Coherence and stiffness of spin waves in diluted ferromagnets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav
2016-01-01
Roč. 94, č. 17 (2016), č. článku 174447. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin waves * diluted ferromagnets * disordered systems Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016
Spin-wave stiffness in the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets Mn1 -xFexSi
Grigoriev, S. V.; Altynbaev, E. V.; Siegfried, S.-A.; Pschenichnyi, K. A.; Menzel, D.; Heinemann, A.; Chaboussant, G.
2018-01-01
The small-angle neutron scattering is used to measure the spin-wave stiffness in the field-polarized state of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya helimagnets Mn1 -xFexSi with x =0.03 , 0.06, 0.09, and 0.10. The Mn1 -xFexSi compounds are helically ordered below Tc and show a helical fluctuation regime above Tc in a wide range up to TDM. The critical temperatures Tc and TDM decrease with x and tend to 0 at x =0.11 and 0.17, respectively. We have found that the spin-wave stiffness A change weakly with temperature for each individual Fe-doped compound. On the other hand, the spin-wave stiffness A decreases with x duplicating the TDM dependence on x , rather than Tc(x ) . These findings classify the thermal phase transition in all Mn1 -xFexSi compounds as an abrupt change in the spin state caused, most probably, by the features of an electronic band structure. Moreover, the criticality in these compounds is not related to the value of the ferromagnetic interaction but demonstrates the remarkable role of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction as a factor destabilizing the magnetic order.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pajda, M.; Kudrnovský, Josef; Turek, Ilja; Drchal, Václav; Bruno, P.
2001-01-01
Roč. 64, - (2001), s. 174402-1-174402-9 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010829; GA MŠk OC P3.40; GA MŠk OC P3.70; GA ČR GA202/00/0122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : spin-wave properties * 3d-ferromagnets * Curie temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2001
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans
1975-01-01
with increasing temperatures implies that the two-ion coupling is effectively isotropic above ∼ 150 K. We present arguments for concluding that, among the mechanisms which may introduce anisotropic two-ion couplings in the rare-earth metals, the modification of the indirect exchange interaction by the spin......The energies of spin waves propagating in the c direction of Tb have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering, as a function of a magnetic field applied along the easy and hard directions in the basal plane, and as a function of temperature. From a general spin Hamiltonian, consistent...... with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shihab, S.; Thevenard, L.; Bardeleben, H. J. von; Gourdon, C.; Riahi, H.; Lemaître, A.
2015-01-01
We study the dependence of the spin stiffness constant on the phosphorus concentration in the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)(As,P) with the aim of determining whether alloying with phosphorus is detrimental, neutral, or advantageous to the spin stiffness. Time-resolved magneto-optical experiments are carried out in thin epilayers. Laser pulses excite two perpendicular standing spin wave modes, which are exchange related. We show that the first mode is spatially uniform across the layer corresponding to a k≈0 wavevector. From the two frequencies and k-vector spacings we obtain the spin stiffness constant for different phosphorus concentrations using weak surface pinning conditions. The mode assessment is checked by comparison to the spin stiffness obtained from domain pattern analysis for samples with out-of-plane magnetization. The spin stiffness is found to exhibit little variation with phosphorus concentration in contradiction with ab-initio predictions
Music decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections.
Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aggelakas, Angelos; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Terentes-Printzios, Dimitrios; Abdelrasoul, Mahmoud; Lazaros, George; Tousoulis, Dimitris
2015-05-01
Music has been related to cardiovascular health and used as adjunct therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are predictors of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the short-term effect of classical and rock music on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Twenty healthy individuals (22.5±2.5 years) were studied on three different occasions and listened to a 30-min music track compilation (classical, rock, or no music for the sham procedure). Both classical and rock music resulted in a decrease of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) immediately after the end of music listening (all pclassical or rock music in a more sustained way (nadir by 6.0% and 5.8%, respectively, at time zero post-music listening, all pmusic preference was taken into consideration, both classical and rock music had a more potent effect on PWV in classical aficionados (by 0.20 m/s, p=0.003 and 0.13 m/s, p=0.015, respectively), whereas there was no effect in rock aficionados (all p=NS). Regarding wave reflections, classical music led to a more potent response in classical aficionados (AIx decrease by 9.45%), whereas rock led to a more potent response to rock aficionados (by 10.7%, all pMusic, both classical and rock, decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Effect on aortic stiffness lasts for as long as music is listened to, while classical music has a sustained effect on wave reflections. These findings may have important implications, extending the spectrum of lifestyle modifications that can ameliorate arterial function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Observation of spin-wave dispersion in Nd-Fe-B magnets using neutron Brillouin scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, K.; Inami, N.; Saito, K.; Takeichi, Y.; Kawana, D.; Yokoo, T.; Itoh, S.; Yano, M.; Shoji, T.; Manabe, A.; Kato, A.; Kaneko, Y.
2014-01-01
The low-energy spin-wave dispersion in polycrystalline Nd-Fe-B magnets was observed using neutron Brillouin scattering (NBS). Low-energy spin-wave excitations for the lowest acoustic spin-wave mode were clearly observed. From the spin-wave dispersion, we were able to determine the spin-wave stiffness constant D sw (100.0 ± 4.9 meV.Å 2 ) and the exchange stiffness constant A (6.6 ± 0.3 pJ/m)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindgaard, P.-A.
1978-01-01
When neutron scattering data became available for the light rare earths (REs) and the RE compounds, a need was felt for a systematic theory for excitations in crystal-field dominated systems. The crystal field mixes the wavefunctions and provides a coupling between the ground state and the excited states for many operators, whereas for the Heisenberg system only J - has a nonzero matrix element to the first excited state. A review is given of successful applications of the theory in the interpretation of several experiments. The excitation spectrum for neutron scattering is simply given by the poles of the imaginary part of the enhanced wave-vector-dependent susceptibility tensor calculated in the random-phase approximation. A discussion of the effect of two-ion anisotropy is given. The formalism reduces to the conventional spin wave theory for the Heisenberg system when the crystal field is negligible compared to the exchange interaction. However, this theory has the drawback that it is necessary to know the crystal field in advance and each value of J must then be treated separately. A review of the results in the RE Laves-phase compounds and in the heavy rare earths is given, and the status of the current understanding of the interactions is rare earths and their compounds is discussed. (author)
Stigloher, J.; Decker, M.; Körner, H. S.; Tanabe, K.; Moriyama, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Hata, H.; Madami, M.; Gubbiotti, G.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Back, C. H.
2016-07-01
We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25 ° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igarashi, J.; Watabe, A.
1991-01-01
Quantum corrections to the longitudinal spin-correlation function and the spin-stiffness constant are calculated up to 1/(2S) 2 in a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet at zero temperature by using the Holstein-Primakoff transformation. The equal-time longitudinal spin-correlation function is found to compensate almost entirely the reduction caused by the second-order correction in the transverse spin-correlation function, making the spherically averaged correlation function very close to the value given by linear spin-wave theory. In the spin-stiffness constant, a partial cancellation is found between the ''paramagnetic'' and ''diamagnetic'' terms, leading to a small second-order correction
A Phenomenological Model For The Spin Stiffness Of A Half-metallic Ferromagnet
Chura, Raul; Bedell, Kevin
By using the Fermi Liquid Theory for Spin Polarized Systems, more specifically, by using the linearized form of Landau Silin Kinetic Equation, and after considering an appropriate approximation, we have obtained the dispersion relationships describing the collective modes for the spin waves in a Half Metallic Ferromagnetic (HMF) material. Our results predict the existence of a gapless mode for the spin dynamics of a HMF, in agreement with experiment. In addition, our calculations allowed us to get a phenomenological formula for the spin stiffness of HMF materials, which being entirely in terms of band theory and Landau interaction parameters, allowed us to test that formula for those HMF materials for which we were able to find, in the available literature, the required data. For these materials our model is consistent with experiment. Work supported by Grant Number CANON-CU-005-2013 at UNSAAC, Cusco, Peru.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden
1975-01-01
The selection rules for the linear couplings between magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of a simple basal-plane hcp ferromagnet are determined by general symmetry considerations. The acoustic-optical magnon-phonon interactions observed in the heavy-rare-earth metals have been...... explained by Liu as originating from the mixing of the spin states of the conduction electrons due to the spin-orbit coupling. We find that this coupling mechanism introduces interactions which violate the selection rules for a simple ferromagnet. The interactions between the magnons and phonons propagating...... in the c direction of Tb have been studied experimentally by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The magnons are coupled to both the acoustic- and optical-transverse phonons. By studying the behavior of the acoustic-optical coupling, we conclude that it is a spin-mixed-induced coupling as proposed...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Lebech, Bente
1980-01-01
Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed.......Spin wave excitations in a single crystal of Ho2Co17 have been studied at 4.8 and 78 K. The results are discussed in terms of a linear spin wave model. At 78 K both ground state and excited state spin waves are observed....
Spin stiffness of frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnets: Finite size scaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feiguin, A.E.; Gazza, C.J.; Trumper, A.E.
1995-07-01
We calculate the spin stiffness of the S = 1/2 frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet on finite square lattices by means of the Schwinger - boson approach. COmparison with recent exact numerical results reveals that the observed lack of scaling with lattice size for intermediate to large frustration cannot be taken as an indication of absence of Neel order. This lack of scaling is already apparent for small frustration and is a finite lattice effect. Our results also indicate that the expected behaviour is regained for larger lattices than those considered in numerical studies. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs
Lattice Waves, Spin Waves, and Neutron Scattering
Brockhouse, Bertram N.
1962-03-01
Use of neutron inelastic scattering to study the forces between atoms in solids is treated. One-phonon processes and lattice vibrations are discussed, and experiments that verified the existence of the quantum of lattice vibrations, the phonon, are reviewed. Dispersion curves, phonon frequencies and absorption, and models for dispersion calculations are discussed. Experiments on the crystal dynamics of metals are examined. Dispersion curves are presented and analyzed; theory of lattice dynamics is considered; effects of Fermi surfaces on dispersion curves; electron-phonon interactions, electronic structure influence on lattice vibrations, and phonon lifetimes are explored. The dispersion relation of spin waves in crystals and experiments in which dispersion curves for spin waves in Co-Fe alloy and magnons in magnetite were obtained and the reality of the magnon was demonstrated are discussed. (D.C.W)
Spin waves and spin instabilities in quantum plasmas
Andreev, P. A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.
2014-01-01
We describe main ideas of method of many-particle quantum hydrodynamics allows to derive equations for description of quantum plasma evolution. We also present definitions of collective quantum variables suitable for quantum plasmas. We show that evolution of magnetic moments (spins) in quantum plasmas leads to several new branches of wave dispersion: spin-electromagnetic plasma waves and self-consistent spin waves. Propagation of neutron beams through quantum plasmas is also considered. Inst...
Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents.
Demidov, Vladislav E; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O
2016-01-28
Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics.
Spin precession and spin waves in a chiral electron gas: Beyond Larmor's theorem
Karimi, Shahrzad; Baboux, Florent; Perez, Florent; Ullrich, Carsten A.; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz
2017-07-01
Larmor's theorem holds for magnetic systems that are invariant under spin rotation. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling this invariance is lost and Larmor's theorem is broken: for systems of interacting electrons, this gives rise to a subtle interplay between the spin-orbit coupling acting on individual single-particle states and Coulomb many-body effects. We consider a quasi-two-dimensional, partially spin-polarized electron gas in a semiconductor quantum well in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Using a linear-response approach based on time-dependent density-functional theory, we calculate the dispersions of spin-flip waves. We obtain analytic results for small wave vectors and up to second order in the Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling strengths α and β . Comparison with experimental data from inelastic light scattering allows us to extract α and β as well as the spin-wave stiffness very accurately. We find significant deviations from the local density approximation for spin-dependent electron systems.
Dependence of the Spin Transfer Torque Switching Current Density on the Exchange Stiffness Constant
You, Chun-Yeol
2012-01-01
We investigate the dependence of the switching current density on the exchange stiffness constant in the spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junction structure with micromagnetic simulations. Since the widely accepted analytic expression of the switching current density is based on the macro-spin model, there is no dependence of the exchange stiffness constant. When the switching is occurred, however, the spin configuration forms C-, S-type, or complicated domain structures. Since the spi...
Spin wave spectrum of magnetic nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, A.L.; Landeros, P.; Nunez, Alvaro S.
2010-01-01
We investigate the spin wave spectra associated to a vortex domain wall confined within a ferromagnetic nanotube. Basing our study upon a simple model for the energy functional we obtain the dispersion relation, the density of states and dissipation induced life-times of the spin wave excitations in presence of a magnetic domain wall. Our aim is to capture the basics spin wave physics behind the geometrical confinement of nobel magnetic textures.
Spin-wave-induced spin torque in Rashba ferromagnets
Umetsu, Nobuyuki; Miura, Daisuke; Sakuma, Akimasa
2015-05-01
We study the effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin torque induced by spin waves, which are the plane-wave dynamics of magnetization. The spin torque is derived from linear-response theory, and we calculate the dynamic spin torque by considering the impurity-ladder-sum vertex corrections. This dynamic spin torque is divided into three terms: a damping term, a distortion term, and a correction term for the equation of motion. The distorting torque describes a phenomenon unique to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling system, where the distorted motion of magnetization precession is subjected to the anisotropic force from the Rashba coupling. The oscillation mode of the precession exhibits an elliptical trajectory, and the ellipticity depends on the strength of the nesting effects, which could be reduced by decreasing the electron lifetime.
Antiferromagnetic Spin Wave Field-Effect Transistor
Cheng, Ran; Daniels, Matthew W.; Zhu, Jian-Gang; Xiao, Di
2016-01-01
In a collinear antiferromagnet with easy-axis anisotropy, symmetry dictates that the spin wave modes must be doubly degenerate. Theses two modes, distinguished by their opposite polarization and available only in antiferromagnets, give rise to a novel degree of freedom to encode and process information. We show that the spin wave polarization can be manipulated by an electric field induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and magnetic anisotropy. We propose a prototype spin wave field-effect transistor which realizes a gate-tunable magnonic analog of the Faraday effect, and demonstrate its application in THz signal modulation. Our findings open up the exciting possibility of digital data processing utilizing antiferromagnetic spin waves and enable the direct projection of optical computing concepts onto the mesoscopic scale. PMID:27048928
Factors influencing the stiffness of fibroadenomas at shear wave elastography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elseedawy, M.; Whelehan, P.; Vinnicombe, S.; Thomson, K.; Evans, A.
2016-01-01
Aim: To identify which features of fibroadenomas are associated with false-positive findings at shear wave elastography (SWE). Materials and methods: A total of 151 patients with histologically confirmed fibroadenomata were identified from a prospective database, from a single breast unit. The following features were assessed by two observers who were unaware of the SWE findings: patient age, grey-scale ultrasound lesion diameter (<15 or ≥15 mm), distance from the lesion to skin, composition of surrounding tissue (fatty, mixed or dense), and source of referral (screening or symptomatic). Statistical analysis was carried out using the chi-square test. Results: A statistically significant positive association was found between grey-scale ultrasound lesion size and lesion stiffness. Twenty-nine of 70 (41%) lesions ≥15 mm were stiff, versus 10 of 81 (12%) <15 mm (p=0.001). Patient age, distance from the lesion to skin, make-up of surrounding tissue, and source were not significantly associated with stiffness. Conclusion: Fibroadenomas giving false-positive SWE results tend to be larger in size than those that do not. More compression of adjacent normal tissue is assumed to be the cause of the present findings. As previous studies have shown that large cancers tend to be stiffer than smaller cancers, it may be appropriate to vary the quantitative cut-off value used for benign/malignant differentiation in SWE according to lesion size. - Highlights: • Fibroadenomas giving false positive SWE results tend to be larger in size. • More compression of adjacent normal tissue is assumed to be the cause of our findings. • The age of the patient is not related to fibroadenoma stiffness.
Counter-rotating standing spin waves: A magneto-optical illusion
Shihab, S.; Thevenard, L.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.
2017-04-01
We excite perpendicular standing spin waves by a laser pulse in a GaMnAsP ferromagnetic layer and detect them using time-resolved magneto-optical effects. Quite counterintuitively, we find the first two excited modes to be of opposite chirality. We show that this can only be explained by taking into account absorption and optical phase shift inside the layer. This optical illusion is particularly strong in weakly absorbing layers. These results provide a correct identification of spin waves modes, enabling a trustworthy estimation of their respective weight as well as an unambiguous determination of the spin stiffness parameter.
Spin Waves in the FCC Kagome Lattice
Leblanc, Martin; Southern, Byron; Plumer, Martin; Whitehead, John
2014-03-01
The impact of an effective local cubic anisotropy on the spin wave excitations and inelastic neutron scattering intensity peaks of the Heisenberg model on the 3D fcc kagome lattice are examined through a linear spin wave theory. Previous Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the addition of anisotropy to the fcc kagome lattice changes the order of the phase transition from weakly first order to continuous and restricts the T = 0 spin configuration to a number of discrete ground states, removing the continuous degeneracy. It is shown that the addition of anisotropy removes the number of zero energy modes in the excitation spectrum associated with the removed degeneracies. These results are relevant to Ir-Mn alloys which have been widely used by the magnetic storage industry in thin-film form as the antiferromagnetic pinning layer in GMR and TMR spin valves. Supported by NSERC of Canada.
Spin-wave dynamics in Invar Fe65Ni35 studied by small-angle polarized neutron scattering
Brück, E.H.; Grigoriev, S.V.; Deriglazov, V.V.; Okorokov, A.I.; Dijk van, N.H.; Klaasse, J.C.P.
2002-01-01
Abstract. Spin dynamics in Fe65Ni35 Invar alloy has been studied by left-right asymmetry of small-angle polarized neutron scattering below TC=485 K in external magnetic fields of H=0.05-0.25 T inclined relative to the incident beam. The spin-wave stiffness D and the damping & were obtained by
Spin waves theory and applications
Stancil, Daniel D
2009-01-01
Magnetic materials can support propagating waves of magnetization; since these are oscillations in the magneto static properties of the material, they are called magneto static waves (sometimes 'magnons' or 'magnetic polarons'). This book discusses magnetic properties of materials, and magnetic moments of atoms and ions
Spin wave theory of ferrimagnetic double perovskites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackeli, G.
2004-01-01
We present a theoretical study of magnetic properties of metallic double perovskite ferrimagnets such as Sr 2 FeMoO 6 and Sr 2 FeReO 6 . The analysis is based on the Kondo-type Hamiltonian in which charge carriers are constrained to be antiparallel to Fe local moments with spin S. The spectrum of spin wave excitations is derived based on the model Hamiltonian within the 1/S expansion. The ground state phase diagram as a function of carrier density is also discussed
Spin-wave propagation and spin-polarized electron transport in single-crystal iron films
Gladii, O.; Halley, D.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M.
2017-11-01
The techniques of propagating spin-wave spectroscopy and current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift are applied to a 20-nm-thick Fe/MgO(001) film. The magnetic parameters extracted from the position of the spin-wave resonance peaks are very close to those tabulated for bulk iron. From the zero-current propagating wave forms, a group velocity of 4 km/s and an attenuation length of about 6 μ m are extracted for 1.6-μ m -wavelength spin wave at 18 GHz. From the measured current-induced spin-wave Doppler shift, we extract a surprisingly high degree of spin polarization of the current of 83 % , which constitutes the main finding of this work. This set of results makes single-crystalline iron a promising candidate for building devices utilizing high-frequency spin waves and spin-polarized currents.
Chaos and stiffness exponents for short-range Gaussian Ising spin glasses
Almeida, Sebastião T. O.; Curado, Evaldo M. F.; Nobre, Fernando D.
2013-06-01
Two important exponents in spin-glass theory, namely, the chaos (ζ) and stiffness (y) exponents, are studied for Ising spin glasses with nearest-neighbor Gaussian interactions on different approaches to Bravais lattices. We consider hierarchical lattices of the Migdal-Kadanoff type (both diamond and tress families), with varying fractal dimensions, as well as two lattices of the Wheatstone-bridge family, more specifically, those with fractal dimensions D ≈ 2.32 and D ≈ 3.58. Whenever it is possible to compare, our estimates agree with those obtained from extensive numerical simulations on Bravais lattices, suggesting the present results represent good approximations for these exponents.
Spin wave Feynman diagram vertex computation package
Price, Alexander; Javernick, Philip; Datta, Trinanjan
Spin wave theory is a well-established theoretical technique that can correctly predict the physical behavior of ordered magnetic states. However, computing the effects of an interacting spin wave theory incorporating magnons involve a laborious by hand derivation of Feynman diagram vertices. The process is tedious and time consuming. Hence, to improve productivity and have another means to check the analytical calculations, we have devised a Feynman Diagram Vertex Computation package. In this talk, we will describe our research group's effort to implement a Mathematica based symbolic Feynman diagram vertex computation package that computes spin wave vertices. Utilizing the non-commutative algebra package NCAlgebra as an add-on to Mathematica, symbolic expressions for the Feynman diagram vertices of a Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet are obtained. Our existing code reproduces the well-known expressions of a nearest neighbor square lattice Heisenberg model. We also discuss the case of a triangular lattice Heisenberg model where non collinear terms contribute to the vertex interactions.
Model for a collimated spin wave beam generated by a single layer, spin torque nanocontact
Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Stiles, M. D.
2007-01-01
A model of spin torque induced magnetization dynamics based upon semi-classical spin diffusion theory for a single layer nanocontact is presented. The model incorporates effects due to the current induced Oersted field and predicts the generation of a variety of spatially dependent, coherent, precessional magnetic wave structures. Directionally controllable collimated spin wave beams, vortex spiral waves, and localized standing waves are found to be excited by the interplay of the Oersted fie...
Electric-field effect on spin-wave resonance in a nanoscale CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction
Dohi, T.; Kanai, S.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.
2017-08-01
We investigate the electric-field effect on the exchange stiffness constant in a CoFeB/MgO junction through the observation of the spin-wave resonance in a nanoscale magnetic tunnel junction. We evaluate the electric-field dependence of the stiffness constant from the separation between resonance fields for the Kittel and spin-wave modes under electric fields. The obtained stiffness constant increases when the interfacial electron density is decreased. This dependence is consistent with that determined from the observation of electric-field dependent domain structures.
Demonstration of a robust magnonic spin wave interferometer
Kanazawa, Naoki; Goto, Taichi; Sekiguchi, Koji; Granovsky, Alexander B.; Ross, Caroline A.; Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yuichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru
2016-07-01
Magnonics is an emerging field dealing with ultralow power consumption logic circuits, in which the flow of spin waves, rather than electric charges, transmits and processes information. Waves, including spin waves, excel at encoding information via their phase using interference. This enables a number of inputs to be processed in one device, which offers the promise of multi-input multi-output logic gates. To realize such an integrated device, it is essential to demonstrate spin wave interferometers using spatially isotropic spin waves with high operational stability. However, spin wave reflection at the waveguide edge has previously limited the stability of interfering waves, precluding the use of isotropic spin waves, i.e., forward volume waves. Here, a spin wave absorber is demonstrated comprising a yttrium iron garnet waveguide partially covered by gold. This device is shown experimentally to be a robust spin wave interferometer using the forward volume mode, with a large ON/OFF isolation value of 13.7 dB even in magnetic fields over 30 Oe.
Experimental prototype of a spin-wave majority gate
Fischer, T.; Kewenig, M.; Bozhko, D. A.; Serga, A. A.; Syvorotka, I. I.; Ciubotaru, F.; Adelmann, C.; Hillebrands, B.; Chumak, A. V.
2016-01-01
Featuring low heat dissipation, devices based on spin-wave logic gates promise to comply with increasing future requirements in information processing. In this work, we present the experimental realization of a majority gate based on the interference of spin waves in an Yttrium-Iron-Garnet-based waveguiding structure. This logic device features a three-input combiner with the logic information encoded in the phase of the spin waves. We show that the phase of the output signal represents the m...
Light-front wave function of composite system with spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmanov, V.A.
1979-01-01
The method to construct the relativistic wave function with spin on the light front is developed. The spin structure of the deuteron wave function in relativistic range is found. The calculation methods are illustrated by the calculation of elastic pd-scattering cross section. The consideration carried out is equivalent to the solution of the problem of taking into account the spins and angular momenta in the parton wave functions in the infinite momentum frame
Grigoriev, S V; Deriglazov, V V; Okorokov, A I; Dijk, N H V; Brück, E; Klaasse, J C P; Eckerlebe, H; Kozik, G
2002-01-01
Spin dynamics in Fe sub 6 sub 5 Ni sub 3 sub 5 Invar alloy has been studied by left-right asymmetry of small-angle polarized neutron scattering below T sub C =485 K in external magnetic fields of H=0.05-0.25 T inclined relative to the incident beam. The spin-wave stiffness D and the damping GAMMA were obtained by fitting the antisymmetrical contribution to the scattering. The spin-wave stiffness extrapolated by a (T/T sub C) sup 5 sup / sup 2 law to T=0 K is D sub 0 =117+-2 meVA sup 2 , which is somewhat smaller than the spin-wave stiffness obtained by triple-axis spectrometry. (orig.)
Stimulated polarization wave process in spin 3/2 chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furman, G. B.
2007-01-01
Stimulated wave of polarization, triggered by a flip of a single spin, presents a simple model of quantum amplification. Recently, it has been demonstrated that, in an idealized one-dimensional Ising spin 1/2 chain with nearest-neighbor interactions and realistic spin 1/2 chain including the natural dipole-dipole interactions, irradiated by a weak resonant transverse field, a wave of flipped spins can be triggered by a single spin flip. Here we focuse on control of polarization wave in chain of spin 3/2, where the nuclear quadrupole interaction is dominant. Results of simulations for 1D spin chains and rings with up to five spins are presented.
Finite element simulation of long wave impact on floating breakwaters with variable stiffness
Papathanasiou, T. K.; Karperaki, A.; Belibassakis, K. A.
2017-12-01
The hydroelastic response of flexible, floating breakwaters is a subject of interest for coastal engineering applications. In this study, a higher order hydroelastic finite element is applied to the simulation of floating breakwaters of variable stiffness undergoing long wave impact. The main aim is the evaluation of breakwater efficiency in terms of transmitted and reflected wave characteristics. It is established that, for the wave-lengths examined, the maximum amplitude and wave-length of the transmitted pulse are strongly dependent on the breakwater stiffness. Finally it is shown that for case of a periodic stiffness profile the transmitted energy is minimised when the modulation wavelength is comparable to the wavelength of the incoming excitation.
Spin Waves in a Classical Compressible Heisenberg Chain
Fivez, J.; Raedt, H. De
1980-01-01
The effect of the spin—lattice interaction on the spin dynamics of a classical Heisenberg chain is studied by means of a truncated continued fraction. At low temperature, the spin correlation length and the spin wave frequency show the same simple dependence on the coupling.
Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.
1976-01-01
A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...
Bifurcation of the spin-wave equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cascon, A.; Koiller, J.; Rezende, S.M.
1990-01-01
We study the bifurcations of the spin-wave equations that describe the parametric pumping of collective modes in magnetic media. Mechanisms describing the following dynamical phenomena are proposed: (i) sequential excitation of modes via zero eigenvalue bifurcations; (ii) Hopf bifurcations followed (or not) by Feingenbaum cascades of period doubling; (iii) local and global homoclinic phenomena. Two new organizing center for routes to chaos are identified; in the classification given by Guckenheimer and Holmes [GH], one is a codimension-two local bifurcation, with one pair of imaginary eigenvalues and a zero eigenvalue, to which many dynamical consequences are known; secondly, global homoclinic bifurcations associated to splitting of separatrices, in the limit where the system can be considered a Hamiltonian subjected to weak dissipation and forcing. We outline what further numerical and algebraic work is necessary for the detailed study following this program. (author)
Stiffness measurement and defect detection in laminated composites by dry-coupled plate waves
Huang, W.; Ziola, Steve M.; Dorighi, John F.; Gorman, Michael R.
1998-03-01
This paper presents a novel non-destruction technique for stiffness measurement and defect detection in laminated composite plates using dry-coupled ultrasonic plate waves. The technique involves using a pari of wide-band transducers normally-placed on the plate surface to generate and receive the lowest order flexural mode (A0 mode) at low frequencies. The stiffness measurement first experimentally determines the phase velocity of the A0 mode, then reconstructs the stiffness matrix components D11, D22, A44, and A55 utilizing the higher order plate wave solution for laminated composites and a nonlinear least-square optimization method. Such stiffness measurements can be used for quality control/quality assurance of in-service composite structures or composite manufacturing process, and for verification of composite design. As well as the stiffness measurements, the time-of- flight and amplitude measurements are achieved by keeping the pulser-receiver distance and pulsing frequency constant, and scanning the transducers over the plate surface. Since the plate wave measurements are based on the direct first arrival of the flexural mode, they are not limited by the thinness of the specimen as the conventional c-scan. Examples of stiffness measurement and defect detection are given, including cases of impact damage, delamination and debonding in composite structures. Finally the main hardware and software features of a recently-developed F-Scan system are also described.
Spin wave vortex from the scattering on Bloch point solitons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carvalho-Santos, V.L., E-mail: vagson.carvalho@usach.cl [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano - Campus Senhor do Bonfim, Km 04 Estrada da Igara, 48970-000 Senhor do Bonfim, Bahia (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Elías, R.G., E-mail: gabriel.elias@usach.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, A.S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile)
2015-12-15
The interaction of a spin wave with a stationary Bloch point is studied. The topological non-trivial structure of the Bloch point manifests in the propagation of spin waves endowing them with a gauge potential that resembles the one associated with the interaction of a magnetic monopole and an electron. By pursuing this analogy, we are led to the conclusion that the scattering of spin waves and Bloch points is accompanied by the creation of a magnon vortex. Interference between such a vortex and a plane wave leads to dislocations in the interference pattern that can be measurable by means of magnon holography.
Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Polar State of Spin-1 BEC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watabe, Shohei; Ohashi, Yoji; Kato, Yusuke
2012-01-01
We investigate tunneling properties of collective spin-wave excitations in the polar state of a spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Within the mean-field theory at T = 0, we show that when the condensate is in the critical supercurrent state, the spin wave mode exhibits perfect transmission through a nonmagnetic potential barrier in the low energy limit, unless the strength of a spin-independent interaction c o equals that of a spin-dependent interaction c o Such an anomalous tunneling behavior is absent in the case of a magnetic barrier. We also clarify a scaling law of the transmission probability as a function of the mode energy.
Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Polar State of Spin-1 BEC
Watabe, Shohei; Kato, Yusuke; Ohashi, Yoji
2012-12-01
We investigate tunneling properties of collective spin-wave excitations in the polar state of a spin-1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate. Within the mean-field theory at T = 0, we show that when the condensate is in the critical supercurrent state, the spin wave mode exhibits perfect transmission through a nonmagnetic potential barrier in the low energy limit, unless the strength of a spin-independent interaction co equals that of a spin-dependent interaction co Such an anomalous tunneling behavior is absent in the case of a magnetic barrier. We also clarify a scaling law of the transmission probability as a function of the mode energy.
Perspectives of using spin waves for computing and signal processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Csaba, György, E-mail: gcsaba@gmail.com [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States); Faculty for Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Hungary); Papp, Ádám [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States); Faculty for Information Technology and Bionics, Pázmány Péter Catholic University (Hungary); Porod, Wolfgang [Center for Nano Science and Technology, University of Notre Dame (United States)
2017-05-03
Highlights: • We give an overview of spin wave-based computing with emphasis on non-Boolean signal processors. • Spin waves can combine the best of electronics and photonics and do it in an on-chip and integrable way. • Copying successful approaches from microelectronics may not be the best way toward spin-wave based computing. • Practical devices can be constructed by minimizing the number of required magneto-electric interconnections. - Abstract: Almost all the world's information is processed and transmitted by either electric currents or photons. Now they may get a serious contender: spin-wave-based devices may just perform some information-processing tasks in a lot more efficient and practical way. In this article, we give an engineering perspective of the potential of spin-wave-based devices. After reviewing various flavors for spin-wave-based processing devices, we argue that the niche for spin-wave-based devices is low-power, compact and high-speed signal-processing devices, where most traditional electronics show poor performance.
Perspectives of using spin waves for computing and signal processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csaba, György; Papp, Ádám; Porod, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
Highlights: • We give an overview of spin wave-based computing with emphasis on non-Boolean signal processors. • Spin waves can combine the best of electronics and photonics and do it in an on-chip and integrable way. • Copying successful approaches from microelectronics may not be the best way toward spin-wave based computing. • Practical devices can be constructed by minimizing the number of required magneto-electric interconnections. - Abstract: Almost all the world's information is processed and transmitted by either electric currents or photons. Now they may get a serious contender: spin-wave-based devices may just perform some information-processing tasks in a lot more efficient and practical way. In this article, we give an engineering perspective of the potential of spin-wave-based devices. After reviewing various flavors for spin-wave-based processing devices, we argue that the niche for spin-wave-based devices is low-power, compact and high-speed signal-processing devices, where most traditional electronics show poor performance.
Tunable spin waves in diluted magnetic semiconductor nanoribbon
Lyu, Pin; Zhang, Jun-Yi
2018-01-01
The spin wave excitation spectrum in diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanoribbons was calculated by taking account of the quantum confinement effect of carriers and spin waves. By introducing the boundary condition for the spin waves, we derived the spin wave dispersion using the path-integral formulation and Green's function method. It was shown that the spin wave excitation spectrum is discrete due to the confinement effect and strongly dependent on the carrier density, the magnetic ion density, and the width of the nanoribbon. When the width of the nanoribbon is beyond the typical nanoscales, the size effect on the excitation energies of the spin waves disappears in our calculation, which is in qualitative agreement with no obvious size effect observed in the as-made nanodevices of (Ga,Mn)As in this size regime. Our results provide a potential way to control the spin waves in the DMS nanoribbon not only by the carrier density and the magnetic ion density but also by the nanostructure geometry.
Gravitational waves from spinning eccentric binaries
Csizmadia, Péter; Debreczeni, Gergely; Rácz, István; Vasúth, Mátyás
2012-12-01
This paper is to introduce a new software called CBwaves which provides a fast and accurate computational tool to determine the gravitational waveforms yielded by generic spinning binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes on eccentric orbits. This is done within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework by integrating the equations of motion and the spin precession equations, while the radiation field is determined by a simultaneous evaluation of the analytic waveforms. In applying CBwaves various physically interesting scenarios have been investigated. In particular, we have studied the appropriateness of the adiabatic approximation, and justified that the energy balance relation is indeed insensitive to the specific form of the applied radiation reaction term. By studying eccentric binary systems, it is demonstrated that circular template banks are very ineffective in identifying binaries even if they possess tiny residual orbital eccentricity, thus confirming a similar result obtained by Brown and Zimmerman (2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 024007). In addition, by investigating the validity of the energy balance relation we show that, contrary to the general expectations, the PN approximation should not be applied once the PN parameter gets beyond the critical value ˜0.08 - 0.1. Finally, by studying the early phase of the gravitational waves emitted by strongly eccentric binary systems—which could be formed e.g. in various many-body interactions in the galactic halo—we have found that they possess very specific characteristics which may be used to identify these type of binary systems. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Péter Csizmadia a young physicist, computer expert and one of the best Hungarian mountaineers who disappeared in China’s Sichuan near the Ren Zhong Feng peak of the Himalayas on 23 Oct. 2009. We started to develop CBwaves jointly with Péter a couple of months before he left for China.
Spin wave propagation in a uniformly biased curved magnonic waveguide
Sadovnikov, A. V.; Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.; Romanenko, D. V.; Grishin, S. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Sharaevskii, Y. P.; Nikitov, S. A.
2017-08-01
Using Brillouin light scattering microscopy and micromagnetic simulations, we study the propagation and transformation of magnetostatic spin waves across uniformly biased curved magnonic waveguides. Our results demonstrate that the spin wave transmission through the bend can be enhanced or weakened by modifying the distribution of the inhomogeneous internal magnetic field spanning the structure. Our results open up the possibility of optimally molding the flow of spin waves across networks of magnonic waveguides, thereby representing a step forward in the design and construction of the more complex magnonic circuitry.
Motion of a skyrmionium driven by spin wave
Shen, Maokang; Zhang, Yue; Ou-Yang, Jun; Yang, Xiaofei; You, Long
2018-02-01
A skyrmionium is composed of two skyrmions with opposite skyrmion numbers and different sizes in the same track. In recent years, the motion of a skyrmionium driven by spin-polarized current has been investigated. However, the motion of a skyrmionium driven by a spin wave has not been reported. In this paper, we report our work concerning the numerical analysis of spin wave-driven motion of a skyrmionium in a nanotrack. The results show that the motion of a skyrmionium was significantly influenced by varying the frequency and amplitude of the AC magnetic field for exciting a spin wave, the distance between the spin wave source and the skyrmionium, the damping coefficient of the ferromagnetic track, and the track width. We found skyrmionium deformation during its initial motion process, but its shape could be recovered as it moved farther away from the spin wave source. Additionally, a series of velocity peaks were observed in the frequency range between 25 GHz and 175 GHz. When compared to a skyrmion, the skyrmionium could be driven by a spin wave to move in a wider frequency range at a higher velocity, and the velocity of the skyrmionium kept increasing with the increase in the track width till the track edge was far away from the skyrmionium. The result offers skyrmionium potential applications in wide-frequency spintronic devices.
Experimental prototype of a spin-wave majority gate
Fischer, T.; Kewenig, M.; Bozhko, D. A.; Serga, A. A.; Syvorotka, I. I.; Ciubotaru, F.; Adelmann, C.; Hillebrands, B.; Chumak, A. V.
2017-04-01
Featuring low heat dissipation, devices based on spin-wave logic gates promise to comply with increasing future requirements in information processing. In this work, we present the experimental realization of a majority gate based on the interference of spin waves in an Yttrium-Iron-Garnet-based waveguiding structure. This logic device features a three-input combiner with the logic information encoded in a phase of 0 or π of the input spin waves. We show that the phase of the output signal represents the majority of the three phase states of the spin waves in the three inputs. A switching time of about 10 ns in the prototype device provides evidence for the ability of sub-nanosecond data processing in future down-scaled devices.
Scattering of spinning test particles by gravitational plane waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bini, D.; Gemelli, G.
1997-01-01
The authors study the motion of spinning particles in the gravitational plane-wave background and discuss particular solutions under a suitable choice of supplementary conditions. An analysis of the discontinuity of the motion across the wavefront is presented too
Spin waves in antiferromagnetic FeF2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hutchings, M T; Rainford, B.D.; Guggenheim, H J
1970-01-01
Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin...
Spin waves and the order-disorder transition in chromium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Dietrich, O.W.
1969-01-01
The inelastic magnetic scattering of neutrons has been studied in Cr and Cr0.95-Mn0.05 both below and above the Neel temperature. The temperature dependence of the spin-wave velocity in the alloy has been measured below TN. The scattering above TN may also be interpreted in terms of spin-wavelike...
Gravitational Waves and the Maximum Spin Frequency of Neutron Stars
Patruno, A.; Haskell, B.; D'Angelo, C.
2012-01-01
In this paper, we re-examine the idea that gravitational waves are required as a braking mechanism to explain the observed maximum spin frequency of neutron stars. We show that for millisecond X-ray pulsars, the existence of spin equilibrium as set by the disk/magnetosphere interaction is sufficient
Spin waves in vanadium sesquioxide V2O3
Word, R. E.; Werner, S. A.; Yelon, W. B.; Honig, J. M.; Shivashankar, S.
1981-04-01
We have carried out inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the spin waves propagating along the [00l] trigonal axis and along the [hh0] axis in the antiferromagnetic phase of V2O3. We find an energy gap in the spin-wave spectrum at the zone center of 4.75 meV. We obtain exchange parameters and the anisotropy energy from these data using a nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor Heisenberg Hamiltonian model.
Spin-wave excitation and Moessbauer spectrometry of amorphous interface in Tb/Fe multilayer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Khiraoui, S.; Sajieddine, M.; Lassri, H.; Sahlaoui, M.
2009-01-01
Magnetic properties of Tb(48 A)/Fe(26 A) multilayer were studied with Moessbauer spectrometry at different temperatures before and after isothermal annealing at 673 K. For this last case, a significant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is induced. This phenomenon is related to the existence of an amorphous and homogenous Tb-Fe alloy, located at the interfaces, which is produced by interdiffusion during the heat processing. The thermal evolution of hyperfine field deduced for interfacial Tb-Fe alloy is found to obey the Bloch law. The spin-wave stiffness constant, the distance between nearest magnetic atoms and the exchange parameter A were calculated from the experimental results
Model for a collimated spin-wave beam generated by a single-layer spin torque nanocontact
Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Stiles, M. D.
2008-04-01
A model of spin-torque-induced magnetization dynamics based on semiclassical spin diffusion theory for a single-layer nanocontact is presented. The model incorporates effects due to the current-induced Oersted field and predicts the generation of a variety of spatially dependent, coherent, precessional magnetic wave structures. Directionally controllable collimated spin-wave beams, vortex spiral waves, and localized standing waves are found to be excited by the interplay of the Oersted field and the orientation of an applied field. These fields act as a spin-wave “corral” around the nanocontact that controls the propagation of spin waves in certain directions.
Assessment of impact factors on shear wave based liver stiffness measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ling, Wenwu, E-mail: lingwenwubing@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Lu, Qiang, E-mail: wsluqiang@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Quan, Jierong, E-mail: quanjierong@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: malin2010US@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Luo, Yan, E-mail: huaxiluoyan@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China)
2013-02-15
Shear wave based ultrasound elastographies have been implemented as non-invasive methods for quantitative assessment of liver stiffness. Nonetheless, there are only a few studies that have investigated impact factors on liver stiffness measurement (LSM). Moreover, standard examination protocols for LSM are still lacking in clinical practice. Our study aimed to assess the impact factors on LSM to establish its standard examination protocols in clinical practice. We applied shear wave based elastography point quantification (ElastPQ) in 21 healthy individuals to determine the impact of liver location (segments I–VIII), breathing phase (end-inspiration and end-expiration), probe position (sub-costal and inter-costal position) and examiner on LSM. Additional studies in 175 healthy individuals were also performed to determine the influence of gender and age on liver stiffness. We found significant impact of liver location on LSM, while the liver segment V displayed the lowest coefficient of variation (CV 21%). The liver stiffness at the end-expiration was significantly higher than that at the end-inspiration (P = 2.1E−05). The liver stiffness was 8% higher in men than in women (3.8 ± 0.7 kPa vs. 3.5 ± 0.4 kPa, P = 0.0168). In contrast, the liver stiffness was comparable in the different probe positions, examiners and age groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, this study reveals significant impact from liver location, breathing phase and gender on LSM, while furthermore strengthening the necessity for the development of standard examination protocols on LSM.
Spin correlations and spin-wave excitations in Dirac-Weyl semimetals
Araki, Yasufumi; Nomura, Kentaro
We study correlations among magnetic dopants in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl semimetals. Effective field theory for localized magnetic moments is derived by integrating out the itinerant electron degrees of freedom. We find that spin correlation in the spatial direction parallel to local magnetization is more rigid than that in the perpendicular direction, reflecting spin-momentum locking nature of the Dirac Hamiltonian. Such an anisotropy becomes stronger for Fermi level close to the Dirac points, due to Van Vleck paramagnetism triggered by spin-orbit coupling. One can expect topologically nontrivial spin textures under this anisotropy, such as a hedgehog around a single point, or a radial vortex around an axis, as well as a uniform ferromagnetic order. We further investigate the characteristics of spin waves in the ferromagnetic state. Spin-wave dispersion also shows a spatial anisotropy, which is less dispersed in the direction transverse to the magnetization than that in the longitudinal direction. The spin-wave dispersion anisotropy can be traced back to the rigidity and flexibility of spin correlations discussed above. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Grants No.15H05854, No.26107505, and No.26400308) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan.
Spin waves propagation and confinement in magnetic microstructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailleul, Matthieu
2002-01-01
In this thesis, ferromagnetic thin film elements have been studied on a small scale (μm) and at high frequencies (GHz). For those studies, a microwave spectrometer based on the use of micro-antennae has been developed. It had been applied to two different systems. In a first time, we have launched and detected spin waves in continuous films. This allowed us to describe both the transduction process and the relaxation law for long wavelength spin waves. In a second time, we have studied micrometer-wide stripe for which the magnetic ground state is inhomogeneous. The obtained microwave response has been interpreted in terms of micro-magnetic phase transitions and in terms of spin waves confinement. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, Pavel A.; Kuz’menkov, L.S.
2015-01-01
We consider quantum plasmas of electrons and motionless ions. We describe separate evolution of spin-up and spin-down electrons. We present corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. We assume that plasmas are placed in an uniform external magnetic field. We account different occupation of spin-up and spin-down quantum states in equilibrium degenerate plasmas. This effect is included via equations of state for pressure of each species of electrons. We study oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We show that instead of two well-known waves (the Langmuir wave and the Trivelpiece–Gould wave), plasmas reveal four wave solutions. New solutions exist due to both the separate consideration of spin-up and spin-down electrons and different occupation of spin-up and spin-down quantum states in equilibrium state of degenerate plasmas
Observation of nuclear spin waves in spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johson, B.R.; Denker, J.S.; Bigelow, N.; Levy, L.P.; Freed, J.H.; Lee, D.M.
1984-04-23
We have observed narrow, distinct resonances in the NMR spectrum of dilute spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas (nroughly-equal10/sup 16/ atoms/cm/sup 3/). The dependence of the observed spectra on temperature, density, polarization, and magnetic field gradient is consistent with theoretical predictions for spin-wave excitations damped by diffusion. We have measured the parameter ..mu.., which is a measure of the importance of exchange effects in spin transport processes, and the diffusion coefficient D/sub 0/, both of which are in reasonable agreement with theory.
Temporal evolution of the spin-wave intensity and phase in a local parametric amplifier
Brächer, T.; Heussner, F.; Meyer, T.; Fischer, T.; Geilen, M.; Heinz, B.; Lägel, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Pirro, P.
2018-03-01
We present a time-resolved study of the evolution of the spin-wave intensity and phase in a local parametric spin-wave amplifier at pumping powers close to the threshold of parametric generation. We show that the phase of the amplified spin waves is determined by the phase of the incoming signal-carrying spin waves and that it can be preserved on long time scales as long as the energy input by the input spin waves is provided. In contrast, the phase-information is lost in such a local spin-wave amplifier as soon as the input spin-wave is switched off. These findings are an important benchmark for the use of parametric amplifiers in logic circuits relying on the spin-wave phase as information carrier.
Spin-wave and critical neutron scattering from chromium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Axe, J.D.; Shirane, G.
1971-01-01
Chromium and its dilute alloys are unique examples of magnetism caused by itinerant electrons. The magnetic excitations have been studied by inelastic neutron scattering using a high-resolution triple-axis spectrometer. Spin-wave peaks in q scans at constant energy transfer ℏω could, in general...
Imperfect nesting and scattering effect in spin density waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Xiaozhou; Maki, Kazumi
1992-01-01
We study the impurity scattering in spin and charge density wave (SDW/CDW) with imperfect nesting. The impurity scattering suppresses both the SDW (or CDW) order parameter and the transition temperature like the pair-breaking effect in superconductor. Here we analyze the order parameter and the density of states of SDW (or CDW)
Inelastic scattering of neutrons by spin waves in terbium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden
1966-01-01
Measurements of spin-wave dispersion relations for magnons propagating in symmetry directions in ferromagnetic Tb; it is first experiment to give detailed information on magnetic excitations in heavy rare earths; Tb was chosen for these measurements because it is one of few rare-earth metals which...
Guo, Yuexin; Lo, Ho Yuen; Lee, Wei-Ning
2017-05-01
Shear wave imaging has emerged as a potential non-invasive technique for the quantitative assessment of the arterial shear modulus. Nonetheless, the arterial elasticity estimation in the transverse direction has been overlooked compared with the longitudinal direction, and the estimated transmural stiffness has rarely been evaluated. Accurate depiction of the transverse stiffness across the thin arterial wall warrants comprehensive characterization in both normal and pathological conditions. This study estimated the transmural arterial shear modulus in both the longitudinal ( μ Long) and transverse directions ( μ Trans) using group ( c T) and phase velocities ( c p h) in finite element models and hollow cylindrical tissue-mimicking phantoms with various shape factors. The results were validated against mechanical testing. Zero-order antisymmetric Lamb wave and circumferential Lamb type wave models were considered in the longitudinal and transverse directions of the thin-walled hollow cylinder, respectively. The results derived from the model with the thin plate assumption confirmed that c T underestimated μ Long and μ Trans. Unlike the c p h-based μ Long estimates that were in excellent agreement with measured values, the c p h-based μ Trans estimates were found to be comparable to c p h-based μ Long at the inner wall but increased radially outward. Transmural μ Trans estimation using c p h was demonstrated to be feasible for thin-walled hollow cylinders but necessitated careful account of the wall geometry, in particular the shape factor.
Spin waves in terbium. III. Magnetic anisotropy at zero wave vector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Jensen, J.; Touborg, P.
1975-01-01
The energy gap at zero wave vector in the spin-wave dispersion relation of ferromagnetic. Tb has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The energy was measured as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, and the dynamic anisotropy parameters were deduced from the results...
Surface and bulk spin-wave resonances in La{sub 0.7}Mn{sub 1.3}O{sub 3} films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyakonov, V. [Donetsk Physics and Technology Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine); Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Prohorov, A.; Shapovalov, V.; Krivoruchko, V.; Pashchenko, V.; Zubov, E.; Mihailov, V. [Donetsk Physics and Technology Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine); Aleshkevych, P.; Berkowski, M.; Piechota, S.; Szymczak, H. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)
2001-05-07
In this work, we present the measurements of exchange-dominated nonpropagating surface and bulk spin-wave modes in the La-deficient epitaxial La{sub 0.7}Mn{sub 1.3}O{sub 3} films prepared by dc-magnetron sputtering. The angular and temperature dependences of the modes observed are discussed. The main result obtained is the observation of the spin-wave resonance (SWR) consisting of a series (17) of well resolved standing spin-wave modes in the perpendicular external magnetic field geometry. The surface spin-wave modes have been observed in manganites for the first time. As the magnetization is rotated out of perpendicular to the film surface, a 'critical angle', {phi}{sub cr}, is fixed, at which the surface and first spin-wave modes have been transformed into the uniform mode. It is shown that only the uniform mode exists in the region 0<{phi}<{phi}{sub cr}. The surface mode data are consistent with the surface-inhomogeneity model in which the surface-anisotropy field acts on the surface spin. Possible origins of the surface anisotropy are discussed. Based on the temperature and angular dependences of SWR spectra, the main microscopic parameters (the spin-wave stiffness, exchange constant and g-factor value) are established. (author)
Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. I. Polzikova
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW resonator (HBAR formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.
Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polzikova, N. I., E-mail: polz@cplire.ru; Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P. [Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Mokhovaya 11, building 7, Moscow, 125009 (Russian Federation)
2016-05-15
We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.
Micro-focused Brillouin light scattering: imaging spin waves at the nanoscale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas eSebastian
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Spin waves constitute an important part of research in the field of magnetization dynamics. Spin waves are the elementary excitations of the spin system in a magnetically ordered material state and magnons are their quasi particles. In the following article, we will discuss the optical method of Brillouin light scattering (BLS spectroscopy which is a now a well established tool for the characterization of spin waves. BLS is the inelastic scattering of light from spin waves and confers several benefits: the ability to map the spin wave intensity distribution with spatial resolution and high sensitivity as well as the potential to simultaneously measure the frequency and the wave vector and, therefore, the dispersion properties.For several decades, the field of spin waves gained huge interest by the scientific community due to its relevance regarding fundamental issues of spindynamics in the field of solid states physics. The ongoing research in recent years has put emphasis on the high potential of spin waves regarding information technology. In the emerging field of textit{magnonics}, several concepts for a spin-wave based logic have been proposed and realized. Opposed to charge-based schemes in conventional electronics and spintronics, magnons are charge-free currents of angular momentum, and, therefore, less subject to scattering processes that lead to heating and dissipation. This fact is highlighted by the possibility to utilize spin waves as information carriers in electrically insulating materials. These developments have propelled the quest for ways and mechanisms to guide and manipulate spin-wave transport. In particular, a lot of effort is put into the miniaturization of spin-wave waveguides and the excitation of spin waves in structures with sub-micrometer dimensions.For the further development of potential spin-wave-based devices, the ability to directly observe spin-wave propagation with spatial resolution is crucial. As an optical
Satoh, Hiroyasu
2009-06-01
Treatment by manual acupuncture needling affects the vascular wall tone, and hemodynamic parameters for arterial stiffness may be characterized by treatment at the traditional acupuncture point (acupoint) of Baihui (GV20). The acute effects of acupuncture treatment on arterial stiffness and wave reflection were investigated and, simultaneously, an augmentation index (AI), as an index of wave reflection, was estimated. These parameters were measured in male volunteers using applanation tonometry during 20 minutes of acupuncture treatment and 40 minutes post-acupuncture. During treatment, diastolic blood pressure (BP), but not systolic BP, increased significantly. Heart rates (HR) initially tended to increase and then decrease. The AI from radial arteries increased significantly, while central aortic blood pressure (CBP) was unaffected. Post-acupuncture, the effects lasted for 30-40 minutes. The average BP and HR were +10.1+/-0.3% and -7.2+/-0.2%, respectively, and the CBPs were not altered, but the AI decreased markedly; this latter effect presumably resulted from the involvement of neurovascular modulators. These results indicated that acute treatment at Baihui enhanced arteriosclerotic parameters. In post-acupuncture, the AI profoundly decreased, presumably resulting from the involvement with neurovascular modulators.
Resonant tunneling of spin-wave packets via quantized states in potential wells.
Hansen, Ulf-Hendrik; Gatzen, Marius; Demidov, Vladislav E; Demokritov, Sergej O
2007-09-21
We have studied the tunneling of spin-wave pulses through a system of two closely situated potential barriers. The barriers represent two areas of inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field, where the existence of spin waves is forbidden. We show that for certain values of the spin-wave frequency corresponding to the quantized spin-wave states existing in the well formed between the barriers, the tunneling has a resonant character. As a result, transmission of spin-wave packets through the double-barrier structure is much more efficient than the sequent tunneling through two single barriers.
Akagi, Ryota; Kusama, Saki
2015-08-01
The goals of this study were to compare neck and shoulder stiffness values determined by shear wave ultrasound elastography with those obtained with a muscle hardness meter and to verify the correspondence between objective and subjective stiffness in the neck and shoulder. Twenty-four young men and women participated in the study. Their neck and shoulder stiffness was determined at six sites. Before the start of the measurements, patients rated their present subjective symptoms of neck and shoulder stiffness on a 6-point verbal scale. At all measurement sites, the correlation coefficients between the values of muscle hardness indices determined by the muscle hardness meter and shear wave ultrasound elastography were not significant. Furthermore, individuals' subjective neck and shoulder stiffness did not correspond to their objective symptoms. These results suggest that the use of shear wave ultrasound elastography is essential to more precisely assess neck and shoulder stiffness. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Resonant spin wave excitations in a magnonic crystal cavity
Kumar, N.; Prabhakar, A.
2018-03-01
Spin polarized electric current, injected into permalloy (Py) through a nano contact, exerts a torque on the magnetization. The spin waves (SWs) thus excited propagate radially outward. We propose an antidot magnonic crystal (MC) with a three-hole defect (L3) around the nano contact, designed so that the frequency of the excited SWs, lies in the band gap of the MC. L3 thus acts as a resonant SW cavity. The energy in this magnonic crystal cavity can be tapped by an adjacent MC waveguide (MCW). An analysis of the simulated micromagnetic power spectrum, at the output port of the MCW reveals stable SW oscillations. The quality factor of the device, calculated using the decay method, was estimated as Q > 105 for an injected spin current density of 7 ×1012 A/m2.
Spin-wave dispersion relations in disordered Fe-V alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakai, Y.; Schibuya, N.; Kunitomi, N.; Wakabayashi, N.; Cooke, J.F.
1982-01-01
The spin-wave dispersion relations of the ferromagnetic disordered alloys Fe/sub 1-x/V/sub x/(x = 0.076, 0.135, 0.160, and 0.187) were studied by means of the inelastic scattering of neutrons. The observed dispersion relations are adequately represented by the power law, E = Dq 2 (1-βq 2 ), in a wide energy range up to 80 meV. The concentration dependence of the exchange stiffness constant D shows good agreement with previous results obtained by means of the small-angle scattering of neutrons and by the analysis of the temperature dependence of the bulk magnetization. The observed results can be explained by the Heisenberg model and, to some extent, by the itinerant-electron model
Magnetic Snell's law and spin-wave fiber with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
Yu, Weichao; Lan, Jin; Wu, Ruqian; Xiao, Jiang
2016-10-01
Spin waves are collective excitations propagating in the magnetic medium with ordered magnetizations. Magnonics, utilizing the spin wave (magnon) as an information carrier, is a promising candidate for low-dissipation computation and communication technologies. We discover that, due to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the scattering behavior of the spin wave at a magnetic domain wall follows a generalized Snell's law, where two magnetic domains work as two different mediums. Similar to optical total reflection that occurs at water-air interfaces, spin waves may experience total reflection at the magnetic domain walls when their incident angle is larger than a critical value. We design a spin-wave fiber using a magnetic domain structure with two domain walls, and demonstrate that such a spin-wave fiber can transmit spin waves over long distances by total internal reflections, in analogy to an optical fiber.
Homogeneous microwave field emitted propagating spin waves: Direct imaging and modeling
Lohman, Mathis; Mozooni, Babak; McCord, Jeffrey
2018-03-01
We explore the generation of propagating dipolar spin waves by homogeneous magnetic field excitation in the proximity of the boundaries of magnetic microstructures. Domain wall motion, precessional dynamics, and propagating spin waves are directly imaged by time-resolved wide-field magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. The aspects of spin wave generation are clarified by micromagnetic calculations matching the experimental results. The region of dipolar spin wave formation is confined to the local resonant excitation due to non-uniform internal demagnetization fields at the edges of the patterned sample. Magnetic domain walls act as a border for the propagation of plane and low damped spin waves, thus restraining the spin waves within the individual magnetic domains. The findings are of significance for the general understanding of structural and configurational magnetic boundaries for the creation, the propagation, and elimination of spin waves.
Chen, Jilei; Stueckler, Tobias; Zhang, Youguang; Zhao, Weisheng; Yu, Haiming; Chang, Houchen; Liu, Tao; Wu, Mingzhong; Liu, Chuanpu; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Fert Beijing research institute Team; Colorado State University Team; Peking University Collaboration
Magnonics offers a new way to transport information using spin waves free of charge current and could lead to a new paradigm in the area of computing. Forward volume (FV) mode spin wave with perpendicular magnetized configuration is suitable for spin wave logic device because it is free of non-reciprocity effect. Here, we study FV mode spin wave propagation in YIG thin film with an ultra-low damping. We integrated differently designed antenna i.e., coplanar waveguide and micro stripline with different dimensions. The k vectors of the spin waves defined by the design of the antenna are calculated using Fourier transform. We show FV mode spin wave propagation results by measuring S12 parameter from vector network analyzer and we extract the group velocity of the FV mode spin wave as well as its dispersion relations.
Spin-density wave state in simple hexagonal graphite
Mosoyan, K. S.; Rozhkov, A. V.; Sboychakov, A. O.; Rakhmanov, A. L.
2018-02-01
Simple hexagonal graphite, also known as AA graphite, is a metastable configuration of graphite. Using tight-binding approximation, it is easy to show that AA graphite is a metal with well-defined Fermi surface. The Fermi surface consists of two sheets, each shaped like a rugby ball. One sheet corresponds to electron states, another corresponds to hole states. The Fermi surface demonstrates good nesting: a suitable translation in the reciprocal space superposes one sheet onto another. In the presence of the electron-electron repulsion, a nested Fermi surface is unstable with respect to spin-density-wave ordering. This instability is studied using the mean-field theory at zero temperature, and the spin-density-wave order parameter is evaluated.
Collective spin wave and phonon excitations in ferromagnetic organic polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leong, Jit-Liang; Sun, Shih-Jye
2013-01-01
We proposed a model to investigate the properties of a conductive and ferromagnetic organic-polymer (OCP), which contains two collective excitations—spin wave and phonon—competing with each other; namely, the spin wave excitation accompanies the electron–phonon (e–ph) interactions in the conductive and ferromagnetic OCP. The ferromagnetism of the OCP is induced from the conductive carriers which couple with the phonon to become polarons. Due to the competition between both excitations, the Curie temperature (T C ) is sensitively suppressed by the e–ph interaction. In addition, an optimal T C with a small e–ph interaction exists in a specific density of conduction carrier, yet is contrary to the large e–ph interaction case. Furthermore, the dimerization, i.e. the atomic displacement induced from the e–ph interactions, increases with the strength of the e–ph interaction and decreases upon reaching the maximum dimerization. (paper)
Spin wave steering in three-dimensional magnonic networks
Beginin, E. N.; Sadovnikov, A. V.; Sharaevskaya, A. Yu.; Stognij, A. I.; Nikitov, S. A.
2018-03-01
We report the concept of three-dimensional (3D) magnonic structures which are especially promising for controlling and manipulating magnon currents. The approach for fabrication of 3D magnonic crystals (MCs) and 3D magnonic networks is presented. A meander type ferromagnetic film grown at the top of the initially structured substrate can be a candidate for such 3D crystals. Using the finite element method, transfer matrix method, and micromagnetic simulations, we study spin-wave propagation in both isolated and coupled 3D MCs and reconstruct spin-wave dispersion and transmission response to elucidate the mechanism of magnonic bandgap formation. Our results show the possibility of the utilization of proposed structures for fabrication of a 3D magnonic network.
Linear spin waves in a trapped Bose gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikuni, T.; Williams, J.E.; Clark, C.W.
2002-01-01
An ultracold Bose gas of two-level atoms can be thought of as a spin-1/2 Bose gas. It supports spin-wave collective modes due to the exchange mean field. Such collective spin oscillations have been observed in recent experiments at JILA with 87 Rb atoms confined in a harmonic trap. We present a theory of the spin-wave collective modes based on the moment method for trapped gases. In the collisionless and hydrodynamic limits, we derive analytic expressions for the frequencies and damping rates of modes with dipole and quadrupole symmetry. We find that the frequency for a given mode is given by a temperature-independent function of the peak density n, and falls off as 1/n. We also find that, to a very good approximation, excitations in the radial and axial directions are decoupled. We compare our model to the numerical integration of a one-dimensional version of the kinetic equation and find very good qualitative agreement. The damping rates, however, show the largest deviation for intermediate densities, where one expects Landau damping--which is unaccounted for in our moment approach--to play a significant role
Part I: Spin wave dynamics in YIG spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1987-01-01
An experimental study is made of the interactions between spin wave modes excited in a sphere of yttrium iron garnet by pumping the Suhl subsidiary absorption with microwaves. The dynamical behavior of the magnetization is observed under high resolution by varying the dc field and microwave pump power. Varied behavior is found: (1) onset of the Suhl instability by excitation of a single spin wave mode; (2) when two or more modes are excited, interactions lead to auto-oscillations displaying period-doubling to chaos; (3) quasiperiodicity, locking, and chaos occur when three or more modes are excited; (4) abrupt transition to wide band power spectra (i.e., turbulence), with hysteresis; (5) irregular relaxation oscillations and aperiodic spiking behavior. A theoretical model is developed using the plane wave approximation obtaining the lowest order nonlinear interaction terms between the excited modes. Extension of this analysis to the true spherical spin-modes is discussed. Bifurcation behavior is examined, and dynamical behavior is numerically computed and compared to the experimental data. A theory is developed regarding the nature of the experimentally observed relaxation oscillations and spiking behavior based on the interaction of ''weak'' and ''strong'' modes, and this is demonstrated in the numerical simulations for two modes. Quasiperiodicity is shown to occur in the numerical study when at least 3 modes are excited with appropriate parameter values. A possible mechanism for generating microwave subharmonics at half of the pumping frequency is discussed. 57 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs
Gravitational waves from spinning compact binaries in hyperbolic orbits
De Vittori, Lorenzo; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Gupta, Anuradha; Jetzer, Philippe
2014-12-01
Compact binaries in hyperbolic orbits are plausible gravitational-wave (GW) sources for the upcoming and planned GW observatories. We develop an efficient prescription to compute post-Newtonian (PN)-accurate ready-to-use GW polarization states for spinning compact binaries, influenced by the dominant-order spin-orbit interactions, in hyperbolic orbits. This is achieved by invoking the 1.5PN-accurate quasi-Keplerian parametrization for the radial sector of the orbital dynamics. We probe the influences of spins and the gravitational radiation reaction on h+ and h× during the hyperbolic passage. It turns out that both polarization states exhibit the memory effect for GWs from spinning compact binaries in hyperbolic orbits. In contrast, only the cross-polarization state exhibits the memory effect for GWs from nonspinning compact binaries. Additionally, we compute 1PN-accurate amplitude corrected GW polarization states for hyperbolic nonspinning compact binaries in a fully parametric manner and perform initial comparisons with the existing waveforms.
Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric materials by stiffness matrix method.
Ben Salah, Issam; Wali, Yassine; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi
2011-04-01
A numerical matrix method relative to the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in functionally graded piezoelectric heterostructure is given in order to make a comparative study with the respective performances of analytical methods proposed in literature. The preliminary obtained results show a good agreement, however numerical approach has the advantage of conceptual simplicity and flexibility brought about by the stiffness matrix method. The propagation behaviour of Love waves in a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) is investigated in this article. It involves a thin FGPM layer bonded perfectly to an elastic substrate. The inhomogeneous FGPM heterostructure has been stratified along the depth direction, hence each state can be considered as homogeneous and the ordinary differential equation method is applied. The obtained solutions are used to study the effect of an exponential gradient applied to physical properties. Such numerical approach allows applying different gradient variation for mechanical and electrical properties. For this case, the obtained results reveal opposite effects. The dispersive curves and phase velocities of the Love wave propagation in the layered piezoelectric film are obtained for electrical open and short cases on the free surface, respectively. The effect of gradient coefficients on coupled electromechanical factor, on the stress fields, the electrical potential and the mechanical displacement are discussed, respectively. Illustration is achieved on the well known heterostructure PZT-5H/SiO(2), the obtained results are especially useful in the design of high-performance acoustic surface devices and accurately prediction of the Love wave propagation behaviour. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2010-01-01
Results are presented for optimal layout of materials in the spatial and temporal domains for a 1D structure subjected to transient wave propagation. A general optimization procedure is outlined including derivation of design sensitivities for the case when the mass density and stiffness vary...
Sierksma, A.; Lebrun, C.E.I.; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Lamberts, S.W.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bots, M.L.
2004-01-01
Objective-Moderate alcohol consumption has been postulated to be cardioprotective. Such an effect might be reflected in large-artery properties, such as arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Methods and Results-Three hundred seventy-one healthy postmenopausal women aged 50 to 74 years were
Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Heisenberg Ferromagnet
Kato, Yusuke; Watabe, Shohei; Ohashi, Yoji
2012-12-01
The ferromagnetic spin wave (FSW) in classical Heisenberg chain exhibits the perfect transmission in the long-wavelength limit in the transmission-reflection problem with an inhomogeneity of exchange integral. In the presence of local magnetic field, on the other hand, FSW undergoes the perfect reflection in the long-wavelength limit. This difference in the long-wavelength limit is attributed to the symmetry property of the scatterers; it is crucial whether the potential preserves or breaks the spin rotation symmetry. Our result implies that the anomalous tunneling (i.e., perfect transmission in the low-energy limit) found both in scalar and spinor BECs is not specific to gapless modes in superfluids but is a common property shared with generic Nambu-Goldstone modes in the presence of a symmetry-preserving potential scatterer.
Anomalous Tunneling of Spin Wave in Heisenberg Ferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Yusuke; Watabe, Shohei; Ohashi, Yoji
2012-01-01
The ferromagnetic spin wave (FSW) in classical Heisenberg chain exhibits the perfect transmission in the long-wavelength limit in the transmission-reflection problem with an inhomogeneity of exchange integral. In the presence of local magnetic field, on the other hand, FSW undergoes the perfect reflection in the long-wavelength limit. This difference in the long-wavelength limit is attributed to the symmetry property of the scatterers; it is crucial whether the potential preserves or breaks the spin rotation symmetry. Our result implies that the anomalous tunneling (i.e., perfect transmission in the low-energy limit) found both in scalar and spinor BECs is not specific to gapless modes in superfluids but is a common property shared with generic Nambu-Goldstone modes in the presence of a symmetry-preserving potential scatterer.
Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Kersemans, Mathias; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad; Van Paepegem, Wim
2018-01-01
Phononic crystal plates (PhPs) have promising application in manipulation of guided waves for design of low-loss acoustic devices and built-in acoustic metamaterial lenses in plate structures. The prominent feature of phononic crystals is the existence of frequency bandgaps over which the waves are stopped, or are resonated and guided within appropriate defects. Therefore, maximized bandgaps of PhPs are desirable to enhance their phononic controllability. Porous PhPs produced through perforation of a uniform background plate, in which the porous interfaces act as strong reflectors of wave energy, are relatively easy to produce. However, the research in optimization of porous PhPs and experimental validation of achieved topologies has been very limited and particularly focused on bandgaps of flexural (asymmetric) wave modes. In this paper, porous PhPs are optimized through an efficient multiobjective genetic algorithm for widest complete bandgap of mixed fundamental guided wave modes (symmetric and asymmetric) and maximized stiffness. The Pareto front of optimization is analyzed and variation of bandgap efficiency with respect to stiffness is presented for various optimized topologies. Selected optimized topologies from the stiff and compliant regimes of Pareto front are manufactured by water-jetting an aluminum plate and their promising bandgap efficiency is experimentally observed. An optimized Pareto topology is also chosen and manufactured by laser cutting a Plexiglas (PMMA) plate, and its performance in self-collimation and focusing of guided waves is verified as compared to calculated dispersion properties.
Spin-wave propagation spectrum in magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Zhi-xiong; Wang, Meng-ning; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Xia, Qing-lin [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)
2016-09-15
Spin-wave propagation in periodic magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires is studied by micromagnetic simulation. Spin wave scattering at the interface of two magnetization segments causes a spin-wave band structure, which can be effectively tuned by changing either the magnetization modulation level or the period of the cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal. The bandgap width is oscillating with either the period or magnetization modulation due to the oscillating variation of the spin wave transmission coefficient through the interface of the two magnetization segments. Analytical calculation based on band theory is used to account for the micromagnetic simulation results. - Highlights: • A magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal is proposed. • Propagating characteristics of spin waves in such magnonic crystal are studied. • Spin-wave spectra can be manipulated by changing modulation level and period.
Spin-wave propagation spectrum in magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Zhi-xiong; Wang, Meng-ning; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Wang, Dao-wei; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei; Zeng, Zhong-ming; Guo, Guang-hua
2016-01-01
Spin-wave propagation in periodic magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowires is studied by micromagnetic simulation. Spin wave scattering at the interface of two magnetization segments causes a spin-wave band structure, which can be effectively tuned by changing either the magnetization modulation level or the period of the cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal. The bandgap width is oscillating with either the period or magnetization modulation due to the oscillating variation of the spin wave transmission coefficient through the interface of the two magnetization segments. Analytical calculation based on band theory is used to account for the micromagnetic simulation results. - Highlights: • A magnetization-modulated cylindrical nanowire magnonic crystal is proposed. • Propagating characteristics of spin waves in such magnonic crystal are studied. • Spin-wave spectra can be manipulated by changing modulation level and period.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Kuo-Chin; Su, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chen, Son-Hsien
2014-01-01
We study the electron spin transport in two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbital coupling (SOC). We assume spatial behavior of spin precession in the non-equilibrium transport regime, and study also quantum interference induced by non-Abelian spin-orbit gauge field. The method we adopt in this article is the non-equilibrium Green's function within a tight binding framework. We consider one ferromagnetic lead which injects spin polarized electron to a system with equal strength of Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) SOC, and we observe the persistent spin helix property. We also consider two ferromagnetic leads injecting spin polarized electrons into a pure Dresselhaus SOC system, and we observe the resultant spin wave interference pattern
Exchange interactions, spin waves, and transition temperatures in itinerant magnets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Bruno, P.
2006-01-01
Roč. 86, č. 12 (2006), s. 1713-1752 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010203; GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS2041105; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0583; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/05/2111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : exchange interactions * spin waves * itinerant magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.354, year: 2006
Mapping of spin wave propagation in a one-dimensional magnonic crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ordóñez-Romero, César L., E-mail: cloro@fisica.unam.mx; Lazcano-Ortiz, Zorayda; Aguilar-Huerta, Melisa; Monsivais, Guillermo [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Drozdovskii, Andrey; Kalinikos, Boris [St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); International laboratory “MultiferrLab,” ITMO University, 197101 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Domínguez-Juárez, J. L. [Cátedras CONACyT, CFATA, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Juriquilla, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Lopez-Maldonado, Guillermo [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Lerma de Villada, 52006 Estado de México (Mexico); Qureshi, Naser; Kolokoltsev, Oleg [CCADET, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)
2016-07-28
The formation and evolution of spin wave band gaps in the transmission spectrum of a magnonic crystal have been studied. A time and space resolved magneto inductive probing system has been used to map the spin wave propagation and evolution in a geometrically structured yttrium iron garnet film. Experiments have been carried out using (1) a chemically etched magnonic crystal supporting the propagation of magnetostatic surface spin waves, (2) a short microwave pulsed excitation of the spin waves, and (3) direct spin wave detection using a movable magneto inductive probe connected to a synchronized fast oscilloscope. The results show that the periodic structure not only modifies the spectra of the transmitted spin waves but also influences the distribution of the spin wave energy inside the magnonic crystal as a function of the position and the transmitted frequency. These results comprise an experimental confirmation of Bloch′s theorem in a spin wave system and demonstrate good agreement with theoretical observations in analogue phononic and photonic systems. Theoretical prediction of the structured transmission spectra is achieved using a simple model based on microwave transmission lines theory. Here, a spin wave system illustrates in detail the evolution of a much more general physical concept: the band gap.
2007-10-08
excitation of microwave spin waves.3,10,11 The analytical theory of spin-wave excitation in magnetic nanocontacts by spin-polarized current performed...linear theory ,3 the propagating spin- wave mode excited at the threshold is a cylindrical spin- wave with the wave vector kL=1.2/Rc and frequency L... Oersted magnetic field, and/or by any other small interaction, neglected in the micromagnetic model. To make the excitation of subcritical modes12,15
Spin wave mediated interaction as a mechanism of pairs formation in iron-based superconductors
Lima, Leonardo S.
2018-03-01
The spin wave mediated interaction between electrons has been proposed as mechanism to formation of electron pairs in iron-based superconductors. We employe the diagrammatic expansion to calculate the binding energy of electrons pairs mediated by spin wave. Therefore, we propose the coupling of electrons in high-temperature superconductors mediated by spin waves, since that is well known that this class of superconductors materials if relates with spin-1/2 two-dimensional antiferromagnets, where it is well known there be an interplay between antiferromagnetism 2D and high-temperature superconductivity.
Magnetic Spin Waves in CsNiF3 with an Applied Field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steiner, M.; Kjems, Jørgen
1977-01-01
The spin wave dispersion in the planar 1D ferromagnet CsNiF3 has been measured by inelastic neutron scattering in an external field. The spin wave linewidths are found to decrease with increasing field and become resolution-limited for H>10 kG at 4.2K. At high fields, H>10 kG, both energies...
Spin-wave excitations and magnetism of sputtered Fe/Au multilayers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The spin-wave excitations and the magnetism of Fe/Au multilayers with different Fe thicknesses (tFe) grown by RF sputtering were investigated. The temperature dependence of spontaneous magnetization is well described by a T 3 / 2 law in all multilayers in the temperature range of 5–300 K. Spin-wave theory has been ...
Langdon, Jonathan H; Elegbe, Etana; Gonzalez, Raul S; Osapoetra, Laurentius; Ford, Tristan; McAleavey, Stephen A
2017-11-01
The clinical use of elastography for monitoring fibrosis progression is challenged by the subtle changes in liver stiffness associated with early-stage fibrosis and the comparatively large variance in stiffness estimates provided by elastography. Single-tracking-location (STL) shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) is an ultrasound elastography technique previously found to provide improved estimate precision compared with multiple-tracking-location (MTL) SWEI. Because of the improved precision, it is reasonable to expect that STL-SWEI would provide improved ability to differentiate liver fibrosis stage compared with MTL-SWEI. However, this expectation has not been previously challenged rigorously. In this work, the performance of STL- and MTL-SWEI in the setting of a rat model of liver fibrosis is characterized, and the advantages of STL-SWEI in staging fibrosis are explored. The purpose of this study was to determine what advantages, if any, arise from using STL-SWEI instead of MTL-SWEI in the characterization of fibrotic liver. Thus, the ability of STL-SWEI to differentiate livers at various METAVIR fibrosis scores, for ex vivo postmortem measurements, is explored. In addition, we examined the effect of the common confounding factor of fluid versus solid boundary conditions in SWEI experiments. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with carbon tetrachloride over several weeks to produce liver disease of varying severity. STL and MTL stiffness measurements were performed ex vivo and compared with the METAVIR scores from histological analysis and the duration of treatment. A strong association was observed between liver stiffness and weeks of treatment with the liver toxin carbon tetrachloride. Direct comparison of STL- and MTL-SWEI measurements revealed no significant difference in ability to differentiate fibrosis stages based on SWEI mean values. However, image interquartile range was greatly improved in the case of STL-SWEI, compared with MTL-SWEI, at small beam
Magnetic anisotropy and quantized spin waves in hematite nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klausen, Stine Nyborg; Lefmann, Kim; Lindgård, Per-Anker
2004-01-01
We report on the observation of high-frequency collective magnetic excitations, (h) over bar omegaapproximate to1.1 meV, in hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanoparticles. The neutron scattering experiments include measurements at temperatures in the range 6-300 K and applied fields up to 7.5 T as well...... as polarization analysis. We give an explanation for the field- and temperature dependence of the excitations, which are found to have strongly elliptical out-of-plane precession. The frequency of the excitations gives information on the magnetic anisotropy constants in the system. We have in this way determined...... the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy, which is strongly related to the suppression of the Morin transition in nanoparticles of hematite. Further, the localization of the signal in both energy and momentum transfer brings evidence for finite-size quantization of spin waves in the system....
Are Gravitational Waves Spinning Down PSR J1023+0038?
Haskell, B; Patruno, A
2017-10-20
The pulsar J1023+0038 rotates with a frequency ν≈592 Hz and has been observed to transition between a radio state, during which it is visible as a millisecond radio pulsar, and a low-mass x-ray binary (LMXB) state, during which accretion powered x-ray pulsations are visible. Timing during the two phases reveals that during the LMXB phase the neutron star is spinning down at a rate of ν[over ˙]≈-3×10^{-15} Hz/s, which is approximately 27% faster than the rate measured during the radio phase, ν[over ˙]≈-2.4×10^{-15} Hz/s, and is at odds with the predictions of accretion models. We suggest that the increase in spin-down rate is compatible with gravitational wave emission, particularly with the creation of a "mountain" during the accretion phase. We show that asymmetries in pycnonuclear reaction rates in the crust can lead to a large enough mass quadrupole to explain the observed spin-down rate, which thus far has no other self-consistent explanation. We also suggest two observational tests of this scenario, involving radio timing at the onset of the next millisecond radio pulsar phase, when the mountain should dissipate, and accurate timing during the next LMXB phase to track the increase in torque as the mountain builds up. Another possibility is that an unstable r mode with an amplitude α≈5×10^{-8} may be present in the system.
Savochkin, I. V.; J?ckl, M.; Belotelov, V. I.; Akimov, I. A.; Kozhaev, M. A.; Sylgacheva, D. A.; Chernov, A. I.; Shaposhnikov, A. N.; Prokopov, A. R.; Berzhansky, V. N.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Bayer, M.
2017-01-01
Currently spin waves are considered for computation and data processing as an alternative to charge currents. Generation of spin waves by ultrashort laser pulses provides several important advances with respect to conventional approaches using microwaves. In particular, focused laser spot works as a point source for spin waves and allows for directional control of spin waves and switching between their different types. For further progress in this direction it is important to manipulate with ...
Engineering spin-wave channels in submicrometer magnonic waveguides
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
XiangJun Xing
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Based on micromagnetic simulations and model calculations, we demonstrate that degenerate well and barrier magnon modes can exist concurrently in a single magnetic waveguide magnetized perpendicularly to the long axis in a broad frequency band, corresponding to copropagating edge and centre spin waves, respectively. The dispersion relations of these magnon modes clearly show that the edge and centre modes possess much different wave characteristics. By tailoring the antenna size, the edge mode can be selectively activated. If the antenna is sufficiently narrow, both the edge and centre modes are excited with considerable efficiency and propagate along the waveguide. By roughening the lateral boundary of the waveguide, the characteristics of the relevant channel can be easily engineered. Moreover, the coupling of the edge and centre modes can be conveniently controlled by scaling the width of the waveguide. For a wide waveguide with a narrow antenna, the edge and centre modes travel relatively independently in spatially-separate channels, whereas for a narrow strip, these modes strongly superpose in space. These discoveries might find potential applications in emerging magnonic devices.
Spinning wave plate design for retinal birefringence scanning
Irsch, K.; Gramatikov, B. I.; Wu, Y.-K.; Guyton, D. L.
2009-02-01
To enhance foveal fixation detection while bypassing the deleterious effects of corneal birefringence in retinal birefringence scanning (RBS), we developed a new RBS design introducing a double-pass spinning half wave plate (HWP) and a fixed double-pass retarder into the optical system. Utilizing the measured corneal birefringence from a data set of 300 human eyes, an algorithm and a related computer program, based on Mueller-Stokes matrix calculus, were developed in MATLAB for optimizing the properties of both wave plates. Foveal fixation detection was optimized with the HWP spun 9/16 as fast as the circular scan, with the fixed retarder having a retardance of 45° and fast axis at 90°. With this new RBS design, a significant statistical improvement of 7.3 times in signal strength, i.e. FFT power, was achieved for the available data set compared with the previous RBS design. The computer-model-optimized RBS design has the potential not only for eye alignment screening, but also for remote fixation sensing and eye tracking applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puliafito, V.; Consolo, G.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Azzerboni, B.
2014-01-01
This work tackles theoretical investigations on the synchronization of spin-wave modes generated by spin-transfer-torque in a double nano-contact geometry. The interaction mechanisms between the resulting oscillators are analyzed in the case of propagating modes which are excited via a normal-to-plane magnetic bias field. To characterize the underlying physical mechanisms, a multi-domain analysis is performed. It makes use of an equivalent electrical circuit, to deduce the output electrical power, and of micromagnetic simulations, through which information on the frequency spectra and on the spatial distribution of the wavefront of the emitted spin-waves is extracted. This study provides further and intriguing insights into the physical mechanisms giving rise to synchronization of spin-torque oscillators
Kinetic description of the oblique propagating spin-electron acoustic waves in degenerate plasmas
Andreev, Pavel A.
2018-03-01
An oblique propagation of the spin-electron acoustic waves in degenerate magnetized plasmas is considered in terms of quantum kinetics with the separate spin evolution, where the spin-up electrons and the spin-down electrons are considered as two different species with different equilibrium distributions. It is considered in the electrostatic limit. The corresponding dispersion equation is derived. Analysis of the dispersion equation is performed in the long-wavelength limit to find an approximate dispersion equation describing the spin-electron acoustic wave. The approximate dispersion equation is solved numerically. Real and imaginary parts of the spin-electron acoustic wave frequency are calculated for different values of the parameters describing the system. It is found that the increase in the angle between the direction of wave propagation and the external magnetic field reduces the real and imaginary parts of spin-electron acoustic wave frequency. The increase in the spin polarization decreases the real and imaginary parts of frequency either. The imaginary part of frequency has a nonmonotonic dependence on the wave vector which shows a single maximum. The imaginary part of frequency is small in comparison with the real part for all parameters in the area of applicability of the obtained dispersion equation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E., E-mail: demidov@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Bessonov, V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Demokritov, S. O. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Prieto, J. L. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnologa (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne CNRS, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Naletov, V. V. [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Loubens, G. de [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France)
2016-04-25
We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.
Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng-min Xiong
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.
Spin waves in the soft layer of exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiong, Zheng-min; Ge, Su-qin; Wang, Xi-guang; Li, Zhi-xiong; Xia, Qing-lin; Wang, Dao-wei; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)
2016-05-15
The magnetic dynamical properties of the soft layer in exchange-coupled soft/hard bilayers have been investigated numerically using a one-dimensional atomic chain model. The frequencies and spatial profiles of spin wave eigenmodes are calculated during the magnetization reversal process of the soft layer. The spin wave modes exhibit a spatially modulated amplitude, which is especially evident for high-order modes. A dynamic pinning effect of surface magnetic moment is observed. The spin wave eigenfrequency decreases linearly with the increase of the magnetic field in the uniformly magnetized state and increases nonlinearly with field when spiral magnetization configuration is formed in the soft layer.
Long-distance excitation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond via surface spin waves
Kikuchi, Daisuke; Prananto, Dwi; Hayashi, Kunitaka; Laraoui, Abdelghani; Mizuochi, Norikazu; Hatano, Mutsuko; Saitoh, Eiji; Kim, Yousoo; Meriles, Carlos A.; An, Toshu
2017-10-01
We make use of room-temperature magnetostatic surface spin waves (MSSWs) to mediate the interaction between the microwave field from an antenna and the spin of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. We show that this transport spans distances exceeding 3 mm, a manifestation of the MSSW robustness and large diffusion length. Using the NV spins as a local sensor, we find that the MSSW couples resonantly, and the NV spins amplitude grow linearly with the applied microwave power, suggesting that this approach could be extended to amplify the signal from neighboring spin qubits by several orders of magnitude.
Spinning Black Hole Pairs: Dynamics and Gravitational Waves
Grossman, Rebecca
Black hole binaries will be an important source of gravitational radiation for both ground-based and future space-based gravitational wave detectors. The study of such systems will offer a unique opportunity to test the dynamical predictions of general relativity when gravity is very strong. To date, most investigations of black hole binary dynamics have focused attention on restricted scenarios in which the black holes do not spin (and thus are confined to move in a plane) and/or in which they stay on quasi-circular orbits. However, spinning black hole pairs in eccentric orbits are now understood to be astrophysically equally important. These spinning binaries exhibit a range of complicated dynamical behaviors, even in the absence of radiation reaction. Their conservative dynamics is complicated by extreme perihelion precession compounded by spin-induced precession. Although the motion seems to defy simple decoding, we are able to quantitatively define and describe the fully three-dimensional motion of arbitrary mass-ratio binaries with at least one black hole spinning and expose an underlying simplicity. To do so, we untangle the dynamics by constructing an instantaneous orbital plane and showing that the motion captured in that plane obeys elegant topological rules. In this thesis, we apply the above prescription to two formal systems used to model black hole binaries. The first is defined by the conservative 3PN Hamiltonian plus spin-orbit coupling and is particularly suitable to comparable-mass binaries. The second is defined by geodesics of the Kerr metric and is used exclusively for extreme mass-ratio binaries. In both systems, we define a complete taxonomy for fully three-dimensional orbits. More than just a naming system, the taxonomy provides unambiguous and quantitative descriptions of the orbits, including a determination of the zoom-whirliness of any given orbit. Through a correspondence with the rational numbers, we are able to show that all of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2015-06-29
The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.
Pettit, J R; Walker, A; Cawley, P; Lowe, M J S
2014-09-01
Commercially available Finite Element packages are being used increasingly for modelling elastic wave propagation problems. Demand for improved capability has resulted in a drive to maximise the efficiency of the solver whilst maintaining a reliable solution. Modelling waves in unbound elastic media to high levels of accuracy presents a challenge for commercial packages, requiring the removal of unwanted reflections from model boundaries. For time domain explicit solvers, Absorbing Layers by Increasing Damping (ALID) have proven successful because they offer flexible application to modellers and, unlike the Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) approach, they are readily implemented in most commercial Finite Element software without requiring access to the source code. However, despite good overall performance, this technique requires the spatial model to extend significantly outside the domain of interest. Here, a Stiffness Reduction Method (SRM) has been developed that operates within a significantly reduced spatial domain. The technique is applied by altering the damping and stiffness matrices of the system, inducing decay of any incident wave. Absorbing region variables are expressed as a function of known model constants, helping to apply the technique to generic elastodynamic problems. The SRM has been shown to perform significantly better than ALID, with results confirmed by both numerical and analytical means. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neutron-Scattering Study of Spin Waves in the Ferrimagnet RbNiF3
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.
1972-01-01
by a 180° antiferromagnetic exchange between nearest-neighbor A, B spins and a 90° ferromagnetic exchange between nearest-neighbor B spins. In this paper we report a detailed inelastic-neutron-scattering study of the spin waves in RbNiF3 both at low temperatures and through Tc. The magnetic unit cell...... contains six Ni++ spins so that there are in general six distinct branches in the spin-wave spectrum. All six branches are observed in the ΓA direction (c axis), while only the lowest three are observed in the ΓM direction. The measured dispersion curves at 4.2°K may be accurately fitted using simple spin...
Spin waves treatment of the antiferromagnetic ground state of two Ising-like systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adegoke Kunle
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Using Anderson's spin wave theory, we derive expressions for the ground state energy of two Ising-like systems. Antiferromagnetic long range order is predicted for one of the systems.
Charge and spin currents in normal metal sandwiched by tow p-wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y Rahnavard
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Charge and spin transport properties of a clean $SNS$ Josephson junction (triplet superconductor-normal metal-triplet superconductor are studied using the quasiclassical Eilenberger equation of Green’s function. Our system consists of two p-wave superconducting crystals separated by a Copper nano layer. Effects of thickness of normal layer between superconductors on the spin and charge currents are investigated. Also misorientation between triplet superconductors which creates the spin current is another subject of this paper.
Odd number of coupled antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains: Spin wave theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benyoussef, A.
1996-10-01
The effect of the chain and perpendicular anisotropies on the energy gap for odd number of coupled quantum spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic anisotropic Heisenberg chains is investigated using a spin wave theory. The energy gap opens above a critical anisotropic value. The known results of the isotropic case have been obtained. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs
Beating the spin-down limit on gravitational wave emission from the Crab pulsar
Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, Bruce; Allen, Gabrielle; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Armor, P.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S.
2008-01-01
We present direct upper limits on gravitational wave emission from the Crab pulsar using data from the first nine months of the fifth science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). These limits are based on two searches. In the first we assume that the gravitational wave emission follows the observed radio timing, giving an upper limit on gravitational wave emission that beats indirect limits inferred from the spin-down and braking index of the pulsar and the e...
Lee, Hyoung-In; Mok, Jinsik
2014-01-01
This study is motivated in part to better understand multiplexing in wireless communications, which employs photons carrying varying angular momenta. In particular, we examine both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) waves in either co-rotations or counter-rotations. To this goal, we analyze both Poynting-vector flows and orbital and spin parts of the energy flow density for the combined fields. Consequently, we find not only enhancements but also cancellations between the two modes. To our surprise, the photon spins in the azimuthal direction exhibit a complete annihilation for the counter-rotational case even if the intensities of the colliding waves are of different magnitudes. In contrast, the orbital flow density disappears only if the two intensities satisfy a certain ratio. In addition, the concepts of spin sifters and enantiomer sorting are illustrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyoung-In Lee
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This study is motivated in part to better understand multiplexing in wireless communications, which employs photons carrying varying angular momenta. In particular, we examine both transverse electric (TE and transverse magnetic (TM waves in either co-rotations or counter-rotations. To this goal, we analyze both Poynting-vector flows and orbital and spin parts of the energy flow density for the combined fields. Consequently, we find not only enhancements but also cancellations between the two modes. To our surprise, the photon spins in the azimuthal direction exhibit a complete annihilation for the counter-rotational case even if the intensities of the colliding waves are of different magnitudes. In contrast, the orbital flow density disappears only if the two intensities satisfy a certain ratio. In addition, the concepts of spin sifters and enantiomer sorting are illustrated.
A cluster-bethe-lattice approach to spin-waves in dilute ferromagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salzberg, J.B.; Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Falicov, L.M.
1975-01-01
The spin-wave spectra of a dilute ferromagnet within the cluster-bethe-lattice approximation is studied. Short range order effects for the alloy are included. A study of finite size clusters connected at their edges to Bethe lattices of the same coordination number allows one to determine:(i) the stability condition for the magnetic system; (ii) the continuum spin-wave local density of states and (iii) the existence of localized states below and above the continuum states
Suhl instabilities for spin waves in ferromagnetic nanostripes and ultrathin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haghshenasfard, Zahra, E-mail: zhaghshe@uwo.ca; Nguyen, Hoa T.; Cottam, Michael G., E-mail: cottam@uwo.ca
2017-03-15
A microscopic (or Hamiltonian-based) theory is employed for the spin-wave instability thresholds of nonlinear processes in ultrathin ferromagnetic stripes and films under perpendicular pumping with an intense microwave field. The spatially-quantized linear spin waves in these nanostructures may participate in parametric processes through the three-magnon interactions (the first-order Suhl process) and the four-magnon interactions (the second-order Suhl process) when pumped. By contrast with most previous studies of spin-wave instabilities made for larger samples, where macroscopic (or continuum) theories involving Maxwell's equations for magnetic dipolar effects are used, a discrete lattice of effective spins is employed. Then a dipole-exchange spin Hamiltonian is employed to investigate the behavior of the quantized spin waves under perpendicular pumping, when modifications due to the more extensive spatial confinement and edges effects in these nanostructures become pronounced. The instability thresholds versus applied magnetic field are calculated, with emphasis on the size effects and geometries of the nanostructures and on the different relative strengths of the magnetic dipole-dipole and exchange interactions in materials. Numerical results are presented using parameters for Permalloy, YIG, and EuS. - Highlights: • Suhl instabilities for spin waves in magnetic stripes and films are investigated. • Three- and four-magnon processes in perpendicular pumping are taken into account. • Numerical applications are made to Permalloy, YIG, and EuS.
Frederick, Sara; Privitera, Stephen; Weinstein, Alan J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration
2015-01-01
The Advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors will come online within the year and are expected to outperform the strain sensitivity of initial LIGO/Virgo detectors by an order of magnitude and operate with greater bandwidth, possibly to frequencies as low as 10 Hz. Coalescing binary black holes (BBH) are anticipated to be among the most likely sources of gravitational radiation observable by the detectors. Searches for such systems benefit greatly from the use of accurate predictions for the gravitational wave signal to filter the data. The component black holes of these systems are predicted to have substantial spin, which greatly influences the gravitational waveforms from these sources; however, recent LIGO/Virgo searches have made use of banks of waveform models which neglect the effects of the component spins. The inclusion of spinning components is relatively simplified when the spins are taken to be aligned with the orbital angular momentum, though the difficult task of including precession (allowing for mis-aligned component spins) remains a goal of this work. We aim to assess the ability of the GSTLAL gravitational wave search pipeline using IMR aligned-spin template waveforms to recover signals from generically spinning black hole binaries injected into simulated Advanced LIGO and Virgo detector noise. If black holes are highly spinning as predicted, use of aligned-spin template banks in upcoming searches could increase the detection rate of these systems in Advanced LIGO and Virgo data, providing the opportunity for a deeper understanding of the sources.
Spin Waves in Magnetic Thin Films: New Types of Solitons and Electrical Control
Wang, Zihui
New types of spin-wave solitons in magnetic thin films and the methods to control spin waves electrically are studied in this thesis. In the first part, the first observation of chaotic spin-wave solitons in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin film-based active feedback rings is presented. At some ring gain levels, one observes the self-generation of a single spin-wave soliton pulse in the ring. When the pulse circulates in the ring, its amplitude varies chaotically with time. The excitation of dark spin-wave envelope solitons in YIG thin film strips is also described. The formation of a pair of black solitons with a phase jump of 180° is observed for the first time. The excitation of bright solitons in the case of repulsive nonlinearity is also observed and is reproduced by a numerical simulation based on a high-order nonlinear Schrodinger equation. In the second part, the control of magnetization relaxation in ferromagnetic insulators via interfacial spin scattering is presented. In the experiments nanometer-thick YIG/Pt bi-layered structures are used, with the Pt layer biased by an electric voltage. The bias voltage produces a spin current across the Pt layer thickness due to the spin Hall effect. As this current scatters off the YIG surface, it exerts a torque on the YIG surface spins. This torque can reduce or increase the damping and thereby compress or broaden the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth of the YIG film, depending on the field/current configuration. The control of spin waves in a YIG thin film via interfacial spin scattering is also presented. In the experiments a 4.6-microm-thick YIG film strip with a 20-nm-thick Pt capping layer is used. A DC current pulse is applied to the Pt layer and produced a spin current across the Pt layer. As the spin current scatters off the YIG surface, it can either amplify or attenuate spin-wave pulses that travel in the YIG strip, depending on the current/field configuration.
Bonetti, Stefano; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Consolo, Giancarlo; Finocchio, Giovanni; Muduli, Pranaba; Mancoff, Fred; Slavin, Andrei; Åkerman, Johan
2010-11-01
Through detailed experimental studies of the angular dependence of spin wave excitations in nanocontact-based spin-torque oscillators, we demonstrate that two distinct spin wave modes can be excited, with different frequency, threshold currents, and frequency tunability. Using analytical theory and micromagnetic simulations we identify one mode as an exchange-dominated propagating spin wave, and the other as a self-localized nonlinear spin wave bullet. Wavelet-based analysis of the simulations indicates that the apparent simultaneous excitation of both modes results from rapid mode hopping induced by the Oersted field.
Excitations of breathers and rogue wave in the Heisenberg spin chain
Qi, Jian-Wen; Duan, Liang; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Yang, Wen-Li
2018-01-01
We study the excitations of breathers and rogue wave in a classical Heisenberg spin chain with twist interaction, which is governed by a fourth-order integrable nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dynamics of these waves have been extracted from an exact solution. In particular, the corresponding existence conditions based on the parameters of perturbation wave number K, magnon number N, background wave vector ks and amplitude c are presented explicitly. Furthermore, the characteristics of magnetic moment distribution corresponding to these nonlinear waves are also investigated in detail. Finally, we discussed the state transition of three types nonlinear localized waves under the different excitation conditions.
Obeid, Hasan; Khettab, Hakim; Marais, Louise; Hallab, Magid; Laurent, Stéphane; Boutouyrie, Pierre
2017-08-01
Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) (cf-PWV) is the gold standard for measuring aortic stiffness. Finger-toe PWV (ft-PWV) is a simpler noninvasive method for measuring arterial stiffness. Although the validity of the method has been previously assessed, its accuracy can be improved. ft-PWV is determined on the basis of a patented height chart for the distance and the pulse transit time (PTT) between the finger and the toe pulpar arteries signals (ft-PTT). The objective of the first study, performed in 66 patients, was to compare different algorithms (intersecting tangents, maximum of the second derivative, 10% threshold and cross-correlation) for determining the foot of the arterial pulse wave, thus the ft-PTT. The objective of the second study, performed in 101 patients, was to investigate different signal processing chains to improve the concordance of ft-PWV with the gold-standard cf-PWV. Finger-toe PWV (ft-PWV) was calculated using the four algorithms. The best correlations relating ft-PWV and cf-PWV, and relating ft-PTT and carotid-femoral PTT were obtained with the maximum of the second derivative algorithm [PWV: r = 0.56, P signal processing chain. Selecting the maximum of the second derivative algorithm for detecting the foot of the pressure waveform, and combining it with an optimized signal processing chain, improved the accuracy of ft-PWV measurement in the current population sample. Thus, it makes ft-PWV very promising for the simple noninvasive determination of aortic stiffness in clinical practice.
Bazaliy, Yaroslaw; Jones, Barbara
2002-03-01
Electric current flowing from one metallic ferromagnet to another induces an interaction between them [1,2]. This interaction is qualitatively different from the one observed in equilibrium and creates a so-called ``spin-transfer'' torque - a subject of recent interest in the field of spintronics. Technologically spin-transfer effect is very interesting due to its possible usefulness for the memory writing process based on ``current induced switching" in metallic magnetic structures. Physics of spin-transfer torque involves interesting issues of spin-injection, spin-accumulation and excitation of different types of magnetic modes in the ferromagnets. The result of spin-transfer torque action depends on which magnetic mode is most easily excited by the spin-polarized current. Currently there are two views on the nature of this mode. In one approach [1] it is assumed that a coherent rotation of magnetization is induced and in the other [2,3] - that incoherent spin waves are generated. While in a real experiment both modes are probably excited at the same time, intuitively it seems natural that coherent rotation is more likely to happen when the angle between injected spins and magnetization is large. On the contrary in a collinear case spin-wave generation is more likely to happen. In the experiments done so far [4] the effect of spin-transfer torque was studied in the collinear setup. In [5] we applied the general approach of Ref.1 to this experiment and were able to give exact predictions for the particular magnetic anisotropy of the experiment [4]. While those predictions do not completely agree with the experimental results, a theory based on spin-wave generation [6] also seems to be ruled out by [4]. Here we propose a relatively easy modification of experiment [4] in which the spin-polarization of incoming current is no longer collinear with magnetization and recalculate the switching behavior of the device. We expect that a better agreement with experiment will
Spin-wave instabilities, auto-oscillations, and chaos in yttrium-iron-garnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezende, S.M.; de Aguiar, F.M.
1990-01-01
Spin-wave instabilities driven by microwave fields display auto-oscillations, intermittency, quasiperiodicity, period-doubling and chaos like other nonlinear dynamic systems. Several of these phenomena, first observed nearly 30 years ago, only recently have been investigated systematically and understood in the light of modern nonlinear dynamics. The authors review recent experimental results in yttrium-iron-garnet subject to three different spin-wave pumping mechanisms: parallel pumping, subsidiary resonance (first-order Suhl process) and premature saturation of the main resonance (second-order Suhl process). A theoretical model derived from first principles leading to coupled nonlinear spin-ave equations is used to interpret the observed spin-wave instabilities, auto-oscillations, and chaotic dynamics. Improvements needed in the model are also indicated
Self-generation and management of spin-electromagnetic wave solitons and chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ustinov, Alexey B.; Kondrashov, Alexandr V.; Nikitin, Andrey A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.
2014-01-01
Self-generation of microwave spin-electromagnetic wave envelope solitons and chaos has been observed and studied. For the investigation, we used a feedback active ring oscillator based on artificial multiferroic, which served as a nonlinear waveguide. We show that by increasing the wave amplification in the feedback ring circuit, a transition from monochromatic auto-generation to soliton train waveform and then to dynamical chaos occurs in accordance with the Ruelle-Takens scenario. Management of spin-electromagnetic-wave solitons and chaos parameters by both dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability of the multiferroic waveguiding structure is demonstrated.
2013-01-01
Background Arterial stiffness is a component of vascular function and an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. There is a lack of conclusive evidence on the effect of a meal rich in monounsaturated fat (MUFA) compared with an isoenergetic meal rich in saturated fat (SFA) on postprandial vascular function and specifically on arterial stiffness. Methods Twenty healthy, non-smoking males (BMI 24 ± 2 kg/m2; age 37.7 ± 14.4 y) participated in this single-blind, randomised, cross-over dietary intervention study. Each subject was randomised to receive a high-fat test-meal (3 MJ; 56 ± 2 g fat) at breakfast on 2 separate occasions, one rich in oleic acid (MUFA-meal) and one rich in palmitic acid (SFA-meal), and the meals were isoenergetic. Blood pressure (BP), arterial stiffness (PWV) and arterial wave reflection (augmentation index, AIx) were measured using applanation tonometry at baseline and every 30 minutes up to 4 hours after the ingestion of the test-meals. Results All subjects completed both arms of the dietary intervention. There was no significant difference in BP parameters, PWV or AIx at baseline between the two treatments (P > 0.05). There was a significant increase in brachial and aortic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and PVW (time, P meal although the increase in PWV was no longer significant when adjusted for the increase in MAP. There was no difference in PWV between the two treatments (treatment*time, P > 0.05). There was a significant reduction in AIx (time, P 0.05). There was no difference in AIx between the two treatments (treatment*time, P > 0.05). However, the reduction in heart rate corrected augmentation index (AIx75) was significant when corrected for the increase in MAP (time, P 0.05). Conclusions This study has demonstrated a BP dependent increase in PWV and a decrease in arterial wave reflection in the four hour period in response to a high-fat meal. There was no evidence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kryshtal, R.G.; Medved, A.V., E-mail: avm@ms.ire.rssi.ru
2015-12-01
Experimental results of investigations of nonreciprocity for surface magnetostatic spin waves (SMSW) in the magnonic crystal created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in yttrium iron garnet films on a gallium gadolinium garnet substrate as without metallization and with aluminum films with different electrical conductivities (thicknesses) are presented. In structures without metallization, the frequency of magnonic gaps is dependent on mutual directions of propagation of the SAW and SMSW, showing nonreciprocal properties for SMSW in SAW – magnonic crystals even with the symmetrical dispersion characteristic. In metalized SAW – magnonic crystals the shift of the magnonic band gaps frequencies at the inversion of the biasing magnetic field was observed. The frequencies of magnonic band gaps as functions of SAW frequency are presented. Measured dependencies, showing the decrease of magnonic gaps frequency and the expansion of the magnonic band gap width with the decreasing of the metal film conductivity are given. Such nonreciprocal properties of the SAW – magnonic crystals are promising for signal processing in the GHz range. - Highlights: • Spin waves nonreciprocity in YIG magnonic crystals with SAW was studied. • SAW was shown to create nonreciprocity for spin waves in YIG–GGG even without metal. • Frequency and width of magnonic band gaps were measured versus metal conductivity. • Conductivity for practical use of spin waves in the structure YIG–metal was defined.
Kamp, E. J.; Carvajal, B.; Samarth, N.
2018-01-01
The ready optical detection and manipulation of bright nitrogen vacancy center spins in diamond plays a key role in contemporary quantum information science and quantum metrology. Other optically dark defects such as substitutional nitrogen atoms (`P1 centers') could also become potentially useful in this context if they could be as easily optically detected and manipulated. We develop a relatively straightforward continuous wave protocol that takes advantage of the dipolar coupling between nitrogen vacancy and P1 centers in type 1b diamond to detect and polarize the dark P1 spins. By combining mutual spin flip transitions with radio frequency driving, we demonstrate the simultaneous optical polarization and detection of the electron spin resonance of the P1 center. This technique should be applicable to detecting and manipulating a broad range of dark spin populations that couple to the nitrogen vacancy center via dipolar fields, allowing for quantum metrology using these spin populations.
Dispersion characteristics of spin-electromagnetic waves in planar multiferroic structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikitin, Andrey A.; Ustinov, Alexey B. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland); Vitko, Vitaliy V.; Semenov, Alexander A.; Mironenko, Igor G. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Belyavskiy, Pavel Yu.; Kalinikos, Boris A. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “MultiferrLab,” ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Stashkevich, Andrey A. [International Laboratory “MultiferrLab,” ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Lähderanta, E. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland)
2015-11-14
A method of approximate boundary conditions is used to derive dispersion relations for spin-electromagnetic waves (SEWs) propagating in thin ferrite films and in multiferroic layered structures. A high accuracy of this method is proven. It was shown that the spin-electromagnetic wave propagating in the structure composed of a thin ferrite film, a thin ferroelectric film, and a slot transmission line is formed as a result of hybridization of the surface spin wave in the ferrite film and the electromagnetic wave in the slot-line. The structure demonstrates dual electric and magnetic field tunability of the SEW spectrum. The electric field tunability is provided by the thin ferroelectric film. Its efficiency increases with an increase in the thicknesses of the ferrite and ferroelectric films and with a decrease in the slot-line gap width. The theory is confirmed by experimental data.
Distinguishing spin-aligned and isotropic black hole populations with gravitational waves.
Farr, Will M; Stevenson, Simon; Miller, M Coleman; Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Ben; Vecchio, Alberto
2017-08-23
The direct detection of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes opens up a window into the environments in which binary black holes form. One signature of such environments is the angular distribution of the black hole spins. Binary systems that formed through dynamical interactions between already-compact objects are expected to have isotropic spin orientations (that is, the spins of the black holes are randomly oriented with respect to the orbit of the binary system), whereas those that formed from pairs of stars born together are more likely to have spins that are preferentially aligned with the orbit. The best-measured combination of spin parameters for each of the four likely binary black hole detections GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226 and GW170104 is the 'effective' spin. Here we report that, if the magnitudes of the black hole spins are allowed to extend to high values, the effective spins for these systems indicate a 0.015 odds ratio against an aligned angular distribution compared to an isotropic one. When considering the effect of ten additional detections, this odds ratio decreases to 2.9 × 10 -7 against alignment. The existing preference for either an isotropic spin distribution or low spin magnitudes for the observed systems will be confirmed (or overturned) confidently in the near future.
Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L.; Bang, Wonbae; Ketterson, J. B.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Hoffmann, A.; Farmer, B. W.; De Long, L. E.
2018-01-01
We theoretically and experimentally investigate magnetization reversal and associated spin-wave dynamics of isolated threefold vertices that constitute a Kagome lattice. The three permalloy macrospins making up the vertex have an elliptical cross section and a uniform thickness. We study the dc magnetization curve and the frequency versus field curves (dispersions) of those spin-wave modes that produce the largest response. We also investigate each macrospin reversal from a dynamic perspective, by performing micromagnetic simulations of the reversal processes, and revealing their relationships to the soft-mode profile calculated at the equilibrium state immediately before reversal. The theoretical results are compared with the measured magnetization curves and ferromagnetic resonance spectra. The agreement achieved suggests that a much deeper understanding of magnetization reversal and accompanying hysteresis can be achieved by combining theoretical calculations with static and dynamic magnetization experiments.
Coupling a Surface Acoustic Wave to an Electron Spin in Diamond via a Dark State
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Andrew Golter
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The emerging field of quantum acoustics explores interactions between acoustic waves and artificial atoms and their applications in quantum information processing. In this experimental study, we demonstrate the coupling between a surface acoustic wave (SAW and an electron spin in diamond by taking advantage of the strong strain coupling of the excited states of a nitrogen vacancy center while avoiding the short lifetime of these states. The SAW-spin coupling takes place through a Λ-type three-level system where two ground spin states couple to a common excited state through a phonon-assisted as well as a direct dipole optical transition. Both coherent population trapping and optically driven spin transitions have been realized. The coherent population trapping demonstrates the coupling between a SAW and an electron spin coherence through a dark state. The optically driven spin transitions, which resemble the sideband transitions in a trapped-ion system, can enable the quantum control of both spin and mechanical degrees of freedom and potentially a trapped-ion-like solid-state system for applications in quantum computing. These results establish an experimental platform for spin-based quantum acoustics, bridging the gap between spintronics and quantum acoustics.
Santoni, Andrea; Schoenwald, Stefan; Van Damme, Bart; Fausti, Patrizio
2017-07-01
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an engineered wood with good structural properties and it is also economically competitive with the traditional building construction materials. However, due to its low volume density combined with its high stiffness, it does not provide sufficient sound insulation, thus it is necessary to develop specific acoustic treatments in order to increase the noise reduction performance. The material's mechanical properties are required as input data to perform the vibro-acoustic analyses necessary during the design process. In this paper the elastic constants of a CLT plate are derived by fitting the real component of the experimental flexural wave velocity with Mindlin's dispersion relation for thick plates, neglecting the influence of the plate's size and boundary conditions. Furthermore, its apparent elastic and stiffness properties are derived from the same set of experimental data, for the plate considered to be thin. Under this latter assumption the orthotropic behaviour of an equivalent thin CLT plate is described by using an elliptic model and verified with experimental results.
Shapiro, S M; Raymond, S; Lee, S H; Motoya, K
2002-01-01
Fe sub 0 sub . sub 7 Al sub 0 sub . sub 3 is a reentrant spin glass, which undergoes a transition from a paramagnet to a disordered ferromagnet at T sub c propor to 500 K; at a lower temperature the spins progressively freeze and it exhibits a spin-glass-like behavior. In the ferromagnetic phase spin waves with a q sup 2 dispersion are observed at small q, which broaden rapidly and become diffusive beyond a critical wave vector q sub 0. On cooling the spin waves also disappear and a strong elastic central peak develops. For measurements around the (1,1,1) Bragg peak, a new sharp excitation is observed which has a linear dispersion behavior. It disappears above T sub c , but persists throughout the spin-glass phase. It is not present in the stoichiometric Fe sub 3 Al material. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Malene Roland; Møller, Henrik; Osther, Palle Jørn Sloth
2017-01-01
elastography (SWE). Three SWE velocity measurements were assessed in each testicle. The patients were divided into three groups; men with normal testicular tissue (n=130), men with testicular microlithiasis (n=99) and men with testicular cancer (n=19). Results: We found a higher mean velocity in the group......Objectives: To compare elastography measurements in men with normal testicular tissue, testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer. Methods: A total of 248 consecutive patients were included. All men provided written informed consent. Testicular stiffness was assessed using shear wave...... of patients with testicular cancer (1.92 m/s (95% CI 1.82-2.03)) compared to both the group with normal tissue (0.76 m/s (95% CI: 0.75-0.78)) (p
Mohseni, S. Morteza; Yazdi, H. F.; Hamdi, M.; Brächer, T.; Mohseni, S. Majid
2018-03-01
Current induced spin wave excitations in spin transfer torque nano-contacts are known as a promising way to generate exchange-dominated spin waves at the nano-scale. It has been shown that when these systems are magnetized in the film plane, broken spatial symmetry of the field around the nano-contact induced by the Oersted field opens the possibility for spin wave mode co-existence including a non-linear self-localized spin-wave bullet and a propagating mode. By means of micromagnetic simulations, here we show that in systems with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the free layer, two propagating spin wave modes with different frequency and spatial distribution can be excited simultaneously. Our results indicate that in-plane magnetized spin transfer nano-contacts in PMA materials do not host a solitonic self-localized spin-wave bullet, which is different from previous studies for systems with in plane magnetic anisotropy. This feature renders them interesting for nano-scale magnonic waveguides and crystals since magnon transport can be configured by tuning the applied current.
Micromagnetic computer simulations of spin waves in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements
Kim, Sang-Koog
2010-07-01
Current needs for further advances in the nanotechnologies of information-storage and -processing devices have attracted a great deal of interest in spin (magnetization) dynamics in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements. For instance, the unique dynamic characteristics of non-uniform magnetic microstructures such as various types of domain walls, magnetic vortices and antivortices, as well as spin wave dynamics in laterally restricted thin-film geometries, have been at the centre of extensive and intensive researches. Understanding the fundamentals of their unique spin structure as well as their robust and novel dynamic properties allows us to implement new functionalities into existing or future devices. Although experimental tools and theoretical approaches are effective means of understanding the fundamentals of spin dynamics and of gaining new insights into them, the limitations of those same tools and approaches have left gaps of unresolved questions in the pertinent physics. As an alternative, however, micromagnetic modelling and numerical simulation has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of a variety of phenomena related to spin dynamics of nanometre-scale magnetic elements. In this review paper, I summarize the recent results of simulations of the excitation and propagation and other novel wave characteristics of spin waves, highlighting how the micromagnetic computer simulation approach contributes to an understanding of spin dynamics of nanomagnetism and considering some of the merits of numerical simulation studies. Many examples of micromagnetic modelling for numerical calculations, employing various dimensions and shapes of patterned magnetic elements, are given. The current limitations of continuum micromagnetic modelling and of simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion of magnetization are also discussed, along with further research directions for spin-wave studies.
Dipole-exchange spin waves in perpendicularly magnetized discs: Role of the Oersted field
Arias, R. E.; Mills, D. L.
2007-06-01
We develop the theory of the exchange dipole spin waves in thin circular discs for the case where the magnetization is nominally perpendicular to the plane. Our interest is in the circumstance where a transport current is injected into the disc, with current also perpendicular to the plane of the disc. Such a current creates an azimuthal magnetic field, referred to often as the Oersted field. We develop the theory of the influence of the Oersted field on the spin-wave spectrum of the disc. This field produces a vortex state. We suggest that this vortex state is stable down to zero applied field. If the external applied field H0 is in the +z direction, perpendicular to the plane of the disc, the vortex state has magnetization at the center of the disc also parallel to +z always. This is the case even when H0<4πMS , where the magnetization at the center of the disc is antiparallel to the local field H0-4πMS there. We present calculations of the current dependence of spin-wave frequencies of several modes as a function of applied magnetic field. We also address an issue overlooked in previous studies of spin waves in thin discs. This is that for quantitative purposes, it is not sufficient to describe internal dipole fields generated by the spin motions simply by adding an effective internal field -4πmzẑ to the equations of motion, with mz the component of dynamic magnetization normal to the surface. For samples of present interest, we derive terms we call gradient corrections, and these play a role quantitatively comparable to exchange itself in the analysis of the spin-wave frequencies. Quantitative studies of spin dynamics in such samples thus must include the gradient corrections.
Glass transition in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)2PF6
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lasjaunias, J.C.; Biljakovic, K.; Nad, F.
1994-01-01
We present the results of low frequency dielectric measurements and a detailed kinetic investigation of the specific heat anomaly in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)(2)PF6 in the temperature range between 2 and 4 K. The dielectric relaxation shows a critical slowing down towards a ''static'......'' glass transition around 2 K. The jump in the specific heat in different controlled kinetic conditions shows all the characteristics of freezing in supercooled liquids. Both effects give direct evidence of a glass transition in the spin-density wave ground state.......We present the results of low frequency dielectric measurements and a detailed kinetic investigation of the specific heat anomaly in the spin-density wave phase of (TMTSF)(2)PF6 in the temperature range between 2 and 4 K. The dielectric relaxation shows a critical slowing down towards a ''static...
Demonstration of Atomic Frequency Comb Memory for Light with Spin-Wave Storage
Afzelius, Mikael; Usmani, Imam; Amari, Atia; Lauritzen, Björn; Walther, Andreas; Simon, Christoph; Sangouard, Nicolas; Minář, Jiří; de Riedmatten, Hugues; Gisin, Nicolas; Kröll, Stefan
2010-01-01
We present a light-storage experiment in a praseodymium-doped crystal where the light is mapped onto an inhomogeneously broadened optical transition shaped into an atomic frequency comb. After absorption of the light, the optical excitation is converted into a spin-wave excitation by a control pulse. A second control pulse reads the memory (on-demand) by reconverting the spin-wave excitation to an optical one, where the comb structure causes a photon-echo-type rephasing of the dipole moments and directional retrieval of the light. This combination of photon-echo and spin-wave storage allows us to store submicrosecond (450 ns) pulses for up to 20μs. The scheme has a high potential for storing multiple temporal modes in the single-photon regime, which is an important resource for future long-distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters.
Incommensurate spin density wave in metallic V2-yO3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, W.; Broholm, C.; Carter, S.A.; Rosenbaum, T.F.; Aeppli, G.; Trevino, S.F.; Metcalf, P.; Honig, J.M.; Spalek, J.
1993-01-01
We show by neutron diffraction that metallic V 2-7 O 3 develops a spin density wave below T N ∼9 K with incommensurate wave vector q∼1.7c * and an ordered moment of 0.15μ B . The weak ordering phenomenon is accompanied by strong, nonresonant spin fluctuations with a velocity c=67(4) meV A. The spin correlations of the metal are very different from those of the insulator and place V 2-y O 3 in a distinct class of Motte-Hubbard systems where the wave vector for magnetic order in the metal is far from a high symmetry commensurate reciprocal lattice point
Savochkin, I V; Jäckl, M; Belotelov, V I; Akimov, I A; Kozhaev, M A; Sylgacheva, D A; Chernov, A I; Shaposhnikov, A N; Prokopov, A R; Berzhansky, V N; Yakovlev, D R; Zvezdin, A K; Bayer, M
2017-07-18
Currently spin waves are considered for computation and data processing as an alternative to charge currents. Generation of spin waves by ultrashort laser pulses provides several important advances with respect to conventional approaches using microwaves. In particular, focused laser spot works as a point source for spin waves and allows for directional control of spin waves and switching between their different types. For further progress in this direction it is important to manipulate with the spectrum of the optically generated spin waves. Here we tackle this problem by launching spin waves by a sequence of femtosecond laser pulses with pulse interval much shorter than the relaxation time of the magnetization oscillations. This leads to the cumulative phenomenon and allows us to generate magnons in a specific narrow range of wavenumbers. The wavelength of spin waves can be tuned from 15 μm to hundreds of microns by sweeping the external magnetic field by only 10 Oe or by slight variation of the pulse repetition rate. Our findings expand the capabilities of the optical spin pump-probe technique and provide a new method for the spin wave generation and control.
Andreev, Pavel A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.
2017-11-01
A consideration of waves propagating parallel to the external magnetic field is presented. The dielectric permeability tensor is derived from the quantum kinetic equations with non-trivial equilibrium spin-distribution functions in the linear approximation on the amplitude of wave perturbations. It is possible to consider the equilibrium spin-distribution functions with nonzero z-projection proportional to the difference of the Fermi steps of electrons with the chosen spin direction, while x- and y-projections are equal to zero. It is called the trivial equilibrium spin-distribution functions. In the general case, x- and y-projections of the spin-distribution functions are nonzero which is called the non-trivial regime. A corresponding equilibrium solution is found in Andreev [Phys. Plasmas 23, 062103 (2016)]. The contribution of the nontrivial part of the spin-distribution function appears in the dielectric permeability tensor in the additive form. It is explicitly found here. A corresponding modification in the dispersion equation for the transverse waves is derived. The contribution of the nontrivial part of the spin-distribution function in the spectrum of transverse waves is calculated numerically. It is found that the term caused by the nontrivial part of the spin-distribution function can be comparable with the classic terms for the relatively small wave vectors and frequencies above the cyclotron frequency. In a majority of regimes, the extra spin caused term dominates over the spin term found earlier, except the small frequency regime, where their contributions in the whistler spectrum are comparable. A decrease of the left-hand circularly polarized wave frequency, an increase of the high-frequency right-hand circularly polarized wave frequency, and a decrease of frequency changing by an increase of frequency at the growth of the wave vector for the whistler are found. A considerable decrease of the spin wave frequency is found either. It results in an
Magnetic cellular nonlinear network with spin wave bus for image processing
Khitun, Alexander; Bao, Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L.
2010-03-01
We describe and analyze a cellular nonlinear network based on magnetic nanostructures for image processing. The network consists of magneto-electric cells integrated onto a common ferromagnetic film-spin wave bus. The magneto-electric cell is an artificial two-phase multiferroic structure comprising piezoelectric and ferromagnetic materials. A bit of information is assigned to the cell's magnetic polarization, which can be controlled by the applied voltage. The information exchange among the cells is via the spin waves propagating in the spin wave bus. Each cell changes its state as a combined effect: magneto-electric coupling and the interaction with the spin waves. The distinct feature of a network with a spin wave bus is the ability to control the inter-cell communication by an external global parameter — magnetic field. The latter makes it possible to realize different image processing functions on the same template without rewiring or reconfiguration. We present the results of numerical simulations illustrating image filtering, erosion, dilation, horizontal and vertical line detection, inversion and edge detection accomplished on one template by the proper choice of the strength and direction of the external magnetic field. We also present numerical assets on the major network parameters such as cell density, power dissipation and functional throughput, and compare them with the parameters projected for other nano-architectures such as CMOL-CrossNet, Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata, and Quantum Dot-Image Processor. Potentially, the utilization of spin wave phenomena at the nanometer scale may provide a route to low-power consumption and functional logic circuits for special task data processing.
Statistical mechanics of magnetic excitations from spin waves to stripes and checkerboards
Rastelli, Enrico
2013-01-01
The aim of this advanced textbook is to provide the reader with a comprehensive explanation of the ground state configurations, the spin wave excitations and the equilibrium properties of spin lattices described by the Ising-Heisenberg Hamiltonians in the presence of short (exchange) and long range (dipole) interactions.The arguments are presented in such detail so as to enable advanced undergraduate and graduate students to cross the threshold of active research in magnetism by using both analytic calculations and Monte Carlo simulations.Recent results about unorthodox spin configurations suc
Measuring the spin of black holes in binary systems using gravitational waves.
Vitale, Salvatore; Lynch, Ryan; Veitch, John; Raymond, Vivien; Sturani, Riccardo
2014-06-27
Compact binary coalescences are the most promising sources of gravitational waves (GWs) for ground-based detectors. Binary systems containing one or two spinning black holes are particularly interesting due to spin-orbit (and eventual spin-spin) interactions and the opportunity of measuring spins directly through GW observations. In this Letter, we analyze simulated signals emitted by spinning binaries with several values of masses, spins, orientations, and signal-to-noise ratios, as detected by an advanced LIGO-Virgo network. We find that for moderate or high signal-to-noise ratio the spin magnitudes can be estimated with errors of a few percent (5%-30%) for neutron star-black hole (black hole-black hole) systems. Spins' tilt angle can be estimated with errors of 0.04 rad in the best cases, but typical values will be above 0.1 rad. Errors will be larger for signals barely above the threshold for detection. The difference in the azimuth angles of the spins, which may be used to check if spins are locked into resonant configurations, cannot be constrained. We observe that the best performances are obtained when the line of sight is perpendicular to the system's total angular momentum and that a sudden change of behavior occurs when a system is observed from angles such that the plane of the orbit can be seen both from above and below during the time the signal is in band. This study suggests that direct measurement of black hole spin by means of GWs can be as precise as what can be obtained from x-ray binaries.
A spin-wave logic gate based on a width-modulated dynamic magnonic crystal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikitin, Andrey A. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern 67663 (Germany); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland); Ustinov, Alexey B. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland); Semenov, Alexander A.; Kalinikos, Boris A. [Department of Physical Electronics and Technology, St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation); Chumak, Andrii V.; Serga, Alexander A.; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I.; Hillebrands, Burkard [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern 67663 (Germany); Lähderanta, Erkki [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53850 (Finland)
2015-03-09
An electric current controlled spin-wave logic gate based on a width-modulated dynamic magnonic crystal is realized. The device utilizes a spin-wave waveguide fabricated from a single-crystal Yttrium Iron Garnet film and two conducting wires attached to the film surface. Application of electric currents to the wires provides a means for dynamic control of the effective geometry of waveguide and results in a suppression of the magnonic band gap. The performance of the magnonic crystal as an AND logic gate is demonstrated.
Non-linear Alfvén waves in spin-1/2 quantum plasma
Jan, Qasim; Mushtaq, A.; Ikram, M.
2018-02-01
Nonlinear circularly polarized Alfvén waves are studied in Fermionic spin-1/2 quantum plasmas. Using the basic equations for Hall magnetohydrodynamics including quantum corrections, the set of Zakharov-like equations are obtained for circularly polarized nonlinear Alfvén waves. In order to investigate the properties of the Alfvén solitary structure in the presence of spin magnetization and quantum plasma beta, the Sagdeev potential approach is employed. For the case of right-handed circularly polarized Alfvén waves, the amplitude of the Sagdeev potential and the associated solitary profile is observed to enhance with the increase of quantum plasma beta and magnetization energy due to electron spin-1/2 effects. However, it is found that the amplitude of the Sagdeev potential and the related solitary profile decrease with the increasing values of quantum plasma beta and magnetization energy for the case of left-handed circularly polarized Alfvén waves. An increase in the width of the solitary structure is also observed with the increase in the value of magnetization energy for the case of the left-handed circularly polarized wave. An investigation of the modulational instability is also inspected with the effects of spin magnetization and quantum plasma beta.
Non-stationary excitation of two localized spin-wave modes in a nano-contact spin torque oscillator
Consolo, G.; Finocchio, G.; Siracusano, G.; Bonetti, S.; Eklund, A.; Åkerman, J.; Azzerboni, B.
2013-10-01
We measure and simulate micromagnetically a framework based upon a nano-contact spin torque oscillator where two distinct localized evanescent spin-wave modes can be detected. The resulting frequency spectrum is composed by two peaks, corresponding to the excited modes, which lie below the ferromagnetic resonance frequency, and a low-frequency tail, which we attribute to the non-stationary switching between these modes. By using Fourier, wavelet, and Hilbert-Huang transforms, we investigate the properties of these modes in time and spatial domains, together with their spatial distribution. The existence of an additional localized mode (which was neither predicted by theory nor by previous numerical and experimental findings) has to be attributed to the large influence of the current-induced Oersted field strength which, in the present setup, is of the same order of magnitude as the external field. As a further consequence, the excited spin-waves, contrarily to what usually assumed, do not possess cylindrical symmetry: the Oersted field induces these modes to be excited at the two opposite sides of the region beneath the nano-contact.
Parametric excitation of nuclear spin waves in MnCO3 antiferromagnetic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorkov, S.A.; Tulin, V.A.
1976-01-01
Parametric excitation of nuclear spin waves in the antiferromagnetic crystal MnCO 3 is investigated at 1080 MHz by the parallel pumping technique. Two threshold processes are observed in the experiments. One refers to spin wave excitation in a nuclear magnetic system and the other to excitation of magneto-elastic waves. The post-threshold sample susceptibility in such processes is studied. After the second threshold a very pronounced overheating of the nuclear magnetic system of the sample with respect to the lattice is observed. The nature of these overheating phenomena shows that two magneto-elastic oscillation branches are excited in the second threshold process. The dependence of the threshold field on wave vector is more complicated in a small magnetic field due to magnetization processes in the sample. In a large magnetic field complications are evoked by the magneto-elastic coupling
Sadovnikov, A. V.; Odintsov, S. A.; Beginin, E. N.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.
2017-10-01
We demonstrate that the nonlinear spin-wave transport in two laterally parallel magnetic stripes exhibit the intensity-dependent power exchange between the adjacent spin-wave channels. By the means of Brillouin light scattering technique, we investigate collective nonlinear spin-wave dynamics in the presence of magnetodipolar coupling. The nonlinear intensity-dependent effect reveals itself in the spin-wave mode transformation and differential nonlinear spin-wave phase shift in each adjacent magnetic stripe. The proposed analytical theory, based on the coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations, predicts the geometry design involving the reduction of power requirement to the all-magnonic switching. A very good agreement between calculation and experiment was found. In addition, a micromagnetic and finite-element approach has been independently used to study the nonlinear behavior of spin waves in adjacent stripes and the nonlinear transformation of spatial profiles of spin-wave modes. Our results show that the proposed spin-wave coupling mechanism provides the basis for nonlinear magnonic circuits and opens the perspectives for all-magnonic computing architecture.
Gravitational waves: History of black holes revealed by their spin
Sigurðsson, Steinn
2017-08-01
Four probable detections of gravitational waves have so far been reported, each associated with the merger of two black holes. Analysis of the signals allows formation theories of such black-hole systems to be tested. See Letter p.426
All optical detection of picosecond spin-wave dynamics in 2D annular antidot lattice
Porwal, Nikita; Mondal, Sucheta; Choudhury, Samiran; De, Anulekha; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Barman, Anjan; Datta, Prasanta Kumar
2018-02-01
Novel magnetic structures with precisely controlled dimensions and shapes at the nanoscale have potential applications in spin logic, spintronics and other spin-based communication devices. We report the fabrication of 2D bi-structure magnonic crystal in the form of embedded nanodots in a periodic Ni80Fe20 antidot lattice structure (annular antidot) by focused ion-beam lithography. The spin-wave spectra of the annular antidot sample, studied for the first time by a time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect microscopy show a remarkable variation with bias field, which is important for the above device applications. The optically induced spin-wave spectra show multiple modes in the frequency range 14.7 GHz-3.5 GHz due to collective interactions between the dots and antidots as well as the annular elements within the whole array. Numerical simulations qualitatively reproduce the experimental results, and simulated mode profiles reveal the spatial distribution of the spin-wave modes and internal magnetic fields responsible for these observations. It is observed that the internal field strength increases by about 200 Oe inside each dot embedded within the hole of annular antidot lattice as compared to pure antidot lattice and pure dot lattice. The stray field for the annular antidot lattice is found to be significant (0.8 kOe) as opposed to the negligible values of the same for the pure dot lattice and pure antidot lattice. Our findings open up new possibilities for development of novel artificial crystals.
The expected spins of gravitational wave sources with isolated field binary progenitors
Zaldarriaga, Matias; Kushnir, Doron; Kollmeier, Juna A.
2018-01-01
We explore the consequences of dynamical evolution of field binaries composed of a primary black hole (BH) and a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in the context of gravitational wave (GW) source progenitors. We argue, from general considerations, that the spin of the WR-descendent BH will be maximal in a significant number of cases due to dynamical effects. In other cases, the spin should reflect the natal spin of the primary BH which is currently theoretically unconstrained. We argue that the three currently published LIGO systems (GW150914, GW151226, LVT151012) suggest that this spin is small. The resultant effective spin distribution of gravitational wave sources should thus be bi-model if this classic GW progenitor channel is indeed dominant. While this is consistent with the LIGO detections thus far, it is in contrast to the three best-measured high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) systems. A comparison of the spin distribution of HMXBs and GW sources should ultimately reveal whether or not these systems arise from similar astrophysical channels.
Breakdown of Spin-Waves in Anisotropic Magnets: Spin Dynamics in α-RuCl3
Winter, Stephen; Riedl, Kira; Honecker, Andreas; Valenti, Roser
α -RuCl3 has recently emerged as a promising candidate for realizing the hexagonal Kitaev model in a real material. Similar to the related iridates (e.g. Na2IrO3), complex magnetic interactions arise from a competition between various similar energy scales, including spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Hund's coupling, and crystal-field splitting. Due to this complexity, the correct spin Hamiltonians for such systems remain hotly debated. For α-RuCl3, a combination of ab-initio calculations, microscopic considerations, and analysis of the static magnetic response have suggested off-diagonal couplings (Γ ,Γ') and long-range interactions in addition to the expected Kitaev exchange. However, the effect of such additional terms on the dynamic response remains unclear. In this contribution, we discuss the recently measured inelastic neutron scattering response in the context of realistic proposals for the microscopic spin Hamiltonian. We conclude that the observed scattering continuum, which has been taken as a signature of Kitaev spin liquid physics, likely persists over a broad range of parameters.
Spin wave analysis to the spatially-anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet on triangular lattice
Trumper, Adolfo E.
1998-01-01
We study the phase diagram at T=0 of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the triangular lattice with spatially-anisotropic interactions. For values of the anisotropy very close to J_alpha/J_beta=0.50, conventional spin wave theory predicts that quantum fluctuations melt the classical structures, for S=1/2. For the regime J_beta
Partial wave expansions for arbitrary spin and the role of non-central forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.C.
1977-01-01
The partial wave expansion of the amplitudes used by Hooton and Johnson for the scattering of particles of arbitrary spin is derived. A discussion is given of the extent to which effects arising from transition matrix elements that are diagonal and non-diagonal in orbital angular momentum can be distinguished in observables. (Auth.)
Ferroelectricity Induced by Acentric Spin-Density Waves in YMn2O5
Chapon, L.C.; Radaelli, P.G.; Blake, G.R.; Park, S.; Cheong, S.-W.
2006-01-01
The commensurate and incommensurate magnetic structures of the magnetoelectric system YMn2O5, as determined from neutron diffraction, were found to be spin-density waves lacking a global center of symmetry. We propose a model, based on a simple magnetoelastic coupling to the lattice, which enables
Unidirectional Spin-Wave-Propagation-Induced Seebeck Voltage in a PEDOT:PSS/YIG Bilayer
Wang, P.; Zhou, L. F.; Jiang, S. W.; Luan, Z. Z.; Shu, D. J.; Ding, H. F.; Wu, D.
2018-01-01
We clarify the physical origin of the dc voltage generation in a bilayer of a conducting polymer film and a micrometer-thick magnetic insulator Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) film under ferromagnetic resonance and/or spin wave excitation conditions. The previous attributed mechanism, the inverse spin Hall effect in the polymer [Nat. Mater. 12, 622 (2013), 10.1038/nmat3634], is excluded by two control experiments. We find an in-plane temperature gradient in YIG which has the same angular dependence with the generated voltage. Both vanish when the YIG thickness is reduced to a few nanometers. Thus, we argue that the dc voltage is governed by the Seebeck effect in the polymer, where the temperature gradient is created by the nonreciprocal magnetostatic surface spin wave propagation in YIG.
Fermi wave vector for the partially spin-polarized composite-fermion Fermi sea
Balram, Ajit C.; Jain, J. K.
2017-12-01
The fully spin-polarized composite-fermion (CF) Fermi sea at the half-filled lowest Landau level has a Fermi wave vector kF*=√{4 π ρe } , where ρe is the density of electrons or composite fermions, supporting the notion that the interaction between composite fermions can be treated perturbatively. Away from ν =1 /2 , the area is seen to be consistent with kF*=√{4 π ρe } for ν 1 /2 , where ρh is the density of holes in the lowest Landau level. This result is consistent with particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level. We investigate in this article the Fermi wave vector of the spin-singlet CF Fermi sea (CFFS) at ν =1 /2 , for which particle-hole symmetry is not a consideration. Using the microscopic CF theory, we find that for the spin-singlet CFFS the Fermi wave vectors for up- and down-spin CFFSs at ν =1 /2 are consistent with kF*↑,↓=√{4 π ρe↑,↓ } , where ρe↑=ρe↓=ρe/2 , which implies that the residual interactions between composite fermions do not cause a nonperturbative correction for spin-singlet CFFS either. Our results suggest the natural conjecture that for arbitrary spin polarization the CF Fermi wave vectors are given by kF*↑=√{4 π ρe↑ } and kF*↓=√{4 π ρe↓ } .
Spin effects in nonlinear Compton scattering in a plane-wave laser pulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boca, Madalina; Dinu, Victor; Florescu, Viorica
2012-01-01
We study theoretically the electron angular and energy distribution in the non-linear Compton effect in a finite plane-wave laser pulse. We first present analytical and numerical results for unpolarized electrons (described by a Volkov solution of the Dirac equation), in comparison with those corresponding to a spinless particle (obeying the Klein–Gordon equation). Then, in the spin 1/2 case, we include results for the spin flip probability. The regime in which the spin effects are negligible, i.e. the results for the unpolarized spin 1/2 particle coincide practically with those for the spinless particle, is the same as the regime in which the emitted radiation is well described by classical electrodynamics.
Linear spin-wave theory of incommensurably modulated magnets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ziman, Timothy; Lindgård, Per-Anker
1986-01-01
Calculations of linearized theories of spin dynamics encounter difficulties when applied to incommensurable magnetic phases: lack of translational invariance leads to an infinite coupled system of equations. The authors resolve this for the case of a `single-Q' structure by mapping onto the problem...... of diagonalizing a quasiperiodic Hamiltonian of tight-binding type in one dimension. This allows for calculation of the correlation functions relevant to neutron scattering or magnetic resonance experiments. With the application to the case of a longitudinally modulated magnet a number of new predictions are made...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yvonne Jockel-Schneider
Full Text Available AIM: This single blind cross-sectional study compared the vascular health of subjects suffering from severe chronic periodontitis, severe aggressive periodontitis and periodontal healthy controls by evaluating pulse wave velocity (PWV, augmentation index (AIx and pulse pressure amplification (PPA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a total of 158 subjects, 92 suffering from severe periodontitis and 66 matched periodontal healthy controls, PWV, AIx, central and peripheral blood pressure were recorded using an oscillometric device (Arteriograph. RESULTS: Subjects suffering from severe chronic or aggressive periodontitis exhibited significantly higher PWV (p = 0.00004, higher AIx (p = 0.0049 and lower PPA (p = 0.028 than matched periodontal healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm the association between periodontal inflammation and increased cardiovascular risk shown by impaired vascular health in case of severe periodontitis. As impaired vascular health is a common finding in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease a concomitant routine cardiovascular evaluation may be advised.
Obeid, Hasan; Soulat, Gilles; Mousseaux, Elie; Laurent, Stéphane; Stergiopulos, Nikos; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Segers, Patrick
2017-10-31
Pulse waveform analyses have become established components of cardiovascular research. Recently several methods have been proposed as tools to measure aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV). The carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), the current clinical gold standard method for the noninvasive assessment of aPWV, uses the carotid-to-femoral pulse transit time difference (cf-PTT) and an estimated path length to derive cf-PWV. The heart-ankle PWV (ha-PWV), brachial-ankle PWV (ba-PWV) and finger-toe (ft-PWV) are also methods presuming to approximate aPWV based on time delays between physiological cardiovascular signals at two locations (~heart-ankle PTT, ha-PTT; ~brachial-ankle PTT, ba-PTT; ~finger-toe PTT, ft-PTT) and a path length typically derived from the subject's height. To test the validity of these methods, we used a detailed 1D arterial network model (143 arterial segments) including the foot and hand circulation. The arterial tree dimensions and properties were taken from the literature and completed with data from patient scans. We calculated PTTs with all the methods mentioned above. The calculated PTTs were compared with the aortic PTT (aPTT), which is considered as the absolute reference method in this study. The correlation between methods and aPTT was good and significant, cf-PTT (R 2 = 0.97; P methods, but absolute values differed because of the different path lengths used. In conclusion, our computer model-based analyses demonstrate that for PWV methods based on peripheral signals, pulse transit time differences closely correlate with the aortic transit time, supporting the use of these methods in clinical practice.
Spin waves and phonons in a paraelectric antiferromagnet EuTiO3
Cao, Huibo; Hong, Jiawang; Delaire, Olivier; Hahn, Steven; Ehlers, Georg; Chi, Songxue; Garlea, Vasile; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime; Chakoumakos, Bryan; Yan, Jiaqiang; Sales, Brian
2015-03-01
Perovskite titanates ATiO3 (A=Ba,Pb,Sr,Ca,Cd,or Eu) are widely studied for their interesting instabilities and broad applications. A ferroelectric (FE) transition occurs in Ba, Pb, and Cd titanates, but not in SrTiO3 (STO) or EuTiO3 (ETO). In the case of STO, fluctuations yield a quantum paraelectric state, but whether ETO is quantum paraelectric remains an open question. Despite a number of similarities with well-studied STO, ETO is also unique owing to the magnetic Eu ions. By applying a tuning parameter, such as bi-axial tension, ETO can be turned into a FE ferromagnet, the ideal multiferroic. [J. H. Lee, et al., Nature 466, 954 (2010)] Studies of spin-spin and spin-lattice couplings in ETO are of great interest not only from a fundamental standpoint, but also for technological applications. We successfully grew a large, high-quality isotopically-enriched ETO crystal for neutron scattering. The crystal and magnetic structures were characterized with single crystal diffraction at HB-3A at HFIR at ORNL. The spin waves and phonons were measured in the temperature range of 1.5-400 K with CNCS at SNS and HB-3 at HFIR at ORNL. In this presentation, we will discuss structural instabilities, spin-spin interactions, and spin-phonon couplings in ETO. This work was supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.
Krawczyk, M; Levy, J C S; Mercier, D
2003-01-01
Spin-wave excitations in ferromagnetic layered composite (AB centre dot centre dot centre dot BA; A and B being different homogeneous ferromagnetic materials) are analysed theoretically, by means of the transfer matrix approach. The properties of multilayer spin-wave mode profiles are discussed in relation to multilayer characteristics, such as the filling fraction and the exchange or magnetization contrast; also, surface spin pinning conditions and dipolar interactions are taken into account. The interface conditions are satisfied by introducing an effective exchange field expressed by interface gradients of the exchange constant and the magnetization. This approach provides an easy way to find frequencies and amplitudes of standing spin waves in the multilayer. The developed theory is applied to interpretation of spin wave resonance (SWR) spectra obtained experimentally by Chambers et al in two systems: a bilayer Fe/Ni and a trilayer Ni/Fe/Ni, in perpendicular (to the multilayer surface) configuration of th...
Ikenaga, Yuki; Nishi, Shohei; Komagata, Yuka; Saito, Masashi; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Asada, Takaaki; Matsukawa, Mami
2013-11-01
A pulse wave is the displacement wave which arises because of ejection of blood from the heart and reflection at vascular bed and distal point. The investigation of pressure waves leads to understanding the propagation characteristics of a pulse wave. To investigate the pulse wave behavior, an experimental study was performed using an artificial polymer tube and viscous liquid. A polyurethane tube and glycerin solution were used to simulate a blood vessel and blood, respectively. In the case of the 40 wt% glycerin solution, which corresponds to the viscosity of ordinary blood, the attenuation coefficient of a pressure wave in the tube decreased from 4.3 to 1.6 dB/m because of the tube stiffness (Young's modulus: 60 to 200 kPa). When the viscosity of liquid increased from approximately 4 to 10 mPa·s (the range of human blood viscosity) in the stiff tube, the attenuation coefficient of the pressure wave changed from 1.6 to 3.2 dB/m. The hardening of the blood vessel caused by aging and the increase of blood viscosity caused by illness possibly have opposite effects on the intravascular pressure wave. The effect of the viscosity of a liquid on the amplitude of a pressure wave was then considered using a phantom simulating human blood vessels. As a result, in the typical range of blood viscosity, the amplitude ratio of the waves obtained by the experiments with water and glycerin solution became 1:0.83. In comparison with clinical data, this value is much smaller than that seen from blood vessel hardening. Thus, it can be concluded that the blood viscosity seldom affects the attenuation of a pulse wave.
Role of the antiferromagnetic pinning layer on spin wave properties in IrMn/NiFe based spin-valves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gubbiotti, G., E-mail: gubbiotti@fisica.unipg.it; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (IOM-CNR), Unità di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Del Bianco, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Bonfiglioli, E.; Giovannini, L.; Spizzo, F.; Zivieri, R. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences and CNISM, University of Ferrara, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)
2015-05-07
Brillouin light scattering (BLS) was exploited to study the spin wave properties of spin-valve (SV) type samples basically consisting of two 5 nm-thick NiFe layers (separated by a Cu spacer of 5 nm), differently biased through the interface exchange coupling with an antiferromagnetic IrMn layer. Three samples were investigated: a reference SV sample, without IrMn (reference); one sample with an IrMn underlayer (10 nm thick) coupled to the bottom NiFe film; one sample with IrMn underlayer and overlayer of different thickness (10 nm and 6 nm), coupled to the bottom and top NiFe film, respectively. The exchange coupling with the IrMn, causing the insurgence of the exchange bias effect, allowed the relative orientation of the NiFe magnetization vectors to be controlled by an external magnetic field, as assessed through hysteresis loop measurements by magneto-optic magnetometry. Thus, BLS spectra were acquired by sweeping the magnetic field so as to encompass both the parallel and antiparallel alignment of the NiFe layers. The BLS results, well reproduced by the presented theoretical model, clearly revealed the combined effects on the spin dynamic properties of the dipolar interaction between the two NiFe films and of the interface IrMn/NiFe exchange coupling.
Ultrabroadband spin-wave propagation in Co2(Mn0.6Fe0.4) Si thin films
Stückler, Tobias; Liu, Chuanpu; Liu, Tao; Yu, Haiming; Heimbach, Florian; Chen, Jilei; Hu, Junfeng; Tu, Sa; Zhang, Youguang; Granville, Simon; Wu, Mingzhong; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Weisheng
2017-10-01
Ferromagnetic Heusler alloys with low magnetic damping are highly promising materials for magnonic devices, which rely on the excitation and detection of spin waves. Using all-electrical spin-wave spectroscopy we report spin-wave propagation in sputtered Co2(Mn0.6Fe0.4) Si Heusler alloy thin films with a thickness of 50 nm. We integrated a nanostructured microwave antenna to locally excite and detect propagating spin waves in a Damon-Eshbach configuration. We estimate the group velocity to be up to 12.0 km/s and we observe spin-wave propagation with a frequency band as broad as 15 GHz. From the experimental frequency dependence of group velocity we calculate the spin-wave dispersion. Our results show that all-electrical measurements are a powerful method for determining the fundamental spin-wave characteristics of Heusler alloys, over a broad and tunable range of frequencies, and with group velocities an order of magnitude higher than in conventional materials.
Spin-wave analysis of the XXZ Heisenberg model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benyoussef, A.; Boubekri, A.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.
1998-08-01
The effect of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction on the stability of the Neel phase and the energy gap for the XXZ Heisenberg model on a d-dimensional hypercubic lattice is investigated using the linear spin-wave theory. In one-dimension, the disordered phase disappears above a critical value of the spin-axis anisotropy. In two-dimension, the instability of the Neel order occurs below a critical value of the easy-axis anisotropy. We find that for all d-dimensional systems, the energy gap vanishes above a critical value of the DM interaction. (author)
Wang, Kang-Ling; Cheng, Hao-Min; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Li, Cheng-Hung; Spurgeon, Harold A; Ting, Chih-Tai; Najjar, Samer S; Lakatta, Edward G; Yin, Frank C P; Chou, Pesus; Chen, Chen-Huan
2010-03-01
The value of increased arterial wave reflection, usually assessed by the transit time-dependent augmentation index and augmented pressure (Pa), in the prediction of cardiovascular events may have been underestimated. We investigated whether the transit time-independent measures of reflected wave magnitude predict cardiovascular outcomes independent of arterial stiffness indexed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. A total of 1272 participants (47% women; mean age: 52+/-13 years; range: 30 to 79 years) from a community-based survey were studied. Carotid pressure waveforms derived by tonometry were decomposed into their forward wave amplitudes, backward wave amplitudes (Pb), and a reflection index (=[Pb/(forward wave amplitude+Pb)]), in addition to augmentation index, Pa, and reflected wave transit time. During a median follow-up of 15 years, 225 deaths occurred (17.6%), including 64 cardiovascular origins (5%). In univariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, pulse wave velocity, Pa, and Pb predicted all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both men and women, whereas augmentation index, reflected wave transit time, and reflection index were predictive only in men. In multivariate analysis accounting for age, height, and heart rate, Pb predicted cardiovascular mortality in both men and women, whereas Pa was predictive only in men. Per 1-SD increment (6 mm Hg), Pb predicted 15-year cardiovascular mortality independent of brachial but not central pressure, pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, Pa, and conventional cardiovascular risk factors with hazard ratios of approximately 1.60 (all Pwave magnitude, predicted long-term cardiovascular mortality in men and women independent of arterial stiffness.
Nonautonomous matter waves in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate
Shen, Yu-Jia; Gao, Yi-Tian; Zuo, Da-Wei; Sun, Yu-Hao; Feng, Yu-Jie; Xue, Long
2014-06-01
To investigate nonautonomous matter waves with time-dependent modulation in a one-dimensional trapped spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate, we hereby work on the generalized three-coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations by means of the Hirota bilinear method. By modulating the external trap potential, atom gain or loss, and coupling coefficients, we can obtain several nonautonomous matter-wave solitons and rogue waves including "bright" and "dark" shapes and arrive at the following conclusions: (i) the external trap potential and atom gain or loss can influence the propagation of matter-wave solitons and the duration and frequency of bound solitonic interaction, but they have little effect on the head-on solitonic interaction; (ii) through numerical simulation, stable evolution of the matter-wave solitons is realized with a perturbation of 5% initial random noise, and the spin-exchange interaction of atoms can be affected by the time-dependent modulation; (iii) under the influence of a periodically modulated trap potential and periodic atom gain or loss, rogue waves can emerge in the superposition of localized character and periodic oscillating properties.
Anomalous spin waves and the commensurate-incommensurate magnetic phase transition in LiNiPO4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Christensen, Niels Bech; Kenzelmann, M.
2009-01-01
Detailed spin-wave spectra of magnetoelectric LiNiPO4 have been measured by neutron scattering at low temperatures in the commensurate (C) antiferromagnetic (AF) phase below T-N=20.8 K. An anomalous shallow minimum is observed at the modulation vector of the incommensurate (IC) AF phase appearing...... above T-N. A linear spin-wave model based on Heisenberg exchange couplings and single-ion anisotropies accounts for all the observed spin-wave dispersions and intensities. Along the b axis an unusually strong next-nearest-neighbor AF coupling competes with the dominant nearest-neighbor AF exchange...
Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.
2018-02-01
This paper presents an experimental study of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) in a bilayer consisting of a yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and platinum (Pt) loaded on a metamaterial split ring resonator (SRR). The system is excited by a microstrip feed line which generates both surface and bulk spin waves in the YIG. The spin waves subsequently undergo spin pumping from the YIG film to an adjacent Pt layer, and is converted into a charge current via the ISHE. It is found that the presence of the SRR causes a significant enhancement of the mangetic field near the resonance frequency of the SRR, resulting in a significant increase in the ISHE signal. Furthermore, the type of spin wave generated in the system can be controlled by changing the external applied magnetic field angle (θH ). When the external applied magnetic field is near parallel to the microstrip line (θH = 0 ), magnetostatic surface spin waves are predominantly excited. On the other hand, when the external applied magnetic field is perpendicular to the microstrip line (θH = π/2 ), backward volume magnetostatic spin waves are predominantly excited. Hence, it can be seen that the SRR structure is a promising method of achieving spin-charge conversion, which has many advantages over a coaxial probe.
Coherent Two-Dimensional Terahertz Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Collective Spin Waves.
Lu, Jian; Li, Xian; Hwang, Harold Y; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Kurihara, Takayuki; Suemoto, Tohru; Nelson, Keith A
2017-05-19
We report a demonstration of two-dimensional (2D) terahertz (THz) magnetic resonance spectroscopy using the magnetic fields of two time-delayed THz pulses. We apply the methodology to directly reveal the nonlinear responses of collective spin waves (magnons) in a canted antiferromagnetic crystal. The 2D THz spectra show all of the third-order nonlinear magnon signals including magnon spin echoes, and 2-quantum signals that reveal pairwise correlations between magnons at the Brillouin zone center. We also observe second-order nonlinear magnon signals showing resonance-enhanced second-harmonic and difference-frequency generation. Numerical simulations of the spin dynamics reproduce all of the spectral features in excellent agreement with the experimental 2D THz spectra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Dong Ho; Chang, Won; Han, Joon Koo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-09-15
To prospectively compare technical success rate and reliable measurements of virtual touch quantification (VTQ) elastography and elastography point quantification (ElastPQ), and to correlate liver stiffness (LS) measurements obtained by the two elastography techniques. Our study included 85 patients, 80 of whom were previously diagnosed with chronic liver disease. The technical success rate and reliable measurements of the two kinds of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) techniques were compared by χ{sup 2} analysis. LS values measured using the two techniques were compared and correlated via Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement. The intraobserver reproducibility of ElastPQ was determined by 95% Bland-Altman limit of agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The two pSWE techniques showed similar technical success rate (98.8% for VTQ vs. 95.3% for ElastPQ, p = 0.823) and reliable LS measurements (95.3% for VTQ vs. 90.6% for ElastPQ, p = 0.509). The mean LS measurements obtained by VTQ (1.71 ± 0.47 m/s) and ElastPQ (1.66 ± 0.41 m/s) were not significantly different (p = 0.209). The LS measurements obtained by the two techniques showed strong correlation (r = 0.820); in addition, the 95% limit of agreement of the two methods was 27.5% of the mean. Finally, the ICC of repeat ElastPQ measurements was 0.991. Virtual touch quantification and ElastPQ showed similar technical success rate and reliable measurements, with strongly correlated LS measurements. However, the two methods are not interchangeable due to the large limit of agreement.
Polarization dependence of the spin-density-wave excitations in single-domain chromium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boeni, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Roessli, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 75 - Paris (France); Sternlieb, B.J. [Brookhaven (United States); Lorenzo, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France); Werner, S.A. [Missouri (United States)
1997-09-01
A polarized neutron scattering experiment has been performed with a single-Q, single domain sample of chromium in a magnetic field of 4 T. It is confirmed that the longitudinal fluctuations are enhanced for small energy transfers and that the spin wave modes with {delta}S parallel to Q and {delta}S perpendicular to Q are similar. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.
su(1,2) Algebraic Structure of XYZ Antiferromagnetic Model in Linear Spin-Wave Frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Shuo; Xie Binghao; Yu Zhaoxian; Hou Jingmin
2008-01-01
The XYZ antiferromagnetic model in linear spin-wave frame is shown explicitly to have an su(1,2) algebraic structure: the Hamiltonian can be written as a linear function of the su(1,2) algebra generators. Based on it, the energy eigenvalues are obtained by making use of the similar transformations, and the algebraic diagonalization method is investigated. Some numerical solutions are given, and the results indicate that only one group solution could be accepted in physics
Spin-Wave Dispersion and Sublattice Magnetization in NiCl_2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Birgeneau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage
1975-01-01
temperature dependence on the sublattice magnetization, gap energy and specific heat. The authors report an inelastic neutron scattering study of the spin waves both at low temperatures and, for selected q-vectors, for temperatures up to TN=52.3K. The sublattice magnetization has been measured from 1.5K to TN......-dependent dispersion relations (together with the sublattice magnetization) and the gap energy up to approximately 0.4 TN are properly predicted....
2006-11-01
magnetic fields as small as parts of micro Oersted that is several orders below the magnitude of the constant Earth’s magnetic field. To...vehicle, is measured by the accurate frequency meter. Our main task is to develop an engineering theory of operation of the proposed devices and...scientific results. Using yttrium-iron garnet (YIG) as a medium for spin wave propagation, we developed engineering theory and experimentally tested (in
Xing, X J; Zhang, D; Li, S W
2012-12-14
We have investigated the tunneling of dipole-exchange spin waves across an air gap in submicrometer-sized permalloy magnetic strips by means of micromagnetic simulations. The magnetizations beside the gap could form three distinct end-domain states with various strengths of dipolar coupling. Spin-wave tunneling through the gap at individual end-domain states is studied. It is found that the tunneling behavior is strongly dependent on these domain states. Nonmonotonic decay of transmission of spin waves with the increase of the gap width is observed. The underlying mechanism for these behaviors is proposed. The tunneling characteristics of the dipole-exchange spin waves differ essentially from those of the magnetostatic ones reported previously.
Spin wave propagation detected over 100 μm in half-metallic Heusler alloy Co2MnSi
Stückler, Tobias; Liu, Chuanpu; Yu, Haiming; Heimbach, Florian; Chen, Jilei; Hu, Junfeng; Tu, Sa; Alam, Md. Shah; Zhang, Jianyu; Zhang, Youguang; Farrell, Ian L.; Emeny, Chrissy; Granville, Simon; Liao, Zhi-Min; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Weisheng
2018-03-01
The field of magnon spintronics offers a charge current free way of information transportation by using spin waves (SWs). Compared to forward volume spin waves for example, Damon-Eshbach (DE) SWs need a relatively weak external magnetic field which is suitable for small spintronic devices. In this work we study DE SWs in Co2MnSi, a half-metallic Heusler alloy with significant potential for magnonics. Thin films have been produced by pulsed laser deposition. Integrated coplanar waveguide (CPW) antennas with different distances between emitter and detection antenna have been prepared on a Co2MnSi film. We used a vector network analyzer to measure spin wave reflection and transmission. We observe spin wave propagation up to 100 μm, a new record for half-metallic Heusler thin films.
Solid State Spin-Wave Quantum Memory for Time-Bin Qubits.
Gündoğan, Mustafa; Ledingham, Patrick M; Kutluer, Kutlu; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2015-06-12
We demonstrate the first solid-state spin-wave optical quantum memory with on-demand read-out. Using the full atomic frequency comb scheme in a Pr(3+):Y2SiO5 crystal, we store weak coherent pulses at the single-photon level with a signal-to-noise ratio >10. Narrow-band spectral filtering based on spectral hole burning in a second Pr(3+):Y2SiO5 crystal is used to filter out the excess noise created by control pulses to reach an unconditional noise level of (2.0±0.3)×10(-3) photons per pulse. We also report spin-wave storage of photonic time-bin qubits with conditional fidelities higher than achievable by a measure and prepare strategy, demonstrating that the spin-wave memory operates in the quantum regime. This makes our device the first demonstration of a quantum memory for time-bin qubits, with on-demand read-out of the stored quantum information. These results represent an important step for the use of solid-state quantum memories in scalable quantum networks.
Spin wave spectrum in CeRhIn5 under applied magnetic fields
Fobes, David; Lin, S.-Z.; Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Batista, C. D.; Ehlers, G.; Janoschek, M.
The phase diagram of CeRhIn5 is in many ways a prototypical example of a heavy fermion superconductor; it is a heavy fermion antiferromagnet that can be tuned to a quantum critical point (QCP) via pressure, around which unconventional superconductivity emerges. Closer inspection reveals unusual behavior however; the interplay between magnetism and unconventional superconductivity is atypical, and electrical transport behavior and changes in the Fermi surface at the QCP are not in agreement with the prototypical spin-density-wave-type scenario. This is supported by our previous measurements of the spin wave spectrum at ambient pressure replicated by a simple frustrated J1 -J2 model based on localized Ce 4 f electrons. We show that the addition of magnetic anisotropy and Zeeman terms to our Anisotropic Next-Nearest Neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model Hamiltonian quantitatively describes the spin wave spectrum under the application of magnetic field as obtained by neutron scattering, and reproduces the experimental magnetic phase diagram. Finally, this model predicts that the magnetic ordering vector should change logarithmically as a function of temperature across the high-field incommensurate-to-commensurate phase boundary, in agreement with our latest neutron diffraction results.
Magnetic studies of spin wave excitations in Fe/Mn multilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salhi, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); LMPG, Ecole supérieure de technologie, Université Hassan de Casablanca, Casablanca (Morocco); Moubah, R.; El Bahoui, A.; Lassri, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco)
2017-04-15
The structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers grown by thermal evaporation technique were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and spin wave theory. Transmission electron microscopy shows that the Fe and Mn layers are continuous with a significant interfacial roughness. The magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers were studied for various Fe thicknesses (t{sub Fe}). The change of magnetization as a function of temperature is well depicted by a T{sup 3/2} law. The Fe spin-wave constant was extracted and found to be larger than that reported for bulk Fe, which we attribute to the fluctuation of magnetic moments at the interface, due to the interfacial roughness. The experimental M (T) data were satisfactory fitted for multilayers with different Fe thicknesses; and several exchange interactions were extracted. - Highlights: • The structural and magnetic properties of Fe/Mn multilayers were studied. • Fe and Mn layers are continuous with an important interfacial roughness. • The Fe spin-wave constant is larger than that reported for bulk Fe due to the fluctuation of the interfacial magnetic moments.
Physics Colloquium: Theory of the spin wave Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators
Université de Genève
2011-01-01
Geneva University Physics Department 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Lundi 28 février 2011 17h00 - École de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg Theory of the spin wave Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators Prof. Gerrit Bauer Delft University of Technology The subfield of spin caloritronics addresses the coupling of heat, charge and spin currents in nanostructures. In the center of interest is here the spin Seebeck effect, which was discovered in an iron-nickel alloy. Uchida et al. recently observed the effect also in an electrically insulating Yttrium Iron Garnett (YIG) thin magnetic film. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a Seebeck effect generated by an insulator, implying that the physics is fundamentally different from the conventional Seebeck effect in metals. We explain the experiments by the pumping of a spin current into the detecting contacts by the thermally excited magnetization dynamics. In this talk I will give a brief overview over the state o...
Ogawa, Saori; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Yoshida, Keiko; Oshiro, Hisashi; Kojima, Mayumi; Sano, Takatomo; Furuichi, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi
2016-07-01
The aim of the present study was to investigate two methods of determining liver stiffness in rats with various degrees of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet by comparing each finding with reference to histopathological liver findings. Twenty male Wister rats were fed an MCD diet for up to 32 weeks, and four were fed a normal diet. Ultrasound-based shear wave elastography (SWE) and mechanical compression testing using an Instron Universal Testing machine were performed on each rat at designated time points. After each examination, liver histopathology was analyzed to evaluate the degrees of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis based on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score, and each finding was compared with reference to liver histopathologic findings. Median liver stiffness values measured using SWE showed a stepwise increase with increasing histological inflammation score (P = 0.002), hepatic fibrosis stage (P = 0.029), ballooning score (P = 0.012), and steatosis grade (P = 0.030). Median liver stiffness measured using an Instron machine showed a stepwise increase only with increasing histological fibrosis stage (P = 0.033). Degree of liver stiffness measured by SWE and the Instron machine differed. SWE reflected mainly inflammation, whereas Instron machine-derived values primarily reflected fibrosis. This is the main source of discrepancies between measurements made with these two modalities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ettayfi, A. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Casablanca (Morocco); Moubah, R., E-mail: reda.moubah@hotmail.fr [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Casablanca (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Colis, S.; Lenertz, M.; Dinia, A. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), UMR 7504 UDS-CNRS (UDS-ECPM), 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Lassri, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain chock, Université Hassan II de Casablanca, B.P. 5366 Casablanca (Morocco)
2016-07-01
We investigate the magnetic and transport properties of high quality La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction shows that the deposited films are epitaxial with the expected pseudo-cubic structure. Using the spin wave theory, the temperature dependence of magnetization was satisfactory modeled at low temperature, in which several fundamental magnetic parameters were obtained (spin wave stiffness, exchange constants, Fermi wave-vector, Mn–Mn interatomic distance). The transport properties were studied via the temperature dependence of electrical resistivity [ρ(T)], which shows a peak at Curie temperature due to metal to insulator transition. The percolation theory was used to simulate ρ(T) in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. Reasonable agreement with the experimental data is reported. - Highlights: • The magnetic and transport properties of epitaxial La{sub 2/3}Sr{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin films are investigated. • The M(T) curve was modeled at low temperature, and several magnetic parameters were obtained using spin wave theory. • The percolation theory was used to simulate ρ(T) in both the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ursula Quinn
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Measurements of biomechanical properties of arteries have become an important surrogate outcome used in epidemiological and interventional cardiovascular research. Structural and functional differences of vessels in the arterial tree result in a dampening of pulsatility and smoothing of blood flow as it progresses to capillary level. A loss of arterial elastic properties results a range of linked pathophysiological changes within the circulation including increased pulse pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, subendocardial ischaemia, vessel endothelial dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. With increased arterial stiffness, the microvasculature of brain and kidneys are exposed to wider pressure fluctuations and may lead to increased risk of stroke and renal failure. Stiffening of the aorta, as measured by the gold-standard technique of aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (aPWV, is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes across many different patient groups and in the general population. Therefore, use of aPWV has been proposed for early detection of vascular damage and individual cardiovascular risk evaluation and it seems certain that measurement of arterial stiffness will become increasingly important in future clinical care. In this review we will consider some of the pathophysiological processes that result from arterial stiffening, how it is measured and factors that may drive it as well as potential avenues for therapy. In the face of an ageing population where mortality from atheromatous cardiovascular disease is falling, pathology associated with arterial stiffening will assume ever greater importance. Therefore, understanding these concepts for all clinicians involved in care of patients with cardiovascular disease will become vital.
Excitation of spin waves in BiFeO3 multiferroic film by the slot line transducer
Korneev, V. I.; Popkov, A. F.; Solov'yov, S. V.
2018-01-01
Analysis of the efficiency of magnetoelectric excitation of spin-waves in BiFeO3 multiferroic films by a slot line is performed based on the solution of dynamic Ginzburg-Landau equations for the antiferromagnetic vector. The excitation efficiency is determined by the magnitude of the conversion coefficient of the electromagnetic wave to the spin wave by the slot line transducer or in other words, losses on conversion in the slot line. Calculations are made for a homogeneous antiferromagnetic state of the multiferroic in the presence of a sufficiently large magnetic field and for a spatially modulated spin state (SMSS) at zero magnetic field. It is shown that in the case of a homogeneous antiferromagnetic state, the losses on the excitation of spin waves exceed the excitation efficiency in the SMSS state; however, as the frequency approaches the spin excitation gap, it falls and becomes lower than in the SMSS state. Spin wave excitation in the presence of antiferromagnetic cycloid strongly depends on the relation of the slot width of the transducer to the cycloid periodicity and on the magnitude of the shift of the position of the transducer along the cycloid on its period. The usage of multiferroics for delay lines in the considered frequency range from 100 to 600 GHz requires significant reduction in conversion and propagation losses. More promising seems multiferroic usage in phase shifters and switches for this range.
Dirac-fermions in graphene d-wave superconducting heterojunction with the spin orbit interaction
Wang, Juntao; Wang, Andong; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Deng; Yang, Yanling
2017-09-01
In this study, based on the Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, we theoretically investigate the interaction effect between the anisotropic d-wave pairing symmetry and the spin orbit interaction (the Rashba spin orbit interaction (RSOI) and the Dresselhaus spin orbit interaction (DSOI)) in a graphene superconducting heterojunction. We find that the spin orbit interaction (SOI) plays a critical role on the tunneling conductance in the pristine case, but minimally affecting the tunneling conductance in the heavily doped case. As for the zero bias state, in contrast to the keep intact feature in the heavily doped case, it exhibits a distinct dependence on the RSOI and the DSOI in the pristine case. In particular, the damage of the zero bias state with a slight DSOI results in the disappearance of the zero bias conductance peak. Moreover, the tunneling conductances also show a qualitative difference with respect to the RSOI when both the RSOI and the DSOI are finite. These remarkable results suggest that the SOI and the anisotropic superconducting gap can be regarded as a key tool for diagnosing the specular Andreev reflection.
Basic mode of nonlinear spin-wave resonance in normally magnetized ferrite films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulyaev, Yu.V.; Zil'berman, P.E.; Timiryazev, A.G.; Tikhomirova, M.P.
2000-01-01
Modes of nonlinear and spin-wave resonance (SWR) in the normally magnetized ferrite films were studied both theoretically and experimentally. The particular emphasis was placed on the basic mode of SWR. One showed theoretically that with the growth of the precession amplitude the profile of the basic mode changed. The nonlinear shift of the resonance field depends on the parameters of fixing of the surface spins. Films of ferroyttrium garnet (FYG) with strong gradient of the single-axis anisotropy field along the film thickness, as well as, FYG films of the submicron thickness where investigated experimentally. With the intensification of Uhf-power one observed the sublinear shift of the basic mode resonance field following by the superlinear growth of the absorbed power. That kind of behaviour is explained by variation of the profile of the varying magnetization space distribution [ru
Quantum Monte Carlo studies of a metallic spin-density wave transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerlach, Max Henner
2017-01-20
Plenty experimental evidence indicates that quantum critical phenomena give rise to much of the rich physics observed in strongly correlated itinerant electron systems such as the high temperature superconductors. A quantum critical point of particular interest is found at the zero-temperature onset of spin-density wave order in two-dimensional metals. The appropriate low-energy theory poses an exceptionally hard problem to analytic theory, therefore the unbiased and controlled numerical approach pursued in this thesis provides important contributions on the road to comprehensive understanding. After discussing the phenomenology of quantum criticality, a sign-problem-free determinantal quantum Monte Carlo approach is introduced and an extensive toolbox of numerical methods is described in a self-contained way. By the means of large-scale computer simulations we have solved a lattice realization of the universal effective theory of interest. The finite-temperature phase diagram, showing both a quasi-long-range spin-density wave ordered phase and a d-wave superconducting dome, is discussed in its entirety. Close to the quantum phase transition we find evidence for unusual scaling of the order parameter correlations and for non-Fermi liquid behavior at isolated hot spots on the Fermi surface.
Mariette, Céline; Trzop, Elzbieta; Zerdane, Serhane; Fertey, Pierre; Zhang, Daopeng; Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco J; Real, José Antonio; Collet, Eric
2017-08-01
The complex relaxation from the photoinduced high-spin phase (PIHS) to the low-spin phase of the bimetallic two-dimensional coordination spin-crossover polymer [Fe[(Hg(SCN) 3 ) 2 ](4,4'-bipy) 2 ] n is reported. During the thermal relaxation, commensurate and incommensurate spin-state concentration waves (SSCWs) form. However, contrary to the steps forming at thermal equilibrium, associated with long-range SSCW order, the SSCWs forming during the relaxation from the PIHS phase correspond to short-range order, revealed by diffuse X-ray scattering. This is interpreted as resulting from the competition between the two types of SSCW order and another structural symmetry breaking, due to ligand ordering, occurring at low temperature and precluding long-range SSCW order.
Andreev, Pavel A.; Iqbal, Z.
2016-03-01
We consider the separate spin evolution of electrons and positrons in electron-positron and electron-positron-ion plasmas. We consider the oblique propagating longitudinal waves in these systems. Working in a regime of high-density n0˜1027cm-3 and high-magnetic-field B0=1010 G, we report the presence of the spin-electron acoustic waves and their dispersion dependencies. In electron-positron plasmas, similarly to the electron-ion plasmas, we find one spin-electron acoustic wave (SEAW) at the propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external field and two spin-electron acoustic waves at the oblique propagation. At the parallel or perpendicular propagation of the longitudinal waves in electron-positron-ion plasmas, we find four branches: the Langmuir wave, the positron-acoustic wave, and a pair of waves having spin nature, they are the SEAW and the wave discovered in this paper, called the spin-electron-positron acoustic wave (SEPAW). At the oblique propagation we find eight longitudinal waves: the Langmuir wave, the Trivelpiece--Gould wave, a pair of positron-acoustic waves, a pair of SEAWs, and a pair of SEPAWs. Thus, for the first time, we report the existence of the second positron-acoustic wave existing at the oblique propagation and the existence of SEPAWs.
Antenna design for propagating spin wave spectroscopy in ferromagnetic thin films
Zhang, Yan; Yu, Ting; Chen, Ji-lei; Zhang, You-guang; Feng, Jian; Tu, Sa; Yu, Haiming
2018-03-01
In this paper, we investigate the characteristics of antenna for propagating-spin-wave-spectroscopy (PSWS) experiment in ferromagnetic thin films. Firstly, we simulate the amplitude and phase distribution of the high-frequency magnetic field around antenna by high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). And then k distribution of the antenna is obtained by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). Furthermore, three kinds of antenna designs, i.e. micro-strip line, coplanar waveguide (CPW), loop, are studied and compared. How the dimension parameter of antenna influence the corresponding high-frequency magnetic field amplitude and k distribution are investigated in details.
High-energy spin waves in La2CuO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayden, S.M.; Aeppli, G.; Osborn, R.; Taylor, A.D.; Perring, T.G.; Cheong, S.; Fisk, Z.
1991-01-01
Time-of-flight spectrocopy using neutrons produced by a spallation source is used to measure the one-magnon scattering throughout the Brillouin zone for La 2 CuO 4 . The zone-boundary magnons have an energy ℎω ZB =0.312±0.005 eV and are good eigenstates of the quantum Heisenberg Hamiltonian in that they possess lifetimes >10/ω. A multiplicative renormalization of the overall frequency scale of classical spin-wave theory accounts for the quantum effects in the one-magnon spectrum
Temperature Dependence of the Spin Waves in ErFe2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, K.; Rhyne, J. J.; Lebech, Bente
1982-01-01
The temperature renormalisation of the energies of the optic modes in ErFe2 has been determined from room temperature up to close to the Curie temperature (574K). It is found that the two modes, a dispersive transition-metal mode and a localised crystal-field-dominated mode, cross over at about 420......K. The experimental results have been interpreted and are well accounted for by a linear spin wave model, where the level scheme of the lowest J multiplet of the Er3+ site has been assumed to consist of pure Jz states with an equidistant energy spacing between the levels....
Zhou, Lu-Yao; Jiang, Hong; Shan, Quan-Yuan; Chen, Dong; Lin, Xiao-Na; Liu, Bao-Xian; Xie, Xiao-Yan
2017-08-01
To prospectively assess the diagnostic performance of supersonic shear wave elastography (SSWE) in identifying biliary atresia (BA) among infants with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia by comparing this approach with grey-scale ultrasonography (US). Forty infants were analysed as the control group to determine normal liver stiffness values. The use of SSWE values for identifying BA was investigated in 172 infants suspected of having BA, and results were compared with the results obtained by grey-scale US. The Mann-Whitney U test, unpaired t-test, Spearman correlation and linear regression were also performed. The success rates of SSWE measurements in the control and study group were 100% (40/40) and 96.4% (244/253), respectively. Age, direct bilirubin, and indirect bilirubin all significantly correlated with SSWE in the liver (all P liver stiffness values in identifying BA was lower than that of grey-scale US (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.790 vs 0.893, P liver stiffness will increase as age increases. • SSWE is potentially useful in assessing infants suspected of biliary atresia. • SSWE is inferior to grey-scale US in identifying biliary atresia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chung CM
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Chang-Min Chung,1,2 Hui-Wen Cheng,2 Jung-Jung Chang,2 Yu-Sheng Lin,2 Ju-Feng Hsiao,2 Shih-Tai Chang,1 Jen-Te Hsu2,31School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 2Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chiayi, 3Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan County, TaiwanBackground: Resistant hypertension (RH is a common clinical condition associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in older patients. Several factors and conditions interfering with blood pressure (BP control, such as excess sodium intake, obesity, diabetes, older age, kidney disease, and certain identifiable causes of hypertension are common in patients resistant to antihypertensive treatment. Arterial stiffness, measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, is increasingly recognized as an important prognostic index and potential therapeutic target in hypertensive patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between RH and arterial stiffness. Methods: This study included 1,620 patients aged ≥65 years who were referred or self-referred to the outpatient hypertension unit located at a single cardiovascular center. They were separated into normotensive, controlled BP, and resistant hypertension groups. Home BP, blood laboratory parameters, echocardiographic studies and baPWV all were measured. Results: The likelihood of diabetes mellitus was significantly greater in the RH group than in the group with controlled BP (odds ratio 2.114, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.194–3.744, P=0.010. Systolic BP was correlated in the RH group significantly more than in the group with controlled BP (odds ratio 1.032, 95% CI 1.012–1.053, P=0.001. baPWV (odds ratio 1.084, 95% CI 1.016–1.156, P=0.015 was significantly correlated with the presence of RH. The other factors were negatively correlated with the existence of RH.Conclusion: In
Singh, Dheeraj Kumar
2017-08-01
We investigate the roles of interaction parameters in the spin-wave excitations of the ( π,0 ) ordered magnetic state within a five-orbital tight-binding model for iron pnictides. To differentiate between the roles of intraorbital Coulomb interaction (U) and Hund's coupling (J), we focus on the self-consistently obtained mean-field spin-density wave state with a fixed magnetic moment obtained by using different combinations of interaction parameters. We find that J is crucial for the description of various experimentally observed characteristics of the spin-wave excitations including energy-dependent behavior, spin-wave spectral weight distribution, and anisotropy. In particular, J at the higher end of the range of various theoretical and experimental estimates ( J ˜U /4 ) is required to explain the sharp and well-defined spin-wave dispersion in most part of the high-symmetry directions. Moreover, a similar value is also needed for the spectral weight to be concentrated near energy ≳ 200 meV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, M; Zhao, Z B; Fan, L B
2015-01-01
The effect of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit coupling (SOC) on the transmission of electrons through the GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is studied. It is found that the Dresselhaus SOC causes the evident dependence of the transmission probability on the spin polarization and the in-plane wave vector of electrons, and also induces evident spin splitting of the resonant peaks in the (E z -k) plane. Because the magnitude of the Rashba SOC is relatively small, its effect on the transmission of electrons is much less. As k increases, the peaks of transmission probability for spin-up electrons (T + ) shift to a higher energy region and increase in magnitude, while the peaks of transmission probability for spin-down electrons (T − ) shift to a lower energy region and decrease in magnitude. The polarization efficiency (P) is found to peak at the resonant energies and increases with the in-plane wave vector. Moreover, the built-in electric field caused by the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization can increase the amplitude of P. Results obtained here are helpful for the efficient spin injection into the III-nitride heterostructures by nonmagnetic means from the device point of view. (paper)
Spin-wave excitations and electron-magnon scattering from many-body perturbation theory
Friedrich, Christoph; Müller, Mathias C. T. D.; Blügel, Stefan
We study the spin excitations and the electron-magnon scattering in bulk Fe, Co, and Ni within the framework of many-body perturbation theory as implemented in the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave method. Starting from the GW approximation we obtain a Bethe-Salpeter equation for the magnetic susceptibility treating single-particle Stoner excitations and magnons on the same footing. Due to approximations used in the numerical scheme, the acoustic magnon dispersion exhibits a small but finite gap at Γ. We analyze this violation of the Goldstone theorem and present an approach that implements the magnetic susceptibility using a renormalized Green function instead of the non-interacting one, leading to a substantial improvement of the Goldstone-mode condition. Finally, we employ the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation to construct a self-energy that describes the scattering of electrons and magnons. The resulting renormalized band structures exhibit strong lifetime effects close to the Fermi energy. We also see kinks in the electronic bands, which we attribute to electron scattering with spatially extended spin waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guslienko, Konstantin Y.; Slavin, Andrei N.
2011-01-01
We present derivation of the magnetostatic Green's functions used in calculations of spin-wave spectra of finite-size non-ellipsoidal (rectangular) magnetic elements. The elements (dots) are assumed to be single domain particles having uniform static magnetization. We consider the case of flat dots, when the in-plane dot size is much larger than the dot height (film thickness), and assume the uniform distribution of the variable magnetization along the dot height. The limiting cases of magnetic waveguides with rectangular cross-section and thin magnetic stripes are also considered. The developed method of tensorial Green's functions is used to solve the Maxwell equations in the magnetostatic limit, and to represent the Landau-Lifshitz equation of motion for the magnetization of a magnetic element in a closed integro-differential form. - Highlights: → The Green's functions method is used to solve the magnetostatic equations. → Explicit Green's functions are written for thin magnetic dots and stripes. → Spin-wave frequencies for finite rectangular magnetic elements are calculated.
Zhang, Shuhui; Rong, Jianhong; Wang, Huan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Lei
2018-01-01
We have investigated the dependence of spin-wave resonance(SWR) frequency on the surface anisotropy, the interlayer exchange coupling, the ferromagnetic layer thickness, the mode number and the external magnetic field in a ferromagnetic superlattice film by means of the linear spin-wave approximation and Green's function technique. The SWR frequency of the ferromagnetic thin film is shifted to higher values corresponding to those of above factors, respectively. It is found that the linear behavior of SWR frequency curves of all modes in the system is observed as the external magnetic field is increasing, however, SWR frequency curves are nonlinear with the lower and the higher modes for different surface anisotropy and interlayer exchange coupling in the system. In addition, the SWR frequency of the lowest (highest) mode is shifted to higher (lower) values when the film thickness is thinner. The interlayer exchange coupling is more important for the energetically higher modes than for the energetically lower modes. The surface anisotropy has a little effect on the SWR frequency of the highest mode, when the surface anisotropy field is further increased.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qiu, Rong-ke, E-mail: rkqiu@163.com; Cai, Wei
2017-08-15
Highlights: • A quantum approach is developed to study the SWR of a bicomponent multi-layer films. • The comparison of the SWR in films with FM and AFM interfacial coupling has been made. • The present results show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of films. - Abstract: We investigate the spin-wave resonance (SWR) frequency in a bicomponent bilayer and triple-layer films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as function of interfacial coupling, surface anisotropy, interface anisotropy, thickness and external magnetic field, using the linear spin-wave approximation and Green’s function technique. The microwave properties for multi-layer magnetic film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling is different from those for multi-layer magnetic film with ferromagnetic interfacial coupling. For the bilayer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as the lower (upper) surface anisotropy increases, only the SWR frequencies of the odd (even) number modes increase. The lower (upper) surface anisotropy does not affect the SWR frequencies of the even (odd) number modes{sub .} For the multi-layer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling, the SWR frequency of modes m = 1, 3 and 4 decreases while that of mode m = 2 increases with increasing thickness of the film within a proper parameter region. The present results could be useful in enhancing our fundamental understanding and show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of bicomponent multi-layer magnetic films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial coupling.
Fourth-order wave equation in Bhabha-Madhavarao spin-3 2 theory
Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.; Bondarenko, A. I.
2017-09-01
Within the framework of the Bhabha-Madhavarao formalism, a consistent approach to the derivation of a system of the fourth-order wave equations for the description of a spin-3 2 particle is suggested. For this purpose an additional algebraic object, the so-called q-commutator (q is a primitive fourth root of unity) and a new set of matrices ημ, instead of the original matrices βμ of the Bhabha-Madhavarao algebra, are introduced. It is shown that in terms of the ημ matrices we have succeeded in reducing a procedure of the construction of fourth root of the fourth-order wave operator to a few simple algebraic transformations and to some operation of the passage to the limit z → q, where z is some (complex) deformation parameter entering into the definition of the η-matrices. In addition, a set of the matrices 𝒫1/2 and 𝒫3/2(±)(q) possessing the properties of projectors is introduced. These operators project the matrices ημ onto the spins 1/2- and 3/2-sectors in the theory under consideration. A corresponding generalization of the obtained results to the case of the interaction with an external electromagnetic field introduced through the minimal coupling scheme is carried out. The application to the problem of construction of the path integral representation in para-superspace for the propagator of a massive spin-3 2 particle in a background gauge field within the Bhabha-Madhavarao approach is discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Jiying; Jensen, Thomas Bagger Stibius; Andersen, Niels Hessel
2009-01-01
) indicates the instability of the Ising-type ground state that eventually evolves into the incommensurate phase as the temperature is raised. The pure LiNiPO4 system (x=0) undergoes a first-order magnetic phase transition from a long-range incommensurate phase to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state at TN......Elastic and inelastic neutron-scattering studies of Li(Ni1−xFex)PO4 single crystals reveal anomalous spin-wave dispersions along the crystallographic direction parallel to the characteristic wave vector of the magnetic incommensurate phase. The anomalous spin-wave dispersion (magnetic soft mode......=20.8 K. At 20% Fe concentrations, although the AFM ground state is to a large extent preserved as that of the pure system, the phase transition is second order, and the incommensurate phase is completely suppressed. Analysis of the dispersion curves using a Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian that includes...
Kryshtal, R. G.; Medved, A. V.
2017-12-01
Experimental results on the influence of the intensity of surface magnetostatic spin wave (SMSW) on its propagation in the dynamic magnonic crystals (MCs) created by surface acoustic waves (SAW) propagating in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film on the gallium gadolinium garnet (GGG) substrate are presented. The shift of the resonant frequency of the SMSW reflections (frequency of the magnonic gap) and widening of the resonant reflection curves (increasing the width of the magnonic band gap) from their former meanings (3730 MHz and 5.25 MHz, respectively) were observed at 20 MHz SAW of 20 mW in biasing magnetic field of 640 Oe at input microwave power exceeding the threshold value of ‑5 dBm. At the input power of 10 dBm, the deviations of the magnonic gap frequency and of the width of the SMSW resonant reflected curves reach the values of 5 MHz and 2 MHz, respectively. At a frequency of 3730 MHz, a decrease in the reflection coefficient of the SMSW was observed at the input powers above the threshold. These results may be useful in investigations of MC and for creating new nonlinear signal processing devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krawczyk, M; Puszkarski, H; Levy, J-C S; Mercier, D
2003-01-01
Spin-wave excitations in ferromagnetic layered composite (AB · · · BA; A and B being different homogeneous ferromagnetic materials) are analysed theoretically, by means of the transfer matrix approach. The properties of multilayer spin-wave mode profiles are discussed in relation to multilayer characteristics, such as the filling fraction and the exchange or magnetization contrast; also, surface spin pinning conditions and dipolar interactions are taken into account. The interface conditions are satisfied by introducing an effective exchange field expressed by interface gradients of the exchange constant and the magnetization. This approach provides an easy way to find frequencies and amplitudes of standing spin waves in the multilayer. The developed theory is applied to interpretation of spin wave resonance (SWR) spectra obtained experimentally by Chambers et al in two systems: a bilayer Fe/Ni and a trilayer Ni/Fe/Ni, in perpendicular (to the multilayer surface) configuration of the applied magnetic field. By fitting the SWR spectra obtained experimentally and those found numerically, the surface anisotropies are estimated on multilayer surfaces; then, the observed resonance lines are identified as associated with bulk, surface or interface modes. The theory can be extended to a general case of any multi-component layered system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Doris R. Pierce
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis quantified the effect of acute exercise mode on arterial stiffness and wave reflection measures including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, augmentation index (AIx, and heart rate corrected AIx (AIx75.Methods: Using standardized terms, database searches from inception until 2017 identified 45 studies. Eligible studies included acute aerobic and/or resistance exercise in healthy adults, pre- and post-intervention measurements or change values, and described their study design. Data from included studies were analyzed and reported in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analytical data were reported via forest plots using absolute differences with 95% confidence intervals with the random effects model accounting for between-study heterogeneity. Reporting bias was assessed via funnel plots and, individual studies were evaluated for bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. A modified PEDro Scale was applied to appraise methodological concerns inherent to included studies.Results: Acute aerobic exercise failed to change cf-PWV (mean difference: 0.00 ms−1 [95% confidence interval: −0.11, 0.11], p = 0.96, significantly reduced AIx (−4.54% [−7.05, −2.04], p = 0.0004 and significantly increased AIx75 (3.58% [0.56, 6.61], p = 0.02. Contrastingly, acute resistance exercise significantly increased cf-PWV (0.42 ms−1 [0.17, 0.66], p = 0.0008, did not change AIx (1.63% [−3.83, 7.09], p = 0.56, and significantly increased AIx75 (15.02% [8.71, 21.33], p < 0.00001. Significant heterogeneity was evident within all comparisons except cf-PWV following resistance exercise, and several methodological concerns including low applicability of exercise protocols and lack of control intervention were identified.Conclusions: Distinct arterial stiffness and wave reflection responses were identified
Pierce, Doris R.; Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony S.
2018-01-01
Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis quantified the effect of acute exercise mode on arterial stiffness and wave reflection measures including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), augmentation index (AIx), and heart rate corrected AIx (AIx75). Methods: Using standardized terms, database searches from inception until 2017 identified 45 studies. Eligible studies included acute aerobic and/or resistance exercise in healthy adults, pre- and post-intervention measurements or change values, and described their study design. Data from included studies were analyzed and reported in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analytical data were reported via forest plots using absolute differences with 95% confidence intervals with the random effects model accounting for between-study heterogeneity. Reporting bias was assessed via funnel plots and, individual studies were evaluated for bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. A modified PEDro Scale was applied to appraise methodological concerns inherent to included studies. Results: Acute aerobic exercise failed to change cf-PWV (mean difference: 0.00 ms−1 [95% confidence interval: −0.11, 0.11], p = 0.96), significantly reduced AIx (−4.54% [−7.05, −2.04], p = 0.0004) and significantly increased AIx75 (3.58% [0.56, 6.61], p = 0.02). Contrastingly, acute resistance exercise significantly increased cf-PWV (0.42 ms−1 [0.17, 0.66], p = 0.0008), did not change AIx (1.63% [−3.83, 7.09], p = 0.56), and significantly increased AIx75 (15.02% [8.71, 21.33], p exercise, and several methodological concerns including low applicability of exercise protocols and lack of control intervention were identified. Conclusions: Distinct arterial stiffness and wave reflection responses were identified following acute exercise with overall increases in both cf-PWV and AIx75 following resistance exercise potentially
Senz, V; Bansmann, J; Leupold, O; Meiwes-Broer, K H
2003-01-01
We have measured the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field in Ag-coated Fe(110) islands on W(110) between 4 and 300 K using nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. The decay of the spontaneous magnetization of the islands with increasing temperature differs distinctly from the bulk characteristics and is not described by a simple Bloch's T sup 3 sup / sup 2 law. The deviation is attributed to quantization of spin-waves as a result of geometric confinement in the islands. The data can be explained assuming an effective energy gap in the spin-wave spectrum of DELTA E = 6.7+-1 meV.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Peralta
Full Text Available Prematurity affects 11% of the births and is the main cause of infant mortality. On the opposite case, the failure of induction of parturition in the case of delayed spontaneous birth is associated with fetal suffering. Both conditions are associated with precocious and/or delayed cervical ripening. Quantitative and objective information about the temporal evolution of the cervical ripening may provide a complementary method to identify cases at risk of preterm delivery and to assess the likelihood of successful induction of labour. In this study, the cervical stiffness was measured in vivo in pregnant sheep by using Shear Wave Elastography (SWE. This technique assesses the stiffness of tissue through the measurement of shear waves speed (SWS. In the present study, 9 pregnant ewes were used. Cervical ripening was induced at 127 days of pregnancy (term: 145 days by dexamethasone injection in 5 animals, while 4 animals were used as control. Elastographic images of the cervix were obtained by two independent operators every 4 hours during 24 hours after injection to monitor the cervical maturation induced by the dexamethasone. Based on the measurements of SWS during vaginal ultrasound examination, the stiffness in the second ring of the cervix was quantified over a circular region of interest of 5 mm diameter. SWS was found to decrease significantly in the first 4-8 hours after dexamethasone compared to controls, which was associated with cervical ripening induced by dexamethasone (from 1.779 m/s ± 0.548 m/s, p < 0.0005, to 1.291 m/s ± 0.516 m/s, p < 0.000. Consequently a drop in the cervical elasticity was quantified too (from 9.5 kPa ± 0.9 kPa, p < 0.0005, to 5.0 kPa ± 0.8 kPa, p < 0.000. Moreover, SWE measurements were highly reproducible between both operators at all times. Cervical ripening induced by dexamethasone was confirmed by the significant increase in maternal plasma Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as evidenced by the assay of its
Self-Calibrating Wave-Encoded Variable-Density Single-Shot Fast Spin Echo Imaging.
Chen, Feiyu; Taviani, Valentina; Tamir, Jonathan I; Cheng, Joseph Y; Zhang, Tao; Song, Qiong; Hargreaves, Brian A; Pauly, John M; Vasanawala, Shreyas S
2018-04-01
It is highly desirable in clinical abdominal MR scans to accelerate single-shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) imaging and reduce blurring due to T 2 decay and partial-Fourier acquisition. To develop and investigate the clinical feasibility of wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE imaging for improved image quality and scan time reduction. Prospective controlled clinical trial. With Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, the proposed method was assessed on 20 consecutive adult patients (10 male, 10 female, range, 24-84 years). A wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE sequence was developed for clinical 3.0T abdominal scans to enable high acceleration (3.5×) with full-Fourier acquisitions by: 1) introducing wave encoding with self-refocusing gradient waveforms to improve acquisition efficiency; 2) developing self-calibrated estimation of wave-encoding point-spread function and coil sensitivity to improve motion robustness; and 3) incorporating a parallel imaging and compressed sensing reconstruction to reconstruct highly accelerated datasets. Image quality was compared pairwise with standard Cartesian acquisition independently and blindly by two radiologists on a scale from -2 to 2 for noise, contrast, confidence, sharpness, and artifacts. The average ratio of scan time between these two approaches was also compared. A Wilcoxon signed-rank tests with a P value under 0.05 considered statistically significant. Wave-encoded variable-density SSFSE significantly reduced the perceived noise level and improved the sharpness of the abdominal wall and the kidneys compared with standard acquisition (mean scores 0.8, 1.2, and 0.8, respectively, P variable-density sampling SSFSE achieves improved image quality with clinically relevant echo time and reduced scan time, thus providing a fast and robust approach for clinical SSFSE imaging. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 6 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:954-966. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Control of propagation characteristics of spin wave pulses via elastic and thermal effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gómez-Arista, Ivan [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Kolokoltsev, O., E-mail: oleg.kolokoltsev@ccadet.unam.mx [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Acevedo, A.; Qureshi, N. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico); Ordóñez-Romero, César L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU, 04510 D.F., México (Mexico)
2017-05-01
A study of the magnetoelastic (ME) and thermal effects governing the phase (φ) and amplitude of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) pulses propagating in Ga:YIG/GGG and permalloy magnonic waveguides is presented. The ME effects were studied in a flexural configuration, under punctual mechanical force (F). Thermally induced ME and demagnetization phenomena were controlled by optically injected thermal power P{sub th}. It was determined that in an unclamped Ga:YIG waveguide, the force F that induces the phase shift Δφ=π, decreases by a quadratic law in the range from 1 mN to nN, and the P{sub th} at which Δφ=π decreases linearly from mW to μW as the waveguide volume decreases from mm{sup 3} to nm{sup 3}. For nano-volume waveguides the ME control energy (E{sub me}) can be of order of aJ, and the thermal control energy (ΔE{sub th}) can be as small as 50 fJ. The response time of these effects lies in the ns time scale. Both the mechanical and the thermo-magnetic forces provide an effective control of MSSW pulse amplitude, in addition to its phase shift. The thermo-magnetic effect allows one to realize variable delays of a MSSW pulse. - Highlights: • The Magneto-elastic (ME) and optically induced thermal effects governing the phase and amplitude of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) pulses propagating in Ga:YIG/GGG and permalloy magnonic waveguides are presented. • A mechanical force that causes phase shift Δφ=π for spin waves in the waveguides decreases by a quadratic law in the range from 1 mN to nN, and the optical power that induces the phase shift Δφ=π, decreases linearly from mW to μW as the waveguide volume decreases from mm{sup 3} to nm{sup 3}. • The response time of these effects can lie in the ns time scale.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Masaki
2007-01-01
We present a polarization study of non-resonant X-ray magnetic scattering in pure chromium. Satellite reflections are observed at +/-Q and +/-2Q, where Q is the modulation wave vector of an itinerant spin-density-wave. The first and second harmonics are confirmed to have magnetic and charge origin, respectively, by means of polarimetry without using an analyzer crystal. This alternative technique eliminates intolerable intensity loss at an analyzer by utilizing the sample crystal also as an analyzer crystal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamidreza Emamipour
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of scattering theory, we study the tunneling conductance in a system including two junctions, ferromagnetic metal/normal metal/ferromagnetic superconductor, where ferromagnetic superconductor is in spin-singlet -wave pairing state. The non-magnetic normal metal is placed in the intermediate layer with the thickness ( which varies from 1 nm to 10000 nm. The interesting result which we have found is the existence of oscillations in conductance curves. The period of oscillations is independent of FS and FN exchange field while it depends on . The obtained results can serve as a useful tool to determine the kind of pairing symmetry in ferromagnetic superconductors.
Integrable open spin chain in Super Yang-Mills and the plane-wave/SYM duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Bin; Wang Xiaojun; Wu Yongshi
2004-01-01
We investigate the integrable structures in an N = 2 superconfomal Sp(N) Yang-Mills theory with matter, which is dual to an open+closed string system. We restrict ourselves to the BMN operators that correspond to free string states. In the closed string sector, an integrable structure is inherited from its parent theory, N = 4 SYM. For the open string sector, the planar one-loop mixing matrix for gauge invariant holomorphic operators is identified with the Hamiltonian of an integrable SU(3) open spin chain. Using the K-matrix formalism we identify the integrable open-chain boundary conditions that correspond to string boundary conditions. The solutions to the algebraic Bethe ansatz equations (ABAE) with a few impurities are shown to recover the anomalous dimensions that exactly match the spectrum of free open string in the plane-wave background. We also discuss the properties of the solutions of ABAE beyond the BMN regime. (author)
Size dependence of spin-wave modes in Ni80Fe20 nanodisks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Lupo
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We investigate the radial and azimuthal spin-wave (SW resonance modes in permalloy (Py: Ni80Fe20 disks at zero external magnetic field, as function of disk diameter and thickness, using broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We observed, from both experimental and micromagnetic simulation results that the number of SW absorption peaks increases with disk diameter. Numerically calculated SW mode profiles revealed a characteristic minimum size, which does not scale proportionately with the increasing disk diameter. We show that higher order modes could thus be avoided with an appropriate choice of the disk diameter (smaller than the minimum mode size. Moreover, based on the mode profiles, the existence of azimuthal SW modes with even number of crests or troughs can be ruled out. These results could be useful in enhancing our fundamental understanding as well as engineering of new magnonic devices.
Spin wave propagation in perpendicularly magnetized nm-thick yttrium iron garnet films
Chen, Jilei; Heimbach, Florian; Liu, Tao; Yu, Haiming; Liu, Chuanpu; Chang, Houchen; Stückler, Tobias; Hu, Junfeng; Zeng, Lang; Zhang, Youguang; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Weisheng; Wu, Mingzhong
2018-03-01
Magnonics offers a new way for information transport that uses spin waves (SWs) and is free of charge currents. Unlike Damon-Eshbach SWs, the magneto-static forward volume SWs offer the reciprocity configuration suitable for SW logic devices with low power consumption. Here, we study forward volume SW propagation in yttrium iron garnet (YIG) thin films with an ultra-low damping constant α = 8 ×10-5 . We design different integrated microwave antenna with different k-vector excitation distributions on YIG thin films. Using a vector network analyzer, we measured SW transmission with the films magnetized in perpendicular orientation. Based on the experimental results, we extract the group velocity as well as the dispersion relation of SWs and directly compare the power efficiency of SW propagation in YIG using coplanar waveguide and micro stripline for SW excitation and detection.
Itinerant Double-Q Spin-Density Wave in Iron Arsenide Superconductors
Osborn, Raymond; Allred, Jared; Chmaissem, Omar; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Brown, Dennis; Taddei, Keith; Krogstad, Matthew; Bugaris, Daniel; Chung, Duck-Young; Claus, Helmut; Lapidus, Saul; Kanatzidis, Mercouri; Kang, Jian; Fernandes, Rafael; Eremin, Ilya
The recent observation of a tetragonal magnetic (C4) phase in hole-doped iron arsenide superconductors has provided evidence of a magnetic origin for the electronic nematicity in the C2 phase of these compounds. Now, Mössbauer data shows that the new phase also establishes the itinerant character of the antiferromagnetism of these materials and the primary role played by magnetic over orbital degrees of freedom. Neutron diffraction had shown that the magnetic order in the C4 phase was compatible with a double-Q structure arising from a collinear spin-density wave along both the X and Y directions simultaneously. The coherent superposition of the two modulations produces a non-uniform magnetic structure, in which the spin amplitudes vanish on half of the sites and double on the others, a uniquely itinerant effect that is incompatible with local moment magnetism. Mössbauer spectra in the C4 phase confirm this double-Q structure, with 50% of the spectral weight in a zero-moment peak and 50% with double the magnetic splitting seen in the C2 phase. Supported by the US DOE Office of Science, Materials and Engineering Division.
Long-range spin wave mediated control of defect qubits in nanodiamonds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrich, Paolo; de las Casas, Charles F.; Liu, Xiaoying; Bretscher, Hope L.; Berman, Jonson R.; Heremans, F. Joseph; Nealey, Paul F.; Awschalom, David D.
2017-07-17
Hybrid architectures that combine nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond with other materials and physical systems have been proposed to enhance the NV center’s capabilities in many quantum sensing and information applications. In particular, spin waves (SWs) in ferromagnetic materials are a promising candidate to implement these platforms due to their strong magnetic fields, which could be used to efficiently interact with the NV centers. Here we develop an yttrium iron garnet-nanodiamond hybrid architecture constructed with the help of directed assembly and transfer printing techniques. Operating at ambient conditions, we demonstrate that surface confined SWs excited in the ferromagnet (FM) can strongly amplify the interactions between a microwave source and the NV centers by enhancing the local microwave magnetic field by several orders of magnitude. Crucially, we show the existence of a regime in which coherent interactions between SWs and NV centers dominate over incoherent mechanisms associated with the broadband magnetic field noise generated by the FM. These accomplishments enable the SW mediated coherent control of spin qubits over distances larger than 200 um, and allow low power operations for future spintronic technologies.
Hu, Jinbing; Xia, Tongnan; Cai, Xiaoshu; Tian, Shengnan; Guo, Hanming; Zhuang, Songlin
2017-07-01
By investigating the surface wave of photonic crystal, we put forward two sets of rules: the right-handed screw rule, judging the transverse spin angular momentum (SAM) directions according to the propagation direction of the surface wave; and the left-handed rule, judging the excitation direction of the surface wave in accordance to the SAM direction of incident circularly polarized light and the relative position of the dipole-like scatterer with respect to the interface where the surface wave propagates. Both right- and left-handed rules apply to the interface consisting of opposite-sign-permittivity materials. With the help of these two sets of rules, it is convenient to judge the direction of the transverse SAM and the excited surface wave, which facilitate the application involving transverse SAM of the surface wave.
Renormalization of Long Wavelength Spin Waves in the 2d Ferromagnet Rb2CrCl4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Hutchings, M. T.
1980-01-01
Rb2CrCl4 is a nearly 2d-ferromagnetic, optically transparent insulator isomorphous with K2CuF4. High resolution neutron scattering data for temperatures below Tc = 52.4 K of the low energy long wavelength spin waves are presented and a Hartree-Fock analysis yields Hamiltonian parameters...
Low-frequency permittivity of spin-density wave in (TMTSF)2PF6 at low temperatures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nad, F.; Monceau, P.; Bechgaard, K.
1995-01-01
Conductivity and permittivity epsilon of(TMTSF)(2)PF6 have been measured at low frequencies of (10(2)-10(7) Hz) at low temperatures below the spin-density wave (SDW) transition temperature T-p. The temperature dependence of the conductivity shows a deviation from thermally activated behavior at T...
Inelastic neutron scattering in the spin wave energy gap of the polydomain γ-Mn(12%Ge) alloy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jankowska-Kisielinska, J.; Mikke, K.
1999-01-01
The subject of the present experiment was the investigation of the inelastic neutron scattering (INS) for energy transfers lower than and close to the energy gap of the spin wave spectrum for long wavelengths. The aim was a search for the excitations at the magnetic Brillouin zone (MBZ) boundary in polydomain Mn(12%Ge) alloy. The present measurements were performed by a 3-axis spectrometer at Maria Reactor at IEA in Swierk. We observed the INS in the polydomain Mn(12%Ge) alloy for energies smaller than and close to the energy gap value of the spin wave spectrum at room temperature. The observed intensity can be treated as a sum of intensity of neutrons scattered on spin waves around magnetic Brillouin zone centre and that of neutrons scattered on fluctuations at the zone boundary. The intensity of both components for energies 2-6 MeV was found to be of the same order. For higher energies spin waves around magnetic zone centre dominate. (author)
Lin, C S; Lim, H S; Wang, Z K; Ng, S C; Kuok, M H; Adeyeye, A O
2011-03-01
An understanding of the spin dynamics of nanoscale magnetic elements is important for their applications in magnetic sensing and storage. Inhomogeneity of the demagnetizing field in a non-ellipsoidal magnetic element results in localization of spin waves near the edge of the element. However, relative little work has been carried out to investigate the effect of the applied magnetic fields on the nature of such localized modes. In this study, micromagnetic simulations are performed on an equilateral triangular nanomagnet to investigate the magnetic field dependence of the mode profiles of the lowest-frequency spin wave. Our findings reveal that the lowest-frequency mode is localized at the base edge of the equilateral triangle. The characteristics of its mode profile change with the ground state magnetization configuration of the nanotriangle, which, in turn, depends on the magnitude of the in-plane applied magnetic field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shenghan Jiang
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Recently, two interesting candidate quantum phases—the chiral spin-density wave state featuring anomalous quantum Hall effect and the d+id superconductor—were proposed for the Hubbard model on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 doping. Using a combination of exact diagonalization, density matrix renormalization group, the variational Monte Carlo method, and quantum field theories, we study the quantum phase diagrams of both the Hubbard model and the t-J model on the honeycomb lattice at 1/4 doping. The main advantage of our approach is the use of symmetry quantum numbers of ground-state wave functions on finite-size systems (up to 32 sites to sharply distinguish different quantum phases. Our results show that for 1≲U/t<40 in the Hubbard model and for 0.1
Goos-Hänchen effect and bending of spin wave beams in thin magnetic films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruszecki, P., E-mail: pawel.gruszecki@amu.edu.pl; Krawczyk, M., E-mail: krawczyk@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Umultowska 85, Poznań 61-614 (Poland); Romero-Vivas, J. [Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N. [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Ulyanovsk State University, 42 Leo Tolstoy str., 432000 Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation); Lyubchanskii, I. L. [Donetsk Physical and Technical Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine)
2014-12-15
For magnon spintronic applications, the detailed knowledge of spin wave (SW) beam dispersion, transmission (reflection) of SWs passing through (reflected from) interfaces, or borders or the scattering of SWs by inhomogeneities is crucial. These wave properties are decisive factors on the usefulness of a particular device. Here, we demonstrate, using micromagnetic simulations supported by an analytical model, that the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift exists for SW reflecting from thin film edge and that with the effect becomes observable. We show that this effect will exist for a broad range of frequencies in the dipole-exchange range, with the magnetization degree of pinning at the film edge as the crucial parameter, whatever its nature. Moreover, we have also found that the GH effect can be accompanied or even dominating by a bending of the SW beam due to the inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field. This inhomogeneity, created by demagnetizing field taking place at the film edge, causes gradual change of SWs refractive index. The refraction of the SW beams by the non-uniformity of the magnetic field enables the exploration of graded index magnonics and metamaterial properties for the transmission and processing of information at nanoscale.
Goos-Hänchen effect and bending of spin wave beams in thin magnetic films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruszecki, P.; Krawczyk, M.; Romero-Vivas, J.; Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.
2014-01-01
For magnon spintronic applications, the detailed knowledge of spin wave (SW) beam dispersion, transmission (reflection) of SWs passing through (reflected from) interfaces, or borders or the scattering of SWs by inhomogeneities is crucial. These wave properties are decisive factors on the usefulness of a particular device. Here, we demonstrate, using micromagnetic simulations supported by an analytical model, that the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift exists for SW reflecting from thin film edge and that with the effect becomes observable. We show that this effect will exist for a broad range of frequencies in the dipole-exchange range, with the magnetization degree of pinning at the film edge as the crucial parameter, whatever its nature. Moreover, we have also found that the GH effect can be accompanied or even dominating by a bending of the SW beam due to the inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field. This inhomogeneity, created by demagnetizing field taking place at the film edge, causes gradual change of SWs refractive index. The refraction of the SW beams by the non-uniformity of the magnetic field enables the exploration of graded index magnonics and metamaterial properties for the transmission and processing of information at nanoscale
Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaohua Wu
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1 comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2 comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3 SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.
Spin density waves predicted in zigzag puckered phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene nanoribbons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaoli; Wang, Xianlong [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zeng, Zhi, E-mail: zzeng@theory.issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
2016-04-15
The pursuit of controlled magnetism in semiconductors has been a persisting goal in condensed matter physics. Recently, Vene (phosphorene, arsenene and antimonene) has been predicted as a new class of 2D-semiconductor with suitable band gap and high carrier mobility. In this work, we investigate the edge magnetism in zigzag puckered Vene nanoribbons (ZVNRs) based on the density functional theory. The band structures of ZVNRs show half-filled bands crossing the Fermi level at the midpoint of reciprocal lattice vectors, indicating a strong Peierls instability. To remove this instability, we consider two different mechanisms, namely, spin density wave (SDW) caused by electron-electron interaction and charge density wave (CDW) caused by electron-phonon coupling. We have found that an antiferromagnetic Mott-insulating state defined by SDW is the ground state of ZVNRs. In particular, SDW in ZVNRs displays several surprising characteristics:1) comparing with other nanoribbon systems, their magnetic moments are antiparallelly arranged at each zigzag edge and almost independent on the width of nanoribbons; 2) comparing with other SDW systems, its magnetic moments and band gap of SDW are unexpectedly large, indicating a higher SDW transition temperature in ZVNRs; 3) SDW can be effectively modified by strains and charge doping, which indicates that ZVNRs have bright prospects in nanoelectronic device.
A possible scheme for measuring gravitational waves by using a spinful quantum fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng Yao
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A method is proposed for measuring gravitational waves (GWs from the collective electromagnetic (EM response of a spinful quantum fluid, based on recent studies of the long-lived Mössbauer state 93mNb in a pure Nb crystal. A pronounced EM response was found for the geometric phase by rotating the sample in a magnetic field, suggesting that GWs could also be detected. It was recently suggested that the macroscopic wave functions confined in two twisted nonspherical superconductors would give a geometrical phase oscillation induced by GWs. The sensitivity to GWs would be inversely proportional to the square of the bound length, which is the detector size. The proposed sensitivity to GWs would be dramatically enhanced by changing the characteristic size, i.e., using the microscopic size of a non-spherical particle instead of the macroscopic detector size of a scalar quantum fluid. The collective EM response from the quantum fluid would allow the macroscopic geometrical phase to be read from microscopic particles. GWs in the millihertz range, with amplitude of 10−22, would be detectable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Mok
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We investigate light spins for cylindrical electromagnetic waves on resonance. To this goal, we consider both a dielectric cylinder of infinite length immersed in vacuum and a cylindrical hole punched through a dense dielectric medium. In order for waves of constant frequencies to be established through lossless media, energy absorption is allowed in the surrounding medium to compensate for radiation loss. The dispersion relation is then numerically solved for an asymmetry parameter implying a balance in energy exchange. Numerical studies are performed by varying parameters of refractive index contrast, azimuthal mode index, and size parameter of a cylindrical object. The resulting data is presented mostly in terms of a specific spin, defined as light spin per energy density. This specific spin is found to be bounded in its magnitude, with its maximum associated with either optical vortices or large rotations. Depending on parametric combinations, the specific spin could not only undergo finite jumps across the material interface but also exhibit limit behaviors.
Charge transport in 2DEG/s-wave superconductor junction with Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawa, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.
2007-01-01
We study spin-dependent charge transport in superconducting junctions. We consider ballistic two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)/s-wave superconductor junctions with Dresselhaus-type spin-orbit coupling (DSOC). We calculate the conductance normalized by that in the normal state of superconductor in order to study the effect of DSOC in 2DEG on conductance, changing the height of insulating barrier. We find the DSOC suppresses the conductance for low insulating barrier, while it can slightly enhance the conductance for high insulating barrier. It has a reentrant dependence on DSOC for middle strength insulating barrier. The effect of DSOC is weaken as the insulating barrier becomes high
Electron-spin filter and polarizer in a standing light wave
Ahrens, Sven
2017-11-01
We demonstrate the theoretical feasibility of spin-dependent diffraction and spin polarization of an electron in two counterpropagating, circularly polarized laser beams. The spin dynamics appears in a two-photon process of the Kapitza-Dirac effect in the Bragg regime. We show the spin dependence of the diffraction process by comparison of the time evolution of spin-up and spin-down electrons in a relativistic quantum simulation. We further discuss the spin properties of the scattering by studying an analytically approximated solution of the time-evolution matrix. A classification scheme in terms of unitary or nonunitary propagation matrices is used for establishing a generalized and spin-independent description of the spin properties in the diffraction process.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boesby, Lene; Thijs, Lutgarde; Elung-Jensen, Thomas
2012-01-01
Arterial stiffness contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Reproducible and easily obtainable indices of arterial stiffness are needed in order to monitor therapeutic strategies. The ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) has been proposed...... as such a marker. The present study investigated the day-to-day reproducibility of AASI in CKD stage 2-5 and its relationship with other markers of arterial stiffness as well as with kidney function....
Quantum chaos in cold atoms and spin waves: The double kicked rotor
Stocklin, Mischa
The Kicked Rotor is a well studied example of a classical Hamiltonian chaotic system, where the momentum of a particle is altered periodically in time through a series of external impulses or kicks, forming a sinusoidal potential. In the chaotic regime this results in a diffusion mechanism, where the average energy of an ensemble of particles grows linearly in time, including certain corrections to the diffusion rate, arising from correlations between kicks at different times. This system has a quantum analogue, the Quantum Kicked Rotor, which exhibits the phenomenon of dynamical localization (DL), a quantum destructive interference effect, where the average energy increase is halted after a given time, and an asymptotic exponential momentum distribution is obtained. Experiments have been performed using ultracold atoms and standing waves of laser light. This thesis investigates the newly discovered Double Kicked Rotor, where pairs of closely spaced kicks are applied to particles. This results in momentum space being divided into a number of cells in which fast energy absorption occurs, whereas at the cell boundaries, termed momentum trapping regions, particles absorb almost no energy. It is shown that the effect is almost entirely independent of the time interval between the kick pairs. It is further shown that the diffusion mechanism is due to a strong momentum dependence of the kick correlations. Novel global long-range correlations in time are found to control the system behaviour significantly - a very unusual situation for a chaotic system. The Quantum Double Kicked Rotor is also investigated, both in the context of laser pulses applied to cold atoms and magnetic fields applied to Heisenberg spin chains. Trapping in momentum and position space occurs respectively, and DL results in an asymptotic imprint of the asymmetries in momentum or spin distributions. The classical diffusion calculations are used to explain the experimental results. Novel scaling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Jäckl
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Optical tools are promising for spin-wave generation because of the possibilities of ultrafast manipulation and local excitation. However, a single laser pulse can inject spin waves (SWs only with a broad frequency spectrum, resulting in short propagation distances and low wave amplitudes. Here, we excite a magnetic garnet film by a train of fs-laser pulses with a 1-GHz repetition rate so that the pulse separation is shorter than the decay time of magnetic modes, which allows us to achieve a collective impact on the magnetization and establish a quasistationary source of spin waves, namely, a coherent accumulation of magnons (“magnon cloud”. This approach has several appealing features: (i The magnon source is tunable, (ii the SW amplitude can be significantly enhanced, (iii the SW spectrum is quite narrow, providing long-distance propagation, (iv the periodic pumping results in an almost constant-in-time SW amplitude for the distances larger than 20 μm away from the source, and (v the SW emission shows pronounced directionality. These results expand the capabilities of ultrafast coherent optical control of magnetization and pave the way for applications in data processing, including the quantum regime. The quasistationary magnon accumulation might also be of interest for applications in magnon Bose-Einstein condensates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie Frimodt-Møller
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensinsystem (RAS in hypertension causes differential effects on central and brachial blood pressure (BP, which has been translated into improved outcome. The objective was to examine if a more complete inhibition of RAS by combining an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI and an angiotensin receptor antagonist (ARB compared to monotherapy has an additive effect on central BP and pulse-wave velocity (PWV, which are known markers of CVD.Sixty-seven CKD patients (mean GFR 30, range 13-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2 participated in an open randomized study of 16 weeks of monotherapy with either enalapril or candesartan followed by 8 weeks of dual blockade aiming at a total dose of 16 mg candesartan and 20 mg enalapril o.d. Pulse-wave measurements were performed at week 0, 8, 16 and 24 by the SphygmoCor device.Significant additive BP independent reductions were found after dual blockade in aortic PWV (-0.3 m/s, P<0.05 and in augmentation index (-2%, P<0.01 compared to monotherapy. Furthermore pulse pressure amplification was improved (P<0.05 and central systolic BP reduced (-6 mmHg, P<0.01.Dual blockade of the RAS resulted in an additive BP independent reduction in pulse-wave reflection and arterial stiffness compared to monotherapy in CKD patients.Clinical trial.gov NCT00235287.
Li, Guo-Yang; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Yang; Cao, Yanping
2018-03-01
Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have found a wide variety of technical applications, including SAW filters, SAW resonators, microfluidic actuators, biosensors, flow measurement devices, and seismic wave shields. Stretchable/flexible electronic devices, such as sensory skins for robotics, structural health monitors, and wearable communication devices, have received considerable attention across different disciplines. Flexible SAW devices are essential building blocks for these applications, wherein piezoelectric films may need to be integrated with the compliant substrates. When piezoelectric films are much stiffer than soft substrates, SAWs are usually leaky and the devices incorporating them suffer from acoustic losses. In this study, the propagation of SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system is investigated, and our analysis shows that non-leaky modes can be achieved by engineering stress patterns through surface wrinkles in the system. Our analysis also uncovers intriguing bandgaps (BGs) related to the SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system; these are caused by periodic deformation patterns, which indicate that diverse wrinkling patterns could be used as metasurfaces for controlling the propagation of SAWs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ziȩtek, Slawomir, E-mail: zietek@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Chȩciński, Jakub [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Frankowski, Marek; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)
2017-04-15
We present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of voltage-controlled standing spin waves resonance (SSWR) in PMN-PT/NiFe multiferroic heterostructures patterned into microstrips. A spin-diode technique was used to observe ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) mode and SSWR in NiFe strip mechanically coupled with a piezoelectric substrate. Application of an electric field to a PMN-PT creates a strain in permalloy and thus shifts the FMR and SSWR fields due to the magnetostriction effect. The experimental results are compared with micromagnetic simulations and a good agreement between them is found for dynamics of FMR and SSWR with and without electric field. Moreover, micromagnetic simulations enable us to discuss the amplitude and phase spatial distributions of FMR and SSWR modes, which are not directly observable by means of spin diode detection technique.
Spin polarization driven by a charge-density wave in monolayer 1T−TaS2
Zhang, Qingyun
2014-08-06
Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer T-phase TaS2. We demonstrate that a charge-density wave is energetically favorable at low temperature, similar to bulk 1T-TaS2. Electron-phonon coupling is found to be essential for the lattice reconstruction. The charge-density wave results in a strong localization of the electronic states near the Fermi level and consequently in spin polarization, transforming the material into a magnetic semiconductor with enhanced electronic correlations. The combination of inherent spin polarization with a semiconducting nature distinguishes the monolayer fundamentally from the bulk compound as well as from other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Monolayer T-phase TaS2 therefore has the potential to enable two-dimensional spintronics. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Proximity effects on the spin density waves in X/Cr(001) multilayers (X = Sn, V, and Mn)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amitouche, F.; Bouarab, S.; Tazibt, S.; Vega, A.; Demangeat, C.
2011-01-01
We present ab initio density functional calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of X 2 /Cr 36 (001) and X 1 /Cr 37 (001) multilayers, with X = Sn, V and Mn, to investigate the impact of the proximity effects of the X layers on the spin density waves of the Cr slab. We find different magnetic profiles corresponding to the spin density wave and to the layered antiferromagnetic configurations. The nature of the different magnetic solutions is discussed in terms of the different interfacial environments in the proximity of Sn, V or Mn. The magnetic behavior at the interface is discussed in connection with the electronic structure through the density of electronic states projected at the interfacial X and Cr sites. We compare the results with those previously obtained for Fe 3 /X 1 /Cr 37 /X 1 (001) multilayers to analyze the role played by the ferromagnetic iron slab.
Spin wave eigenmodes in single and coupled sub-150 nm rectangular permalloy dots
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlotti, G., E-mail: giovanni.carlotti@fisica.unipg.it; Madami, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Perugia (Italy); Gubbiotti, G.; Dey, H.; Csaba, G.; Porod, W. [Center for Nano Science and Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)
2015-05-07
We present the results of a Brillouin light scattering investigation of thermally excited spin wave eigenmodes in square arrays of either isolated rectangular dots of permalloy or twins of dipolarly coupled elements, placed side-by-side or head-to-tail. The nanodots, fabricated by e-beam lithography and lift-off, are 20 nm thick and have the major size D in the range between 90 nm and 150 nm. The experimental spectra show the presence of two main peaks, corresponding to modes localized either at the edges or in the center of the dots. Their frequency dependence on the dot size and on the interaction with adjacent elements has been measured and successfully interpreted on the basis of dynamical micromagnetic simulations. The latter enabled us also to describe the spatial profile of the eigenmodes, putting in evidence the effects induced by the dipolar interaction between coupled dots. In particular, in twinned dots the demagnetizing field is appreciably modified in proximity of the “internal edges” if compared to the “external” ones, leading to a splitting of the edge mode. These results can be relevant for the exploitation of sub-150 nm magnetic dots in new applications, such as magnonic metamaterials, bit-patterned storage media, and nano-magnetic logic devices.
Control of propagation characteristics of spin wave pulses via elastic and thermal effects
Gómez-Arista, Ivan; Kolokoltsev, O.; Acevedo, A.; Qureshi, N.; Ordóñez-Romero, César L.
2017-05-01
A study of the magnetoelastic (ME) and thermal effects governing the phase (φ) and amplitude of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) pulses propagating in Ga:YIG/GGG and permalloy magnonic waveguides is presented. The ME effects were studied in a flexural configuration, under punctual mechanical force (F). Thermally induced ME and demagnetization phenomena were controlled by optically injected thermal power Pth. It was determined that in an unclamped Ga:YIG waveguide, the force F that induces the phase shift Δφ=π, decreases by a quadratic law in the range from 1 mN to nN, and the Pth at which Δφ=π decreases linearly from mW to μW as the waveguide volume decreases from mm3 to nm3. For nano-volume waveguides the ME control energy (Eme) can be of order of aJ, and the thermal control energy (ΔEth) can be as small as 50 fJ. The response time of these effects lies in the ns time scale. Both the mechanical and the thermo-magnetic forces provide an effective control of MSSW pulse amplitude, in addition to its phase shift. The thermo-magnetic effect allows one to realize variable delays of a MSSW pulse.
Singh, Dheeraj Kumar; Majumdar, Pinaki
2017-12-01
We investigate the impurity-scattering-induced quasiparticle interference in the (π ,0 ) spin-density wave phase of the iron pnictides. We use a five-orbital tight-binding model and our mean-field theory in the clean limit captures key features of the Fermi surface observed in angle-resolved photoemission. We use a t -matrix formalism to incorporate the effect of doping-induced impurities on this state. The impurities lead to a spatial modulation of the local density of states about the impurity site, with a periodicity of ˜8 aFe -Fe along the antiferromagnetic direction. The associated momentum space quasiparticle interference pattern is anisotropic, with major peaks located at ˜(±π /4 ,0 ) , consistent with spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling microscopy. We trace the origin of this pattern to an elliptical contour of constant energy around momentum (0,0), with major axis oriented along the (0,1) direction, in the mean-field electronic structure.
Commensurate and incommensurate spin-density waves in heavy electron systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Schlottmann
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The nesting of the Fermi surfaces of an electron and a hole pocket separated by a nesting vector Q and the interaction between electrons gives rise to itinerant antiferromagnetism. The order can gradually be suppressed by mismatching the nesting and a quantum critical point (QCP is obtained as the Néel temperature tends to zero. The transfer of pairs of electrons between the pockets can lead to a superconducting dome above the QCP (if Q is commensurate with the lattice, i.e. equal to G/2. If the vector Q is not commensurate with the lattice there are eight possible phases: commensurate and incommensurate spin and charge density waves and four superconductivity phases, two of them with modulated order parameter of the FFLO type. The renormalization group equations are studied and numerically integrated. A re-entrant SDW phase (either commensurate or incommensurate is obtained as a function of the mismatch of the Fermi surfaces and the magnitude of |Q − G/2|.
Spin wave collapse and incommensurate fluctuations in URu_{2}Si_{2}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buyers, W.J.L.; Tun, Z.; Petersen, T.
1994-01-01
To test if the T(N) = 17.7 K transition in URu2Si2 is driven by a divergence of a magnetic order parameter we performed high-resolution neutron scattering. At the ordering wave vector the spin-wave energy collapsed. and the susceptibility diverged as T(N) was approached. This confirms...... that the order parameter is the magnetic dipole, as shown by recent symmetry arguments and polarized neutron experiments [1]. We also observe incommensurate fluctuations, suggesting that competing temperature-dependent interactions may influence this weak-moment transition....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozhkov, A.V.
2007-01-01
A mechanism for superconductivity in a quasi-one-dimensional system with repulsive Ising-anisotropic interaction is studied. The Ising anisotropy opens the gap Δ s in the spin sector of the model. This gap allows the triplet superconductivity and the spin-density wave as the only broken symmetry phases. These phases are separated by the first order transition. The transport properties of the system are investigated in different parts of the phase diagram. The calculation of DC conductivity σ(T) in the high-temperature phase shows that the function σ(T) cannot be used as an indicator of a superconducting ground state: even if σ(T) is a decreasing function at high temperature, yet, the ground state may be insulating spin-density wave; the opposite is also true. The calculation of the spin dynamical structure factor S zz (q, ω) demonstrates that it is affected by the superconducting phase transition in a qualitative fashion: below T c the structure factor develops a gap with a coherent excitation inside this gap
Chino, Kintaro; Takashi, Hideyuki
2017-11-15
Passive ankle joint stiffness is affected by all structures located within and over the joint, and is greater in men than in women. Localized muscle stiffness can be assessed by ultrasound shear wave elastography, and muscle architecture such as fascicle length and pennation angle can be measured by B-mode ultrasonography. Thus, we assessed localized muscle stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) with consideration of individual variability in the muscle architecture, and examined the association of the muscle stiffness with passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness. Localized muscle stiffness of the MG in 16 men and 17 women was assessed at 10° and 20° plantar flexion, neutral anatomical position, 10° and 20° dorsiflexion. Fascicle length and pennation angle of the MG were measured at these joint positions. Passive ankle joint stiffness was determined by the ankle joint angle-torque relationship. Localized MG muscle stiffness was not significantly correlated with passive ankle joint stiffness, and did not show significant sex-related difference, even when considering the muscle architecture. This finding suggest that muscle stiffness of the MG would not be a prominent factor to determine passive ankle joint stiffness and the sex-related difference in the joint stiffness.
Quasi-2D J1-J2 antiferromagnet Zn2VO(PO4)2 and its Ti-substituted derivative: A spin-wave analysis
Kar, Satyaki; Saha-Dasgupta, Tanusri
2014-01-01
In this study, we present non-linear spin wave analysis of a quasi-2D spin-{1}/{2}J1-J2 antiferromagnet at the parameter regime relevant for the recently studied compound Zn2VO(PO4)2. We obtain the temperature dependence of the spin wave energy, susceptibility and magnetization using Green's function technique and Tyablikov's decoupling or Hartree-Fock factorization. The comparison of our numerical results with the experimental findings is discussed. Magnetic structure factor is calculated and compared with powder neutron diffraction data. We also study the spin wave behavior of the compound Zn2Ti0.25V0.75O(PO4)2 obtained by partial chemical substitution of Ti at V sites of the compound Zn2VO(PO4)2 [Kanungo, et al., Phys. Rev. B 87 (2013) 054431]. Due to the superlattice structure of the spin lattice, the substituted compound possesses multiple spin wave modes. The spin wave analysis confirms the quasi-1D nature of the substituted system.
Spin dynamics and absence of a central peak anomaly in La0.67Ca0.33MnO3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rhyne, J. J.; Kaiser, H.; Stumpe, L.; Mitchell, J. F.; McCloskey, T.; Chourasia, A. R.
2000-01-01
Low-angle inelastic neutron scattering was used to study the temperature and wave vector dependence of the spin waves in La 0.67 Ca 0.33 MnO 3 perovskite-based colossal magnetoresistance material. At low q the spin waves show Heisenberg ferromagnetic dispersion (E=Dq 2 +Δ) where D is the spin stiffness, q is the wave vector, and Δ is the energy gap. However, the temperature renormalization of the spin stiffness D is anomalous, and as T increases toward T c , D does not show the expected power law collapse, but rather exhibits a sudden sharp drop suggestive of a first-order phase transition. Detailed neutron measurements of the order parameter in zero applied field showed a similar first-order-like transition. However, no temperature hysteresis was observed in either D or in the magnetization. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chueh-Hung Wu
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Background/Purpose: To compare shear modulus of heel pad microchamber and macrochamber layers between young and elderly people using shear wave ultrasound elastography (SWUE, with the intent to clarify age-related changes. Methods: This single-center prospective cross-sectional study was conducted between March, 2014 and March, 2016. Shear modulus of entire heel pad (Gentire, macrochamber layer (Gmac, and microchamber layer (Gmic were measured with SWUE. Results: Elderly participants (15 men, 15 women; age = 66.9 ± 6.2 years had significantly higher Gmic (103.8 ± 20.7 vs. 60.1 ± 9.8 kPa; p < 0.001 and Gentire (39.4 ± 10.5 vs. 34.1 ± 5.4 kPa; p = 0.005, but a significantly lower Gmac (21.7 ± 7.5 vs. 27.9 ± 4.9 kPa; p < 0.001 compared with those of young participants (15 men, 15 women; age = 26.4 ± 2.9 years. Positive correlations were observed between age and Gmic (r = 0.79, p < 0.001 and between age and Gentire (r = 0.28, p = 0.03, and negative correlation between age and Gmac (r = −0.46, p = 0.001. Conclusion: SWUE revealed that the heel pad macrochamber layer was slightly softer but the microchamber layer was exaggeratedly stiffer, making the entire heel pad stiffer in the elderly group than in the younger group, implying age-related compensation in heel pad layers to retain foot function. Keywords: Age, Elastography, Heel pad, Ultrasound
Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian
2018-03-01
The combination of space inversion and time-reversal symmetries results in doubly degenerate Bloch states with opposite spin. Many lattices with these symmetries can be constructed by combining a noncentrosymmetric potential (lacking this degeneracy) with its inverted copy. Using simple models, we unravel the evolution of local spin splitting during this process of inversion symmetry restoration, in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and sublattice coupling. Importantly, through an analysis of quantum mechanical commutativity, we examine the difficulty of identifying states that are simultaneously spatially segregated and spin polarized. We also explain how surface-sensitive experimental probes (such as angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, or ARPES) of "hidden spin polarization" in layered materials are susceptible to unrelated spin splitting intrinsically induced by broken inversion symmetry at the surface.
Spin dynamics of qqq wave function on light front in high momentum limit of QCD: Role of qqq force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitra, A.N.
2008-01-01
The contribution of a spin-rich qqq force (in conjunction with pairwise qq forces) to the analytical structure of the qqq wave function is worked out in the high momentum regime of QCD where the confining interaction may be ignored, so that the dominant effect is Coulombic. A distinctive feature of this study is that the spin-rich qqq force is generated by a ggg vertex (a genuine part of the QCD Lagrangian) wherein the 3 radiating gluon lines end on as many quark lines, giving rise to a (Mercedes-Benz type) Y-shaped diagram. The dynamics is that of a Salpeter-like equation (3D support for the kernel) formulated covariantly on the light front, a la Markov-Yukawa Transversality Principle (MYTP) which warrants a 2-way interconnection between the 3D and 4D Bethe-Salpeter (BSE) forms for 2 as well as 3 fermion quarks. With these ingredients, the differential equation for the 3D wave function φ receives well-defined contributions from the qq and qqq forces. In particular a negative eigenvalue of the spin operator iσ 1 . σ 2 x σ 3 which is an integral part of the qqq force, causes a characteristic singularity in the differential equation, signalling the dynamical effect of a spin-rich qqq force not yet considered in the literature. The potentially crucial role of this interesting effect vis-a-vis the so-called 'spin anomaly' of the proton, is a subject of considerable physical interest
Extraordinary Spin-Wave Thermal Conductivity in Low-Dimensional Copper Oxides
2015-01-23
excitations of spin degrees of freedom. We measmed for the first time the magnon -phonon coupling parameter of a spin-ladder compound over a wide temperatme...the first time the magnon -phonon coupling parameter of a spin-ladder compound over a wide temperature range. We developed advances in the analysis of...Scientific Instruments, (10 2014): 104903. doi: 10.1063/1.4897622 Gregory T. Hohensee, R. B. Wilson, Joseph P. Feser, David G. Cahill. Magnon -phonon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, S.; Kwon, J.-H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Grünberg, P. [Grünberg Center for Magnetic Nanomaterials, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B.K., E-mail: chobk@gist.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-09-01
Highlights: • Direct evidence of localized mode in a triangular nano-magnet using μ-BLS. • Localized regions are identified by the internal field distribution. • The spatially resolved measurement was performed to obtain 2-D intensity map. • Spin modes in same positions can be distinguish comparing with simulated spectrum. • Localized modes were identified by comparing with the simulated spatial profiles. - Abstract: Localized spin-wave modes, which were thermally excited at a specific position in a triangular magnetic element, were investigated using micro-focused Brillouin light scattering in two saturated states, the buckle and Y-states, with an applied magnetic field of 0.24 T parallel and perpendicular to the basal edge, respectively. The measured frequency spectrum at a specific beam spot position, rather than an integrated spectrum, was analyzed by comparing it with the simulation data at a precisely selected position within the beam spot area. The analyzed results were used to plot a two-dimensional intensity map and simulation spatial profile to verify the validity of the analysis. From the analysis process, two localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element were successfully identified near the apex region in the buckle state and near the basal edge region in the Y-state.
Ou, Phalla; Celermajer, David S; Raisky, Olivier; Jolivet, Odile; Buyens, Fanny; Herment, Alain; Sidi, Daniel; Bonnet, Damien; Mousseaux, Elie
2008-01-01
We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby a particular deformity of the aortic arch, an angulated Gothic shape, might lead to hypertension late after anatomically successful repair of aortic coarctation. Fifty-five normotensive patients with anatomically successful repair of aortic coarctation and either a Gothic (angulated) or a Romanesque (smooth and rounded) arch were studied with magnetic resonance angiography and flow mapping in both the ascending and descending aortas. Systolic waveforms, central aortic stiffness, and pulse velocity were measured. We hypothesized that arch angulation would result in enhanced systolic wave reflection with loss of energy across the aortic arch, as well as increased central aortic stiffness. Twenty patients were found to have a Gothic, and 35 a Romanesque, arch. Patients with a Gothic arch showed markedly augmented systolic wave reflection (12 +/- 6 vs 5 +/- 0.3 mL, P Gothic arch (5.6 +/- 1.1 vs 4.1 +/- 1 m/s, P Gothic aortic arch is associated with increased systolic wave reflection, as well as increased central aortic stiffness and left ventricular mass index. These findings explain (at least in part) the association between this pattern of arch geometry and late hypertension at rest and on exercise in subjects after coarctation repair.
First-principles modeling of the Invar effect in Fe65Ni35 by the spin-wave method
Ruban, A. V.
2017-05-01
Thermal lattice expansion of the Invar Fe0.65Ni0.35 alloy is investigated in first-principles calculations using the spin-wave method, which is generalized here for the ferromagnetic state with short-range order. It is shown that magnetic short-range order effects make a substantial contribution to the equilibrium lattice constant and cannot be neglected in the accurate ab initio modeling of the thermal expansion in Fe-Ni alloys. We also demonstrate that at high temperatures, close to and above the magnetic transition, magnetic entropy associated with transverse and longitudinal spin fluctuations yields a noticeable contribution to the equilibrium lattice constant. The obtained theoretical results for the temperature dependent lattice constant are in semiquantitative agreement with the experimental data apart from the region close the magnetic transition.
Evolution of spin wave excitations with Co-doping in the spinel MnV2O4
Hahn, Steven; Ma, Jie; Lee, Jun Hee; Hong, Tao; Cao, Huibo; Aczel, Adam; Dun, Zhiling; Stone, Matthew; Tian, Wei; Qiu, Yiming; Copley, John; Zhou, Haidong; Fishman, Randy; Matsuda, Masaaki
2015-03-01
Spin waves were measured at several levels of Co-doping in the spinel system MnV2O4 by inelastic neutron scattering and analyzed with first-principles-guided spin models. Co-doping creates a rich phase diagram encompassing the transition from localized- to itinerant-electron regimes. Increasing Co concentration weakens the single-ion anisotropy and increases both the magnitude and isotropy of the nearest-neighbor exchange interactions. First principles calculations emphasize the the distinctly different microscopic origins of the two-in-two-out magnetic structure at the Mn-rich and Co-rich limits. Research at HFIR and SNS, ORNL, were sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division and Materials Science and Engineering Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy.
Nomura, Kyoko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Karita, Kanae; Nishikitani, Mariko; Yano, Eiji
2005-10-01
This study examined the relationship between work-related psychological stress and arterial stiffness in young Japanese workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 396 Japanese male workers, aged 24 to 39 years, employed in a Japanese information service company. Work-related psychological stress was measured by the Job Content Questionnaire based on the job demand-control model. The job-strain index was defined as the ratio of job demand to job-control scores. The outcome of the study was the degree of arteriosclerosis as assessed by brachial pulse-wave velocity (baPWV). The cardiovascular risk factors analyzed were age, heart rate, blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipid, blood sugar levels, catecholamine levels, ethanol consumption, smoking, and overtime. In addition, psychological responses were assessed by tension-anxiety and anger-hostility scales in the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The baPWV was positively (P<0.05) associated with physiological variables including age, heart rate, body mass index, and serum levels of total cholesterol, fasting glucose, and noradrenaline, but negatively (P<0.01) associated with the job-strain index. Significant associations were not found on the POMS tension-anxiety and anger-hostility scale scores. The negative correlation between baPWV and the job-strain index was consistent even after control for the effects of significant physiological variables. The association between job stress and baPWV was found to be inconsistent with the results of previous western studies, and it may require further investigation while taking into account occupation, cardiovascular risk factors, and Japanese culture.
Unidirectional spin density wave state in metallic (Sr1−xLax)2IrO4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Xiang; Schmehr, Julian L.; Islam, Zahirul; Porter, Zach; Zoghlin, Eli; Finkelstein, Kenneth; Ruff, Jacob P. C.; Wilson, Stephen D.
2018-01-09
Materials that exhibit both strong spin–orbit coupling and electron correlation effects are predicted to host numerous new electronic states. One prominent example is the Jeff = 1/2 Mott state in Sr2IrO4, where introducing carriers is predicted to manifest high temperature superconductivity analogous to the S=1/2 Mott state of La2CuO4. While bulk super- conductivity currently remains elusive, anomalous quasiparticle behaviors paralleling those in the cuprates such as pseudogap formation and the formation of a d-wave gap are observed upon electron-doping Sr2IrO4. Here we establish a magnetic parallel between electron-doped Sr2IrO4 and hole-doped La2CuO4 by unveiling a spin density wave state in electron-doped Sr2IrO4. Our magnetic resonant X-ray scattering data reveal the presence of an incom- mensurate magnetic state reminiscent of the diagonal spin density wave state observed in the monolayer cuprate (La1−xSrx)2CuO4. This link supports the conjecture that the quenched Mott phases in electron-doped Sr2IrO4 and hole-doped La2CuO4 support common competing electronic phases.
Spin Transport in a Unitary Fermi Gas
Thywissen, Joseph
2015-03-01
We study spin transport in a quantum degenerate Fermi gas of 40K near an s-wave interaction resonance. The starting point of our measurements is a transversely spin-polarized gas, where each atom is in a superposition of the lowest two Zeeman eigenstates. In the presence of an external gradient, a spin texture develops across the cloud, which drives diffusive spin currents. Spin transport is described with two coefficients: D0⊥, the transverse spin diffusivity, and γ, the Leggett-Rice parameter. Diffusion is a dissipative effect that increases the entropy of the gas, eventually creating a mixture of spin states. γ parameterizes the rate at which spin current precesses around the local magnetization. Using a spin-echo sequence, we measure these transport parameters for a range of interaction strengths and temperatures. At unitarity, for a normal-state gas initially at one fifth of the Fermi temperature, we find D0⊥ = 2 . 3 (4) ℏ / m and γ = 1 . 08 (9) , where m is the atomic mass. In the limit of zero temperature, γ and D0⊥ are scale-invariant universal parameters of the unitary Fermi gas. The value of D0⊥ reveals strong scattering and is near its proposed quantum limit, such that the inferred value of the transport lifetime τ⊥ is comparable to ℏ /ɛF . This raises the possibility that incoherent transport may play a role. The nonzero value of γ tells us that spin waves in unitary Fermi gas are dispersive, or in other words, that the gas has a spin stiffness in the long-wavelength limit. Time permitting, we will also discuss a time-resolved measurement of the contact, through which we observe the microscopic transformation of the gas from ideal to strongly correlated.
Multi-frequency force-detected electron spin resonance in the millimeter-wave region up to 150 GHz
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohmichi, E., E-mail: ohmichi@harbor.kobe-u.ac.jp; Tokuda, Y.; Tabuse, R.; Tsubokura, D.; Okamoto, T. [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, H. [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
2016-07-15
In this article, a novel technique is developed for multi-frequency force-detected electron spin resonance (ESR) in the millimeter-wave region. We constructed a compact ESR probehead, in which the cantilever bending is sensitively detected by a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer. With this setup, ESR absorption of diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical (<1 μg) was clearly observed at multiple frequencies of up to 150 GHz. We also observed the hyperfine splitting of low-concentration Mn{sup 2+} impurities(∼0.2%) in MgO.
Magnani, N; Caciuffo, R; Lander, G H; Hiess, A; Regnault, L-P
2010-03-24
The anisotropy of magnetic fluctuations propagating along the [1 1 0] direction in the ordered phase of uranium antimonide has been studied using polarized inelastic neutron scattering. The observed polarization behavior of the spin waves is a natural consequence of the longitudinal 3-k magnetic structure; together with recent results on the 3-k-transverse uranium dioxide, these findings establish this technique as an important tool to study complex magnetic arrangements. Selected details of the magnon excitation spectra of USb have also been reinvestigated, indicating the need to revise the currently accepted theoretical picture for this material.
Balinskiy, Michael; Ojha, Shuchi; Chiang, Howard; Ranjbar, Mojtaba; Ross, Caroline A.; Khitun, Alexander
2017-09-01
The development of yttrium iron garnet nanostructures on a silicon substrate is critically important for the integration of magnonic components with conventional electronic circuits. In this work, we present experimental data on spin wave excitation and propagation in 700 nm thick planar Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) films fabricated on gadolinium gallium garnet Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) and silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The spin wave spectroscopy measurements were accomplished using a set of micro-antennas placed directly on the film surface. The data were collected in a frequency range of 0.5-7 GHz and a bias magnetic field from 0 to 2000 Oe. We compare and analyze the spectra obtained for YIG/GGG and YIG/Si. Fitting to the Kittel formula yields the effective magnetization of the samples which is compared with the results obtained by magnetometry. Application of spin wave spectroscopy for magnetic film characterization allows us to extract valuable information on the magnetic texture. Understanding the mechanisms leading to the spin wave damping modification is the key to low-loss spin wave devices compatible with conventional silicon-based technology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, S.; Das, K.; Barman, A., E-mail: abarman@ybose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology and Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Klos, J. W.; Gruszecki, P.; Krawczyk, M., E-mail: krawczyk@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, A. Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Hellwig, O. [San Jose Research Center, HGST, a Western Digital Company, 3403 Yerba Buena Rd., San Jose, California 95135 (United States)
2014-10-20
We present an all-optical time-resolved measurement of spin wave (SW) dynamics in a series of antidot lattices based on [Co(0.75 nm)/Pd(0.9 nm)]{sub 8} multilayer (ML) systems with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The spectra depend significantly on the areal density of the antidots. The observed SW modes are qualitatively reproduced by the plane wave method. The interesting results found in our measurements and calculations at small lattice constants can be attributed to the increase of areal density of the shells with modified magnetic properties probably due to distortion of the regular ML structure by the Ga ion bombardment and to increased coupling between localized modes. We propose and discuss the possible mechanisms for this coupling including exchange interaction, tunnelling, and dipolar interactions.
Ranjbaran, M.; Tehranchi, M. M.; Hamidi, S. M.; Khalkhali, S. M. H.
2017-11-01
Optically pumped atomic magnetometers have found widespread application in biomagnetic studies. Most of the studies utilize MX gradiometers as sensitive and simple arrangements. One the sensitivity improvement methods in the MX configurations is detection of magnetic resonance at higher harmonics due to nonlinear precession of spin polarization. To enhance the harmonic components, we have proposed square wave RF magnetic fields with various duty cycles as substitute for sinusoidal fields. Our results revealed that detection of the 5th harmonic of a 10% duty cycle square wave magnetic field, improved the magnetometer sensitivity by a factor of 4.5 respect to the first harmonic which could be a reliable option to generate high sensitivity MX magnetometers in the MCG applications.
Arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment.
Li, Xiaoxuan; Lyu, Peiyuan; Ren, Yanyan; An, Jin; Dong, Yanhong
2017-09-15
Arterial stiffness is one of the earliest indicators of changes in vascular wall structure and function and may be assessed using various indicators, such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), the augmentation index (AI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness index-β. Arterial stiffness is generally considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. To date, a significant number of studies have focused on the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment. To investigate the relationships between specific arterial stiffness parameters and cognitive impairment, elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment and determine how to interfere with arterial stiffness to prevent cognitive impairment, we searched PUBMED for studies regarding the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment that were published from 2000 to 2017. We used the following key words in our search: "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment" and "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment mechanism". Studies involving human subjects older than 30years were included in the review, while irrelevant studies (i.e., studies involving subjects with comorbid kidney disease, diabetes and cardiac disease) were excluded from the review. We determined that arterial stiffness severity was positively correlated with cognitive impairment. Of the markers used to assess arterial stiffness, a higher PWV, CAVI, AI, IMT and index-β and a lower ABI and FMD were related to cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between PP and cognitive impairment remained controversial. The potential mechanisms linking arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment may be associated with arterial pulsatility, as greater arterial pulsatility
Proximity effects on the spin density waves in X/Cr(001) multilayers (X = Sn, V, and Mn)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amitouche, F. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Bouarab, S., E-mail: bouarab_said@mail.ummto.d [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Tazibt, S. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou, B.P. No17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Vega, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Demangeat, C. [Institut de Physique, 3 rue de l' Universite 67000 Strasbourg (France)
2011-01-03
We present ab initio density functional calculations of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of X{sub 2}/Cr{sub 36}(001) and X{sub 1}/Cr{sub 37}(001) multilayers, with X = Sn, V and Mn, to investigate the impact of the proximity effects of the X layers on the spin density waves of the Cr slab. We find different magnetic profiles corresponding to the spin density wave and to the layered antiferromagnetic configurations. The nature of the different magnetic solutions is discussed in terms of the different interfacial environments in the proximity of Sn, V or Mn. The magnetic behavior at the interface is discussed in connection with the electronic structure through the density of electronic states projected at the interfacial X and Cr sites. We compare the results with those previously obtained for Fe{sub 3}/X{sub 1}/Cr{sub 37}/X{sub 1}(001) multilayers to analyze the role played by the ferromagnetic iron slab.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, Su Joa; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Won; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Hyo Jin; Yang, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Park, Sae Jin; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-11-15
To assess intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of a new point shear wave elastography technique (pSWE, S-Shearwave, Samsung Medison) and compare its accuracy in assessing liver stiffness (LS) with an established pSWE technique (Virtual Touch Quantification, VTQ). Thirty-three patients were enrolled in this Institutional Review Board-approved prospective study. LS values were measured by VTQ on an Acuson S2000 system (Siemens Healthineer) and S-Shearwave on an RS-80A (Samsung Medison) in the same session, followed by two further S-Shearwave sessions for inter- and intra-observer variation at 8-hour intervals. The technical success rate (SR) and reliability of the measurements of both pSWE techniques were compared. The intra- and inter-observer reproducibility of S-Shearwave was determined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). LS values were measured by both methods of pSWE. The diagnostic performance in severe fibrosis (F ≥ 3) and cirrhosis (F = 4) was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and the Obuchowski measure with the LS values of transient elastography as the referenced standard. The VTQ (100%, 33/33) and S-Shearwave (96.9%, 32/33) techniques did not display a significant difference in technical SR (p = 0.63) or reliability of LS measurements (96.9%, 32/33; 93.9%, 30/32, respectively, p = 0.61). The inter- and intra-observer agreement for LS measurements using the S-Shearwave technique was excellent (ICC = 0.98 and 0.99, respectively). The mean LS values of both pSWE techniques were not significantly different and exhibited a good correlation (r = 0.78). To detect F ≥ 3 and F = 4, VTQ and S-Shearwave showed comparable diagnostic accuracy as indicated by the following outcomes: areas under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUROC) = 0.87 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.70–0.96), 0.89 for VTQ (95% CI 0.74–0.97), respectively; and AUROC = 0.84 (95% CI 0.67–0.94), 0.94 (95% CI 0.80–0.99) for S
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, Pavel A., E-mail: andreevpa@physics.msu.ru [Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-06-15
We discuss the complete theory of spin-1/2 electron-positron quantum plasmas, when electrons and positrons move with velocities mach smaller than the speed of light. We derive a set of two fluid quantum hydrodynamic equations consisting of the continuity, Euler, spin (magnetic moment) evolution equations for each species. We explicitly include the Coulomb, spin-spin, Darwin and annihilation interactions. The annihilation interaction is the main topic of the paper. We consider the contribution of the annihilation interaction in the quantum hydrodynamic equations and in the spectrum of waves in magnetized electron-positron plasmas. We consider the propagation of waves parallel and perpendicular to an external magnetic field. We also consider the oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We derive the set of quantum kinetic equations for electron-positron plasmas with the Darwin and annihilation interactions. We apply the kinetic theory to the linear wave behavior in absence of external fields. We calculate the contribution of the Darwin and annihilation interactions in the Landau damping of the Langmuir waves. We should mention that the annihilation interaction does not change number of particles in the system. It does not related to annihilation itself, but it exists as a result of interaction of an electron-positron pair via conversion of the pair into virtual photon. A pair of the non-linear Schrodinger equations for the electron-positron plasmas including the Darwin and annihilation interactions is derived. Existence of the conserving helicity in electron-positron quantum plasmas of spinning particles with the Darwin and annihilation interactions is demonstrated. We show that the annihilation interaction plays an important role in the quantum electron-positron plasmas giving the contribution of the same magnitude as the spin-spin interaction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hauke, Philipp [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Meditarranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Roscilde, Tommaso [Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee d' Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Murg, Valentin; Ignacio Cirac, J; Schmied, Roman, E-mail: Philipp.Hauke@icfo.e [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2010-05-15
We investigate a system of frustrated hardcore bosons, modeled by an XY antiferromagnet on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, using Takahashi's modified spin-wave (MSW) theory. In particular, we implement ordering vector optimization on the ordered reference state of MSW theory, which leads to significant improvement of the theory and accounts for quantum corrections to the classically ordered state. The MSW results at zero temperature compare favorably to exact diagonalization (ED) and projected entangled-pair state (PEPS) calculations. The resulting zero-temperature phase diagram includes a one-dimensional (1D) quasi-ordered phase, a 2D Neel ordered phase and a 2D spiraling ordered phase. Strong indications coming from the ED and PEPS calculations, as well as from the breakdown of MSW theory, suggest that the various ordered or quasi-ordered phases are separated by spin-liquid phases with short-range correlations, in analogy to what has been predicted for the Heisenberg model on the same lattice. Within MSW theory, we also explore the finite-temperature phase diagram. In agreement with the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory, we find that zero-temperature long-range-ordered phases turn into quasi-ordered phases (up to a BKT transition temperature), while zero-temperature quasi-ordered phases become short-range correlated at finite temperature. These results show that, despite its simplicity, MSW theory is very well suited to describing ordered and quasi-ordered phases of frustrated XY spins (or, equivalently, of frustrated lattice bosons) both at zero and finite temperatures. While MSW theory, just as other theoretical methods, cannot describe spin-liquid phases, its breakdown provides a fast and reliable method for singling out Hamiltonians that may feature these intriguing quantum phases. We thus suggest a tool for guiding our search for interesting systems whose properties are necessarily studied with a physical quantum simulator
Hauke, Philipp; Roscilde, Tommaso; Murg, Valentin; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Schmied, Roman
2010-05-01
We investigate a system of frustrated hardcore bosons, modeled by an XY antiferromagnet on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, using Takahashi's modified spin-wave (MSW) theory. In particular, we implement ordering vector optimization on the ordered reference state of MSW theory, which leads to significant improvement of the theory and accounts for quantum corrections to the classically ordered state. The MSW results at zero temperature compare favorably to exact diagonalization (ED) and projected entangled-pair state (PEPS) calculations. The resulting zero-temperature phase diagram includes a one-dimensional (1D) quasi-ordered phase, a 2D Néel ordered phase and a 2D spiraling ordered phase. Strong indications coming from the ED and PEPS calculations, as well as from the breakdown of MSW theory, suggest that the various ordered or quasi-ordered phases are separated by spin-liquid phases with short-range correlations, in analogy to what has been predicted for the Heisenberg model on the same lattice. Within MSW theory, we also explore the finite-temperature phase diagram. In agreement with the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory, we find that zero-temperature long-range-ordered phases turn into quasi-ordered phases (up to a BKT transition temperature), while zero-temperature quasi-ordered phases become short-range correlated at finite temperature. These results show that, despite its simplicity, MSW theory is very well suited to describing ordered and quasi-ordered phases of frustrated XY spins (or, equivalently, of frustrated lattice bosons) both at zero and finite temperatures. While MSW theory, just as other theoretical methods, cannot describe spin-liquid phases, its breakdown provides a fast and reliable method for singling out Hamiltonians that may feature these intriguing quantum phases. We thus suggest a tool for guiding our search for interesting systems whose properties are necessarily studied with a physical quantum simulator instead
Coherent structural trapping through wave packet dispersion during photoinduced spin state switching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemke, Henrik T.; Kjær, Kasper Skov; Hartsock, Robert
2017-01-01
is distinguished from the structural trapping dynamics, which launches a coherent oscillating wave packet (265 fs period), clearly identified as molecular breathing. Throughout the structural trapping, the dispersion of the wave packet along the reaction coordinate reveals details of intramolecular vibronic...
Spin-wave excitations and magnetism of sputtered Fe/Au multilayers
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the pairs of nearest-neighbour atoms within the same plane or adjacent magnetic planes. The contribution of the surface anisotropy is ... uniaxial out-of-plane and in-plane components, respectively. In the Holstein–Primakoff formulation [16], the creation. + and annihilation operators (aiαμ and aiαμ) for each atomic spin are ...
Dai, Jin; Niemi, Antti J.; He, Jianfeng; Sieradzan, Adam; Ilieva, Nevena
2016-03-01
We inquire how structure emerges during the process of protein folding. For this we scrutinize collective many-atom motions during all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We introduce, develop, and employ various topological techniques, in combination with analytic tools that we deduce from the concept of integrable models and structure of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The example we consider is an α -helical subunit of the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp41. The helical structure is stable when the subunit is part of the biological oligomer. But in isolation, the helix becomes unstable, and the monomer starts deforming. We follow the process computationally. We interpret the evolving structure both in terms of a backbone based Heisenberg spin chain and in terms of a side chain based XY spin chain. We find that in both cases the formation of protein supersecondary structure is akin the formation of a topological Bloch domain wall along a spin chain. During the process we identify three individual Bloch walls and we show that each of them can be modelled with a precision of tenths to several angstroms in terms of a soliton solution to a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation.
A temperature dependent tunneling study of the spin density wave gap in EuFe2As2 single crystals.
Dutta, Anirban; Anupam; Hossain, Z; Gupta, Anjan K
2013-09-18
We report temperature dependent scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements on single crystals of EuFe2As2 in the 15-292 K temperature range. The in situ cleaved crystals show atomic terraces with homogeneous tunnel spectra that correlate well with the spin density wave (SDW) transition at a temperature, TSDW ≈ 186 K. Above TSDW the local tunnel spectra show a small depression in the density of states (DOS) near the Fermi energy (EF). The gap becomes more pronounced upon entering the SDW state with a gap value ∼90 meV at 15 K. However, the zero bias conductance remains finite down to 15 K indicating a finite DOS at the EF in the SDW phase. Furthermore, no noticeable change is observed in the DOS at the antiferromagnetic ordering transition of Eu(2+) moments at 19 K.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Necdet Onur Urs
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Recent developments in the observation of magnetic domains and domain walls by wide-field optical microscopy based on the magneto-optical Kerr, Faraday, Voigt, and Gradient effect are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the existence of higher order magneto-optical effects for advanced magnetic imaging. Fundamental concepts and advances in methodology are discussed that allow for imaging of magnetic domains on various length and time scales. Time-resolved imaging of electric field induced domain wall rotation is shown. Visualization of magnetization dynamics down to picosecond temporal resolution for the imaging of spin-waves and magneto-optical multi-effect domain imaging techniques for obtaining vectorial information are demonstrated. Beyond conventional domain imaging, the use of a magneto-optical indicator technique for local temperature sensing is shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gubbiotti, G.; Nguyen, H.T.; Hiramatsu, R.; Tacchi, S.; Cottam, M.G.; Ono, T.
2015-01-01
Brillouin light scattering has been utilized to study the field dependence of resonant spin-wave modes in layered NiFe(30 nm)/Cu(10 nm)/NiFe(15 nm)/Cu(10 nm)/NiFe(30 nm) nanowires of rectangular cross section, 150 nm wide and formed in arrays that are spaced laterally by 400 nm. The major and minor longitudinal hysteresis curves have been measured by the magneto-optical Kerr effect technique, with applied field parallel to the length of the nanowires. The light-scattering spectra were recorded as a function of the magnetic field strength, encompassing both the parallel and antiparallel alignments of the middle stripe with respect to the magnetization direction of the outermost ones. The field ranges for the antiparallel state are different from those for the parallel case, while the mode frequencies change abruptly at the parallel-to-antiparallel transition field (and vice versa). The modes detected in the antiparallel state are found to have only a weak dependence on the applied magnetic field, whether along the major or minor hysteresis curves, while in the parallel state the mode frequencies monotonically increase with the applied magnetic field. The experimental results have been successfully interpreted, across the whole range of the magnetic fields investigated, in terms of the mode localizations across the width and in the layered structure. This was accomplished by means of a microscopic (Hamiltonian-based) theory, which has been extended here to the case of non-parallel magnetic ground states. - Highlights: • We study the resonant spin waves in layered nanowires of rectangular cross section. • Both the parallel and antiparallel magnetization alignments have been explored. • Frequency of modes in the antiparallel state are independent on the magnetic field. • Experimental results we interpreted by means of an Hamiltonian-based theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hutchings, M T; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Lindgård, Per-Anker
1981-01-01
The long-wavelength spin waves in Rb2CrCl4, a nearly two-dimensional ferromagnet, have been investigated at several temperatures below Tc=52.4K using neutron inelastic scattering techniques. The data have been analysed in terms of a Hartree-Fock theory using matching-matrix elements to give...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clarke, S.J.; Harrison, A.; Mason, T.E.
1999-01-01
Copper(II) formate tetrahydrate (CFTH) is a model square S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with T-N = 16.54 +/- 0.05 K. The dispersion of spin-waves in the magnetic layers of a fully deuterated sample of this material has been mapped at 4.3 K by inelastic neutron scattering from the zone centre...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reddy, L; Alberts, H L; Prinsloo, A R E; Strydom, A M, E-mail: hermana@uj.ac.z [Department of Physics, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 (South Africa)
2010-01-01
An analysis of experimental data on the electrical resistivity, Hall coefficient and electronic specific heat coefficient of a quantum critical (Cr{sub 86}Ru{sub 14}){sub 1-x}V{sub x} alloy system, is reported. The results give information on the role of spin-density-wave effects on the zero temperature relationships between these physical properties.
Massive-spin-1/2 wave around a Kerr-Newman black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, C.H.
1977-01-01
Using the separation of variables of the Dirac equations for the electron in the Kerr-Newman geometry, it is explicitly shown that the super-radiant scattering is not allowed for the electron wave on a Kerr-Newman black hole
Azimuthally spinning wave modes and heat release in an annular combustor
Nygard, Hakon; Mazur, Marek; Dawson, James R.; Worth, Nicholas A.
2017-11-01
In order to reduce NOx emissions from aeroengines and stationary gas turbines the fuel-air mixture can be made leaner, at the risk of introducing potentially damaging thermo-acoustic instabilities. At present this phenomenon is not understood well enough to eliminate these instabilities at the design stage. Recently, the presence of different azimuthal modes in annular combustors has been demonstrated both experimentally and numerically. These naturally occurring instabilities in annular geometry have been observed to constantly switch between spinning and standing modes, making it more difficult to analyse the flame structure and dynamics. Very recently this issue was partially addressed using novel acoustic forcing to generate a standing mode. In the present study this concept has been developed further by creating an azimuthal array of loud speakers, which for the first time permits predominantly spinning modes to be set up inside the combustion chamber. The use of pressure and high speed OH* measurements enables the study of the flame dynamics and heat release rate oscillations of the combustor, which will be reported in the current paper. The ability to precisely control the azimuthal mode of oscillation greatly enhances our further understanding of the phenomenon. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement No 677931 TAIAC).
HIV infection and aortic stiffness.
Leite, Luisa Helena Maia; Cohen, Ariel; Boccara, Franck
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and receiving antiretroviral therapy now have the same life expectancy as the general population. However, they have a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events because of a complex and polyfactorial vasculopathy, combining the effects of antiretroviral therapy, the HIV virus itself, immune activation, chronic inflammation and metabolic disturbances. Whether people living with HIV infection experience increased vascular aging compared with the general population remains controversial. To summarize current knowledge of the association between HIV infection and aortic stiffness as a marker of vascular aging. This review included 18 clinical studies in adult populations, published between 2009 and 2016, and identified on PubMed/MEDLINE or other databases. Search terms were aortic stiffness, arterial stiffness, vascular aging, pulse wave velocity and HIV. All 18 studies were observational, and compared groups infected (HIV+) and not infected (HIV-) with HIV. Ten studies (55%) reported no significant differences in aortic stiffness between HIV+ groups and age-matched HIV- control groups. The main reported determinants of aortic stiffness were age, blood pressure, smoking, metabolic syndrome and HIV-related variables, including CD4/CD8 ratio, current T-CD4 count CD4+ count < 200/mm 3 . We found discordant results regarding whether HIV+ patients had increased aortic stiffness compared with HIV- controls. However, HIV-related conditions were associated with vascular health. This association has been confirmed in recent prospective studies. There is emerging evidence that HIV itself and immune activity affect vascular health and the large arteries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jirar Topouchian
2007-09-01
TRANS substudy are reported. When completed, the results of the TRANS substudy will show whether the beneficial effects of treatment with telmisartan on cardiovascular outcome may be related to an improvement in arterial stiffness.Keywords: arterial stiffness, cardiovascular prevention, ARBs, telmisartan, pulse wave velocity, antihypertensive
Vodopyanov, B P
2010-05-12
The influence of the spin-dependent phase shifts (SDPSs) associated with the electronic reflection and transmission amplitudes acquired by electrons upon scattering at the potential barrier on the Andreev reflection probability of electron and hole excitations for a ferromagnet/isolator/d-wave superconductor (FIS) contact and on the charge conductance of the FIS contact is studied. Various superconductor orientations are considered. It has been found that for strong ferromagnets and ultrathin interface potential for the {110} oriented d-wave superconductor the presence of the SDPS can lead to the appearance of finite-voltage peaks in the charge conductance of the F/I/d-wave superconductor contact. On the contrary, for the {100} orientation of the d-wave superconductor the presence of the SDPS can lead to restoration of the zero-voltage peak and suppression of finite-voltage peaks. The spin-dependent amplitudes of the Andreev reflection probability and energy levels of the spin-dependent Andreev bound states are found.
Mukherjee, Arunava; Messenger, Chris; Riles, Keith
2018-02-01
The LIGO's discovery of binary black hole mergers has opened up a new era of transient gravitational wave astronomy. The potential detection of gravitational radiation from another class of astronomical objects, rapidly spinning nonaxisymmetric neutron stars, would constitute a new area of gravitational wave astronomy. Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) is one of the most promising sources of continuous gravitational radiation to be detected with present-generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. As the sensitivity of these detectors improve in the coming years, so will power of the search algorithms being used to find gravitational wave signals. Those searches will still require integration over nearly year long observational spans to detect the incredibly weak signals from rotating neutron stars. For low mass X-ray binaries such as Sco X-1 this difficult task is compounded by neutron star "spin wandering" caused by stochastic accretion fluctuations. In this paper, we analyze X-ray data from the R X T E satellite to infer the fluctuating torque on the neutron star in Sco X-1. We then perform a large-scale simulation to quantify the statistical properties of spin-wandering effects on the gravitational wave signal frequency and phase evolution. We find that there are a broad range of expected maximum levels of frequency wandering corresponding to maximum drifts of between 0.3 - 50 μ Hz /sec over a year at 99% confidence. These results can be cast in terms of the maximum allowed length of a coherent signal model neglecting spin-wandering effects as ranging between 5-80 days. This study is designed to guide the development and evaluation of Sco X-1 search algorithms.
Matter-waves in Bose-Einstein condensates with spin-orbit and Rabi couplings
Chiquillo, Emerson
2015-11-01
We investigate the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) reduction of a quantum field theory starting from the three-dimensional (3D) many-body Hamiltonian of interacting bosons with spin-orbit (SO) and Rabi couplings. We obtain the effective time-dependent 1D and 2D nonpolynomial Heisenberg equations for both the repulsive and attractive signs of the inter-atomic interaction. Our findings show that in the case in which the many-body state coincides with the Glauber coherent state, the 1D and 2D Heisenberg equations become 1D and 2D nonpolynomial Schrödinger equations (NPSEs). These models were derived in a mean-field approximation from 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE), describing a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with SO and Rabi couplings. In the present work self-repulsive and self-attractive localized solutions of the 1D NPSE and the 1D GPE are obtained in a numerical form. The combined action of SO and Rabi couplings produces conspicuous sidelobes on the density profile, for both signs of the interaction. In the case of the attractive nonlinearity, an essential result is the possibility of getting an unstable condensate by the increasing of SO coupling.
Small, David W; Sundstrom, Eric J; Head-Gordon, Martin
2015-03-07
We introduce a necessary and sufficient condition for an arbitrary wavefunction to be collinear, i.e., its spin is quantized along some axis. It may be used to obtain a cheap and simple computational procedure to test for collinearity in electronic structure theory calculations. We adapt the procedure for Generalized Hartree Fock (GHF), and use it to study two dissociation pathways in CO2. For these dissociation processes, the GHF wave functions transform from low-spin Unrestricted Hartree Fock (UHF) type states to noncollinear GHF states and on to high-spin UHF type states, phenomena that are succinctly illustrated by the constituents of the collinearity test. This complements earlier GHF work on this molecule.
Golosovsky, I. V.; Ovsyanikov, A. K.; Aristov, D. N.; Matveeva, P. G.; Mukhin, A. A.; Boehm, M.; Regnault, L.-P.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.
2018-04-01
Magnetic excitations and exchange interactions in multiferroic NdFe3(BO3)4 were studied by inelastic neutron scattering in the phase with commensurate antiferromagnetic structure. The observed spectra were analyzed in the frame of the linear spin-wave theory. It was shown that only the model, which includes the exchange interactions within eight coordination spheres, describes satisfactorily all observed dispersion curves. The calculation showed that the spin-wave dynamics is governed by the strongest antiferromagnetic intra-chain interaction and three almost the same inter-chain interactions. Other interactions, including ferromagnetic exchange, appeared to be insignificant. The overall energy balance of the antiferromagnetic inter-chain exchange interactions, which couple the moments from the adjacent ferromagnetic layers as well as within a layer, stabilizes ferromagnetic arrangement in the latter. It demonstrates that the pathway geometry plays a crucial role in forming of the magnetic structure.
Ferguson, Kate R; Beavan, Sarah E; Longdell, Jevon J; Sellars, Matthew J
2016-07-08
Here, we demonstrate generating and storing entanglement in a solid-state spin-wave quantum memory with on-demand readout using the process of rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE). Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), resulting from an inverted ensemble of Pr^{3+} ions doped into a Y_{2}SiO_{5} crystal, generates entanglement between collective states of the praseodymium ensemble and the output light. The ensemble is then rephased using a four-level photon echo technique. Entanglement between the ASE and its echo is confirmed and the inseparability violation preserved when the RASE is stored as a spin wave for up to 5 μs. RASE is shown to be temporally multimode with almost perfect distinguishability between two temporal modes demonstrated. These results pave the way for the use of multimode solid-state quantum memories in scalable quantum networks.
Ishikawa, Yuya; Ohya, Kenta; Fujii, Yutaka; Fukuda, Akira; Miura, Shunsuke; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Yamamori, Hidetomo; Kikuchi, Hikomitsu
2018-04-01
We report a Fabry-Pérot resonator with spherical and flat mirrors to allow simultaneous electron-spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements that could be used for double magnetic resonance (DoMR). In order to perform simultaneous ESR and NMR measurements, the flat mirror must reflect millimeter wavelength electromagnetic waves and the resonator must have a high Q value ( Q > 3000) for ESR frequencies, while the mirror must simultaneously let NMR frequencies pass through. This requirement can be achieved by exploiting the difference of skin depth for the two frequencies, since skin depth is inversely proportional to the square root of the frequency. In consideration of the skin depth, the optimum conditions for conducting ESR and NMR using a gold thin film are explored by examining the relation between the Q value and the film thickness. A flat mirror with a gold thin film was fabricated by sputtering gold on an epoxy plate. We also installed a Helmholtz radio frequency coil for NMR and tested the system both at room and low temperatures with an optimally thick gold film. As a result, signals were obtained at 0.18 K for ESR and at 1.3 K for NMR. A flat-mirrored resonator with a thin gold film surface is an effective way to locate NMR coils closer to the sample being examined with DoMR.
Song, Likai; Liu, Zhanglong; Kaur, Pavanjeet; Esquiaqui, Jackie M.; Hunter, Robert I.; Hill, Stephen; Smith, Graham M.; Fanucci, Gail E.
2016-04-01
High-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at W-(∼94 GHz) and D-band (∼140 GHz) is important for investigating the conformational dynamics of flexible biological macromolecules because this frequency range has increased spectral sensitivity to nitroxide motion over the 100 ps to 2 ns regime. However, low concentration sensitivity remains a roadblock for studying aqueous samples at high magnetic fields. Here, we examine the sensitivity of a non-resonant thin-layer cylindrical sample holder, coupled to a quasi-optical induction-mode W-band EPR spectrometer (HiPER), for continuous wave (CW) EPR analyses of: (i) the aqueous nitroxide standard, TEMPO; (ii) the unstructured to α-helical transition of a model IDP protein; and (iii) the base-stacking transition in a kink-turn motif of a large 232 nt RNA. For sample volumes of ∼50 μL, concentration sensitivities of 2-20 μM were achieved, representing a ∼10-fold enhancement compared to a cylindrical TE011 resonator on a commercial Bruker W-band spectrometer. These results therefore highlight the sensitivity of the thin-layer sample holders employed in HiPER for spin-labeling studies of biological macromolecules at high fields, where applications can extend to other systems that are facilitated by the modest sample volumes and ease of sample loading and geometry.
Spin wave relaxation and magnetic properties in [M/Cu] super-lattices; M=Fe, Co and Ni
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fahmi, A.; Qachaou, A.
2009-01-01
In this work, we study the elementary excitations and magnetic properties of the [M/Cu] super-lattices with: M=Fe, Co and Ni, represented by a Heisenberg ferromagnetic system with N atomic planes. The nearest neighbour (NN), next nearest neighbour (NNN) exchange, dipolar interactions and surface anisotropy effects are taken into account and the Hamiltonian is studied in the framework of the linear spin wave theory. In the presence of the exchange alone, the excitation spectrum E(k) and the magnetization z >/S analytical expressions are obtained using the Green's function formalism. The obtained relaxation time of the magnon populations is nearly the same in the Fe and Co-based super-lattices, while these magnetic excitations would last much longer in the Ni-based super lattice. A numerical study of the surface anisotropy and long-ranged dipolar interaction combined effects are also reported. The exchange integral values deduced from a comparison with experience for the three super-lattices are coherent.
Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Fengyuan; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris
2015-05-01
The dipole field from a probe magnet can be used to localize a discrete spectrum of standing spin wave modes in a continuous ferromagnetic thin film without lithographic modification to the film. Obtaining the resonance field for a localized mode is not trivial due to the effect of the confined and inhomogeneous magnetization precession. We compare the results of micromagnetic and analytic methods to find the resonance field of localized modes in a ferromagnetic thin film, and investigate the accuracy of these methods by comparing with a numerical minimization technique that assumes Bessel function modes with pinned boundary conditions. We find that the micromagnetic technique, while computationally more intensive, reveals that the true magnetization profiles of localized modes are similar to Bessel functions with gradually decaying dynamic magnetization at the mode edges. We also find that an analytic solution, which is simple to implement and computationally much faster than other methods, accurately describes the resonance field of localized modes when exchange fields are negligible, and demonstrating the accessibility of localized mode analysis.
Mruczkiewicz, M.; Gruszecki, P.; Krawczyk, M.; Guslienko, K. Y.
2018-02-01
We study azimuthal spin-wave (SW) excitations in a circular ferromagnetic nanodot in different inhomogeneous, topologically nontrivial magnetization states, specifically, vortex, Bloch-type skyrmion, and Néel-type skyrmion states. A continuous transition between these states is realized by gradually changing the out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction (DMI), and the corresponding SW spectra are calculated for each state. We observe the lifting of degeneracy of SW mode frequencies and a change in the systematics of frequency levels. The latter effect is induced by the geometric Berry phase, which occurs in SWs localized at the edge of the dot in the vortex state, and vanishes in the skyrmion states. Furthermore, channeling of edge-localized azimuthal SWs and a related large frequency splitting are observed in the skyrmion states. This is attributed to DMI-induced nonreciprocity, while the coupling of the breathing and gyrotropic modes is related to the skyrmion motion. Finally, we demonstrate efficient coupling of the dynamic magnetization to a uniform magnetic field in nanodots of noncircular symmetry in the skyrmion states.
Rana, Bivas; Fukuma, Yasuhiro; Miura, Katsuya; Takahashi, Hiromasa; Otani, YoshiChika
2017-07-01
Spin waves (SWs) may be used as potential information carriers in next generation low-power spintronics devices. Here, we report an experimental study on the excitation of propagating magnetostatic surface SWs by voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy in a 2 nm thick CoFeB film. The SWs are detected by a pico-second time-resolved longitudinal Kerr microscope with a spatial resolution of 600 nm. We found a linear increase in the SW amplitude with the applied rf voltage. We show that in this ultrathin film, the voltage excited SWs can propagate up to micrometer distances which decrease with the increase in the bias magnetic field value. This is also supported by micromagnetic simulation results. Furthermore, we show that voltage excitations are spatially localized as opposed to conventional microstrip antenna induced Oersted field excitations. We discuss about the advantage of voltage excitation compared to the Oersted field excitation. We believe that voltage excitation of SWs will be more suitable and useful for the development of all-voltage-controlled nanoscale spintronics devices with a high density of integration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volodymyr V. Kulish
2017-09-01
Conclusions. The obtained expressions for the spectrum of the values of the investigated spin waves’ wavenumbers can be used for a wider range of cases than the ones obtained in the previous papers dedicated to the investigated configurations of nanosystems. For a nanotube of the circular cross-section with small (compared to the inverse characteristic size of the nanotube cross-section values of the longitudinal wave number, the dependence of the latter on the transverse wave number is weak, as well as for the big longitudinal to transverse wavenumber component ratio. The obtained dependence is also represented graphically.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stanislaw Mieczyslaw Dubiel
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Relevance of the Mössbauer spectroscopy in the study of harmonically modulated electronic structures i.e. spin-density waves (SDWs and charge-density waves (CDWs is presented and discussed. First, the effect of various parameters pertinent to the SDWs and CDWs is outlined on simulated 119Sn spectra and distributions of the hyperfine field and the isomer shift. Next, various examples of the 119Sn spectra measured on single-crystals and polycrystalline samples of Cr and Cr-V are reviewed.
Aortic stiffness and the balance between cardiac oxygen supply and demand: the Rotterdam Study
Guelen, Ilja; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; van Popele, Nicole M.; Westerhof, Berend E.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Bos, Willem Jan W.
2008-01-01
OBJECTIVES: Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We investigated whether aortic stiffness, estimated as aortic pulse wave velocity, is associated with decreased perfusion pressure estimated as the cardiac oxygen supply potential. METHODS: Aortic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Maria; Thiele, Maja; Jansen, Christian
2017-01-01
) and real-time 2-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE). Patients ingested a 625 kcal and a 1250 kcal liquid meal on two consecutive days. We measured liver and spleen elasticity, Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and portal flow at baseline and after 20, 40, 60, 120 and 180 minutes. Sixty...
[Metabolic syndrome and aortic stiffness].
Simková, A; Bulas, J; Murín, J; Kozlíková, K; Janiga, I
2010-09-01
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of risk factors that move the patient into higher level of risk category of cardiovascular disease and the probability of type 2 diabetes mellitus manifestation. Definition of MS is s based on the presence of selected risk factors as: abdominal obesity (lager waist circumpherence), atherogenic dyslipidemia (low value of HDL-cholesterol and increased level of triglycerides), increased fasting blood glucose (or type 2 DM diagnosis), higher blood pressure or antihypertensive therapy. In 2009 there were created harmonizing criteria for MS definition; the condition for assignment of MS is the presence of any 3 criteria of 5 mentioned above. The underlying disorder of MS is an insulin resistance or prediabetes. The patients with MS more frequently have subclinical (preclinical) target organ disease (TOD) which is the early sings of atherosclerosis. Increased aortic stiffness is one of the preclinical diseases and is defined by pathologically increased carotidofemoral pulse wave velocity in aorta (PWV Ao). With the aim to assess the influence of MS on aortic stiffness we examined the group of women with arterial hypertension and MS and compare them with the group of women without MS. The aortic stiffness was examined by Arteriograph--Tensiomed, the equipment working on the oscillometric principle in detection of pulsations of brachial artery. This method determines the global aortic stiffness based on the analysis of the shape of pulse curve of brachial artery. From the cohort of 49 pts 31 had MS, the subgroups did not differ in age or blood pressure level. The mean number of risk factors per person in MS was 3.7 comparing with 1.7 in those without MS. In the MS group there was more frequently abdominal obesity present (87% vs 44%), increased fasting blood glucose (81% vs 22%) and low HDL-cholesterol level. The pulse wave velocity in aorta, PWV Ao, was significantly higher in patients with MS (mean value 10,19 m/s vs 8,96 m
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magnos Alan Vivian
2012-03-01
Full Text Available
This study aimed to evaluate the use of dynamic elastic constant obtained in non-destructive testing, as a parameter to estimate the mechanical properties of stiffness and resistance of Eucalyptus grandis. For this we used an emitter of ultrasonic waves, which had its sensitivity evaluated by comparison with the values obtained in the destructive test of static bending. The results show that the dynamic elastic constant can be used as non-destructive inference of the stiffness and resistance of Eucalyptus grandis, though with reservations, because the adjustments observed were relatively low, with R²adj. 0.25 and 0.39, respectively.
doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.109
O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o uso da constante elástica dinâmica obtida no ensaio não destrutivo, como parâmetro para estimativa das propriedades mecânicas de rigidez e resistência da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Para isto, utilizou-se um emissor de ondas ultrassônicas, o qual teve sua sensibilidade avaliada através da comparação com os valores obtidos no ensaio destrutivo de flexão estática. Os resultados evidenciam que a constante elástica dinâmica pode ser utilizada para inferência não destrutiva da rigidez e resistência da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis, entretanto com ressalvas, pois os ajustes observados foram relativamente baixos, com R²aj. de 0,25 e 0,39, respectivamente.
doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.69.109
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aslibeiki, B., E-mail: b.aslibeiki@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Varvaro, G.; Peddis, D. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, National Research Council, Monterotondo Scalo, Roma 00015 (Italy); Kameli, P. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-01-15
Magnesium ferrite, MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, nanoparticles with a mean diameter varying from ∼6 to ∼17 nm were successfully synthesized using a simple thermal decomposition method at different annealing temperatures ranging in between 400 and 600 °C. Pure spinel ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at temperatures lower than 500 °C, while the presence of hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) impurities was observed at higher temperatures. Single-phase samples show a superparamagnetic behavior at 300 K, the saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) becoming larger with the increase of particles size. The temperature dependence of M{sub s} was explained in terms of surface spin-canting as well as spin wave excitations in the core. Using a modified Bloch law, [M{sub s}(T)=M{sub s}(0)(1−βT{sup α})], we observed a size dependent behavior of the Bloch constant β and the exponent α, whose values increase and decrease, respectively, as the particle size reduces. - Highlights: • MgFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized using a thermal decomposition method. • Pure ferrite nanoparticles were obtained at temperatures lower than 500 °C. • Samples show a superparamagnetic behavior at room temperatures. • Spin wave excitations were studied using a modified Bloch law.
Parametric analysis of change in wave number of surface waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadić Ljiljana
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the dependence of the change wave number of materials soil constants, ie the frequency of the waves. The starting point in this analysis cosists of wave equation and dynamic stiffness matrix of soil.
Optical orientation and spin-dependent recombination in GaAsN alloys under continuous-wave pumping.
Ivchenko, E L; Kalevich, V K; Shiryaev, A Yu; Afanasiev, M M; Masumoto, Y
2010-11-24
We present a systematic theoretical study of spin-dependent recombination and its effect on optical orientation of photoelectron spins in semiconductors with deep paramagnetic centers. For this aim we generalize the Shockley-Read theory of recombination of electrons and holes through the deep centers with allowance for optically-induced spin polarization of free and bound electrons. Starting from consideration of defects with three charge states we turn to the two-charge-state model possessing nine parameters and show that it is compatible with available experimental data on undoped GaAsN alloys. In the weak- and strong-pumping limits, we derive simple analytic equations which are useful in prediction and interpretation of experimental results. Experimental and theoretical dependences of the spin-dependent recombination ratio and degree of photoluminescence circular polarization on the pumping intensity and the transverse magnetic field are compared and discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariusz Łucejko
2018-01-01
Full Text Available To assess a combination of novel measures of therapeutic success in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC infection, we evaluated liver stiffness (LS with shear wave elastography and hepatitis C virus core antigen (HCVcAg concentrations. We followed 34 patients during and after treatment with direct acting antivirals. All patients achieved a sustained virologic and serologic response and a significant increase of albumin levels. Decreases of alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level were observed during the treatment and follow-up period. A significant decrease in LS was observed between baseline, end of treatment (EOT, and at 24- and 96-week post-treatment follow-up. LS decline between EOT and 96-week follow-up (FU96 was observed in 79% of patients. Significant LS changes were seen in patients with advanced fibrosis, particularly in cirrhotics and in patients with ALT exceeding 100 IU/mL. There was a positive correlation between ALT activity and LS changes at the baseline versus FU96. A negative correlation was demonstrated between individual HCVcAg baseline concentrations and reduction of LS at the baseline versus FU96. In conclusion, we observed that LS significantly declined during and after antiviral treatment. It was accompanied by improvement in some liver function measures, and disappearance of both HCVcAg and HCV ribonucleic acid (HCV RNA.
Stiffness Evolution in Frozen Sands Subjected to Stress Changes
Dai, Sheng
2017-04-21
Sampling affects all soils, including frozen soils and hydrate-bearing sediments. The authors monitor the stiffness evolution of frozen sands subjected to various temperature and stress conditions using an oedometer cell instrumented with P-wave transducers. Experimental results show the stress-dependent stiffness of freshly remolded sands, the dominant stiffening effect of ice, creep after unloading, and the associated exponential decrease in stiffness with time. The characteristic time for stiffness loss during creep is of the order of tens of minutes; therefore it is inevitable that frozen soils experience sampling disturbances attributable to unloading. Slow unloading minimizes stiffness loss; conversely, fast unloading causes a pronounced reduction in stiffness probably attributable to the brittle failure of ice or ice-mineral bonding.
Stiffness-constant variation in nickel-based alloys: Experiment and theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hennion, M.; Hennion, B.
1979-01-01
Recent measurements of the spin-wave stiffness constant in several nickel alloys at various concentrations are interpreted within a random-phase approximation, coherent-potential approximation (RPA-CPA) band model which uses the Hartree-Fock approximation to treat the intraatomic correlations. We give a theoretical description of the possible impurity states in the Hartree-Fock approximation. This allows the determination of the Hartree-Fock solutions which can account for the stiffness-constant behavior and the magnetic moment on the impurity for all the investigated alloys. For alloys such as NiCr, NiV, NiMo, and NiRu, the magnetizations of which deviate from the Slater-Pauling curve, our determination does not correspond to previous works and is consequently discussed. The limits of the model appear mainly due to local-environment effects; in the case of NiMn, it is found that a ternary-alloy model with some Mn atoms in the antiferromagnetic state can account for both stiffness-constant and magnetization behaviors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finn, Lee Samuel; Thorne, Kip S.
2000-01-01
Results are presented from high-precision computations of the orbital evolution and emitted gravitational waves for a stellar-mass object spiraling into a massive black hole in a slowly shrinking, circular, equatorial orbit. The focus of these computations is inspiral near the innermost stable circular orbit (isco) -- more particularly, on orbits for which the angular velocity Ω is 0.03∼ isco ≤1.0. The computations are based on the Teuksolsky-Sasaki-Nakamura formalism, and the results are tabulated in a set of functions that are of order unity and represent relativistic corrections to low-orbital-velocity formulas. These tables can form a foundation for future design studies for the LISA space-based gravitational-wave mission. A first survey of applications to LISA is presented: Signal to noise ratios S/N are computed and graphed as functions of the time-evolving gravitational-wave frequency for the lowest three harmonics of the orbital period, and for various representative values of the hole's mass M and spin a and the inspiraling object's mass μ, with the distance to Earth chosen to be r o =1 Gpc. These S/N's show a very strong dependence on the black-hole spin, as well as on M and μ. Graphs are presented showing the range of the {M,a,μ} parameter space, for which S/N>10 at r 0 =1 Gpc during the last year of inspiral. The hole's spin a has a factor of ∼10 influence on the range of M (at fixed μ) for which S/N>10, and the presence or absence of a white-dwarf--binary background has a factor of ∼3 influence. A comparison with predicted event rates shows strong promise for detecting these waves, but not beyond about 1 Gpc if the inspiraling object is a white dwarf or neutron star. This argues for a modest lowering of LISA's noise floor. A brief discussion is given of the prospects for extracting information from the observed waves
Arterial stiffness, hypertension, and rational use of nebivolol
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrico Agabiti-Rosei
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Enrico Agabiti-Rosei, Enzo Porteri, Damiano RizzoniClinica Medica, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Arterial stiffness plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. Some indices of arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, characteristics of central blood pressure waveform may be presently calculated and evaluated in the clinical setting. Age and blood pressure are the two major clinical determinants of increased arterial stiffness, while molecular determinants of arterial stiffness are related to fibrotic components of the extracellular matrix, mainly elastin, collagen and fibronectin. Increased arterial stiffness has been consistently observed in conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Arterial stiffness evaluated by means of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity yielded prognostic significance beyond and above traditional risk factors. A more favorable effect of calcium channel blockers, diuretics and ACE inhibitors compared with β-blockers on indices of arterial stiffness was observed in several studies. It is conceivable that newer β-blockers with additional vasodilating properties, such as nebivolol, which has favorable effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as on endothelial function and on oxidative stress, may have favorable effects on arterial stiffness, compared with atenolol. In fact, in recent studies, nebivolol was demonstrated to improve artery stiffness to a greater extent than older β-blockers. Because endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness play an important role in the early atherosclerotic processes and are associated with poor outcomes and increased mortality, independently of blood pressure, the ability of nebivolol to enhance release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, and consequently improve endothelial function and arterial stiffness, may have significant clinical
Skoulatos, M.; Mânsson, M.; Fiolka, C.; Krämer, K. W.; Schefer, J.; White, J. S.; Rüegg, Ch.
2017-07-01
Metal organic magnets have enormous potential to host a variety of electronic and magnetic phases that originate from a strong interplay between the spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom. We control this interplay in the quantum magnet CuF2(D2O )2(pyz ) by using high pressure to drive the system through structural and magnetic phase transitions. Using neutron scattering, we show that the low pressure state, which hosts a two-dimensional square lattice with spin-wave excitations and a dominant exchange coupling of 0.89 meV, transforms at high pressure into a one-dimensional spin chain hallmarked by a spinon continuum and a reduced exchange interaction of 0.43 meV. This direct microscopic observation of a magnetic dimensional crossover as a function of pressure opens up new possibilities for studying the evolution of fractionalised excitations in low-dimensional quantum magnets and eventually pressure-controlled metal-insulator transitions.
Tan, D.-R.; Jiang, F.-J.
2017-02-01
The Néel temperature, staggered magnetization density, as well as the spin-wave velocity of a three-dimensional (3D) quantum Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic disorder (randomness) are calculated using first-principles nonperturbative quantum Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, we examine the validity of universal scaling relations that are related to these three studied physical quantities. These relations are relevant to experimental data and are firmly established for clean (regular) 3D dimerized spin-1/2 Heisenberg models. Remarkably, our numerical results show that the considered scaling relations remain true for the investigated model with the introduced disorder. In addition, while the presence of disorder may change the physical properties of regular dimerized models, hence leading to different critical theories, both the obtained data of Néel temperature and staggered magnetization density in our study are fully compatible with the expected critical behavior for clean dimerized systems. As a result, it is persuasive to conclude that the related quantum phase transitions of the considered disordered model and its clean analogues are governed by the same critical theory, which is not always the case in general. Finally, we also find smooth scaling curves even emerging when both the data of the investigated disordered model as well as its associated clean system are taken into account concurrently. This in turn implies that, while in a restricted sense, the considered scaling relations for 3D spin-1/2 antiferromagnets are indeed universal.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Embaid, B.P., E-mail: pembaid@fisica.ciens.ucv.ve [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47586, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez-Jimenez, F. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado 47586, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)
2013-03-15
Iron-vanadium sulfides of the monoclinic system Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x}S{sub 4} (1.0{<=}x{<=}2.0) have been investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy in the temperature range 30-300 K. Incommensurate spin density waves (SDW) have been found in this system. An alternative treatment of the spectra allows a direct measurement of the temperature evolution of condensate density of the SDW state which follows the Maki-Virosztek formula. For composition (x=1.0) the SDW condensate is unpinned while for compositions (x>1.0) the SDW condensate is pinned. Possible causes of the pinning-unpinning SDW will be discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe{sub x}V{sub 3-x}S{sub 4}(1.0{<=}x{<=}2.0) system was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incommensurate spin density wave (SDW) has been found in this system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the temperature evolution of the condensate density of SDW state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For composition (x=1.0) the SDW is unpinned while for (x>1.0) is pinned.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro; Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com; Gradinaru-Taşcău, Oana, E-mail: bluonmyown@yahoo.com; Şirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com; Popescu, Alina, E-mail: alinamircea.popescu@gmail.com; Jurchiş, Ana, E-mail: ana.jurchis@yahoo.com
2014-03-15
Introduction: To identify liver stiffness (LS) cut-off values assessed by means of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method. Methods: Our prospective study included 383 consecutive subjects, with or without hepatopathies, in which LS was evaluated by means of TE and 2D-SWE. To discriminate between various stages of fibrosis by TE we used the following LS cut-offs (kPa): F1-6, F2-7.2, F3-9.6 and F4-14.5. Results: The rate of reliable LS measurements was similar for TE and 2D-SWE: 73.9% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.06. Older age and higher BMI were associated for both TE and 2D-SWE with the impossibility to obtain reliable LS measurements. Reliable LS measurements by both elastographic methods were obtained in 65.2% of patients. A significant correlation was found between TE and 2D-SWE measurements (r = 0.68). The best LS cut-off values assessed by 2D-SWE for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis were: F ≥ 1: >7.1 kPa (AUROC = 0.825); F ≥ 2: >7.8 kPa (AUROC = 0.859); F ≥ 3: >8 kPa (AUROC = 0.897) and for F = 4: >11.5 kPa (AUROC = 0.914). Conclusions: 2D-SWE is a reliable method for the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis, considering TE as the reference method. The accuracy of 2D-SWE measurements increased with the severity of liver fibrosis.
Arterial Stiffness: Pathophysiological and Genetic Aspects
Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Santos, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Mill, José Geraldo; Pereira, Alexandre da Costa
2017-01-01
Abstract Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of mortality and it represents a significant percentage of hospitalizations. In the scenario of minimization of costs of the health system, methods that identify subclinical CVD would be important. Some guidelines include the measures of aortic stiffness and intima-media thickness of the carotid artery as methods to identify subclinical CVD in hypertensive patients. The pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the gold standard for the evaluation ...
Suvorova, S.; Clearwater, P.; Melatos, A.; Sun, L.; Moran, W.; Evans, R. J.
2017-11-01
A hidden Markov model (HMM) scheme for tracking continuous-wave gravitational radiation from neutron stars in low-mass x-ray binaries (LMXBs) with wandering spin is extended by introducing a frequency-domain matched filter, called the J -statistic, which sums the signal power in orbital sidebands coherently. The J -statistic is similar but not identical to the binary-modulated F -statistic computed by demodulation or resampling. By injecting synthetic LMXB signals into Gaussian noise characteristic of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO), it is shown that the J -statistic HMM tracker detects signals with characteristic wave strain h0≥2 ×10-26 in 370 d of data from two interferometers, divided into 37 coherent blocks of equal length. When applied to data from Stage I of the Scorpius X-1 Mock Data Challenge organized by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, the tracker detects all 50 closed injections (h0≥6.84 ×10-26), recovering the frequency with a root-mean-square accuracy of ≤1.95 ×10-5 Hz . Of the 50 injections, 43 (with h0≥1.09 ×10-25) are detected in a single, coherent 10 d block of data. The tracker employs an efficient, recursive HMM solver based on the Viterbi algorithm, which requires ˜105 CPU-hours for a typical broadband (0.5 kHz) LMXB search.
Kleinert, H.
2007-01-01
At ultralow temperatures, polymers exhibit quantum behavior, which is calculated here for the second and fourth moments of the end-to-end distribution in the large-stiffness regime. The result should be measurable for polymers in wide optical traps.
Du, Chunhui; Lee, Inhee; Adur, Rohan; Obukhov, Yuri; Hamann, Christine; Buchner, Bernd; McCord, Jeffrey; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris
2015-12-01
Nanoscale devices fabricated out of magnetic heterostructures are central to the emerging field of spintronics, so understanding of magnetization dynamics at interfaces between dissimilar materials is essential. Here we report local imaging of magnetization dynamics at the interface formed by a sharp discontinuity in the magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic thin film using localized mode ferromagnetic resonance force microscopy (FMRFM). The behavior of the localized modes near the interface evolves with increasing magnitude of the FMRFM probe field due to its competition with the steplike internal demagnetizing field. We use micromagnetic modeling to visualize the evolution of the localized mode as the magnetic probe is scanned across the interface. Our results demonstrate the ability to image sharp changes in internal magnetic properties in nanoscale devices and provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the generation and manipulation of localized modes near the interface, thus providing a new tool for microscopic studies of spin transport across magnetic interfaces and spin dynamics in their vicinity.
Magnetic field induced directional dichroism of spin waves in multiferroic BiFeO3 at THz frequencies
Nagel, Urmas; Rõõm, T.; Bordács, S.; Kézsmárki, I.; Yi, H. T.; Cheong, S.-W.; Lee, Jun Hee; Fishman, Randy S.
2015-03-01
Using far infrared spectroscopy in high magnetic fields we show that spin excitations in BiFeO3 simultaneously interact with the electric and magnetic field components of light resulting in directional dichroism (DD) of absorption. DD in BiFeO3 arises because an applied static magnetic field induces a toroidal moment in the cycloidal spin structure. Strong DD is observed even in the room-temperature state of the material. The results are explained on the microscopic level as an interplay of five different interactions: isotropic exchange couplings between nearest and next nearest neighbors, an easy-axis anisotropy along the ferroelectric polarization, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction that creates the cycloid and DM interaction that causes spin canting. Research sponsored by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (IUT23-3), Estonian Science Foundation (ETF8703), and U.S. Department of Energy (JL), Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division (RF and JL) and Office of Basis En.
Operator-Based Preconditioning of Stiff Hyperbolic Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, Daniel R.; Samtaney, Ravi; Woodward, Carol S.
2009-02-09
We introduce an operator-based scheme for preconditioning stiff components encoun- tered in implicit methods for hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations posed on regular grids. The method is based on a directional splitting of the implicit operator, followed by a char- acteristic decomposition of the resulting directional parts. This approach allows for solution to any number of characteristic components, from the entire system to only the fastest, stiffness-inducing waves. We apply the preconditioning method to stiff hyperbolic systems arising in magnetohydro- dynamics and gas dynamics. We then present numerical results showing that this preconditioning scheme works well on problems where the underlying stiffness results from the interaction of fast transient waves with slowly-evolving dynamics, scales well to large problem sizes and numbers of processors, and allows for additional customization based on the specific problems under study.
Arterial Stiffness and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Hyeon-Mi
2014-01-01
Objective Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. Methods One hundred patients were enrolled with a diagnosi...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo
2008-01-01
Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...
On gear tooth stiffness evaluation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard; Jørgensen, Martin Felix
2014-01-01
The estimation of gear stiffness is important for determining the load distribution between the gear teeth when two sets of teeth are in contact. Two factors have a major influence on the stiffness; firstly the boundary condition through the gear rim size included in the stiffness calculation...... and secondly the size of the contact. In the FE calculation the true gear tooth root profile is applied. The meshing stiffnesses of gears are highly non-linear, it is however found that the stiffness of an individual tooth can be expressed in a linear form assuming that the contact width is constant. © 2014...... Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Data analysis of gravitational-wave signals from spinning neutron stars. IV. An all-sky search
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astone, Pia; Borkowski, Kazimierz M.; Jaranowski, Piotr; Krolak, Andrzej
2002-01-01
We develop a set of data analysis tools for a realistic all-sky search for continuous gravitational-wave signals and we test our tools against simulated data. The aim of the paper is to prepare for an analysis of the real data from the EXPLORER bar detector; however, the methods that we present apply both to data from the resonant bar detectors that are currently in operation and the laser interferometric detectors that are in the final stages of construction and commissioning. With our techniques we shall be able to perform an all-sky coherent search of 2 days of data from the EXPLORER detector for a frequency bandwidth of 0.76 Hz in one month with 250 Mflops computing power. This search will detect all the continuous gravitational-wave signals with the dimensionless amplitude larger than 2.8x10 -23 with 99% confidence, assuming that the noise in the detector is Gaussian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balbashov, A.M.; Berezin, A.G.; Gufan, Yu.M.; Kolyadko, G.S.; Marchukov, P.Yu.; Rudashevskij, E.G.
1987-01-01
A pronounced energy gap of a nonmagnetoelastic origin is observed experimentally in the spectrum of the low-frequency (quasiferromagnetic) antiferromagnetic resonance branch during a second order spin-flip phase transition in an external magnetic field directed along the a axis of the rhombic weak ferromagnetic YFeO 3 . From the theory developed which takes into account the susceptibility along the antiferromagnetism axis and dissipation processes, it follows that beside the usual AFMR oscillatory branches there should also be a relaxation mode which is ''soft'' fo the given transition. The magnitude of the energy gaps, the values of the kinetic coefficients, Dzyaloshinsky field strengths and ratio of the longitudinal susceptibility to the transverse susceptibility are determined by analyzing the experimental data obtained in fields up to 130 kOe in the frequency range from 60 to 400 GHz at room temperature
Contact stiffness of randomly rough surfaces.
Pohrt, Roman; Popov, Valentin L
2013-11-21
We investigate the contact stiffness of an elastic half-space and a rigid indenter with randomly rough surface having a power spectrum C2D(q)proportional q(-2H-2), where q is the wave vector. The range of H[symbol: see text] is studied covering a wide range of roughness types from white noise to smooth single asperities. At low forces, the contact stiffness is in all cases a power law function of the normal force with an exponent α. For H > 2, the simple Hertzian behavior is observed . In the range of 0 dimensional contact mechanics and the method of dimensionality reduction (MDR). The influence of the long wavelength roll-off is investigated and discussed.
Stiffness, resilience, compressibility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leu, Bogdan M. [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source (United States); Sage, J. Timothy, E-mail: jtsage@neu.edu [Northeastern University, Department of Physics and Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Complex Systems (United States)
2016-12-15
The flexibility of a protein is an important component of its functionality. We use nuclear resonance vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) to quantify the flexibility of the heme iron environment in the electron-carrying protein cytochrome c by measuring the stiffness and the resilience. These quantities are sensitive to structural differences between the active sites of different proteins, as illustrated by a comparative analysis with myoglobin. The elasticity of the entire protein, on the other hand, can be probed quantitatively from NRVS and high energy-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) measurements, an approach that we used to extract the bulk modulus of cytochrome c.
Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Boutouyrie, Pierre
2011-09-10
Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\
Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness
Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.
2016-02-01
We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.
Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves
Optical Diode Effect at Spin-Wave Excitations of the Room-Temperature Multiferroic BiFeO_{3}.
Kézsmárki, I; Nagel, U; Bordács, S; Fishman, R S; Lee, J H; Yi, Hee Taek; Cheong, S-W; Rõõm, T
2015-09-18
Multiferroics permit the magnetic control of the electric polarization and the electric control of the magnetization. These static magnetoelectric (ME) effects are of enormous interest: The ability to read and write a magnetic state current-free by an electric voltage would provide a huge technological advantage. Dynamic or optical ME effects are equally interesting, because they give rise to unidirectional light propagation as recently observed in low-temperature multiferroics. This phenomenon, if realized at room temperature, would allow the development of optical diodes which transmit unpolarized light in one, but not in the opposite, direction. Here, we report strong unidirectional transmission in the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO_{3} over the gigahertz-terahertz frequency range. The supporting theory attributes the observed unidirectional transmission to the spin-current-driven dynamic ME effect. These findings are an important step toward the realization of optical diodes, supplemented by the ability to switch the transmission direction with a magnetic or electric field.
Martial arts training attenuates arterial stiffness in middle aged adults.
Douris, Peter C; Ingenito, Teresa; Piccirillo, Barbara; Herbst, Meredith; Petrizzo, John; Cherian, Vincen; McCutchan, Christopher; Burke, Caitlin; Stamatinos, George; Jung, Min-Kyung
2013-09-01
Arterial stiffness increases with age and is related to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Poor trunk flexibility has been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged subjects. The purpose of our research study was to measure arterial stiffness and flexibility in healthy middle-aged martial artists compared to age and gender matched healthy sedentary controls. Ten martial artists (54.0 ± 2.0 years), who practice Soo Bahk Do (SBD), a Korean martial art, and ten sedentary subjects (54.7 ± 1.8 years) for a total of twenty subjects took part in this cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all subjects using pulse wave velocity (PWV), a recognized index of arterial stiffness. Flexibility of the trunk and hamstring were also measured. The independent variables were the martial artists and matched sedentary controls. The dependent variables were PWV and flexibility. There were significant differences, between the SBD practitioners and sedentary controls, in PWV (P = 0.004), in trunk flexibility (P= 0.002), and in hamstring length (P= 0.003). The middle-aged martial artists were more flexible in their trunk and hamstrings and had less arterial stiffness compared to the healthy sedentary controls. The flexibility component of martial art training or flexibility exercises in general may be considered as a possible intervention to reduce the effects of aging on arterial stiffness.
Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten; Andersen, Lars
The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear...... viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three...
Zhang, Q.; Huang, Y. F.; Zong, H. S.
2016-06-01
The X-ray afterglow of GRB 130831A shows an “internal plateau” with a decay slope of ˜0.8, followed by a steep drop at around 105 s with a slope of ˜6. After the drop, the X-ray afterglow continues with a much shallower decay. The optical afterglow exhibits two segments of plateaus separated by a luminous optical flare, followed by a normal decay with a slope basically consistent with that of the late-time X-ray afterglow. The decay of the internal X-ray plateau is much steeper than what we expect in the simplest magnetar model. We propose a scenario in which the magnetar undergoes gravitational-wave-driven r-mode instability, and the spin-down is dominated by gravitational wave losses up to the end of the steep plateau, so that such a relatively steep plateau can be interpreted as the internal emission of the magnetar wind and the sharp drop can be produced when the magnetar collapses into a black hole. This scenario also predicts an initial X-ray plateau lasting for hundreds of seconds with an approximately constant flux which is compatible with observation. Assuming that the magnetar wind has a negligible contribution in the optical band, we interpret the optical afterglow as the forward shock emission by invoking the energy injection from a continuously refreshed shock following the prompt emission phase. It is shown that our model can basically describe the temporal evolution of the multi-band afterglow of GRB 130831A.
Numerical integrators for Stiff and Stiff oscillatory First Order initial ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Numerical integrators for Stiff and Stiff oscillatory First Order initial value problems. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... In this paper, efforts are geared towards the numerical solution of the first order initial value problem (I.V.P) of the form Y\\' = F(X,Y), X∈[ a, b] , Y(a) = Y0, where Y\\' is the total ...
Limit cycles and stiffness control with variable stiffness actuators
Carloni, Raffaella; Marconi, L.
2012-01-01
Variable stiffness actuators realize highly dynamic systems, whose inherent mechanical compliance can be properly exploited to obtain a robust and energy-efficient behavior. The paper presents a control strategy for variable stiffness actuators with the primarily goal of tracking a limit cycle
Effect of Acute Resistance Exercise on Carotid Artery Stiffness and Cerebral Blood Flow Pulsatility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wesley K Lefferts
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Arterial stiffness is associated with cerebral flow pulsatility. Arterial stiffness increases following acute resistance exercise (RE. Whether this acute RE-induced vascular stiffening affects cerebral pulsatility remains unknown. Purpose: To investigate the effects of acute RE on common carotid artery (CCA stiffness and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv pulsatility. Methods: Eighteen healthy men (22 ± 1 yr; 23.7 ± 0.5 kg∙m-2 underwent acute RE (5 sets, 5-RM bench press, 5 sets 10-RM bicep curls with 90 s rest intervals or a time control condition (seated rest in a randomized order. CCA stiffness (β-stiffness, Elastic Modulus (Ep and hemodynamics (pulsatility index, forward wave intensity and reflected wave intensity were assessed using a combination of Doppler ultrasound, wave intensity analysis and applanation tonometry at baseline and 3 times post-RE. CBFv pulsatility index was measured with transcranial Doppler at the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Results: CCA β-stiffness, Ep and CCA pulse pressure significantly increased post-RE and remained elevated throughout post-testing (p 0.05. There were significant increases in forward wave intensity post-RE (p0.05. Conclusion: Although acute RE increases CCA stiffness and pressure pulsatility, it may not affect CCA or MCA flow pulsatility. Increases in pressure pulsatility may be due to increased forward wave intensity and not pressure from wave reflections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mamica, S; Krawczyk, M; Lévy, J-C S
2014-01-01
We use a microscopic theory taking into account the dipolar and nearest-neighbour exchange interactions for exploring spin-wave excitations in two-dimensional magnetic dots in the vortex state. Normal modes of different profiles are observed: azimuthal and radial modes, as well as fundamental (quasiuniform) and highly localized modes. We examine the dependence of the frequencies and profiles of these modes on the dipolar-to-exchange interaction ratio and the size of the dot. Special attention is paid to some particular modes, including the lowest mode in the spectrum and the evolution of its profile, and the fundamental mode, the frequency of which proves almost independent of the dipolar-to-exchange interaction ratio. We also provide a selective overview of the experimental, analytical and numerical results from the literature, where different profiles of the lowest mode are reported. We attribute this diversity to the competition between the dipolar and exchange interactions. Finally, we study the hybridization of the modes, show the multi-mode hybridization and explain the selection rules. (paper)
Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So
2015-09-14
One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard-Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids.
Dynamically tuned magnetostrictive spring with electrically controlled stiffness
Scheidler, Justin J.; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.
2016-03-01
This paper presents the design and testing of an electrically controllable magnetostrictive spring that has a dynamically tunable stiffness (i.e., a magnetostrictive Varispring). The device enables in situ stiffness tuning or stiffness switching for vibration control applications. Using a nonlinear electromechanical transducer model and an analytical solution of linear, mechanically induced magnetic diffusion, Terfenol-D is shown to have a faster rise time to stepped voltage inputs and a significantly higher magnetic diffusion cut-off frequency relative to Galfenol. A Varispring is manufactured using a laminated Terfenol-D rod. Further rise time reductions are achieved by minimizing the rod’s diameter and winding the electromagnet with larger wire. Dynamic tuning of the Varispring’s stiffness is investigated by measuring the Terfenol-D rod’s strain response to dynamic, compressive, axial forces in the presence of sinusoidal or square wave control currents. The Varispring’s rise time is \\lt 1 ms for 1 A current switches. Continuous modulus changes up to 21.9 GPa and 500 Hz and square wave modulus changes (dynamic {{Δ }}E effect) up to 12.3 GPa and 100 Hz are observed. Stiffness tunability and tuning bandwidth can be considerably increased by operating about a more optimal bias stress and improving the control of the electrical input.
Stiffness of desiccating insect wings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
2011-03-15
The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)
Evaluation of arterial stiffness in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease patients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bodanapu Mastanvalli
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing problem worldwide. Clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown that structural and functional changes that occur in major arteries are a major contributing factor to the high mortality in uremic patients. Recent studies have shown a stepwise increase of the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV from CKD Stage 1 to Stage 5. We evaluated the cfPWV and augmentation index (AIx, as indirect markers of arterial stiffness in patients with nondiabetic CKD and compared the values with normal population; we also evaluated the relationship between various stages of CKD and arterial stiffness markers. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Nephrology for a duration of two years from January 15, 2012, to January 14, 2014. Fifty patients with nondiabetic CKD were studied along with 50 healthy volunteers who did not have CKD, who served as controls. Assessment of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, PWV, heart rate, aortic augmentation pressure, and AIx was performed using the PeriScope device. PWV positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean aortic arterial pressure, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Arterial stiffness increased as CKD stage increased and was higher in nondiabetic CKD group than in the general population. Arterial stiffness progressed gradually from CKD Stage 2 to 5, and then abruptly, in dialysis patients. Measures to decrease the arterial stiffness and its influence on decreasing cardiovascular events need further evaluation.
Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.
2007-04-01
Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Bia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Adequate fluid management could be essential to minimize high arterial stiffness observed in chronically hemodialyzed patients (CHP. Aim. To determine the association between body fluid status and central and peripheral arterial stiffness levels. Methods. Arterial stiffness was assessed in 65 CHP by measuring the pulse wave velocity (PWV in a central arterial pathway (carotid-femoral and in a peripheral pathway (carotid-brachial. A blood pressure-independent regional arterial stiffness index was calculated using PWV. Volume status was assessed by whole-body multiple-frequency bioimpedance. Patients were first observed as an entire group and then divided into three different fluid status-related groups: normal, overhydration, and dehydration groups. Results. Only carotid-femoral stiffness was positively associated (P<0.05 with the hydration status evaluated through extracellular/intracellular fluid, extracellular/Total Body Fluid, and absolute and relative overhydration. Conclusion. Volume status and overload are associated with central, but not peripheral, arterial stiffness levels with independence of the blood pressure level, in CHP.
Weight reduction and aortic stiffness in obese children and adolescents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvidt, K. N.; Olsen, M. H.; Ibsen, H.
2015-01-01
Little is known about the effect of weight reduction on aortic stiffness and especially so in the young. The present study investigates whether weight reduction influences aortic stiffness in obese children and adolescents. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and augmentation index at heart...... rate 75 (AIx@HR75) were measured in 72 obese patients aged 10-18 years at baseline and after 1-year of lifestyle intervention (follow-up). We found that although the degree of obesity decreased (Delta body mass index z-score: -0.24 +/- 0.45, P ....27 +/- 0.47 ms(-1), P obesity measures. No significant change...
Critical appraisal of the differential effects of antihypertensive agents on arterial stiffness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesca Kum
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Francesca Kum, Janaka KarallieddeUnit for Metabolic Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Kings College-Waterloo Campus, King’s College London, United KingdomAbstract: Increased central arterial stiffness, involving accelerated vascular ageing of the aorta, is a powerful and independent risk factor for early mortality and provides prognostic information above and beyond traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Central arterial stiffness is an important determinant of pulse pressure; therefore, any pathological increase may result in left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired coronary perfusion. Central artery stiffness can be assessed noninvasively by measurement of aortic pulse wave velocity, which is the gold standard for measurement of arterial stiffness. Earlier, it was believed that changes in arterial stiffness, which are primarily influenced by long-term pressure-dependent structural changes, may be slowed but not reversed by pharmacotherapy. Recent studies with drugs that inhibit the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, advanced glycation end products crosslink breakers, and endothelin antagonists suggest that blood pressure (BP-independent reduction and reversal of arterial stiffness are feasible. We review the recent literature on the differential effect of antihypertensive agents either as monotherapy or combination therapy on arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness is an emerging therapeutic target for CVD risk reduction; however, further clinical trials are required to confirm whether BP-independent changes in arterial stiffness directly translate to a reduction in CVD events.Keywords: aortic pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, blood pressure, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system
Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi
2012-01-01
In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.
Level Classifications of Foundation Stiffness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten
2007-01-01
This article describes a foundation module developed and implemented in both HAWC and FLEX capable of to simulate the frequency dependent stiffness and damping of foundations e.g. pile, gravitation and bucket foundations....
Haskell, B.D.L.; Patruno, A.
2011-01-01
In this Letter we present a new analysis of the torques acting on the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars SAX J1808.4-3658 and XTE J1814-338, and show how our results can be used to constrain theoretical models of the spin evolution. In particular, we find upper limits on any spin-up/down phase of
Negative stiffness honeycombs as tunable elastic metamaterials
Goldsberry, Benjamin M.; Haberman, Michael R.
2018-03-01
Acoustic and elastic metamaterials are media with a subwavelength structure that behave as effective materials displaying atypical effective dynamic properties. These material systems are of interest because the design of their sub-wavelength structure allows for direct control of macroscopic wave dispersion. One major design limitation of most metamaterial structures is that the dynamic response cannot be altered once the microstructure is manufactured. However, the ability to modify wave propagation in the metamaterial with an external stimulus is highly desirable for numerous applications and therefore remains a significant challenge in elastic metamaterials research. In this work, a honeycomb structure composed of a doubly periodic array of curved beams, known as a negative stiffness honeycomb (NSH), is analyzed as a tunable elastic metamaterial. The nonlinear static elastic response that results from large deformations of the NSH unit cell leads to a large variation in linear elastic wave dispersion associated with infinitesimal motion superposed on the externally imposed pre-strain. A finite element model is utilized to model the static deformation and subsequent linear wave motion at the pre-strained state. Analysis of the slowness surface and group velocity demonstrates that the NSH exhibits significant tunability and a high degree of anisotropy which can be used to guide wave energy depending on static pre-strain levels. In addition, it is shown that partial band gaps exist where only longitudinal waves propagate. The NSH therefore behaves as a meta-fluid, or pentamode metamaterial, which may be of use for applications of transformation elastodynamics such as cloaking and gradient index lens devices.
Spin-controlled atom-ion chemistry.
Sikorsky, Tomas; Meir, Ziv; Ben-Shlomi, Ruti; Akerman, Nitzan; Ozeri, Roee
2018-03-02
Quantum control of chemical reactions is an important goal in chemistry and physics. Ultracold chemical reactions are often controlled by preparing the reactants in specific quantum states. Here we demonstrate spin-controlled atom-ion inelastic (spin-exchange) processes and chemical (charge-exchange) reactions in an ultracold Rb-Sr + mixture. The ion's spin state is controlled by the atomic hyperfine spin state via spin-exchange collisions, which polarize the ion's spin parallel to the atomic spin. We achieve ~ 90% spin polarization due to the absence of strong spin-relaxation channel. Charge-exchange collisions involving electron transfer are only allowed for (RbSr) + colliding in the singlet manifold. Initializing the atoms in various spin states affects the overlap of the collision wave function with the singlet molecular manifold and therefore also the reaction rate. Our observations agree with theoretical predictions.
Ting, David Z.
2007-01-01
The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.
Arterial stiffness assessment in patients with phenylketonuria
Hermida-Ameijeiras, Alvaro; Crujeiras, Vanesa; Roca, Iria; Calvo, Carlos; Leis, Rosaura; Couce, María-Luz
2017-01-01
Abstract In patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) compliant to diet greater tendency to overweight and higher inflammatory biomarkers levels than controls were reported. Although this could lead to atherogenesis, the elastic properties of large arteries in PKU patients have never been assessed. The aim of this study was to assess arterial stiffness measured by applanation tonometry in PKU patients compared to healthy controls. We carried out a cross-sectional study in 41 PKU patients (range age: 6–50 years old) and 41 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Evaluated data included pharmacological treatment with sapropterin, clinical, and biochemical parameters. Aortic stiffness was assessed noninvasively by applanation tonometry measuring central blood pressure, aortic augmentation index (Aix@HR75), augmentation pressure (AP), and pulse wave velocity (PWV). We found higher PWV in classic PKU patients (6.60 m/second vs 5.26 m/second; P: .044). Percentage of PKU patients with PWV above 90 percentile was higher than controls (14.63% vs 2.32%; P: .048). A positive relationship was observed between the annual Phe median and PWV (r: 0.496; P: .012). PKU subjects with lower Phe tolerance showed more body weight (67.6 kg vs 56.8 kg; P: .012) and more PWV than those with higher Phe tolerance (6.55 m/second vs 5.42 m/second; P: .044). Our data show increased aortic stiffness in PKU patients, measured by applanation tonometry, when compared to healthy controls. Higher Phe levels are associated with a bigger PWV increase, which is not present in those subjects compliant to diet or under sapropterin treatment. These results could have marked effects in both research and clinical daily practice for a proper evaluation of cardiovascular risk in PKU subjects. PMID:29390507
Biomaterial stiffness determines stem cell fate.
Lv, Hongwei; Wang, Heping; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Wang; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Yulin; Li, Lisha
2017-06-01
Stem cells have potential to develop into numerous cell types, thus they are good cell source for tissue engineering. As an external physical signal, material stiffness is capable of regulating stem cell fate. Biomaterial stiffness is an important parameter in tissue engineering. We summarize main measurements of material stiffness under different condition, then list and compare three main methods of controlling stiffness (material amount, crosslinking density and photopolymeriztion time) which interplay with one another and correlate with stiffness positively, and current advances in effects of biomaterial stiffness on stem cell fate. We discuss the unsolved problems and future directions of biomaterial stiffness in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dynamics of Coupled Quantum Spin Chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, H.J.
1996-01-01
Static and dynamical properties of weakly coupled antiferromagnetic spin chains are treated using a mean-field approximation for the interchain coupling and exact results for the resulting effective one-dimensional problem. Results for staggered magnetization, Nacute eel temperature, and spin wave excitations are in agreement with experiments on KCuF 3 . The existence of a narrow longitudinal mode is predicted. The results are in agreement with general scaling arguments, contrary to spin wave theory. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Psychological stress and arterial stiffness in Korean Americans.
Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; Carlson, John; Carlson, Barbara W; Rowsey, Pamela J
2012-07-01
Arterial stiffness is identified as a causative factor for hypertension. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between psychological stress and arterial stiffness in Korean Americans. A convenience sample of 102 Korean Americans (aged 21-60 years, 60% women) was recruited from North Carolina. Psychological stress was measured by the Perceived Stress Scale, the Social, Attitudinal, Familiar, and Environmental (SAFE) Acculturative Stress Scale, and the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Arterial stiffness was measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) using the SphygmoCor system (AtCor Medical, Australia). This study shows that the emotional stress response, measured by anxiety, significantly predicted arterial stiffness (β=.25, p=.008), independently of such confounding factors as age, mean arterial pressure (MAP), gender, body mass index, smoking, education, and income. Anxiety was neither related to age (r=.12, p=.212) nor MAP (r=.14, p=.151). Additionally, this sample of Korean Americans had higher levels of psychological stress when compared to previous findings from studies of other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Findings demonstrate that anxiety is a significant and independent determinant of arterial stiffness. Given that anxiety was not related to MAP, these findings suggest that arterial stiffness may be a pathway to explain the connection between anxiety and hypertension risk. Studies that scrutinize the relationship between anxiety and arterial stiffness are an important next step for future research. Further studies are also recommended to explore cultural factors and individual characteristics that may affect anxiety in Korean Americans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Owen, Robert
This thesis concerns numerical relativity, the attempt to study Einstein's theory of gravitation using numerical discretization. The goal of the field, the study of gravitational dynamics in cases where symmetry reduction or perturbation theory are not possible, finally seems to be coming to fruition, at least for the archetypal problem of the inspiral and coalescence of binary black hole systems. This thesis presents three episodes that each bear some relationship to this story.Chapters 2 and 3 present previously published work in collaboration with Richard Price and others on the so-called periodic standing-wave (PSW) approximation for binary inspiral. The approximation is to balance outgoing radiation with incoming radiation, stabilizing the orbit and making the problem stationary in a rotating frame. Chapters 2 and 3 apply the method to the problem of co-orbiting charges coupled to a nonlinear scalar field in three dimensions.Chapters 4, 5, and 6 concern the stability of constraint fields in conventional numerical relativity simulations. Chapter 4 (also previously published work, in collaboration with the Caltech numerical relativity group, along with Michael Holst and Lawrence Kidder) presents a method for immediately correcting violations of constraints after they have arisen. Chapters 5 and 6 present methods to ``damp' away constraint violations dynamically in two specific contexts. Chapter 5 (previously published work in collaboration with the Caltech numerical relativity group and Lawrence Kidder) presents a first-order linearly degenerate symmetric hyperbolic representation of Einstein's equations in generalized harmonic gauge. A representation is presented that stabilizes all constraints, including those that appear when the system is written in first-order form. Chapter 6 presents a generalization of the Kidder-Scheel-Teukolsky evolution systems that provides much-improved stability. This is investigated with numerical simulations of a single black hole
Anomalous triple point effects in the spin-density-wave Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloy system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheppard, C.J., E-mail: cjsheppard@uj.ac.za [Physics Department, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Prinsloo, A.R.E.; Alberts, H.L.; Muchono, B. [Physics Department, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Strydom, A.M. [Physics Department, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzerstr. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany)
2014-05-15
Highlights: • Extensive investigation into the physical properties of Cr–Al single crystals. • Unusual and prominent influence of SDW reflected in physical properties. • Alternative magnetic phase diagram suggested for Cr–Al system. • Triple point on phase diagram minimum appears to be deeper and narrower. • Triple point appears to be enigmatic critical point to be further investigated. - Abstract: It was recently suggested that for the Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloy system the Sommerfeld specific heat coefficient (γ) as a function of x may peak at the triple point (TP) concentration (x{sub t}) of the x–T magnetic phase diagram. The TP at (x{sub t}, T{sub t}) represents the intersection point of three magnetic phase transition lines at which incommensurate (I) and commensurate (C) spin-density-wave (SDW) phases are expected to coexist with the paramagnetic (P) phase. A comprehensive experimental study on the physical properties of single crystalline Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloys in the concentration range 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.034, that encloses x{sub t}, is reported here for further investigations of the above conjecture and possible anomalous behaviour in other physical properties near x{sub t}. The measurements include the electrical resistivity (ρ), Seebeck coefficient (S), specific heat (C{sub p}), Hall coefficient (R{sub H}), magnetic susceptibility (χ) and thermal conductivity (κ). All these properties, except for κ, depict anomalous temperature and concentration dependencies of SDW origin for x close to x{sub t}. The present study indicates a value of x{sub t} rather close to x = 0.022. The x-dependence of γ exhibits an extraordinary large and sharp peak near this concentration. This observation is interpreted as indication that the temperature of the TP is likely situated at 0 K. A new magnetic phase diagram is therefore proposed for the Cr{sub 1−x}Al{sub x} alloy system for x in the region of x{sub t}. This study presents novel experimental
A Portable Stiffness Measurement System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Onejae Sul
2017-11-01
Full Text Available A new stiffness measurement method is proposed that utilizes the lateral deformation profile of an object under indentation. The system consists of a force measurement module between a pair of equidistant touch sensing modules. Unique feature of the method is that by adjusting the touch module separation, indenter protrusion, and spring constant of the force sensing module, one can choose a desired sensing range for the force module. This feature helps to enhance the stiffness differentiation between objects of similar hardness and avoids measurement saturation. We devised a portable measurement system based on the method, and tested its performance with several materials including polymer foams and human skin.
Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten; Andersen, Lars
This report concerns the dynamic soil-structure interaction of steel suction caissons applied as foundations for offshore wind turbines. An emphasis is put on torsional vibrations and coupled sliding/rocking motion, and the influence of the foundation geometry and the properties of the surrounding...... soil is examined. The soil is simplified as a homogenous linear viscoelastic material and the dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed in terms of dimensionless frequency-dependent coefficients corresponding to the different degrees of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients...
[Arterial stiffness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].
2012-01-01
To estimate arterial stiffness (AS) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 112 COPD patients over 40 years of age entered a population-based trial. The patients with coronary heart diseases, peripheral vascular atherosclerosis, other severe chronic diseases in exacerbation were withdrawn. The control group consisted of 26 healthy volunteers matched by gender and age. AS was measured at arteriograph "Tensioclinic" ("Tensiomed", Hungary). COPD patients, first of all elderly ones, had abnormal properties of arterial wall. Increased arterial rigidity and pulse wave reflection (accelerated pulse wave velocity and high index of augmentation) are strongly associated with elevation of central arterial pressure. High arterial wall stiffness in COPD patients suggests an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases that necessitates examination in prospective studies.
Axial optical trap stiffness influenced by retro-reflected beam
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jákl, Petr; Šerý, Mojmír; Ježek, Jan; Liška, M.; Zemánek, Pavel
2007-01-01
Roč. 9, č. 8 (2007), S251-S255 ISSN 1464-4258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06007 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 508952 - ATOM3D Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : optical tweezers * optical force * colloidal particle * optical trap * standing wave * stiffness measurement * light scattering * refractive index Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.752, year: 2007
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McGee, K P; Lake, D; Mariappan, Y; Manduca, A; Ehman, R L [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Hubmayr, R D [Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ansell, K, E-mail: mcgee.kiaran@mayo.edu [Schaeffer Academy, 2700 Schaeffer Lane NE, Rochester, MN 55906 (United States)
2011-07-21
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a non-invasive phase-contrast-based method for quantifying the shear stiffness of biological tissues. Synchronous application of a shear wave source and motion encoding gradient waveforms within the MRE pulse sequence enable visualization of the propagating shear wave throughout the medium under investigation. Encoded shear wave-induced displacements are then processed to calculate the local shear stiffness of each voxel. An important consideration in local shear stiffness estimates is that the algorithms employed typically calculate shear stiffness using relatively high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) MRE images and have difficulties at an extremely low SNR. A new method of estimating shear stiffness based on the principal spatial frequency of the shear wave displacement map is presented. Finite element simulations were performed to assess the relative insensitivity of this approach to decreases in SNR. Additionally, ex vivo experiments were conducted on normal rat lungs to assess the robustness of this approach in low SNR biological tissue. Simulation and experimental results indicate that calculation of shear stiffness by the principal frequency method is less sensitive to extremely low SNR than previously reported MRE inversion methods but at the expense of loss of spatial information within the region of interest from which the principal frequency estimate is derived.
Spin dynamics with inertia in metallic ferromagnets
Kikuchi, Toru; Tatara, Gen
2015-11-01
The nonadiabatic contribution of environmental degrees of freedom yields an effective inertia of spin in the effective spin dynamics. In this paper, we study several aspects of the inertia of spin in metallic ferromagnets: (i) a concrete expression of the spin inertia ms: ms=ℏ Sc/(2 gsd) , where Sc is the spin polarization of conduction electrons and gsd is the s d coupling constant; (ii) a dynamical behavior of spin with inertia, discussed from the viewpoints of a spinning top and of a particle on a sphere; (iii) the behavior of spin waves and domain walls in the presence of inertia and the behavior of spin with inertia under a time-dependent magnetic field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Gover
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The problems of spin-polarized free-electron beam interaction with electromagnetic wave at electron-spin resonance conditions in a magnetic field and of superradiant spin-flip radiative emission are analyzed in the framework of a comprehensive classical model. The spontaneous emission of spin-flip radiation from electron beams is very weak. We show that the detectivity of electron spin resonant spin-flip and combined spin-flip/cyclotron-resonance-emission radiation can be substantially enhanced by operating with ultrashort spin-polarized electron beam bunches under conditions of superradiant (coherent emission. The proposed radiative spin-state modulation and the spin-flip radiative emission schemes can be used for control and noninvasive diagnostics of polarized electron/positron beams. Such schemes are of relevance in important scattering experiments off nucleons in nuclear physics and off magnetic targets in condensed matter physics.
Artificial neural networks for stiffness estimation in magnetic resonance elastography.
Murphy, Matthew C; Manduca, Armando; Trzasko, Joshua D; Glaser, Kevin J; Huston, John; Ehman, Richard L
2017-11-28
To investigate the feasibility of using artificial neural networks to estimate stiffness from MR elastography (MRE) data. Artificial neural networks were fit using model-based training patterns to estimate stiffness from images of displacement using a patch size of ∼1 cm in each dimension. These neural network inversions (NNIs) were then evaluated in a set of simulation experiments designed to investigate the effects of wave interference and noise on NNI accuracy. NNI was also tested in vivo, comparing NNI results against currently used methods. In 4 simulation experiments, NNI performed as well or better than direct inversion (DI) for predicting the known stiffness of the data. Summary NNI results were also shown to be significantly correlated with DI results in the liver (R 2 = 0.974) and in the brain (R 2 = 0.915), and also correlated with established biological effects including fibrosis stage in the liver and age in the brain. Finally, repeatability error was lower in the brain using NNI compared to DI, and voxel-wise modeling using NNI stiffness maps detected larger effects than using DI maps with similar levels of smoothing. Artificial neural networks represent a new approach to inversion of MRE data. Summary results from NNI and DI are highly correlated and both are capable of detecting biologically relevant signals. Preliminary evidence suggests that NNI stiffness estimates may be more resistant to noise than an algebraic DI approach. Taken together, these results merit future investigation into NNIs to improve the estimation of stiffness in small regions. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Axial Dynamic Stiffness of Tubular Piles in Viscoelastic Soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Bayat
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Large offshore wind turbines are founded on jacket structures. In this study, an elastic full-space jacket structure foundation in an elastic and viscoelastic medium is investigated by using boundary integral equations. The jacket structure foundation is modeled as a hollow, long circular cylinder when the dynamic vertical excitation is applied. The smooth surface along the entire interface is considered. The Betti reciprocal theorem along with Somigliana’s identity and Green’s function are employed to drive the dynamic stiffness of jacket structures. Modes of the resonance and anti-resonance are presented in series of Bessel’s function. Important responses, such as dynamic stiffness and phase angle, are compared for different values of the loss factor as the material damping, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio in a viscoelastic soil. Results are verified with known results reported in the literature. It is observed that the dynamic stiffness fluctuates with the loss factor, and the turning point is independent of the loss factor while the turning point increases with load frequency. It is seen that the non-dimensional dynamic stiffness is dependent on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, whilst the phase angle is independent of the properties of the soil. It is shown that the non-dimensional dynamic stiffness changes linearly with high-frequency load. The conclusion from the results of this study is that the material properties of soil are significant parameters in the dynamic stiffness of jacket structures, and the presented approach can unfold the behavior of soil and give an approachable physical meaning for wave propagation.
Modifiable risk factors for increased arterial stiffness in outpatient nephrology.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Usama Elewa
Full Text Available Arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality. Arterial stiffness increases with age. However, modifiable risk factors such as smoking, BP and salt intake also impact on PWV. The finding of modifiable risk factors may lead to the identification of treatable factors, and, thus, is of interest to practicing nephrologist. We have now studied the prevalence and correlates of arterial stiffness, assessed by PWV, in 191 patients from nephrology outpatient clinics in order to identify modifiable risk factors for arterial stiffness that may in the future guide therapeutic decision-making. PWV was above normal levels for age in 85/191 (44.5% patients. Multivariate analysis showed that advanced age, systolic BP, diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy or calcium-containing medication were independent predictors of PWV. A new parameter, Delta above upper limit of normal PWV (Delta PWV was defined to decrease the weight of age on PWV values. Delta PWV was calculated as (measured PWV - (upper limit of the age-adjusted PWV values for the general population. Mean±SD Delta PWV was 0.76±1.60 m/sec. In multivariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, active smoking and calcium polystyrene sulfonate therapy remained independent predictors of higher delta PWV, while age, urinary potassium and beta blocker therapy were independent predictors of lower delta PWV. In conclusion, arterial stiffness was frequent in nephrology outpatients. Systolic blood pressure, smoking, serum uric acid, calcium-containing medications, potassium metabolism and non-use of beta blockers are modifiable factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in Nephrology outpatients.
[From stiff man syndrome to stiff person spectrum disorders].
Meinck, H-M; Balint, B
2018-02-01
The identification of new variants of the stiff man syndrome (SMS) and of new, probably pathogenic neuronal autoantibodies has led to the concept of stiff man (or person) spectrum disorders (SPSD). This is an expanding group of rare chronic autoimmune inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) that have in common the main symptoms of fluctuating rigidity and spasms with pronounced stimulus sensitivity. These core symptoms are mandatory and can be accompanied by a wide variety of other neurological signs. The SPSDs are associated with autoantibodies directed against neuronal proteins that attenuate excitability. Neither clinical phenotypes nor the course of SPSD correlate closely with the antibody status. The treatment of these diseases aims at maintaining mobility and is pragmatically oriented to the degree of impediment and comprises antispastic, anticonvulsant and immunomodulating or immunosuppressive medication strategies.
On the distribution of stellar-sized black hole spins
Nielsen, Alex B.
2016-01-01
Black hole spin will have a large impact on searches for gravitational waves with advanced detectors. While only a few stellar mass black hole spins have been measured using X- ray techniques, gravitational wave detectors have the capacity to greatly increase the statistics of black hole spin measurements. We show what we might learn from these measurements and how the black hole spin values are influenced by their formation channels.
On the distribution of stellar-sized black hole spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, Alex B.
2016-01-01
Black hole spin will have a large impact on searches for gravitational waves with advanced detectors. While only a few stellar mass black hole spins have been measured using X- ray techniques, gravitational wave detectors have the capacity to greatly increase the statistics of black hole spin measurements. We show what we might learn from these measurements and how the black hole spin values are influenced by their formation channels. (paper)
Variation in Stiffness of Monopiles in Dense Sand Under Cyclic Lateral Loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2016-01-01
The stiffness of the soil-foundation system is an important parameter that is taken into account in design. Recent studies of offshore wind turbines have shown that long-term cyclic lateral loading, induced by waves and wind, may lead to an increase in the foundation stiffness during the lifetime...... of the foundation. This is in contrast to design methods proposed by current guidelines. The present paper represents a further step towards improving the general knowledge regarding such stiffness change issues. Test results from an experimental investigation are presented and discussed. The interpretation focuses...
Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Newby David E
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Methods In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA, as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV. PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP, augmentation index (AIx and time to wave reflection (Tr were calculated. Results Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02 and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01, along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03, 10 minutes post-exposure. Conclusion Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution.
Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi
2017-01-01
Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.
Shoulder Stiffness : Current Concepts and Concerns
Itoi, Eiji; Arce, Guillermo; Bain, Gregory I.; Diercks, Ronald L.; Guttmann, Dan; Imhoff, Andreas B.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Yoo, Yon-Sik
Shoulder stiffness can be caused by various etiologies such as immobilization, trauma, or surgical interventions. The Upper Extremity Committee of ISAKOS defined the term "frozen shoulder" as idiopathic stiff shoulder, that is, without a known cause. Secondary stiff shoulder is a term that should be
2003-08-01
applications, a ferromagnetic metal may be used as a source of spin-polarized electronics to be injected into a semiconductor, a superconductor or a...physical phenomena in II-VI and III-V semiconductors. In II-VI systems, the Mn2+ ions act to boost the electron spin precession up to terahertz ...conductors, proximity effect between ferromagnets and superconductors , and the effects of spin injection on the physical properties of the
Vozková, Markéta
2011-01-01
1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...
The continuous spin limit of higher spin field equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bekaert, Xavier [Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Le Bois-Marie, 35 route de Chartres, 91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mourad, Jihad [APC, Universite Paris VII, 2 place Jussieu, 75251 Paris Cedex 05 (France); LPT, Bat. 210, Universite Paris XI, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)
2006-01-15
We show that the Wigner equations describing the continuous spin representations can be obtained as a limit of massive higher-spin field equations. The limit involves a suitable scaling of the wave function, the mass going to zero and the spin to infinity with their product being fixed. The result allows to transform the Wigner equations to a gauge invariant Fronsdal-like form. We also give the generalisation of the Wigner equations to higher dimensions with fields belonging to arbitrary representations of the massless little group.
Effect of a negative stiffness mechanism on the performance of the WEPTOS rotors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peretta, S; Ruol, P.; Martinelli, L.
2015-01-01
The WEPTOS is a well-known wave energy converter (www.weptos.com), formed by several rotors, with a shape that draws upon the reputable Salters Duck geometry. The WEPTOS has a large efficiency under waves of one particular frequency, i.e. when resonance conditions occur. In order to extend...... the range of resonance conditions, the possible use of a negative stiffness in the rotor system is analysed. This note presents some considerations on the effectiveness of negative stiffness based on physical model experiments and on the numerical simulations used to interpret the test results. More...... of Aalborg University, on a 1:30 scale model of one rotor of the WEPTOS. Three different configurations were analysed, providing different values of the negative stiffness. A set of 16 regular and 5 irregular wave conditions were tested, with maximum heights up to approximately 6 m at prototype scale...
Nanopatterning spin-textures: A route to reconfigurable magnonics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Albisetti
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Magnonics is envisioned to enable highly efficient data transport and processing, by exploiting propagating perturbations in the spin-texture of magnetic materials. Despite the demonstrations of a plethora of proof-of-principle devices, the efficient excitation, transport and manipulation of spin-waves at the nanoscale is still an open challenge. Recently, we demonstrated that the spin-wave excitation and propagation can be controlled by nanopatterning reconfigurable spin-textures in a continuous exchange biased ferromagnetic film. Here, we show that by patterning 90° stripe-shaped magnetic domains, we spatially modulate the spin-wave excitation in a continuous film, and that by applying an external magnetic field we can reversibly “switch-off” the spin-wave excitation. This opens the way to the use of nanopatterned spin-textures, such as domains and domain walls, for exciting and manipulating magnons in reconfigurable nanocircuits.
Bovier, Anton
2007-01-01
Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mannelli, L., E-mail: mannellilorenzo@yahoo.it [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Godfrey, E.; Graves, M.J.; Patterson, A.J.; Beddy, P.; Bowden, D.; Joubert, I.; Priest, A.N.; Lomas, D.J. [Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2012-03-15
Aim: To demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining liver stiffness measurements with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at 3 T in normal healthy volunteers using the same technique that has been successfully applied at 1.5 T. Methods and materials: The study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all volunteers. Eleven volunteers (mean age 35 {+-} 9 years) with no history of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, or cardiovascular disease were recruited. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol included a gradient echo-based MRE sequence using a 60 Hz pneumatic excitation. The MRE images were processed using a local frequency estimation inversion algorithm to provide quantitative stiffness maps. Adequate image quality was assessed subjectively by demonstrating the presence of visible propagating waves within the liver parenchyma underlying the driver location. Liver stiffness values were obtained using manually placed regions of interest (ROI) outlining the liver margins on the gradient echo wave images, which were then mapped onto the corresponding stiffness image. The mean stiffness values from two adjacent sections were recorded. Results: Eleven volunteers underwent MRE. The quality of the MRE images was adequate in all the volunteers. The mean liver stiffness for the group was 2.3 {+-} 0.38 kPa (ranging from 1.7-2.8 kPa). Conclusions: This preliminary work using MRE at 3 T in healthy volunteers demonstrates the feasibility of liver stiffness evaluation at 3 T without modification of the approach used at 1.5 T. Adequate image quality and normal MRE values were obtained in all volunteers. The obtained stiffness values were in the range of those reported for healthy volunteers in previous studies at 1.5 T. There was good interobserver reproducibility in the stiffness measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mannelli, L.; Godfrey, E.; Graves, M.J.; Patterson, A.J.; Beddy, P.; Bowden, D.; Joubert, I.; Priest, A.N.; Lomas, D.J.
2012-01-01
Aim: To demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining liver stiffness measurements with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) at 3 T in normal healthy volunteers using the same technique that has been successfully applied at 1.5 T. Methods and materials: The study was approved by the local ethics committee and written informed consent was obtained from all volunteers. Eleven volunteers (mean age 35 ± 9 years) with no history of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, or cardiovascular disease were recruited. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol included a gradient echo-based MRE sequence using a 60 Hz pneumatic excitation. The MRE images were processed using a local frequency estimation inversion algorithm to provide quantitative stiffness maps. Adequate image quality was assessed subjectively by demonstrating the presence of visible propagating waves within the liver parenchyma underlying the driver location. Liver stiffness values were obtained using manually placed regions of interest (ROI) outlining the liver margins on the gradient echo wave images, which were then mapped onto the corresponding stiffness image. The mean stiffness values from two adjacent sections were recorded. Results: Eleven volunteers underwent MRE. The quality of the MRE images was adequate in all the volunteers. The mean liver stiffness for the group was 2.3 ± 0.38 kPa (ranging from 1.7–2.8 kPa). Conclusions: This preliminary work using MRE at 3 T in healthy volunteers demonstrates the feasibility of liver stiffness evaluation at 3 T without modification of the approach used at 1.5 T. Adequate image quality and normal MRE values were obtained in all volunteers. The obtained stiffness values were in the range of those reported for healthy volunteers in previous studies at 1.5 T. There was good interobserver reproducibility in the stiffness measurements.
Spin Currents and Spin Orbit Torques in Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets
Hung, Yu-Ming
This thesis focuses on the interactions of spin currents and materials with magnetic order, e.g., ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic thin films. The spin current is generated in two ways. First by spin-polarized conduction-electrons associated with the spin Hall effect in heavy metals (HMs) and, second, by exciting spin-waves in ferrimagnetic insulators using a microwave frequency magnetic field. A conduction-electron spin current can be generated by spin-orbit coupling in a heavy non-magnetic metal and transfer its spin angular momentum to a ferromagnet, providing a means of reversing the magnetization of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin films with currents that flow in the plane of the layers. The torques on the magnetization are known as spin-orbit torques (SOT). In the first part of my thesis project I investigated and contrasted the quasistatic (slowly swept current) and pulsed current-induced switching characteristics of micrometer scale Hall crosses consisting of very thin (thesis project studies and considers applications of SOT-driven domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin ferromagnet sandwiched between a heavy metal and an oxide. My experiment results demonstrate that the DW motion can be explained by a combination of the spin Hall effect, which generates a SOT, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which stabilizes chiral Neel-type DW. Based on SOT-driven DW motion and magnetic coupling between electrically isolated ferromagnetic elements, I proposed a new type of spin logic devices. I then demonstrate the device operation by using micromagnetic modeling which involves studying the magnetic coupling induced by fringe fields from chiral DWs in perpendicularly magnetized nanowires. The last part of my thesis project reports spin transport and spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O 12 (YIG)/NiO/Pt trilayers with varied NiO thickness. To characterize the spin transport through NiO we excite
Extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene
Rappoport, Tatiana
The intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in graphene is extremely weak, making it a promising spin conductor for spintronic devices. In addition, many applications also require the generation of spin currents in graphene. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results suggest one can engineer the spin Hall effect in graphene by greatly enhancing the spin-orbit coupling in the vicinity of an impurity. The extrinsic spin Hall effect then results from the spin-dependent skew scattering of electrons by impurities in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. This effect can be used to efficiently convert charge currents into spin-polarized currents. I will discuss recent experimental results on spin Hall effect in graphene decorated with adatoms and metallic cluster and show that a large spin Hall effect can appear due to skew scattering. While this spin-orbit coupling is small if compared with what it is found in metals, the effect is strongly enhanced in the presence of resonant scattering, giving rise to robust spin Hall angles. I will present our single impurity scattering calculations done with exact partial-wave expansions and complement the analysis with numerical results from a novel real-space implementation of the Kubo formalism for tight-binding Hamiltonians. The author acknowledges the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPERJ and INCT de Nanoestruturas de Carbono for financial support.
Spin density wave behaviour in the (Cr98.4Al1.6)100-y Mo y and (Cr100-x Al x )95Mo5 alloy series
Muchono, B.; Prinsloo, ARE; Sheppard, CJ; Venter, AM; Liss, KD
2017-10-01
Neutron diffraction studies of the spin-density-wave (SDW) behaviour in antiferromagnetic (Cr98.4Al1.6)100-y Mo y with y = 0, 3.7 and 4.2, as well as (Cr100-x Al x )95Mo5 with x = 0 and 4.6 alloy systems are reported. The results confirm an incommensurate (I) SDW to paramagnetic (P) phase transition at the quantum critical point of the (Cr98.4Al1.6)100-y Mo y series. In addition two further quantum critical magnetic phase transitions are proposed for the (Cr100-x Al x )95Mo5 series, one from ISDW to P and the other from P to commensurate (C) SDW.
Coupling between the Output Force and Stiffness in Different Variable Stiffness Actuators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Jafari
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The fundamental objective in developing variable stiffness actuators is to enable the actuator to deliberately tune its stiffness. This is done through controlling the energy flow extracted from internal power units, i.e., the motors of a variable stiffness actuator (VSA. However, the stiffness may also be unintentionally affected by the external environment, over which, there is no control. This paper analysis the correlation between the external loads, applied to different variable stiffness actuators, and their resultant output stiffness. Different types of variable stiffness actuators have been studied considering springs with different types of nonlinearity. The results provide some insights into how to design the actuator mechanism and nonlinearity of the springs in order to increase the decoupling between the load and stiffness in these actuators. This would significantly widen the application range of a variable stiffness actuator.
Brown, Stephen H M; McGill, Stuart M
2010-12-01
The relationship between muscle activation, force and stiffness needs to be known to interpret the stability state of the spine. To test the relationship between these variables, a quick release approach was used to match quantified torso stiffness with an EMG activation-based estimate of individual muscle stiffnesses. The relationship between activation, force and stiffness was modelled as k = q x F/l, where k, F and l are muscle stiffness, force and length, respectively, and q is the dimensionless stiffness gain relating these variables. Under the tested experimental scenario, the 'stiffness gain', q, which linked activation with stiffness, demonstrated a decreasing trend with increasing levels of torso muscle activation. This highlights the likelihood that the choice of a single q value may be over simplistic to relate force to stiffness in muscles that control the spine. This has implications for understanding the potential for spine instability in situations requiring high muscular demand.
Spin-density-wave effects in the (Cr{sub 98.4}Al{sub 1.6}){sub 100−y}Mo{sub y} alloy system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muchono, B.; Prinsloo, A.R.E.; Sheppard, C.J., E-mail: cjsheppard@uj.ac.za; Alberts, H.L.; Strydom, A.M.
2014-03-15
The possibility of quantum critical behaviour in a spin-density-wave antiferromagnetic (Cr{sub 98.4}Al{sub 1.6}){sub 100−y}Mo{sub y} alloy system is investigated through electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and specific heat measurements. Magnetic resistivity anomalies associated with the Néel transition temperature are highly enhanced in the thermoelectric measurements, allowing for complementary methods in obtaining the Néel temperatures of these alloys. The results indicate a suppression of the Néel temperatures to below 2 K for alloy concentrations y≳4.5. This aspect is strongly reflected in the y-dependence of the residual resistivity and Sommerfeld specific heat coefficient. Both parameters depict rather sharp changes, related to spin-density-wave energy gap influences, on entering the antiferromagnetic phase when y is decreased at 2 K through y{sub c}≈4.5 on the concentration-temperature magnetic phase diagram. The behaviour of the concentration dependence of the Sommerfeld specific heat coefficient is suggestive of quantum critical behaviour in this alloy system, with a quantum critical point at y≈y{sub c}. - Highlights: • The magnetic phase diagram is obtained for the (Cr{sub 98.4}Al{sub 1.6}){sub 100−y}Mo{sub y} alloy system. • It indicates a putative quantum critical point at y{sub c}=4.5. • Specific heat measurements support this conjecture. • Novel triple point behaviour is indicated for the Cr{sub 1−z}Al{sub z} alloy system.
Quantum Computing with an Electron Spin Ensemble
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wesenberg, Janus; Ardavan, A.; Briggs, G.A.D.
2009-01-01
We propose to encode a register of quantum bits in different collective electron spin wave excitations in a solid medium. Coupling to spins is enabled by locating them in the vicinity of a superconducting transmission line cavity, and making use of their strong collective coupling to the quantized...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartmann, A.
1996-02-01
Demagnetization effects break the isotropy of spin waves. During spring 1995, Peter Boeni et al. performed polarized neutron measurements on EuS using the triple axis spectrometer IN14 at the ILL in Grenoble, in order to investigate the influence of dipolar interactions on the spin waves. In the following work the analysis of the experimental data is described. (author) 25 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs
TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.
Measurement and Treatment of Passive Muscle Stiffness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirk, Henrik
This PhD thesis is based on research conducted at the University of Copenhagen and Helene Elsass Center from 2012 to 2015. Measurements and treatment of passive muscle stiffness in people with cerebral palsy (CP) comprise the focus of the thesis. The thesis summarizes the results from four studies......, which aimed to investigate: 1) The development of a clinical method to evaluate and distinguish neural (reflex mediated stiffness) and non-neural (passive muscle stiffness) components of muscle stiffness in adults with CP by objective and reliable measurements. 2) The association between increased...... passive muscle, muscle strength and gait function in adults with CP 3) The effect of resistance training and gait training accordingly on muscle strength, passive muscle stiffness and functional gait in adults with CP. The first part of the thesis defines reflex mediated stiffness and passive muscle...
Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael
2004-01-01
This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, K.H.; Hertz, J.A.
1993-01-01
Spin glasses, simply defined by the authors as a collection of spins (i.e., magnetic moments) whose low-temperature state is a frozen disordered one, represent one of the fascinating new fields of study in condensed matter physics, and this book is the first to offer a comprehensive account of the subject. Included are discussions of the most important developments in theory, experimental work, and computer modeling of spin glasses, all of which have taken place essentially within the last two decades. The first part of the book gives a general introduction to the basic concepts and a discussion of mean field theory, while the second half concentrates on experimental results, scaling theory, and computer simulation of the structure of spin glasses
Stiffness Analysis of Above Knee Prosthesis
Ege, Mücahit; Küçük, Serdar
2016-01-01
While a healthy human walks, his or her legs mutually perform good repeatabilitywith high accuracy. This provides an esthetical movement and balance. Peoplewith above knee prosthesis want to perform walking as esthetical as a healthyhuman. Therefore, to achieve a healthy walking, the above knee prosthesis mustprovide a good stiffness performance. Especially stiffness values are requiredwhen adding a second axis movement to the ankle for eversion and inversion. Inthis paper, stiffness analysis...
Vascular stiffness and increased pulse pressure in the aging cardiovascular system.
Steppan, Jochen; Barodka, Viachaslau; Berkowitz, Dan E; Nyhan, Daniel
2011-01-01
Aging leads to a multitude of changes in the cardiovascular system, including systolic hypertension, increased central vascular stiffness, and increased pulse pressure. In this paper we will review the effects of age-associated increased vascular stiffness on systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, augmentation index, and cardiac workload. Additionally we will describe pulse wave velocity as a method to measure vascular stiffness and review the impact of increased vascular stiffness as an index of vascular health and as a predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Furthermore, we will discuss the underlying mechanisms and how these may be modified in order to change the outcomes. A thorough understanding of these concepts is of paramount importance and has therapeutic implications for the increasingly elderly population.
Dynamic stiffness and damping of foundations for jacket structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara; Johannesson, Björn
2015-01-01
Foundation for offshore jacket structures may comprise of long floating piles. The dynamic response of floating piles to horizontal load is herein investigated. The analytical solution of horizontally vibrating end bearing piles by Novak & Nogami (1977) has been modified. At first the soil resist...... study clarifies the role of the parameters involved i.e. the depth of the soil layer, the pile diameter and the soil layer shear wave velocity. Results are presented in terms of dimensionless graphs which highlight the frequency dependency of the dynamic stiffness and damping....
Spin-Hall nano-oscillator: A micromagnetic study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giordano, A.; Azzerboni, B.; Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Carpentieri, M. [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Laudani, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Roma Tre, via V. Volterra 62, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Gubbiotti, G. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Unità di Perugia c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy)
2014-07-28
This Letter studies the dynamical behavior of spin-Hall nanoscillators from a micromagnetic point of view. The model parameters have been identified by reproducing recent experimental data quantitatively. Our results indicate that a strongly localized mode is observed for in-plane bias fields such as in the experiments, while predict the excitation of an asymmetric propagating mode for large enough out-of plane bias field similarly to what observed in spin-torque nanocontact oscillators. Our findings show that spin-Hall nanoscillators can find application as spin-wave emitters for magnonic applications where spin waves are used for transmission and processing information on nanoscale.
O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Gerosa, Davide; Wysocki, Daniel
2017-07-07
The inferred parameters of the binary black hole GW151226 are consistent with nonzero spin for the most massive black hole, misaligned from the binary's orbital angular momentum. If the black holes formed through isolated binary evolution from an initially aligned binary star, this misalignment would then arise from a natal kick imparted to the first-born black hole at its birth during stellar collapse. We use simple kinematic arguments to constrain the characteristic magnitude of this kick, and find that a natal kick v_{k}≳50 km/s must be imparted to the black hole at birth to produce misalignments consistent with GW151226. Such large natal kicks exceed those adopted by default in most of the current supernova and binary evolution models.
A variable stiffness joint with electrospun P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) variable stiffness springs
Carloni, Raffaella; Lapp, Valerie I.; Cremonese, Andrea; Belcari, Juri; Zucchelli, Andrea
This letter presents a novel rotational variable stiffness joint that relies on one motor and a set of variable stiffness springs. The variable stiffness springs are leaf springs with a layered design, i.e., an electro-active layer of electrospun aligned nanofibers of poly(vinylidene
Helical growth trajectories in plant roots interacting with stiff barriers
Gerbode, Sharon; Noar, Roslyn; Harrison, Maria
2009-03-01
Plant roots successfully navigate heterogeneous soil environments with varying nutrient and water concentrations, as well as a variety of stiff obstacles. While it is thought that the ability of roots to penetrate into a stiff lower soil layer is important for soil erosion, little is known about how a root actually responds to a rigid interface. We have developed a laser sheet imaging technique for recording the 3D growth dynamics of plant roots interacting with stiff barriers. We find that a root encountering an angled interface does not grow in a straight line along the surface, but instead follows a helical trajectory. These experiments build on the pioneering studies of roots grown on a tilted 2D surface, which reported ``root waving,'' a similar curved pattern thought to be caused by the root's sensitivity to both gravity and the rigid surface on which it is grown. Our measurements extend these results to the more physiologically relevant case of 3D growth, where the spiral trajectory can be altered by tuning the relative strengths of the gravity and touch stimuli, providing some intuition for the physical mechanism driving it.
Electrical Spin Generation and Transport in Spin-Orbit Coupled Systems
Niu, Qian
2005-03-01
We consider spin generation and transport in bands with built-in spin-orbit coupling. A number of fundamental issues will be discussed: (1) the existence of spin-dipole and torque-dipole of wave packets which model the carriers; (2) source terms in the continuity equation (spin generation and relaxation); (3) the composition of the spin current (Berry phase and more); (4) spin Hall conductivity and its reciprocal; (5) the spin current responsible for spin accumulation. *References: *1 D. Culcer, J. Sinova, N. A. Sinitsyn, T. Jungwirth, A. H.MacDonald, Q. Niu, `Semiclassical theory of spin transport in spin-orbit coupled systems', Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 046602 (2004). *2 P. Zhang and Q. Niu, `Charge-Hall effect driven by spin force: reciprocal of the spin-Hall effect' Cond-mat/0406436. *3 D. Culcer, Y. G. Yao, A. H. MacDonald, and Q. Niu, `Electric generation of spin in crystals with reduced symmetry', Cond-mat/0408020.
Dynamics of the collective modes of an inhomogeneous spin ensemble in a cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wesenberg, Janus; Kurucz, Zoltan; Mølmer, Klaus
2011-01-01
We study the excitation dynamics of an inhomogeneously broadened spin ensemble coupled to a single cavity mode. The collective excitations of the spin ensemble can be described in terms of generalized spin waves, and, in the absence of the cavity, the free evolution of the spin ensemble can be de...... without dispersion from negative to positive-valued wavenumbers without populating the zero wavenumber spin wave mode. The results are relevant for multimode collective quantum memories where qubits are encoded in different spin waves....
Stiffness and damping in mechanical design
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rivin, Eugene I
1999-01-01
... important conceptual issues are stiffness of mechanical structures and their components and damping in mechanical systems sensitive to and/or generating vibrations. Stiffness and strength are the most important criteria for many mechanical designs. However, although there are hundreds of books on various aspects of strength, and strength issues ar...
Optimising geometry for maximum supporting stiffnesses
Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Wiersma, Hedzer; Boer, Steven; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.
2013-01-01
Flexure hinges inherently lose stiffness in supporting directions when deflected. This article presents a method for optimising the geometry of flexure hinges, aimed at maximising supporting stiffnesses. In addition, the new -Flexure Hinge design is presented. The considered hinges are subjected to
Acute effects of different types of aerobic exercise on endothelial function and arterial stiffness.
Siasos, Gerasimos; Athanasiou, Dimitrios; Terzis, Gerasimos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Tsitkanou, Stavroula; Kolokytha, Theodora; Spengos, Konstantinos; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Tousoulis, Dimitris
2016-09-01
Chronic aerobic exercise training is associated with improved endothelial function and arterial stiffness and favourable long-term cardiovascular effects. We investigated the acute effects of continuous moderate intensity aerobic exercise (CAE) and high intensity interval aerobic exercise (hIAE) on endothelial function and arterial stiffness in healthy participants. Twenty healthy men were recruited to this cross-over study. They participated in two exercise sessions: (a) CAE, volume at 50% of maximum aerobic work for 30 minutes; and (b) hIAE, interval maximum aerobic work for 30 minutes. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery. The carotid femoral pulse wave velocity and the femoral dorsalis pedis pulse wave velocity were measured as indices of central aortic and peripheral arterial stiffness. Measurements were carried out before and immediately after each exercise session. There was no statistically significant difference in the baseline measurements before CAE and hIAE with respect to flow-mediated dilation, the carotid femoral pulse wave velocity and the femoral dorsalis pedis pulse wave velocity (p = NS). Both CAE and hIAE significantly improved the flow-mediated dilation compared with baseline (p exercise. These types of aerobic exercise have a different impact on the central and peripheral arterial stiffness. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.
Stiffness Control of Surgical Continuum Manipulators.
Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E
2011-04-01
This paper introduces the first stiffness controller for continuum robots. The control law is based on an accurate approximation of a continuum robot's coupled kinematic and static force model. To implement a desired tip stiffness, the controller drives the actuators to positions corresponding to a deflected robot configuration that produces the required tip force for the measured tip position. This approach provides several important advantages. First, it enables the use of robot deflection sensing as a means to both sense and control tip forces. Second, it enables stiffness control to be implemented by modification of existing continuum robot position controllers. The proposed controller is demonstrated experimentally in the context of a concentric tube robot. Results show that the stiffness controller achieves the desired stiffness in steady state, provides good dynamic performance, and exhibits stability during contact transitions.
Rolling Element Bearing Stiffness Matrix Determination (Presentation)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Y.; Parker, R.
2014-01-01
Current theoretical bearing models differ in their stiffness estimates because of different model assumptions. In this study, a finite element/contact mechanics model is developed for rolling element bearings with the focus of obtaining accurate bearing stiffness for a wide range of bearing types and parameters. A combined surface integral and finite element method is used to solve for the contact mechanics between the rolling elements and races. This model captures the time-dependent characteristics of the bearing contact due to the orbital motion of the rolling elements. A numerical method is developed to determine the full bearing stiffness matrix corresponding to two radial, one axial, and two angular coordinates; the rotation about the shaft axis is free by design. This proposed stiffness determination method is validated against experiments in the literature and compared to existing analytical models and widely used advanced computational methods. The fully-populated stiffness matrix demonstrates the coupling between bearing radial, axial, and tilting bearing deflections.
Shifting the optimal stiffness for cell migration.
Bangasser, Benjamin L; Shamsan, Ghaidan A; Chan, Clarence E; Opoku, Kwaku N; Tüzel, Erkan; Schlichtmann, Benjamin W; Kasim, Jesse A; Fuller, Benjamin J; McCullough, Brannon R; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Odde, David J
2017-05-22
Cell migration, which is central to many biological processes including wound healing and cancer progression, is sensitive to environmental stiffness, and many cell types exhibit a stiffness optimum, at which migration is maximal. Here we present a cell migration simulator that predicts a stiffness optimum that can be shifted by altering the number of active molecular motors and clutches. This prediction is verified experimentally by comparing cell traction and F-actin retrograde flow for two cell types with differing amounts of active motors and clutches: embryonic chick forebrain neurons (ECFNs; optimum ∼1 kPa) and U251 glioma cells (optimum ∼100 kPa). In addition, the model predicts, and experiments confirm, that the stiffness optimum of U251 glioma cell migration, morphology and F-actin retrograde flow rate can be shifted to lower stiffness by simultaneous drug inhibition of myosin II motors and integrin-mediated adhesions.
Birefringence (spin rotation and spin dichroism) of high-energy deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baryshevskij, V.G.; Rovba, A.A.
2016-01-01
The phenomenon of birefringence (spin rotation and spin dichroism) of high-energy deuterons, currently observed in experiments, is the macroscopic quantum effect similar to the birefringence effect known in optics. This paper considers the contribution coming to the spin dichroism effect from the interaction of deuteron electric quadrupole moment and nuclear electric field. The effect proves to be responsive to the behavior of deuteron ground state wave functions at a small distance. [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nous, M.H.
1983-01-01
The plane-wave solution for the fourth-rank spinor psisub(abcd)(x), which represents the massive spin-2 field, is discussed. The relativistic transformations of this field and the bilinear combinations of the components of the wave function are considered
Nagaoka, Ryo; Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Arakawa, Mototaka; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Saijo, Yoshifumi
2015-07-01
We proposed an estimation method for a tissue stiffness from deformations induced by arterial pulsation, and named this proposed method intrinsic elastography (IE). In IE, assuming that the velocity of the deformation propagation in tissues is closely related to the stiffness, the propagation velocity (PV) was estimated by spatial compound ultrasound imaging with a high temporal resolution of 1 ms. However, the relationship between tissue stiffness and PV has not been revealed yet. In this study, the PV of the deformation induced by the pulsatile pump was measured by IE in three different poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) phantoms of different stiffnesses. The measured PV was compared with the shear wave velocity (SWV) measured by shear wave imaging (SWI). The measured PV has trends similar to the measured SWV. These results obtained by IE in a healthy male show the possibility that the mechanical properties of living tissues could be evaluated by IE.
Evaluation of ground stiffness parameters using continuous surface wave geophysics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, Anne; Foged, Niels
2000-01-01
Present day knowledge of the magnitude of the strain levels in the ground associated with geotechnical structures, together with an increasing number of projects requiring the best estimates of ground movements around excavations, has led to, inter alia, increased interest in measuring the very...
Kinematic Characterization of Left Ventricular Chamber Stiffness and Relaxation
Mossahebi, Sina
Heart failure is the most common cause of hospitalization today, and diastolic heart failure accounts for 40-50% of cases. Therefore, it is critical to identify diastolic dysfunction at a subclinical stage so that appropriate therapy can be administered before ventricular function is further, and perhaps irreversibly impaired. Basic concepts in physics such as kinematic modeling provide a unique method with which to characterize cardiovascular physiology, specifically diastolic function (DF). The advantage of an approach that is standard in physics, such as the kinematic modeling is its causal formulation that functions in contrast to correlative approaches traditionally utilized in the life sciences. Our research group has pioneered theoretical and experimental quantitative analysis of DF in humans, using both non-invasive (echocardiography, cardiac MRI) and invasive (simultaneous catheterization-echocardiography) methods. Our group developed and validated the Parametrized Diastolic Filling (PDF) formalism which is motivated by basic physiologic principles (LV is a mechanical suction pump at the mitral valve opening) that obey Newton's Laws. PDF formalism is a kinematic model of filling employing an equation of motion, the solution of which accurately predicts all E-wave contours in accordance with the rules of damped harmonic oscillatory motion. The equation's lumped parameters---ventricular stiffness, ventricular viscoelasticity/relaxation and ventricular load---are obtained by solving the 'inverse problem'. The parameters' physiologic significance and clinical utility have been repeatedly demonstrated in multiple clinical settings. In this work we apply our kinematic modeling approach to better understand how the heart works as it fills in order to advance the relationship between physiology and mathematical modeling. Through the use of this modeling, we thereby define and validate novel, causal indexes of diastolic function such as early rapid filling energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovski, Petar; Simeone, Osvaldo; Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen
2015-01-01
on traffic load and interference condition leads to performance gains. In this letter, a general network of multiple interfering two-way links is studied under the assumption of a balanced load in the two directions for each link. Using the notion of interference spin, we introduce an algebraic framework...
Schwarz, H.
2017-01-01
The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1
Dynamic stiffness of suction caissons - vertical vibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.; Andersen, Lars
2006-12-15
The dynamic response of offshore wind turbines are affected by the properties of the foundation and the subsoil. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the dynamic soil-structure interaction of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines. The investigation is limited to a determination of the vertical dynamic stiffness of suction caissons. The soil surrounding the foundation is homogenous with linear viscoelastic properties. The dynamic stiffness of the suction caisson is expressed by dimensionless frequency-dependent dynamic stiffness coefficients corresponding to the vertical degree of freedom. The dynamic stiffness coefficients for the foundations are evaluated by means of a dynamic three-dimensional coupled Boundary Element/Finite Element model. Comparisons are made with known analytical and numerical solutions in order to evaluate the static and dynamic behaviour of the Boundary Element/Finite Element model. The vertical frequency dependent stiffness has been determined for different combinations of the skirt length, Poisson's ratio and the ratio between soil stiffness and skirt stiffness. Finally the dynamic behaviour at high frequencies is investigated. (au)
Big bang nucleosynthesis with a stiff fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dutta, Sourish; Scherrer, Robert J.
2010-01-01
Models that lead to a cosmological stiff fluid component, with a density ρ S that scales as a -6 , where a is the scale factor, have been proposed recently in a variety of contexts. We calculate numerically the effect of such a stiff fluid on the primordial element abundances. Because the stiff fluid energy density decreases with the scale factor more rapidly than radiation, it produces a relatively larger change in the primordial helium-4 abundance than in the other element abundances, relative to the changes produced by an additional radiation component. We show that the helium-4 abundance varies linearly with the density of the stiff fluid at a fixed fiducial temperature. Taking ρ S10 and ρ R10 to be the stiff fluid energy density and the standard density in relativistic particles, respectively, at T=10 MeV, we find that the change in the primordial helium abundance is well-fit by ΔY p =0.00024(ρ S10 /ρ R10 ). The changes in the helium-4 abundance produced by additional radiation or by a stiff fluid are identical when these two components have equal density at a 'pivot temperature', T * , where we find T * =0.55 MeV. Current estimates of the primordial 4 He abundance give the constraint on a stiff fluid energy density of ρ S10 /ρ R10 <30.
Kozel, Beth A; Danback, Joshua R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; Reusz, Gyorgy S; Kis, Eva; Bhatt, Ami B; Pober, Barbara R
2014-01-01
Williams syndrome is caused by the deletion of 26 to 28 genes, including elastin, on human chromosome 7. Elastin insufficiency leads to the cardiovascular hallmarks of this condition, namely focal stenosis and hypertension. Extrapolation from the Eln(+/-) mouse suggests that affected people may also have stiff vasculature, a risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiac death. NCF1, one of the variably deleted Williams genes, is a component of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex and is involved in the generation of oxidative stress, making it an interesting candidate modifier for vascular stiffness. Using a case-control design, vascular stiffness was evaluated by pulse wave velocity in 77 Williams cases and matched controls. Cases had stiffer conducting vessels than controls (P<0.001), with increased stiffness observed in even the youngest children with Williams syndrome. Pulse wave velocity increased with age at comparable rates in cases and controls, and although the degree of vascular stiffness varied, it was seen in both hypertensive and normotensive Williams participants. Use of antihypertensive medication and extension of the Williams deletion to include NCF1 were associated with protection from vascular stiffness. These findings demonstrate that vascular stiffness is a primary vascular phenotype in Williams syndrome and that treatment with antihypertensives or agents inhibiting oxidative stress may be important in managing patients with this condition, potentially even those who are not overtly hypertensive.
Periodontitis and arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Schmitt, Audrey; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Boutouyrie, Pierre; Bouchard, Philippe
2015-11-01
Patients with periodontitis have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, although a causal relationship between these conditions remains unclear. Arterial stiffness is considered a marker of arteriosclerosis and a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A systematic review of the literature on clinical studies using pulse wave velocity (PWV) to assess arterial stiffness in patients with periodontitis was carried out to answer the following questions: (i) Do patients with periodontitis have impaired arterial stiffness compared to non-periodontal diseased subjects? (ii) Is periodontal treatment effective as a means to improve arterial stiffness in patients with periodontitis? Literature search was done on different databases up to September 2014. All clinical studies (excluding case reports) using PWV in patients with periodontitis were retrieved for a full-text evaluation. A total of 10 studies were included. Patients with periodontitis have increased arterial stiffness compared to controls (PWV mean difference 0.85 m/s; 95% confidence interval: 0.53-1.16; pperiodontal treatment on PWV. Patients with periodontitis appear to have higher values of PWV compared to controls. The effect of periodontal treatment on arterial stiffness remains unclear. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Spin excitation in granular structures with ferromagnetic nanoparticles
Lutsev, L V
2002-01-01
In terms of s-d-exchange model one studied spin excitations and relaxation in granular structures with metallic ferromagnetic nanoparticles in an insulating amorphous matrix. One studies spins of granule as a d-system; s-system represents a multitude of localized electrons of amorphous matrix. In terms of single-ring approximation on the basis of s-d-exchange interaction for the Green spin function expansion one determined spectrum of spin excitations composed of spin-wave excitations of granules and spin-polarization excitations. One studied spin-polarization relaxation occurring by way of spin-polarization excitations. Spin-polarization relaxation was determined to be efficient one within wide range of frequencies. Evaluations made for structures containing cobalt granules show that one should observe it in the centimeter, the millimeter and the submillimeter ranges of wavelength
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke
This paper deals with a case study on the wave height reduction behind floating Wave Dragon wave energy converters in Santander Bay, Spain. The study is performed using the MIKE21 Boussinesq model from DHI. The Wave Dragon transmission characteristics in the numerical wave propagation model...... are based on previously performed physical model tests in scale 1:51. Typical winter storm conditions are considered in the case study together with different stiffness in the mooring system of the floating device. From the study it is found that if multiple Wave Dragons are positioned in a farm the wave...
Research on Detection of Machine Stiffness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Li-Jie
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Machine tool stiffness is a principal factor affecting machine tool precision, traditional methods can only be used to detect limited categories of machine tools. The paper introduces a new scheme to detect machine tool stiffness on the basis of dynamic detection of machine tool stiffness considering its characteristics and stress state during processing. An experiment conducted in turn-milling machining center CH7516GS indicated by comparison that statics analysis of finite elements matched the experimental result well, which provided precise original data for design of improved machine tool precision and access to design of precision detection equipment for other types of machine tools.
Observed variations of monopile foundation stiffness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kallehave, Dan; Thilsted, C.L.; Diaz, Alberto Troya
2015-01-01
The soil-structure stiffness of monopile foundations for offshore wind turbines has a high impact on the fatigue loading during normal operating conditions. Thus, a robust design must consider the evolution of pile-soil stiffness over the lifetime of the wind farm. This paper present and discuss ...... events, followed by a complete regain to a pre-storm level when the storm subsided. In additional, no long term variations of the pile-soil stiffness was observed. The wind turbine is located in dense to very dense sand deposits....
Ando, Koji
2018-03-01
A model of localized electron wave packets (EWPs), floating and breathing Gaussians with non-orthogonal valence-bond spin-coupling, is applied to compute the high-harmonic generation (HHG) spectrum from a LiH molecule induced by an intense laser pulse. The characteristic features of the spectrum, a plateau up to 50 harmonic-order and a cutoff, agreed well with those from the previous time-dependent complete active-space self-consistent-field calculation [T. Sato and K. L. Ishikawa, Phys. Rev. A 91, 023417 (2015)]. In contrast to the conventional molecular orbital picture in which the Li 2s and H 1s atomic orbitals are strongly mixed, the present calculation indicates that an incoherent sum of responses of single electrons reproduces the HHG spectrum, in which the contribution from the H 1s electron dominates the plateau and cutoff, whereas the Li 2s electron contributes to the lower frequency response. The results are comprehensive in terms of the shapes of single-electron potential energy curves constructed from the localized EWP model.
Montalbán-Méndez, Cristina; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Vargas-Hitos, José A; Sáez-Urán, Luis M; Rosales-Castillo, Antonio; Morillas-de-Laguno, Pablo; Gavilán-Carrera, Blanca; Jiménez-Alonso, Juan
2018-03-01
The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to examine the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with arterial stiffness in women with systemic lupus erythematosus; (ii) to assess the potential interaction of cardiorespiratory fitness with age on arterial stiffness in this population. A total of 49 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (mean age 41.3 [standard deviation 13.8] years) and clinical stability during the previous 6 months were included in the study. Arterial stiffness was assessed through pulse wave velocity (Mobil-O-Graph® 24 hours pulse wave velocity monitor). Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with the Siconolfi step test and the 6-minute walk test. Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with pulse wave velocity in crude analyses (P fitness × age interaction effect on pulse wave velocity, regardless of the test used to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (P fitness was associated with a lower increase in pulse wave velocity per each year increase in age. The results of this study suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness might attenuate the age-related arterial stiffening in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and might thus contribute to the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in this population. As the cross-sectional design precludes establishing causal relationships, future clinical trials should confirm or contrast these findings. © 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.
Elastic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of Bi-Sb binaries: Effect of spin-orbit coupling
Singh, Sobhit; Valencia-Jaime, Irais; Pavlic, Olivia; Romero, Aldo H.
2018-02-01
Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study the elastic stiffness constants, mechanical properties, elastic wave velocities, Debye temperature, melting temperature, and specific heat of several thermodynamically stable crystal structures of BixSb1 -x (0
Brächer, T.; Heussner, F.; Pirro, P.; Meyer, T.; Fischer, T.; Geilen, M.; Heinz, B.; Lägel, B.; Serga, A. A.; Hillebrands, B.
2016-12-01
Magnonic spin currents in the form of spin waves and their quanta, magnons, are a promising candidate for a new generation of wave-based logic devices beyond CMOS, where information is encoded in the phase of travelling spin-wave packets. The direct readout of this phase on a chip is of vital importance to couple magnonic circuits to conventional CMOS electronics. Here, we present the conversion of the spin-wave phase into a spin-wave intensity by local non-adiabatic parallel pumping in a microstructure. This conversion takes place within the spin-wave system itself and the resulting spin-wave intensity can be conveniently transformed into a DC voltage. We also demonstrate how the phase-to-intensity conversion can be used to extract the majority information from an all-magnonic majority gate. This conversion method promises a convenient readout of the magnon phase in future magnon-based devices.
Priest, Stacey E; Shenouda, Ninette; MacDonald, Maureen J
2018-04-20
Arterial stiffness is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Previous sex-based investigations of local and central stiffness report inconsistent findings and have not controlled for menstrual cycle phase in women. There is also evidence that sex hormones influence the vasculature, but their impact on arterial stiffness across a natural menstrual (NAT) or oral contraceptive pill (OCP) cycle has been understudied. This study sought to 1) examine potential sex differences in local and central stiffness, 2) compare stiffness profiles between NAT and OCP cycles, and 3) investigate the relationship between duration of OCP use and arterial stiffness. Fifty-three healthy adults (22{plus minus}3 years; 20 men, 15 NAT, 18 OCP) underwent assessments of sex hormone concentrations, β-stiffness index (local stiffness), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV, central stiffness). All participants were tested three times (men: same day and time one week apart; NAT: menstrual, mid-follicular, luteal; OCP: placebo, early and late active pill). Men had higher β-stiffness than NAT and OCP (p0.05 for all) and were not associated with duration of OCP use (β-stiffness: r=0.003, p=0.99; cfPWV: r =-0.26, p=0.30). The apparent sex-differences in local, but not central stiffness highlight the importance of assessing both indices when comparing men and women. Furthermore, fluctuating sex hormones do not appear to influence β-stiffness or cfPWV. Therefore, these stiffness indices may only need to be assessed during one cycle phase in women in future investigations.
Determination of 6 stiffnesses for a press
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Morten; Wanheim, Tarras
2000-01-01
The industry is increasingly demanding for better tolerances at cold forged products caused by the tough competition at the market. Near net-shape or net-shape production save resources for machining and reduce therefore also the material costs. During the forming process, the reaction forces from...... in which the press has the highest stiffness. Furthermore, knowledge about the stiffnesses of all presses in a production system makes it possible to choose the press which best fit to a specific process....
Diffraction-dependent spin splitting in spin Hall effect of light on reflection.
Qiu, Xiaodong; Xie, Linguo; Qiu, Jiangdong; Zhang, Zhiyou; Du, Jinglei; Gao, Fuhua
2015-07-27
We report on a diffraction-dependent spin splitting of the paraxial Gaussian light beams on reflection theoretically and experimentally. In the case of horizontal incident polarization, the spin splitting is proportional to the diffraction length of light beams near the Brewster angle. However, the spin splitting is nearly independent with the diffraction length for the vertical incident polarization. By means of the angular spectrum theory, we find that the diffraction-dependent spin splitting is attributed to the first order expansion term of the reflection coefficients with respect to the transverse wave-vector which is closely related to the diffraction length.
In a spin at Brookhaven spin physics
Makdisi, Y I
2003-01-01
The mysterious quantity that is spin took centre stage at Brookhaven for the SPIN2002 meeting last September. The 15th biennial International Spin Physics Symposium (SPIN2002) was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory on 9-14 September 2002. Some 250 spin enthusiasts attended, including experimenters and theorists in both nuclear and high-energy physics, as well as accelerator physicists and polarized target and polarized source experts. The six-day symposium included 23 plenary talks and 150 parallel talks. SPIN2002 was preceded by a one-day spin physics tutorial for students, postdocs, and anyone else who felt the need for a refresher course. (2 refs).
Spin-Circuit Representation of Spin Pumping
Roy, Kuntal
2017-07-01
Circuit theory has been tremendously successful in translating physical equations into circuit elements in an organized form for further analysis and proposing creative designs for applications. With the advent of new materials and phenomena in the field of spintronics and nanomagnetics, it is imperative to construct the spin-circuit representations for different materials and phenomena. Spin pumping is a phenomenon by which a pure spin current can be injected into the adjacent layers. If the adjacent layer is a material with a high spin-orbit coupling, a considerable amount of charge voltage can be generated via the inverse spin Hall effect allowing spin detection. Here we develop the spin-circuit representation of spin pumping. We then combine it with the spin-circuit representation for the materials having spin Hall effect to show that it reproduces the standard results as in the literature. We further show how complex multilayers can be analyzed by simply writing a netlist.
Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Machelski Czesław
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces, as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell’s span, geometry (static scheme and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure’s characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.
Running with a load increases leg stiffness.
Silder, Amy; Besier, Thor; Delp, Scott L
2015-04-13
Spring-mass models have been used to characterize running mechanics and leg stiffness in a variety of conditions, yet it remains unknown how running while carrying a load affects running mechanics and leg stiffness. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that running with a load increases leg stiffness. Twenty-seven subjects ran at a constant speed on a force-measuring treadmill while carrying no load, and while wearing weight vests loaded with 10%, 20%, and 30% of body weight. We measured lower extremity motion and created a scaled musculoskeletal model of each subject, which we used to estimate lower extremity joint angles and leg length. We estimated dimensionless leg stiffness as the ratio of the peak vertical ground reaction force (normalized to body weight) and the change in stance phase leg length (normalized to leg length at initial foot contact). Leg length was calculated as the distance from the center of the pelvis to the center-of-pressure under the foot. We found that dimensionless leg stiffness increased when running with load (p=0.001); this resulted from an increase in the peak vertical ground reaction force (pleg length (p=0.025). When running with load, subjects had longer ground contact times (pleg stiffness to accommodate an added load. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spin Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Flatte, Michael E
2006-01-01
... dots, tuning of spin coherence times for electron spin, tuning of dipolar magnetic fields for nuclear spin, spontaneous spin polarization generation and new designs for spin-based teleportation and spin transistors...
Spin dynamics of bilayer manganites
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
gations to understand the microscopic mechanism of this phenomenon. Together .... La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7 optic acoustic. Figure 2. Q scans along [1 0 0] at T = 1.6. K for different constant energy transfers through the reciprocal point Q = (1, 0, 1) ... The optic spin-wave energy gap directly gives the intra-bilayer exchange inter-.
Magnonic Charge Pumping via Spin-Orbit Coupling
Ciccarelli, Chiara; Hals, Kjetil; Irvine, Andrew; Novak, Vit; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Kurebayashi, Hidekazu; Brataas, Arne; Ferguson, Andrew
2015-03-01
The interplay between spin, charge and orbital degrees of freedom has led to the development of spintronic devices such as spin-torque oscillators and spin-transfer torque MRAM. In this development, spin pumping represents a convenient way to electrically detect magnetization dynamics. The effect originates from direct conversion of low-energy quantized spin waves in the magnet, known as magnons, into a flow of spins from the precessing magnet to adjacent leads. In this case, a secondary spin-charge conversion element, such as heavy metals with large spin Hall angle or multilayer layouts, is required to convert the spin current into a charge signal. Here, we report the observation of charge pumping in which a precessing ferromagnet pumps a charge current, demonstrating direct conversion of magnons into high-frequency currents via spin-orbit interaction. The generated electric current, unlike spin currents generated by spin-pumping, can be directly detected without the need of any additional spin-charge conversion mechanism. The charge-pumping phenomenon is generic and gives a deeper understanding of its reciprocal effect, the spin orbit torque, which is currently attracting interest for their potential in manipulating magnetic information.
Arterial stiffness and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke.
Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Hyeon-Mi
2014-03-01
Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. ONE HUNDRED PATIENTS WERE ENROLLED WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE AND CATEGORIZED INTO TWO GROUPS: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS) or small vessel disease (SVD) subtype of Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Each group was divided into two sub-groups based on the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke, indicated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. Poor functional outcome group was defined as a mRS ≥ 3 at discharge. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare maximal brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) values. Twenty-four patients whose state was inadequate to assess baPWV or mRS were excluded. There were 38 patients with good functional outcome (mRS vs. 1,789.80 ± 421.91, p = 0.022), while there was no significant difference of baPWV among patients with LAAS subtype (2,071.76 ± 618.42 vs. 1,878.00 ± 365.35, p = 0.579). Arterial stiffness indicated by baPWV is associated with the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. This finding suggests that measurement of baPWV predicts functional outcome in patients with stroke especially those whose TOAST classification was confirmed as SVD subtype.
Determinants of aortic stiffness: 16-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nanna B Johansen
Full Text Available Aortic stiffness is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease endpoints. Cross-sectional studies have shown associations of various cardiovascular risk factors with aortic pulse wave velocity, a measure of aortic stiffness, but the long-term impact of these factors on aortic stiffness is unknown.In 3,769 men and women from the Whitehall II cohort, a wide range of traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors were determined at baseline (1991-1993 and aortic pulse wave velocity was measured at follow-up (2007-2009. The prospective associations between each baseline risk factor and aortic pulse wave velocity at follow-up were assessed through sex stratified linear regression analysis adjusted for relevant confounders. Missing data on baseline determinants were imputed using the Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations.Among men, the strongest predictors were waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, heart rate and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, and among women, adiponectin, triglycerides, pulse pressure and waist-hip ratio. The impact of 10 centimeter increase in waist circumference on aortic pulse wave velocity was twice as large for men compared with women (men: 0.40 m/s (95%-CI: 0.24;0.56; women: 0.17 m/s (95%-CI: -0.01;0.35, whereas the opposite was true for the impact of a two-fold increase in adiponectin (men: -0.30 m/s (95%-CI: -0.51;-0.10; women: 0.61 m/s (95%-CI: -0.86;-0.35.In this large prospective study, central obesity was a strong predictor of aortic stiffness. Additionally, heart rate in men and adiponectin in women predicted aortic pulse wave velocity suggesting that strategies to prevent aortic stiffening should be focused differently by sex.
Spin-dependent optics with metasurfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao Shiyi
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Optical spin-Hall effect (OSHE is a spin-dependent transportation phenomenon of light as an analogy to its counterpart in condensed matter physics. Although being predicted and observed for decades, this effect has recently attracted enormous interests due to the development of metamaterials and metasurfaces, which can provide us tailor-made control of the light-matter interaction and spin-orbit interaction. In parallel to the developments of OSHE, metasurface gives us opportunities to manipulate OSHE in achieving a stronger response, a higher efficiency, a higher resolution, or more degrees of freedom in controlling the wave front. Here, we give an overview of the OSHE based on metasurface-enabled geometric phases in different kinds of configurational spaces and their applications on spin-dependent beam steering, focusing, holograms, structured light generation, and detection. These developments mark the beginning of a new era of spin-enabled optics for future optical components.
Groothuis, Stefan; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano
This paper presents a proof of concept of a variable stiffness actuator (VSA) that uses only one (high power) input motor. In general, VSAs use two (high power) motors to be able to control both the output position and the output stiffness, which possibly results in a heavy, and bulky system. In
Wu, Yuntao; Yu, Junxing; Jin, Cheng; Li, Yun; Su, Jinmei; Wei, Guoqing; Zheng, Xiaoming; Gao, Jingsheng; Gao, Wenyuan; Wu, Shouling
2017-01-01
To identify long-term fasting blood glucose trajectories and to assess the association between the trajectories and the risk of arterial stiffness in individuals without diabetes. We enrolled 16,454 non-diabetic participants from Kailuan cohort. Fasting blood glucose concentrations were measured in 2006, 2008, and 2010 survey. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities were measured during 2011 to 2016. Multivariate regression model was used to estimate the difference of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity levels and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) of arterial stiffness risk, according to the fasting blood glucose trajectories. We identified five distinct fasting blood glucose trajectories and each of the trajectories was labeled according to its range and change over 2006-2010 survey: elevated-stable pattern (5.0% of participants), elevated-decreasing pattern (6.6%), moderate-increasing pattern (10.9%), moderate-stable pattern (59.3%), and low-stable pattern (18.2%). After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals with elevated-stable pattern had a 42.6 cm/s (95%CI: 24.7 to 60.6 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 37% (OR 1.37, 95%CI: 1.14 to 1.66) higher arterial stiffness risk, and individuals with moderate-increasing pattern had a 19.6 cm/s (95%CI: 6.9 to 32.3 cm/s) higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity level and a 17% (OR 1.17, 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.33) higher arterial stiffness risk, related to individuals with moderate-stable pattern. We did not find significant associations of the elevated-decreasing or low-stable patterns with arterial stiffness. Consistently, the cumulative average, variability, and increased rate of fasting blood glucose during 2006-2010 survey were significantly associated with the arterial stiffness risk. Discrete fasting blood glucose trajectories were associated with the arterial stiffness risk in non-diabetic individuals.
Ambulatory arterial stiffness indices and target organ damage in hypertension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gómez-Marcos Manuel
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to evaluate which arterial stiffness parameter - AASI or the home arterial stiffness index (HASI - correlates best with vascular, cardiac and renal damage in hypertensive individuals. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 258 hypertensive patients. AASI and HASI were defined as the 1-regression slope of diastolic over systolic blood pressure readings obtained from 24-hour recordings and home blood pressure over 6 days. Renal damage was evaluated by glomerular filtration rate (GFR and microalbuminuria; vascular damage by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, pulse wave velocity (PWV and ankle/brachial index (ABI; and left ventricular hypertrophy by the Cornell voltage-duration product (VDP and the Novacode index. Results AASI and HASI were not correlated with microalbuminuria, however AASI and HASI- blood pressure variability ratio (BPVR showed negative correlation with GRF. The Cornell PDV was positively correlated with AASI- BPVR-Sleep (r = 0.15, p Conclusions After adjusting for age, gender and 24-hour heart, the variables that best associated with the variability of IMT, PWV and ABI were AASI and Awake-AASI, and with GFR was HASI-BPVR.
Post-traumatic knee stiffness: surgical techniques.
Pujol, N; Boisrenoult, P; Beaufils, P
2015-02-01
Post-traumatic knee stiffness and loss of range of motion is a common complication of injuries to the knee area. The causes of post-traumatic knee stiffness can be divided into flexion contractures, extension contractures, and combined contractures. Post-traumatic stiffness can be due to the presence of dense intra-articular adhesions and/or fibrotic transformation of peri-articular structures. Various open and arthroscopic surgical treatments are possible. A precise diagnosis and understanding of the pathology is mandatory prior to any surgical treatment. Failure is imminent if all pathologies are not addressed correctly. From a general point of view, a flexion contracture is due to posterior adhesions and/or anterior impingement. On the other hand, extension contractures are due to anterior adhesions and/or posterior impingement. This overview will describe the different modern surgical techniques for treating post-traumatic knee stiffness. Any bony impingements must be treated before soft tissue release is performed. Intra-articular stiff knees with a loss of flexion can be treated by an anterior arthroscopic arthrolysis. Extra-articular pathology causing a flexion contracture can be treated by open or endoscopic quadriceps release. Extension contractures can be treated by arthroscopic or open posterior arthrolysis. Postoperative care (analgesia, rehabilitation) is essential to maintaining the range of motion obtained intra-operatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Effects of weight loss and insulin reduction on arterial stiffness in the SAVE trial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hughes Timothy M
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic arterial stiffness contributes to the negative health effects of obesity and insulin resistance, which include hypertension, stroke, and increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity are individually associated with improved central arterial stiffness; however, their combined effects on arterial stiffness are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how insulin levels modify the improvements in arterial stiffness seen with weight loss in overweight and obese young adults. Methods To assess the effects of weight loss and decreased fasting insulin on vascular stiffness, we studied 339 participants in the Slow the Adverse Effects of Vascular Aging (SAVE trial. At study entry, the participants were aged 20–45, normotensive, non-diabetic, and had a body-mass index of 25–39.9 kg/m2. Measures of pulse wave velocity (PWV in the central (carotid-femoral (cfPWV, peripheral (femoral-ankle (faPWV, and mixed (brachial-ankle (baPWV vascular beds were collected at baseline and 6 months. The effects of 6-month change in weight and insulin on measures of PWV were estimated using multivariate regression. Results After adjustment for baseline risk factors and change in systolic blood pressure, 6-month weight loss and 6-month change in fasting insulin independently predicted improvement in baPWV but not faPWV or cfPWV. There was a significant interaction between 6-month weight change and change in fasting insulin when predicting changes in baPWV (p baPWV. Conclusions Young adults with excess weight who both lower their insulin levels and lose weight see the greatest improvement in vascular stiffness. This improvement in vascular stiffness with weight loss and insulin declines may occur throughout the vasculature and may not be limited to individual vascular beds. Trial registration NCT00366990
Youssef, Ghada; El Tebi, Ibrahim; Osama, Dina; Shehahta, Ahmed; Baligh, Essam; Ashour, Zeinab; Gamal, Hany
2017-03-01
Increased arterial stiffness can be used as a prognostic marker of arterial hypertension. The relationship between arterial stiffness and arterial hypertension seems to be reciprocal. Evaluation of changes of the arterial elastic prosperities in normotensive subjects, with and without parental history of hypertension. One hundred and ten normotensive individuals, aged 20-30 years, were divided into two groups: group-A ( n = 57) and group-B ( n = 53) subjects with positive and negative parental history of hypertension, respectively. Systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures were measured using mercury sphygmomanometer. The elastic properties of the ascending aorta and the common carotid arteries were assessed using M-mode echo and B-mode imaging, respectively. Stiffness index of the digital volume pulse (SIDVP) was measured in the right index finger using photoplethysmography. Group A subjects showed higher aortic stiffness index ( p = 0.002), carotid stiffness index ( p = 0.001), carotid pulse wave velocity ( p ⩽ 0.001) and stiffness index of digital volume pulse ( p = 0.001). Group A subjects showed lower aortic distensibility ( p = 0.001), aortic strain ( p = 0.004), changes in aortic diameter ( p = 0.022), carotid distension ( p = 0.026), carotid distensibility coefficient ( p ⩽ 0.001) and carotid compliance coefficient ( p = 0.002). The aortic and carotid stiffness parameters and SIDVP were higher in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents. This finding could direct the attention towards the increased cardiovascular risk in this group and thus prompt earlier and tighter prevention of cardiovascular risk factors.
Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors: Challenges
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-09-14
Sep 14, 2015 ... Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors: Challenges. The IndiGO Consortium & The LIGO Scientific ... of spinning objects (Gravity Probe-B). 6) Black holes. 7) Gravitational Waves .... Scheme of the advanced Interferometric GW detector. 300 times. 300 times. 40 times. Adding up all innovations, we ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan Groothuis
2014-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel variable stiffness mechanism is presented, which is capable of achieving an output stiffness with infinite range and an unlimited output motion, i.e., the mechanism output is completely decoupled from the rotor motion, in the zero stiffness configuration. The mechanism makes use of leaf springs, which are engaged at different positions by means of two movable supports, to realize the variable output stiffness. The Euler–Bernoulli leaf spring model is derived and validated through experimental data. By shaping the leaf springs, it is shown that the stiffness characteristic of the mechanism can be changed to fulfill different application requirements. Alternative designs can achieve the same behavior with only one leaf spring and one movable support pin.
Relationship between glycaemic levels and arterial stiffness in non-diabetic adults.
Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Recio-Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Ángel; García-Ortiz, Luis
2018-01-23
To examine, in a non-diabetic population, whether the association between arterial stiffness and glycaemic levels depends on the test used as a glycaemic indicator, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). A cross-sectional analysis of a 220 non-diabetic subsample from the EVIDENT II study in which FPG, HbA1c and arterial stiffness-related parameters (pulse wave velocity, radial and central augmentation index, and central pulse pressure) were determined. Mean differences in arterial stiffness-related parameters by HbA1c and FPG tertiles were tested using analysis of covariance. All means of arterial stiffness-related parameters increased by HbA1c tertiles, although mean differences were only statistically significant in pulse wave velocity (p ≤.001), even after controlling for potential confounders (HbA1c <5.30% = 6.88 m/s; HbA1c 5.30%-5.59% = 7.06 m/s; and HbA1c ≥5.60% = 8.16 m/s, p =.004). Conversely, mean differences in pulse wave velocity by FPG tertiles did not reach statistically significant differences after controlling for potential confounders (FPG 4.44 mmol/l = 7.18 m/s; FPG 4.44 mmol/l-4.87 mmol/l = 7.26 m/s; and FPG ≥4.88 mmol/l = 7.93 m/s, p =.066). Glucose levels in a non-diabetic population were associated with arterial stiffness but better when levels were determined using HbA1c. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Free androgen index as a determinant of arterial stiffness in menopause: a mediation analysis.
Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Georgiopoulos, Georgios A; Athanasouli, Fani; Armeni, Elena; Rizos, Demetrios; Augoulea, Areti; Chatzidou, Sofia; Koutli, Evangelia; Makris, Nikolaos; Kanakakis, Ioannis; Stamatelopoulos, Kimon
2017-06-01
Associations of endogenous androgens in menopause with blood pressure (BP) and indices of arterial stiffness are reported, but directional relationships are not clear. Structural equation modeling is a contemporary statistical method, which allows assessment of such relationships and improves pathway understanding. We recruited 411 consecutive apparently healthy postmenopausal women who underwent noninvasive vascular evaluation. This included pulse wave analysis (aortic pressures and arterial wave reflections [augmentation index]), measurement of aortic stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWV), stiffness index (SI), and flow-mediated dilatation. A cumulative marker combining PWV and SI (combined local and aortic arterial stiffness [CAS]) was also assessed. Free androgen index (FAI) was calculated from circulating total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin. FAI was an independent determinant of systolic BP (SBP) (P = 0.032), SI (P = 0.042), and PWV (P = 0.027). Under structural equation modeling analysis, FAI was a direct predictor for PWV (beta = 0.149, P = 0.014), SI (beta = 0.154, P = 0.022), and CAS (beta = 0.193, P = 0.02), whereas SBP was a parallel mediator of androgen's vascular effects on PWV (beta = 0.280, P determinant of augmentation index. In healthy postmenopausal women, FAI was directly associated with PWV, SI, and CAS. FAI also directly correlated with SBP, which in turn concurrently increased PWV and CAS. The directional correlations found herein, imply that endogenous androgens may be causally associated with indices of arterial stiffness both directly and indirectly. This hypothesis should be confirmed in further studies with causal design.
Age and Sex Effects on the Active Stiffness of Vastus Intermedius under Isometric Contraction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cong-Zhi Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Previously, a novel technique was proposed to quantify the relationship between the muscle stiffness and its nonfatigue contraction intensity. The method extended the measured range of isometric contraction to 100% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC using an ultrasonic shear wave measurement setup. Yet, it has not been revealed how this relationship could be affected by factors like age or sex. To clarify these questions, vastus intermedius (VI stiffness of 40 healthy subjects was assessed under 11 step levels of isometric contraction. The subjects were divided into four groups: young males, young females, elderly males, and elderly females (n=10 for each. In a relaxed state, no significant difference was observed between the male and female subjects (p=0.156 nor between the young and elderly subjects (p=0.221. However, when performing isometric contraction, the VI stiffness of males was found to be significantly higher than that of females at the same level (p<0.001, and that of the young was higher than the elderly (p<0.001. Meanwhile, for two knee joint angles used, the stiffness measured at a 90° knee joint angle was always significantly larger than that measured at 60° (p<0.001. Recognizing the active muscle stiffness of VI contributes to body stability, and these results may provide insight into the age and sex bias in musculoskeletal studies, such as those on fall risks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orawan Kaewboonchoo
2018-04-01
Full Text Available As an intermediate endpoint to cardiovascular disease, arterial stiffness has received much attention recently. So far, the research on work stress and arterial stiffness is still sparse and inconsistent, and no investigations on work stress and cardiovascular health among the Thai working population have been reported. Therefore, we conducted an epidemiological study among 2141 Thai enterprise employees (858 men and 1283 women who were free from any diagnosed cardiovascular disease. Work stress was measured using Karasek’s Job Demand–Control model for job strain (a combination of high demand and low control. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by a non-invasive approach using pulse-wave analysis based on a finger photoplethysmogram. Multivariable linear regression was applied to examine associations between job strain and arterial stiffness. In men, job strain was significantly associated with arterial stiffness (β = 0.078, 95% confidence interval = 0.026 to 0.130, after accounting for sociodemographic, behavioral, dietary and biomedical factors. However, the association in women was not significant. As the first study in Thailand on work stress and cardiovascular risk, we found that job strain might be an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease among Thai working men. Further studies with longitudinal design are warranted.
Contributions of Hamstring Stiffness to Straight-Leg-Raise and Sit-and-Reach Test Scores.
Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kimura, Noriko; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri
2018-02-01
The passive straight-leg-raise (PSLR) and the sit-and-reach (SR) tests have been widely used to assess hamstring extensibility. However, it remains unclear to what extent hamstring stiffness (a measure of material properties) contributes to PSLR and SR test scores. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the relationship between hamstring stiffness and PSLR and SR scores using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Ninety-eight healthy subjects completed the study. Each subject completed PSLR testing, and classic and modified SR testing of the right leg. Muscle shear modulus of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus was quantified as an index of muscle stiffness. The relationships between shear modulus of each muscle and PSLR or SR scores were calculated using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients. Shear modulus of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus showed negative correlations with the two PSLR and two SR scores (absolute r value≤0.484). Shear modulus of the biceps femoris was significantly correlated with the PSLR score determined by the examiner and the modified SR score (absolute r value≤0.308). The present findings suggest that PSLR and SR test scores are strongly influenced by factors other than hamstring stiffness and therefore might not accurately evaluate hamstring stiffness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Fovargue, Daniel; Kozerke, Sebastian; Sinkus, Ralph; Nordsletten, David
2018-02-01
As disease often alters structural and functional properties in tissue, the noninvasive measurement of material stiffness in vivo is desirable. Magnetic resonance elastography provides an approach to in vivo tissue characterization, using images of wave motion in tissue and biomechanical principles to reconstruct and quantify stiffness. Successful clinical translation of this technology requires stiffness reconstruction algorithms that are robust, easy to manage, and fast. In this paper, a reconstruction method is presented which addresses these issues by using a local compact divergence-free reconstruction kernel coupled with non-physical constraint elimination and inverse residual weighting to reliably reconstruct stiffness. The proposed technique is compared with local curl reconstructions and global stiffness-pressure reconstructions across two ground-truth phantoms as well as in vivo data sets. Sensitivity analysis is also performed, assessing the variability of reconstruction results and robustness to noise. It is shown that the proposed method can be robustly applied across data sets, is less sensitive to noise, attains comparable (or improved) accuracy, provides better correlation to anatomical features, and can be completed in short timescales. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dzieża-Grudnik, Anna; Sulicka, Joanna; Strach, Magdalena; Siga, Olga; Klimek, Ewa; Korkosz, Mariusz; Grodzicki, Tomasz
2017-04-01
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of CV events. The aim of the study was to assess arterial stiffness and inflammatory markers in patients with short duration chronic arthritis. We assessed carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx), traditional CV risk factors and inflammatory and endothelial markers in 71 chronic arthritis patients (RA and AS) and in 29 healthy controls. We did not find differences in PWV (for RA, AS and controls, respectively: 10 [8.8-10.9] versus 10.7 [9.1-11.8] versus 9.2 [8.3-11.4] m/s; p = .14) and AIx (for RA, AS and controls, respectively: 24.3 ± 11.5 versus 5.7 ± 12.4 versus 10 ± 12.8%; p = .22). Both groups of arthritis patients had active disease with significantly elevated inflammatory markers compared to controls. There were no correlations between endothelial and inflammatory markers and parameters of arterial stiffness in arthritis patients. When analyzing arthritis patients according to median of PVW, there were no significant differences in inflammatory and endothelial markers. We found that in patients with short duration active RA and AS arterial stiffness was not increased and furthermore, there was no association between markers of systemic inflammation and arterial stiffness.
Effects of Static Stretching Exercise on Lumbar Flexibility and Central Arterial Stiffness.
Logan, Jeongok G; Kim, Suk-Sun; Lee, Mijung; Byon, Ha Do; Yeo, SeonAe
2018-01-23
Previous studies have demonstrated that arterial stiffness is associated with lumbar flexibility (LF). Stretching exercise targeted to improve LF may have a beneficial effect on reducing arterial stiffness. We examined the effects of a single bout of a structured, static stretching exercise on arterial stiffness, LF, peripheral and central blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) and tested the association between LF and central arterial stiffness. The study had a pretest-posttest design without a control group. Thirty healthy women followed a video demonstration of a 30-minute whole-body stretching exercise. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV), augmentation index, LF, peripheral and central BP, and HR were measured before and after the stretching exercise. One bout of a static stretching exercise significantly reduced cf-PWV (t29 = 2.708, P = .011) and HR (t29 = 7.160, P = .000) and increased LF (t29 = 12.248, P static stretching exercise on central arterial stiffness, an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity. Static stretching exercise conducted in the sitting position may be used as an effective intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk after a cardiac event or for patients whose sympathetic function should not be overly activated or whose gaits are not stable.
Muscle-specific acute changes in passive stiffness of human triceps surae after stretching.
Hirata, Kosuke; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Naokazu
2016-05-01
It remains unclear whether the acute effect of stretching on passive muscle stiffness differs among the synergists. We examined the muscle stiffness responses of the medial (MG) and lateral gastrocnemii (LG), and soleus (Sol) during passive dorsiflexion before and after a static stretching by using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Before and after a 5-min static stretching by passive dorsiflexion, shear modulus of the triceps surae and the Achilles tendon (AT) during passive dorsiflexion in the knee extended position were measured in 12 healthy subjects. Before the static stretching, shear modulus was the greatest in MG and smallest in Sol. The stretching induced significant reductions in shear modulus of MG, but not in shear modulus of LG and Sol. The slack angle was observed at more plantar flexed position in the following order: AT, MG, LG, and Sol. After the stretching, the slack angles of each muscle and AT were significantly shifted to more dorsiflexed positions with a similar extent. When considering the shift in slack angle, the change in MG shear modulus became smaller. The present study indicates that passive muscle stiffness differs among the triceps surae, and that the acute effect of a static stretching is observed only in the stiff muscle. However, a large part of the reduction of passive muscle stiffness at a given joint angle could be due to an increase in the slack length.
Theoretical foundations of electron spin resonance
Harriman, John E
2013-01-01
Theoretical Foundations of Electron Spin Resonance deals with the theoretical approach to electron paramagnetic resonance. The book discusses electron spin resonance in applications related to polyatomic, probably organic, free radicals in condensed phases. The book also focuses on essentially static phenomena, that is, the description and determination of stationary-state energy levels. The author reviews the Dirac theory of the electron in which a four-component wave function is responsible for the behavior of the electron. The author then connects this theory with the nonrelativistic wave f
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji
2017-01-01
Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Wen-Yuan
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of MetS on arterial stiffness in a longitudinal study. Methods Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, a measurement interpreted as arterial stiffness, was measured in 1518 community-dwelling persons at baseline and re-examined within a mean follow-up period of 3 years. Multivariate linear regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to examine the longitudinal relationship between MetS and its individual components and baPWV, while multivariate logistic regression with GEE was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between MetS and its individual components and the high risk group with arterial stiffness. Results Subjects with MetS showed significantly greater baPWV at the end point than those without MetS, after adjusting for age, gender, education, hypertension medication and mean arterial pressure (MAP. MetS was associated with the top quartile of baPWV (the high-risk group of arterial stiffness, adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.52 [1.21-1.90], and a significant linear trend of risk for the number of components of MetS was found (p for trend Conclusions MetS affects the subject's progression to arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness increased as the number of MetS components increased. Management of MetS is important for preventing the progression to advanced arterial stiffness.
Working at Night in Hospital Environment is a Risk Factor for Arterial Stiffness
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sinem Özbay
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Aim: Arterial stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In previous studies, emotional stress has been reported to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of anxiety, stress and fatigue associated with working at night in hospital environment on arterial stiffness in physicians. Methods: The study was carried out with 30 physicians employed in Medical Faculty of Uludağ University between October 2011 and March 2012. Measurements were made using Pulse Wave Sensor HDI system (Hypertension Diagnostics Inc, Eagan, MN(Set No: CR000344 by radial artery pulse wave at the onset and end of night shift. Results: The mean age of night doctors included in the study was 26 years (range: 22-38 and the female/male ratio was 2/1. It was determined that mean values of arterial stiffness were significantly higher after night shift (1330±360 dyne/sn/cm-5 compared to mean values before night shift (1093±250 dyn/s/cm-5 (p=0.01. In the evaluation of other parameters before and after night shift, no statistically significant difference was detected (p>0.05. Conclusion: The increasing arterial stiffness in hospital employees after night shift could be attributed to the effects of stress and fatigue experienced during night shift. (The Me di cal Bul le tin of Ha se ki 2012; 50: 93-5
El Gamal, Yehia Mohamad; Elmasry, Ola Abd Elaziz; El Hadidi, Iman Saleh; Soliman, Ola Kamel
2013-01-01
Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are prone to premature atherosclerosis and are at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease. Increased arterial stiffness is emerging as a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Purpose. To measure proximal aortic stiffness in children and adolescents with SLE. Methods. We studied 16 patients with SLE in activity (mean age 15 ± 2.42 years; 16 females), 14 patients with SLE not in activity (mean age 15.7 ± 1.89 years; 4 males, 10 females), and 16 age- and sex-comparable healthy children and adolescents (15.5 ± 1.71 years; 4 males, 12 females). Disease activity was determined by the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). All subjects underwent echocardiography for assessment of proximal aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) [Ao distance/Ao wave transit time in the aortic arch]. Venous blood samples were collected for ESR. Results. Patients in activity had significantly higher PWV values than controls (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was found between patients not in activity and controls. Conclusions. SLE patients with disease activity demonstrate increased PWV and arterial stiffness of the proximal aorta, while patients without disease activity do not. This suggests that inflammation secondary to SLE activity, and not subclinical atherosclerosis, is the major underlying cause for increased arterial stiffness in this age group. PMID:24171119
Plant fibre composites - porosity and stiffness
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Bo; Thygesen, Anders; Lilholt, Hans
2009-01-01
of the composites with their mechanical properties. The fibre weight fraction is used as an independent parameter to calculate the complete volumetric composition. A maximum obtainable stiffness of the composites is calculated at a certain transition fibre weight fraction, which is characterised by a best possible...... combination of high fibre volume fraction and low porosity. The model is validated with experimental data from the literature on several types of composites. A stiffness diagram is presented to demonstrate that the calculations can be used for tailoring and design of composites with a given profile...... of properties. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
Corinaldesi, Ernesto
1963-01-01
Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat
Kaliski, S
2013-01-01
This book gives a comprehensive overview of wave phenomena in different media with interacting mechanical, electromagnetic and other fields. Equations describing wave propagation in linear and non-linear elastic media are followed by equations of rheological models, models with internal rotational degrees of freedom and non-local interactions. Equations for coupled fields: thermal, elastic, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, and magneto-spin with adequate boundary conditions are also included. Together with its companion volume Vibrations and Waves. Part A: Vibrations this work provides a wealth
Nuclear spin pumping and electron spin susceptibilities
Danon, J.; Nazarov, Y.V.
2011-01-01
In this work we present a new formalism to evaluate the nuclear spin dynamics driven by hyperfine interaction with nonequilibrium electron spins. To describe the dynamics up to second order in the hyperfine coupling it suffices to evaluate the susceptibility and fluctuations of the electron spin.
Reduction of two-dimensional dilute Ising spin glasses
Boettcher, Stefan; Hartmann, Alexander K.
2005-07-01
The recently proposed reduction method is applied to the Edwards-Anderson model on bond-diluted square lattices. In combination with a graph-theoretical matching algorithm, this allows us to calculate numerically exact ground states of large systems. Low-temperature domain-wall excitations are studied to determine the stiffness exponent y2 . A value of y2=-0.281(3) is found, consistent with previous results obtained on undiluted lattices. This comparison demonstrates the validity of the reduction method for bond-diluted spin systems and provides strong support for similar studies proclaiming accurate results for stiffness exponents in dimensions d=3,…,7 .
Hillebrand, Matthias; Nouri, Ghazaleh; Hametner, Bernhard; Parragh, Stephanie; Köster, Jelena; Mortensen, Kai; Schwarz, Achim; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Wassertheurer, Siegfried
2016-05-06
The aim of this work is the investigation of measures of ambulatory brachial and aortic blood pressure and indices of arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection in Marfan patients. A case-control study was conducted including patients with diagnosed Marfan syndrome following Ghent2 nosology and healthy controls matched for sex, age and daytime brachial systolic blood pressure. For each subject a 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and 24 h pulse wave analysis measurement was performed. All parameters showed a circadian pattern whereby pressure dipping was more pronounced in Marfan patients. During daytime only Marfan patients with aortic root surgery showed increased pulse wave velocity. In contrast, various nighttime measurements, wave reflection determinants and circadian patterns showed a significant difference. The findings of our study provide evidence that ambulatory measurement of arterial stiffness parameters is feasible and that these determinants are significantly different in Marfan syndrome patients compared to controls in particular at nighttime. Further investigation is therefore indicated.
CFD model of a spinning pipe gas lens
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Snedden, Glen C
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Slides on: Spinning Pipe Gas Lens; Focal Length; Refractive Index; Gas Dynamics; Guess at the gas dynamics; Density Profile; Flow Profile; Rosby Waves; Rayleigh–Taylor Instabilities...
Increased Upper Trapezius Muscle Stiffness in Overhead Athletes with Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy
Leong, Hio Teng; Hug, Fran?ois; Fu, Siu Ngor
2016-01-01
Although excessive tension of the upper trapezius (UT) is thought to contribute to rotator cuff tendinopathy, no study examined UT tension in athletes with and without rotator cuff tendinopathy. Here we used UT shear modulus measured using ultrasound shear wave elastography as an index of muscle stiffness/tension. The aims of this study were twofold: 1) to determine whether the UT muscle shear modulus is altered in athletes with rotator cuff tendinopathy compared to asymptomatic athletes, and...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valiente Mustelier, Juan; Suarez Vazquez, Leisy; Cabrera Rego, Julio Oscar; Gandarilla Sarmientos, Julio Cesar
2011-01-01
We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 83 patients (healthy, n=43; hypertensive, n=40) assisted in the external consultation of the National Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery Institute, from April to October, 2009. We included clinical (age, sex, personal antecedents of smoking habit, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, arterial hypertension) and echocardiographic (diastolic function, arterial stiffness index [β], pressure strain elastic modulus [Ep], arterial compliance, local pulse wave velocity [LPWV]) variables
Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Yan, Huimin; Kappus, Rebecca M; Fernhall, Bo; Baynard, Tracy
2017-04-01
Central arterial stiffness is associated with incident hypertension and negative cardiovascular outcomes. Obese individuals have higher central blood pressure (BP) and central arterial stiffness than their normal-weight counterparts, but it is unclear whether obesity also affects hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness after maximal exercise. We evaluated central hemodynamics and arterial stiffness during recovery from acute maximal aerobic exercise in obese and normal-weight individuals. Forty-six normal-weight and twenty-one obese individuals underwent measurements of central BP and central arterial stiffness at rest and 15 and 30 min following acute maximal exercise. Central BP and normalized augmentation index (AIx@75) were derived from radial artery applanation tonometry, and central arterial stiffness was obtained via carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and corrected for central mean arterial pressure (cPWV/cMAP). Central arterial stiffness increased in obese individuals but decreased in normal-weight individuals following acute maximal exercise, after adjusting for fitness. Obese individuals also exhibited an overall higher central BP ( P exercise effect. The increase in heart rate was greater in obese versus normal-weight individuals following exercise ( P exercise effect for AIx@75 In conclusion, obese (but not normal-weight) individuals increased central arterial stiffness following acute maximal exercise. An assessment of arterial stiffness response to acute exercise may serve as a useful detection tool for subclinical vascular dysfunction. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
Uric Acid Level Has a J-Shaped Association with Arterial Stiffness in Korean Postmenopausal Women.
Lee, Hyungbin; Jung, Young-Hyo; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Park, Byoungjin
2017-11-01
Uric acid has been reported to function both as an oxidant or antioxidant depending on the context. A previous study in the Korean population reported a positive linear association between serum uric acid level and arterial stiffness in men, but little is known about how serum uric acid level is related to the risk of increased arterial stiffness in Korean postmenopausal women. We performed a cross-sectional study of 293 subjects who participated in a health examination program run by the health promotion center of Gangnam Severance Hospital between October 2007 and July 2010. High brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was defined as a brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity of more than 1,450 cm/s. The odds ratios (ORs) for high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis across uric acid quartiles after adjusting for other indicators of cardiovascular risk. The 293 postmenopausal women were divided into quartiles according to uric acid level. The mean brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity values of each quartile were as follows: Q1, 1,474 cm/s; Q2, 1,375 cm/s; Q3, 1,422 cm/s; Q4, 1,528 cm/s. The second quartile was designated as the control group based on mean brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity value. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals) for brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity across the uric acid quartiles were 2.642 (Q1, 1.095-6.3373), 1.00, 4.305 (Q3, 1.798-10.307), and 4.375 (Q4, 1.923-9.949), after adjusting for confounding variables. Serum uric acid level has a J-shaped association with arterial stiffness in Korean postmenopausal women.
Pulse-wave morphology and pulse-wave velocity in healthy human volunteers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frimodt-Møller, M; Nielsen, A H; Kamper, A-L
2006-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Applanation tonometry for pulse-wave analysis (PWA) and determination of pulse-wave velocity (PWV) is a non-invasive method for assessment of the central aortic pressure waveform and indices of arterial stiffness. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of eating...
Morning blood pressure surge and arterial stiffness in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.
Kıvrak, Ali; Özbiçer, Süleyman; Kalkan, Gülhan Yüksel; Gür, Mustafa
2017-06-01
We aimed to investigate the relationship between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and arterial stiffness in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Three hundred and twenty four (mean age 51.7 ± 11.4 years) patients who had newly diagnosed hypertension with 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Parameters of arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (Aix) were measured by applanation tonometry and aortic distensibility was calculated by echocardiography. Compared with the other groups, pulse wave velocity, day-night systolic BP (SBP) difference (p morning BP surge high group. Aortic distensibility values were significantly lower in morning BP surge high group compared to the other groups (p Morning BP surge was found to be independently associated with pulse wave velocity (β = 0.286, p morning BP surge and arterial stiffness which is a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular diseases. The inverse relationship between morning BP surge and aortic distensibility and direct relation found in our study is new to the literature.
Lee, Yong Hee; Yoon, Eun Sun; Park, Soo Hyun; Heffernan, Kevin S; Lee, Chong; Jae, Sae Young
2014-05-01
To determine whether arterial stiffness is associated with cognitive function after adjustment for physical fitness in patients with chronic stroke. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted in 102 patients with chronic stroke who participated in an exercise rehabilitation programme. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were measured as indices of arterial stiffness and central systolic loading. Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination. Parameters of physical fitness included the 6-min walk test, flexibility, balance, and muscle strength tests. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly associated with Mini Mental State Examination (r = -0.45, p physical fitness (r = -0.45~ -0.55, p physical fitness (r = 0.32~0.46, p physical fitness (beta = -0.11, p = 0.39). Arterial stiffness measured by carotid femoral pulse wave velocity is associated with cognitive function in patients with chronic stroke, but not after adjustment for physical fitness. Maintaining appropriate levels of physical fitness may have a favourable effect on both vascular and cognitive function in patients with stroke.
Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport
Farle, Michael
2013-01-01
Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.
Optimization of bottom-hinged flap-type wave energy converter for a specific wave rose
Behzad, Hamed; Panahi, Roozbeh
2017-06-01
In this paper, we conducted a numerical analysis on the bottom-hinged flap-type Wave Energy Convertor (WEC). The basic model, implemented through the study using ANSYS-AQWA, has been validated by a three-dimensional physical model of a pitching vertical cylinder. Then, a systematic parametric assessment has been performed on stiffness, damping, and WEC direction against an incoming wave rose, resulting in an optimized flap-type WEC for a specific spot in the Persian Gulf. Here, stiffness is tuned to have a near-resonance condition considering the wave rose, while damping is modified to capture the highest energy for each device direction. Moreover, such sets of specifications have been checked at different directions to present the best combination of stiffness, damping, and device heading. It has been shown that for a real condition, including different wave heights, periods, and directions, it is very important to implement the methodology introduced here to guarantee device performance.
Bordovitsyn, V. A.; Gushchina, V. S.
1999-07-01
The following sections are included: * Introduction * Classical Theory of μ-Radiation * Equations of an Electromagnetic Field * Potentials and Fields of a Relativistic Magneton * Wave Zone and Radiation Field * Total Radiation Power in a Uniform Motion of a Magneton * Radiation of the Relativistic Magnetic Moment in Uniform Fields * Angular Distribution and Frequency of Radiation * Linear and Circular Polarization of the Radiation * Ultrarelativistic Case * Spectral Composition of the Radiation * Relativistic Semiclassical Radiation Theory * Recoil Effects and Mixed eμ-Radiation * Mixed eμL- and eμTh-Radiation of Relativistic Electron * The Structure of Quantum Corrections to SR * `True' Magnetic Moment Radiation * Bibliography
Parametric study of roof diaphragm stiffness requirements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, W.D.; Tenbus, M.A.
1991-01-01
A common assumption made in performing a dynamic seismic analysis for a building is that the roof/floor system is open-quotes rigidclose quotes. This assumption would appear to be reasonable for many of the structures found in nuclear power plants, since many of these structures are constructed of heavily reinforced concrete having floor/roof slabs at least two feet in thickness, and meet the code requirements for structural detailing for seismic design. The roofs of many Department of Energy (DOE) buildings at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, have roofs constructed of either metal, precast concrete or gypsum plank deck overlaid with rigid insulation, tar and gravel. In performing natural phenomena hazard assessments for one such facility, it was assumed that the existing roof performed first as a flexible diaphragm (zero stiffness) and then, rigid (infinitely stiff). For the flexible diaphragm model it was determined that the building began to experience significant damage around 0.09 g's. For the rigid diaphragm model it was determined that no significant damage was observed below 0.20 g's. A Conceptual Design Report has been prepared for upgrading/replacing the roof of this building. The question that needed to be answered here was, open-quotes How stiff should the new roof diaphragm be in order to satisfy the rigid diaphragm assumption and, yet, be cost effective?close quotes. This paper presents a parametric study of a very simple structural system to show that the design of roof diaphragms needs to consider both strength and stiffness (frequency) requirements. This paper shows how the stiffness of a roof system affects the seismically induced loads in the lateral, vertical load resisting elements of a building and provides guidance in determining how open-quotes rigidclose quotes a roof system should be in order to accomplish a cost effective design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jin, Zuanming; Mics, Zoltán; Ma, Guohong
2013-01-01
We report on the coherent control of terahertz (THz) spin waves in a canted antiferromagnet yttrium orthoferrite, YFeO3, associated with a quasiferromagnetic (quasi-FM) spin resonance at a frequency of 0.3 THz, using a single-incident THz pulse. The spin resonance is excited impulsively by the ma...... polarization of the THz oscillation at the spin resonance frequency, suggests a key role of magnon–phonon coupling in spin-wave energy dissipation....
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased arterial stiffness in severe obesity.
Seetho, Ian W; Parker, Robert J; Craig, Sonya; Duffy, Nick; Hardy, Kevin J; Wilding, John P H
2014-12-01
Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, leading to greater cardiovascular risk. Severely obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea may still be at risk of adverse health outcomes, even without previous cardiovascular disease. Pulse wave analysis non-invasively measures peripheral pulse waveforms and derives measures of haemodynamic status, including arterial stiffness, augmentation pressure and subendocardial viability ratio. We hypothesized that the presence of obstructive sleep apnea in severe obesity, even in the absence of an antecedent history of cardiovascular disease, would affect measurements derived from pulse wave analysis. Seventy-two severely obese adult subjects [obstructive sleep apnea 47 (body mass index 42 ± 7 kg m(-2) ), without obstructive sleep apnea (non-OSA) 25 (body mass index 40 ± 5 kg m(-2) )] were characterised using anthropometric, respiratory and cardio-metabolic parameters. Groups were similar in age, body mass index and gender. More subjects with obstructive sleep apnea had metabolic syndrome [obstructive sleep apnea 60%, without obstructive sleep apnea (non-OSA) 12%]. Those with obstructive sleep apnea had greater arterial stiffness, augmentation pressure and decreased subendocardial viability ratio (all P arterial pressures (P = 0.004) than patients without obstructive sleep apnea (non-OSA). Arterial stiffness correlated with mean arterial blood pressure (P = 0.003) and obstructive sleep apnea severity (apnea-hypopnea index; P arterial stiffness in multiple regression analysis, but components of the metabolic syndrome did not. Thus, patients with obstructive sleep apnea with severe obesity have increased arterial stiffness that may potentially influence cardiovascular risk independently of metabolic abnormalities. The presence of obstructive sleep apnea in severe obesity identifies a group at high cardiovascular risk; clinicians should ensure that risk factors are managed