 (0.07 < x < 0.9) are highly spin polarized at low temperatures. The Fe concentration may be used to tune the spin polarization. Using 59Co FM- NMR we have investigated the spin dynamics in this family of alloys and have obtained information on the evolution of the d-band density of states at the Fermi level with x in the range 0 to 0.3. The results are compared with available theoretical predictions.

  11. Spin polarization of tunneling current in barriers with spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G

    2008-03-19

    We present a general method for evaluating the maximum transmitted spin polarization and optimal spin axis for an arbitrary spin-orbit coupling (SOC) barrier system, in which the spins lie in the azimuthal plane and finite spin polarization is achieved by wavevector filtering of electrons. Besides momentum filtering, another prerequisite for finite spin polarization is asymmetric occupation or transmission probabilities of the eigenstates of the SOC Hamiltonian. This is achieved most efficiently by resonant tunneling through multiple SOC barriers. We apply our analysis to common SOC mechanisms in semiconductors: pure bulk Dresselhaus SOC, heterostructures with mixed Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC and strain-induced SOC. In particular, we find that the interplay between Dresselhaus and Rashba SOC effects can yield several advantageous features for spin filter and spin injector functions, such as increased robustness to wavevector spread of electrons.

  12. Spin-Polarized Tunneling through Chemical Vapor Deposited Multilayer Molybdenum Disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankert, André; Pashaei, Parham; Kamalakar, M Venkata; Gaur, Anand P S; Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Rungger, Ivan; Narayan, Awadhesh; Dolui, Kapildeb; Hoque, Md Anamul; Patel, Ram Shanker; de Jong, Michel P; Katiyar, Ram S; Sanvito, Stefano; Dash, Saroj P

    2017-06-27

    The two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) has attracted widespread attention for its extraordinary electrical-, optical-, spin-, and valley-related properties. Here, we report on spin-polarized tunneling through chemical vapor deposited multilayer MoS 2 (∼7 nm) at room temperature in a vertically fabricated spin-valve device. A tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) of 0.5-2% has been observed, corresponding to spin polarization of 5-10% in the measured temperature range of 300-75 K. First-principles calculations for ideal junctions result in a TMR up to 8% and a spin polarization of 26%. The detailed measurements at different temperature, bias voltages, and density functional theory calculations provide information about spin transport mechanisms in vertical multilayer MoS 2 spin-valve devices. These findings form a platform for exploring spin functionalities in 2D semiconductors and understanding the basic phenomena that control their performance.

  13. Spin polarized tunnelling investigation of nanometre Co clusters by means of a Ni bulk tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastei, M V; Bucher, J P

    2006-01-01

    A massive Ni tip is used in spin polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy (SP STM) to explore the magnetization state of nanometre Co clusters, self-organized on the Au(111) surface. Constant current STM images taken at 4.6 K show a bimodal distribution of the cluster heights, accounting for the spin polarization of the STM junction. The spin polarization of the tunnel junction as a function of the bias voltage is found to depend on the local density of states of the sample examined. Changing the vacuum barrier parameters by bringing the tip closer to the surface leads to a reduction in the tunnelling magnetoresistance that may be attributed to spin flip effects. (letter to the editor)

  14. A new far infrared free-electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, J E; Swartz, J C; Urata, J; Kimmitt, M F

    1999-01-01

    The operation of a new ultra compact diffraction grating coupled free-electron laser (FEL) has been demonstrated. The basic elements of the device which is termed a grating coupled oscillator (GCO) are the beam in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a diffraction grating which is mounted in the e-beam focal region of the SEM. The e-beam is controlled by the SEM's electron optical system and distributed feed back is provided by the grating itself. Recent experimental results are presented and techniques for extending the wavelength and power coverage are discussed.

  15. A new far infrared free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.E.; Brownell, J.H.; Swartz, J.C.; Urata, J.; Kimmitt, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    The operation of a new ultra compact diffraction grating coupled free-electron laser (FEL) has been demonstrated. The basic elements of the device which is termed a grating coupled oscillator (GCO) are the beam in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a diffraction grating which is mounted in the e-beam focal region of the SEM. The e-beam is controlled by the SEM's electron optical system and distributed feed back is provided by the grating itself. Recent experimental results are presented and techniques for extending the wavelength and power coverage are discussed

  16. A new far infrared free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J.E.; Brownell, J.H.; Swartz, J.C.; Urata, J.; Kimmitt, M.F

    1999-06-01

    The operation of a new ultra compact diffraction grating coupled free-electron laser (FEL) has been demonstrated. The basic elements of the device which is termed a grating coupled oscillator (GCO) are the beam in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a diffraction grating which is mounted in the e-beam focal region of the SEM. The e-beam is controlled by the SEM's electron optical system and distributed feed back is provided by the grating itself. Recent experimental results are presented and techniques for extending the wavelength and power coverage are discussed.

  17. Free-electron lasers with magnetized ion-wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdian, H.; Jafari, S.; Hasanbeigi, A.; Ebrahimi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Significant progress has been made using laser ionized channels to guide electron beams in the ion focus regime in a free-electron laser. Propagation of an electron beam in the ion focusing regime (IFR) allows the beam to propagate without expanding from space-charge repulsion. The ninth-degree polynomial dispersion relation for electromagnetic and space-charge waves is derived analytically by solving the electron momentum transfer and wave equations. The variation of resonant frequencies and peak growth rates with axial magnetic field strength has been demonstrated. Substantial enhancement in peak growth rate is obtained as the axial field frequency approaches the gyroresonance frequency.

  18. Spontaneous spin-polarization and phase transition in the relativistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2001-01-01

    We study the spin-polarization mechanism in the highly dense nuclear matter with the relativistic mean-field approach. In the relativistic Hartree-Fock framework we find that there are two kinds of spin-spin interaction channels, which are the axial-vector and tensor exchange ones. If each interaction is strong and different sign, the system loses the spherical symmetry and holds the spin-polarization in the high-density region. When the axial-vector interaction is negative enough, the system holds ferromagnetism. (author)

  19. Photo-Induced Electron Spin Polarization in a Narrow Band Gap Semiconductor Nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, A. John; Lee, Chang Woo

    2012-01-01

    Photo-induced spin dependent electron transmission through a narrow gap InSb/InGa x Sb 1−x semiconductor symmetric well is theoretically studied using transfer matrix formulism. The transparency of electron transmission is calculated as a function of electron energy for different concentrations of gallium. Enhanced spin-polarized photon assisted resonant tunnelling in the heterostructure due to Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling induced splitting of the resonant level and compressed spin-polarization are observed. Our results show that Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is dominant for the photon effect and the computed polarization efficiency increases with the photon effect and the gallium concentration

  20. Generation and control of spin-polarized photocurrents in GaMnAs heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Anibal T., E-mail: anibal@df.ufscar.br; Farinas, Paulo F.; Studart, Nelson [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); DISSE - Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutores, CNPq/MCT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Castelano, Leonardo K. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Degani, Marcos H.; Maialle, Marcelo Z. [Faculdade de Ciências Aplicadas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13484-350 Limeira, SP (Brazil); DISSE - Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutores, CNPq/MCT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-13

    Photocurrents are calculated for a specially designed GaMnAs semiconductor heterostructure. The results reveal regions in the infrared range of the energy spectrum, in which the proposed structure is remarkably spin-selective. For such photon energies, the generated photocurrents are strongly spin-polarized. Application of a relatively small static bias in the growth direction of the structure is predicted to efficiently reverse the spin-polarization for some photon energies. This behavior suggests the possibility of conveniently simple switching mechanisms. The physics underlying the results is studied and understood in terms of the spin-dependent properties emerging from the particular potential profile of the structure.

  1. A qualitative study of spin polarization effect in defect tuned Co/graphene/Co nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Sumit; Saha, Shyamal K.

    2014-10-01

    Theoretical reports predict that in contact with a ferromagnetic giant spin, spin polarization evolves in defective graphene since defects in graphene act as local spin moments. We have synthesized different Co/graphene/Co nano spin valve like structures tuning the degree of defect applying ultrasonic vibration and characterized them by Raman spectroscopy. Initially with increasing ID/IG ratio in Raman spectra, antiferromagnetic coupling between the Co nanosheets on either sides of graphene enhances leading to betterment in spin transport through graphene. But for highest ID/IG, a totally new phenomenon called antiferro quadrupolar ordering (AFQ) takes place which eventually reduces the spin polarization effect.

  2. Hardness and softness reactivity kernels within the spin-polarized density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, Eduardo; De Proft, Frank; Geerlings, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Generalized hardness and softness reactivity kernels are defined within a spin-polarized density-functional theory (SP-DFT) conceptual framework. These quantities constitute the basis for the global, local (i.e., r-position dependent), and nonlocal (i.e., r and r ' -position dependents) indices devoted to the treatment of both charge-transfer and spin-polarization processes in such a reactivity framework. The exact relationships between these descriptors within a SP-DFT framework are derived and the implications for chemical reactivity in such context are outlined

  3. Peculiarities of spin polarization inversion at a thiophene/cobalt interface

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui

    2013-03-20

    We perform ab initio calculations to investigate the spin polarization at the interface between a thiophene molecule and cobalt substrate. We find that the reduced symmetry in the presence of a sulfur atom (in the thiophene molecule) leads to a strong spatial dependence of the spin polarization of the molecule. The two carbon atoms far from the sulfur acquire a polarization opposite to that of the substrate, while the carbon atoms bonded directly to sulfur possess the same polarization as the substrate. We determine the origin of this peculiar spin interface property as well as its impact on the spin transport.

  4. Magnetic x-ray circular dichroism in spin-polarized photoelectron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddill, G.D.; Tobin, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The first structural determination with spin-polarized, energy-dependent photoelectron diffraction using circularly-polarized x-rays is reported for Fe films on Cu(001). Circularly-polarized x-rays produced spin-polarized photoelectrons from the Fe 2p doublet, and intensity asymmetries in the 2p 3/2 level are observed. Fully spin-specific multiple scattering calculations reproduced the experimentally-determined energy and angular dependences. A new analytical procedure which focuses upon intensity variations due to spin-dependent diffraction is introduced. A sensitivity to local geometric and magnetic structure is demonstrated

  5. Inverse free electron laser accelerator for advanced light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Duris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the inverse free electron laser (IFEL scheme as a compact high gradient accelerator solution for driving advanced light sources such as a soft x-ray free electron laser amplifier or an inverse Compton scattering based gamma-ray source. In particular, we present a series of new developments aimed at improving the design of future IFEL accelerators. These include a new procedure to optimize the choice of the undulator tapering, a new concept for prebunching which greatly improves the fraction of trapped particles and the final energy spread, and a self-consistent study of beam loading effects which leads to an energy-efficient high laser-to-beam power conversion.

  6. Simulations of free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, T.; Godfrey, B.B.

    1979-01-01

    The generation of coherent electromagnetic radiation by the interaction of a relativistic electron beam with a static helical magnetic field is investigated using one- and two-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic plasma simulation codes. In the one-dimensional simulations, we observed the coupling between the negative energy beam mode and the positive energy electromagnetic wave. Substantial growth rate (omega 1 approx. 0.1 omega/sub pe/) of the unstable electromagnetic wave has been observed and efficiency of radiation production is found to be between 25 to 30% depending on various parameters. In the two-dimensional simulations, we observed a decrease in the growth rate, but increased efficiency due to the decrease in the phase velocity of the unstable electrostatic wave. In addition, we also observed waves propagating at an angle with respect to the electron beam. Consequently, the beam is bunched in the radial as well as the axial directions. These waves are believed to be generated by another instability which saturates at relatively low level

  7. Storage ring free electron lasers and saw-tooth instability

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Migliorati, M; Palumbo, L; Renieri, A

    1999-01-01

    We show that Free Electron Lasers (FEL) operating with storage rings may counteract beam instabilities of the Saw Tooth (STI) type. We use a model based on a set of equations that couple those describing the FEL evolution to those accounting for the STI dynamics. The analysis provides a clear picture of the FEL-STI mutual feedback and clarifies the mechanisms of the instability inhibition. The reliability of the results is supported by a comparison with fully numerical codes.

  8. Inhomogeneous effects in the quantum free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piovella, N.; Bonifacio, R.

    2006-01-01

    We include inhomogeneous effects in the quantum model of a free electron laser taking into account the initial energy spread of the electron beam. From a linear analysis, we obtain a generalized dispersion relation, from which the exponential gain can be explicitly calculated. We determine the maximum allowed initial energy spread in the quantum exponential regime and we discuss the limit of large energy spread

  9. High-efficiency free-electron laser results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, K.; Baru, C.A.; Newnam, B.E.; Stein, W.E.; Warren, R.W.; Winston, J.G.; Young, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results obtained with a tapered-wiggler free-electron laser demonstrate the concepts proposed by Morton for enhanced efficiency and show deceleration of electrons by as much as 7%, and extraction of more than 3% of the total electron-beam energy as laser energy when the laser is operated as an amplifier. The experiment is presently being reconfigured to examine its performance as a laser oscillator

  10. An Inverse Free-Electron-Laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.S.; Gallardo, J.C.; van Steenbergen, A.; Ulc, S.; Woodle, M.; Sandweiss, J.; Fang, Jyan-Min

    1993-01-01

    Recent work at BNL on electron acceleration using the Inverse Free-Electron Laser (IFEL) has considered a low-energy, high-gradient, multi-stage linear accelerator. Experiments are planned at BNL's Accelerator Test Facility using its 50-MeV linac and 100-GW CO 2 laser. We have built and tested a fast-excitation wiggler magnet with constant field, tapered period, and overall length of 47 cm. Vanadium-Permendur ferromagnetic laminations are stacked in alternation with copper, eddy-current-induced, field reflectors to achieve a 1.4-T peak field with a 4-mm gap and a typical period of 3 cm. The laser beam will pass through the wiggler in a low-loss, dielectric-coated stainless-steel, rectangular waveguide. The attenuation and transverse mode has been measured in waveguide sections of various lengths, with and without the dielectric. Results of 1-D and 3-D IFEL simulations, including wiggler errors, will be presented for several cases: the initial, single-module experiment with ΔE = 39 MeV, a four-module design giving ΔE = 100 MeV in a total length of 2 m, and an eight-module IFEL with ΔE = 210 MeV

  11. Commissioning of the JAERI free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, E.J.; Nagai, R.; Sawamura, M.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed, and constructed a prototype for a quasi-cw, and high-average power free electron laser driven by a 15MeV superconducting rf linac at Tokai, JAERI. In designing a high power FEL, there are many available design options to generate the required power output. By applying the superconducting rf linac driver, some of the options relating to the FEL itself may be relaxed by transferring design difficulties to the driver. Because wall losses become minimal in the superconducting accelerator cavity, very long pulse or quasi-cw, and resultant high average power may be readily attained at the JAERI superconducting rf linac FEL. In 1992 Japanese fiscal year, we have successfully demonstrated better cryogenic (stand-by loss<3.5W at 4.5K) and accelerating fields' performances (Eacc=7-9.4MV/m and Q=1-2x10+9) of four JAERI superconducting accelerator modules, and installed them in the FEL accelerator vault. In 1993, Optical resonators and beam transport systems, which have been already assembled, are now under commissioning. A description and the latest results of the JAERI super-conducting rf linac FEL will be discussed in comparison with a normal-conducting one, and reported in the symposium. (author)

  12. Spin-polarized electron tunneling across a Si delta-doped GaMnAs/n-GaAs interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, S.E.; Sørensen, B.S.; Lindelof, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Spin-polarized electron coupling across a Si delta-doped GaMnAs/n-GaAs interface was investigated. The injection of spin-polarized electrons was detected as circular polarized emission from a GaInAs/GaAs quantum well light emitting diode. The angular momentum selection rules were simplified...

  13. The Utilization of Spin Polarized Photoelectron Spectroscopy as a Probe of Electron Correlation with an Ultimate Goal of Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, James; Yu, Sung; Chung, Brandon; Morton, Simon; Komesu, Takashi; Waddill, George

    2008-01-01

    We are developing the technique of spin-polarized photoelectron spectroscopy as a probe of electron correlation with the ultimate goal of resolving the Pu electronic structure controversy. Over the last several years, we have demonstrated the utility of spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy for determining the fine details of the electronic structure in complex systems such as those shown in the paper.

  14. Tunnel spin polarization versus energy for clean and doped Al2O3 barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2007-01-01

    The variation of the tunnel spin-polarization (TSP) with energy is determined using a magnetic tunnel transistor, allowing quantification of the energy dependent TSP separately for both ferromagnet/insulator interfaces and direct correlation with the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) measured in the

  15. Tunnel Spin Polarization Versus Energy for Clean and Doped Al2O3 Barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2007-01-01

    The variation of the tunnel spin-polarization (TSP) with energy is determined using a magnetic tunnel transistor, allowing quantification of the energy dependent TSP separately for both ferromagnet/insulator interfaces and direct correlation with the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) measured in the

  16. Spin polarization in top pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS

    CERN Document Server

    Luisoni, Gionata

    2018-01-01

    This talk focuses on the impact of top-quark spin polarization effects in Higgs boson production in association with a top-quark pair, where the Higgs boson decays to two photons. Predictions for the signal are compared with direct top-quark pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS.

  17. Cross sections and spin polarizations of electrons elastically scattered from oriented molecules (CH3I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, M.; Ross, A.W.; Fink, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Elastic differential cross sections and spin polarizations for electrons elastically scattered from CH 3 I are calculated using the independent atom model. Three molecular orientations with respect to the incident electron wavevector are considered - first, the molecule is oriented randomly, second, the electron wave front and molecular bond are parallel, and third, the wavefront and the bond axis are perpendicular. It will be seen to what extent orientational averaging weakens features of the cross section and spin polarization. The calculations show that cross section and spin polarization measurements are a possible tool for determining the degree of molecular orientation. There is no degeneracy between I-C and C-I in cross section and spin polarization measurements. The results presented here for 200 eV and 600 eV electrons scattered by CH 3 I should be considered as a case study and it should be possible to find molecules and electron energies for which even more dramatic differences between the various orientations between the molecules and the electrons can be expected. (orig.)

  18. Tunneling Spectroscopy Study of Spin-Polarized Quasiparticle Injection Effects in Cuparate/Manganite Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J. Y. T.; Yeh, N. C.; Vasquez, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy was performed at 4.2K on epitaxial thin-film heterostructures comprising YBa2Cu3O7 and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3, to study the microscopic effects of spin-polarized quasiparticle injection from the half-metallic ferromagnetic manganite on the high-Tc cuprate superconductor.

  19. Probing spin-polarized tunneling at high bias and temperature with a magnetic tunnel transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Min, B.C.; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic tunnel transistor (MTT) is a three terminal hybrid device that consists of a tunnel emitter, a ferromagnetic (FM) base, and a semiconductor collector. In the MTT with a FM emitter and a single FM base, spin-polarized hot electrons are injected into the base by tunneling. After

  20. Transient charging and discharging of spin-polarized electrons in a quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Souza, Fabricio; Leao, S.A.; Gester, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    We study spin-polarized transient transport in a quantum dot coupled to two ferromagnetic leads subjected to a rectangular bias voltage pulse. Time-dependent spin-resolved currents, occupations, spin accumulation, and tunneling magnetoresistance TMR are calculated using both nonequilibrium Green ...

  1. On the theory of elastic scattering of spin polarized electrons from ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helman, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The first Born approximation supposedly inadequate for dealing with elastic scattering of spin polarized electrons on ferromagnets is reconsidered. It is found that when used in conjunction with a spin dependent pseudopotential, it can describe the gross features of the ansisotropy. (Author) [pt

  2. On the theory of elastic scattering of spin polarized electrons from ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helman, J.S.; Baltenspenger, W.

    1984-01-01

    The first Born approximation supposedly inadequate for dealing with the elastic scattering of spin polarized electrons on ferromagnets is reconsidered. It is found that when used in conjunction with a spin dependent pseudo-potential, it can describe the gross features of the anisotropy. (author) [pt

  3. Spin-polarized tunneling with GaAs tips in scanning tunneling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Jansen, R.; Kempen, van H.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a model as well as experiments on spin-polarized tunneling with the aid of optical spin orientation. This involves tunnel junctions between a magnetic material and gallium arsenide (GaAs), where the latter is optically excited with circularly polarized light in order to generate

  4. Spin-polarized ballistic conduction through correlated Au-NiMnSb-Au heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Morari, C.; Appelt, W. H.; Ö stlin, A.; Prinz-Zwick, A.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Eckern, U.; Chioncel, L.

    2017-01-01

    calculations with local electronic interactions, of Hubbard-type on the Mn sites, leads to a hybridization between the interface and many-body states. The significant reduction of the spin polarization seen in the density of states is not apparent in the spin

  5. Spin-polarized transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with interdigital-ferromagnetic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, C.-M.; Nitta, Junsaku; Jensen, Ane

    2001-01-01

    Ferromagnetic contacts on a high-mobility, two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a narrow gap semiconductor with strong spin-orbit interaction are used to investigate spin-polarized electron transport. We demonstrate the use of magnetized contacts to preferentially inject and detect specific spi...

  6. Spin polarization in top pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS

    CERN Document Server

    Luisoni, Gionata

    2017-01-01

    This talk focuses on the impact of top-quark spin polarization effects in Higgs boson production in association with a top-quark pair, where the Higgs boson decays to two photons. Predictions for the signal are compared with direct top-quark pair production in association with two photons at NLO+PS.

  7. Spin-polarized versus chiral condensate in quark matter at finite temperature and density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Hiroaki; Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providencia, Joao

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the spin-polarized condensate appears in quark matter at high baryon density and low temperature due to the tensor-type four-point interaction in the Nambu-Jona-Lasiniotype model as a low-energy effective theory of quantum chromodynamics. It is indicated within this low-energy ef...

  8. Spin polarization versus color–flavor locking in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spin polarization with respect to each flavor in three-flavor quark matter occurs instead of color–flavor locking at high baryon density by using the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model with four-point tensor-type interaction. Also, it is indicated that the order of phase transition between...

  9. The HERA polarimeter and the first observation of electron spin polarization at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Bremer, H.D.; Boege, M.; Brinkmann, R.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Kaiser, H.; Klanner, R.; Lewin, H.C.; Meyners, N.; Vogel, W.; Brueckner, W.; Buescher, C.; Dueren, M.; Gaul, H.G.; Muecklich, A.; Neunreither, F.; Rith, K.; Scholz, C.; Steffens, E.; Veltri, M.; Wander, W.; Zapfe, K.; Zetsche, F.; Chapman, M.; Milner, R.; Coulter, K.; Delheij, P.P.J.; Haeusser, O.; Henderson, R.; Levy, P.; Vetterli, M.; Gressmann, H.; Janke, T.; Micheel, B.; Westphal, D.; Kaiser, R.; Losev, L.; Nowak, W.D.

    1992-10-01

    Electron spin polarizations of about 8% were observed at HERA in November 1991. In runs during 1992 utilizing special orbit corrections, polarization values close to 60% have been achieved. In this paper the polarimeter, the machine conditions, the data analysis, the first results and plans for future measurements are described. (orig.)

  10. Spin-filter scanning tunneling microscopy : a novel technique for the analysis of spin polarization on magnetic surfaces and spintronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera Marun, I.J.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a versatile technique to measure spin polarization with atomic resolution. A microscopy technique that can measure electronic spin polarization is relevant for characterization of magnetic nanostructures and spintronic devices. Scanning tunneling microscopy

  11. Spin-polarized ground state and exact quantization at ν=5/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei

    2002-03-01

    The nature of the even-denominator fractional quantum Hall effect at ν=5/2 remains elusive, in particular, its ground state spin-polarization. An earlier, so-called "hollow core" model arrived at a spin-unpolarized wave function. The more recent calculations based on a model of BCS-like pairing of composite fermions, however, suggest that its ground state is spin-polarized. In this talk, I will first review the earlier experiments and then present our recent experimental results showing evidence for a spin-polarized state at ν=5/2. Our ultra-low temperature experiments on a high quality sample established the fully developed FQHE state at ν=5/2 as well as at ν=7/3 and 8/3, manifested by a vanishing R_xx and exact quantization of the Hall plateau. The tilted field experiments showed that the added in-plane magnetic fields not only destroyed the FQHE at ν=5/2, as seen before, but also induced an electrical anisotropy, which is now interpreted as a phase transition from a paired, spin-polarized ν=5/2 state to a stripe phase, not unlike the ones at ν=9/2, 11/2, etc in the N > 1 higher Landau levels. Furthermore, in the experiments on the heterojunction insulated-gate field-effect transistors (HIGFET) at dilution refrigerator temperatures, a strong R_xx minimum and a concomitant developing Hall plateau were observed at ν=5/2 in a magnetic field as high as 12.6 Tesla. This and the subsequent density dependent studies of its energy gap largely rule out a spin-singlet state and point quite convincingly towards a spin-polarized ground state at ν=5/2.

  12. The stability of free-electron lasers against filamentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Scharlemann, E.T.; Yu, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, the high electromagnetic fields propagating through a relatively dense plasma can result in a transverse instability, causing the matter and light to form filaments oriented parallel to the light beam. We examine whether a similar instability exists in the electron beam of a free-electron laser, where such an instability could interfere with the transfer of beam kinetic energy into optical wave energy. We heuristically examine the instability in a relativistic beam through which an intense laser beam is propagating. We ignore the FEL effects. We estimate how the altered index of refraction in an FEL affects the dispersion relation. Finally, we estimate the effect that the instability could have on the phase coherence of a particle as it transits an FEL. 10 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Free electron laser as a fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, D.; Schlitt, L.

    1981-01-01

    The Free Electron Laser (FEL) is shown to be a potentially attractive solution to the problem of finding a suitable short wavelength fusion driver. The design of a 3 MJ, 250 nm FEL fusion driver is discussed

  14. Spin-polarized hydrogen Rydberg time-of-flight: Experimental measurement of the velocity-dependent H atom spin-polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Bernadette M.; Lee, Yumin; Doyle, Michael B.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Suits, Arthur G.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a new experimental method allowing direct detection of the velocity dependent spin-polarization of hydrogen atoms produced in photodissociation. The technique, which is a variation on the H atom Rydberg time-of-flight method, employs a double-resonance excitation scheme and experimental geometry that yields the two coherent orientation parameters as a function of recoil speed for scattering perpendicular to the laser propagation direction. The approach, apparatus, and optical layout we employ are described here in detail and demonstrated in application to HBr and DBr photolysis at 213 nm. We also discuss the theoretical foundation for the approach, as well as the resolution and sensitivity we achieve

  15. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco; Holton, James M.; Kirian, Richard A.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2013-01-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show that the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam

  16. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Thomas A., E-mail: taw@physics.org; Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Holton, James M. [University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kirian, Richard A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Zatsepin, Nadia A. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Chapman, Henry N. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show that the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam.

  17. Conceptual design of industrial free electron laser using superconducting accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Ulyanov, Yu.N. [Automatic Systems Corporation, Samara (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Paper presents conceptual design of free electron laser (FEL) complex for industrial applications. The FEL complex consists of three. FEL oscillators with the optical output spanning the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) wave-lengths ({lambda} = 0.3...20 {mu}m) and with the average output power 10 - 20 kW. The driving beam for the FELs is produced by a superconducting accelerator. The electron beam is transported to the FELs via three beam lines (125 MeV and 2 x 250 MeV). Peculiar feature of the proposed complex is a high efficiency of the. FEL oscillators, up to 20 %. This becomes possible due to the use of quasi-continuous electron beam and the use of the time-dependent undulator tapering.

  18. Spin polarization of a Ferromagnetic Narrow Gap p-(In,Mn)As Obtained from Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akazaki, T.; Munekata, H.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Takayanagi, H.

    2011-01-01

    Spin-polarized carrier transport across Nb/p-(In,Mn)As junctions has been studied. Suppressions of conductance in the superconductor sub-gap region and conductance peaks at the bias voltage around the edge of the sub-gap are observed. These features are well reproduced by a newly modified BTK model including both spin polarization and the inverse proximity effect. The value of spin polarization in p-(In,Mn)As extracted by the calculation is P = 0.725 at 0.5 K with Z = 0.25

  19. Coupled spin and charge collective excitations in a spin polarized electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, D.C.; Quinn, J.J.; Yi, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The charge and longitudinal spin responses induced in a spin polarized quantum well by a weak electromagnetic field are investigated within the framework of the linear response theory. The authors evaluate the excitation frequencies for the intra- and inter-subband transitions of the collective charge and longitudinal spin density oscillations including many-body corrections beyond the random phase approximation through the spin dependent local field factors, G σ ± (q,ω). An equation-of-motion method was used to obtain these corrections in the limit of long wavelengths, and the results are given in terms of the equilibrium pair correlation function. The finite degree of spin polarization is shown to introduce coupling between the charge and spin density modes, in contrast with the result for an unpolarized system

  20. Comments on spin operators and spin-polarization states of 2+1 fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.P.; Tomazelli, J.L. [Departamento Fisica e Quimica, UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2005-02-01

    In this brief article we discuss spin-polarization operators and spin-polarization states of 2+1 massive Dirac fermions and find a convenient representation by the help of 4-spinors for their description. We stress that in particular the use of such a representation allows us to introduce the conserved covariant spin operator in the 2+1 field theory. Another advantage of this representation is related to the pseudoclassical limit of the theory. Indeed, quantization of the pseudoclassical model of a spinning particle in 2+1 dimensions leads to the 4-spinor representation as the adequate realization of the operator algebra, where the corresponding operator of a first-class constraint, which cannot be gauged out by imposing the gauge condition, is just the covariant operator previously introduced in the quantum theory. (orig.)

  1. Magnetization and spin-polarized conductance of asymmetrically hydrogenated graphene nanoribbons: significance of sigma bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Syuta; Inuzuka, Kouhei; Inoshita, Takeshi; Ota, Norio; Sano, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The magnetization and spin transport of asymmetric zigzag-edge graphene nanoribbons, terminated by hydrogen on one edge while unterminated on the other edge, were investigated by a combination of first-principles calculations and a tight-binding approach. At the unterminated edge, a spin-polarized σ edge state of minority spin appears near the Fermi level and contributes to spin transport. This state enters the band gap for ribbon widths of less than 15 chains, dominating the spin-polarized current. This indicates the importance of the σ edge states in the design of spintronic devices using graphene nanoribbons. We also examined the case where the ‘unterminated’ edge is partially terminated by hydrogen. (paper)

  2. Spin-wave propagation and spin-polarized electron transport in single-crystal iron films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladii, O.; Halley, D.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M.

    2017-11-01

    The techniques of propagating spin-wave spectroscopy and current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift are applied to a 20-nm-thick Fe/MgO(001) film. The magnetic parameters extracted from the position of the spin-wave resonance peaks are very close to those tabulated for bulk iron. From the zero-current propagating wave forms, a group velocity of 4 km/s and an attenuation length of about 6 μ m are extracted for 1.6-μ m -wavelength spin wave at 18 GHz. From the measured current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift, we extract a surprisingly high degree of spin polarization of the current of 83 % , which constitutes the main finding of this work. This set of results makes single-crystalline iron a promising candidate for building devices utilizing high-frequency spin waves and spin-polarized currents.

  3. Two-photon spin-polarization spectroscopy in silicon-doped GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2009-05-14

    We generate spin-polarized electrons in bulk GaAs using circularly polarized two-photon pumping with excess photon energy (DeltaE) and detect them by probing the spin-dependent transmission of the sample. The spin polarization of conduction band electrons is measured and is found to be strongly dependent on DeltaE. The initial polarization, pumped with DeltaE=100 meV, at liquid helium temperature is estimated to be approximately 49.5%, which is very close to the theoretical value (50%) permitted by the optical selection rules governing transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction band states in a bulk sample. However, the polarization pumped with larger DeltaE decreases rapidly because of the exciting carriers from the split-off band.

  4. A qualitative study of spin polarization effect in defect tuned Co/graphene/Co nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sumit, E-mail: smtdone@gmail.com, E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in; Saha, Shyamal K., E-mail: smtdone@gmail.com, E-mail: cnssks@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Theoretical reports predict that in contact with a ferromagnetic giant spin, spin polarization evolves in defective graphene since defects in graphene act as local spin moments. We have synthesized different Co/graphene/Co nano spin valve like structures tuning the degree of defect applying ultrasonic vibration and characterized them by Raman spectroscopy. Initially with increasing I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in Raman spectra, antiferromagnetic coupling between the Co nanosheets on either sides of graphene enhances leading to betterment in spin transport through graphene. But for highest I{sub D}/I{sub G}, a totally new phenomenon called antiferro quadrupolar ordering (AFQ) takes place which eventually reduces the spin polarization effect.

  5. Investigation of spin-polarized transport in GaAs nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, B D; Day, T E; Goodnick, S M [Department of Electrical Engineering and Center for Solid State Electronics Research Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5706 (United States)], E-mail: brian.tierney@asu.edu

    2008-03-15

    A spin field effect transistor (spin-FET) has been fabricated that employs nanomagnets as components of quantum point contact (QPC) structures to inject spin-polarized carriers into the high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) of a GaAs quantum well and to detect them. A centrally-placed non-magnetic Rashba gate controls both the density of electrons in the 2DEG and the electronic spin precession. Initial results are presented for comparable device structures modeled with an ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) method. In the EMC the temporal and spatial evolution of the ensemble carrier spin polarization is governed by a spin density matrix formalism that incorporates the Dresselhaus and Rashba contributions to the D'yakanov-Perel spin-flip scattering mechanism, the predominant spin scattering mechanism in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures from 77-300K.

  6. Room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diodes with a single ferromagnetic electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Baofu, E-mail: b.ding@ecu.edu.au; Alameh, Kamal, E-mail: k.alameh@ecu.edu.au [Electron Science Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027 Australia (Australia); Song, Qunliang [Institute for Clean Energy and Advanced Materials, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-05-19

    In this paper, we demonstrate the concept of a room-temperature spin-polarized organic light-emitting diode (Spin-OLED) structure based on (i) the deposition of an ultra-thin p-type organic buffer layer on the surface of the ferromagnetic electrode of the Spin-OLED and (ii) the use of oxygen plasma treatment to modify the surface of that electrode. Experimental results demonstrate that the brightness of the developed Spin-OLED can be increased by 110% and that a magneto-electroluminescence of 12% can be attained for a 150 mT in-plane magnetic field, at room temperature. This is attributed to enhanced hole and room-temperature spin-polarized injection from the ferromagnetic electrode, respectively.

  7. Spin-polarized spin-orbit-split quantum-well states in a metal film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varykhalov, Andrei; Sanchez-Barriga, Jaime; Gudat, Wolfgang; Eberhardt, Wolfgang; Rader, Oliver [BESSY Berlin (Germany); Shikin, Alexander M. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Elements with high atomic number Z lead to a large spin-orbit coupling. Such materials can be used to create spin-polarized electronic states without the presence of a ferromagnet or an external magnetic field if the solid exhibits an inversion asymmetry. We create large spin-orbit splittings using a tungsten crystal as substrate and break the structural inversion symmetry through deposition of a gold quantum film. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that quantum-well states forming in the gold film are spin-orbit split and spin polarized up to a thickness of at least 10 atomic layers. This is a considerable progress as compared to the current literature which reports spin-orbit split states at metal surfaces which are either pure or covered by at most a monoatomic layer of adsorbates.

  8. Strain-induced phase transition and electron spin-polarization in graphene spirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Mingwen

    2014-07-16

    Spin-polarized triangular graphene nanoflakes (t-GNFs) serve as ideal building blocks for the long-desired ferromagnetic graphene superlattices, but they are always assembled to planar structures which reduce its mechanical properties. Here, by joining t-GNFs in a spiral way, we propose one-dimensional graphene spirals (GSs) with superior mechanical properties and tunable electronic structures. We demonstrate theoretically the unique features of electron motion in the spiral lattice by means of first-principles calculations combined with a simple Hubbard model. Within a linear elastic deformation range, the GSs are nonmagnetic metals. When the axial tensile strain exceeds an ultimate strain, however, they convert to magnetic semiconductors with stable ferromagnetic ordering along the edges. Such strain-induced phase transition and tunable electron spin-polarization revealed in the GSs open a new avenue for spintronics devices.

  9. Dynamic spin polarization by orientation-dependent separation in a ferromagnet-semiconductor hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.; Akimov, I. A.; Zaitsev, S. V.; Sapega, V. F.; Langer, L.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Danilov, Yu. A.; Bayer, M.

    2012-07-01

    Integration of magnetism into semiconductor electronics would facilitate an all-in-one-chip computer. Ferromagnet/bulk semiconductor hybrids have been, so far, mainly considered as key devices to read out the ferromagnetism by means of spin injection. Here we demonstrate that a Mn-based ferromagnetic layer acts as an orientation-dependent separator for carrier spins confined in a semiconductor quantum well that is set apart from the ferromagnet by a barrier only a few nanometers thick. By this spin-separation effect, a non-equilibrium electron-spin polarization is accumulated in the quantum well due to spin-dependent electron transfer to the ferromagnet. The significant advance of this hybrid design is that the excellent optical properties of the quantum well are maintained. This opens up the possibility of optical readout of the ferromagnet's magnetization and control of the non-equilibrium spin polarization in non-magnetic quantum wells.

  10. Control of the spin polarization of photoelectrons/photoions using short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    We present a generic pump-probe scheme to control spin polarization of photoelectrons/photoions by short laser pulses. By coherently exciting fine structure manifolds of a multi-valence-electron system by the pump laser, a superposition of fine structure states is created. Since each fine structure state can be further decomposed into a superposition of various spin states of valence electrons, each spin component evolves differently in time. This means that varying the time delay between the pump and probe lasers leads to the control of spin states. Specific theoretical results are presented for two-valence-electron atoms, in particular for Mg, which demonstrate that not only the degree of spin polarization but also its sign can be manipulated through time delay. Since the underline physics is rather general and transparent, the presented idea may be potentially applied to nanostructures such as quantum wells and quantum dots

  11. Intense source of spin-polarized electrons using laser-induced optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.G.; Giberson, K.W.; Cheng, C.; Keiffer, R.S.; Dunning, F.B.; Walters, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    A source of spin-polarized electrons based on a laser-pumped flowing helium afterglow is described. He(2 3 S) atoms contained in the afterglow are optically pumped using circularly polarized 1.08-μm (2 3 S→2 3 P) radiation provided by a NaF (F 2+ )( color-center laser. Spin angular momentum conservation in subsequent chemi-ionization reactions with CO 2 produces polarized electrons that are extracted from the afterglow. At low currents, < or approx. =1 μA, polarizations of approx.70%--80% are achieved. At higher currents the polarization decreases, falling to approx.40% at 50 μA. The spin polarization can be simply reversed (P→-P) and the source is suitable for use in the majority of low-energy spin-dependent scattering experiments proposed to date

  12. Probing spin-polarized edge state superconductivity by Andreev reflection in in-plane magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinthaler, Rolf W.; Tkachov, Grigory; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M. [Faculty of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Finding signatures of unconventional superconductivity in Quantum Spin Hall systems is one of the challenges of solid state physics. Here we induce superconductivity in a 3D topological insulator thin film to cause the formation of helical edge states, which are protected against backscattering even in finite magnetic fields. Above a critical in-plane magnetic field, which is much smaller than the critical field of typical superconductors, the quasi-particle gap closes, giving rise to energy-dependent spin polarization. In this regime the spin-polarized edge state superconductivity can be detected by Andreev reflection. We propose measurement setups to experimentally observe the spin-dependent excess current and dI/dV characteristics.

  13. Illuminating "spin-polarized" Bloch wave-function projection from degenerate bands in decomposable centrosymmetric lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2018-03-01

    The combination of space inversion and time-reversal symmetries results in doubly degenerate Bloch states with opposite spin. Many lattices with these symmetries can be constructed by combining a noncentrosymmetric potential (lacking this degeneracy) with its inverted copy. Using simple models, we unravel the evolution of local spin splitting during this process of inversion symmetry restoration, in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and sublattice coupling. Importantly, through an analysis of quantum mechanical commutativity, we examine the difficulty of identifying states that are simultaneously spatially segregated and spin polarized. We also explain how surface-sensitive experimental probes (such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, or ARPES) of "hidden spin polarization" in layered materials are susceptible to unrelated spin splitting intrinsically induced by broken inversion symmetry at the surface.

  14. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanakis, I., E-mail: galanakis@upatras.gr

    2015-03-01

    Half-metallic Co{sub 2}MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co{sub 2}MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Ab-initio study of ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers. • Large values of spin-polarization at the Fermi are retained. • Route for novel spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices.

  15. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanakis, I.

    2015-01-01

    Half-metallic Co 2 MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co 2 MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co 2 MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Ab-initio study of ultrathin Co 2 MnSi/CoPd multilayers. • Large values of spin-polarization at the Fermi are retained. • Route for novel spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices

  16. Neutral Silicon-Vacancy Center in Diamond: Spin Polarization and Lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B. L.; Mottishaw, S.; Breeze, B. G.; Edmonds, A. M.; D'Haenens-Johansson, U. F. S.; Doherty, M. W.; Williams, S. D.; Twitchen, D. J.; Newton, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate optical spin polarization of the neutrally charged silicon-vacancy defect in diamond (SiV0 ), an S =1 defect which emits with a zero-phonon line at 946 nm. The spin polarization is found to be most efficient under resonant excitation, but nonzero at below-resonant energies. We measure an ensemble spin coherence time T2>100 μ s at low-temperature, and a spin relaxation limit of T1>25 s . Optical spin-state initialization around 946 nm allows independent initialization of SiV0 and NV- within the same optically addressed volume, and SiV0 emits within the telecoms down-conversion band to 1550 nm: when combined with its high Debye-Waller factor, our initial results suggest that SiV0 is a promising candidate for a long-range quantum communication technology.

  17. Micromagnetism in (001) magnetite by spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figuera, Juan de la; Vergara, Lucía; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Quesada, Adrian; Schmid, Andreas K.

    2013-01-01

    Spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy was used to image a magnetite crystal with (001) surface orientation. Sets of spin-dependent images of magnetic domain patterns observed in this surface were used to map the direction of the magnetization vector with high spatial and angular resolution. We find that domains are magnetized along the surface directions, and domain wall structures include 90° and 180° walls. A type of unusually curved domain walls are interpreted as Néel-capped surface terminations of 180° Bloch walls. - Highlights: ► The (001) surface of magnetite is imaged by spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy. ► The magnetic domain microstructure is resolved. ► Magnetic easy axes in this surface are found to be along directions. ► Magnetic domain wall structures include wide Néel-caps

  18. Micromagnetism in (001) magnetite by spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figuera, Juan de la, E-mail: juan.delafiguera@iqfr.csic.es [Instituto de Química-Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Vergara, Lucía [Instituto de Química-Física “Rocasolano”, CSIC, Madrid 28006 (Spain); N' Diaye, Alpha T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Quesada, Adrian [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, CSIC, Calle Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Schmid, Andreas K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy was used to image a magnetite crystal with (001) surface orientation. Sets of spin-dependent images of magnetic domain patterns observed in this surface were used to map the direction of the magnetization vector with high spatial and angular resolution. We find that domains are magnetized along the surface <110> directions, and domain wall structures include 90° and 180° walls. A type of unusually curved domain walls are interpreted as Néel-capped surface terminations of 180° Bloch walls. - Highlights: ► The (001) surface of magnetite is imaged by spin-polarized low-energy electron microscopy. ► The magnetic domain microstructure is resolved. ► Magnetic easy axes in this surface are found to be along <110> directions. ► Magnetic domain wall structures include wide Néel-caps.

  19. Structure of the spin polarization spectrum of secondary electrons emitted from nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helman, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    The main features of the structure observed in the energy resolved spin polarization of secondary electrons emitted from Ni are interpreted in terms of surface and bulk plasmon assisted emission. The model also predicts a measureable shift of the main polarization peak of about 0.3 eV to lower energies as the temperature is raised from room temperature to closely below the Curie temperature. (Author) [pt

  20. Berry phase and shot noise for spin-polarized and entangled electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Pei; Tang Weihua; Lu Dinghui; Jiang Lixia; Zhao Xuean

    2007-01-01

    Shot noise for entangled and spin-polarized states in a four-probe geometric setup has been studied by adding two rotating magnetic fields in an incoming channel. Our results show that the noise power oscillates as the magnetic fields vary. The singlet, entangled triplet and polarized states can be distinguished by adjusting the magnetic fields. The Berry phase can be derived by measuring the shot noise power

  1. Application of the Ursell-Mayer method in the theory of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, S.; Radelja, T.

    1981-01-01

    Employing the Ursell-Mayer method and Ljolje semi-free gas model analytic relations describing ground state properties (energy, pressure, compressibility, sound velocity, radial distribution function and one-particle density matrix) of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen were derived. The expressions are valid up to density 2 10 26 atoms/m 3 . It was found out that at density of 2 10 26 atoms/m 3 the condensation of particle in momentum space is 88% (at absolute zero). (orig.)

  2. Magnetic Switching of a Single Molecular Magnet due to Spin-Polarized Current

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnas, Józef

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic switching of a single molecular magnet (SMM) due to spin-polarized current flowing between ferromagnetic metallic electrodes is investigated theoretically. Magnetic moments of the electrodes are assumed to be collinear and parallel to the magnetic easy axis of the molecule. Electrons tunneling through a barrier between magnetic leads are coupled to the SMM via exchange interaction. The current flowing through the system as well as the spin relaxation times of the SMM are calculated f...

  3. Spin-polarized neutron matter at different orders of chiral effective field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sammarruca, F.; Machleidt, R.; Kaiser, N.

    2015-01-01

    Spin-polarized neutron matter is studied using chiral two- and three-body forces. We focus, in particular, on predictions of the energy per particle in ferromagnetic neutron matter at different orders of chiral effective field theory and for different choices of the resolution scale. We discuss the convergence pattern of the predictions and their cutoff dependence. We explore to which extent fully polarized neutron matter behaves (nearly) like a free Fermi gas. We also consider the more gener...

  4. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan, E-mail: liyuan12@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai, E-mail: yhchen@semi.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing (China); Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue [The State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100083 Beijing (China)

    2015-05-11

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed.

  5. Observation of interface dependent spin polarized photocurrents in InAs/GaSb superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Laipan; Qin, Xudong; Wu, Qing; Huang, Wei; Chen, Yonghai; Niu, Zhichuan; Xiang, Wei; Hao, Hongyue

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we investigated the spin polarized photocurrents excited by mid-infrared radiation and near-infrared radiation, respectively, in InAs/GaSb type II superlattices with different kinds of interfaces. By periodically varying the polarization state of the radiation, we analyzed Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents, which present different features depending on the interface types and excitation conditions. Under mid-infrared excitation, the ratio of Rashba-type and Dresselhaus-type spin polarized photocurrents of the superlattice with InSb-like interface is obviously larger than that of the superlattice with GaAs-like interface, the ratio of the superlattice with alternate interface is in the middle. Whereas under near-infrared excitation, the ratios of the three superlattices are nearly the same. Further researches reveal the synactic effects of interface dependent strain and asymmetric interface potential on the spin splitting. Besides, the polarized Raman spectroscopies of these structures were also analyzed

  6. First-Principles Prediction of Spin-Polarized Multiple Dirac Rings in Manganese Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yalong; Ma, Fengxian; Zhang, Chunmei; Bell, John; Sanvito, Stefano; Du, Aijun

    2017-07-01

    Spin-polarized materials with Dirac features have sparked great scientific interest due to their potential applications in spintronics. But such a type of structure is very rare and none has been fabricated. Here, we investigate the already experimentally synthesized manganese fluoride (MnF3 ) as a novel spin-polarized Dirac material by using first-principles calculations. MnF3 exhibits multiple Dirac cones in one spin orientation, while it behaves like a large gap semiconductor in the other spin channel. The estimated Fermi velocity for each cone is of the same order of magnitude as that in graphene. The 3D band structure further reveals that MnF3 possesses rings of Dirac nodes in the Brillouin zone. Such a spin-polarized multiple Dirac ring feature is reported for the first time in an experimentally realized material. Moreover, similar band dispersions can be also found in other transition metal fluorides (e.g., CoF3 , CrF3 , and FeF3 ). Our results highlight a new interesting single-spin Dirac material with promising applications in spintronics and information technologies.

  7. First-Principles Prediction of Spin-Polarized Multiple Dirac Rings in Manganese Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yalong; Ma, Fengxian; Zhang, Chunmei; Bell, John; Sanvito, Stefano; Du, Aijun

    2017-07-07

    Spin-polarized materials with Dirac features have sparked great scientific interest due to their potential applications in spintronics. But such a type of structure is very rare and none has been fabricated. Here, we investigate the already experimentally synthesized manganese fluoride (MnF_{3}) as a novel spin-polarized Dirac material by using first-principles calculations. MnF_{3} exhibits multiple Dirac cones in one spin orientation, while it behaves like a large gap semiconductor in the other spin channel. The estimated Fermi velocity for each cone is of the same order of magnitude as that in graphene. The 3D band structure further reveals that MnF_{3} possesses rings of Dirac nodes in the Brillouin zone. Such a spin-polarized multiple Dirac ring feature is reported for the first time in an experimentally realized material. Moreover, similar band dispersions can be also found in other transition metal fluorides (e.g., CoF_{3}, CrF_{3}, and FeF_{3}). Our results highlight a new interesting single-spin Dirac material with promising applications in spintronics and information technologies.

  8. Effect of spin-polarized D-3He fuel on dense plasma focus for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei-Yu Wang, Choi, Chan K.; Mead, Franklin B.

    1992-01-01

    Spin-polarized D-3He fusion fuel is analyzed to study its effect on the dense plasma focus (DPF) device for space propulsion. The Mather-type plasma focus device is adopted because of the ``axial'' acceleration of the current carrying plasma sheath, like a coaxial plasma gun. The D-3He fuel is chosen based on the neutron-lean fusion reactions with high charged-particle fusion products. Impulsive mode of operation is used with multi-thrusters in order to make higher thrust (F)-to-weight (W) ratio with relatively high value of specific impulse (Isp). Both current (I) scalings with I2 and I8/3 are considered for plasma pinch temperature and capacitor mass. For a 30-day Mars mission, with four thrusters, for example, the typical F/W values ranging from 0.5-0.6 to 0.1-0.2 for I2 and I8/3 scalings, respectively, and the Isp values of above 1600 s are obtained. Parametric studies indicate that the spin-polarized D-3He provides increased values of F/W and Isp over conventional D-3He fuel which was due to the increased fusion power and decreased radiation losses for the spin-polarized case.

  9. Sensing Noncollinear Magnetism at the Atomic Scale Combining Magnetic Exchange and Spin-Polarized Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Nadine; Gerritsen, Jan W; Wegner, Daniel; Khajetoorians, Alexander A

    2017-09-13

    Storing and accessing information in atomic-scale magnets requires magnetic imaging techniques with single-atom resolution. Here, we show simultaneous detection of the spin-polarization and exchange force with or without the flow of current with a new method, which combines scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy. To demonstrate the application of this new method, we characterize the prototypical nanoskyrmion lattice formed on a monolayer of Fe/Ir(111). We resolve the square magnetic lattice by employing magnetic exchange force microscopy, demonstrating its applicability to noncollinear magnetic structures for the first time. Utilizing distance-dependent force and current spectroscopy, we quantify the exchange forces in comparison to the spin-polarization. For strongly spin-polarized tips, we distinguish different signs of the exchange force that we suggest arises from a change in exchange mechanisms between the probe and a skyrmion. This new approach may enable both nonperturbative readout combined with writing by current-driven reversal of atomic-scale magnets.

  10. Current-induced spin polarization in InGaAs and GaAs epilayers with varying doping densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Kovac, M.; Huang, S.; Del Gaudio, D.; Occena, J.; Goldman, R. S.; Raimondi, R.; Sih, V.

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InxGa1 -xAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the extrinsic contributions to the spin-polarization mechanism must be considered. Theoretical calculations based on a model that includes extrinsic contributions to the spin dephasing and the spin Hall effect, in addition to the intrinsic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, are found to reproduce the experimental finding that the crystal direction with the smaller net spin-orbit field has larger electrical spin generation efficiency and are used to predict how sample parameters affect the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization.

  11. Investigation of metal coatings for the free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.L.; Arendt, P.N.; Springer, R.W.; Cordi, R.C.; McCreary, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    We are investigating the deposition and characteristics of metal coatings for use in environments such as the Free Electron Laser where the radiation resistance of metal coatings could prove to be of great benefit. We have concentrated our initial efforts on silver laminate coatings due to the high reflectance of silver at 1 micron wavelength. Our initial laminate coatings have utilized thin layers of titanium oxide to break up the columnar structure of the silver during electron-beam deposition on fused silica substrates. Our initial results on equal coating thickness samples indicate an improvement in damage threshold that ranges from 1.07 to 1.71 at 351 nm

  12. The LLNL/UCLA high gradient inverse free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J. T.; Musumeci, P.; Anderson, G.; Anderson, S.; Betts, S.; Fisher, S.; Gibson, D.; Tremaine, A.; Wu, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles California, 90095 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (United States)

    2012-12-21

    We describe the Inverse Free Electron Accelerator currently under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Upon completion of this accelerator, high brightness electrons generated in the photoinjector blowout regime and accelerated to 50 MeV by S-band accelerating sections will interact with > 4 TW peak power Ti:Sapphire laser in a highly tapered 50 cm undulator and experience an acceleration gradient of > 200 MeV/m. We present the final design of the accelerator as well as the results of start-to-end simulations investigating preservation of beam quality and tolerances involved with this accelerator.

  13. Investigation of Current Induced Spin Polarization in III-V Semiconductor Epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Kovac, Marta

    In the development of a semiconductor spintronics device, a thorough understanding of spin dynamics in semiconductors is necessary. In particular, electrical control of electron spins is advantageous for its compatibility with present day electronics. In this thesis, we will discuss the electrical modification of the electron g-factor, which characterizes the strength of the interaction between a spin and a magnetic field, as well as investigate electrically generated spin polarizations as a function of various material parameters. We report on the modification of the electron g-factor by an in-plane electric field in an InGaAs epilayer. We performed external magnetic field scans of the Kerr rotation of the InGaAs film in order to measure the g-factor independently of the spin-orbit fields. The g-factor increases from -0.4473(0.0001) at 0 V/cm to -0.4419( 0.0001) at 50 V/cm applied along the [110] crystal axis. A comparison of temperature and voltage dependent photoluminescence measurements indicate that minimal channel heating occurs at these voltages. Possible explanations for this g-factor modification are discussed, including an increase in the electron temperature that is independent of the lattice temperature and the modification of the donor-bound electron wave function by the electric field. The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InGaAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the spin polarization mechanism is extrinsic. Temperature-dependent measurements of the spin dephasing rates and mobilities were used to characterize the relative strengths of the intrinsic D

  14. Electron-spin polarization of photoions produced through photoionization from the laser-excited triplet state of Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Nobuaki; Nakajima, Takashi; Matsuo, Yukari; Kobayashi, Tohru; Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu

    2004-01-01

    We report the detailed experimental study on the production of electron-spin-polarized Sr + ions through one-photon resonant two-photon ionization via laser-excited 5s5p 3 P 1 (M J =+1) of Sr atoms produced by laser-ablation. We have experimentally confirmed that the use of laser-ablation for the production of Sr atoms prior to photoionization does not affect the electron-spin polarization. We have found that the degree of electron-spin polarization is 64±9%, which is in good agreement with our recent theoretical prediction. As we discuss in detail, we infer, from a simple analysis, that photoelectrons, being the counterpart of electron-spin-polarized Sr + ions, have approximately the same degree of electron-spin polarization. Our experimental results demonstrate that the combined use of laser-ablation technique and pulsed lasers for photoionization would be a compact and effective way to realize a pulsed source for spin-polarized ions and electrons for the studies of various spin-dependent dynamics in chemical physics

  15. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy of magnetic nanostructures at the example of bcc-Co/Fe(110), Fe/Mo(110), and copper phthalocyanine/Fe(1110); Spinpolarisierte Rastertunnelmikroskopie magnetischer Nanostrukturen am Beispiel von bcc-Co/Fe(110), Fe/Mo(110) und Kupfer-Phthalocyanin/Fe(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methfessel, Torsten

    2010-12-09

    This thesis provides an introduction into the technique of spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy as an experimental method for the investigation of magnetic nanostructures. Experimental results for the spin polarized electronic structure depending on the crystal structure of ultrathin Co layers, and depending on the direction of the magnetization for ultrathin Fe layers are presented. High-resolution measurements show the position-dependent spin polarization on a single copper-phthalocyanine molecule deposited on a ferromagnetic surface. Co was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on the (110) surface of the bodycentered cubic metals Cr and Fe. In contrast to previous reports in the literature only two layers of Co can be stabilized in the body-centered cubic (bcc) structure. The bcc-Co films on the Fe(110) surface show no signs of epitaxial distortions. Thicker layers reconstruct into a closed-packed structure (hcp / fcc). The bcc structure increases the spin-polarization of Co to P=62 % in comparison to hcp-Co (P=45 %). The temperature-dependent spin-reorientation of ultrathin Fe/Mo(110) films was investigated by spin-polarized spectroscopy. A reorientation of the magnetic easy axis from the [110] direction along the surface normal to the in-plane [001] axis is observed at T (13.2{+-}0.5) K. This process can be identified as a discontinuous reorientation transition, revealing two simultaneous minima of the free energy in a certain temperature range. The electronic structure of mono- and double-layer Fe/Mo(110) shows a variation with the reorientation of the magnetic easy axis and with the direction of the magnetization. The investigation of the spin-polarized charge transport through a copper-phthalocyanine molecule on the Fe/Mo(110) surface provides an essential contribution to the understanding of spin-transport at the interface between metal and organic molecule. Due to the interaction with the surface of the metal the HOMO-LUMO energy

  16. The general particle tracer code applied to the fusion free-electron maser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Loos, M. J.; van der Geer, S. B.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; Urbanus, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion Free-Electron Maser (FEM) is the prototype of a high power, electrostatic mm-wave source, tunable in the range 130-260 GHz. In order to achieve a high overall efficiency, the charge and energy of the spent electron beam, i.e. the beam which leaves the undulator after interaction with the

  17. Properties of the transfer matrices of deflecting magnet systems for free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    The oscillation of the free electron laser (FEL) requires the high current and low emittance electron beam. The beam transport system should be achromatic and isochronous to preserve the brightness and the emittance of the electron beam. In this paper we clarify the algebraic properties of the transfer matrices of the magnetic deflection system, which is a key component in the beam transport line. (author)

  18. Applications for Energy Recovering Free Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2007-08-01

    The availability of high-power, high-brilliance sources of tunable photons from energy-recovered Free Electron Lasers is opening up whole new fields of application of accelerators in industry. This talk will review some of the ideas that are already being put into production, and some of the newer ideas that are still under development.

  19. Low Temperature Electrical Spin Injection from Highly Spin Polarized Co₂CrAl Heusler Alloy into p-Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Uddipta; Panda, J; Nath, T K

    2018-06-01

    The low temperature spin accumulation in p-Si using Co2CrAl/SiO2 tunnel junction has been investigated in detail. The heterojunction has been fabricated using electron beam evaporation (EBE) technique. The 3-terminal contacts in Hanle geometry has been made for spin transport measurements. The electrical transport properties have been investigated at different isothermal conditions in the temperature range of 10-300 K. The current-voltage characteristics of the junction shows excellent rectifying magnetic diode like behaviour in lower temperature range (below 200 K). At higher temperature, the junction shows nonlinear behaviour without rectifying characteristics. We have observed spin accumulation signal in p-Si semiconductor using SiO2/Co2CrAl tunnel junction in the low temperature regime (30-100 K). Hence the highly spin polarized Full Heusler alloys compounds, like Co2CrAl etc., are very attractive and can act as efficient tunnel device for spin injection in the area of spintronics devices in near future. The estimated spin life time is τ = 54 pS and spin diffusion length inside p-Si is LSD = 289 nm at 30 K for this heterostructure.

  20. Free electron laser experiments using a long pulse induction linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasour, J.A.; Lucey, R.

    1983-01-01

    The NRL Long Pulse Induction Linac is being employed in a Free Electron Laser (FEL) experiment. The authors present results of beam transport and focusing experiments as well as measurements of the output radiation generated by various magnetic wigglers. The electron gun of the accelerator presently has a 17-cmdiam. cold cathode which is located in a nearly zero magnetic field (B /SUB z/ less than or equal to 5 G). The gun voltage is flat to within approx. = + or - 5% for 1.5 μsec with this graphite brush cathode. The beam is focused by a series of solenoidal coils as it propagates through the 4-m-long accelerator. 2 A solenoidal field which can be varied from 1-10 kG confines the beam in the FEL interaction region. Previous experiments were limited by poor beam transport, focusing, and matching into the relatively large solenoidal field in the FEL region. By smoothing the axial magnetic field profile in the accelerator and making a more adiabatic transition from the low field in the accelerator to the high field in the FEL, beam transport into the wiggler has been substantially improved. Currently, a 700 kV beam with I > 500 A and r /SUB b/ < 0.75 cm is transported through the FEL region. Beam transport is in qualitative agreement with envelope code calculations

  1. Development of superconducting acceleration cavity technology for free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh

    2000-10-01

    As a result of the cooperative research between the KAERI and Peking University, the key technologies of superconducting acceleration cavity and photoelectron gun have been developed for the application to high power free electron lasers. A 1.5-GHz, 1-cell superconducting RF cavity has been designed and fabricated by using pure Nb sheets. The unloaded Q values of the fabricated superconducting cavity has been measured to be 2x10 9 at 2.5K, and 8x10 9 at 1.8K. The maximum acceleration gradient achieved was 12 MeV/m at 2.5K, and 20MV/m at 1.8 K. A cryostat for the 1-cell superconducting cavity has been designed. As a source of electron beam, a DC photocathode electron gun has been designed and fabricated, which is composed of a photocathode evaporation chamber and a 100-keV acceleration chamber. The efficiency of the Cs2Te photocathode is 3% nominally at room temperature, 10% at 290 deg C. The superconducting photoelectron gun system developed has been estimated to be a good source of high-brightness electron beam for high-power free electron lasers

  2. Development of superconducting acceleration cavity technology for free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Sun Kook; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh

    2000-10-01

    As a result of the cooperative research between the KAERI and Peking University, the key technologies of superconducting acceleration cavity and photoelectron gun have been developed for the application to high power free electron lasers. A 1.5-GHz, 1-cell superconducting RF cavity has been designed and fabricated by using pure Nb sheets. The unloaded Q values of the fabricated superconducting cavity has been measured to be 2x10{sup 9} at 2.5K, and 8x10{sup 9} at 1.8K. The maximum acceleration gradient achieved was 12 MeV/m at 2.5K, and 20MV/m at 1.8 K. A cryostat for the 1-cell superconducting cavity has been designed. As a source of electron beam, a DC photocathode electron gun has been designed and fabricated, which is composed of a photocathode evaporation chamber and a 100-keV acceleration chamber. The efficiency of the Cs2Te photocathode is 3% nominally at room temperature, 10% at 290 deg C. The superconducting photoelectron gun system developed has been estimated to be a good source of high-brightness electron beam for high-power free electron lasers.

  3. The Livermore Free-Electron Laser Program Magnet Test Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.J.; Kulke, B.; Deis, G.A.; Frye, R.W.; Kallman, J.S.; Ollis, C.W.; Tyler, G.C.; Van Maren, R.D.; Weiss, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Free-Electron Laser Program Magnet Test Laboratory supports the ongoing development of the Induction Linac Free Electron Laser (IFEL) and uses magnetic field measurement systems that are useful in the testing of long periodic magnetic structures, electron-beam transport magnets, and spectrometer magnets. The major systems described include two computer-controlled, three-axis Hall probe-and-search coil transports with computer-controlled data acquisition; a unique, automated-search coil system used to detect very small inaccuracies in wiggler fields; a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based Hall probe-calibration facility; and a high-current DC ion source using heavy ions of variable momentum to model the transport of high-energy electrons. Additionally, a high-precision electron-beam-position monitor for use within long wigglers that has a positional resolution of less than 100 μm is under development in the laboratory and will be discussed briefly. Data transfer to LLNL's central computing facility and on-line graphics enable us to analyze large data sets quickly. 3 refs

  4. Free electron lasers for transmission of energy in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segall, S. B.; Hiddleston, H. R.; Catella, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    A one-dimensional resonant-particle model of a free electron laser (FEL) is used to calculate laser gain and conversion efficiency of electron energy to photon energy. The optical beam profile for a resonant optical cavity is included in the model as an axial variation of laser intensity. The electron beam profile is matched to the optical beam profile and modeled as an axial variation of current density. Effective energy spread due to beam emittance is included. Accelerators appropriate for a space-based FEL oscillator are reviewed. Constraints on the concentric optical resonator and on systems required for space operation are described. An example is given of a space-based FEL that would produce 1.7 MW of average output power at 0.5 micrometer wavelength with over 50% conversion efficiency of electrical energy to laser energy. It would utilize a 10 m-long amplifier centered in a 200 m-long optical cavity. A 3-amp, 65 meV electrostatic accelerator would provide the electron beam and recover the beam after it passes through the amplifier. Three to five shuttle flights would be needed to place the laser in orbit.

  5. A high power, tunable free electron maser for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanus, W.H.; Bratman, V.L.; Bongers, W.A.; Caplan, M.; Denisov, G.G.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Manintveld, P.; Militsyn, B.; Oomens, A.A.M.; Poelman, A.J.; Plomp, J.; Pluygers, J.; Savilov, A.V.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Sterk, A.B.; Verhoeven, A.G.A

    2001-01-01

    The Fusion-FEM experiment, a high-power, electrostatic free-electron maser being built at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen', is operated at various frequencies. So far, experiments were done without a depressed collector, and the pulse length was limited to 12 {mu}s. Nevertheless, many aspects of generation of mm-wave power have been explored, such as the dependency on the electron beam energy and beam current, and cavity settings such as the feedback coefficient. An output power of 730 kW at 206 GHz is generated with a 7.2 A, 1.77 MeV electron beam, and 360 kW at 167 GHz is generated with a 7.4 A, 1.61 MeV electron beam. It is shown experimentally and by simulations that, depending on the electron beam energy, the FEM can operate in single-frequency regime. The next step of the FEM experiment is to reach a pulse length of 100 ms. The major part of the beam line, the high voltage systems, and the collector have been completed. The undulator and mm-wave cavity are now at high voltage (2 MV). The new mm-wave transmission line, which transports the mm-wave output power from the high-voltage terminal to ground and outside the pressure tank, has been tested at low power.

  6. Harmonic operation of high gain harmonic generation free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Haixiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Dai Zhimin

    2008-01-01

    In high gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free electron laser (FEL), with the right choice of parameters of the modulator undulator, the dispersive section and the seed laser, one may make the spatial bunching of the electron beam density distribution correspond to one of the harmonic frequencies of the radiator radiation, instead of the fundamental frequency of the radiator radiation in conventional HGHG, thus the radiator undulator is in harmonic operation (HO) mode. In this paper, we investigate HO of HGHG FEL. Theoretical analyses with universal method are derived and numerical simulations in ultraviolet and deep ultraviolet spectral regions are given. It shows that the power of the 3rd harmonic radiation in the HO of HGHG may be as high as 18.5% of the fundamental power level. Thus HO of HGHG FEL may obtain short wavelength by using lower beam energy. (authors)

  7. Introduction to free electron lasers (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    The Free-electron laser (FEL) is a source of coherent electromagnetic radiation based on a relativistic electron beam. First operated 25 years ago, the FEL has now reached a stage of maturity for operation in the infra-red region of the spectrum and several facilities provide intense FEL radiation beams for research covering a wide range of disciplines. Several projects both underway and proposed aim at pushing the minimum wavelength from its present limit around 100 nm progressively down to the 1 Angstrom region where the X-ray FEL would open up many new and exciting research possibilities. Other developments aim at increasing power levels to the 10's of kW level. In this series of lectures we give an introduction to the basic principles of FELs and their different modes of operation, and summarise their applications and current state of development.

  8. Introduction to free electron lasers (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    The Free-electron laser (FEL) is a source of coherent electromagnetic radiation based on a relativistic electron beam. First operated 25 years ago, the FEL has now reached a stage of maturity for operation in the infra-red region of the spectrum and several facilities provide intense FEL radiation beams for research covering a wide range of disciplines. Several projects both underway and proposed aim at pushing the minimum wavelength from its present limit around 100 nm progressively down to the 1 Angstrom region where the X-ray FEL would open up many new and exciting research possibilities. Other developments aim at increasing power levels to the 10's of kW level. In this series of lectures we give an introduction to the basic principles of FELs and their different modes of operation, and summarise their applications and current state of development.

  9. Introduction to free electron lasers (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    The Free-electron laser (FEL) is a source of coherent electromagnetic radiation based on a relativistic electron beam. First operated 25 years ago, the FEL has now reached a stage of maturity for operation in the infra-red region of the spectrum and several facilities provide intense FEL radiation beams for research covering a wide range of disciplines. Several projects both underway and proposed aim at pushing the minimum wavelength from its present limit around 100 nm progressively down to the 1 Angstrom region where the X-ray FEL would open up many new and exciting research possibilities. Other developments aim at increasing power levels to the 10's of kW level. In this series of lectures we give an introduction to the basic principles of FELs and their different modes of operation, and summarise their applications and current state of development.

  10. Undulators and free-electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Luchini, P

    1990-01-01

    This book is a reference text for all those working in free-electron laser research as well as being a learning aid for physicists and graduate students who wish an introduction to this field. Only a basic understanding of relativistic mechanics and electromagnetism is presupposed. After an overview of early developments and general principles of operation, the different models that can be used to describe free-electron lasers are presented, organized according to their range of applicability. The relevent conceptual and mathematical constructs are built up from first principles with attention to obtaining the practically important results in a simple but rigorous way. Interaction of the undulator with the driving electron accelerator and the laser cavity and design of undulator magnets are treated and an overview is given of some typical experiments.

  11. Spin-polarized transport in manganite-based magnetic nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Mara

    2007-01-01

    Giant magnetoresistance (G M R) and tunnel magnetoresistance are spin polarized transport phenomena which are observed in magnetic multilayers.They consist in a large variation of the electrical resistivity of the system depending on whether the magnetizations of the magnetic layers are aligned parallel or anti-parallel to each other. In order to be able to align the magnetic layers by means of an external magnetic field, they must not be strongly ferromagnetically coupled.The extrinsic magnetoresistance effects in magnetic multilayers, either G M R in the case of a metallic spacer, or T M R in the case of an insulating spacer, are observed at low magnetic fields, which makes these phenomena interesting for technological applications.We studied the possibility of using the ferromagnetic manganite La 0 ,75Sr 0 ,25MnO 3 (L S M O) in magneto resistive devices, with different materials as a spacer layer.As the main result of this work, we report G M R and T M R measurements in L S M O/LaNiO 3 /L S M O and L S M O/CaMnO 3 /L S M O tri layers, respectively, observed for the first time in these systems.This work included the deposition of films and multilayers by sputtering, the structural characterization of the samples and the study of their magnetic and electric transport properties.Our main interest was the study of G M R in L S M O/LaNiO 3 /L S M O tri layers.It was necessary to firstly characterize the magnetic coupling of L S M O layers through the L N O spacer. After that, we performed electric transport measurements with the current in the plane of the samples.We measured a G M R contribution of ∼ 0,55 % at T = 83 K.We designed a procedure for patterning the samples by e-beam lithography for electric transport measurements with the current perpendicular to the plane. We also performed the study of L S M O/CaMnO 3 /L S M O tri layers with an insulating spacer.We studied the magnetic coupling, as in the previous case.Then we fabricated a tunnel junction for

  12. Long range coherence in free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, W. B.

    1984-01-01

    The simple free electron laser (FEL) design uses a static, periodic, transverse magnetic field to undulate relativistic electrons traveling along its axis. This allows coupling to a co-propagating optical wave and results in bunching to produce coherent radiation. The advantages of the FEL are continuous tunability, operation at wavelengths ranging from centimeters to angstroms, and high efficiency resulting from the fact that the interaction region only contains light, relativistic electrons, and a magnetic field. Theoretical concepts and operational principles are discussed.

  13. Realizing stable fully spin polarized transport in SiC nanoribbons with dopant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xixi; Wang, Xianlong; Zheng, Xiaohong, E-mail: xhzheng@theory.issp.ac.cn; Zeng, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Hao, Hua [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-06-06

    Intrinsic half-metallicity recently reported in zigzag edged SiC nanoribbons is basically undetectable due to negligible energy difference between the antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) configurations. In this Letter, by density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate a scheme of N doping at the carbon edge to selectively close the edge state channel at this edge and achieve 100% spin filtering, no matter whether it is in an AFM state or FM state. This turns SiC nanoribbon into a promising material for obtaining stable and completely spin polarized transport and may find application in spintronic devices.

  14. Complete snake and rotator schemes for spin polarization in proton rings and large electron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, K.

    1983-11-01

    In order to maintain spin polarization in proton rings and large electron rings, some generalized Siberian Snake scheme may be required to make the spin tune almost independent of energy and thus avoid depolarizing resonances. The practical problem of finding such schemes that, at reasonable technical effort, can be made to work over large energy ranges has been addressed before and is here revisited in a broadened view and with added new suggestions. As a result, possibly optimum schemes for electron rings (LEP) and proton rings are described. In the proposed LEP scheme, spin rotation is devised such that, at the interaction points, the spin direction is longitudinal as required for experiments. (orig.)

  15. Light-free magnetic resonance force microscopy for studies of electron spin polarized systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelekhov, Denis V.; Selcu, Camelia; Banerjee, Palash; Chung Fong, Kin; Chris Hammel, P.; Bhaskaran, Harish; Schwab, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy is a scanned probe technique capable of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. Its excellent sensitivity opens the possibility for magnetic resonance studies of spin accumulation resulting from the injection of spin polarized currents into a para-magnetic collector. The method is based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance which requires low noise detection of cantilever displacement; so far, this has been accomplished using optical interferometry. This is undesirable for experiments on doped silicon, where the presence of light is known to enhance spin relaxation rates. We report a non-optical displacement detection scheme based on sensitive microwave capacitive readout

  16. Transmittance and Tunneling Current through a Trapezoidal Barrier under Spin Polarization Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, F. A.; Nabila, E.; Mardianti, H.; Ariani, T. I.; Khairurrijal

    2018-04-01

    The transmittance and tunneling current in heterostructures under spin polarization consideration were studied by employing a zinc-blended structure for the heterostructures. An electron tunnels through a potential barrier by applying a bias voltage to the barrier, which is called the trapezoidal potential barrier. In order to study the transmittance, an Airy wave function approach was employed to find the transmittance. The obtained transmittance was then utilized to compute the tunneling current by using a Gauss quadrature method. It was shown that the transmittances were asymmetric with the incident angle of the electron. It was also shown that the tunneling currents increased as the bias voltage increased.

  17. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanakis, I.

    2015-03-01

    Half-metallic Co2MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co2MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co2MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices.

  18. The enhanced spin-polarized transport behaviors through cobalt benzene-porphyrin-benzene molecular junctions: the effect of functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jue-Fei; Zhou, Liping; Wen, Zhongqian; Yan, Qiang; Han, Qin; Gao, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The modification effects of the groups amino (NH2) and nitro (NO2) on the spin polarized transport properties of the cobalt benzene-porphyrin-benzene (Co-BPB) molecule coupled to gold (Au) nanowire electrodes are investigated by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method combined with the density functional theory. The calculation results show that functional groups can lead to the significant spin-filter effect, enhanced low-bias negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior and novel reverse rectifying effect in Co-BPB molecular junction. The locations and types of functional groups have distinct influences on spin-polarized transport performances. The configuration with NH2 group substituting H atom in central porphyrin ring has larger spin-down current compared to that with NO2 substitution. And Co-BPB molecule junction with NH2 group substituting H atom in side benzene ring shows reverse rectifying effect. Detailed analyses confirm that NH2 and NO2 group substitution change the spin-polarized transferred charge, which makes the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) of spin-down channel of Co-BPB closer to the Fermi level. And the shift of HOMO strengthens the spin-polarized coupling between the molecular orbitals and the electrodes, leading to the enhanced spin-polarized behavior. Our findings might be useful in the design of multi-functional molecular devices in the future.

  19. Spin-polarized 3He nuclear targets and metastable 4He atoms by optical pumping with a tunable, Nd:YAP laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohler, C.L.; Schearer, L.D.; Leduc, M.; Nacher, P.J.; Zachorowski, L.; Milner, R.G.; McKeown, R.D.; Woodward, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Several Nd:YAP lasers were constructed which could be broadly tuned in the 1083-nm region which includes the helium 2 3 S-2 3 P transition, using a Lyot filter and thin, uncoated etalons within the laser cavity. 1 W of power could be extracted at 1083 nm through a 1% transmitting output coupler. This laser beam was used to optically pump metastable 4 He and 3 He 2 3 S helium atoms in a weak discharge cell, spin polarizing the metastable ensemble. In a 3 He cell the polarization is transferred to the nuclear spin system. A 3 He target cell at 0.3 Torr was polarized to 52% in a few minutes. We describe the application of this system to the design of polarized targets for experiments in nuclear physics

  20. Millimeter wave free electron laser amplifiers: Experiments and designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidwell, S.W.; Zhang, Z.X.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Bensen, D.M.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Lantham, P.E.; Levush, B.; Rodgers, J.

    1991-01-01

    Free electron laser amplifies are investigated as sources of high- average-power (1 MW) millimeter to submillimeter wave radiation (200 GHz - 600 GHz) for application to electron cyclotron resonance heating of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. As a stepping-stone to higher frequencies and cw operation a pulsed amplifier (τ pulse ≅ 80 ns) at 98 GHz is being developed. Status is reported on this experiment which investigates linear gain amplification with use of sheet electron beam (transverse cross section = 0.1 cm x 2.0 cm, V beam = 440 keV, I beam ≅ 10 A) and short-period wiggler (ell w = 0.96 cm) and with expected output of 140 W. Predictions of gain and efficiency from a 1-D universal formulation are presented. Beam propagation results, with wiggler focusing as a means of sheet beam confinement in both transverse dimensions, through the 54 cm (56 period) pulsed electromagnet wiggler are discussed. Peak wiggler fields of 5.1 kG on-axis have been achieved

  1. Simultaneous production of spin-polarized ions/electrons based on two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takashi; Yonekura, Nobuaki; Matsuo, Yukari; Kobayashi, Tohru; Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the simultaneous production of spin-polarized ions/electrons using two-color, two-photon ionization of laser-ablated metallic atoms. Specifically, we have applied the developed technique to laser-ablated Sr atoms, and found that the electron-spin polarization of Sr + ions, and accordingly, the spin polarization of photoelectrons is 64%±9%, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction we have recently reported [T. Nakajima and N. Yonekura, J. Chem. Phys. 117, 2112 (2002)]. Our experimental results open up a simple way toward the construction of a spin-polarized dual ion/electron source

  2. Correlation effects on spin-polarized electron-hole quantum bilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, L. K., E-mail: drlalitsaini75@gmail.com; Sharma, R. O., E-mail: sharmarajesh0387@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat – 395 007 (India); Nayak, Mukesh G. [Department of Physics, Silvassa College (Silvassa Institute of Higher Learning), Silvassa 396 230 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We present a numerical calculation for the intra- and interlayer pair-correlation functions, g{sub ll’}(r), of spin-polarized electron-hole quantum bilayers at zero temperature. The calculations of g{sub ll’}(r) are performed by including electron correlations within the dynamical version of the self-consistent mean-field approximation of Singwi, Tosi, Land and Sjölander (qSTLS). Our study reveals that the critical layer density decreases (increases) due to the inclusion of finite width (mass-asymmetry) effect during the phase-transition from charge-density wave to Wigner crystal ground-state by yielding the pronounced oscillatory behavior ing{sub ll}(r). The results are compared with recent findings of spin-polarized electron-hole quantum bilayers with mass-symmetry and zero width effects. To highlight the importance of dynamical character of correlations, we have also compared our results with the STLS results.

  3. Dynamical nuclear spin polarization induced by electronic current through double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Monis, Carlos; Platero, Gloria; Inarrea, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    We analyse electron-spin relaxation in electronic transport through coherently coupled double quantum dots (DQDs) in the spin blockade regime. In particular, we focus on hyperfine (HF) interaction as the spin-relaxation mechanism. We pay special attention to the effect of the dynamical nuclear spin polarization induced by the electronic current on the nuclear environment. We discuss the behaviour of the electronic current and the induced nuclear spin polarization versus an external magnetic field for different HF coupling intensities and interdot tunnelling strengths. We take into account, for each magnetic field, all HF-mediated spin-relaxation processes coming from different opposite spin level approaches. We find that the current as a function of the external magnetic field shows a peak or a dip and that the transition from a current dip to a current peak behaviour is obtained by decreasing the HF coupling or by increasing the interdot tunnelling strength. We give a physical picture in terms of the interplay between the electrons tunnelling out of the DQD and the spin-flip processes due to the nuclear environment.

  4. Semiclassical theory of the tunneling anomaly in partially spin-polarized compressible quantum Hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Debanjan; Skinner, Brian; Lee, Patrick A.

    2018-05-01

    Electron tunneling into a system with strong interactions is known to exhibit an anomaly, in which the tunneling conductance vanishes continuously at low energy due to many-body interactions. Recent measurements have probed this anomaly in a quantum Hall bilayer of the half-filled Landau level, and shown that the anomaly apparently gets stronger as the half-filled Landau level is increasingly spin polarized. Motivated by this result, we construct a semiclassical hydrodynamic theory of the tunneling anomaly in terms of the charge-spreading action associated with tunneling between two copies of the Halperin-Lee-Read state with partial spin polarization. This theory is complementary to our recent work (D. Chowdhury, B. Skinner, and P. A. Lee, arXiv:1709.06091) where the electron spectral function was computed directly using an instanton-based approach. Our results show that the experimental observation cannot be understood within conventional theories of the tunneling anomaly, in which the spreading of the injected charge is driven by the mean-field Coulomb energy. However, we identify a qualitatively new regime, in which the mean-field Coulomb energy is effectively quenched and the tunneling anomaly is dominated by the finite compressibility of the composite Fermion liquid.

  5. Generalized nuclear Fukui functions in the framework of spin-polarized density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, E.; Proft, F. de; Geerlings, P.

    2005-01-01

    An extension of Cohen's nuclear Fukui function is presented in the spin-polarized framework of density-functional theory (SP-DFT). The resulting new nuclear Fukui function indices Φ Nα and Φ Sα are intended to be the natural descriptors for the responses of the nuclei to changes involving charge transfer at constant multiplicity and also the spin polarization at constant number of electrons. These generalized quantities allow us to gain new insights within a perturbative scheme based on DFT. Calculations of the electronic and nuclear SP-DFT quantities are presented within a Kohn-Sham framework of chemical reactivity for a sample of molecules, including H 2 O, H 2 CO, and some simple nitrenes (NX) and phosphinidenes (PX), with X=H, Li, F, Cl, OH, SH, NH 2 , and PH 2 . Results have been interpreted in terms of chemical bonding in the context of Berlin's theorem, which provides a separation of the molecular space into binding and antibinding regions

  6. Ring-diagram calculations of normal and spin-polarized 3He using the Aziz interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyer, J.; Kiang, L.L.; Jiang, M.F.; Kuo, T.T.S.

    1991-01-01

    The authors calculate the ground-state energy of normal and spin-polarized 3 He within a model-space ring diagram framework where the particle-particle hole-hole (pphh) ring diagrams of the ground-state energy shift are summed up to all orders. The Aziz HFDHE2 and HFD-B(HE) interactions are employed. They first calculate a model space reaction matrix (G M ) whose intermediate states are required to be outside the chosen model space. The pphh ring diagrams with G M -matrix vertices are then summed within the model space by way of an RPA-type secular equation. The continuous single-particle spectrum of Mahaux is chosen. It is found that the inclusion of pphh ring diagrams gives a significant increase in the binding energy per particle (BE/A) as compared with Brueckner-Hartree-Fock calculations. For normal and spin-polarized 3 He their calculated values for BE/A and saturation densities are respectively (1.86 K, 0.72 angstrom -1 ) and (1.59 K, 0.91 angstrom -1 ), while the corresponding experimental values for normal 3 He are (2.47 K, 0.785 angstrom -1 ). 53 refs

  7. Spatial distribution of spin polarization in a channel on the surface of a topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaoying; Shao Huaihua; Liu Yiman; Tang Dongsheng; Zhou Guanghui

    2012-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of electron spin polarization for a gate-controlled T-shaped channel on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (3D TI). We demonstrate that an energy gap depending on channel geometry parameters is definitely opened due to the spatial confinement. Spin surface locking in momentum space for a uniform wide channel with Hamiltonian linearity in the wavevector is still kept, but it is broken with Hamiltonian nonlinearity in the wavevector, like that for two-dimensional surface states widely studied in the literature. However, the spin surface locking for a T-shaped channel is broken even with Hamiltonian linearity in the wavevector. Interestingly, the magnitude and direction of the in-plane spin polarization are spatially dependent in all regions due to the breaking of translational symmetry of the T-shaped channel system. These interesting findings for an electrically controlled nanostructure based on the 3D TI surface may be testable with the present experimental technique, and may provide further understanding the nature of 3D TI surface states. (paper)

  8. Electron-spin polarization in tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic EuS barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, X.; Moodera, J.S.; Meservey, R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report here spin-polarized tunneling experiments using non-ferromagnetic electrodes and ferromagnetic EuS barriers. Because of the conduction band in EuS splits into spin-up and spin-down subbands when the temperature is below 16.7 K, the Curie temperature of EuS, the tunnel barrier for electrons with different spin directions is different, therefore giving rise to tunnel current polarization. The spin-filter effect, as it may be called, was observed earlier, directly or indirectly, by several groups: Esaki et al. made a tunneling study on junctions having EuS and EuSe barriers; Thompson et al. studied Schottky barrier tunneling between In and doped EuS; Muller et al. and Kisker et al. performed electron field emission experiments on EuS-coated tungsten tips. The field emission experiments gave a maximum polarization of (89 + 7)% for the emitted electrons. Although the previous tunneling studies did not directly show electron polarization, their results were explained by the same spin- filter effect. This work uses the spin-polarized tunneling technique to show directly that tunnel current is indeed polarized and polarization can be as high as 85%

  9. Effect of Orbital Hybridization on Spin-Polarized Tunneling across Co/C60 Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Strambini, Elia; Sanderink, Johnny G M; Bolhuis, Thijs; van der Wiel, Wilfred G; de Jong, Michel P

    2016-10-26

    The interaction between ferromagnetic surfaces and organic semiconductors leads to the formation of hybrid interfacial states. As a consequence, the local magnetic moment is altered, a hybrid interfacial density of states (DOS) is formed, and spin-dependent shifts of energy levels occur. Here, we show that this hybridization affects spin transport across the interface significantly. We report spin-dependent electronic transport measurements for tunnel junctions comprising C 60 molecular thin films grown on top of face-centered-cubic (fcc) epitaxial Co electrodes, an AlO x tunnel barrier, and an Al counter electrode. Since only one ferromagnetic electrode (Co) is present, spin-polarized transport is due to tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR). An in-plane TAMR ratio of approximately 0.7% has been measured at 5 K under application of a magnetic field of 800 mT. The magnetic switching behavior shows some remarkable features, which are attributed to the rotation of interfacial magnetic moments. This behavior can be ascribed to the magnetic coupling between the Co thin films and the newly formed Co/C 60 hybridized interfacial states. Using the Tedrow-Meservey technique, the tunnel spin polarization of the Co/C 60 interface was found to be 43%.

  10. Antiferromagnetic Spin Coupling between Rare Earth Adatoms and Iron Islands Probed by Spin-Polarized Tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, David; Diez-Ferrer, José Luis; Serrate, David; Ciria, Miguel; de la Fuente, César; Arnaudas, José Ignacio

    2015-09-03

    High-density magnetic storage or quantum computing could be achieved using small magnets with large magnetic anisotropy, a requirement that rare-earth iron alloys fulfill in bulk. This compelling property demands a thorough investigation of the magnetism in low dimensional rare-earth iron structures. Here, we report on the magnetic coupling between 4f single atoms and a 3d magnetic nanoisland. Thulium and lutetium adatoms deposited on iron monolayer islands pseudomorphically grown on W(110) have been investigated at low temperature with scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The spin-polarized current indicates that both kind of adatoms have in-plane magnetic moments, which couple antiferromagnetically with their underlying iron islands. Our first-principles calculations explain the observed behavior, predicting an antiparallel coupling of the induced 5d electrons magnetic moment of the lanthanides with the 3d magnetic moment of iron, as well as their in-plane orientation, and pointing to a non-contribution of 4f electrons to the spin-polarized tunneling processes in rare earths.

  11. Magnetic adatoms in two and four terminal graphene nanoribbons: A comparison between their spin polarized transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sudin; Basu, Saurabh

    2018-04-01

    We study the charge and spin transport in two and four terminal graphene nanoribbons (GNR) decorated with random distribution of magnetic adatoms. The inclusion of the magnetic adatoms generates only the z-component of the spin polarized conductance via an exchange bias in the absence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI), while in presence of Rashba SOI, one is able to create all the three (x, y and z) components. This has important consequences for possible spintronic applications. The charge conductance shows interesting behaviour near the zero of the Fermi energy. Where in presence of magnetic adatoms the familiar plateau at 2e2 / h vanishes, thereby transforming a quantum spin Hall insulating phase to an ordinary insulator. The local charge current and the local spin current provide an intuitive idea on the conductance features of the system. We found that, the local charge current is independent of Rashba SOI, while the three components of the local spin currents are sensitive to Rashba SOI. Moreover the fluctuations of the spin polarized conductance are found to be useful quantities as they show specific trends, that is, they enhance with increasing adatom densities. A two terminal GNR device seems to be better suited for possible spintronic applications.

  12. Characterization of atomic spin polarization lifetime of cesium vapor cells with neon buffer gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Janet W.; Cranch, Geoffrey A.

    2018-02-01

    The dephasing time of spin-polarized atoms in an atomic vapor cell plays an important role in determining the stability of vapor-cell clocks as well as the sensitivity of optically-pumped magnetometers. The presence of a buffer gas can extend the lifetime of these atoms. Many vapor cell systems operate at a fixed (often elevated) temperature. For ambient temperature operation with no temperature control, it is necessary to characterize the temperature dependence as well. We present a spin-polarization lifetime study of Cesium vapor cells with different buffer gas pressures, and find good agreement with expectations based on the combined effects of wall collisions, spin exchange, and spin destruction. For our (7.5 mm diameter) vapor cells, the lifetime can be increased by two orders of magnitude by introducing Ne buffer gas up to 100 Torr. Additionally, the dependence of the lifetime on temperature is measured (25 - 47 oC) and simulated for the first time to our knowledge with reasonable agreement.

  13. Stability of superfluid phases in the 2D spin-polarized attractive Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa-Cichy, A.; Micnas, R.

    2011-08-01

    We study the evolution from the weak coupling (BCS-like limit) to the strong coupling limit of tightly bound local pairs (LPs) with increasing attraction, in the presence of the Zeeman magnetic field (h) for d=2, within the spin-polarized attractive Hubbard model. The broken symmetry Hartree approximation as well as the strong coupling expansion are used. We also apply the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) scenario to determine the phase coherence temperatures. For spin-independent hopping integrals (t↑=t↓), we find no stable homogeneous polarized superfluid (SCM) state in the ground state for the strong attraction and obtain that for a two-component Fermi system on a 2D lattice with population imbalance, phase separation (PS) is favoured for a fixed particle concentration, even on the LP (BEC) side. We also examine the influence of spin-dependent hopping integrals (mass imbalance) on the stability of the SCM phase. We find a topological quantum phase transition (Lifshitz type) from the unpolarized superfluid phase (SC0) to SCM and tricritical points in the h-|U| and t↑/t↓-|U| ground-state phase diagrams. We also construct the finite temperature phase diagrams for both t↑=t↓ and t↑≠t↓ and analyze the possibility of occurrence of a spin-polarized KT superfluid.

  14. Research on heightening quality of free electron laser using superconducting linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the superconducting high frequency linear accelerator technology using low temperature superconductor is introduced, and its application to the heightening of quality of free electron laser is discussed. The high frequency application of superconductivity is a relatively new technology, and the first superconducting high frequency linear accelerator was made at the middle of 1960s. The invention of free electron laser and the development so far are described. In free electron laser, the variation of wavelength, high efficiency and high power output are possible as compared with conventional type lasers. The price and the size are two demerits of free electron laser that remain to the last. In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the adjustment experiment is carried out for the prototype free electron laser. About this prototype, injection system, superconducting accelerator, helium refrigerator, whole solid element high frequency power source, control system, electron beam transport system, undulator system and optical resonator are described. The application of high mean power output free electron laser and its future are discussed. (K.I.)

  15. An XUV/VUV free-electron laser oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J. C.; Newnam, B. E.; Cooper, R. K.; Comly, J. C., Jr.

    Problems regarding the extension of free-electron laser technology from the visible and near infrared region, where such devices are currently operating, to the ultraviolet have recently been extensively discussed. It was found that significant technical problems must be overcome before free-electron lasers (FELs) can be operated in the VUV (100-200 nm) and the XUV (50-100). However, the present lack of other intense and tunable sources of coherent radiation at these wavelengths together with the intrinsic properties of FELs make the development of such devices potentially very rewarding. The properties of FELs include continuous tunability in wavelength and output in the form of a train of picosecond pulses. An investigation is conducted regarding the feasibility of an operation of a FEL in the XUV/VUV regions, taking into account a theoretical model. It is found that modest improvements in electron beam and optical mirror technologies will make the design of a FEL for operation in the 50-200-nm range of optical wavelength possible.

  16. Detecting spin polarization of nano-crystalline manganese doped zinc oxide thin film using circular polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, H.M., E-mail: h_m_elsaid@hotmail.com

    2016-02-01

    The presence of spin polarization in Mn-doped ZnO thin film is very important for spintronic applications. Spin polarization was detected using simple method. This method depends on measuring the optical transmittance using circular polarized light in visible and near infra-red region. It was found that, there is a difference in the optical energy gap of the film for circular left and circular polarized light. For temperatures > 310 K the difference in energy gap is vanished. This result is confirmed by measuring the magnetic hysteresis of the film. This work introduces a promising method for measuring the ferromagnetism in diluted magnetic semiconductors. - Highlights: • Highly oriented c-axis of Mn-ZnO thin film doped with nitrogen is prepared. • The optical energy gap depends on the state of circularly polarized light. • The presence of spin polarization is confirmed using simple optical method. • Magnetic measurements are consistent with the results of the optical method.

  17. Elsa: an infrared free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimbal, P.; Chaix, P.

    1998-01-01

    Since the first experiments, twenty years ago, free-electron lasers (FEL) have known a strong development because of their promise: broadband tunability from X-rays to microwaves and high (peak or average) power, limited only by technological issues. ELSA has been designed as a research tool to investigate the physics of high-power FELs. After a brief introduction of the FEL field of research, we point out the unique characteristics of ELSA and why it is a valuable tool for the study of FEL interaction in the strong electron-photon coupling. The main experimental results are reviewed. We conclude on the concept of Two-Frequency-Wiggler. (author)

  18. The free electron laser: conceptual history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madey, John; Scully, Marlan O; Sprangle, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    The free electron laser (FEL) has lived up to its promise as given in (Madey 1971 J. Appl. Phys. 42 1906) to wit: ‘As shall be seen, finite gain is available …from the far-infrared through the visible region …with the further possibility of partially coherent radiation sources in the x-ray region’. In the present paper we review the history of the FEL drawing liberally (and where possible literally) from the original sources. Coauthors, Madey, Scully and Sprangle were involved in the early days of the subject and give a first hand account of the subject with an eye to the future. (invited comment)

  19. Progress toward the Wisconsin Free Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, Joseph; Bosch, R.A.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.V.; Green, M.A.; Jacobs, K.; Kleman, K.J.; Kulpin, J.; Rogers, G.C.; Lawler, J.E.; Yavuz, D.; Legg, R.

    2011-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison/Synchrotron Radiation Center is advancing its design for a seeded VUV/soft X-ray Free Electron Laser facility called WiFEL. To support this vision of an ultimate light source, we are pursuing a program of strategic R and D addressing several crucial elements. This includes development of a high repetition rate, VHF superconducting RF electron gun, R and D on photocathode materials by ARPES studies, and evaluation of FEL facility architectures (e.g., recirculation, compressor scenarios, CSR dechirping, undulator technologies) with the specific goal of cost containment. Studies of high harmonic generation for laser seeding are also planned.

  20. Improved Electron Yield and Spin-Polarization from III-V Photocathodes via Bias Enhanced Carrier Drift: Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhollan, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    In this DOE STTR program, Saxet Surface Science, with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center as partner, designed, built and tested photocathode structures such that optimal drift-enhanced spin-polarization from GaAs based photoemitters was achieved with minimal bias supply requirements. The forward bias surface grid composition was optimized for maximum polarization and yield, together with other construction parameters including doping profile. This program has culminated in a cathode bias structure affording increased electron spin polarization when applied to III-V based photocathodes. The optimized bias structure has been incorporated into a cathode mounting and biasing design for use in a polarized electron gun.

  1. Detection of current-induced spin polarization in BiSbTeSe{sub 2} toplogical insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Ghatak, Subhamoy; Taskin, Alexey; Ando, Yoichi [Institute of Physics II, University of Cologne (Germany); Ando, Yuichiro [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are a class of quantum matter which possess spin-momentum-locked Dirac Fermions on the surfaces. Due to the spin-momentum locking, spin polarization will be induced when a charge current flows through the surface of a TI. Such spin polarization can be detected by using a ferromagnetic tunneling contact as a detector. In this talk, we present our results measured in devices fabricated from BiSbTeSe{sub 2} flakes. Spin signals were observed in both n-type and p-type BiSbTeSe{sub 2} samples.

  2. Development of a high power free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sun Kook; Jung, Yung Wook; Cho, Sung Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-01

    A millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator has been developed. The wavelength of the FEL is tunable in the range of 3 - 12 mm by tuning the energy of the electron beam. The output power is estimated to be 1 kW. The electrostatic accelerator is composed of high-current electron gun, acceleration tube, high-voltage generator, high-voltage terminal, deceleration tube, electron collator, and vacuum pumps. Two types of LaB{sub 6}-based thermionic electron guns (triode gun and diode gun) and their power supplies have been developed. The voltage of the guns is 30 kV and the output current is - 2 A. A beam-focusing planar undulator and a permanent-magnet helical undulator have been developed and 3D trajectories of electron beam in the undulators have been calculated to find optimal input condition of electron beam. 135 figs, 15 pix, 17 tabs, 98 refs. (Author).

  3. Development of a high power free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Byung Chul; Kim, Sun Kook; Jung, Yung Wook; Cho, Sung Oh

    1995-01-01

    A millimeter-wave free electron laser (FEL) driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator has been developed. The wavelength of the FEL is tunable in the range of 3 - 12 mm by tuning the energy of the electron beam. The output power is estimated to be 1 kW. The electrostatic accelerator is composed of high-current electron gun, acceleration tube, high-voltage generator, high-voltage terminal, deceleration tube, electron collator, and vacuum pumps. Two types of LaB 6 -based thermionic electron guns (triode gun and diode gun) and their power supplies have been developed. The voltage of the guns is 30 kV and the output current is - 2 A. A beam-focusing planar undulator and a permanent-magnet helical undulator have been developed and 3D trajectories of electron beam in the undulators have been calculated to find optimal input condition of electron beam. 135 figs, 15 pix, 17 tabs, 98 refs. (Author)

  4. Nonlinear effects and conversion efficiency of free electron laser in compton regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Toshihiro; Mima, Kunioki; Mochizuki, Takayasu

    1980-01-01

    Nonlinear evolutions of free electron laser are analyzed by using quasi-linear theory. By the analysis, the energy conversion rates and the spectral width of the emitted radiations are calculated self-consistently. Moreover, it is found that the energy conversion rate is remarkably improved, when a RF field is applied to reaccelerate electron beam. (author)

  5. Effects of Energy Chirp on Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We study effects of energy chirp on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG). Analytical expressions are compared with numerical simulations for both harmonic and bunching factors. We also discuss the EEHG free-electron laser bandwidth increase due to an energy-modulated beam and its pulse length dependence on the electron energy chirp

  6. XUV free-electron laser-based projection lithography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newnam, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    Free-electron laser sources, driven by rf-linear accelerators, have the potential to operate in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectral range with more than sufficient average power for high-volume projection lithography. For XUV wavelengths from 100 nm to 4 nm, such sources will enable the resolution limit of optical projection lithography to be extended from 0.25 {mu}m to 0.05{mu}m and with an adequate total depth of focus (1 to 2 {mu}m). Recent developments of a photoinjector of very bright electron beams, high-precision magnetic undulators, and ring-resonator cavities raise our confidence that FEL operation below 100 nm is ready for prototype demonstration. We address the motivation for an XUV FEL source for commercial microcircuit production and its integration into a lithographic system, include reflecting reduction masks, reflecting XUV projection optics and alignment systems, and surface-imaging photoresists. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  7. A compact x-ray free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, W.; Attac, M.; Cline, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    We present a design concept and simulation of the performance of a compact x-ray, free electron laser driven by ultra-high gradient rf-linacs. The accelerator design is based on recent advances in high gradient technology by a LLNL/SLAC/LBL collaboration and on the development of bright, high current electron sources by BNL and LANL. The GeV electron beams generated with such accelerators can be concerted to soft x-rays in the range from 2--10 nm by passage through short period, high fields strength wigglers as are being designed at Rocketdyne. Linear light sources of this type can produce trains of picosecond (or shorter) pulses of extremely high spectral brilliance suitable for flash holography of biological specimens in vivo and for studies of fast chemical reactions. 12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Harmonic lasing in x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Schneidmiller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned x-ray free electron laser (FEL facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of x-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust than usually thought, and can be widely used in the existing or planned x-ray FEL (XFEL facilities. In particular, Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS after a minor modification can lase to saturation at the 3rd harmonic up to the photon energy of 25–30 keV providing multigigawatt power level and narrow bandwidth. As for the European XFEL, harmonic lasing would allow one to extend operating range (ultimately up to 100 keV, to reduce FEL bandwidth and to increase brilliance, to enable two-color operation for pump-probe experiments, and to provide more flexible operation at different electron energies. Similar improvements can be realized in other x-ray FEL facilities with gap-tunable undulators like FLASH II, SACLA, LCLS II, etc. Harmonic lasing can be an attractive option for compact x-ray FELs (driven by electron beams with a relatively low energy, allowing the use of the standard undulator technology instead of

  9. CAS CERN Accelerator School. Synchrotron radiation and free electron lasers. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the tenth specialised course organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Synchrotron Radiation and Free-electron Lasers'. A similar course was already given at Chester, UK in 1989 and whose proceedings were published as CERN 90-03. However, recent progress in this field has been so rapid that it became urgent to present a revised version of the course. Starting with a review of the characteristics of synchrotron radiation there follows introductory lectures on electron dynamics in storage rings, beam insertion devices, and beam current and radiation brightness limits. These themes are then developed with more detailed lectures on lattices and emittance, wigglers and undulators, current limitations, beam lifetime and quality, diagnostics and beam stability. Finally lectures are presented on linac and storage ring free-electron lasers. (orig.)

  10. Spin-polarized x-ray emission of 3d transition-metal ions : A comparison via K alpha and K beta detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; deGroot, F.M.F.; Cramer, SP

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that spin-polarized x-ray-excitation spectra can be obtained using K alpha emission as well as K beta lines. A spin-polarized analysis of K alpha x-ray emission and the excitation spectra by K alpha detection on a Ni compound is reported. A systematic analysis of the

  11. Electron spin polarization induced by spin Hall effect in semiconductors with a linear in the momentum spin-orbit splitting of conduction band

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that spin Hall effect creates uniform spin polarization of electrons in semiconductor with a linear in the momentum spin splitting of conduction band. In turn, the profile of the non-uniform spin polarization accumulated at the edge of the sample oscillates in space even in the absence of an external magnetic field.

  12. Contribution of vitamin K1 to the electron spin polarization in spinach photosystem I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustandi, R.R.; Snyder, S.W.; Feezel, L.L.; Michalski, T.J.; Norris, J.R.; Thurnauer, M.C.; Biggins, J.

    1990-01-01

    The electron spin polarized (ESP) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal observed in spinach photosystem I (PSI) particles was examined in preparations depleted of vitamin K1 by solvent extraction and following biological reconstitution by the quinone. The ESP EPR signal was not detected in the solvent-extracted PSI sample but was restored upon reconstitution with either protonated or deuterated vitamin K1 under conditions that also restored electron transfer to the terminal PSI acceptors. Reconstitution using deuterated vitamin K1 resulted in a line narrowing of the ESP EPR signal, supporting the conclusion that the ESP EPR signals in the reconstituted samples arise from a radical pair consisting of the oxidized PSI primary donor, P700+, and reduced vitamin K1

  13. Change of cobalt magnetic anisotropy and spin polarization with alkanethiolates self-assembled monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiglio, Paolo; Breitwieser, Romain; Repain, Vincent; Guitteny, Solène; Chacon, Cyril; Bellec, Amandine; Lagoute, Jérôme; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Sassella, Adele; Imam, Mighfar; Narasimhan, Shobhana

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that the deposition of a self-assembled monolayer of alkanethiolates on a 1 nm thick cobalt ultrathin film grown on Au(111) induces a spin reorientation transition from in-plane to out-of-plane magnetization. Using ab initio calculations, we show that a methanethiolate layer changes slightly both the magnetocrystalline and shape anisotropy, both effects almost cancelling each other out for a 1 nm Co film. Finally, the change in hysteresis cycles upon alkanethiolate adsorption could be assigned to a molecular-induced roughening of the Co layer, as shown by STM. In addition, we calculate how a methanethiolate layer modifies the spin density of states of the Co layer and we show that the spin polarization at the Fermi level through the organic layer is reversed as compared to the uncovered Co. These results give new theoretical and experimental insights for the use of thiol-based self-assembled monolayers in spintronic devices. (paper)

  14. Polarimetry on dense samples of spin-polarized {sup 3}He by magnetostatic detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, E.; Ebert, M.; Heil, W.; Surkau, R. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    1997-12-21

    A very sensitive low-field fluxgate magnetometer is used to detect the static magnetic field produced by dense samples of spin-polarized {sup 3}He gas contained in spherical glass cells at pressures around several bars. The {sup 3}He nuclear polarization can be extracted with high precision {Delta}P/P<1% by utilizing magnetostatic detection in combination with adiabatic fast-passage spin reversal. The polarization losses can be kept well below 0.1% thus making this type of polarimetry almost non-destructive. More simply even, P can be measured with reduced accuracy by the change of field when the cell is removed from the fluxgate. In this case the accuracy is limited to about 10% due to the uncertainties about the susceptibilities of the cell walls. (orig.). 29 refs.

  15. Polarimetry on dense samples of spin-polarized 3He by magnetostatic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, E.; Ebert, M.; Heil, W.; Surkau, R.

    1997-01-01

    A very sensitive low-field fluxgate magnetometer is used to detect the static magnetic field produced by dense samples of spin-polarized 3 He gas contained in spherical glass cells at pressures around several bars. The 3 He nuclear polarization can be extracted with high precision ΔP/P<1% by utilizing magnetostatic detection in combination with adiabatic fast-passage spin reversal. The polarization losses can be kept well below 0.1% thus making this type of polarimetry almost non-destructive. More simply even, P can be measured with reduced accuracy by the change of field when the cell is removed from the fluxgate. In this case the accuracy is limited to about 10% due to the uncertainties about the susceptibilities of the cell walls. (orig.)

  16. Spin-polarized transport in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal zigzag graphene nanoribbon junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hong-Yu; Wang Jun

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the spin-dependent electron transport in single and double normal/ferromagnetic/normal zigzag graphene nanoribbon (NG/FG/NG) junctions. The ferromagnetism in the FG region originates from the spontaneous magnetization of the zigzag graphene nanoribbon. It is shown that when the zigzag-chain number of the ribbon is even and only a single transverse mode is actived, the single NG/FG/NG junction can act as a spin polarizer and/or a spin analyzer because of the valley selection rule and the spin-exchange field in the FG, while the double NG/FG/NG/FG/NG junction exhibits a quantum switching effect, in which the on and the off states switch rapidly by varying the cross angle between two FG magnetizations. Our findings may shed light on the application of magnetized graphene nanoribbons to spintronics devices. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  17. Spin polarized first principles study of Mn doped gallium nitride monolayer nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Venus; Kaur, Sumandeep; Srivastava, Sunita; Kumar, Tankeshwar

    2017-05-01

    The structural, electronic and magnetic properties of gallium nitride nanosheet (GaNs) doped with Mn atoms have been studied using spin polarized density functional theory. The binding energy per atom, Energy Band gap, Fermi energy, magnetic moment, electric dipole moment have been found. The doped nanosheet is found to be more stable than pure GaN monolayer nanosheet. Adsorption of Mn atom has been done at four different sites on GaNs which affects the fermi level position. It is found that depending on the doping site, Mn can behave both like p-type semiconductor and also as n-type semiconductor. Also, it is ascertained that Mn doped GaNs (GaNs-Mn) exhibits ferromagnetic behavior.

  18. Reconstruction of mono-vacancies in carbon nanotubes: Atomic relaxation vs. spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)]. E-mail: berber@comas.frsc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Oshiyama, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan)

    2006-04-01

    We have investigated the reconstruction of mono-vacancies in carbon nanotubes using density functional theory (DFT) geometry optimization and electronic structure calculations, employing a numerical basis set. We considered mono-vacancies in achiral nanotubes with diameter range {approx}4-9A. Contrary to previous tight-binding calculations, our results indicate that mono-vacancies could have several metastable geometries, confirming the previous plane-wave DFT results. Formation energy of mono-vacancies is 4.5-5.5eV, increasing with increasing tube diameter. Net magnetic moment decreases from ideal mono-vacancy value after reconstruction, reflecting the reduction of the number of dangling bonds. In spite of the existence of a dangling bond, ground state of mono-vacancies in semiconducting tubes have no spin polarization. Metallic carbon nanotubes show net magnetic moment for most stable structure of mono-vacancy, except for very small diameter tubes.

  19. Reconstruction of mono-vacancies in carbon nanotubes: Atomic relaxation vs. spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berber, S.; Oshiyama, A.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the reconstruction of mono-vacancies in carbon nanotubes using density functional theory (DFT) geometry optimization and electronic structure calculations, employing a numerical basis set. We considered mono-vacancies in achiral nanotubes with diameter range ∼4-9A. Contrary to previous tight-binding calculations, our results indicate that mono-vacancies could have several metastable geometries, confirming the previous plane-wave DFT results. Formation energy of mono-vacancies is 4.5-5.5eV, increasing with increasing tube diameter. Net magnetic moment decreases from ideal mono-vacancy value after reconstruction, reflecting the reduction of the number of dangling bonds. In spite of the existence of a dangling bond, ground state of mono-vacancies in semiconducting tubes have no spin polarization. Metallic carbon nanotubes show net magnetic moment for most stable structure of mono-vacancy, except for very small diameter tubes

  20. Dark states in spin-polarized transport through triple quantum dot molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrześniewski, K.; Weymann, I.

    2018-02-01

    We study the spin-polarized transport through a triple-quantum-dot molecule weakly coupled to ferromagnetic leads. The analysis is performed by means of the real-time diagrammatic technique, including up to the second order of perturbation expansion with respect to the tunnel coupling. The emphasis is put on the impact of dark states on spin-resolved transport characteristics. It is shown that the interplay of coherent population trapping and cotunneling processes results in a highly nontrivial behavior of the tunnel magnetoresistance, which can take negative values. Moreover, a super-Poissonian shot noise is found in transport regimes where the current is blocked by the formation of dark states, which can be additionally enhanced by spin dependence of tunneling processes, depending on the magnetic configuration of the device. The mechanisms leading to those effects are thoroughly discussed.

  1. Spin-polarized scanning-tunneling probe for helical Luttinger liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sourin; Rao, Sumathi

    2011-06-10

    We propose a three-terminal spin-polarized STM setup for probing the helical nature of the Luttinger liquid edge state that appears in the quantum spin Hall system. We show that the three-terminal tunneling conductance depends on the angle (θ) between the magnetization direction of the tip and the local orientation of the electron spin on the edge while the two terminal conductance is independent of this angle. We demonstrate that chiral injection of an electron into the helical Luttinger liquid (when θ is zero or π) is associated with fractionalization of the spin of the injected electron in addition to the fractionalization of its charge. We also point out a spin current amplification effect induced by the spin fractionalization.

  2. Theoretical consideration of spin-polarized resonant tunneling in magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Haifeng; Zhu Zhengang; Zheng Qingrong; Jin Biao; Wang Zhengchuan; Su Gang

    2004-01-01

    A recent elegant experimental realization [S. Yuasa et al., Science 297 (2002) 234] of the spin-polarized resonant tunneling in magnetic tunnel junctions is interpreted in terms of a two-band model. It is shown that the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) decays oscillatorily with the thickness of the normal metal (NM) layer, being fairly in agreement with the experimental observation. The tunnel conductance is found to decay with slight oscillations with the increase of the NM layer thickness, which is also well consistent with the experiment. In addition, when the magnetizations of both ferromagnet electrodes are not collinearly aligned, TMR is found to exhibit sharp resonant peaks at some particular thickness of the NM layer. The peaked TMR obeys nicely a Gaussian distribution against the relative orientation of the magnetizations

  3. Magnetic switching of a single molecular magnet due to spin-polarized current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic switching of a single molecular magnet (SMM) due to spin-polarized current flowing between ferromagnetic metallic leads (electrodes) is investigated theoretically. Magnetic moments of the leads are assumed to be collinear and parallel to the magnetic easy axis of the molecule. Electrons tunneling through the barrier between magnetic leads are coupled to the SMM via exchange interaction. The current flowing through the system, as well as the spin relaxation times of the SMM, are calculated from the Fermi golden rule. It is shown that spin of the SMM can be reversed by applying a certain voltage between the two magnetic electrodes. Moreover, the switching may be visible in the corresponding current-voltage characteristics.

  4. Cold Attractive Spin Polarized Fermi Lattice Gases and the Doped Positive U Hubbard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreo, Adriana; Scalapino, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Experiments on polarized fermion gases performed by trapping ultracold atoms in optical lattices allow the study of an attractive Hubbard model for which the strength of the on-site interaction is tuned by means of a Feshbach resonance. Using a well-known particle-hole transformation we discuss how results obtained for this system can be reinterpreted in the context of a doped repulsive Hubbard model. In particular, we show that the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state corresponds to the striped state of the two-dimensional doped positive U Hubbard model. We then use the results of numerical studies of the striped state to relate the periodicity of the FFLO state to the spin polarization. We also comment on the relationship of the d x 2 -y 2 superconducting phase of the doped 2D repulsive Hubbard model to a d-wave spin density wave state for the attractive case

  5. Tuning the properties of an MgO layer for spin-polarized electron transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chong-Jun; Ding, Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Duo; Zhang, Peng; Cao, Xing-Zhong; Wang, Bao-Yi; Zhang, Jing-Yan; Yu, Guang-Hua

    2014-08-01

    The influence of substrate temperature and annealing on quality/microstructural evolution of MgO, as well as the resultant magnetoresistance (MR) ratio, has been investigated. It has been found that the crystallinity of MgO in the MgO/NiFe/MgO heterostructures gradually improves with increasing substrate temperature. This behavior facilitates the transport of spin-polarized electrons, resulting in a high MR value. After annealing, the formation of vacancy clusters in MgO layers observed through positron annihilation spectroscopy leads to an increase in MR at different levels because of the crystallinity improvement of MgO. However, these vacancy clusters as another important defect can limit further improvement in MR.

  6. Vacancy-induced ferromagnetism in ZnO probed by spin-polarized positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Masaki; Abe, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Atsumi; Sakai, Seiji; Yamamoto, Shunya; Kawasuso, Atsuo

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the ferromagnetism of ZnO induced by oxygen implantation by using spin-polarized positron annihilation spectroscopy together with magnetization measurements. The magnetization measurements showed the appearance of ferromagnetism after oxygen implantation and its disappearance during post-implantation annealing at temperatures above 573 K. The Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (DBAR) spectrum showed asymmetry upon field reversal after oxygen implantation. The obtained differential DBAR spectrum between positive and negative magnetic fields was well-explained with a theoretical calculation considering zinc vacancies. The disappearance of the field-reversal asymmetry of the DBAR spectrum as a result of annealing agreed with the observations of ferromagnetism by magnetization measurements. These results suggest the radiation-induced zinc vacancies to be the source of the observed ferromagnetism of ZnO.

  7. Spin-polarized transport through single-molecule magnet Mn6 complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Cremades, Eduard; Pemmaraju, C. D.; Sanvito, Stefano; Ruiz, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    The coherent transport properties of a device, constructed by sandwiching a Mn6 single-molecule magnet between two gold surfaces, are studied theoretically by using the non-equilibrium Green's function approach combined with density functional theory. Two spin states of such Mn6 complexes are explored, namely the ferromagnetically coupled configuration of the six MnIII cations, leading to the S = 12 ground state, and the low S = 4 spin state. For voltages up to 1 volt the S = 12 ground state shows a current one order of magnitude larger than that of the S = 4 state. Furthermore this is almost completely spin-polarized, since the Mn6 frontier molecular orbitals for S = 12 belong to the same spin manifold. As such the high-anisotropy Mn6 molecule appears as a promising candidate for implementing, at the single molecular level, both spin-switches and low-temperature spin-valves. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Spin polarization of a non-magnetic high g-factor semiconductor at low magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Back, J.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, S.U.; Joo, S.; Rhie, K.; Hong, J.; Shin, K.; Lee, B.C.; Kim, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the spin polarization of HgCdTe by measuring Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The magnetic field have been applied in parallel and perpendicular to the current. Relatively long spin relaxation time was observed since only spin conserved transition is allowed by selection rules. The electronic spin is completely polarized when the applied magnetic field is larger than 0.5 Tesla, which can be easily generated by micromagnets deposited on the surface of the specimen. Thus, the spin-manipulation such as spin up/down junction can be realized with this semiconductor. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Lateral-electric-field-induced spin polarization in a suspended GaAs quantum point contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhabov, D. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Shevyrin, A. A.; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    The conductance of a GaAs-based suspended quantum point contact (QPC) equipped with lateral side gates has been experimentally studied in the absence of the external magnetic field. The half-integer conductance plateau ( 0.5 ×2 e2/h ) has been observed when an asymmetric voltage between the side gates is applied. The appearance of this plateau has been attributed to the spin degeneracy lifting caused by the spin-orbit coupling associated with the lateral electric field in the asymmetrically biased QPC. We have experimentally demonstrated that, despite the relatively small g-factor in GaAs, the observation of the spin polarization in the GaAs-based QPC became possible after the suspension due to the enhancement of the electron-electron interaction and the effect of the electric field guiding. These features are caused by a partial confinement of the electric field lines within a suspended semiconductor layer with a high dielectric constant.

  10. Development, construction and characterization of a variable repetitive spin-polarized electron gun with an inverted-geometry insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espig, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Within the scope of this thesis a pulsed source of spin polarized electrons Photo-CATCH was designed, constructed, characterized and has been put into operation. This source is based on the photoemission of spin-polarized electrons from GaAs-photocathodes. Both the design of the electron gun, consisting of an ultra-high vacuum chamber and an electrode with Pierce geometry, as well as the properties of the electron beam have been simulated with CST Studio. Results were a maximum electric field of (0.064±0.001) MV/m/kV on the electrode surface and a beam emittance as a function of the radius of the laser spot on the photocathode of element of _n_,_x=(1.7478(4).10"-"4.(r)/(μm)+2.8(18).10"-"5) mm mrad at a beam current of 100 μA. Currently Photo-CATCH provides electron beams with an energy of 60 keV, which can be expanded up to 100 keV by upgrading the high-voltage power supply. The electron gun has an inverted-geometry insulator to ensure a compact design of the ultra-high vacuum chamber and a maximum person- and machine-safety from sparkovers. Since the properties of the laser light directly affect the properties of the generated electron beam a pulsed semiconductor laser system has been specially developed and built for Photo-CATCH. This is characterized by a high variability of its operating parameters, in particular its wavelength and repetition rate, in order to fulfill the broad variety of requirements of various nuclear physics experiments. By selecting the wavelength of the used laser diode highly polarized or high-current electron beams can be generated from GaAs-photocathodes. The time profile of the laser has direct influence to the longitudinal profile of the electron bunch. Through the radiofrequency modulation of the pumping current of the impedance-matched semiconductor laser system, consisting of a DC power source and an electrical pulse generator with 881 ps broad pump pulses, Lorentz shaped laser pulses with a minimum FWHM of (43.8±1.2) ps at a

  11. Magnetization switching and microwave oscillations in nanomagnets driven by spin-polarized currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, G.; Magni, A.; Serpico, C.; d'Aquino, M.; Mayergoyz, I. D.; Bonin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Considerable interest has been generated in recent years by the discovery that a current of spin-polarized electrons can apply appreciable torques to a nanoscale ferromagnet. This mechanism was theoretically predicted and subsequently confirmed by a number of experiments which have shown that spin transfer can indeed induce switching or microwave oscillations of the magnetization. Significant efforts have been devoted to the explanation of these results, in view of the new physics involved and of the possible applications to new types of current-controlled memory cells or microwave sources and resonators . However, the precise nature of magnetization dynamics when spin-polarized currents and external magnetic fields are simultaneously present has not yet been fully understood. The spin-transfer-driven nanomagnet is a nonlinear open system that is forced far from equilibrium by the injection of the current. Thus, the appropriate framework for the study of the problem is nonlinear dynamical system theory and bifurcation theory. In this talk, it is shown that within this framework the complexity and subtlety of spin-torque effects are fully revealed and quantified, once it is recognized that both intrinsic damping and spin transfer can be treated as perturbations of the free precessional dynamics typical of ferromagnetic resonance. Complete stability diagrams are derived for the case where spin torques and external magnetic fields are simultaneously present. Quantitative predictions are made for the critical currents and fields inducing magnetization switching; for the amplitude and frequency of magnetization self-oscillations; for the conditions leading to hysteretic transitions between self-oscillations and stationary states

  12. Theory of current-induced spin polarization in an electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Cosimo; Maleki Sheikhabadi, Amin; Shen, Ka; Tokatly, Ilya V.; Vignale, Giovanni; Raimondi, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    We derive the Bloch equations for the spin dynamics of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. For the latter we consider both the intrinsic mechanisms of structure inversion asymmetry (Rashba) and bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus), and the extrinsic ones arising from the scattering from impurities. The derivation is based on the SU(2) gauge-field formulation of the Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Our main result is the identification of a spin-generation torque arising from Elliot-Yafet scattering, which opposes a similar term arising from Dyakonov-Perel relaxation. Such a torque, which to the best of our knowledge has gone unnoticed so far, is of basic nature, i.e., should be effective whenever Elliott-Yafet processes are present in a system with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, irrespective of further specific details. The spin-generation torque contributes to the current-induced spin polarization (CISP), also known as inverse spin-galvanic or Edelstein effect. As a result, the behavior of the CISP turns out to be more complex than one would surmise from consideration of the internal Rashba-Dresselhaus fields alone. In particular, the symmetry of the current-induced spin polarization does not necessarily coincide with that of the internal Rashba-Dresselhaus field, and an out-of-plane component of the CISP is generally predicted, as observed in recent experiments. We also discuss the extension to the three-dimensional electron gas, which may be relevant for the interpretation of experiments in thin films.

  13. New insights into nano-magnetism by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sander, Dirk, E-mail: sander@mpi-halle.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Oka, Hirofumi; Corbetta, Marco; Stepanyuk, Valeri; Kirschner, Jürgen [Max-Planck-Institut für Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► We measure the magnetization reversal of individual nm small Co island by spin-STM. ► We identify an inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropy within a single Co island. ► The magnetic anisotropy near the rim is negligible as compared to 0.148 meV/atom at the island center. ► A crossover of the magnetization reversal from an exchange-spring behavior to domain wall formation is suggested. ► The impact of the observed spatial variation of the spin-dependent electronic properties on reversal is discussed. -- Abstract: We study the magnetization reversal and the position dependence of the spin-dependent electronic properties of nm small bilayer Co islands on Cu(1 1 1) by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy in magnetic fields at low temperatures of 8 K. The analysis of the energy barrier of magnetization reversal from measurements of the switching field suggests a crossover of the magnetization reversal mode with increasing island size around 7500 atoms from exchange-spring behavior to domain wall formation. The quantitative analysis of the island size dependence of the energy barrier indicates an inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropy of the island. The island rim is magnetically soft, whereas the center shows a pronounced effective anisotropy of 0.148 meV/atom. We speculate that this inhomogeneity of the magnetic anisotropy might be a consequence of the spatial dependence of the spin-dependent electronic properties. We measure a spin-polarization and a tunnel magneto resistance ratio of opposite sign at the rim as compared to the island center.

  14. New insights into nano-magnetism by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sander, Dirk; Oka, Hirofumi; Corbetta, Marco; Stepanyuk, Valeri; Kirschner, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measure the magnetization reversal of individual nm small Co island by spin-STM. ► We identify an inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropy within a single Co island. ► The magnetic anisotropy near the rim is negligible as compared to 0.148 meV/atom at the island center. ► A crossover of the magnetization reversal from an exchange-spring behavior to domain wall formation is suggested. ► The impact of the observed spatial variation of the spin-dependent electronic properties on reversal is discussed. -- Abstract: We study the magnetization reversal and the position dependence of the spin-dependent electronic properties of nm small bilayer Co islands on Cu(1 1 1) by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy in magnetic fields at low temperatures of 8 K. The analysis of the energy barrier of magnetization reversal from measurements of the switching field suggests a crossover of the magnetization reversal mode with increasing island size around 7500 atoms from exchange-spring behavior to domain wall formation. The quantitative analysis of the island size dependence of the energy barrier indicates an inhomogeneous magnetic anisotropy of the island. The island rim is magnetically soft, whereas the center shows a pronounced effective anisotropy of 0.148 meV/atom. We speculate that this inhomogeneity of the magnetic anisotropy might be a consequence of the spatial dependence of the spin-dependent electronic properties. We measure a spin-polarization and a tunnel magneto resistance ratio of opposite sign at the rim as compared to the island center

  15. Fermi wave vector for the partially spin-polarized composite-fermion Fermi sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Jain, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The fully spin-polarized composite-fermion (CF) Fermi sea at the half-filled lowest Landau level has a Fermi wave vector kF*=√{4 π ρe } , where ρe is the density of electrons or composite fermions, supporting the notion that the interaction between composite fermions can be treated perturbatively. Away from ν =1 /2 , the area is seen to be consistent with kF*=√{4 π ρe } for ν 1 /2 , where ρh is the density of holes in the lowest Landau level. This result is consistent with particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level. We investigate in this article the Fermi wave vector of the spin-singlet CF Fermi sea (CFFS) at ν =1 /2 , for which particle-hole symmetry is not a consideration. Using the microscopic CF theory, we find that for the spin-singlet CFFS the Fermi wave vectors for up- and down-spin CFFSs at ν =1 /2 are consistent with kF*↑,↓=√{4 π ρe↑,↓ } , where ρe↑=ρe↓=ρe/2 , which implies that the residual interactions between composite fermions do not cause a nonperturbative correction for spin-singlet CFFS either. Our results suggest the natural conjecture that for arbitrary spin polarization the CF Fermi wave vectors are given by kF*↑=√{4 π ρe↑ } and kF*↓=√{4 π ρe↓ } .

  16. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetization at the interfacesof highly spin-polarized manganite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-08-18

    We have probed the nature of magnetism at the surface of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. The spin polarization of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films is not intrinsically suppressed at all surfaces and interfaces but is highly sensitive to both the epitaxial strain state as well as the substrate orientation. Through the use of soft x-ray spectroscopy, the magnetic properties of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces have been investigated and compared to bulk magnetometry and resistivity measurements. The magnetization of (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces are more bulk-like as a function of thickness whereas the magnetization at the (001)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface is suppressed significantly below a layer thickness of 20 nm. Such findings are correlated with the biaxial strain state of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films; for a given film thickness it is the tetragonal distortion of (001) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} that severely impacts the magnetization, whereas the trigonal distortion for (111)-oriented films and monoclinic distortion for (110)-oriented films have less of an impact. These observations provide evidence that surface magnetization and thus spin polarization depends strongly on the crystal surface orientation as well as epitaxial strain.

  17. New directions in the theory of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelman, J.M.V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The three chapters of this thesis dealing with collisions between hydrogen (or deuterium) atoms in their ground state, each treat a different development in the theory of atomic hydrogen or deuterium gas. The decay due to interatomic collisions hindered till now all attempts to reach the low temperature, high-density regime where effects due to degeneracy are expected to show up. In ch. 2 a simple way out is presented for the case of Fermi gases: In spin-polarized Fermi systems at very low temperatures collisions are much effective than in Bose systems. For the Fermi gas, consisting of magnetically confined deuterium atoms, it appears that fast spin-exchange collisions automatically lead to a completely spin-polarized gas for which the spin-relaxation limited lifetime increases dramatically with decreasing temperature. As also the ratio of internal thermalization rate over decay rate increases with decreasing temperature, this gas can be cooled by forced evaporation down to very low temperatures. In ch. 3 it iis shown that the nuclear spin dynamics due to the hyperfine interaction during collisions, strongly limits the improvement in frequency stability attainable by H masers operating at low temperatures. In ch. 4 the phenomenon of spin waves is studied. It is shown that, despite the fact that interactions between two atoms are nuclear-spin independent, the outcome of a scattering event does not depend on the nuclear spins involved due to the particle indistinguishability effects at low collision energies. This effect gives rise to quantum phenomena on a macroscopic scale via the occurrence of spin waves. (author). 185 refs.; 34 figs

  18. High power millimeter-wave free electron laser based on recirculating electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Sun-Kook; Jeong, Young-Uk; Cho, Sung-Oh; Lee, Jongmin

    1995-01-01

    Progress in the development of a high power, millimeter-wave free electron laser driven by a recirculating electrostatic accelerator is reported. The energy and the current of electron beam are 430 keV and 2 A, respectively. The expected average output power is above 10 kW at the wavelength of 3-10 mm. Minimizing of the beam loss is a key issue for CW operation of the FEL with high efficiency. (author)

  19. Present status of storage ring free electron laser experiment at ETL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Nakamura, T.; Tomimasu, T.; Sugiyama, S.; Noguchi, T.

    1988-01-01

    Outline is described of the present status of the ETL storage-ring free electron laser project. The structure and the performance of the ETL-type transverse optical klystron are given. A modification of the dispersive section has decreased the degradation of the shape of the spontaneous-emission spectrum due to energy spread of the electron beam. Relevant parameters of the stored beam are presented. Measurement of the optical-cavity loss is under way. (author)

  20. Ultrafast magnetodynamics with free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvestuto, Marco; Ciprian, Roberta; Caretta, Antonio; Casarin, Barbara; Parmigiani, Fulvio

    2018-02-01

    The study of ultrafast magnetodynamics has entered a new era thanks to the groundbreaking technological advances in free-electron laser (FEL) light sources. The advent of these light sources has made possible unprecedented experimental schemes for time-resolved x-ray magneto-optic spectroscopies, which are now paving the road for exploring the ultimate limits of out-of-equilibrium magnetic phenomena. In particular, these studies will provide insights into elementary mechanisms governing spin and orbital dynamics, therefore contributing to the development of ultrafast devices for relevant magnetic technologies. This topical review focuses on recent advancement in the study of non-equilibrium magnetic phenomena from the perspective of time-resolved extreme ultra violet (EUV) and soft x-ray spectroscopies at FELs with highlights of some important experimental results.

  1. Free-electron lasers in ultraviolet photobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coohill, T.P.; Sutherland, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The potential uses for a free-electron laser (FEL), tunable in wavelength from 10 to 400 nm, for photobiological experiments is discussed. Inherent problems of cell and molecular absorption, especially in certain regions of the ultraviolet (UV), are addressed. Absorption values for living cells and viruses at selected wavelengths in the UV are tabulated, and a calculation of the flux needed to inactivate mammalian cells is included. A comparison is made of the UV output of a proposed rf-linac FEL with those of a monochromator, a tunable dye laser, and a synchrotron. The advantages of a UV FEL are apparent, especially in the wavelength regions where the cross section for absorption by biological molecules is low, i.e., 300 to 400 nm and 10 to 200 nm. It is apparent that a UV FEL would be an ideal source for a variety of biological studies that use both intact organisms and isolated cells and viruses

  2. Free electron laser and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Nguyen, Federico

    2018-03-01

    This review paper is devoted to the understanding of free-electron lasers (FEL) as devices for fundamental physics (FP) studies. After clarifying what FP stands for, we select some aspects of the FEL physics which can be viewed as fundamental. Furthermore, we discuss the perspective uses of the FEL in FP experiments. Regarding the FP aspects of the FEL, we analyze the quantum electrodynamics (QED) nature of the underlying laser mechanism. We look for the truly quantum signature in a process whose phenomenology is dominated by classical effects. As to the use of FEL as a tool for FP experiments we discuss the realization of a device dedicated to the study of non-linear effects in QED such as photon-photon scattering and shining-through-the-wall experiments planned to search for dark matter candidates like axions.

  3. Extreme-Ultraviolet Vortices from a Free-Electron Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Rebernik Ribič

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extreme-ultraviolet vortices may be exploited to steer the magnetic properties of nanoparticles, increase the resolution in microscopy, and gain insight into local symmetry and chirality of a material; they might even be used to increase the bandwidth in long-distance space communications. However, in contrast to the generation of vortex beams in the infrared and visible spectral regions, production of intense, extreme-ultraviolet and x-ray optical vortices still remains a challenge. Here, we present an in-situ and an ex-situ technique for generating intense, femtosecond, coherent optical vortices at a free-electron laser in the extreme ultraviolet. The first method takes advantage of nonlinear harmonic generation in a helical undulator, producing vortex beams at the second harmonic without the need for additional optical elements, while the latter one relies on the use of a spiral zone plate to generate a focused, micron-size optical vortex with a peak intensity approaching 10^{14}  W/cm^{2}, paving the way to nonlinear optical experiments with vortex beams at short wavelengths.

  4. Gain of a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Andrews

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available A formula is derived for the small-signal gain of a Smith-Purcell free-electron laser. The theory describes the electron beam as a moving plasma dielectric, and assumes that the electron beam interacts with an evanescent mode traveling along the surface of a periodic waveguide with a rectangular profile. The phase velocity of the evanescent wave is synchronous with the electron velocity, but the group velocity is actually negative. The electron beam amplifies the evanescent wave, which does not itself radiate. According to this picture, the radiation observed emanating from the grating is Smith-Purcell radiation enhanced by the bunching of the electrons due to the interaction with the evanescent mode. There will also be radiation from the part of the evanescent mode that is outcoupled from the ends of the grating. This radiation appears at a lower frequency than the Smith-Purcell radiation. The new results explain both the gain and the radiation observed in the experiments of Urata and Walsh, and the cube-root current dependence of the gain inferred by Bakhtyari, Walsh, and Brownell.

  5. Vectorial mapping of noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure of semiconducting FeSe surface with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Xiaole [Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Xianfeng [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L., E-mail: clgao@sjtu.edu.cn; Jia, Jin-Feng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing (China); Luo, Weidong, E-mail: wdluo@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing (China)

    2016-02-08

    Antiferromagnetic semiconductors gain increasing interest due to their possible application in spintronics. Using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy operating in a vector field, we mapped the noncollinear antiferromagnetic spin structure of a semiconducting hexagonal FeSe surface on the atomic scale. The surface possesses an in-plane compensated Néel structure which is further confirmed by first-principles calculations.

  6. Another way of looking at bonding on bimetallic surfaces: the role of spin polarization of surface metal d states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escano, M C; Nguyen, T Q; Nakanishi, H; Kasai, H

    2009-01-01

    The nature of electronic and chemical properties of an unstrained Pt monolayer on a 3d transition metal substrate, M (M = Cr, Mn, Fe), is studied using spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. High spin polarization of Pt d states is noted, verifying the magnetization induced on Pt, which is observed to be responsible for redirecting the analysis of bond formation on a metal surface towards a different perspective. While the shift in the Pt d band center (the average energy of the Pt d band, commonly used to predict the reactivity of surfaces) does give the expected trend in adsorbate (oxygen) chemisorption energy across the bimetallic surfaces in this work, our results show that for spin-polarized Pt d states, the variation in strength of adsorption with respect to the Fermi level density of states is more predictive of Pt chemisorption properties. Hence, this study introduces a scheme for analyzing trends in reactivity of bimetallic surfaces where adsorption energies are used as reactivity parameters and where spin polarization effects cannot be neglected. (fast track communication)

  7. Vectorial mapping of noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure of semiconducting FeSe surface with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R.; Zhang, Xiaole; Chen, Xianfeng; Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L.; Jia, Jin-Feng; Luo, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic semiconductors gain increasing interest due to their possible application in spintronics. Using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy operating in a vector field, we mapped the noncollinear antiferromagnetic spin structure of a semiconducting hexagonal FeSe surface on the atomic scale. The surface possesses an in-plane compensated Néel structure which is further confirmed by first-principles calculations

  8. Quasi 2D electronic states with high spin-polarization in centrosymmetric MoS2 bulk crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlmann, Mathias; Aguilera, Irene; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Młyńczak, Ewa; Eschbach, Markus; Döring, Sven; Gospodarič, Pika; Cramm, Stefan; Kardynał, Beata; Plucinski, Lukasz; Blügel, Stefan; Schneider, Claus M.

    2016-06-01

    Time reversal dictates that nonmagnetic, centrosymmetric crystals cannot be spin-polarized as a whole. However, it has been recently shown that the electronic structure in these crystals can in fact show regions of high spin-polarization, as long as it is probed locally in real and in reciprocal space. In this article we present the first observation of this type of compensated polarization in MoS2 bulk crystals. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we directly observed a spin-polarization of more than 65% for distinct valleys in the electronic band structure. By additionally evaluating the probing depth of our method, we find that these valence band states at the point in the Brillouin zone are close to fully polarized for the individual atomic trilayers of MoS2, which is confirmed by our density functional theory calculations. Furthermore, we show that this spin-layer locking leads to the observation of highly spin-polarized bands in ARPES since these states are almost completely confined within two dimensions. Our findings prove that these highly desired properties of MoS2 can be accessed without thinning it down to the monolayer limit.

  9. Direct measurement of the pulse duration and frequency chirp of seeded XUV free electron laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azima, Armin; Bödewadt, Jörn; Becker, Oliver; Düsterer, Stefan; Ekanayake, Nagitha; Ivanov, Rosen; Kazemi, Mehdi M.; Lamberto Lazzarino, Leslie; Lechner, Christoph; Maltezopoulos, Theophilos; Manschwetus, Bastian; Miltchev, Velizar; Müller, Jost; Plath, Tim; Przystawik, Andreas; Wieland, Marek; Assmann, Ralph; Hartl, Ingmar; Laarmann, Tim; Rossbach, Jörg; Wurth, Wilfried; Drescher, Markus

    2018-01-01

    We report on a direct time-domain measurement of the temporal properties of a seeded free-electron laser pulse in the extreme ultraviolet spectral range. Utilizing the oscillating electromagnetic field of terahertz radiation, a single-shot THz streak-camera was applied for measuring the duration as well as spectral phase of the generated intense XUV pulses. The experiment was conducted at FLASH, the free electron laser user facility at DESY in Hamburg, Germany. In contrast to indirect methods, this approach directly resolves and visualizes the frequency chirp of a seeded free-electron laser (FEL) pulse. The reported diagnostic capability is a prerequisite to tailor amplitude, phase and frequency distributions of FEL beams on demand. In particular, it opens up a new window of opportunities for advanced coherent spectroscopic studies making use of the high degree of temporal coherence expected from a seeded FEL pulse.

  10. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread

  11. Radiation safety aspects of new X-ray free electron laser facility, SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the safety point of view, X-ray free electron laser facilities have some characteristics in comparison with 3 rd generation synchrotron radiation facilities. One is that the high energy electrons are always injected into the beam dump and the beamlines must be constructed in the direction of the movements of electrons, and another is that the total number of accelerated electrons of X-ray free electron laser facilities is much larger than that of synchrotron radiation facilities. In addition to the importance of safety interlock systems, therefore, it is important that high energy electrons never invade into X-ray free electron laser beamlines and the amount of accelerated electron beam losses must be reduced as much as possible. At SACLA, a safety permanent magnet was installed into the X-ray light beam axis, and a beam halo monitor and beam loss monitors were installed within and around the electron transport pipes, respectively. In comparison with the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility, shielding design of SACLA, outline of the radiation safety systems including the monitors will be presented

  12. Modeling and multidimensional optimization of a tapered free electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jiao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy extraction efficiency of a free electron laser (FEL can be greatly increased using a tapered undulator and self-seeding. However, the extraction rate is limited by various effects that eventually lead to saturation of the peak intensity and power. To better understand these effects, we develop a model extending the Kroll-Morton-Rosenbluth, one-dimensional theory to include the physics of diffraction, optical guiding, and radially resolved particle trapping. The predictions of the model agree well with that of the GENESIS single-frequency numerical simulations. In particular, we discuss the evolution of the electron-radiation interaction along the tapered undulator and show that the decreasing of refractive guiding is the major cause of the efficiency reduction, particle detrapping, and then saturation of the radiation power. With this understanding, we develop a multidimensional optimization scheme based on GENESIS simulations to increase the energy extraction efficiency via an improved taper profile and variation in electron beam radius. We present optimization results for hard x-ray tapered FELs, and the dependence of the maximum extractable radiation power on various parameters of the initial electron beam, radiation field, and the undulator system. We also study the effect of the sideband growth in a tapered FEL. Such growth induces increased particle detrapping and thus decreased refractive guiding that together strongly limit the overall energy extraction efficiency.

  13. First microwave generation in the FOM free-electron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, A.G.A.; Bongers, W.A.; Geer, C.A.J. van der; Manintveld, P.; Poelman, A.J.; Pluygers, J.; Smeets, P.H.M.; Sterk, A.B.; Urbanus, W.H.; Bratman, V.L.; Denisov, G.G.; Shmelyov, M.Yu.; Caplan, M.

    1998-01-01

    A free-electron maser (FEM) has been built as a pilot experiment for a millimetre-wave source for applications on future fusion research devices such as ITER, the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor. A unique feature of the Dutch fusion FEM is the possibility to tune the frequency over the entire range from 130 to 260 GHz at an output power exceeding 1 MW. In the first phase of the project, the so-called inverse set-up is used. The electron gun is mounted inside the high-voltage terminal. The entire beam line was tested successfully with extremely low loss current, lower than 0.05%. The first generation of millimetre waves was achieved in October 1997. The highest peak power measured so far is 700 kW at 200 GHz. This was achieved with a beam current of 8 A and an acceleration voltage of 1.77 MV. The output power, start-up time and frequency correspond well with the simulation results. The parameter scans for the longitudinal undulator gap, acceleration voltage and reflection coefficient have given a wide range of interesting data of which a few highlights are given. (author)

  14. Workshop on scientific and industrial applications of free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.; Perez, R.B.

    1990-05-01

    A Workshop on Scientific and Industrial Applications of Free Electron Lasers was organized to address potential uses of a Free Electron Laser in the infrared wavelength region. A total of 13 speakers from national laboratories, universities, and the industry gave seminars to an average audience of 30 persons during June 12 and 13, 1989. The areas covered were: Free Electron Laser Technology, Chemistry and Surface Science, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Condensed Matter, and Biomedical Applications, Optical Damage, and Optoelectronics

  15. Onset of Spin Polarization in Four-Gate Quantum Point Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex

    A series of simulations which utilize a Non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism is suggested which can provide indirect evidence of the fine and non-local electrostatic tuning of the onset of spin polarization in two closely spaced quantum point contacts (QPCs) that experience a phenomenon known as lateral spin-orbit coupling (LSOC). Each of the QPCs that create the device also has its own pair of side gates (SGs) which are in-plane with the device channel. Numerical simulations of the conductance of the two closely spaced QPCs or four-gate QPC are carried out for different biasing conditions applied to two leftmost and rightmost SGs. Conductance plots are then calculated as a function of the variable, Vsweep, which is the common sweep voltage applied to the QPC. When Vsweep is only applied to two of the four side gates, the plots show several conductance anomalies, i.e., below G0 = 2e2/h, characterized by intrinsic bistability, i.e., hysteresis loops due to a difference in the conductance curves for forward and reverse common voltage sweep simulations. The appearance of hysteresis loops is attributed to the co-existence of multistable spin textures in the narrow channel of the four-gate QPC. The shape, location, and number of hysteresis loops are very sensitive to the biasing conditions on the four SGs. The shape and size of the conductance anomalies and hysteresis loops are shown to change when the biasing conditions on the leftmost and rightmost SGs are swapped, a rectifying behavior providing an additional indirect evidence for the onset of spontaneous spin polarization in nanoscale devices made of QPCs. The results of the simulations reveal that the occurrence and fine tuning of conductance anomalies in QPC structures are highly sensitive to the non-local action of closely spaced SGs. It is therefore imperative to take into account this proximity effect in the design of all electrical spin valves making use of middle gates to fine tune the spin

  16. Composition controlled spin polarization in Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, C [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota (United States); Manno, M [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota (United States); Cady, A [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Freeland, J W [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Wang, L [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota (United States); Umemoto, K [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota (United States); Wentzcovitch, R M [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota (United States); Chen, T Y [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University (United States); Chien, C L [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University (United States); Kuhns, P L [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University (United States); Hoch, M J R [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University (United States); Reyes, A P [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University (United States); Moulton, W G [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University (United States); Dahlberg, E D [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota (United States); Checkelsky, J [Physics Department, Harvey Mudd College (United States); Eckert, J [Physics Department, Harvey Mudd College (United States)

    2007-08-08

    The transition metal (TM) chalcogenides of the form TMX{sub 2} (X = S or Se) have been studied for decades due to their interesting electronic and magnetic properties such as metamagnetism and metal-insulator transitions. In particular, the Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2} alloys were the subject of investigation in the 1970s due to general interest in itinerant ferromagnetism. In recent years (2000-present) it has been shown, both by electronic structure calculations and detailed experimental investigations, that Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2} is a model system for the investigation of highly spin polarized ferromagnetism. The radically different electronic properties of the two endpoint compounds (CoS{sub 2} is a narrow bandwidth ferromagnetic metal, while FeS{sub 2} is a diamagnetic semiconductor), in a system forming a substitutional solid solution allows for composition control of the Fermi level relative to the spin split bands, and therefore composition-controlled conduction electron spin polarization. In essence, the recent work has shown that the concept of 'band engineering' can be applied to half-metallic ferromagnets and that high spin polarization can be deliberately engineered. Experiments reveal tunability in both sign and magnitude of the spin polarization at the Fermi level, with maximum values obtained to date of 85% at low temperatures. In this paper we review the properties of Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2} alloys, with an emphasis on properties of relevance to half-metallicity. Crystal structure, electronic structure, synthesis, magnetic properties, transport properties, direct probes of the spin polarization, and measurements of the total density of states at the Fermi level are all discussed. We conclude with a discussion of the factors that influence, or even limit, the spin polarization, along with a discussion of opportunities and problems for future investigation, particularly with regard to fundamental studies of spintronic devices.

  17. Nonlinear optics with coherent free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenga, F.; Capotondi, F.; Mincigrucci, R.; Cucini, R.; Manfredda, M.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Simoncig, A.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2016-12-01

    We interpreted the recent construction of free electron laser (FELs) facilities worldwide as an unprecedented opportunity to bring concepts and methods from the scientific community working with optical lasers into the domain of x-ray science. This motivated our efforts towards the realization of FEL-based wave-mixing applications. In this article we present new extreme ultraviolet transient grating (X-TG) data from vitreous SiO2, collected using two crossed FEL pulses (photon frequency 38 eV) to generate the X-TG and a phase matched optical probing pulse (photon frequency 3.1 eV). This experiment extends our previous investigation, which was carried out on a nominally identical sample using a different FEL photon frequency (45 eV) to excite the X-TG. The present data are featured by a peak intensity of the X-TG signal substantially larger than that previously reported and by slower modulations of the X-TG signal at positive delays. These differences could be ascribed to the different FEL photon energy used in the two experiments or to differences in the sample properties. A systematic X-TG study on the same sample as a function of the FEL wavelength is needed to draw a consistent conclusion. We also discuss how the advances in the performance of the FELs, in terms of generation of fully coherent photon pulses and multi-color FEL emission, may push the development of original experimental strategies to study matter at the femtosecond-nanometer time-length scales, with the unique option of element and chemical state specificity. This would allow the development of advanced experimental tools based on wave-mixing processes, which may have a tremendous impact in the study of a large array of phenomena, ranging from nano-dynamics in complex materials to charge and energy transfer processes.

  18. Role of temperature on static correlational properties in a spin-polarized electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Priya; Moudgil, R. K., E-mail: rkmoudgil@kuk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra – 136 119 (India); Kumar, Krishan [S. D. College (Lahore), Ambala Cantt. - 133001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the effect of temperature on the static correlational properties of a spin-polarized three-dimensional electron gas (3DEG) over a wide coupling and temperature regime. This problem has been very recently studied by Brown et al. using the restricted path-integral Monte Carlo (RPIMC) technique in the warm-dense regime. To this endeavor, we have used the finite temperature version of the dynamical mean-field theory of Singwi et al, the so-called quantum STLS (qSTLS) approach. The static density structure factor and the static pair-correlation function are calculated, and compared with the RPIMC simulation data. We find an excellent agreement with the simulation at high temperature over a wide coupling range. However, the agreement is seen to somewhat deteriorate with decreasing temperature. The pair-correlation function is found to become small negative for small electron separation. This may be attributed to the inadequacy of the mean-field theory in dealing with the like spin electron correlations in the strong-coupling domain. A nice agreement with RPIMC data at high temperature seems to arise due to weakening of both the exchange and coulomb correlations with rising temperature.

  19. Origin and enhancement of spin polarized current in diluted magnetic oxides by oxygen vacancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Hsiung, E-mail: hchou@mail.nsysu.edu.tw; Yang, Kung-Shang; Tsao, Yao-Chung; Dwivedi, G. D.; Lin, Cheng-Pang [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lienhai Road, Gushan District, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Sun, Shih-Jye [Department of Applied Physics, National Kaohsiung University, 700, Gaoxiongdaxue Rd., Nanzi District, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan (China); Lin, L. K.; Lee, S. F. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-04

    Spin polarized current (SPC) is a crucial characteristic of diluted magnetic oxides due to the potential application of oxides in spintronic devices. However, most research has been focused on ferromagnetic properties rather than polarization of electric current, because direct measurements are difficult and the origin of SPC has yet to be fully understood. The method to increase the SPC percentage is beyond practical consideration at present. To address this problem, we focus on the role of oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) on SPC, which are controlled by growing the Co-doped ZnO thin-films at room temperature in a reducing atmosphere [Ar + (1%–30%)H{sub 2}]. We found that the conductivity increases with an increase of V{sub O} via two independent channels: the variable range hopping (VRH) within localized states and the itinerant transport in the conduction band. The point contact Andreev reflection measurements at 4.2 K, where the electric conduction is governed only by the VRH mechanism, prove that the current flowing in the VRH hopping channel is SPC. The percentage of SPC increases with the introduction of V{sub O} and increase in its concentration. The transport measurement shows that by manipulating V{sub O}, one can control the percentage of VRH hopping conduction such that it can even dominate room temperature conduction. The highest achieved SPC ratio at room temperature was 80%.

  20. Non-Dirac Chern insulators with large band gaps and spin-polarized edge states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y; Zhang, J Y; Zhao, B; Wei, X Y; Yang, Z Q

    2018-05-10

    Based on first-principles calculations and k·p models, we demonstrate that PbC/MnSe heterostructures are a non-Dirac type of Chern insulator with very large band gaps (244 meV) and exotically half-metallic edge states, providing the possibilities of realizing very robust, completely spin polarized, and dissipationless spintronic devices from the heterostructures. The achieved extraordinarily large nontrivial band gap can be ascribed to the contribution of the non-Dirac type electrons (composed of px and py) and the very strong atomic spin-orbit coupling (SOC) interaction of the heavy Pb element in the system. Surprisingly, the band structures are found to be sensitive to the different exchange and correlation functionals adopted in the first-principles calculations. Chern insulators with various mechanisms are acquired from them. These discoveries show that the predicted nontrivial topology in PbC/MnSe heterostructures is robust and can be observed in experiments at high temperatures. The system has great potential to have attractive applications in future spintronics.

  1. Effect of the anisotropy of the electron g-factor in spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Gray, E. MacA. [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Spin polarization in the presence of an external magnetic field and electric bias in quantum confined semiconductor structures has been studied by time- and polarization-resolved spectrometry. From measurements with angular variations of the magnetic field from the Voigt configuration (VC) it was found that both the frequency ({Omega}) and decay rate ({beta}) of the oscillatory component of the polarization increase with variation of the angle from the VC. Their dependences are discussed based on the electron spin dephasing related to the spread of the electron g-factor (g{sub e}) (i.e. unequal values of the longitudinal (g{sub e||}) and transverse (g{sub e}-perpendicular) components of g{sub e}) and the exchange interaction between the electron and hole spins. It is demonstrated that the increase in {Omega} upon deviation of the magnetic field from the VC relates to the anisotropy of g{sub e} (g{sub e||} and g{sub e}-perpendicular) resulting from the quantum confinement effect. However, the angular dependence on {beta} is related to the residual exchange interaction between the electron spin and rapidly relaxing hole spin.

  2. Muonium spin exchange in spin-polarized media: Spin-flip and -nonflip collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, M.

    1994-01-01

    The transverse relaxation of the muon spin in muonium due to electron spin exchange with a polarized spin-1/2 medium is investigated. Stochastic calculations, which assume that spin exchange is a Poisson process, are carried out for the case where the electron spin polarization of the medium is on the same axis as the applied field. Two precession signals of muonium observed in intermediate fields (B>30 G) are shown to have different relaxation rates which depend on the polarization of the medium. Furthermore, the precession frequencies are shifted by an amount which depends on the spin-nonflip rate. From the two relaxation rates and the frequency shift in intermediate fields, one can determine (i) the encounter rate of muonium and the paramagnetic species, (ii) the polarization of the medium, and most importantly (iii) the quantum-mechanical phase shift (and its sign) associated with the potential energy difference between electron singlet and triplet encounters. Effects of spin-nonflip collisions on spin dynamics are discussed for non-Poisson as well as Poisson processes. In unpolarized media, the time evolution of the muon spin in muonium is not influenced by spin-nonflip collisions, if the collision process is Poissonian. This seemingly obvious statement is not true anymore in non-Poissonian processes, i.e., it is necessary to specify both spin-flip and spin-nonflip rates to fully characterize spin dynamics

  3. h-BN/graphene van der Waals vertical heterostructure: a fully spin-polarized photocurrent generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xixi; Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaohong; Hao, Hua; Wang, Xianlong; Song, Lingling; Zeng, Zhi; Guo, Hong

    2017-12-21

    By constructing transport junctions using graphene-based van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures in which a zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon (ZGNR) is sandwiched between two hexagonal boron-nitride sheets, we computationally demonstrate a new scheme for generating perfect spin-polarized quantum transport in ZGNRs by light irradiation. The mechanism lies in the lift of spin degeneracy of ZGNR induced by the stagger potential it receives from the BN sheets and the subsequent possibility of single spin excitation of electrons from the valence band to the conduction band by properly tuning the photon energy. This scheme is rather robust in that we always achieve desirable results irrespective of whether we decrease or increase the interlayer distance by applying compressive or tensile strain vertically to the sheets or shift the BN sheets in-plane relative to the graphene nanoribbons. More importantly, this scheme overcomes the long-standing difficulties in traditional ways of using solely electrical field or chemical modification for obtaining half-metallic transport in ZGNRs and thus paves a more feasible way for their application in spintronics.

  4. Calculation of nuclear-spin-relaxation rate for spin-polarized atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, R.M.C.; Eijnde, J.P.H.W.V.; Verhaar, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    Approximations introduced in previous calculations of spin relaxation for spin-polarized atomic hydrogen are investigated by carrying out a more exact coupled-channel calculation. With the exception of the high-temperature approximation, the approximations turn out to be justified up to the 10 -3 level of accuracy. It is shown that at the lowest temperatures for which experimental data are available, the high-temperature limit underestimates relaxation rates by a factor of up to 2. For a comparison with experimental data it is also of interest to pay attention to the expression for the atomic hydrogen relaxation rates in terms of transition amplitudes for two-particle collisions. Discrepancies by a factor of 2 among previous derivations of relaxation rates are pointed out. To shed light on these discrepancies we present two alternative derivations in which special attention is paid to identical-particle aspects. Comparing with experiment, we find our theoretical volume relaxation rate to be in better agreement with measured values than that obtained by other groups. The theoretical surface relaxation rate, however, still shows a discrepancy with experiment by a factor of order 50

  5. Laser-driven source of spin-polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, M.

    1995-01-01

    A laser-driven source of spin-polarized hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) that relies on the technique of optical pumping spin exchange has been constructed. In this source, H or D atoms and potassium atoms flow continuously through a drifilm-coated spin-exchange cell where potassium atoms are optically pumped with circularly-polarized laser light in a high magnetic field. The H or D atoms become polarized through spin-exchange collisions with polarized potassium atoms. High electron polarization (∼80%) has been measured for H and D atoms at flow rates ∼2x10 17 atoms/s. Lower polarization values are measured for flow rates exceeding 1x10 18 atoms/s. In this paper, we describe the performance of the laser-driven source as a function of H and D atomic flow rate, magnetic field strength, alkali density and pump-laser power. Polarization measurements as a function of flow rate and magnetic field suggest that, despite a high magnetic field, atoms within the optical-pumping spin-exchange apparatus evolve to spin-temperature equilibrium which results in direct polarization of the H and D nuclei. (orig.)

  6. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy study of chromium on a Cr(001) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoute, J; Kawahara, S L; Chacon, C; Repain, V; Girard, Y; Rousset, S

    2011-02-02

    Several tens of chromium layers were deposited at 250 °C on a Cr(001) surface and investigated by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Chromium is found to grow with a mound-like morphology resulting from the stacking of several monolayers which do not uniformly cover the whole surface of the substrate. The terminal plane consists of an irregular array of Cr islands with lateral sizes smaller than 20 × 20 nm(2). Combined AES and STS measurements reveal the presence of a significant amount of segregants prior to and after deposition. A detailed investigation of the surface shows that it consists of two types of patches. Thanks to STS measurements, the two types of area have been identified as being either chromium pure or segregant rich. SP-STM experiments have evidenced that the antiferromagnetic layer coupling remains in the chromium mounds after deposition and is not significantly affected by the presence of the segregants.

  7. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy with quantitative insights into magnetic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phark, Soo-Hyon; Sander, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (spin-STM/S) have been successfully applied to magnetic characterizations of individual nanostructures. Spin-STM/S is often performed in magnetic fields of up to some Tesla, which may strongly influence the tip state. In spite of the pivotal role of the tip in spin-STM/S, the contribution of the tip to the differential conductance d I /d V signal in an external field has rarely been investigated in detail. In this review, an advanced analysis of spin-STM/S data measured on magnetic nanoislands, which relies on a quantitative magnetic characterization of tips, is discussed. Taking advantage of the uniaxial out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of Co bilayer nanoisland on Cu(111), in-field spin-STM on this system has enabled a quantitative determination, and thereby, a categorization of the magnetic states of the tips. The resulting in-depth and conclusive analysis of magnetic characterization of the tip opens new venues for a clear-cut sub-nanometer scale spin ordering and spin-dependent electronic structure of the non-collinear magnetic state in bilayer high Fe nanoislands on Cu(111).

  8. Spin-polarized transport through single-molecule magnet Mn6 complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Cremades, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    The coherent transport properties of a device, constructed by sandwiching a Mn6 single-molecule magnet between two gold surfaces, are studied theoretically by using the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function approach combined with density functional theory. Two spin states of such Mn6 complexes are explored, namely the ferromagnetically coupled configuration of the six MnIII cations, leading to the S = 12 ground state, and the low S = 4 spin state. For voltages up to 1 volt the S = 12 ground state shows a current one order of magnitude larger than that of the S = 4 state. Furthermore this is almost completely spin-polarized, since the Mn6 frontier molecular orbitals for S = 12 belong to the same spin manifold. As such the high-anisotropy Mn6 molecule appears as a promising candidate for implementing, at the single molecular level, both spin-switches and low-temperature spin-valves. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Potential spin-polarized transport in gold-doped armchair graphene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Pankaj, E-mail: pankajs@iiitm.ac.in [Nanomaterials Research Group, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (IIITM), Gwalior 474015, MP (India); Dhar, Subhra [Nanomaterials Research Group, ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (IIITM), Gwalior 474015, MP (India); Jaiswal, Neeraj K. [Discipline of Physics, PDPM-Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing (IIITDM), Jabalpur 482005 (India)

    2015-04-17

    Based on NEGF-DFT computations, systematic investigation of electronic, magnetic and transport properties of AGNRs are done by employing Au through different doping mechanisms. Remarkable Au–AGNR bonding is observed in case of substitution due to the presence of impurity at the edges. Both substitution and adsorption of Au on AGNR surface induce significant changes in the electronic spin transport of the sp{sup 2} hybridized carbon sheets. AGNRs are semiconducting with lower total energy for the FM configuration, and the I–V characteristics reveal semiconductor to metal transition of Au-doped AGNR. The spin injection is voltage controlled in all the investigated Au-doped AGNRs. - Highlights: • Edge Au-substitution promotes semiconductor–metal transition in AGNR. • NDR due to bias-dependent transmission in Au-substituted AGNRs. • Voltage controlled spin injection in all investigated Au-doped AGNRs. • Strong spin polarization occurs at 0.5 V in Au-hole adsorbed AGNRs.

  10. Spontaneous spin polarization and charge localization in metal nanowires: the role of a geometric constriction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes-Huerto, R; Ballone, P [Atomistic Simulation Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-28

    An idealized jellium model of conducting nanowires with a geometric constriction is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) in the local spin density (LSD) approximation. The results reveal a fascinating variety of spin and charge patterns arising in wires of sufficiently low (r{sub s} {>=} 15) average electron density, pinned at the indentation by an apparent attractive interaction with the constriction. The spin-resolved frequency-dependent conductivity shows a marked asymmetry in the two spin channels, reflecting the spontaneous spin polarization around the wire neck. The relevance of the computational results is discussed in relation to the so-called 0.7 anomaly found by experiments in the low-frequency conductivity of nanowires at near-breaking conditions (see 2008 J. Phys.: Condens Matter 20, special issue on the 0.7 anomaly). Although our mean-field approach cannot account for the intrinsic many-body effects underlying the 0.7 anomaly, it still provides a diagnostic tool to predict impending transitions in the electronic structure.

  11. Self-consistent electronic structure of spin-polarized dilute magnetic semiconductor quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. P.; Yi, K. S.; Quinn, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    The electronic properties of spin-symmetry-broken dilute magnetic semiconductor quantum wells are investigated self-consistently at zero temperature. The spin-split subband structure and carrier concentration of modulation-doped quantum wells are examined in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The effects of exchange and correlations of electrons are included in a local-spin-density-functional approximation. We demonstrate that exchange correlation of electrons decreases the spin-split subband energy but enhances the carrier density in a spin-polarized quantum well. We also observe that as the magnetic field increases, the concentration of spin-down (majority) electrons increases but that of spin-up (minority) electrons decreases. The effect of orbital quantization on the in-plane motion of electrons is also examined and shows a sawtoothlike variation in subband electron concentrations as the magnetic-field intensity increases. The latter variation is attributed to the presence of ionized donors acting as the electron reservoir, which is partially responsible for the formation of the integer quantum Hall plateaus. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  12. Self-sustained spin-polarized current oscillations in multiquantum well structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo, Ramon [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Carretero, Manuel; Bonilla, Luis L [G. Millan Institute, Fluid Dynamics, Nanoscience and Industrial Mathematics, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Platero, Gloria [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Cantoblanco (Spain)], E-mail: escobedo@unican.es, E-mail: manuel.carretero@uc3m.es, E-mail: bonilla@ing.uc3m.es, E-mail: gplatero@icmm.csic.es

    2009-01-15

    Nonlinear transport through diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures is investigated. We have considered a II-VI multiquantum well nanostructure whose wells are selectively doped with Mn. The response to a dc voltage bias may be either a stationary or an oscillatory current. We have studied the transition from stationary to time-dependent current as a function of the doping density and the number of quantum wells. Analysis and numerical solution of a nonlinear spin transport model shows that the current in a structure without magnetic impurities is stationary, whereas current oscillations may appear if at least one well contains magnetic impurities. For long structures having two wells with magnetic impurities, a detailed analysis of nucleation of charge dipole domains shows that self-sustained current oscillations are caused by repeated triggering of dipole domains at the magnetic wells and motion towards the collector. Depending on the location of the magnetic wells and the voltage, dipole domains may be triggered at both wells or at only one. In the latter case, the well closer to the collector may inhibit domain motion between the first and the second well inside the structure. Our study could allow design of oscillatory spin-polarized current injectors.

  13. Electrically tunable spin polarization in silicene: A multi-terminal spin density matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Son-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Recent realized silicene field-effect transistor yields promising electronic applications. Using a multi-terminal spin density matrix approach, this paper presents an analysis of the spin polarizations in a silicene structure of the spin field-effect transistor by considering the intertwined intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit couplings, gate voltage, Zeeman splitting, as well as disorder. Coexistence of the stagger potential and intrinsic spin–orbit coupling results in spin precession, making any in-plane polarization directions reachable by the gate voltage; specifically, the intrinsic coupling allows one to electrically adjust the in-plane components of the polarizations, while the Rashba coupling to adjust the out-of-plan polarizations. Larger electrically tunable ranges of in-plan polarizations are found in oppositely gated silicene than in the uniformly gated silicene. Polarizations in different phases behave distinguishably in weak disorder regime, while independent of the phases, stronger disorder leads to a saturation value. - Highlights: • Density matrix with spin rotations enables multi-terminal arbitrary spin injections. • Gate-voltage tunable in-plane polarizations require intrinsic SO coupling. • Gate-voltage tunable out-of-plane polarizations require Rashba SO coupling. • Oppositely gated silicene yields a large tunable range of in-plan polarizations. • Polarizations in different phases behave distinguishably only in weak disorder.

  14. Laser-assisted spin-polarized transport in graphene tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Kaihe; Zhu Zhengang; Berakdar, Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function method is utilized to theoretically study spin-polarized transport through a graphene spin valve irradiated by a monochromatic laser field. It is found that the bias dependence of the differential conductance exhibits successive peaks corresponding to the resonant tunneling through the photon-assisted sidebands. The multi-photon processes originate from the combined effects of the radiation field and the graphene tunneling properties, and are shown to be substantially suppressed in a graphene spin valve which results in a decrease of the differential conductance for a high bias voltage. We also discuss the appearance of a dynamical gap around zero bias due to the radiation field. The gap width can be tuned by changing the radiation electric field strength and the frequency. This leads to a shift of the resonant peaks in the differential conductance. We also demonstrate numerically the dependences of the radiation and spin valve effects on the parameters of the external fields and those of the electrodes. We find that the combined effects of the radiation field, the graphene and the spin valve properties bring about an oscillatory behavior in the tunnel magnetoresistance, and this oscillatory amplitude can be changed by scanning the radiation field strength and/or the frequency. (paper)

  15. An inverse free electron laser accelerator: Experiment and theoretical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jyan-Min.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies of the Inverse Free Electron Laser using a GW-level 10.6 μm CO 2 laser have been carried out at Brookhaven's Accelerator Test Facility. An energy gain of 2.5 % (ΔE/E) on a 40 MeV electron beam has been observed E which compares well with theory. The effects on IFEL acceleration with respect to the variation of the laser electric field, the input electron beam energy, and the wiggler magnetic field strength were studied, and show the importance of matching the resonance condition in the IFEL. The numerical simulations were performed under various conditions and the importance of the electron bunching in the IFEL is shown. The numerical interpretation of our IFEL experimental results was examined. Although good numerical agreement with the experimental results was obtained, there is a discrepancy between the level of the laser power measured in the experiment and used in the simulation, possibly due to the non-Gaussian profile of the input high power laser beam. The electron energy distribution was studied numerically and a smoothing of the energy spectrum by the space charge effect at the location of the spectrometer was found, compared with the spectrum at the exit of the wiggler. The electron bunching by the IFEL and the possibility of using the IFEL as an electron prebuncher for another laser-driven accelerator were studied numerically. We found that bunching of the electrons at 1 meter downstream from the wiggler can be achieved using the existing facility. The simulation shows that there is a fundamental difference between the operating conditions for using the IFEL as a high gradient accelerator, and as a prebuncher for another accelerator

  16. Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling induced spin-polarization and resonance-split in n-well semiconductor superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Chengzhi; Xue Rui; Nie, Y.-H.; Liang, J.-Q.

    2009-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix method, we investigate the electron transmission over multiple-well semiconductor superlattices with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in the potential-well regions. The superlattice structure enhances the effect of spin polarization in the transmission spectrum. The minibands of multiple-well superlattices for electrons with different spin can be completely separated at the low incident energy, leading to the 100% spin polarization in a broad energy windows, which may be an effective scheme for realizing spin filtering. Moreover, for the transmission over n-quantum-well, it is observed that the resonance peaks in the minibands split into n-folds or (n-1)-folds depending on the well-width and barrier-thickness, which is different from the case of tunneling through n-barrier structure

  17. Period-doubling bifurcation cascade observed in a ferromagnetic nanoparticle under the action of a spin-polarized current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horley, Paul P., E-mail: paul.horley@cimav.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Kushnir, Mykola Ya. [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine); Morales-Meza, Mishel [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. (CIMAV), Chihuahua/Monterrey, 120 Avenida Miguel de Cervantes, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico); Sukhov, Alexander [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Rusyn, Volodymyr [Yuri Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, 2 Kotsyubynsky str., 58012 Chernivtsi (Ukraine)

    2016-04-01

    We report on complex magnetization dynamics in a forced spin valve oscillator subjected to a varying magnetic field and a constant spin-polarized current. The transition from periodic to chaotic magnetic motion was illustrated with bifurcation diagrams and Hausdorff dimension – the methods developed for dissipative self-organizing systems. It was shown that bifurcation cascades can be obtained either by tuning the injected spin-polarized current or by changing the magnitude of applied magnetic field. The order–chaos transition in magnetization dynamics can be also directly observed from the hysteresis curves. The resulting complex oscillations are useful for development of spin-valve devices operating in harmonic and chaotic modes.

  18. Control phase shift of spin-wave by spin-polarized current and its application in logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangxu; Wang, Qi; Liao, Yulong; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huaiwu; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a new ways to control the phase shift of propagating spin waves by applying a local spin-polarized current on ferromagnetic stripe. Micromagnetic simulation showed that a phase shift of about π can be obtained by designing appropriate width and number of pinned magnetic layers. The ways can be adopted in a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer structure to fulfill logic NOT gates based on spin waves. - Highlights: • Spin-wave phase shift can be controlled by a local spin-polarized current. • Spin-wave phase shift increased with the increasing of current density. • Spin-wave phase shift can reach about 0.3π at a particular current density. • The ways can be used in a Mach-Zehnder-type interferometer to fulfill logic gates

  19. Joule heating and spin-transfer torque investigated on the atomic scale using a spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S; Herzog, G; Schlenhoff, A; Sonntag, A; Wiesendanger, R

    2011-10-28

    The influence of a high spin-polarized tunnel current onto the switching behavior of a superparamagnetic nanoisland on a nonmagnetic substrate is investigated by means of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. A detailed lifetime analysis allows for a quantification of the effective temperature rise of the nanoisland and the modification of the activation energy barrier for magnetization reversal, thereby using the nanoisland as a local thermometer and spin-transfer torque analyzer. Both the Joule heating and spin-transfer torque are found to scale linearly with the tunnel current. The results are compared to experiments performed on lithographically fabricated magneto-tunnel junctions, revealing a very high spin-transfer torque switching efficiency in our experiments.

  20. Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2014-08-06

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  1. Measuring the spin polarization of alkali-metal atoms using nuclear magnetic resonance frequency shifts of noble gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel method of measuring the spin polarization of alkali-metal atoms by detecting the NMR frequency shifts of noble gases. We calculated the profile of 87Rb D1 line absorption cross sections. We then measured the absorption profile of the sample cell, from which we calculated the 87Rb number densities at different temperatures. Then we measured the frequency shifts resulted from the spin polarization of the 87Rb atoms and calculated its polarization degrees at different temperatures. The behavior of frequency shifts versus temperature in experiment was consistent with theoretical calculation, which may be used as compensative signal for the NMRG closed-loop control system.

  2. Interface-induced chiral domain walls, spin spirals and skyrmions revealed by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bergmann, Kirsten; Kubetzka, André; Pietzsch, Oswald; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2014-10-01

    The spin textures of ultra-thin magnetic layers exhibit surprising variety. The loss of inversion symmetry at the interface of the magnetic layer and substrate gives rise to the so-called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction which favors non-collinear spin arrangements with unique rotational sense. Here we review the application of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy to such systems, which has led to the discovery of interface-induced chiral domain walls and spin spirals. Recently, different interface-driven skyrmion lattices have been found, and the writing as well as the deleting of individual skyrmions based on local spin-polarized current injection has been demonstrated. These interface-induced non-collinear magnetic states offer new exciting possibilities to study fundamental magnetic interactions and to tailor material properties for spintronic applications.

  3. Terahertz radiation by subpicosecond spin-polarized photocurrent originating from Dirac electrons in a Rashba-type polar semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuto; Kida, Noriaki; Miyamoto, Tatsuya; Kanou, Manabu; Sasagawa, Takao; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    2018-04-01

    The spin-splitting energy bands induced by the relativistic spin-orbit interaction in solids provide a new opportunity to manipulate the spin-polarized electrons on the subpicosecond timescale. Here, we report one such example in a bulk Rashba-type polar semiconductor BiTeBr. Strong terahertz electromagnetic waves are emitted after the resonant excitation of the interband transition between the Rashba-type spin-splitting energy bands with a femtosecond laser pulse circularly polarized. The phase of the emitted terahertz waves is reversed by switching the circular polarization. This suggests that the observed terahertz radiation originates from the subpicosecond spin-polarized photocurrents, which are generated by the asymmetric depopulation of the Dirac state. Our result provides a way for the current-induced terahertz radiation and its phase control by the circular polarization of incident light without external electric fields.

  4. Non-dipole effects in spin polarization of photoelectrons from 3d electrons of Xe, Cs and Ba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Cherepkov, N A [State University of Aerospace Instrumentation, St. Petersburg 190000 (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L V [A F Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Felfli, Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta GA 30314 (United States); Msezane, A Z [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta GA 30314 (United States)

    2005-04-28

    The non-dipole contribution to spin polarization of photoelectrons from Xe, Cs and Ba 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} levels is calculated. The calculation is carried out within the framework of a modified version of the spin-polarized random phase approximation with exchange. The effects of relaxation of excited electrons due to the 3d-vacancy creation are also accounted for. It is demonstrated that the parameters that characterize the photoelectron angular distribution as functions of the incoming photon energy, although being predictably small, acquire additional peculiarities when the interaction between electrons that belong to the 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} components of the spin-orbit doublet is taken into account.

  5. On the possibility of contact-induced spin polarization in interfaces of armchair nanotubes with transition metal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzubov, Alexander A. [Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kirensky Institute of Physics, 50 Akademgorodok, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kovaleva, Evgenia A., E-mail: kovaleva.evgeniya1991@mail.ru [Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kirensky Institute of Physics, 50 Akademgorodok, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Tomilin, Felix N.; Mikhaleva, Natalya S.; Kuklin, Artem V. [Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny Prospect, 660041 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Kirensky Institute of Physics, 50 Akademgorodok, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The interaction between armchair carbon and boron nitride nanotubes (NT) with ferromagnetic transition metal (TM) surfaces, namely, Ni(111) and Co(0001), was studied by means of density functional theory. Different configurations of composite compartments mutual arrangement were considered. Partial densities of states and spin density spatial distribution of optimized structures were investigated. Influence of ferromagnetic substrate on nanotubes’ electronic properties was discussed. The values of spin polarization magnitude at the Fermi level are also presented and confirm the patterns of spin density spatial distribution. - Highlights: • Interaction of armchair nanotubes with ferromagnetic metal surfaces was investigated. • Different configurations of nanotube's location were considered. • For all nanotubes the energy difference between configurations is negligible. • Nanotubes were found to be more or less spin-polarized regarding to the configuration. • BN nanotubes demonstrate vanishing of the band gap and contact-induced conductivity.

  6. Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun; Gan, Liyong; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.

  7. Nonlinear theory of the free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chian, A.C.-L.; Padua Brito Serbeto, A. de.

    1984-01-01

    A theory of Raman free-electron laser using a circularly polarized electromagnetic pump is investigated. Coupled wave equations that describe both linear and nonlinear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering are derived. The dispersion relation and the growth rate for the parametric instability are obtained. Nonlinear processes that may lead to saturation of the free-electron laser are discussed. (Author) [pt

  8. Wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shitong; Shen Wenda; Guo Qizhi

    1993-01-01

    The wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma is obtained by solving exactly the Dirac equation in a curved space-time with optical metric for the laser plasma. When the laser field is diminished to zero, the wave function is naturally reduced to relativistic wave function of free electron. The possible application of the wave function is discussed

  9. Design of a compact application-oriented free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. C. D.; Meier, K.; Nguyen, D.; Sheffield, R.; Wang, T. S.; Warren, R. W.; Wilson, W.; Young, L. M.

    The goal of the Advanced Free-Electron Laser Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to demonstrate that a free-electron laser (FEL) suitable for industrial, medical, and research applications can be built. This FEL system should be efficient, compact, robust, and user-friendly. To achieve this goal, we have incorporated advanced components presently available. Electrons produced by a photoelectron source are accelerated to 20 MeV by a high-brightness accelerator. They are transported by an emittance-preserving beamline with permanent-magnet quadrupoles and dipoles. The electron beam has excellent instantaneous beam quality better than: 2.5 (pi) mm mrad in transverse emittance and 0.3 percent in energy spread at a Peak current up to 310 A. It is used to excite a FEL oscillator with a pulsed-current microwiggler. Including operation at higher harmonics, the laser wavelength extends from 3.7 to 0.4 microns.

  10. Insight into electronic, mechanical and transport properties of quaternary CoVTiAl: Spin-polarized DFT + U approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousuf, Saleem, E-mail: nengroosaleem17@gmail.com; Gupta, D.C., E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • 100% spin-polarized material important for the application in spintronics. • It is ferromagnetic and ductile in nature. • Shows semiconducting behavior with a band gap of 1.06 eV. • Possibly efficient high temperature thermoelectric material. - Abstract: We present a preliminary investigation of band structure and thermoelectric properties of new quaternary CoVTiAl Heusler alloy. Structural, magnetic property and 100% spin polarization of equiatomic CoVTiAl predicts ferromagnetic stable ground state. Band profile outlines the indirect semiconducting behavior in spin down channel with band gap of 1.06 eV, and the magnetic moment of 3 µ{sub B} in accordance with Slater-Pauling rule. To evaluate the accuracy of different approximations in predicting thermoelectric properties, the comparison with available experimental data is made which shows fair agreement for the transport coefficients. The high temperature (800 K) positive Seebeck coefficient of 73.71 µV/K describes the p-type character of the material with high efficiency due to highly influential semiconducting behavior around the Fermi level. Considering the combination of 100% spin-polarization, high Seebeck coefficient and large figure of merit, ferromagnetic semiconducting CoVTiAl may prove as a potential candidate for high temperature thermoelectrics and an ideal spin source material for spintronic applications.

  11. Theory of spin-polarized transport in ferromagnet-semiconductor structures: Unified description of ballistic and diffusive transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipperheide, R.; Wille, U.

    2006-01-01

    A theory of spin-polarized electron transport in ferromagnet-semiconductor heterostructures, based on a unified semiclassical description of ballistic and diffusive transport in semiconductors, is outlined. The aim is to provide a framework for studying the interplay of spin relaxation and transport mechanism in spintronic devices. Transport inside the (nondegenerate) semiconductor is described in terms of a thermoballistic current, in which electrons move ballistically in the electric field arising from internal and external electrostatic potentials, and are thermalized at randomly distributed equilibration points. Spin relaxation is allowed to take place during the ballistic motion. For arbitrary potential profile and arbitrary values of the momentum and spin relaxation lengths, an integral equation for a spin transport function determining the spin polarization in the semiconductor is derived. For field-driven transport in a homogeneous semiconductor, the integral equation can be converted into a second-order differential equation that generalizes the spin drift-diffusion equation. The spin polarization in ferromagnet-semiconductor structures is obtained by matching the spin-resolved chemical potentials at the interfaces, with allowance for spin-selective interface resistances. Illustrative examples are considered

  12. Effect of on-site Coulomb interaction on electronic and transport properties of 100% spin polarized CoMnVAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Tahir Mohiuddin; Gupta, Dinesh C., E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • 100% spin-polarized material important for the application in spintronics. • Ferromagnetic nature. • Ductile in nature for mechanical applications. • Semiconducting behavior with a band gap of 0.55 eV in minority spin channel. • Possibly efficient thermoelectric material. - Abstract: The structural, electronic, magnetic and transport properties of a new quaternary Heusler alloy CoMnVAs have been investigated by employing generalized gradient approximation (GGA), modified Becke-Johnson (mBJ) and GGA with Hubbard U correction (GGA + U). The alloy is energetically more stable in ferromagnetic Y{sub 1} type structure. Elastic parameters reveal high anisotropy and ductile nature of the material. CoMnVAs shows half-metallic ferromagnet character with 100% spin polarization at Fermi level with band gap of 0.55 eV in the minority spin state. The alloy also possesses high electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients with 15 μVK{sup −1} at room temperature, achieving a figure of merit of 0.65 at high temperatures. The high degree of ductility, 100% spin polarization and large Seebeck coefficient, makes it an attractive candidate to be used in spin voltage generators and thermoelectric materials.

  13. Design and commissioning of an aberration-corrected ultrafast spin-polarized low energy electron microscope with multiple electron sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weishi; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Lin; Yang, Xiaodong; Wei, Zheng; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Feng, Jun; Kunze, Kai; Schaff, Oliver; Tromp, Ruud; Tang, Wen-Xin

    2017-03-01

    We describe the design and commissioning of a novel aberration-corrected low energy electron microscope (AC-LEEM). A third magnetic prism array (MPA) is added to the standard AC-LEEM with two prism arrays, allowing the incorporation of an ultrafast spin-polarized electron source alongside the standard cold field emission electron source, without degrading spatial resolution. The high degree of symmetries of the AC-LEEM are utilized while we design the electron optics of the ultrafast spin-polarized electron source, so as to minimize the deleterious effect of time broadening, while maintaining full control of electron spin. A spatial resolution of 2nm and temporal resolution of 10ps (ps) are expected in the future time resolved aberration-corrected spin-polarized LEEM (TR-AC-SPLEEM). The commissioning of the three-prism AC-LEEM has been successfully finished with the cold field emission source, with a spatial resolution below 2nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Monte Carlo studies of thermalization of electron-hole pairs in spin-polarized degenerate electron gas in monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2018-02-01

    Monte Carlo method is applied to the study of relaxation of excited electron-hole (e-h) pairs in graphene. The presence of background of spin-polarized electrons, with high density imposing degeneracy conditions, is assumed. To such system, a number of e-h pairs with spin polarization parallel or antiparallel to the background is injected. Two stages of relaxation: thermalization and cooling are clearly distinguished when average particles energy and its standard deviation σ _E are examined. At the very beginning of thermalization phase, holes loose energy to electrons, and after this process is substantially completed, particle distributions reorganize to take a Fermi-Dirac shape. To describe the evolution of and σ _E during thermalization, we define characteristic times τ _ {th} and values at the end of thermalization E_ {th} and σ _ {th}. The dependence of these parameters on various conditions, such as temperature and background density, is presented. It is shown that among the considered parameters, only the standard deviation of electrons energy allows to distinguish between different cases of relative spin polarizations of background and excited electrons.

  15. 3-D numerical analysis of a high-gain free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    We present a novel approach to the 3-dimensional high-gain free- electron laser amplifier problem. The method allows us to write the laser field as an integral equation which can be efficiently and accurately evaluated on a small computer. The model is general enough to allow the inclusion of various initial electron beam distributions to study the gain reduction mechanism and its dependence on the physical parameters. 16 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  16. Effects of bunch density gradient in high-gain free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Kim, K.-J.

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigate effects of the bunch density gradient in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), including the role of coherent spontaneous emission (CSE) in the evolution of the free-electron laser (FEL) process. In the exponential gain regime, the authors solve the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations and extend the linear theory to a bunched beam with energy spread. A time-dependent, nonlinear simulation algorithm is used to study the CSE effect and the nonlinear evolution of the radiation pulse

  17. Saturation mechanism and improvement of conversion efficiency of free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, T.; Mima, K.; Mochizuki, T.

    1980-01-01

    Saturation mechanisms of free electron laser are investigated in the Compton regime. It is found that the saturation occurs due to quasi-linear energy spreading of electron beam in the case of many mode excitation. The energy conversion efficiency remains low even if many modes are taken into account. For improvement of the conversion efficiency, effects of reacceleration by a traveling wave are investigated and turn out to increase the efficiency up to more than 50%. (author)

  18. Investigation of betatron instability in a wiggler pumped ion-channel free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavi, A [Physics Department, Payame Noor University, 19395-4697 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehdian, H, E-mail: Raghavi@tmu.ac.ir, E-mail: Mehdian@tmu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Betatron emission from an ion-channel free electron laser in the presence of a helical wiggler pump and in the high gain regime is studied. The dispersion relation and the frequency of betatron emission are derived. Growth rate is illustrated and maximum growth rate as a function of ion-channel density is considered. Finally, the relation between beam energy, the density of ion channel and the region of betatron emission is discussed.

  19. A novel small-period wiggler for free-electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Bibo; Wang Mingchang; Wang Zhijiang

    1992-01-01

    A novel small-period wiggler configuration constructed by sheet of bifilar-helix with ferro-core for free-electron lasers is proposed. The performance characteristics of the wiggler prototype with 10 mm period are measured. The field as high as 500 G to 1 kG have been obtained. The amplifier designs for operation at 190 GHz using modest electron beam energies in the range of 400-500 keV are presented

  20. Femtosecond and Subfemtosecond X-Ray Pulses from a SASE Based Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emma, P

    2004-03-10

    We propose a novel method to generate femtosecond and sub-femtosecond photon pulses in a free electron laser by selectively spoiling the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Its merits are simplicity and ease of implementation. When the system is applied to the Linac Coherent Light Source, it can provide x-ray pulses the order of 1 femtosecond in duration containing about 1010 transversely coherent photons.