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Sample records for spin vector behaves

  1. Discrete approximations to vector spin models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Enter, Aernout C D [University of Groningen, Johann Bernoulli Institute of Mathematics and Computing Science, Postbus 407, 9700 AK Groningen (Netherlands); Kuelske, Christof [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, D44801 Bochum (Germany); Opoku, Alex A, E-mail: A.C.D.v.Enter@math.rug.nl, E-mail: Christof.Kuelske@ruhr-uni-bochum.de, E-mail: opoku@math.leidenuniv.nl [Mathematisch Instituut, Universiteit Leiden, Postbus 9512, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2011-11-25

    We strengthen a result from Kuelske and Opoku (2008 Electron. J. Probab. 13 1307-44) on the existence of effective interactions for discretized continuous-spin models. We also point out that such an interaction cannot exist at very low temperatures. Moreover, we compare two ways of discretizing continuous-spin models, and show that except for very low temperatures, they behave similarly in two dimensions. We also discuss some possibilities in higher dimensions. (paper)

  2. Discrete approximations to vector spin models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Enter, Aernout C D; Külske, Christof; Opoku, Alex A

    2011-01-01

    We strengthen a result from Külske and Opoku (2008 Electron. J. Probab. 13 1307–44) on the existence of effective interactions for discretized continuous-spin models. We also point out that such an interaction cannot exist at very low temperatures. Moreover, we compare two ways of discretizing continuous-spin models, and show that except for very low temperatures, they behave similarly in two dimensions. We also discuss some possibilities in higher dimensions. (paper)

  3. Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Fuksa, Jan; Isaev, Alexei

    2014-11-01

    The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included.

  4. Bethe vectors for XXX-spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdík, Čestmír; Fuksa, Jan; Isaev, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with algebraic Bethe ansatz for XXX-spin chain. Generators of Yang-Baxter algebra are expressed in basis of free fermions and used to calculate explicit form of Bethe vectors. Their relation to N-component models is used to prove conjecture about their form in general. Some remarks on inhomogeneous XXX-spin chain are included

  5. The Spin Vector of (832) Karin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivan, Stephen M.; Molnar, L. A.

    2010-10-01

    We observed rotation lightcurves of Koronis family and Karin cluster member (832) Karin during its four consecutive apparitions in 2006-2009, and combined the new observations with previously published lightcurves to determine its spin vector orientation and preliminary model shape. Karin is a prograde rotator with a period of 18.352 h, spin obliquity near 41°, and pole ecliptic longitude near either 51° or 228°. Although the two ambiguous pole solutions are near the clustered pole solutions of four Koronis family members whose spins are thought to be trapped in a spin-orbit resonance (Vokrouhlický et al., 2003), Karin does not seem to be trapped in the resonance; this is consistent with the expectation that the 6 My age of Karin (Nesvorný et al., 2002) is too young for YORP torques to have modified its spin since its formation. The spin vector and shape results for Karin will constrain family formation models that include spin properties, and we discuss the Karin results in the context of the other members of the Karin cluster, the Karin parent body, and the parent body's siblings in the Koronis family.

  6. Josephson Circuits as Vector Quantum Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samach, Gabriel; Kerman, Andrew J.

    While superconducting circuits based on Josephson junction technology can be engineered to represent spins in the quantum transverse-field Ising model, no circuit architecture to date has succeeded in emulating the vector quantum spin models of interest for next-generation quantum annealers and quantum simulators. Here, we present novel Josephson circuits which may provide these capabilities. We discuss our rigorous quantum-mechanical simulations of these circuits, as well as the larger architectures they may enable. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) and the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  7. Spin information from vector-meson decay in photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloet, W.M.; Chiang, W.; Tabakin, F.

    1998-01-01

    For the photoproduction of vector mesons, all single and double spin observables involving vector-meson two-body decays are defined consistently in the γN center-of-mass frame. These definitions yield a procedure for extracting physically meaningful single and double spin observables that are subject to known rules concerning their angle and energy evolution. As part of this analysis, we show that measuring the two-meson decay of a photo produced ρ or φ does not determine the vector meson's vector polarization, but only its tensor polarization. The vector meson decay into lepton pairs is also insensitive to the vector meson's vector polarization, unless one measures the spin of one of the leptons. Similar results are found for all double spin observables which involve observation of vector-meson decay. To access the vector meson's vector polarization, one therefore needs to either measure the spin of the decay leptons, make an analysis of the background interference effects, or relate the vector meson's vector polarization to other accessible spin observables. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. Annealed n-vector p spin model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taucher, T.; Frankel, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    A disordered n-vector model with p spin interactions is introduced and studied in mean field theory for the annealed case. The complete solutions for the cases n = 2 and n = 3, is presented and explicit order parameter equations is given for all the stable solutions for arbitrary n. For all n and p was found on stable high temperature phase and one stable low temperature phase. The phase transition is of first order. For n = 2, it is continuous in the order parameters for p ≤ 4 and has a jump discontinuity in the order parameters if p > 4. For n = 3, it has a jump discontinuity in the order parameters for all p. 11 refs., 4 figs

  9. Finding a Hadamard matrix by simulated annealing of spin vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu Suksmono, Andriyan

    2017-05-01

    Reformulation of a combinatorial problem into optimization of a statistical-mechanics system enables finding a better solution using heuristics derived from a physical process, such as by the simulated annealing (SA). In this paper, we present a Hadamard matrix (H-matrix) searching method based on the SA on an Ising model. By equivalence, an H-matrix can be converted into a seminormalized Hadamard (SH) matrix, whose first column is unit vector and the rest ones are vectors with equal number of -1 and +1 called SH-vectors. We define SH spin vectors as representation of the SH vectors, which play a similar role as the spins on Ising model. The topology of the lattice is generalized into a graph, whose edges represent orthogonality relationship among the SH spin vectors. Starting from a randomly generated quasi H-matrix Q, which is a matrix similar to the SH-matrix without imposing orthogonality, we perform the SA. The transitions of Q are conducted by random exchange of {+, -} spin-pair within the SH-spin vectors that follow the Metropolis update rule. Upon transition toward zeroth energy, the Q-matrix is evolved following a Markov chain toward an orthogonal matrix, at which the H-matrix is said to be found. We demonstrate the capability of the proposed method to find some low-order H-matrices, including the ones that cannot trivially be constructed by the Sylvester method.

  10. Spin vectors in the Koronis family: III. (832) Karin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slivan, Stephen M.; Molnar, Lawrence A.

    2012-08-01

    Studies of asteroid families constrain models of asteroid collisions and evolution processes, and the Karin cluster within the Koronis family is among the youngest families known (Nesvorný, D., Bottke, Jr., W.F., Dones, L., Levison, H.F. [2002]. Nature 417, 720-722). (832) Karin itself is by far the largest member of the Karin cluster, thus knowledge of Karin's spin vector is important to constrain family formation and evolution models that include spin, and to test whether its spin properties are consistent with the Karin cluster being a very young family. We observed rotation lightcurves of Karin during its four consecutive apparitions in 2006-2009, and combined the new observations with previously published lightcurves to determine its spin vector orientation and preliminary model shape. Karin is a prograde rotator with a period of (18.352 ± 0.003) h, spin obliquity near (42 ± 5)°, and pole ecliptic longitude near either (52 ± 5)° or (230 ± 5)°. The spin vector and shape results for Karin will constrain models of family formation that include spin properties; in the meantime we briefly discuss Karin's own spin in the context of those of other members of the Karin cluster and the parent body's siblings in the Koronis family.

  11. Cancer Feature Selection and Classification Using a Binary Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolong Xi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the feature gene selection for cancer classification, which employs an optimization algorithm to select a subset of the genes. We propose a binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (BQPSO for cancer feature gene selection, coupling support vector machine (SVM for cancer classification. First, the proposed BQPSO algorithm is described, which is a discretized version of original QPSO for binary 0-1 optimization problems. Then, we present the principle and procedure for cancer feature gene selection and cancer classification based on BQPSO and SVM with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV. Finally, the BQPSO coupling SVM (BQPSO/SVM, binary PSO coupling SVM (BPSO/SVM, and genetic algorithm coupling SVM (GA/SVM are tested for feature gene selection and cancer classification on five microarray data sets, namely, Leukemia, Prostate, Colon, Lung, and Lymphoma. The experimental results show that BQPSO/SVM has significant advantages in accuracy, robustness, and the number of feature genes selected compared with the other two algorithms.

  12. Cancer Feature Selection and Classification Using a Binary Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun; Liu, Li; Fan, Fangyun; Wu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the feature gene selection for cancer classification, which employs an optimization algorithm to select a subset of the genes. We propose a binary quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (BQPSO) for cancer feature gene selection, coupling support vector machine (SVM) for cancer classification. First, the proposed BQPSO algorithm is described, which is a discretized version of original QPSO for binary 0-1 optimization problems. Then, we present the principle and procedure for cancer feature gene selection and cancer classification based on BQPSO and SVM with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV). Finally, the BQPSO coupling SVM (BQPSO/SVM), binary PSO coupling SVM (BPSO/SVM), and genetic algorithm coupling SVM (GA/SVM) are tested for feature gene selection and cancer classification on five microarray data sets, namely, Leukemia, Prostate, Colon, Lung, and Lymphoma. The experimental results show that BQPSO/SVM has significant advantages in accuracy, robustness, and the number of feature genes selected compared with the other two algorithms. PMID:27642363

  13. Vector spin modeling for magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage dependent effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Young, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Integration and co-design of CMOS and spin transfer devices requires accurate vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. A physically realistic model of the MTJ should comprehend the spin torque dynamics of nanomagnet interacting with an injected vector spin current and the voltage dependent spin torque. Vector spin modeling allows for calculation of 3 component spin currents and potentials along with the charge currents/potentials in non-collinear magnetic systems. Here, we show 4-component vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction devices coupled with spin transfer torque in the nanomagnet. Nanomagnet dynamics, voltage dependent spin transport, and thermal noise are comprehended in a self-consistent fashion. We show comparison of the model with experimental magnetoresistance (MR) of MTJs and voltage degradation of MR with voltage. Proposed model enables MTJ circuit design that comprehends voltage dependent spin torque effects, switching error rates, spin degradation, and back hopping effects

  14. Magnetic monopole and vector field of the spin 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantyushin, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The motion of electrically charged particles in uniform magnetic field by time is considered. It is found out that additional force acting on eclectically charged particle from the spin 0 vector field side is proportional to the magnetic field. Proportion coefficient is equal to eg/4π (g - unknown parameter, determining of the rate and character of source non-preservation) - the analogue of constant thin structure α=e 2 /4π. Obtained results give evidence to suppose that for explanation of indicated experiments the monopole introduction is not essential

  15. Linearized interactions of scalar and vector fields with the higher spin field in AdSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchyan, K.

    2011-01-01

    The explicit form of linearized gauge and generalized 'Weyl invariant' interactions of scalar and general higher even spin fields in the AdS D space is reviewed. Also a linearized interaction of vector field with general higher even spin gauge field is obtained. It is shown that the gauge-invariant action of linearized vector field interacting with the higher spin field also includes the whole tower of invariant actions for couplings of the same vector field with the gauge fields of smaller even spin

  16. Transverse spin in the scattering of focused radially and azimuthally polarized vector beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankit Kumar; Saha, Sudipta; Gupta, Subhasish Dutta; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2018-04-01

    We study the effect of focusing of the radially and azimuthally polarized vector beams on the spin angular momentum (SAM) density and Poynting vector of scattered waves from a Mie particle. Remarkably, the study reveals that the SAM density of the scattered field is solely transverse in nature for radially and azimuthally polarized incident vector beams; however, the Poynting vector shows the usual longitudinal character. We also demonstrate that the transverse SAM density can further be tuned with wavelength and focusing of the incident beam by exploiting the interference of different scattering modes. These results may stimulate further experimental techniques to detect the transverse spin and Belinfante's spin-momentum densities.

  17. Radiation self-polarization of electrons moving in a magnetic field. [Vector spin operator, relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V G; Dorofeev, O F; Sokolov, A A; Ternov, I M; Khalilov, V R [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-03-11

    When electrons move in a magnetic field, synchrotron radiation gives rise to transitions accompanied by the electron spin reorientation. In this case, it is essential that the transition probability depends on the spin orientation; as a result electron polarization takes place with the spin orientation being predominantly opposite to the direction of the magnetic field. This effect has been called ''radiative self-polarization of electrons''. The present work is concerned with the question how the choice of the spin operator will affect the self-polarization degree and relaxation time. The problem has been solved for a vector spin operator.

  18. Measurement of the depolarization of the reaction 27Al (p vector, p vector.) 27Al for the study of the spin-spin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeh, H.

    1981-01-01

    For the study of the spin-spin interactions in the optical potential the depolarization in the elastic scattering of polarized protons was measured. The double-scattering experiments were performed in the angular range 40 0 -110 0 at an incident energy of 10.35 MeV at the Erlangen QD magnetic spectrometer. The determination of the optical model parameters independent from the spin-spin potentials resulted by the fit of those to the observables and sigmasup(di). These were obtained from a measurement of the angular distribution of the analyzing power and the differential cross section in the 4π-scattering chamber for the reaction 27 Al (p vector,psub(o)) at the same energy. The compound contributions present at this energy, which can also influence the depolarization, were regarded by the calculation of the compound-elastic non-spin-flip respectively spin-flip subcross sections by means of the formalism of Hofmann, Richard, Tepel, and Weidenmueller. Because of the target nucleus 27 Al posesses in the ground state a spin I=5/2 also the possible quadrupole spin flip had to be included in the analysis. This was performed by coupled channel calculations. The depolarization data corrected according to compound contributions and quadrupole effects could now be applied to the study of the spin-spin potentials by means of DWBA calculations. As result it turned out that for the description of the experimental data a spherical spin-spin potential of the strength Vsub(SS)=1.5+-0.3 MeV had to be assumed. For the addition of a tensor term however no necessity resulted. (orig.) [de

  19. Measurement of the depolarization of the reaction 27Al(p vector,p vector.)27Al for the study of the spin-spin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeh, H.

    1981-01-01

    For the study of the spin-spin interaction in the optical potential the depolarisation in the elastic scattering of polarized protons was measured. The double-scattering experiments were performed in the angular range 40 0 -110 0 at an incident energy of 10.35 MeV at the Erlangen QD-magnetic spectrometer. The determination of the optical model parameters independent from the spin-spin potentials was performed by the fitting of these to the observables and sigmasup(di). These were obtained from a measurement of the angular distribution of the analyzing power and the differential cross section in the 4π-scattering chamber for the reaction 27 Al(p vector,p 0 ) at the same energy. The compound contributions present at this energy, which can also influence the depolarization, were regarded by the calculation of the compound-elastic non-spin-flip respectively spin-flip subcross sections by means of the formalism of Hofmann, Richert, Tepel and Weidenmueller. Because the target nucleus 27 Al possesses in the ground state a spin I=5/2, also the possible quadrupole spin flip had to be included. This was performed by coupled-channel calculations. The respecting compound contributions and quadrupole effects corrected depolarization data could by used for the study of the spin-spin potentials by means of DWBA calculations. As result it was shown that for the description of the experimental data a spherical spin-spin potential of the strength Vsub(SS)=1.5+-0.3 MeV had to be assumed. (orig.) [de

  20. Higher spin currents in the critical O(N) vector model at 1/N2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manashov, A.N.; Strohmaier, M.

    2017-06-01

    We calculate the anomalous dimensions of higher spin singlet currents in the critical O(N) vector model at order 1/N 2 . The results are shown to be in agreement with the four-loop perturbative computation in φ 4 theory in 4-2ε dimensions. It is known that the order 1/N anomalous dimensions of higher-spin currents happen to be the same in the Gross-Neveu and the critical vector model. On the contrary, the order 1/N 2 corrections are different. The results can also be interpreted as a prediction for the two-loop computation in the dual higher-spin gravity.

  1. Antiferromagnetic Ising model decorated with D-vector spins: Transversal and longitudinal local fields effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos Dos Santos, R.J.; Coutinho, S.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of a local field acting on decorating classical D-vector bond spins of an antiferromagnetic Ising model on the square lattice is studied for both the annealed isotropic and the axial decorated cases. In both models the effect on the phase diagrams of the transversal and the longitudinal components of the local field acting on the decorating spins are fully analyzed and discussed

  2. A parametric study of the behavior of the angular momentum vector during spin rate changes of rigid body spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuski, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    During a spin-up or spin-down maneuver of a spinning spacecraft, it is usual to have not only a constant body-fixed torque about the desired spin axis, but also small undesired constant torques about the transverse axes. This causes the orientation of the angular momentum vector to change in inertial space. Since an analytic solution is available for the angular momentum vector as a function of time, this behavior can be studied for large variations of the dynamic parameters, such as the initial spin rate, the inertial properties and the torques. As an example, the spin-up and spin-down maneuvers of the Galileo spacecraft was studied and as a result, very simple heuristic solutions were discovered which provide very good approximations to the parametric behavior of the angular momentum vector orientation.

  3. Fermi wave vector for the partially spin-polarized composite-fermion Fermi sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Jain, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The fully spin-polarized composite-fermion (CF) Fermi sea at the half-filled lowest Landau level has a Fermi wave vector kF*=√{4 π ρe } , where ρe is the density of electrons or composite fermions, supporting the notion that the interaction between composite fermions can be treated perturbatively. Away from ν =1 /2 , the area is seen to be consistent with kF*=√{4 π ρe } for ν 1 /2 , where ρh is the density of holes in the lowest Landau level. This result is consistent with particle-hole symmetry in the lowest Landau level. We investigate in this article the Fermi wave vector of the spin-singlet CF Fermi sea (CFFS) at ν =1 /2 , for which particle-hole symmetry is not a consideration. Using the microscopic CF theory, we find that for the spin-singlet CFFS the Fermi wave vectors for up- and down-spin CFFSs at ν =1 /2 are consistent with kF*↑,↓=√{4 π ρe↑,↓ } , where ρe↑=ρe↓=ρe/2 , which implies that the residual interactions between composite fermions do not cause a nonperturbative correction for spin-singlet CFFS either. Our results suggest the natural conjecture that for arbitrary spin polarization the CF Fermi wave vectors are given by kF*↑=√{4 π ρe↑ } and kF*↓=√{4 π ρe↓ } .

  4. ± J D-vector spin glass phase diagram and critical behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutinho, S.; Lyra, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The phase diagram and the correlation length exponents of the ± J D-Vector Spin-Glass model are studied in the framework of the real space mean field renormalization group method. The boundary between the spin-glass (SG) and the ferromagnetic (F) phases is obtained from the renormalization flow equations and shows a reentrant behaviour over the SG region. This re-entrance increases smoothly with the coordination number. Analytical expressions for the thermal and the correlation length exponents are calculated straight forwardly for all fixed points and figures are presented and compared with availables results from other methods and data. (author) [pt

  5. A signature for isoscalar-spin transitions in (d vector, d' vector) scattering at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlet, M.; Bimbot, L.; Guillot, J.; Johnson, B.N.; Jourdan, F.; Langevin-Joliot, H.; Marty, N.; Rosier, L.; Wiele, J. van de; Willis, A.; Beatty, D.; Edwards, G.; Fergerson, R.W.; Glashausser, C.; Green, A.; Djalali, C.; Johnson, B.N.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Youn, M.Y.

    1991-05-01

    Three different signatures for isoscalar spin transitions in nuclei have been tested in the 12 C(d,d') 12 C reaction at 400 MeV. These signatures have values close to zero for the natural parity states, and range from 0.22 to 0.50 for the ΔS=1 ΔT=0, 12.7 MeV state. Preliminary results on 40 Ca(d,d') at 400 MeV are also presented. (author) 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. A technique for measurement of vector and tensor polarization in solid spin one polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielhorn, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    Vector and tensor polarizations are explicitly defined and used to characterize the polarization states of spin one polarized targets, and a technique for extracting these polarizations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is developed. This technique is independent of assumptions about spin temperature, but assumes the target's crystal structure induces a quadrupole interaction with the spin one particles. Analysis of the NMR signals involves a computer curve fitting algorithm implemented with a fast Fourier transform method which speeds and simplifies curve fitting algorithms used previously. For accurate curve fitting, the NMR electronic circuit must be modeled by the fitting algorithm. Details of a circuit, its model, and data collected from this circuit are given for a solid deuterated ammonia target. 37 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs

  7. A technique for measurement of vector and tensor polarization in solid spin one polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielhorn, W.F.

    1991-06-01

    Vector and tensor polarizations are explicitly defined and used to characterize the polarization states of spin one polarized targets, and a technique for extracting these polarizations from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data is developed. This technique is independent of assumptions about spin temperature, but assumes the target's crystal structure induces a quadrupole interaction with the spin one particles. Analysis of the NMR signals involves a computer curve fitting algorithm implemented with a fast Fourier transform method which speeds and simplifies curve fitting algorithms used previously. For accurate curve fitting, the NMR electronic circuit must be modeled by the fitting algorithm. Details of a circuit, its model, and data collected from this circuit are given for a solid deuterated ammonia target. 37 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Discrete Spin Vector Approach for Monte Carlo-based Magnetic Nanoparticle Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkov, Alexander; Peralta, Juan; Sahay, Rahul

    The study of magnetic nanoparticles has gained significant popularity due to the potential uses in many fields such as modern medicine, electronics, and engineering. To study the magnetic behavior of these particles in depth, it is important to be able to model and simulate their magnetic properties efficiently. Here we utilize the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm with a discrete spin vector model (in contrast to the standard continuous model) to model the magnetic hysteresis of a set of protected pure iron nanoparticles. We compare our simulations with the experimental hysteresis curves and discuss the efficiency of our algorithm.

  9. New classes of nonlinear vector coherent states of generalized spin-orbit Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloun, Joseph Ben; Norbert Hounkonnou, Mahouton

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with an extension of our previous work (Ben Geloun and Hounkonnou 2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 F817) by considering an alternative construction of canonical and deformed vector coherent states (VCSs) of the Gazeau-Klauder type associated with generalized spin-orbit Hamiltonians. We define an annihilation operator which takes into account the finite-dimensional space of states induced by the k-photon transition processes of the two-level atom interacting with the single-mode radiation field. The class of nonlinear VCSs (NVCSs) corresponding to the action of the annihilation operator is deduced and expressed in terms of generalized displacement operators. Various NVCSs including their 'dual' counterparts are also discussed. Also, by using the Hilbert space structure, a new family of NVCSs parametrized by unit vectors of the S 3 sphere has been identified without making use of the annihilation operator.

  10. Spin waves in terbium. III. Magnetic anisotropy at zero wave vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Jensen, J.; Touborg, P.

    1975-01-01

    The energy gap at zero wave vector in the spin-wave dispersion relation of ferromagnetic. Tb has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The energy was measured as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field, and the dynamic anisotropy parameters were deduced from the results...... the effects of zero-point deviations from the fully aligned ground state, and we tentatively propose polarization-dependent two-ion couplings as their origin........ The axial anisotropy is found to depend sensitively on the orientation of the magnetic moments in the basal plane. This behavior is shown to be a convincing indication of considerable two-ion contributions to the magnetic anisotropy at zero wave vector. With the exception of the sixfold basal...

  11. Effect of spin-orbit coupling on the wave vector and spin dependent transmission probability for the GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M; Zhao, Z B; Fan, L B

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit coupling (SOC) on the transmission of electrons through the GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is studied. It is found that the Dresselhaus SOC causes the evident dependence of the transmission probability on the spin polarization and the in-plane wave vector of electrons, and also induces evident spin splitting of the resonant peaks in the (E z -k) plane. Because the magnitude of the Rashba SOC is relatively small, its effect on the transmission of electrons is much less. As k increases, the peaks of transmission probability for spin-up electrons (T + ) shift to a higher energy region and increase in magnitude, while the peaks of transmission probability for spin-down electrons (T − ) shift to a lower energy region and decrease in magnitude. The polarization efficiency (P) is found to peak at the resonant energies and increases with the in-plane wave vector. Moreover, the built-in electric field caused by the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization can increase the amplitude of P. Results obtained here are helpful for the efficient spin injection into the III-nitride heterostructures by nonmagnetic means from the device point of view. (paper)

  12. Vector correlation analysis for inelastic and reactive collisions between partners possessing spin and orbital angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S

    2009-12-31

    A general reactive collision of the type A + B --> C + D is considered where both the collision partners (A and B) or the products (C and D) may possess internal, i.e., spin, orbital or rotational, angular momenta. Compact expressions are derived using a rigorous quantum mechanical analysis for the angular momentum anisotropy of either of the products (C or D) arising from an initially polarized distribution of the reactant angular momentum. The angular momentum distribution of the product is expressed in terms of canonical spherical tensors multiplied by anisotropy-transforming coefficients c(K(i)q(k))(K)(K(r),L). These coefficients act as transformation coefficients between the angular momentum anisotropy of the reactants and that of the product. They are independent of scattering angle but depend on the details of the scattering dynamics. The relationship between the coefficients c(K(i)q(k))(K)(K(r),L) and the body-fixed scattering S matrix is given and the methodology for the quantum mechanical calculation of the anisotropy-transforming coefficients is clearly laid out. The anisotropy-transforming coefficients are amenable to direct experimental measurement in a similar manner to vector correlation and alignment parameters in photodissociation processes. A key aspect of the theory is the use of projections of both reactant and product angular momenta onto the product recoil vector direction. An important new conservation rule is revealed through the analysis, namely that if the state multipole for reactant angular momentum distribution has a projection q(k) onto the product recoil vector the state multipoles for the product angular momentum distribution all have this same projection. Expressions are also presented for the distribution of the product angular momentum when its components are evaluated relative to the space-fixed Z-axis. Notes with detailed derivations of all the formulas are available as Supporting Information.

  13. Higher spin currents in the critical O(N) vector model at 1/N{sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manashov, A.N. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Skvortsov, E.D. [Munich Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics; Lebedev Institute of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Strohmaier, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2017-06-15

    We calculate the anomalous dimensions of higher spin singlet currents in the critical O(N) vector model at order 1/N{sup 2}. The results are shown to be in agreement with the four-loop perturbative computation in φ{sup 4} theory in 4-2ε dimensions. It is known that the order 1/N anomalous dimensions of higher-spin currents happen to be the same in the Gross-Neveu and the critical vector model. On the contrary, the order 1/N{sup 2} corrections are different. The results can also be interpreted as a prediction for the two-loop computation in the dual higher-spin gravity.

  14. Real-space observation of a right-rotating inhomogeneous cycloidal spin spiral by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy in a triple axes vector magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckler, S; Mikuszeit, N; Pressler, A; Vedmedenko, E Y; Pietzsch, O; Wiesendanger, R

    2009-10-09

    Using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy performed in a triple axes vector magnet, we show that the magnetic structure of the Fe double layer on W(110) is an inhomogeneous right-rotating cycloidal spin spiral. The magnitude of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vector is extracted from the experimental data using micromagnetic calculations. The result is confirmed by comparison of the measured saturation field along the easy axis to the respective value as obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is too weak to destabilize the single domain state. However, it can define the sense of rotation and the cycloidal spiral type once the single domain state is destabilized by dipolar interaction.

  15. Phase separation in solution of worm-like micelles: a dilute ? spin-vector model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizza, Pascal; Cristobal, Galder; Curély, Jacques

    1998-12-01

    We show how the dilute 0953-8984/10/50/006/img2 spin vector model introduced originally by Wheeler and co-workers for describing the polymerization phenomenon in solutions of liquid sulphur and of living polymers may be conveniently adapted for studying phase separation in systems containing long flexible micelles. We draw an isomorphism between the coupling constant appearing in the exchange Hamiltonian and the surfactant energies in the micellar problem. We solve this problem within the mean-field approximation and compare the main results we have obtained with respect to polymer theory and previous theories of phase separation in micellar solutions. We show that the attractive interaction term 0953-8984/10/50/006/img3 between monomers renormalizes the aggregation energy and subsequently the corresponding size distribution. Under these conditions, we observe that the general aspect of the phase diagram in the 0953-8984/10/50/006/img4 plane (where 0953-8984/10/50/006/img5 is the surfactant concentration) is different from previous results. The spinodal line shows a re-entrant behaviour and, at low concentrations, we point out the possibility of specific nucleation phenomena related to the existence of a metastable transition line between a region composed of spherical micelles and another one corresponding to a dilute solution of long flexible micelles.

  16. An application of vector coherent state theory to the SO95) proton-neutron quasi-spin algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berej, W.

    2002-01-01

    Vector coherent state theory (VCS), developed for computing Lie group and Lie algebra representations and coupling coefficients, has been used for many groups of interest an actual physics applications. It is shown that VCS construction of a rotor type can be performed for the SO(5) ∼ Sp(4) quasi-spin group where the relevant physical subgroup SU(2) x U(1) is generalized by the isospin operators and the number of particle operators [ru

  17. Vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2017-01-01

    should be taken into account in discussing ‘reactions’, which Kress and van Leeuwen link only to eyeline vectors. Finally, the question can be raised as to whether actions are always realized by vectors. Drawing on a re-reading of Rudolf Arnheim’s account of vectors, these issues are outlined......This article revisits the concept of vectors, which, in Kress and van Leeuwen’s Reading Images (2006), plays a crucial role in distinguishing between ‘narrative’, action-oriented processes and ‘conceptual’, state-oriented processes. The use of this concept in image analysis has usually focused...

  18. How are we behaving?

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    It’s almost two years since CERN introduced a Code of Conduct. The results may not be immediately measurable, but I’d like to think it’s made the lab a better place to be. The Code of Conduct is based on values that most of us immediately identify with, and so implementing it comes as second nature. Nevertheless, in an organisation of over 10,000 people, it’s useful to have a set of guidelines and there have been occasions on which it’s been necessary to remind people of them.   I use the figure of 10,000 advisedly since the Code of Conduct applies to us all, those on the CERN payroll as well as users of the lab’s facilities and people working for CERN contractors, as long as they are acting on CERN’s behalf. The Code also applies to us whether we are on the CERN site or anywhere else. CERN is a major presence in the region. The way we behave can have a significant influence on how our neighbours perceive us, and how the la...

  19. Higgs Spin Determination and Unitarity of Vector-boson Scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Jessica

    After the discovery of a new particle at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it is crucial to definitely verify or disprove whether this new 125 − 126 GeV resonance is the Higgs boson of the Standard Model (SM). Thus, its features, including its spin, have to be determined. In order to distinguish the two most likely spin hypotheses, spin-0 or spin-2, the phenomenology of light spin-2 resonances produced in different gluon-fusion and vectorboson-fusion processes at the LHC is studied. Starting from an effective model for the interaction of a spin-2 particle with SM gauge bosons, cross sections and differential distributions are calculated within the Monte Carlo program Vbfnlo. Whereas with specific model parameters, such a spin-2 resonance can mimic rates and transverse-momentum distributions of a SM Higgs boson in the main decay channels γγ, WW and ZZ, several distributions allow to separate spin-2 from spin-0, almost independently of model parameters. Since the SM Higgs boson ensures the unitarity of the S...

  20. Slotted rotatable target assembly and systematic error analysis for a search for long range spin dependent interactions from exotic vector boson exchange using neutron spin rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, C.; Crawford, B.; Fox, W.; Francis, I.; Holley, A.; Magers, S.; Sarsour, M.; Snow, W. M.; Vanderwerp, J.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the design and construction of a novel target array of nonmagnetic test masses used in a neutron polarimetry measurement made in search for new possible exotic spin dependent neutron-atominteractions of Nature at sub-mm length scales. This target was designed to accept and efficiently transmit a transversely polarized slow neutron beam through a series of long open parallel slots bounded by flat rectangular plates. These openings possessed equal atom density gradients normal to the slots from the flat test masses with dimensions optimized to achieve maximum sensitivity to an exotic spin-dependent interaction from vector boson exchanges with ranges in the mm - μm regime. The parallel slots were oriented differently in four quadrants that can be rotated about the neutron beam axis in discrete 90°increments using a Geneva drive. The spin rotation signals from the 4 quadrants were measured using a segmented neutron ion chamber to suppress possible systematic errors from stray magnetic fields in the target region. We discuss the per-neutron sensitivity of the target to the exotic interaction, the design constraints, the potential sources of systematic errors which could be present in this design, and our estimate of the achievable sensitivity using this method.

  1. behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-13

    Jun 13, 2011 ... experiment results of L-glutamic acid fermentation process showed that our ... Key words: Soft-sensing model, quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization ... information about such biochemical variables is, in most practical ...

  2. Modified spin-wave theory with ordering vector optimization: frustrated bosons on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauke, Philipp [ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, Meditarranean Technology Park, E-08860 Castelldefels, Barcelona (Spain); Roscilde, Tommaso [Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee d' Italie, F-69007 Lyon (France); Murg, Valentin; Ignacio Cirac, J; Schmied, Roman, E-mail: Philipp.Hauke@icfo.e [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    We investigate a system of frustrated hardcore bosons, modeled by an XY antiferromagnet on the spatially anisotropic triangular lattice, using Takahashi's modified spin-wave (MSW) theory. In particular, we implement ordering vector optimization on the ordered reference state of MSW theory, which leads to significant improvement of the theory and accounts for quantum corrections to the classically ordered state. The MSW results at zero temperature compare favorably to exact diagonalization (ED) and projected entangled-pair state (PEPS) calculations. The resulting zero-temperature phase diagram includes a one-dimensional (1D) quasi-ordered phase, a 2D Neel ordered phase and a 2D spiraling ordered phase. Strong indications coming from the ED and PEPS calculations, as well as from the breakdown of MSW theory, suggest that the various ordered or quasi-ordered phases are separated by spin-liquid phases with short-range correlations, in analogy to what has been predicted for the Heisenberg model on the same lattice. Within MSW theory, we also explore the finite-temperature phase diagram. In agreement with the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) theory, we find that zero-temperature long-range-ordered phases turn into quasi-ordered phases (up to a BKT transition temperature), while zero-temperature quasi-ordered phases become short-range correlated at finite temperature. These results show that, despite its simplicity, MSW theory is very well suited to describing ordered and quasi-ordered phases of frustrated XY spins (or, equivalently, of frustrated lattice bosons) both at zero and finite temperatures. While MSW theory, just as other theoretical methods, cannot describe spin-liquid phases, its breakdown provides a fast and reliable method for singling out Hamiltonians that may feature these intriguing quantum phases. We thus suggest a tool for guiding our search for interesting systems whose properties are necessarily studied with a physical quantum simulator

  3. On the AdS higher spin / O(N) vector model correspondence: degeneracy of the holographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Danilo E.; Dorn, Harald

    2006-01-01

    We explore the conjectured duality between the critical O(N) vector model and minimal bosonic massless higher spin (HS) theory in AdS. In the free boundary theory, the conformal partial wave expansion (CPWE) of the four-point function of the scalar singlet bilinear is reorganized to make it explicitly crossing-symmetric and closed in the singlet sector, dual to the bulk HS gauge fields. We are able to analytically establish the factorized form of the fusion coefficients as well as the two-point function coefficient of the HS currents. We insist in directly computing the free correlators from bulk graphs with the unconventional branch. The three-point function of the scalar bilinear turns out to be an 'extremal' one at d = 3. The four-point bulk exchange graph can be precisely related to the CPWs of the boundary dual scalar and its shadow. The flow in the IR by Legendre transforming at leading 1/N, following the pattern of double-trace deformations, and the assumption of degeneracy of the hologram lead to the CPWE of the scalar four-point function at IR. Here we confirm some previous results, obtained from more involved computations of skeleton graphs, as well as extend some of them from d = 3 to generic dimension 2 < d < 4

  4. Experimental investigation of vector static magnetic field detection using an NV center with a single first-shell 13C nuclear spin in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng-Jian; Ye, Jian-Feng; Jiao, Zheng; Jiang, Jun; Ma, Kun; Yan, Xin-Hu; Lv, Hai-Jiang

    2018-05-01

    We perform a proof-of-principle experiment that uses a single negatively charged nitrogen–vacancy (NV) color center with a nearest neighbor 13C nuclear spin in diamond to detect the strength and direction (including both polar and azimuth angles) of a static vector magnetic field by optical detection magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique. With the known hyperfine coupling tensor between an NV center and a nearest neighbor 13C nuclear spin, we show that the information of static vector magnetic field could be extracted by observing the pulsed continuous wave (CW) spectrum. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11305074, 11135002, and 11275083), the Key Program of the Education Department Outstanding Youth Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. gxyqZD2017080), and the Education Department Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJHS2015B09).

  5. Spin Chirality of Cu3 and V3 Nanomagnets. 1. Rotation Behavior of Vector Chirality, Scalar Chirality, and Magnetization in the Rotating Magnetic Field, Magnetochiral Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinsky, Moisey I

    2016-05-02

    The rotation behavior of the vector chirality κ, scalar chirality χ, and magnetization M in the rotating magnetic field H1 is considered for the V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets, in which the Dzialoshinsky-Moriya coupling is active. The polar rotation of the field H1 of the given strength H1 results in the energy spectrum characterized by different vector and scalar chiralities in the ground and excited states. The magnetochiral correlations between the vector and scalar chiralities, energy, and magnetization in the rotating field were considered. Under the uniform polar rotation of the field H1, the ground-state chirality vector κI performs sawtooth oscillations and the magnetization vector MI performs the sawtooth oscillating rotation that is accompanied by the correlated transformation of the scalar chirality χI. This demonstrates the magnetochiral effect of the joint rotation behavior and simultaneous frustrations of the spin chiralities and magnetization in the rotating field, which are governed by the correlation between the chiralities and magnetization.

  6. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope operating at 30 mK and in a vector magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Allwörden, Henning; Eich, Andreas; Knol, Elze J; Hermenau, Jan; Sonntag, Andreas; Gerritsen, Jan W; Wegner, Daniel; Khajetoorians, Alexander A

    2018-03-01

    We describe the design and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that operates at a base temperature of 30 mK in a vector magnetic field. The cryogenics is based on an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) top-loading wet dilution refrigerator that contains a vector magnet allowing for fields up to 9 T perpendicular and 4 T parallel to the sample. The STM is placed in a multi-chamber UHV system, which allows in situ preparation and exchange of samples and tips. The entire system rests on a 150-ton concrete block suspended by pneumatic isolators, which is housed in an acoustically isolated and electromagnetically shielded laboratory optimized for extremely low noise scanning probe measurements. We demonstrate the overall performance by illustrating atomic resolution and quasiparticle interference imaging and detail the vibrational noise of both the laboratory and microscope. We also determine the electron temperature via measurement of the superconducting gap of Re(0001) and illustrate magnetic field-dependent measurements of the spin excitations of individual Fe atoms on Pt(111). Finally, we demonstrate spin resolution by imaging the magnetic structure of the Fe double layer on W(110).

  7. Design and performance of an ultra-high vacuum spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope operating at 30 mK and in a vector magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Allwörden, Henning; Eich, Andreas; Knol, Elze J.; Hermenau, Jan; Sonntag, Andreas; Gerritsen, Jan W.; Wegner, Daniel; Khajetoorians, Alexander A.

    2018-03-01

    We describe the design and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that operates at a base temperature of 30 mK in a vector magnetic field. The cryogenics is based on an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) top-loading wet dilution refrigerator that contains a vector magnet allowing for fields up to 9 T perpendicular and 4 T parallel to the sample. The STM is placed in a multi-chamber UHV system, which allows in situ preparation and exchange of samples and tips. The entire system rests on a 150-ton concrete block suspended by pneumatic isolators, which is housed in an acoustically isolated and electromagnetically shielded laboratory optimized for extremely low noise scanning probe measurements. We demonstrate the overall performance by illustrating atomic resolution and quasiparticle interference imaging and detail the vibrational noise of both the laboratory and microscope. We also determine the electron temperature via measurement of the superconducting gap of Re(0001) and illustrate magnetic field-dependent measurements of the spin excitations of individual Fe atoms on Pt(111). Finally, we demonstrate spin resolution by imaging the magnetic structure of the Fe double layer on W(110).

  8. Ratio of spin transfer parameters dt/rt in d(p vector, n vector)pp quasi-elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abegg, R.; Green, W.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Miller, C.A.; Bardyopadhyay, D.; Birchall, J.; Davis, C.A.; Davison, N.E.; Page, S.A.; Ramsay, W.D.; van Oers, W.T.H.; Lapointe, C.; Moss, G.A.; Tkachuk, R.R.

    1988-05-01

    The ratio of spin transfer parameters d t /r t for the quasi-elastic process d(p,n)pp has been measured at four energies between 200 and 500 MeV at a neutron scattering angle of 9 degrees. From this, the following values of D t /R t for free np scattering have been deduced: -0.0190 ± 0.0072 (T p = 223 MeV); -0.2328 ± 0.0057 (324 MeV); -0.3731 ± 0.0068 (425 MeV); -0.4892 ± 0.0107 (492 MeV). These values have a noticeable effect on present day phase shift solutions. The magnitude of the ε 1 mixing parameter is reduced and other phase shifts are smoother around 300 MeV. (Author) (17 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.)

  9. Polarization observable of the elastic vector-p vector-p scattering fort energies up to 2.5 GeV. Experimental determination of spin correlation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, F.

    2001-01-01

    EDDA is an internal experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. The detector is specialized for a detailed study of the elastic proton-proton-scattering and consists of two concentric scintillator hodoscopes of cylindrical symmetry, covering an angular range of 30 ≤θ cm ≤90 in the center of mass system. The reaction vertex and the scattering angle are reconstructed from the points of incidence through the two layers of the detector. The EDDA-Experiment measures angular distributions and excitation functions of five observables of the elastic proton-proton scattering in the energy range 500 MeV≤Tp ≤ 2500 MeV with focus on polarization observables. The first phase was devoted to the measurement of the unpolarized differential cross section dσ/dΩ, the second phase consisted of the measurement of the analyzing power A N . Both are finished and first results have been published. This work deals with the third phase of the EDDA-experiment: the determination of the three spin correlation coeffcients A SS , A NN and A SL , which were measured during three successive beam-times in November/December 1999, May/June 2000 and November/December 2000. For the measurements of the spin observables, a polarized atomic beam target was used with a typical target thickness of 1.8.10 11 cm-2 and effective polarizations between 60% and 70%. Some development during the different beam-times resulted in a polarized COSY-beam with up to 65% polarization at highest energies with 4.10 9 stored protons. These numbers convert into luminosities of 9.0.10 26 cm -2 s -1 ; they were insufficient to perform measurements only during beam acceleration, as it was done for dσ/dΩ and A N to obtain data with sufficient statistics needed for high internal consistency. To accumulate statistics at higher energies, data acquisition for A SS , A NN and A SL during beam acceleration (approx. 2 mio. events) was combined with measurements at some fixed energies. The

  10. Changes in Sensory Responsiveness in Behaving Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-14

    controlled behavioral training and monitoring, and electrophysiological recording in awake , behaving monkeys. All I, research equipment listed in the original...recording from the sensorimotor cortices was conducted on May 21. Under general anesthesia, a craniotomy was performed over the pre- and postcentral cortices...Department of Neurosurgery at U.T. Dr. Klein is somewhat unusual in that he has had previous experience recording from awake , behaving monkeys. The experience

  11. Double-spin asymmetry of J/ψ production in polarized pp-collisions at HERA-N-vector polarized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teryaev, O.; Tkabladze, A.

    1996-01-01

    We calculated the color-octet contribution to the double spin asymmetry of J/ψ hadroproduction with nonzero transverse momenta at fixed target energies √ s ≅ 40 GeV. It is shown that color-octet contribution is dominant in the asymmetries. The expected asymmetries and statistical errors in a future option of HERA with longitudinally polarized protons at √ s = 39 GeV (HERA-N polarized) should allow one to distinguish between different parametrizations for polarized gluon distribution in proton

  12. Responsiveness in Behaving Monkeys and Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-31

    Status of Current Research - Statement of Work Each study involving awake , behaving monkey neurophysiological recording used a behavioral paradigm that...anesthesia. A craniotomy was performed at approximately A+ 14.5mm. The recording chamber then was fixed to the skull at a lateral angle of 8’ from

  13. Production properties of K*(892) vector mesons and their spin alignment as measured in the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, A; Popov, B; Astier, Pierre; Autiero, D; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, M; Banner, M; Bassompierre, G; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A; Bunyatov, S; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Challis, R; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R; Daniels, D; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; Do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, J M; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hubbard, D; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C; Juget, F; Kent, N; Kirsanov, M; Klimov, O; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Lyubushkin, V; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Poulsen, C; Rebuffi, L; Renò, R; Rico, J; Riemann, P; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Samoylov, O; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sconza, A; Sevior, M; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V; Vannucci, F; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zei, R; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2006-01-01

    First measurements of K*(892) mesons production properties and their spin alignment in nu_mu charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) interactions are presented. The analysis of the full data sample of the NOMAD experiment is performed in different kinematic regions. For K*+ and K*- mesons produced in nu_mu CC interactions and decaying into K0 pi+/- we have found the following yields per event: (2.6 +/- 0.2 (stat.) +/- 0.2 (syst.))% and (1.6 +/- 0.1 (stat.) +/- 0.1 (syst.))% respectively, while for the K*+ and K*- mesons produced in nu NC interactions the corresponding yields per event are: (2.5 +/- 0.3 (stat.) +/- 0.3 (syst.))% and (1.0 +/- 0.3 (stat.) +/- 0.2 (syst.))%. The results obtained for the rho00 parameter, 0.40 +/- 0.06 (stat) +/- 0.03 (syst) and 0.28 +/- 0.07 (stat) +/- 0.03 (syst) for K*+ and K*- produced in nu_mu CC interactions, are compared to theoretical predictions tuned on LEP measurements in e+e- annihilation at the Z0 pole. For K*+ mesons produced in nu NC interactions the measured r...

  14. Precise determination of the spin-transfer coefficient K sub N sub sub N sub ' for n-vector p elastic scattering at 187 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Wissink, S W; Franklin, W A; Jacobs, W W; Peterson, T; Rinckel, T; Sowinski, J; Stephenson, E J; Wolanski, M; Yang, H

    2000-01-01

    We have measured the normal-component spin-transfer observable K sub N sub sub N sub ' for n-vector p elastic scattering to a precision of approx +-0.014 at 12 angles in the far-backward region (110 deg. <= theta sub c sub m <= 170 deg. ) at a neutron bombarding energy of 187 MeV. This kinematic regime is of particular interest in that the scattering is mediated predominantly through exchange of a single charged pion, and hence is expected to depend sensitively on the strength of the pi sup+-N N coupling constant g sup 2 sub c , a quantity whose precise value remains highly controversial. The measurements described here were carried out at the upgraded Polarized Neutron Facility at IUCF. Details of our experimental apparatus, and the analysis procedures we employed, will be discussed, paying particular attention to potential sources of systematic error and their effect on the data. Our primary result is that preliminary values for K sub N sub sub N sub ' appear to agree most closely with the predictions...

  15. Vector-Vector Scattering on the Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-López, Fernando; Urbach, Carsten; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2018-03-01

    In this work we present an extension of the LüScher formalism to include the interaction of particles with spin, focusing on the scattering of two vector particles. The derived formalism will be applied to Scalar QED in the Higgs Phase, where the U(1) gauge boson acquires mass.

  16. Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2013-01-01

    We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force–distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion–surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high–free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends. PMID:23716690

  17. Spin-polarized SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoto, Makoto

    2007-01-01

    Development of highly effective evaluation technology of magnetic structures on a nanometric scale is a key to understanding spintronics and related phenomena. A high-resolution spin-polarized scanning electron microscope (spin SEM) developed recently is quite suitable for probing such nanostructures because of the capability of analyzing local magnetization vectors in three dimensions. Utilizing the spin SEM, a layered antiferromagnetic structure with the 1nm-alternation of bilayer-sheet magnetization has been successfully resolved. The real-space imaging with full analysis of the temperature-dependent magnetization vectors will be demonstrated. (author)

  18. Some recent developments in spin glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I give some experimental and theoretical background to spin glasses, and then discuss the nature of the phase transition in spin glasses with vector spins. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of the Heisenberg spin glass model in three dimensions are presented. A finite-size scaling analysis of the correlation length of the ...

  19. Transition currents in diagonal spin basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogalev, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    Scalar and pseudoscalar densities, vector, pseudovector and tensor currents are expressed in terms of momentum and spin vectors of the corresponding particles in an explicitly covariant way. The obtained expressions are free of singularities and make it possible to draw a number of identities, which relate axial-vector, vector and tensor currents to each other. 8 refs

  20. High-resolution vector magnetometry: Piezo-spin-polarization effect and in-plane strain-induced dominating uniaxial magnetic anisotropy in a 200-nm-thick Ni thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, L.

    2018-04-01

    Owing to its high-sensitivity, reliability, fast, versatile and cost-effective operation, vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM) are massively popular characterization instruments at Magnetism laboratories worldwide. Nevertheless, the inherent appearance of synchronous noise represents a major drawback, which critically limits the fine probing of nanometer-sized media. I here report on an innovative approach to eliminate synchronous noise in VSM. This consists of fitting engineered mechanical devices that absorbs vibration energy, dissipating that into heat. Complementarily, a novel transversal pick-up coil system is also presented and analyzed; this detection system has been engineered to enhance the noise-to-signal ratio and optimized for measuring small size thin film samples. The implementation of a combined mechanical and electromagnetic approach enables to notably enhance the VSM performance, achieving a sensitivity better than 1 ×10-6 emu and a resolution below 5 ×10-8 emu, so that the magnetization vector in nanostructured media can be accurately mapped out down to cryogenic temperatures. I lastly show precision magnetometry measurements carried out in an epitaxial (0 0 1)-oriented 200 nm-thick Ni thin film. The analysis reveals the arising of an in-plane dominating strain-induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, K2ef = - 6.455kJ m - 3 , and a stunning piezo-spin-polarization effect resulting in a remarkable 10% modulation of the magnetization vector, ∼ 27 emu/cm3, with respect to the cubic lattice axes. Both effects are attributed to the likely existence of an orthorhombic lattice distortion, i.e.εxx -εyy ≈ - 2 ×10-3 . This categorical link enables to assign the observed anisotropic spin-polarization in the Ni overlayer to a two-ion magnetoelastic coupling effect.

  1. Realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Xiaohui [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Laboratory for spin photonics, College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Department of Physics and Electronic Information Science, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421002 (China); Yi, Xunong [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Zhou, Xinxing; Liu, Yachao; Shu, Weixing; Wen, Shuangchun [Laboratory for spin photonics, College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Luo, Hailu, E-mail: hailuluo@hnu.edu.cn [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Center for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, and Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Laboratory for spin photonics, College of Physics and Microelectronic Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2014-10-13

    We report the realization of tunable spin-dependent splitting in intrinsic photonic spin Hall effect. By breaking the rotational symmetry of a cylindrical vector beam, the intrinsic vortex phases that the two spin components of the vector beam carries, which is similar to the geometric Pancharatnam-Berry phase, are no longer continuous in the azimuthal direction, and leads to observation of spin accumulation at the opposite edge of the beam. Due to the inherent nature of the phase and independency of light-matter interaction, the observed photonic spin Hall effect is intrinsic. Modulating the topological charge of the vector beam, the spin-dependent splitting can be enhanced and the direction of spin accumulation is switchable. Our findings may provide a possible route for generation and manipulation of spin-polarized photons, and enables spin-based photonics applications.

  2. Frustrated spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book covers all principal aspects of currently investigated frustrated systems, from exactly solved frustrated models to real experimental frustrated systems, going through renormalization group treatment, Monte Carlo investigation of frustrated classical Ising and vector spin models, low-dimensional systems, spin ice and quantum spin glass. The reader can - within a single book - obtain a global view of the current research development in the field of frustrated systems.This new edition is updated with recent theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in the field of frustrated

  3. O+ + 1+ → O+ + O- spin-parity configuration via 16O(d vector,α3)14N reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.C.F.

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on the 16 O(d vector,α 3 ) 14 N(4.913 MeV) reaction in 30 keV steps for 5.98 less than or equal to E/sub d/ less than or equal to 7.00 MeV. The differential cross section and vector analyzing power were measured simultaneously at 10 to 13 angles in a differentially pumped gas chamber. Vector polarized deuterons from the University of Wisconsin Polarized Ion-Source were used as well as unpolarized deuterons from a direct extraction negative ion source. The resonant behavior in the cross sections indicates that the reaction proceeds primarily through a compound nucleus channel. The complex S-matrix elements S/sub J, J +- 1/ represent the scattering amplitude from the incoming channel with orbital angular momentum J to the outgoing channel with orbital angular momentum J +- 1; S/sub J, J/ = 0 because of the conservation of parity and angular momentum; J/sub M/ is the maximum J-value necessary to give satisfactory fits to the data. The number of sets of S-matrix elements that give identical differential cross sections and vector analyzing powers. However, the tensor analyzing power, calculated from these ambiguous solutions, are shown to be nondegenerate. The tensor differential cross section were measured in 120 keV steps at 13 angles for 6.04 less than or equal to E/sub d/ less than or equal to 7.00 MeV. The physical solution set was selected on the basis of minimal chi square in fitting the tensor angular distribution and the continuity of S-matrix elements for energy to energy. The S-matrix elements were then parametrized as a coherent sum of twenty-eight Breit--Wigner resonances. The J/sup π/, E/sub lambda/, GAMMA/sub lambda/, r/sub lambda/, β/sub lambda/ and S/sub lambda/(E/sub lambda/) for each of the corresponding 18 F states are presented. The unnatural parity states, π = (-)/sup J + 1/ seen by the present study are compared with the known natural parity states in the same excitation region of 18 F

  4. The spin-s quantum Heisenberg ferromagnetic models in the physical magnon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, B.-G.; Pu, F.-C.

    2001-01-01

    The spin-s quantum Heisenberg ferromagnetic model is investigated in the physical magnon theory. The effect of the extra unphysical magnon states on every site is completely removed in the magnon Hamiltonian and during approximation procedure so that the condition †n i a n i >=0(n≥2s+1) is rigorously satisfied. The physical multi-magnon occupancy †n i a n i >(1≤n≤2s) is proportional to T 3n/2 at low temperature and is equivalent to 1/(2s+1) at the Curie temperature. The magnetization not only unified but also well-behaved from zero temperature to Curie temperature is obtained in the framework of the magnon theory for the spin-s quantum Heisenberg ferromagnetic model. The ill-behaved magnetizations at high temperature in earlier magnon theories are completely corrected. The relation of magnon (spin wave) theory with spin-operator decoupling theory is clearly understood

  5. The invariance of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramson, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    An isolated system in general relativity makes a transition between stationary states. It is shown that the spin vectors of the system, long before and long after the emission of radiation, are supertranslation invariant and, hence, independent of the choice of Minkowski observation space. (author)

  6. Concurrent reflectance imaging and microdialysis in the freely behaving cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poe, G R; Nitz, D A; Rector, D M

    1996-01-01

    We present a method to perform simultaneous microdialysis with light reflectance imaging of neural activity in a discrete brain region of the freely behaving animal. We applied this method to the dorsal hippocampus of freely behaving cats to (1) measure extracellular glutamate and reflectance...... imaged neural activity. Sequential images showed that cocaine perfusion elicited a propagating reflectance change as cocaine reached the tissue. Microperfusion of hypo-osmotic solution ( - 100 mOsm), which increases cell volume, decreased reflectance. Microperfusion of hyperosmotic sucrose solutions...

  7. Shot noise of spin current and spin transfer torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunjin; Zhan, Hongxin; Wan, Langhui; Wang, Bin; Wei, Yadong; Sun, Qingfeng; Wang, Jian

    2013-04-01

    We report the theoretical investigation of the shot noise of the spin current (Sσ) and the spin transfer torque (Sτ) for non-collinear spin polarized transport in a spin-valve device which consists of a normal scattering region connected by two ferromagnetic electrodes (MNM system). Our theory was developed using the non-equilibrium Green’s function method, and general nonlinear Sσ - V and Sτ - V relations were derived as a function of the angle θ between the magnetizations of two leads. We have applied our theory to a quantum dot system with a resonant level coupled with two ferromagnetic electrodes. It was found that, for the MNM system, the auto-correlation of the spin current is enough to characterize the fluctuation of the spin current. For a system with three ferromagnetic layers, however, both auto-correlation and cross-correlation of the spin current are needed to characterize the noise of the spin current. For a quantum dot with a resonant level, the derivative of spin torque with respect to bias voltage is proportional to sinθ when the system is far away from resonance. When the system is near resonance, the spin transfer torque becomes a non-sinusoidal function of θ. The derivative of the noise of the spin transfer torque with respect to the bias voltage Nτ behaves differently when the system is near or far away from resonance. Specifically, the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque Nτ is a concave function of θ near resonance while it becomes a convex function of θ far away from resonance. For certain bias voltages, the period Nτ(θ) becomes π instead of 2π. For small θ, it was found that the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque is very sensitive to the bias voltage and the other system parameters.

  8. Shot noise of spin current and spin transfer torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yunjin; Zhan Hongxin; Wan Langhui; Wang Bin; Wei Yadong; Sun Qingfeng; Wang Jian

    2013-01-01

    We report the theoretical investigation of the shot noise of the spin current (S σ ) and the spin transfer torque (S τ ) for non-collinear spin polarized transport in a spin-valve device which consists of a normal scattering region connected by two ferromagnetic electrodes (MNM system). Our theory was developed using the non-equilibrium Green’s function method, and general nonlinear S σ − V and S τ − V relations were derived as a function of the angle θ between the magnetizations of two leads. We have applied our theory to a quantum dot system with a resonant level coupled with two ferromagnetic electrodes. It was found that, for the MNM system, the auto-correlation of the spin current is enough to characterize the fluctuation of the spin current. For a system with three ferromagnetic layers, however, both auto-correlation and cross-correlation of the spin current are needed to characterize the noise of the spin current. For a quantum dot with a resonant level, the derivative of spin torque with respect to bias voltage is proportional to sinθ when the system is far away from resonance. When the system is near resonance, the spin transfer torque becomes a non-sinusoidal function of θ. The derivative of the noise of the spin transfer torque with respect to the bias voltage N τ behaves differently when the system is near or far away from resonance. Specifically, the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque N τ is a concave function of θ near resonance while it becomes a convex function of θ far away from resonance. For certain bias voltages, the period N τ (θ) becomes π instead of 2π. For small θ, it was found that the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque is very sensitive to the bias voltage and the other system parameters. (paper)

  9. MEASUREMENT OF POLARIZATION OBSERVABLES IN VECTOR MESON PHOTOPRODUCTION USING A TRANSVERSELY-POLARIZED FROZEN-SPIN TARGET AND POLARIZED PHOTONS AT CLAS, JEFFERSON LAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Priyashree [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The study of baryon resonances provides a deeper understanding of the strong interaction because the dynamics and relevant degrees of freedom hidden within them are re ected by the properties of the excited states of baryons. Higher-lying excited states at and above 1.7 GeV/c2 are generally predicted to have strong couplings to final states involving a heavier meson, e. g. one of the vector mesons, ρ, ω φ, as compared to a lighter pseudoscalar meson, e. g. π and η. Decays to the ππΝ final states via πΔ also become more important through the population of intermediate resonances. We observe that nature invests in mass rather than momentum. The excited states of the nucleon are usually found as broadly overlapping resonances which may decay into a multitude of final states involving mesons and baryons. Polarization observables make it possible to isolate single resonance contributions from other interference terms. The CLAS g9 (FROST) experiment, as part of the N* spectroscopy program at Je?erson Laboratory, accumulated photoproduction data using circularly- & linearly-polarized photons incident on a transversely-polarized butanol target (g9b experiment) in the photon energy range 0:3-2:4 GeV & 0:7-2:1 GeV, respectively. In this work, the analysis of reactions and polarization observables which involve two charged pions, either in the fully exclusive reaction γρ -> ρπ+π- or in the semi-exclusive reaction with a missing neutral pion, γρ -> ρπ+π-(π0) will be presented. For the reaction ρπ+π-, eight polarization observables (Is, Ic, Px, Py, Psx; y, Pcx; y) have been extracted. The high statistics data rendered it possible to extract these observables in three dimensions. All of them are first-time measurements. The fairly good agreement of Is, Ic obtained from this analysis with the experimental results from a previous CLAS experiment provides support for the first-time measurements. For the reaction γρ -> ρω -> ρπ+π(π0, five polarization

  10. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  11. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  12. A Novel Distributed Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO is an improved version of particle swarm optimization (PSO and has shown superior performance on many optimization problems. But for now, it may not always satisfy the situations. Nowadays, problems become larger and more complex, and most serial optimization algorithms cannot deal with the problem or need plenty of computing cost. Fortunately, as an effective model in dealing with problems with big data which need huge computation, MapReduce has been widely used in many areas. In this paper, we implement QPSO on MapReduce model and propose MapReduce quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (MRQPSO which achieves parallel and distributed QPSO. Comparisons are made between MRQPSO and QPSO on some test problems and nonlinear equation systems. The results show that MRQPSO could complete computing task with less time. Meanwhile, from the view of optimization performance, MRQPSO outperforms QPSO in many cases.

  13. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  14. Comparative Aspects of Spin-Dependent Interaction Potentials for Spin-1/2 and Spin-1 Matter Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Malta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to establish a comparative study between classes of spin- and velocity-dependent potentials for spin-1/2 and spin-1 matter currents/sources in the nonrelativistic regime. Both (neutral massive scalar and vector particles are considered to mediate the interactions between (pseudo-scalar sources or (pseudo-vector currents. Though our discussion is more general, we contemplate specific cases in which our results may describe the electromagnetic interaction with a massive (Proca-type photon exchanged between two spin-1/2 or two spin-1 carriers. We highlight the similarities and peculiarities of the potentials for the two different types of charged matter and also focus our attention on the comparison between the particular aspects of two different field representations for spin-1 matter particles. We believe that our results may contribute to a further discussion of the relation between charge, spin, and extensibility of elementary particles.

  15. Gauge anomaly with vector and axial-vector fields in 6D curved space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kohei; Fukuda, Makoto; Oka, Tomonori

    2018-03-01

    Imposing the conservation equation of the vector current for a fermion of spin 1/2 at the quantum level, a gauge anomaly for the fermion coupling with non-Abelian vector and axial-vector fields in 6D curved space is expressed in tensorial form. The anomaly consists of terms that resemble the chiral U(1) anomaly and the commutator terms that disappear if the axial-vector field is Abelian.

  16. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  17. Theory of high-resolution tunneling spin transport on a magnetic skyrmion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palotás, Krisztián; Rózsa, Levente; Szunyogh, László

    2018-05-01

    Tunneling spin transport characteristics of a magnetic skyrmion are described theoretically in magnetic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The spin-polarized charge current in STM (SP-STM) and tunneling spin transport vector quantities, the longitudinal spin current and the spin transfer torque, are calculated in high spatial resolution within the same theoretical framework. A connection between the conventional charge current SP-STM image contrasts and the magnitudes of the spin transport vectors is demonstrated that enables the estimation of tunneling spin transport properties based on experimentally measured SP-STM images. A considerable tunability of the spin transport vectors by the involved spin polarizations is also highlighted. These possibilities and the combined theory of tunneling charge and vector spin transport pave the way for gaining deep insight into electric-current-induced tunneling spin transport properties in SP-STM and to the related dynamics of complex magnetic textures at surfaces.

  18. Vector boson excitations near deconfined quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Yejin; Strack, Philipp; Sachdev, Subir

    2013-10-18

    We show that the Néel states of two-dimensional antiferromagnets have low energy vector boson excitations in the vicinity of deconfined quantum critical points. We compute the universal damping of these excitations arising from spin-wave emission. Detection of such a vector boson will demonstrate the existence of emergent topological gauge excitations in a quantum spin system.

  19. Geometrical spin symmetry and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, I. B.

    2011-01-01

    Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.

  20. High spin-filter efficiency and Seebeck effect through spin-crossover iron–benzene complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Qiang; Zhou, Liping, E-mail: zhoulp@suda.edu.cn; Cheng, Jue-Fei; Wen, Zhongqian; Han, Qin; Wang, Xue-Feng [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2016-04-21

    Electronic structures and coherent quantum transport properties are explored for spin-crossover molecule iron-benzene Fe(Bz){sub 2} using density functional theory combined with non-equilibrium Green’s function. High- and low-spin states are investigated for two different lead-molecule junctions. It is found that the asymmetrical T-shaped contact junction in the high-spin state behaves as an efficient spin filter while it has a smaller conductivity than that in the low-spin state. Large spin Seebeck effect is also observed in asymmetrical T-shaped junction. Spin-polarized properties are absent in the symmetrical H-shaped junction. These findings strongly suggest that both the electronic and contact configurations play significant roles in molecular devices and metal-benzene complexes are promising materials for spintronics and thermo-spintronics.

  1. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  2. Anticipating and Resisting the Temptation to Behave Unethically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Oliver J; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-07-01

    Ethical dilemmas pose a self-control conflict between pursuing immediate benefits through behaving dishonestly and pursuing long-term benefits through acts of honesty. Therefore, factors that facilitate self-control for other types of goals (e.g., health and financial) should also promote ethical behavior. Across four studies, we find support for this possibility. Specifically, we find that only under conditions that facilitate conflict identification--including the consideration of several decisions simultaneously (i.e., a broad decision frame) and perceived high connectedness to the future self--does anticipating a temptation to behave dishonestly in advance promote honesty. We demonstrate these interaction patterns between conflict identification and temptation anticipation in negotiation situations (Study 1), lab tasks (Study 2), and ethical dilemmas in the workplace (Studies 3-4). We conclude that identifying a self-control conflict and anticipating a temptation are two necessary preconditions for ethical decision making. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...

  4. ASTEROID SPIN VECTORS V4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a tabulation of determinations of asteroid pole orientations gathered from the literature from 1932 through 1995. It is an updated (Dec. 1995) version of the...

  5. NMR studies of spin dynamics in cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, M.; Mitzi, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report recent NMR results in cuprates. The oxygen Knight shift and the Cu nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in Bi 2.1 Sr 1.94 Ca 0.88 Cu 2.07 O 8+σ single crystals revealed a gapless superconducting state, which can be most naturally explained by a d-wave pairing state and the intrinsic disorder in this material. The Cu nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate in underdoped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.63 shows distinct temperature dependence from the spin-lattice relaxation rate, providing direct evidence for a pseudo spin-gap near the antiferromagnetic wave vector

  6. NMR studies of spin dynamics in cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, M.; Mitzi, D. B.

    1994-04-01

    We report recent NMR results in cuprates. The oxygen Knight shift and the Cu nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate in Bi2.1Sr1.94Ca0.88Cu2.07O8+δ single crystals revealed a gapless superconducting state, which can be most naturally explained by a d-wave pairing state and the intrinsic disorder in this material. The Cu nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.63 shows distinct temperature dependence from the spin-lattice relaxation rate, providing direct evidence for a pseudo spin-gap near the antiferromagnetic wave vector.

  7. Spin orientation for nearby galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, I.D.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial orientations and the absolute values of angular momentum are determined for galaxies in the Local Group and the M 81/IC 342 group. For this purpose, the data on both velocity field and the dust knots configuration have been used. The spin direction has been established unambiguously for 21 objects; however, for the remaining 14 dwarf members the spin orientations are presented by pairs of alternative directions. The distribution of the spin vectors on the sky does not slow pronounced sings of anisotropy

  8. Spin analysis of supersymmetric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.Y.; Martyn, H.U.

    2006-12-01

    The spin of supersymmetric particles can be determined at e + e - colliders unambiguously. This is demonstrated for a characteristic set of non-colored supersymmetric particles -- smuons, selectrons, and charginos/neutralinos. The analysis is based on the threshold behavior of the excitation curves for pair production in e + e - collisions, the angular distribution in the production process and decay angular distributions. In the first step we present the observables in the helicity formalism for the supersymmetric particles. Subsequently we confront the results with corresponding analyses of Kaluza-Klein particles in theories of universal extra space dimensions which behave distinctly different from supersymmetric theories. It is shown in the third step that a set of observables can be designed which signal the spin of supersymmetric particles unambiguously without any model assumptions. Finally in the fourth step it is demonstrated that the determination of the spin of supersymmetric particles can be performed experimentally in practice at an e + e - collider. (orig.)

  9. The olfactory tubercle encodes odor valence in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A; Tylicki, Kate A; Christian, Diana L; Wesson, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Sensory information acquires meaning to adaptively guide behaviors. Despite odors mediating a number of vital behaviors, the components of the olfactory system responsible for assigning meaning to odors remain unclear. The olfactory tubercle (OT), a ventral striatum structure that receives monosynaptic input from the olfactory bulb, is uniquely positioned to transform odor information into behaviorally relevant neural codes. No information is available, however, on the coding of odors among OT neurons in behaving animals. In recordings from mice engaged in an odor discrimination task, we report that the firing rate of OT neurons robustly and flexibly encodes the valence of conditioned odors over identity, with rewarded odors evoking greater firing rates. This coding of rewarded odors occurs before behavioral decisions and represents subsequent behavioral responses. We predict that the OT is an essential region whereby odor valence is encoded in the mammalian brain to guide goal-directed behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354515-13$15.00/0.

  10. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  11. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, R.A.; Smith, L.M.

    1994-12-27

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site. 2 figures.

  12. Long-range interaction between spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.C.; Pradhan, T.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that invariance of Lagrangian field theory under a class of the coordinate-dependent Lorentz group of transformations requires the introduction of a massless axial vector gauge field which gives rise to a super-weak long-range spin-spin force between particles in vacuum. Recent experiments demonstrating repulsion and attraction between circularly polarised laser beams are interpreted to be due to such a force enhanced by spin polarisation of sodium vapour, through which these beams pass. (author)

  13. BehavePlus fire modeling system, version 5.0: Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    2009-01-01

    This publication has been revised to reflect updates to version 4.0 of the BehavePlus software. It was originally published as the BehavePlus fire modeling system, version 4.0: Variables in July, 2008.The BehavePlus fire modeling system is a computer program based on mathematical models that describe wildland fire behavior and effects and the...

  14. Equivalent Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  15. Table for constructing the spin coefficients in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocke, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    The spin coefficients in spinor calculus in Riemannian space-time are linear functions of the curls of the connecting quantities (the Infeld--Van der Waerden symbols). We show that in the Newman-Penrose formalism the expressions for the spin coefficients are quite manageable, if they are written in terms of the Newman-Penrose tetrad vectors. We present a table of the components of the spin coefficients explicitly in terms of the curls of the individual tetrad vectors

  16. Pupils' reasons for learning and behaving and for not learning and behaving in English and maths lessons in a secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, B

    1999-12-01

    There is renewed interest in motivation and school learning, though there has been relatively little theory-linked research in English schools. In the first stage, to explore pupils' reasons for learning and behaving and for not learning and behaving in English, maths and other subjects. In the second stage, to examine differences in reasons across subjects, for learning and behaving and for not learning and behaving for boys and girls in two year groups in one secondary school. Stage 1, 16 pupils in years 7, 8 and 9 in two London secondary schools; Stage 2, 267 pupils in years 7 and 9 in one of these schools. Stage 1--semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit different kinds of reasons conceptualised in terms of the Deci & Ryan's (1985) framework of self-determination. From these elicited reasons, an inventory 'Why I Learn' was designed. Stage 2--the inventory was administered to identify reasons for learning and behaving and for not learning and behaving in English and maths. Parent introjected reasons were the highest for learning and behaving while teacher introjected and intrinsic reasons were the lowest. Intrinsic reasons were highest for not learning and behaving. Year group differences in reason levels were more significant than gender or subject differences. Reasons for learning and behaving were more differentiated from each other than reasons for not learning and behaving. The results are discussed in terms of their significance for self-determination theory, research into the conditions promoting greater self-determination in school learning and further development of the inventory for programme evaluation.

  17. Vector mesons and chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1989-01-01

    The ambiguities in the off-shell behaviour of spin-1 exchange can be resolved to O(p 4 ) in the chiral low-energy expansion if the asymptotic behaviour of QCD is properly incorporated. As a consequence, the chiral version of vector (and axial-vector) meson dominance is model independent. Additional high-energy constraints motivated by QCD determine the V,A resonance couplings uniquely. In particular, QCD in its effective chiral realization sucessfully predicts Γ(ρ→2π). 10 refs. (Author)

  18. Voluntary running enhances glymphatic influx in awake behaving, young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Holstein-Rathlou, Stephanie; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2018-01-01

    Vascular pathology and protein accumulation contribute to cognitive decline, whereas exercise can slow vascular degeneration and improve cognitive function. Recent investigations suggest that glymphatic clearance measured in aged mice while anesthetized is enhanced following exercise. We predicted that exercise would also stimulate glymphatic activity in awake, young mice with higher baseline glymphatic function. Therefore, we assessed glymphatic function in young female C57BL/6J mice following five weeks voluntary wheel running and in sedentary mice. The active mice ran a mean distance of 6km daily. We injected fluorescent tracers in cisterna magna of awake behaving mice and in ketamine/xylazine anesthetized mice, and later assessed tracer distribution in coronal brain sections. Voluntary exercise consistently increased CSF influx during wakefulness, primarily in the hypothalamus and ventral parts of the cortex, but also in the middle cerebral artery territory. While glymphatic activity was higher under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia, we saw a decrease in glymphatic function during running in awake mice after five weeks of wheel running. In summary, daily running increases CSF flux in widespread areas of the mouse brain, which may contribute to the pro-cognitive effects of exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypothesis: solid tumours behave as systemic metabolic dictators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Ming; Chang, Wei-Chun; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2016-06-01

    Current knowledge regarding mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human beings centres around the accumulation of genetic instability, amplified cellular signalling, disturbed cellular energy metabolism and microenvironmental regulation governed by complicated cell-cell interactions. In this article, we provide an alternative view of cancer biology. We propose that cancer behaves as a systemic dictator that interacts with tissues throughout the body to control their metabolism and eventually homeostasis. The mechanism of development of this endocrine organ-like tumour (EOLT) tissue might be the driving force for cancer progression. Here, we review the literature that led to the development of this hypothesis. The EOLT phenotype can be defined as a tumour that alters systemic homeostasis. The literature indicates that the EOLT phenotype is present throughout cancer progression. The feedback mechanism that governs the interaction between tumours and various organs is unknown. We believe that investigating the mechanism of EOLT development may advance the current knowledge of regulation within the tumour macroenvironment and consequently lead to new diagnostic methods and therapy. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  1. Spin Hall effect on a noncommutative space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Kai; Dulat, Sayipjamal

    2011-01-01

    We study the spin-orbital interaction and the spin Hall effect of an electron moving on a noncommutative space under the influence of a vector potential A(vector sign). On a noncommutative space, we find that the commutator between the vector potential A(vector sign) and the electric potential V 1 (r(vector sign)) of the lattice induces a new term, which can be treated as an effective electric field, and the spin Hall conductivity obtains some correction. On a noncommutative space, the spin current and spin Hall conductivity have distinct values in different directions, and depend explicitly on the noncommutative parameter. Once this spin Hall conductivity in different directions can be measured experimentally with a high level of accuracy, the data can then be used to impose bounds on the value of the space noncommutativity parameter. We have also defined a new parameter, σ=ρθ (ρ is the electron concentration, θ is the noncommutativity parameter), which can be measured experimentally. Our approach is based on the Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, which gives a general Hamiltonian of a nonrelativistic electron moving on a noncommutative space.

  2. Spin doctoring

    OpenAIRE

    Vozková, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...

  3. Measurement of K/sub NN/, K/sub LL/ in p vector d → n vector X and p vector 9Be → n vector X at 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, P.J.; Hollas, C.L.; Newsom, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The spin transfer parameters, K/sub NN/ and K/sub LL/, have been measured in p vector d → n vector X and p vector 9 Be → n vector X at 0 0 and 800 MeV. The rather large values of K/sub LL/ demonstrate that this transfer mechanism will provide a useful source of polarized neutrons at LAMPF energies

  4. Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Haiming; Brechet, Sylvain D.; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal

  5. Semiconductors put spin in spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Dieter

    2000-01-01

    Electrons and holes, which carry the current in semiconductor devices, are quantum-mechanical objects characterized by a set of quantum numbers - the band index, the wave-vector (which is closely related to the electron or hole velocity) and spin. The spin, however, is one of the strangest properties of particles. In simple terms, we can think of the spin as an internal rotation of the electron, but it has no classical counterpart. The spin is connected to a quantized magnetic moment and hence acts as a microscopic magnet. Thus the electron spin can adopt one of two directions (''up'' or ''down'') in a magnetic field. The spin plays no role in conventional electronics and the current in any semiconductor device is made up of a mixture of electrons with randomly oriented spins. However, a new range of electronic devices that transport the spin of the electrons, in addition to their charge, is being developed. But the biggest obstacle to making practical ''spin electronic'' or ''spintronic'' devices so far has been finding a way of injecting spin-polarized electrons or holes into the semiconductor and then detecting them. Recently a team of physicists from the University of Wuerzburg in Germany, and also a collaboration of researchers from Tohoku University in Japan and the University of California at Santa Barbara, have found a way round these problems using either semi-magnetic or ferromagnetic semiconductors as ''spin aligners'' (R Fiederling et al. 1999 Nature 402 787; Y Ohno et al. 1999 Nature 402 790). In this article the author presents the latest breakthrough in spintronics research. (UK)

  6. Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haiming, E-mail: haiming.yu@buaa.edu.cn [Fert Beijing Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, BDBC, Beihang University (China); Brechet, Sylvain D. [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland); Ansermet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.ansermet@epfl.ch [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland)

    2017-03-03

    Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal

  7. Does the delta quench Gamow-Teller strength in (p,n)- and (p vector,p vector')-reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterfeld, F.; Schulte, A.; Udagawa, T.; Yabe, M.

    1986-01-01

    Microscopic analyses of complete forward angle intermediate energy (p,n)-, ( 3 He,t)- and (p vector,p vector')-spin-flip spectra are presented for the reactions 90 Zr(p,n), 90 Zr( 3 He,t) and 90 Zr(p vector,p vector'). It is shown that the whole spectra up to high excitation energies (E X ∝50 MeV) are the result of correlated one-particle-one-hole (1p1h) spin-isospin transitions only. The spectra reflect, therefore, the linear spin-isospin response of the target nucleus to the probing external hadronic fields. Our results suggest that the measured (p,n)-, ( 3 He,t)- and (p vector,p vector')-cross sections are compatible with the transition strength predictions as obtained from random phase approximation (RPA) calculations. This means that the Δ isobar quenching mechanism is likely to be rather small. (orig.)

  8. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  9. Fast optical signal not detected in awake behaving monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Harsha; Vanduffel, Wim; Deng, Hong Ping; Ekstrom, Leeland; Boas, David A; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2009-04-01

    While the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure cerebral hemodynamic evoked responses (slow optical signal) is well established, its ability to measure non-invasively the 'fast optical signal' is still controversial. Here, we aim to determine the feasibility of performing NIRS measurements of the 'fast optical signal' or Event-Related Optical Signals (EROS) under optimal experimental conditions in awake behaving macaque monkeys. These monkeys were implanted with a 'recording well' to expose the dura above the primary visual cortex (V1). A custom-made optical probe was inserted and fixed into the well. The close proximity of the probe to the brain maximized the sensitivity to changes in optical properties in the cortex. Motion artifacts were minimized by physical restraint of the head. Full-field contrast-reversing checkerboard stimuli were presented to monkeys trained to perform a visual fixation task. In separate sessions, two NIRS systems (CW4 and ISS FD oximeter), which previously showed the ability to measure the fast signal in human, were used. In some sessions EEG was acquired simultaneously with the optical signal. The increased sensitivity to cortical optical changes with our experimental setup was quantified with 3D Monte Carlo simulations on a segmented MRI monkey head. Averages of thousands of stimuli in the same animal, or grand averages across the two animals and across repeated sessions, did not lead to detection of the fast optical signal using either amplitude or phase of the optical signal. Hemodynamic responses and visual evoked potentials were instead always detected with single trials or averages of a few stimuli. Based on these negative results, despite the optimal experimental conditions, we doubt the usefulness of non-invasive fast optical signal measurements with NIRS.

  10. Theory of high-resolution tunneling spin transport on a magnetic skyrmion

    OpenAIRE

    Palotás, Krisztián; Rózsa, Levente; Szunyogh, László

    2018-01-01

    Tunneling spin transport characteristics of a magnetic skyrmion are described theoretically in magnetic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The spin-polarized charge current in STM (SP-STM) and tunneling spin transport vector quantities, the longitudinal spin current and the spin transfer torque are calculated in high spatial resolution within the same theoretical framework. A connection between the conventional charge current SP-STM image contrasts and the magnitudes of the spin transport v...

  11. Black hole superradiance signatures of ultralight vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryakhtar, Masha; Lasenby, Robert; Teo, Mae

    2017-08-01

    The process of superradiance can extract angular momentum and energy from astrophysical black holes (BHs) to populate gravitationally bound states with an exponentially large number of light bosons. We analytically calculate superradiant growth rates for vectors around rotating BHs in the regime where the vector Compton wavelength is much larger than the BH size. Spin-1 bound states have superradiance times as short as a second around stellar BHs, growing up to a thousand times faster than their spin-0 counterparts. The fast rates allow us to use measurements of rapidly spinning BHs in x-ray binaries to exclude a wide range of masses for weakly coupled spin-1 particles, 5 ×10-14-2 ×10-11 eV ; lighter masses in the range 6 ×10-20-2 ×10-17 eV start to be constrained by supermassive BH spin measurements at a lower level of confidence. We also explore routes to detection of new vector particles possible with the advent of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy. The LIGO-Virgo Collaboration could discover hints of a new light vector particle in statistical analyses of masses and spins of merging BHs. Vector annihilations source continuous monochromatic gravitational radiation which could be observed by current GW observatories. At design sensitivity, Advanced LIGO may measure up to thousands of annihilation signals from within the Milky Way, while hundreds of BHs born in binary mergers across the observable Universe may superradiate vector bound states and become new beacons of monochromatic gravitational waves.

  12. Spin 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, Gisela

    1990-01-01

    The idea of the intrinsic angular momentum, or 'spin', of a particle has played an essential part in fundamental physics for more than 60 years, and its continuing importance was underlined at the 9th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in September in Bonn.

  13. Spin 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, Gisela

    1990-12-15

    The idea of the intrinsic angular momentum, or 'spin', of a particle has played an essential part in fundamental physics for more than 60 years, and its continuing importance was underlined at the 9th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in September in Bonn.

  14. Spin tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ariano, G M [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Maccone, L [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Paini, M [Quantum Optics and Information Group, INFM Udr Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica ' Alessandro Volta' and INFM, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2003-02-01

    We propose a tomographic reconstruction scheme for spin states. The experimental set-up, which is a modification of the Stern-Gerlach scheme, can be easily performed with currently available technology. The method is generalized to multiparticle states, analysing the spin-1/2 case for indistinguishable particles. Some Monte Carlo numerical simulations are given to illustrate the technique.

  15. Spin tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, G M; Maccone, L; Paini, M

    2003-01-01

    We propose a tomographic reconstruction scheme for spin states. The experimental set-up, which is a modification of the Stern-Gerlach scheme, can be easily performed with currently available technology. The method is generalized to multiparticle states, analysing the spin-1/2 case for indistinguishable particles. Some Monte Carlo numerical simulations are given to illustrate the technique

  16. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  17. Spin symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1989-01-15

    The recent 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, Minnesota, opened with a bang when L. Pondrom (Wisconsin), donning a hard hat borrowed from construction workers, ventured that 'spin, the notorious inessential complication of hadronic physics, is finally telling us what real QCD (quantum chromodynamics, the field theory of quarks and gluons) looks like.' He was referring to an animated discussion on the meaning of the recent spin oriented (polarized) scattering results from the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) at CERN and reported at the Symposium by R. Garnet (Liverpool) and P. Schuler (Yale) which show that the proton spin is not simply a reflection of the spins of its constituent quarks.

  18. VECTOR INTEGRATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, E. G. F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the theory of integration of scalar functions with respect to a measure with values in a, not necessarily locally convex, topological vector space. It focuses on the extension of such integrals from bounded measurable functions to the class of integrable functions, proving

  19. Unconventional spin texture of a topologically nontrivial semimetal Sb(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strózecka, A.; Eiguren, A.; Bianchi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The surfaces of antimony are characterized by the presence of spin-split states within the projected bulk band gap and the Fermi contour is thus expected to exhibit a spin texture. Using spin-resolved density functional theory calculations, we determine the spin polarization of the surface bands...... signal.We identify the allowed scattering vectors and analyze their bias evolution in relation to the surface-state dispersion....

  20. Vector mesons on the light front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, K.; Maedan, S.; Itakura, K.

    2004-01-01

    We apply the light-front quantization to the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the vector interaction, and compute vector meson's mass and light-cone wavefunction in the large N limit. Following the same procedure as in the previous analyses for scalar and pseudo-scalar mesons, we derive the bound-state equations of a qq-bar system in the vector channel. We include the lowest order effects of the vector interaction. The resulting transverse and longitudinal components of the bound-state equation look different from each other. But eventually after imposing an appropriate cutoff, one finds these two are identical, giving the same mass and the same (spin-independent) light-cone wavefunction. Mass of the vector meson decreases as one increases the strength of the vector interaction

  1. Spin Current Switching and Spin-Filtering Effects in Mn-Doped Boron Nitride Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Nemnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spin transport properties are investigated by means of the first principle approach for boron nitride nanoribbons with one or two substitutional Mn impurities, connected to graphene electrodes. The spin current polarization is evaluated using the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism for each structure and bias. The structure with one Mn impurity reveals a transfer characteristics suitable for a spin current switch. In the case of two Mn impurities, the system behaves as an efficient spin-filter device, independent on the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic configurations of the magnetic impurities. The experimental availability of the building blocks as well as the magnitudes of the obtained spin current polarizations indicates a strong potential of the analyzed structures for future spintronic devices.

  2. Quantum Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on Artificial Fish Swarm

    OpenAIRE

    Yumin, Dong; Li, Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Quantum behaved particle swarm algorithm is a new intelligent optimization algorithm; the algorithm has less parameters and is easily implemented. In view of the existing quantum behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm for the premature convergence problem, put forward a quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm based on artificial fish swarm. The new algorithm based on quantum behaved particle swarm algorithm, introducing the swarm and following activities, meanwhile using the a...

  3. Generalized spins and yours applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikoff, M.

    1978-01-01

    The correlation between the colinear SU(6) sub(W,STRONG) group, of classification, builded by Melosh in 1974 inside th Null-Plane formalism, and the static SU(6) group classical of classification of the Flat-Plane formalism which is a chiral SU(6) x SU(6) algebra sub-group of Feynman-Gell-Mann-Zweig, is analized. It is shown that is possible to define the 'static limit', in the weak sense, for the SU(6) sub(W,STRONG). Furthermore, rotational symmetries of the Hamiltonian H=α vector. p vector + mβ + ω(x) (1+β) + Ω(x)α vector. x vector are wanted. It is possible to define, in the Flat-Plane formalism a conserved spin but that dont't one relate with the canonical spin by no unitary transformations. The generalized operator of total angular momentum which is conserved, in the Null-Plane formalism in its 'non-orthogonal' version, is found. A generalized spin, conserved, obtained by a exact Melosh transformation appropriate for the case is also found [pt

  4. Spin transport in epitaxial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tbd, -

    2014-03-01

    Spintronics is a paradigm focusing on spin as the information vector in fast and ultra-low-power non volatile devices such as the new STT-MRAM. Beyond its widely distributed application in data storage it aims at providing more complex architectures and a powerful beyond CMOS solution for information processing. The recent discovery of graphene has opened novel exciting opportunities in terms of functionalities and performances for spintronics devices. We will present experimental results allowing us to assess the potential of graphene for spintronics. We will show that unprecedented highly efficient spin information transport can occur in epitaxial graphene leading to large spin signals and macroscopic spin diffusion lengths (~ 100 microns), a key enabler for the advent of envisioned beyond-CMOS spin-based logic architectures. We will also show that how the device behavior is well explained within the framework of the Valet-Fert drift-diffusion equations. Furthermore, we will show that a thin graphene passivation layer can prevent the oxidation of a ferromagnet, enabling its use in novel humide/ambient low-cost processes for spintronics devices, while keeping its highly surface sensitive spin current polarizer/analyzer behavior and adding new enhanced spin filtering property. These different experiments unveil promising uses of graphene for spintronics.

  5. An introduction to vectors, vector operators and vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joag, Pramod S

    2016-01-01

    Ideal for undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering, this book covers fundamental concepts of vectors and their applications in a single volume. The first unit deals with basic formulation, both conceptual and theoretical. It discusses applications of algebraic operations, Levi-Civita notation, and curvilinear coordinate systems like spherical polar and parabolic systems and structures, and analytical geometry of curves and surfaces. The second unit delves into the algebra of operators and their types and also explains the equivalence between the algebra of vector operators and the algebra of matrices. Formulation of eigen vectors and eigen values of a linear vector operator are elaborated using vector algebra. The third unit deals with vector analysis, discussing vector valued functions of a scalar variable and functions of vector argument (both scalar valued and vector valued), thus covering both the scalar vector fields and vector integration.

  6. Scientists Still Behaving Badly? A Survey Within Industry and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godecharle, Simon; Fieuws, Steffen; Nemery, Ben; Dierickx, Kris

    2017-10-02

    Little is known about research misconduct within industry and how it compares to universities, even though a lot of biomedical research is performed by-or in collaboration with-commercial entities. Therefore, we sent an e-mail invitation to participate in an anonymous computer-based survey to all university researchers having received a biomedical research grant or scholarship from one of the two national academic research funders of Belgium between 2010 and 2014, and to researchers working in large biomedical companies or spin-offs in Belgium. The validated survey included questions about various types of research misconduct committed by respondents themselves and observed among their colleagues in the last three years. Prevalences of misconduct were compared between university and industry respondents using binary logistic regression models, with adjustments for relevant personal characteristics, and with significance being accepted for p industry. Response rates were 43 (767/1766) and 48% (123/255), and usable information was available for 617 and 100 respondents, respectively. In general, research misconduct was less likely to be reported by industry respondents compared to university respondents. Significant differences were apparent for one admitted action (gift authorship) and three observed actions (plagiarism, gift authorship, and circumventing animal-subjects research requirements), always with lower prevalences for industry compared to universities, except for plagiarism. This survey, based on anonymous self-report, shows that research misconduct occurs to a substantial degree among biomedical researchers from both industry and universities.

  7. Spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, W J

    1989-01-01

    This book is about spin systems as models for magnetic materials, especially antiferromagnetic lattices. Spin-systems are well-defined models, for which, in special cases, exact properties may be derived. These special cases are for the greater part, one- dimensional and restricted in their applicability, but they may give insight into general properties that also exist in higher dimension. This work pays special attention to qualitative differences between spin lattices of different dimensions. It also replaces the traditional picture of an (ordered) antiferromagnetic state of a Heisenberg sy

  8. Excitation spectrum of Heisenberg spin ladders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.; Dagotto, E.; Riera, J.; Swanson, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin ''ladders'' (two coupled spin chains) are low-dimensional magnetic systems which for S=1/2 interpolate between half-integer-spin chains, when the chains are decoupled, and effective integer-spin one-dimensional chains in the strong-coupling limit. The spin-1/2 ladder may be realized in nature by vanadyl pyrophosphate, (VO) 2 P 2 O 7 . In this paper we apply strong-coupling perturbation theory, spin-wave theory, Lanczos techniques, and a Monte Carlo method to determine the ground-state energy and the low-lying excitation spectrum of the ladder. We find evidence of a nonzero spin gap for all interchain couplings J perpendicular >0. A band of spin-triplet excitations above the gap is also analyzed. These excitations are unusual for an antiferromagnet, since their long-wavelength dispersion relation behaves as (k-k 0 ) 2 (in the strong-coupling limit J perpendicular much-gt J, where J is the in-chain antiferromagnetic coupling). Their band is folded, with a minimum energy at k 0 =π, and a maximum between k 1 =π/2 (for J perpendicular =0) and 0 (for J perpendicular =∞). We also give numerical results for the dynamical structure factor S(q,ω), which can be determined in neutron scattering experiments. Finally, possible experimental techniques for studying the excitation spectrum are discussed

  9. Spin-based quantum computation in multielectron quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xuedong; Sarma, S. Das

    2001-01-01

    In a quantum computer the hardware and software are intrinsically connected because the quantum Hamiltonian (or more precisely its time development) is the code that runs the computer. We demonstrate this subtle and crucial relationship by considering the example of electron-spin-based solid state quantum computer in semiconductor quantum dots. We show that multielectron quantum dots with one valence electron in the outermost shell do not behave simply as an effective single spin system unles...

  10. Electrically tunable spin polarization in silicene: A multi-terminal spin density matrix approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Son-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Recent realized silicene field-effect transistor yields promising electronic applications. Using a multi-terminal spin density matrix approach, this paper presents an analysis of the spin polarizations in a silicene structure of the spin field-effect transistor by considering the intertwined intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit couplings, gate voltage, Zeeman splitting, as well as disorder. Coexistence of the stagger potential and intrinsic spin–orbit coupling results in spin precession, making any in-plane polarization directions reachable by the gate voltage; specifically, the intrinsic coupling allows one to electrically adjust the in-plane components of the polarizations, while the Rashba coupling to adjust the out-of-plan polarizations. Larger electrically tunable ranges of in-plan polarizations are found in oppositely gated silicene than in the uniformly gated silicene. Polarizations in different phases behave distinguishably in weak disorder regime, while independent of the phases, stronger disorder leads to a saturation value. - Highlights: • Density matrix with spin rotations enables multi-terminal arbitrary spin injections. • Gate-voltage tunable in-plane polarizations require intrinsic SO coupling. • Gate-voltage tunable out-of-plane polarizations require Rashba SO coupling. • Oppositely gated silicene yields a large tunable range of in-plan polarizations. • Polarizations in different phases behave distinguishably only in weak disorder.

  11. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  12. Application of spin-polarized fuel to fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakuta, Y.; Nakao, Y.; Honda, T.; Honda, Y.; Nakashima, H.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on the application of the polarized fuel to the inertial fusion reaction have been carried out. It is shown that the use of the spin-polarized fuel D vector·T vector or D vector· 3 (He)vector reduces the irradiating laser power more than 50% compared with the use of the unpolarized fuel. The depolarization rate of the polarized fuel during the fusing process is found to be almost negligible. (author)

  13. Spin Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The 5th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics met in September at Brookhaven. The symposium has evolved to include a number of diverse specialities: theory, including parity violations and proposed quantum chromodynamics (QCD) tests with polarized beams; experiment, including the large spin effects discovered in high transverse momentum elastic scattering and hyperon production, dibaryons, and magnetic moments; acceleration and storage of polarized protons and electrons; and development of polarized sources and targets

  14. Spin Flips versus Spin Transport in Nonthermal Electrons Excited by Ultrashort Optical Pulses in Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeen, V.; Sanchez Piaia, M.; Bigot, J.-Y.; Müller, T.; Elliott, P.; Dewhurst, J. K.; Sharma, S.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2017-09-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental investigation is performed to understand the underlying physics of laser-induced demagnetization in Ni and Co films with varying thicknesses excited by 10 fs optical pulses. Experimentally, the dynamics of spins is studied by determining the time-dependent amplitude of the Voigt vector, retrieved from a full set of magnetic and nonmagnetic quantities performed on both sides of films, with absolute time reference. Theoretically, ab initio calculations are performed using time-dependent density functional theory. Overall, we demonstrate that spin-orbit induced spin flips are the most significant contributors with superdiffusive spin transport, which assumes only that the transport of majority spins without spin flips induced by scattering does not apply in Ni. In Co it plays a significant role during the first ˜20 fs only. Our study highlights the material dependent nature of the demagnetization during the process of thermalization of nonequilibrium spins.

  15. Numerical investigation for one bad-behaved flow in a Pelton turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, X Z; Yang, K; Wang, H J; Gong, R Z; Li, D Y

    2015-01-01

    The gas-liquid two-phase flow in pelton turbines is very complicated, there are many kinds of bad-behaved flow in pelton turbines. In this paper, CFD numerical simulation for the pelton turbine was conducted using VOF two-phase model. One kind of bad-behaved flow caused by the two jets was captured, and the bad-behaved flow was analysed by torque on buckets. It can be concluded that the angle between the two jets and the value of ratio of runner diameter and jet diameter are important parameters for the bad-behaved flow. Furthermore, the reason why the efficiency of some multi-jet type turbines is very low can be well explained by the analysis of bad-behaved flow. Finally, some suggestions for improvement were also provided in present paper

  16. Numerical investigation for one bad-behaved flow in a Pelton turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X. Z.; Yang, K.; Wang, H. J.; Gong, R. Z.; Li, D. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The gas-liquid two-phase flow in pelton turbines is very complicated, there are many kinds of bad-behaved flow in pelton turbines. In this paper, CFD numerical simulation for the pelton turbine was conducted using VOF two-phase model. One kind of bad-behaved flow caused by the two jets was captured, and the bad-behaved flow was analysed by torque on buckets. It can be concluded that the angle between the two jets and the value of ratio of runner diameter and jet diameter are important parameters for the bad-behaved flow. Furthermore, the reason why the efficiency of some multi-jet type turbines is very low can be well explained by the analysis of bad-behaved flow. Finally, some suggestions for improvement were also provided in present paper.

  17. Rotary spin echoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, I. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, BP2, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1959-07-01

    Torrey has observed the free precession of nuclear spins around an r-f field H{sub 1}, fixed in a frame rotating at the Larmor frequency ω{sub 0} = γH{sub 0} around a large d-c magnetic field H{sub 0}. He showed that for an H{sub 1}, much larger than inhomogeneity of H{sub 0}, the latter has a negligible effect on the decay of the spin magnetization which is mainly due to the inhomogeneity of H{sub 1}. We report here on a method of overcoming the inhomogeneity of H{sub 1}, by production of echoes in the rotating frame ('rotary echoes'). These echoes are obtained by a 180 deg. phase shift at t = τ on the r-f field so that H{sub 1}, is suddenly reversed, producing a re-focussing of the magnetization vectors at the time t = 2 τ. The rotary echoes so obtained are very similar to the usual spin-echoes with, however some specific features that make them particularly suitable for the measurement of long relaxation times. Reprint of a paper published in Physical Review Letters, vol. 2, no. 7, Apr 1959, p. 301-302.

  18. Rotary spin echoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, I.

    1959-01-01

    Torrey has observed the free precession of nuclear spins around an r-f field H 1 , fixed in a frame rotating at the Larmor frequency ω 0 = γH 0 around a large d-c magnetic field H 0 . He showed that for an H 1 , much larger than inhomogeneity of H 0 , the latter has a negligible effect on the decay of the spin magnetization which is mainly due to the inhomogeneity of H 1 . We report here on a method of overcoming the inhomogeneity of H 1 , by production of echoes in the rotating frame ('rotary echoes'). These echoes are obtained by a 180 deg. phase shift at t = τ on the r-f field so that H 1 , is suddenly reversed, producing a re-focussing of the magnetization vectors at the time t = 2 τ. The rotary echoes so obtained are very similar to the usual spin-echoes with, however some specific features that make them particularly suitable for the measurement of long relaxation times. Reprint of a paper published in Physical Review Letters, vol. 2, no. 7, Apr 1959, p. 301-302

  19. Spin effects in medium-energy electron-3He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Brand, J.F.J.; Alarcon, R.; Bauer, T.

    1998-01-01

    New physics can be accessed by scattering polarized electrons from a polarized 3 He internal gas target. It is discussed how the asymmetries for the reactions 3 vector He(vector e,e'), 3 vector He(vector e,e'p), 3 vector He(vector e,e'n), 3 vector He(vector e,e'd), and 3 vector He(vector e,e'pn) may provide precise information on the S' and the D-wave parts of the 3 He ground-state wave function, the neutron form factors, and the role of spin-dependent reaction mechanism effects. The experiment uses up to 900 MeV (polarized) electrons from the AmPS storage ring in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in combination with large acceptance electron and hadron detectors. (orig.)

  20. Spin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaarde, C.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of spectra of (p,n) reactions showed that they were very selective in exciting spin modes. Charge exchange reactions at intermediate energies give important new understanding of the M1-type of excitations and of the spin structure of continuum p spectra in general. In this paper, the author discusses three charge exchange reactions: (p,n); ( 3 H,t); and (d,2p) at several targets. Low-lying states and the Δ region are discussed separately. Finally, the charge exchange reaction with heavy ion beams is briefly discussed. (G.J.P./Auth.)

  1. The index of a vector field under blow ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seade, J.

    1991-08-01

    A useful technique when studying the behaviour of holomorphic vector fields around their isolated singularities is that of blowing up the singular points. On the other hand, the most basic invariant of a vector field with isolated singularities is its local index, as defined by Poincare and Hopf. It is thus natural to ask how does the index of a vector field behaves under blowing ups? The purpose of this work is to study and answer this question, by taking a rather general point of view and bearing in mind that complex manifolds have a powerful birational invariant, the Todd genus. 20 refs

  2. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  3. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  4. Dynamically induced spin-dependent interaction in the elastic scattering of heavy-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, B.; Oertzen, W. von.

    1982-02-01

    Dynamical polarization effect in heavy-ion elastic scattering is investigated in the framework of the coupled-reaction-channel theory. By using the adiabatic approximation at low incident energies, this effect is expressed as a spin-orbit (L vector.S vector) interaction with a L vector and S vector independent radial function. The strength of the (L vector.S vector) interaction calculated for the 12 C + 13 C system is in the same order of magnitude as deduced from experiments and is about two orders of magnitude larger than that obtained from the folding model calculation. (author)

  5. Improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with local search strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maolong Xi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization, which was motivated by analysis of particle swarm optimization and quantum system, has shown compared performance in finding the optimal solutions for many optimization problems to other evolutionary algorithms. To address the problem of premature, a local search strategy is proposed to improve the performance of quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. In proposed local search strategy, a super particle is presented which is a collection body of randomly selected particles’ dimension information in the swarm. The selected probability of particles in swarm is different and determined by their fitness values. To minimization problems, the fitness value of one particle is smaller; the selected probability is more and will contribute more information in constructing the super particle. In addition, in order to investigate the influence on algorithm performance with different local search space, four methods of computing the local search radius are applied in local search strategy and propose four variants of local search quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. Empirical studies on a suite of well-known benchmark functions are undertaken in order to make an overall performance comparison among the proposed methods and other quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization. The simulation results show that the proposed quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization variants have better advantages over the original quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization.

  6. A relativistic colored spinning particle in an external color field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1984-01-01

    I derive fully covariant equations of motion for a classical colored spinning particle in an external SU(3) color field. Although the total color charge and total spin of the particle are found to be separately constants of motion (here I disagree with a recent paper by Arodz), the dynamics of the orientation of the color and spin vectors are coupled to each other through interaction with the color field, even if the latter is homogeneous. (orig.)

  7. Studies on spin waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prets, A.

    1998-07-01

    In the present Ph. D. thesis we are considering a special form of scaling limits, namely the hydrodynamic limit. Such limits are considered to explain macroscopic behavior of matter by means of microscopic dynamic laws. In this procedure a rescaling of space and time plays a central role. The limit will be formulated in a quantum mechanical way. Within this framework we study derivations of the Landau Lifshitz equation for ferromagnets. This equation is a macroscopic equation of motion for the magnetization vector and results into the theory of spin waves. Since we have no exact knowledge of the Heisenberg operator's time evolution no definitive statement an how to regain the Landau Lifshitz equation from the microscopic dynamics can be given. In contrast to the Heisenberg operator, for an Ising type interaction inside a ferromagnet one is able to recover macroscopically a solution of a linearized Landau Lifschitz equation. (author)

  8. Pure spin current manipulation in antiferromagnetically exchange coupled heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A.; González-Chávez, D. E.; Sommer, R. L.; Gómez, J. E.

    2018-03-01

    We present a model to describe the spin currents generated by ferromagnet/spacer/ferromagnet exchange coupled trilayer systems and heavy metal layers with strong spin-orbit coupling. By exploiting the magnitude of the exchange coupling (oscillatory RKKY-like coupling) and the spin-flop transition in the magnetization process, it has been possible to produce spin currents polarized in arbitrary directions. The spin-flop transition of the trilayer system originates pure spin currents whose polarization vector depends on the exchange field and the magnetization equilibrium angles. We also discuss a protocol to control the polarization sign of the pure spin current injected into the metallic layer by changing the initial conditions of magnetization of the ferromagnetic layers previously to the spin pumping and inverse spin Hall effect experiments. The small differences in the ferromagnetic layers lead to a change in the magnetization vector rotation that permits the control of the sign of the induced voltage components due to the inverse spin Hall effect. Our results can lead to important advances in hybrid spintronic devices with new functionalities, particularly, the ability to control microscopic parameters such as the polarization direction and the sign of the pure spin current through the variation of macroscopic parameters, such as the external magnetic field or the thickness of the spacer in antiferromagnetic exchange coupled systems.

  9. Spin-polarization and spin-flip in a triple-quantum-dot ring by using tunable lateral bias voltage and Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi, Mohamad, E-mail: Mo_molavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizabadi, Edris, E-mail: Edris@iust.ac.ir [School of Physics, Iran University of Science and Technology, 16846 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    By using the Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of single particle energy levels of a quantum dot on the spin-dependent transmission properties through a triple-quantum-dot ring structure. In this structure, one of the quantum dots has been regarded to be non-magnetic and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is imposed locally on this dot while the two others can be magnetic. The on-site energy of dots, manipulates the interference of the electron spinors that are transmitted to output leads. Our results show that the effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots, which is applicable by a controllable lateral bias voltage externally. Besides, by tuning the parameters such as Rashba spin-orbit interaction, and on-site energy of dots and magnetic flux inside the ring, the structure can be indicated the spin-flip effect and behave as a full spin polarizer or splitter. - Highlights: • The effects of magnetic dots on spin-dependent transmission properties are the same as the difference of on-site energies of the various dots. • In the situation that the QDs have non-zero on-site energies, the system can demonstrate the full spin-polarization. • By tuning the Rashba spin-orbit strength and magnetic flux encountered by the ring the system operates as a Stern-Gerlach apparatus.

  10. Spin Coherence in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flatte, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    ... dots, tuning of spin coherence times for electron spin, tuning of dipolar magnetic fields for nuclear spin, spontaneous spin polarization generation and new designs for spin-based teleportation and spin transistors...

  11. The transmission factor of a bloch wall for spin waves whose wave vector is perpendicular to the wall (1961); Facteur de transmission d'une paroi de bloch pour des ondes de spin de vecteur d'onde normal a la paroi (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutron, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    When, for a ferromagnetic, the anisotropic energy takes the form E= K sin{sup 2} {alpha}, the study of the propagation of spin waves of low energy across a Bloch wall leads to a one-dimensional Schrodinger equation in which is found a potential well which has the remarkable property of being completely transparent for all values of the incident wave energy. (author) [French] Dans un ferromagnetique, lorsque la densite d'energie d'anisotropie est de la forme E= K sin{sup 2} {alpha}, l'etude de la propagation des ondes de spin de faible energie a travers une paroi de Bloch, conduit a une equation de Schrodinger a une dimension, dans laquelle figure un puits de potentiel qui a la propriete remarquable d'etre completement transparent quelle que soit l'energie de l'onde incidente. (auteur)

  12. Transverse spin and transverse momentum in scattering of plane waves

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Sudipta; Singh, Ankit K.; Ray, Subir K.; Banerjee, Ayan; Gupta, Subhasish Dutta; Ghosh, Nirmalya

    2016-01-01

    We study the near field to the far field evolution of spin angular momentum (SAM) density and the Poynting vector of the scattered waves from spherical scatterers. The results show that at the near field, the SAM density and the Poynting vector are dominated by their transverse components. While the former (transverse SAM) is independent of the helicity of the incident circular polarization state, the latter (transverse Poynting vector) depends upon the polarization state. It is further demon...

  13. Spin dynamics of paramagnetic centers with anisotropic g tensor and spin of 1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryasov, Alexander G.; Bowman, Michael K.

    2012-08-01

    The influence of g tensor anisotropy on spin dynamics of paramagnetic centers having real or effective spin of 1/2 is studied. The g anisotropy affects both the excitation and the detection of EPR signals, producing noticeable differences between conventional continuous-wave (cw) EPR and pulsed EPR spectra. The magnitudes and directions of the spin and magnetic moment vectors are generally not proportional to each other, but are related to each other through the g tensor. The equilibrium magnetic moment direction is generally parallel to neither the magnetic field nor the spin quantization axis due to the g anisotropy. After excitation with short microwave pulses, the spin vector precesses around its quantization axis, in a plane that is generally not perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. Paradoxically, the magnetic moment vector precesses around its equilibrium direction in a plane exactly perpendicular to the external magnetic field. In the general case, the oscillating part of the magnetic moment is elliptically polarized and the direction of precession is determined by the sign of the g tensor determinant (g tensor signature). Conventional pulsed and cw EPR spectrometers do not allow determination of the g tensor signature or the ellipticity of the magnetic moment trajectory. It is generally impossible to set a uniform spin turning angle for simple pulses in an unoriented or 'powder' sample when g tensor anisotropy is significant.

  14. Spin symmetry in the relativistic symmetrical well potential including a proper approximation to the spin-orbit coupling term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai

    2010-01-01

    In the case of exact spin symmetry, we approximately solve the Dirac equation with scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials by using a proper approximation to the spin-orbit coupling term, and obtain the corresponding energy equation and spinor wave functions for the bound states. We find that there exist only positive-energy bound states in the case of spin symmetry. Also, the energy eigenvalue approaches a constant when the potential parameter α goes to zero. The special case for equally scalar and vector symmetrical well potentials is studied briefly.

  15. Model for decays of boson resonances with arbitrary spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, A.A.; Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1985-01-01

    A formula for the width of resonance with spin J decay into hadrons with arbitrary spins is derived. This width is expressed via S-channel helicity residues of Regge trajectory α J where the resonance J lies. Using the quark-gluon picture predictions for the coupling of quarks with Regge trajectories and SU(6)-classification of hadrons this formula is applied to calculate the widths of decays of resonances, which lie on the vector and tensor trajectories, into pseudoscalar and vector, two vectors and NN-bar-pair

  16. Radial expansion for spinning conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio

    2016-07-12

    This paper develops a method to compute any bosonic conformal block as a series expansion in the optimal radial coordinate introduced by Hogervorst and Rychkov. The method reduces to the known result when the external operators are all the same scalar operator, but it allows to compute conformal blocks for external operators with spin. Moreover, we explain how to write closed form recursion relations for the coefficients of the expansions. We study three examples of four point functions in detail: one vector and three scalars; two vectors and two scalars; two spin 2 tensors and two scalars. Finally, for the case of two external vectors, we also provide a more efficient way to generate the series expansion using the analytic structure of the blocks as a function of the scaling dimension of the exchanged operator.

  17. Spin-0± portal induced Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sukanta; Goyal, Ashok; Saini, Lalit Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Standard model (SM) spin-zero singlets are constrained through their di-Bosonic decay channels via an effective coupling induced by a vector-like quark (VLQ) loop at the LHC for √{s}=13 TeV. These spin-zero resonances are then considered as portals for scalar, vector or fermionic dark matter particle interactions with SM gauge bosons. We find that the model is validated with respect to the observations from LHC data and from cosmology, indirect and direct detection experiments for an appreciable range of scalar, vector and fermionic DM masses greater than 300 GeV and VLQ masses ≥ 400 GeV, corresponding to the three choice of portal masses 270 GeV, 500 GeV and 750 GeV respectively.

  18. Magnetism of Ba4Ru3O10 revealed by density functional calculations: Structural trimers behaving as coupled magnetic dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Andres; Radtke, Guillaume; Klein, Yannick; Rousse, Gwenaelle

    2013-03-01

    From a simple ionic picture, the only magnetically active ions in this compound are the three Ru4+ atoms which form trimers of faced shared RuO6 octahedral. The Ru atom in the middle of the trimer (named Ru(1)) is cristallographically inequivalent to the ones at the corners (named Ru(2)). A naïve analysis of the magnetic properties of this compound compatible with the expected low spin magnetic configuration of the Ru ions would predict a complicate magnetic order at low temperature involving the Ru(1) and Ru(2) ions and a high temperature susceptibility corresponding to three S=1 ions per unit cell. In spite of that, we demonstrate in this work, from density functional calculations, that under the influence of Ru-Ru covalent bonding, the structural trimers behave in an extended range of temperature from 0 to 600K, as strong (S = 1) antiferromagnetic dimers. Our calculations of the effective exchange interactions show a strong intra-dimer interaction and a weaker inter-dimer one which explains the antiferromagnetic order observed below TN = 105 K and the magnetic susceptibility in the intermediate and high temperature range (from TN=105K up to 612 K).

  19. The effects of spin in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laloee, F.; Freed, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Low-density gases, in which atoms are separated by large distances, have long provided an enjoyable playground for physicists. One might suppose the pleasure of the playground would by now have been exhausted by the very simplicity of low-density gases. Recent work by a number of investigators including the author shows that this is not the case low-density gases continue to serve up a rich variety of phenomena as well as counterintuitive surprises. In particular, the macroscopic properties of a gas composed of individual hydrogen or helium atoms can under special circumstances by changed dramatically by quantum-mechanical effects. According to quantum theory, the nucleus of an atom behaves in a way similar to a rotating top, which has angular momentum about its axis of rotation; that is, the nucleus has spin, known more precisely as spin angular momentum. If the atoms of a gas are spin-polarized, so that their nuclei all have their spins pointing in the same direction, the viscosity of the gas can be changed enormously and so can its ability to conduct heat. Quantum-mechanical correlations among the nuclei called spin waves, which up to now had been observed only in certain liquids and solids such as magnets, can also arise. The changes are large enough for one to say the quantum-mechanical effects have caused the gas to take on entirely new properties. In a certain sense it is amazing to think that polarizing the nuclear spins can have any effect on the macroscopic properties of the gas, since the nuclear spins are son weakly coupled to the outside world. Yet the observations are in full agreement with with theory. Moreover, because spin-polarized gases are still fairly simple systems, they can be understood in terms fundamental principles, something that is still not possible to do in the case of liquids and solids

  20. Wave fronts, pulses and wave trains in photoexcited superlattices behaving as excitable or oscillatory media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, J I; Bonilla, L L; Grahn, H T

    2011-01-01

    Undoped and strongly photoexcited semiconductor superlattices with field-dependent recombination behave as excitable or oscillatory media with spatially discrete nonlinear convection and diffusion. Infinitely long, dc-current-biased superlattices behaving as excitable media exhibit wave fronts with increasing or decreasing profiles, whose velocities can be calculated by means of asymptotic methods. These superlattices can also support pulses of the electric field. Pulses moving downstream with the flux of electrons can be constructed from their component wave fronts, whereas pulses advancing upstream do so slowly and experience saltatory motion: they change slowly in long intervals of time separated by fast transitions during which the pulses jump to the previous superlattice period. Photoexcited superlattices can also behave as oscillatory media and exhibit wave trains. (paper)

  1. Age differences in how consumers behave following exposure to DTC advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, Denise E; Huh, Jisu; Reid, Leonard N

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to provide additional evidence on how consumers behave following direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising exposure and to determine if there are differences in ad-prompted acts (drug inquiry and drug requests) between different age groups (i.e., older, mature, and younger adults). The results suggest that younger, mature, and older consumers are all moved to act by DTC drug ads, but that each age group behaves in different ways. Somewhat surprisingly, age was not predictive of ad-prompted behavior. DTC advertising was no more effective at moving older consumers to behave than their younger counterparts. These results suggest that age does not matter that much when it comes to the "moving power" of prescription drug advertising, even though research indicates that older consumers are more vulnerable to the persuasive effects of communication.

  2. Spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mookerjee, Abhijit

    1976-01-01

    ''Spin glasses'', are entire class of magnetic alloys of moderate dilution, in which the magnetic atoms are far enough apart to be unlike the pure metal, but close enough so that the indirect exchange energy between them (mediated by the s-d interaction between local moments and conduction electrons) dominates all other energies. Characteristic critical phenomena displayed such as freezing of spin orientation at 'Tsub(c)' and spreading of magnetic ordering, are pointed out. Anomalous behaviour, associated with these critical phenomena, as reflected in : (i) Moessbauer spectroscopy giving hyperfine splitting at Tsub(c), (ii) maxima in susceptibility and remanent magnetism, (iii) thermopower maxima and change in slope, (iv) Characteristic cusp in susceptibility and its removal by very small magnetic fields, and (v) conductivity-resistivity measurements, are discussed. Theoretical developments aimed at explaining these phenomena, in particular, the ideas from percolation and localisation theories, and the approach based on the gellations of polymers, are discussed. Finally, a new approach based on renormalisation group in disordered systems is also briefly mentioned. (K.B.)

  3. Simulations of ground state fluctuations in mean-field Ising spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The scaling of fluctuations in the distribution of ground state energies or costs with the system size N for Ising spin glasses is considered using an extensive set of simulations with the extremal optimization heuristic across a range of different models on sparse and dense graphs. These models exhibit very diverse behaviors, and an asymptotic extrapolation is often complicated by higher-order corrections in size. The clearest picture, in fact, emerges from the study of graph bipartitioning, a combinatorial optimization problem closely related to spin glasses. Asides from two-spin interactions with discrete bonds, we also consider problems with Gaussian bonds and three-spin interactions, which behave quite differently

  4. Raster images vectorization system

    OpenAIRE

    Genytė, Jurgita

    2006-01-01

    The problem of raster images vectorization was analyzed and researched in this work. Existing vectorization systems are quite expensive, the results are inaccurate, and the manual vectorization of a large number of drafts is impossible. That‘s why our goal was to design and develop a new raster images vectorization system using our suggested automatic vectorization algorithm and the way to record results in a new universal vectorial file format. The work consists of these main parts: analysis...

  5. Heat and spin interconversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Yuichi; Matsuo, Mamoru; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Saitoh, Eeiji

    2017-01-01

    Spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects, which are mutual conversion phenomena of heat and spin, are discussed on the basis of the microscopic theory. First, the spin Seebeck effect, which is the spin-current generation due to heat current, is discussed. The recent progress in research on the spin Seebeck effect are introduced. We explain the origin of the observed sign changes of the spin Seebeck effect in compensated ferromagnets. Next, the spin Peltier effect, which is the heat-current generation due to spin current, is discussed. Finally, we show that the spin Seebeck and spin Peltier effects are summarized by Onsager's reciprocal relation and derive Kelvin's relation for the spin and heat transports. (author)

  6. Entangled spins and ghost-spins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep P. Jatkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study patterns of quantum entanglement in systems of spins and ghost-spins regarding them as simple quantum mechanical toy models for theories containing negative norm states. We define a single ghost-spin as in [20] as a 2-state spin variable with an indefinite inner product in the state space. We find that whenever the spin sector is disentangled from the ghost-spin sector (both of which could be entangled within themselves, the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over all the ghost-spins gives rise to positive entanglement entropy for positive norm states, while negative norm states have an entanglement entropy with a negative real part and a constant imaginary part. However when the spins are entangled with the ghost-spins, there are new entanglement patterns in general. For systems where the number of ghost-spins is even, it is possible to find subsectors of the Hilbert space where positive norm states always lead to positive entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins. With an odd number of ghost-spins however, we find that there always exist positive norm states with negative real part for entanglement entropy after tracing over the ghost-spins.

  7. Holography and higher-spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkou, T.

    2005-01-01

    I review recent work on the holographic relation between higher-spin theories in Anti-de Sitter spaces and conformal field theories. I present the main results of studies concerning the higher-spin holographic dual of the three-dimensional O(N) vector model. I discuss the special role played by certain double-trace deformations in Conformal Field Theories that have higher-spin holographic duals. Moreover, I show that duality transformations in a U(1) gauge theory on AdS 4 induce boundary double-trace deformations and argue that a similar effect takes place in the holography of linearized higher-spin theories on AdS 4 . (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Kochen-Specker vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, Mladen; Merlet, Jean-Pierre; McKay, Brendan; Megill, Norman D

    2005-01-01

    We give a constructive and exhaustive definition of Kochen-Specker (KS) vectors in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. KS vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in an n-dimensional Hilbert space, H n , n≥3, to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such KS vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in R n , on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic (0)-(1) states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all four-dimensional KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all three-dimensional vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found

  9. Production ratio of pseudoscalar to vector mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chliapnikov, P.V.; Uvarov, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The P/V ratio of directly produced pseudoscalar (P) to vector (V) mesons is analysed using the data on the K S 0 and K * (892) total inclusive cross sections in pp, π + p and K ± p reactions. The indication for a change of P/V from a value of about 1 at low energies, where the fragmentation processes dominate, to a value of 1/3, suggested by spin-statistics, at high energies is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Spin transport in nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, S.; bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.

    2003-01-01

    We study high-field spin transport of electrons in a quasi one-dimensional channel of a $GaAs$ gate controlled spin interferometer (SPINFET) using a semiclassical formalism (spin density matrix evolution coupled with Boltzmann transport equation). Spin dephasing (or depolarization) is predominantly caused by D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation associated with momentum dependent spin orbit coupling effects that arise due to bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling) and structural inve...

  11. Approximately analytical solutions of the Manning-Rosen potential with the spin-orbit coupling term and spin symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter the approximately analytical bound state solutions of the Dirac equation with the Manning-Rosen potential for arbitrary spin-orbit coupling quantum number k are carried out by taking a properly approximate expansion for the spin-orbit coupling term. In the case of exact spin symmetry, the associated two-component spinor wave functions of the Dirac equation for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number k are presented and the corresponding bound state energy equation is derived. We study briefly two special cases; the general s-wave problem and the equal scalar and vector Manning-Rosen potential

  12. Topological vector spaces admissible in economic equilibrium theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    In models of economic equilibrium in markets with infinitely many commodities, the commodity space is an ordered topological vector space endowed with additional structure. In the present paper, we consider ordered topological vector spaces which are admissible (for equilibrium analysis) in the s......) in the sense that every economy which is reasonably well behaved posesses an equilibrium. It turns out that this condition may be characterized in terms of topology and order. This characterization implies that the commodity space has the structure of a Kakutani space....

  13. Vector regression introduced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mok Tik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study formulates regression of vector data that will enable statistical analysis of various geodetic phenomena such as, polar motion, ocean currents, typhoon/hurricane tracking, crustal deformations, and precursory earthquake signals. The observed vector variable of an event (dependent vector variable is expressed as a function of a number of hypothesized phenomena realized also as vector variables (independent vector variables and/or scalar variables that are likely to impact the dependent vector variable. The proposed representation has the unique property of solving the coefficients of independent vector variables (explanatory variables also as vectors, hence it supersedes multivariate multiple regression models, in which the unknown coefficients are scalar quantities. For the solution, complex numbers are used to rep- resent vector information, and the method of least squares is deployed to estimate the vector model parameters after transforming the complex vector regression model into a real vector regression model through isomorphism. Various operational statistics for testing the predictive significance of the estimated vector parameter coefficients are also derived. A simple numerical example demonstrates the use of the proposed vector regression analysis in modeling typhoon paths.

  14. Hippocampal activity during transient respiratory events in the freely behaving cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poe, G R; Kristensen, Morten Pilgaard; Rector, D M

    1996-01-01

    We measured dorsal hippocampal activity accompanying sighs and apnea using reflectance imaging and electrophysiologic measures in freely behaving cats. Reflected 660-nm light from a 1-mm2 area of CA1 was captured during sighs and apnea at 25 Hz through a coherent image conduit coupled to a charge...

  15. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system--FUEL subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Burgan; Richard C. Rothermel

    1984-01-01

    This manual documents the fuel modeling procedures of BEHAVE--a state-of-the-art wildland fire behavior prediction system. Described are procedures for collecting fuel data, using the data with the program, and testing and adjusting the fuel model.

  16. An Abstract Coalgebraic Approach to Process Equivalence for Well- Behaved Operational Semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klin, Bartek

    This thesis is part of the programme aimed at finding a mathematical theory of well-behaved structural operational semantics. General and basic results shown in 1997 in a seminal paper by Turi and Plotkin are extended in two directions, aiming at greater expressivity of the framework. The so-call...

  17. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system-BURN Subsystem, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews

    1986-01-01

    Describes BURN Subsystem, Part 1, the operational fire behavior prediction subsystem of the BEHAVE fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system. The manual covers operation of the computer program, assumptions of the mathematical models used in the calculations, and application of the predictions.

  18. A lightweight telemetry system for recording neuronal activity in freely behaving small animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schregardus, D.S.; Pieneman, A.W.; ter Maat, A.; Brouwer, T.J.F.; Gahr, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    A miniature lightweight radio telemetric device is described which is shown to be suitable for recording neuronal activity in freely behaving animals. Its size (12 × 5 × 8 mm) and weight (1.0-1.1 g with batteries, 0.4-0.5 g without) make the device particularly suitable for recording neuronal units

  19. Coarse graining flow of spin foam intertwiners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Schnetter, Erik; Seth, Cameron J.; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Simplicity constraints play a crucial role in the construction of spin foam models, yet their effective behavior on larger scales is scarcely explored. In this article we introduce intertwiner and spin net models for the quantum group SU (2 )k×SU (2 )k, which implement the simplicity constraints analogous to four-dimensional Euclidean spin foam models, namely the Barrett-Crane (BC) and the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine/Freidel-Krasnov (EPRL/FK) model. These models are numerically coarse grained via tensor network renormalization, allowing us to trace the flow of simplicity constraints to larger scales. In order to perform these simulations we have substantially adapted tensor network algorithms, which we discuss in detail as they can be of use in other contexts. The BC and the EPRL/FK model behave very differently under coarse graining: While the unique BC intertwiner model is a fixed point and therefore constitutes a two-dimensional topological phase, BC spin net models flow away from the initial simplicity constraints and converge to several different topological phases. Most of these phases correspond to decoupling spin foam vertices; however we find also a new phase in which this is not the case, and in which a nontrivial version of the simplicity constraints holds. The coarse graining flow of the BC spin net models indicates furthermore that the transitions between these phases are not of second order. The EPRL/FK model by contrast reveals a far more intricate and complex dynamics. We observe an immediate flow away from the original simplicity constraints; however, with the truncation employed here, the models generically do not converge to a fixed point. The results show that the imposition of simplicity constraints can indeed lead to interesting and also very complex dynamics. Thus we need to further develop coarse graining tools to efficiently study the large scale behavior of spin foam models, in particular for the EPRL/FK model.

  20. Deformations of the spin currents by topological screw dislocation and cosmic dispiration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianhua; Ma, Kai; Li, Kang; Fan, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    We study the spin currents induced by topological screw dislocation and cosmic dispiration. By using the extended Drude model, we find that the spin dependent forces are modified by the nontrivial geometry. For the topological screw dislocation, only the direction of spin current is bent by deforming the spin polarization vector. In contrast, the force induced by cosmic dispiration could affect both the direction and magnitude of the spin current. As a consequence, the spin-Hall conductivity does not receive corrections from screw dislocation.

  1. Deformations of the spin currents by topological screw dislocation and cosmic dispiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianhua [School of Physics Science, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723000, Shaanxi (China); Ma, Kai, E-mail: makainca@gmail.com [School of Physics Science, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong 723000, Shaanxi (China); Li, Kang [Department of Physics, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, Zhejiang (China); Fan, Huawei [School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xian 710000, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-11-15

    We study the spin currents induced by topological screw dislocation and cosmic dispiration. By using the extended Drude model, we find that the spin dependent forces are modified by the nontrivial geometry. For the topological screw dislocation, only the direction of spin current is bent by deforming the spin polarization vector. In contrast, the force induced by cosmic dispiration could affect both the direction and magnitude of the spin current. As a consequence, the spin-Hall conductivity does not receive corrections from screw dislocation.

  2. Electron with arbitrary pseudo-spins in multilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prarokijjak Worasak; Soodchomshom Bumned

    2015-01-01

    Using the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of the ABC-stacked multilayer graphene, the pseudo-spin coupling to real orbital angular momentum of electrons in multilayer graphene is investigated. We show that the electron wave function in N-layer graphene mimics the behavior of a particle with a spin of N × (ħ/2), where N = {1, 2, 3,…}. It is said that for N > 1 the low-energy effective Hamiltonian for ABC-stacked graphene cannot be used to describe pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. The wave function of electrons in multilayer graphene may behave like fermionic (or bosonic) particle for N being odd (or even). In this paper, we propose a theory of graphene serving as a host material of electrons with arbitrary pseudo-spins tunable by changing the number of graphene layers. (paper)

  3. Electron with arbitrary pseudo-spins in multilayer graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Worasak Prarokijjak; Bumned Soodchomshom

    2015-01-01

    Using the low-energy effective Hamiltonian of the ABC-stacked multilayer graphene, the pseudo-spin coupling to real orbital angular momentum of electrons in multilayer graphene is investigated. We show that the electron wave function in N-layer graphene mimics the behavior of a particle with a spin of N × (}/2), where N={1, 2, 3, . . .}. It is said that for N>1 the low-energy effective Hamiltonian for ABC-stacked graphene cannot be used to describe pseudo-spin-1/2 particles. The wave function of electrons in multilayer graphene may behave like fermionic (or bosonic) particle for N being odd (or even). In this paper, we propose a theory of graphene serving as a host material of electrons with arbitrary pseudo-spins tunable by changing the number of graphene layers.

  4. Spin-dependent Nucleon Structure Studies at MIT/Bates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botto, T.

    2005-01-01

    We present preliminary results from recent measurements of the proton, neutron and deuterium electro-magnetic form factors obtained by the BLAST collaboration at the MIT/Bates Linear Accelerator Facility. BLAST (Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid) is a large-acceptance multi-purpose detector dedicated to studies of exclusive spin-dependent electron scattering from internal polarized targets. BLAST makes use of stored electron beam currents in excess of 150 mA with a 60-70% polarization. The electron beam is let through a 15 mm diameter, 60 cm long open-ended storage cell which is fed with ultra-pure, high-polarization H1,D1 gas from an Atomic Beam Source. The target polarization can be rapidly reversed between different vector and tensor target states, thus minimizing systematic uncertainties. The target spin can be oriented to any in-plane direction via a set of Helmholtz coils. Target polarizations in the storage cell of up to 80% (vector) and 70% (tensor) have been routinely achieved over a period of several months. Our data on the D-vector(e-vector,e'n) reaction off vector polarized deuterium allow for a unique extraction of the neutron charge form factor G E n . At same time, complementary measurements of G M n , T20 and the spin-dependent nucleon momentum distributions in deuterium are obtained via the D-vector(e-vector,e'), D (e-vector,e'd) and D (e-vector,e'p) reactions. In addition, BLAST data on vector polarized hydrogen will provide novel measurements of the GE/GM form-factor ratio on the proton as well as of the spin-dependent electro-excitation of the Δ(1232) resonance. Such comprehensive program on few body physics is now well underway and preliminary data will be presented

  5. Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Farle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.

  6. Charmless Hadronic B Decays into Vector, Axial Vector and Tensor Final States at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental measurements of branching fraction and longitudinal polarization fraction in charmless hadronic B decays into vector, axial vector and tensor final states with the final dataset of BABAR. Measurements of such kind of decays are a powerful tool both to test the Standard Model and search possible sources of new physics. In this document we present a short review of the last experimental results at BABAR concerning charmless quasi two-body decays in final states containing particles with spin 1 or spin 2 and different parities. This kind of decays has received considerable theoretical interest in the last few years and this particular attention has led to interesting experimental results at the current b-factories. In fact, the study of longitudinal polarization fraction f L in charmless B decays to vector vector (VV), vector axial-vector (VA) and axial-vector axial-vector (AA) mesons provides information on the underlying helicity structure of the decay mechanism. Naive helicity conservation arguments predict a dominant longitudinal polarization fraction f L ∼ 1 for both tree and penguin dominated decays and this pattern seems to be confirmed by tree-dominated B → ρρ and B + → (Omega)ρ + decays. Other penguin dominated decays, instead, show a different behavior: the measured value of f L ∼ 0.5 in B → φK* decays is in contrast with naive Standard Model (SM) calculations. Several solutions have been proposed such as the introduction of non-factorizable terms and penguin-annihilation amplitudes, while other explanations invoke new physics. New modes have been investigated to shed more light on the problem.

  7. Reversible Vector Ratchet Effect in Skyrmion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyu; Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia

    Magnetic skyrmions are topological non-trivial spin textures found in several magnetic materials. Since their motion can be controlled using ultralow current densities, skyrmions are appealing for potential applications in spintronics as information carriers and processing devices. In this work, we studied the collective transport properties of driven skyrmions based on a particle-like model with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our results show that ac driven skyrmions interacting with an asymmetric substrate provide a realization of a new class of ratchet system, which we call a vector ratchet, that arises due to the effect of the Magnus term on the skyrmion dynamics. In a vector ratchet, the dc motion induced by the ac drive can be described as a vector that can be rotated up to 360 degrees relative to the substrate asymmetry direction. This could represent a new method for controlling skyrmion motion for spintronic applications.

  8. Quantum nonlinear lattices and coherent state vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellinas, Demosthenes; Johansson, M.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1999-01-01

    for the state vectors invokes the study of the Riemannian and symplectic geometry of the CSV manifolds as generalized phase spaces. Next, we investigate analytically and numerically the behavior of mean values and uncertainties of some physically interesting observables as well as the modifications...... (FP) model. Based on the respective dynamical symmetries of the models, a method is put forward which by use of the associated boson and spin coherent state vectors (CSV) and a factorization ansatz for the solution of the Schrodinger equation, leads to quasiclassical Hamiltonian equations of motion...... state vectors, and accounts for the quantum correlations of the lattice sites that develop during the time evolution of the systems. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. The charge form factor of the neutron from sup 2 H-vector, (e-vector, e' n)p

    CERN Document Server

    Passchier, I; Szczerba, D; Alarcon, R; Bauer, T S; Boersma, D J; Van der Brand, J F J; Bulten, H J; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Higinbotham, D W; Jager, C W D; Klous, S; Kolster, H; Lang, J; Nikolenko, D M; Nooren, G J; Norum, B E; Poolman, H R; Rachek, Igor A; Simani, M C; Six, E; Vries, H D; Wang, K; Zhou, Z L

    2000-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of spin-correlation parameters in quasifree electron scattering from vector-polarized deuterium. Polarized electrons were injected into an electron storage ring at a beam energy of 720 MeV. A Siberian snake was employed to preserve longitudinal polarization at the interaction point. Vector-polarized deuterium was produced by an atomic beam source and injected into an open-ended cylindrical cell, internal to the electron storage ring. The spin correlation parameter A sup V sub e sub d was measured for the reaction sup 2 H-vector, (e-vector, e'n)p at a four-momentum transfer squared of 0.21 (GeV/c) sup 2 from which a value for the charge form factor of the neutron was extracted.

  10. Impact of mass generation for spin-1 mediator simplified models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Nicole F.; Cai, Yi; Leane, Rebecca K.

    2017-01-01

    In the simplified dark matter models commonly studied, the mass generation mechanism for the dark fields is not typically specified. We demonstrate that the dark matter interaction types, and hence the annihilation processes relevant for relic density and indirect detection, are strongly dictated by the mass generation mechanism chosen for the dark sector particles, and the requirement of gauge invariance. We focus on the class of models in which fermionic dark matter couples to a spin-1 vector or axial-vector mediator. However, in order to generate dark sector mass terms, it is necessary in most cases to introduce a dark Higgs field and thus a spin-0 scalar mediator will also be present. In the case that all the dark sector fields gain masses via coupling to a single dark sector Higgs field, it is mandatory that the axial-vector coupling of the spin-1 mediator to the dark matter is non-zero; the vector coupling may also be present depending on the charge assignments. For all other mass generation options, only pure vector couplings between the spin-1 mediator and the dark matter are allowed. If these coupling restrictions are not obeyed, unphysical results may be obtained such as a violation of unitarity at high energies. These two-mediator scenarios lead to important phenomenology that does not arise in single mediator models. We survey two-mediator dark matter models which contain both vector and scalar mediators, and explore their relic density and indirect detection phenomenology.

  11. High spin effects in superdense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.

    1978-04-01

    A model of relativistic interacting superdense matter with vector, scalar and symmetric second rank tensor exchange is developed. The Green's functions of the model are solved in the self consistent Hartree approximation. The contributions of the symmetric second rank tensor are emphasized. It is found that these high spin contributions effect the superdense matter at densities just beyond those predicted to occur in neutron star matter or nuclear collisions. The spin-two effects do produce an unusual asymptotic dependence, p = - 1 / 3 epsilon. This effect is examined in a simple model of the early universe

  12. Spin transport in diffusive ferromagnetic Josephson junctions with noncollinear magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shomali, Zahra; Zareyan, Malek [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45195 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Belzig, Wolfgang [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We numerically study the Josephson coupling of two s-wave superconductors which are connected through a diffusive contact made of two ferromagnetic domains with the magnetization vectors misoriented by an angle {theta}. The assumed superconducting leads are conventional s-wave type with the phase difference of {phi}. Using the quantum circuit theory, we find that in addition to the charge supercurrent, which shows a 0-{pi} transition relative to the angle {theta}, the spin supercurrent with a spin polarization normal to the magnetization vectors will flow through the contact. Our results present a 0-{pi} quantum phase transition as a function of the wave vector, Q{xi}. Finally, we investigate the spin supercurrent in an extended magnetic texture with multiple domain walls. We find the behavior of spin supercurrent is highly sensitive to the barrier. When asymmetric barriers don't change the value of the spin supercurrent, the symmetric ones decrease the value of it notably. We also investigate some other interesting effects for these systems. In addition, we present when Q{xi} is the even multiple of {pi}, the spin-current which is penetrated into the nonhomogeneous ferromagnets is nearly zero, how ever the odd ones show the large amount of penetrated spin supercurrent.

  13. Spin precession and spin waves in a chiral electron gas: Beyond Larmor's theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Shahrzad; Baboux, Florent; Perez, Florent; Ullrich, Carsten A.; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz

    2017-07-01

    Larmor's theorem holds for magnetic systems that are invariant under spin rotation. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling this invariance is lost and Larmor's theorem is broken: for systems of interacting electrons, this gives rise to a subtle interplay between the spin-orbit coupling acting on individual single-particle states and Coulomb many-body effects. We consider a quasi-two-dimensional, partially spin-polarized electron gas in a semiconductor quantum well in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Using a linear-response approach based on time-dependent density-functional theory, we calculate the dispersions of spin-flip waves. We obtain analytic results for small wave vectors and up to second order in the Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling strengths α and β . Comparison with experimental data from inelastic light scattering allows us to extract α and β as well as the spin-wave stiffness very accurately. We find significant deviations from the local density approximation for spin-dependent electron systems.

  14. VectorBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  15. Three-vector, statistical theory of errors and the Planck constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demers, P.

    1981-01-01

    The paper confirms an assertion of Pappas: T3 is not an Euclidean vector, it behaves like delta 3, a statistical error made of 3 component errors. T3 and delta 3 are 3-vectors, obeying Poincare's group for rotation, not for translation. The idea of T3 adds to the affinities between time, entropy, probability and Planck's constant, besides offering a proof of the non-existence of tachyons. (author)

  16. Generalization of concurrence vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Changshui; Song Heshan

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, based on the generalization of concurrence vectors for bipartite pure state with respect to employing tensor product of generators of the corresponding rotation groups, we generalize concurrence vectors to the case of mixed states; a new criterion of separability of multipartite pure states is given out, for which we define a concurrence vector; we generalize the vector to the case of multipartite mixed state and give out a good measure of free entanglement

  17. Vector Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L X L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding coefficients in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector co...

  18. Vector Network Coding Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi, Javad; Fragouli, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We develop new algebraic algorithms for scalar and vector network coding. In vector network coding, the source multicasts information by transmitting vectors of length L, while intermediate nodes process and combine their incoming packets by multiplying them with L x L coding matrices that play a similar role as coding c in scalar coding. Our algorithms for scalar network jointly optimize the employed field size while selecting the coding coefficients. Similarly, for vector coding, our algori...

  19. Spontaneous spin-polarization and phase transition in the relativistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2001-01-01

    We study the spin-polarization mechanism in the highly dense nuclear matter with the relativistic mean-field approach. In the relativistic Hartree-Fock framework we find that there are two kinds of spin-spin interaction channels, which are the axial-vector and tensor exchange ones. If each interaction is strong and different sign, the system loses the spherical symmetry and holds the spin-polarization in the high-density region. When the axial-vector interaction is negative enough, the system holds ferromagnetism. (author)

  20. Convexity and Marginal Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.; Hamers, H.J.M.; Norde, H.W.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we construct sets of marginal vectors of a TU game with the property that if the marginal vectors from these sets are core elements, then the game is convex.This approach leads to new upperbounds on the number of marginal vectors needed to characterize convexity.An other result is that

  1. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  2. Spin wave propagation in perpendicular magnetized 20 nm Yttrium Iron Garnet with different antenna design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jilei; Stueckler, Tobias; Zhang, Youguang; Zhao, Weisheng; Yu, Haiming; Chang, Houchen; Liu, Tao; Wu, Mingzhong; Liu, Chuanpu; Liao, Zhimin; Yu, Dapeng; Fert Beijing research institute Team; Colorado State University Team; Peking University Collaboration

    Magnonics offers a new way to transport information using spin waves free of charge current and could lead to a new paradigm in the area of computing. Forward volume (FV) mode spin wave with perpendicular magnetized configuration is suitable for spin wave logic device because it is free of non-reciprocity effect. Here, we study FV mode spin wave propagation in YIG thin film with an ultra-low damping. We integrated differently designed antenna i.e., coplanar waveguide and micro stripline with different dimensions. The k vectors of the spin waves defined by the design of the antenna are calculated using Fourier transform. We show FV mode spin wave propagation results by measuring S12 parameter from vector network analyzer and we extract the group velocity of the FV mode spin wave as well as its dispersion relations.

  3. Spin-polarized spin excitation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2010-01-01

    We report on the spin dependence of elastic and inelastic electron tunneling through transition metal atoms. Mn, Fe and Cu atoms were deposited onto a monolayer of Cu 2 N on Cu(100) and individually addressed with the probe tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. Electrons tunneling between the tip and the substrate exchange energy and spin angular momentum with the surface-bound magnetic atoms. The conservation of energy during the tunneling process results in a distinct onset threshold voltage above which the tunneling electrons create spin excitations in the Mn and Fe atoms. Here we show that the additional conservation of spin angular momentum leads to different cross-sections for spin excitations depending on the relative alignment of the surface spin and the spin of the tunneling electron. For this purpose, we developed a technique for measuring the same local spin with a spin-polarized and a non-spin-polarized tip by exchanging the last apex atom of the probe tip between different transition metal atoms. We derive a quantitative model describing the observed excitation cross-sections on the basis of an exchange scattering process.

  4. Spin-frustrated V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets with Dzialoshinsky-Moriya exchange. 2. Spin structure, spin chirality and tunneling gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, Moisey I.

    2009-01-01

    The spin chirality and spin structure of the Cu 3 and V 3 nanomagnets with the Dzialoshinsky-Moriya (DM) exchange interaction are analyzed. The correlations between the vector κ and the scalar χ chirality are obtained. The DM interaction forms the spin chirality which is equal to zero in the Heisenberg clusters. The dependences of the spin chirality on magnetic field and deformations are calculated. The cluster distortions reduce the spin chirality. The vector chirality is reduced partially and the scalar chirality vanishes in the transverse magnetic field. In the isosceles clusters, the DM exchange and distortions determine the sign and degree of the spin chirality κ. The correlations between the chirality parameters κ n and the intensities of the EPR and INS transitions are obtained. The vector chirality κ n describes the spin chirality of the Cu 3 and V 3 nanomagnets, the scalar chirality describes the pseudoorbital moment of the DM cluster. It is shown that in the consideration of the DM exchange, the spin states DM mixing and tunneling gaps at level crossing fields depend on the coordinate system of the DM model. The calculations in the DM exchange models in the right-handed and left-handed frame show opposite magnetic behavior at the level crossing field and allow to explain the opposite schemes of the tunneling gaps and levels crossing, which have been obtained in different treatments. The results of the DM model in the right-handed frame are consistent with the results of the group-theoretical analysis, whereas the results in the left-handed frame are inconsistent with that. The correlations between the spin chirality of the ground state and tunneling gaps at the level crossing field are obtained for the equilateral and isosceles nanoclusters.

  5. Spin supercurrent in Josephson contacts with noncollinear ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shomali, Zahra; Zareyan, Malek; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the Josephson coupling of two superconductors that are connected through a diffusive contact consisting of noncollinear ferromagnetic domains. The leads are conventional s-wave superconductors with a phase difference of ψ. Firstly, we consider a contact with two domains with magnetization vectors misoriented by an angle θ. Using the quantum circuit theory, we found that in addition to the charge supercurrent, which shows a 0-π transition relative to the angle θ, a spin supercurrent with a spin polarization normal to the magnetization vectors flows between the domains. While the charge supercurrent is odd in ψ and even in θ, the spin supercurrent is even in ψ and odd in θ. Furthermore, with asymmetric insulating barriers at the interfaces of the junction, the system may experience an antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition for ψ=π. Secondly, we discuss the spin supercurrent in an extended magnetic texture with multiple domain walls. We find the position-dependent spin supercurrent. While the direction of the spin supercurrent is always perpendicular to the plane of the magnetization vectors, the magnitude of the spin supercurrent strongly depends on the phase difference between the superconductors and the number of domain walls. In particular, our results reveal the high sensitivity of spin- and charge-transport in the junction to the number of domain walls in the ferromagnet. We show that superconductivity in coexistence with noncollinear magnetism can be used in a Josephson nanodevice to create a controllable spin supercurrent acting as a spin transfer torque on a system. Our results demonstrate the possibility of coupling the superconducting phase to the magnetization dynamics and, hence, constituting a quantum interface, for example between the magnetization and a superconducting qubit.

  6. Spin-isospin excitations studied by polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, H.; Greenfield, M.B.; Hatanaka, K.

    1996-01-01

    The spin-parity J π of the spin dipole resonances (SDR) in 12 N and 12 B are investigated via the measurements of polarization observables, the transverse polarization transfer coefficient D NN for the (vector p, vector n) reaction at 197 and 295 MeV and the tensor analyzing power A xx for the (vector d, 2 He) reaction at 270 MeV. The polarization observables, D NN and A xx for the peak at 4.5 MeV are consistent with the DWIA prediction with 2 - but those for the peak at 7.5 MeV contradict the predictions with an expected J π =1 - . Neither polarization observables could detect any concentration of 0 - strength. The usefulness of these spin observables in identifying J π is shown. (orig.)

  7. Combinatorial Clustering Algorithm of Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization and Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Yuan Shan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a combinatorial clustering algorithm of cloud model and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (COCQPSO to solve the stochastic problem. The algorithm employs a novel probability model as well as a permutation-based local search method. We are setting the parameters of COCQPSO based on the design of experiment. In the comprehensive computational study, we scrutinize the performance of COCQPSO on a set of widely used benchmark instances. By benchmarking combinatorial clustering algorithm with state-of-the-art algorithms, we can show that its performance compares very favorably. The fuzzy combinatorial optimization algorithm of cloud model and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (FCOCQPSO in vague sets (IVSs is more expressive than the other fuzzy sets. Finally, numerical examples show the clustering effectiveness of COCQPSO and FCOCQPSO clustering algorithms which are extremely remarkable.

  8. Evolving Models of Pavlovian Conditioning: Cerebellar Cortical Dynamics in Awake Behaving Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel M. ten Brinke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three decades of electrophysiological research on cerebellar cortical activity underlying Pavlovian conditioning have expanded our understanding of motor learning in the brain. Purkinje cell simple spike suppression is considered to be crucial in the expression of conditional blink responses (CRs. However, trial-by-trial quantification of this link in awake behaving animals is lacking, and current hypotheses regarding the underlying plasticity mechanisms have diverged from the classical parallel fiber one to the Purkinje cell synapse LTD hypothesis. Here, we establish that acquired simple spike suppression, acquired conditioned stimulus (CS-related complex spike responses, and molecular layer interneuron (MLI activity predict the expression of CRs on a trial-by-trial basis using awake behaving mice. Additionally, we show that two independent transgenic mouse mutants with impaired MLI function exhibit motor learning deficits. Our findings suggest multiple cerebellar cortical plasticity mechanisms underlying simple spike suppression, and they implicate the broader involvement of the olivocerebellar module within the interstimulus interval.

  9. Static properties and spin dynamics of the ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose gas in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kis-Szabo, Krisztian; Szepfalusy, Peter; Szirmai, Gergely

    2005-01-01

    The properties of spin-1 Bose gases with ferromagnetic interactions in the presence of a nonzero magnetic field are studied. The equation of state and thermodynamic quantities are worked out with the help of a mean-field approximation. The phase diagram besides Bose-Einstein condensation contains a first-order transition where two values of the magnetization coexist. The dynamics is investigated with the help of the random phase approximation. The soft mode corresponding to the critical point of the magnetic phase transition is found to behave like in conventional theory

  10. Do Students Behave Rationally in Multiple Choice Tests? Evidence from a Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    María Paz Espinosa; Javier Gardeazabal

    2013-01-01

    A disadvantage of multiple choice tests is that students have incentives to guess. To discourage guessing, it is common to use scoring rules that either penalize wrong answers or reward omissions. In psychometrics, penalty and reward scoring rules are considered equivalent. However, experimental evidence indicates that students behave differently under penalty or reward scoring rules. These differences have been attributed to the different framing (penalty versus reward). In this paper, we mo...

  11. A covariant formalism of spin precession with respect to a reference congruence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2006-01-01

    We derive an effectively three-dimensional relativistic spin precession formalism. The formalism is applicable to any spacetime where an arbitrary timelike reference congruence of worldlines is specified. We employ what we call a stopped spin vector which is the spin vector that we would get if we momentarily make a pure boost of the spin vector to stop it relative to the congruence. Starting from the Fermi transport equation for the standard spin vector we derive a corresponding transport equation for the stopped spin vector. Employing a spacetime transport equation for a vector along a worldline, corresponding to spatial parallel transport with respect to the congruence, we can write down a precession formula for a gyroscope relative to the local spatial geometry defined by the congruence. This general approach has already been pursued by Jantzen et al (see e.g. Jantzen R T, Carini P and Bini D 1992 Ann. Phys. 215 1-50), but the algebraic form of our respective expressions differs. We are also applying the formalism to a novel type of spatial parallel transport introduced in Jonsson (2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1), as well as verifying the validity of the intuitive approach of a forthcoming paper (Jonsson 2006 forthcoming) where gyroscope precession is explained entirely as a double Thomas type of effect. We also present the resulting formalism in explicit three-dimensional form (using the boldface vector notation), and give examples of applications

  12. Stochastic spin-one massive field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Stochastic quantization schemes of Nelson and Parisi and Wu are applied to a spin-one massive field. Unlike the scalar case Nelson's stochastic spin-one massive field cannot be identified with the corresponding euclidean field even if the fourth component of the euclidean coordinate is taken as equal to the real physical time. In the Parisi-Wu quantization scheme the stochastic Proca vector field has a similar property as the scalar field; which has an asymptotically stationary part and a transient part. The large equal-time limit of the expectation values of the stochastic Proca field are equal to the expectation values of the corresponding euclidean field. In the Stueckelberg formalism the Parisi-Wu scheme gives rise to a stochastic vector field which differs from the massless gauge field in that the gauge cannot be fixed by the choice of boundary condition. (orig.)

  13. Rotations with Rodrigues' vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

  14. Chaos Quantum-Behaved Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in the PV MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Nie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO algorithm was put forward in 2006. Despite a faster convergence speed compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO algorithm, the application of CSO is greatly limited by the drawback of “premature convergence,” that is, the possibility of trapping in local optimum when dealing with nonlinear optimization problem with a large number of local extreme values. In order to surmount the shortcomings of CSO, Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (QCSO algorithm improves the accuracy of the CSO algorithm, because it is easy to fall into the local optimum in the later stage. Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO algorithm is proposed by introducing tent map for jumping out of local optimum in this paper. Secondly, CQCSO has been applied in the simulation of five different test functions, showing higher accuracy and less time consumption than CSO and QCSO. Finally, photovoltaic MPPT model and experimental platform are established and global maximum power point tracking control strategy is achieved by CQCSO algorithm, the effectiveness and efficiency of which have been verified by both simulation and experiment.

  15. Chaos Quantum-Behaved Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in the PV MPPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaohua; Wang, Wei; Nie, Haoyao

    2017-01-01

    Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO) algorithm was put forward in 2006. Despite a faster convergence speed compared with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, the application of CSO is greatly limited by the drawback of "premature convergence," that is, the possibility of trapping in local optimum when dealing with nonlinear optimization problem with a large number of local extreme values. In order to surmount the shortcomings of CSO, Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (QCSO) algorithm improves the accuracy of the CSO algorithm, because it is easy to fall into the local optimum in the later stage. Chaos Quantum-behaved Cat Swarm Optimization (CQCSO) algorithm is proposed by introducing tent map for jumping out of local optimum in this paper. Secondly, CQCSO has been applied in the simulation of five different test functions, showing higher accuracy and less time consumption than CSO and QCSO. Finally, photovoltaic MPPT model and experimental platform are established and global maximum power point tracking control strategy is achieved by CQCSO algorithm, the effectiveness and efficiency of which have been verified by both simulation and experiment.

  16. An Adaptive Cultural Algorithm with Improved Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization for Sonar Image Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingmei; Hao, Wenqian; Li, Qiming

    2017-12-18

    This paper proposes an adaptive cultural algorithm with improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (ACA-IQPSO) to detect the underwater sonar image. In the population space, to improve searching ability of particles, iterative times and the fitness value of particles are regarded as factors to adaptively adjust the contraction-expansion coefficient of the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm (QPSO). The improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm (IQPSO) can make particles adjust their behaviours according to their quality. In the belief space, a new update strategy is adopted to update cultural individuals according to the idea of the update strategy in shuffled frog leaping algorithm (SFLA). Moreover, to enhance the utilization of information in the population space and belief space, accept function and influence function are redesigned in the new communication protocol. The experimental results show that ACA-IQPSO can obtain good clustering centres according to the grey distribution information of underwater sonar images, and accurately complete underwater objects detection. Compared with other algorithms, the proposed ACA-IQPSO has good effectiveness, excellent adaptability, a powerful searching ability and high convergence efficiency. Meanwhile, the experimental results of the benchmark functions can further demonstrate that the proposed ACA-IQPSO has better searching ability, convergence efficiency and stability.

  17. A charged anisotropic well-behaved Adler-Finch-Skea solution satisfying Karmarkar condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Piyali; Singh, Ksh. Newton; Rahaman, Farook; Pant, Neeraj; Banerjee, Sumita

    In the present paper, we discover a new well-behaved charged anisotropic solution of Einstein-Maxwell’s field equations. We ansatz the metric potential g00 of the form given by Maurya et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 76(12) (2016) 693) with n = 2. In their paper, it is mentioned that for n = 2, the solution is not well-behaved for neutral configuration as the speed of sound is nondecreasing radially outward. However, the solution can represent a physically possible configuration with the inclusion of some net electric charge, i.e. the solution can become a well-behaved solution with decreasing sound speed radially outward for a charged configuration. Due to the inclusion of electric charge, the solution leads to a very stiff equation-of-state (EoS) with the velocity of sound at the center vr02 = 0.819, vt02 = 0.923 and the compactness parameter u = 0.823 is close to the Buchdahl limit 0.889. This stiff EoS support a compact star configuration of mass 5.418M⊙ and radius of 10.1km.

  18. Spin nematics next to spin singlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuto; Hotta, Chisa

    2018-05-01

    We provide a route to generate nematic order in a spin-1/2 system. Unlike the well-known magnon-binding mechanism, our spin nematics requires neither the frustration effect nor spin polarization in a high field or in the vicinity of a ferromagnet, but instead appears next to the spin singlet phase. We start from a state consisting of a quantum spin-1/2 singlet dimer placed on each site of a triangular lattice, and show that interdimer ring exchange interactions efficiently dope the SU(2) triplets that itinerate and interact, easily driving a stable singlet state to either Bose-Einstein condensates or a triplet crystal, some hosting a spin nematic order. A variety of roles the ring exchange serves includes the generation of a bilinear-biquadratic interaction between nearby triplets, which is responsible for the emergent nematic order separated from the singlet phase by a first-order transition.

  19. Zolpidem Reduces Hippocampal Neuronal Activity in Freely Behaving Mice: A Large Scale Calcium Imaging Study with Miniaturized Fluorescence Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyyeva, Tamara; Otte, Stephani; Aluisio, Leah; Ziv, Yaniv; Burns, Laurie D.; Dugovic, Christine; Yun, Sujin; Ghosh, Kunal K.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Lovenberg, Timothy; Bonaventure, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic drugs for cognitive and psychiatric disorders are often characterized by their molecular mechanism of action. Here we demonstrate a new approach to elucidate drug action on large-scale neuronal activity by tracking somatic calcium dynamics in hundreds of CA1 hippocampal neurons of pharmacologically manipulated behaving mice. We used an adeno-associated viral vector to express the calcium sensor GCaMP3 in CA1 pyramidal cells under control of the CaMKII promoter and a miniaturized microscope to observe cellular dynamics. We visualized these dynamics with and without a systemic administration of Zolpidem, a GABAA agonist that is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of insomnia in the United States. Despite growing concerns about the potential adverse effects of Zolpidem on memory and cognition, it remained unclear whether Zolpidem alters neuronal activity in the hippocampus, a brain area critical for cognition and memory. Zolpidem, when delivered at a dose known to induce and prolong sleep, strongly suppressed CA1 calcium signaling. The rate of calcium transients after Zolpidem administration was significantly lower compared to vehicle treatment. To factor out the contribution of changes in locomotor or physiological conditions following Zolpidem treatment, we compared the cellular activity across comparable epochs matched by locomotor and physiological assessments. This analysis revealed significantly depressive effects of Zolpidem regardless of the animal’s state. Individual hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differed in their responses to Zolpidem with the majority (∼65%) significantly decreasing the rate of calcium transients, and a small subset (3%) showing an unexpected and significant increase. By linking molecular mechanisms with the dynamics of neural circuitry and behavioral states, this approach has the potential to contribute substantially to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of CNS disorders. PMID:25372144

  20. Zolpidem reduces hippocampal neuronal activity in freely behaving mice: a large scale calcium imaging study with miniaturized fluorescence microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Berdyyeva

    Full Text Available Therapeutic drugs for cognitive and psychiatric disorders are often characterized by their molecular mechanism of action. Here we demonstrate a new approach to elucidate drug action on large-scale neuronal activity by tracking somatic calcium dynamics in hundreds of CA1 hippocampal neurons of pharmacologically manipulated behaving mice. We used an adeno-associated viral vector to express the calcium sensor GCaMP3 in CA1 pyramidal cells under control of the CaMKII promoter and a miniaturized microscope to observe cellular dynamics. We visualized these dynamics with and without a systemic administration of Zolpidem, a GABAA agonist that is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of insomnia in the United States. Despite growing concerns about the potential adverse effects of Zolpidem on memory and cognition, it remained unclear whether Zolpidem alters neuronal activity in the hippocampus, a brain area critical for cognition and memory. Zolpidem, when delivered at a dose known to induce and prolong sleep, strongly suppressed CA1 calcium signaling. The rate of calcium transients after Zolpidem administration was significantly lower compared to vehicle treatment. To factor out the contribution of changes in locomotor or physiological conditions following Zolpidem treatment, we compared the cellular activity across comparable epochs matched by locomotor and physiological assessments. This analysis revealed significantly depressive effects of Zolpidem regardless of the animal's state. Individual hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differed in their responses to Zolpidem with the majority (∼ 65% significantly decreasing the rate of calcium transients, and a small subset (3% showing an unexpected and significant increase. By linking molecular mechanisms with the dynamics of neural circuitry and behavioral states, this approach has the potential to contribute substantially to the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of CNS disorders.

  1. Relativistic impulse approximation and deuteron spin structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokarev, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    The fragmentation processes were considered of tensor- and vector-polarized deuterons to protons in the framework of the covariant approach in the light cone variables on the basis of the relativistic deuteron wave function with one nucleon on-mass shell. The experimental verification of predicted dependences of T 20 and K is of interest for the research of the momentum and spin distributions of high momentum deuteron constituents. 21 refs.; 6 figs

  2. Semiclassical treatment of transport and spin relaxation in spin-orbit coupled systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueffe, Matthias Clemens

    2012-02-10

    The coupling of orbital motion and spin, as derived from the relativistic Dirac equation, plays an important role not only in the atomic spectra but as well in solid state physics. Spin-orbit interactions are fundamental for the young research field of semiconductor spintronics, which is inspired by the idea to use the electron's spin instead of its charge for fast and power saving information processing in the future. However, on the route towards a functional spin transistor there is still some groundwork to be done, e.g., concerning the detailed understanding of spin relaxation in semiconductors. The first part of the present thesis can be placed in this context. We have investigated the processes contributing to the relaxation of a particularly long-lived spin-density wave, which can exist in semiconductor heterostructures with Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling of precisely the same magnitude. We have used a semiclassical spindiffusion equation to study the influence of the Coulomb interaction on the lifetime of this persistent spin helix. We have thus established that, in the presence of perturbations that violate the special symmetry of the problem, electron-electron scattering can have an impact on the relaxation of the spin helix. The resulting temperature-dependent lifetime reproduces the experimentally observed one in a satisfactory manner. It turns out that cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is the most important symmetry-breaking element. The Coulomb interaction affects the dynamics of the persistent spin helix also via an Hartree-Fock exchange field. As a consequence, the individual spins precess about the vector of the surrounding local spin density, thus causing a nonlinear dynamics. We have shown that, for an experimentally accessible degree of initial spin polarization, characteristic non-linear effects such as a dramatic increase of lifetime and the appearance of higher harmonics can be expected. Another fascinating solid

  3. Entangled states decoherence in coupled molecular spin clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiani, Filippo; Szallas, Attila; Bellini, Valerio; Affronte, Marco

    2010-03-01

    Localized electron spins in solid-state systems are widely investigated as potential building blocks of quantum devices and computers. While most efforts in the field have been focused on semiconductor low-dimensional structures, molecular antiferromagnets were recently recognized as alternative implementations of effective few-level spin systems. Heterometallic, Cr-based spin rings behave as effective spin-1/2 systems at low temperature and show long decoherence times [1]; besides, they can be chemically linked and magnetically coupled in a controllable fascion [2]. Here, we theoretically investigate the decoherence of the Bell states in such ring dimers, resulting from hyperfine interactions with nuclear spins. Based on a microscopic description of the molecules [3], we simulate the effect of inhomogeneous broadening, spectral diffusion and electron-nuclear entanglement on the electron-spin coherence, estimating the role of the different nuclei (and of possible chemical substitutions), as well as the effect of simple spin-echo sequences. References: [1] F. Troiani, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 207208 (2005). [2] G. A. Timco, S: Carretta, F. Troiani et al., Nature Nanotech. 4, 173 (2009). [3] F. Troiani, V. Bellini, and M. Affronte, Phys. Rev. B 77, 054428 (2008).

  4. Spin alignment in heavy and light flavour systems at OPAL

    CERN Document Server

    Robins, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Spin alignment of inclusive vector mesons and longitudinal polarization of Lambda hyperons have been measured in a sample of 4.3 million hadronic Z/sup 0/ decays from the OPAL detector at LEP. Leading, light vector mesons have been $9 found to populate preferentially the helicity-zero state, a result which has no firm theoretical explanation. The values of off-diagonal elements of the helicity density matrix are in agreement with a theory based on the Standard $9 Model with coherent fragmentation. The longitudinal polarization of the Lambda is well described by a model in which the constituent strange quark carries all of the hyperon spin.

  5. Charged spin fluid in the Einstein-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Ritis, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Platania, G.; Stornaiolo, C.

    1985-01-01

    We propose a variational principle describing a charged spin fluid in the Einstein-Cartan theory. We show that this fluid can be described by the current vector V/sub i/ which has a potential decomposition and generalizes the results given by Taub. We also derive Maxwell's equations in the presence of spin and torsion. The Eulerian description of the fluid is given by an action integral whose Lagrangian is the pressure plus the free Lagrangians of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Finally, we analyze the circulation and Bernoulli theorems using the current vector V/sub i/

  6. Spin-Mechatronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Mamoru; Saitoh, Eiji; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the interconversion phenomena between spin and mechanical angular momentum in moving objects. In particular, the recent results on spin manipulation and spin-current generation by mechanical motion are examined. In accelerating systems, spin-dependent gauge fields emerge, which enable the conversion from mechanical angular momentum into spins. Such a spin-mechanical effect is predicted by quantum theory in a non-inertial frame. Experiments which confirm the effect, i.e., the resonance frequency shift in nuclear magnetic resonance, the stray field measurement of rotating metals, and electric voltage generation in liquid metals, are discussed.

  7. Spin transfer in reactions between heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Pil Min.

    1980-06-01

    The model presented affords a better understanding of the manner in which the orbital angular moment can be converted into an intrinsic spin in the collision between two heavy ions. After referring to the vector fields and the collective energy of a spheroidal nucleus, the calculation of the exchange of nucleons is described and the dissipation function is constructed. The spin transfer and the reorientation of the spin during the reaction are then examined (effect of friction and vibration). The estimated calculations are compared with the results of the 63 Cu+ 197 Au and 86 Kr+ 209 Bi experiments. The sensitivity of the calculation to the parameters of the model is discussed (nuclear potential, vibrational inertial parameter) [fr

  8. Shape and spin of asteroid 967 Helionape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolovska, G.; Kostov, A.; Donchev, Z.; Bebekovska, E. Vchkova; Kuzmanovska, O.

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge of the spin and shape parameters of the asteroids is very important for understanding of the conditions during the creation of our planetary system and formation of asteroid populations. The main belt asteroid and Flora family member 967 Helionape was observed during five apparitions. The observations were made at the Bulgarian National Astronomical Observatory (BNAO) Rozhen, since March 2006 to March 2016. Lihtcurve inversion method (Kaasalainen et al. (2001)), applied on 12 relative lightcurves obtained at various geometric conditions of the asteroid, reveals the spin vector, the sense of rotation and the preliminary shape model of the asteroid. Our aim is to contribute in increasing the set of asteroids with known spin and shape parameters. This could be done with dense lightcurves, obtained during small number of apparitions, in combination with sparse data produced by photometric asteroid surveys such as the Gaia satellite (Hanush (2011)).

  9. Spin Flipping and Polarization Lifetimes of a 270 MeV Deuteron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, V.S.; Crawford, M.Q.; Etienne, Z.B.; Kandes, M.C.; Krisch, A.D.; Leonova, M.A.; Sivers, D.W.; Wong, V.K.; Yonehara, K.; Anferov, V.A.; Meyer, H.O.; Schwandt, P.; Stephenson, E.J.; Przewoski, B. von

    2003-01-01

    We recently studied the spin flipping of a 270 MeV vertically polarized deuteron beam stored in the IUCF Cooler Ring. We swept an rf solenoid's frequency through an rf-induced spin resonance and observed the effect on the beam's vector and tensor polarizations. After optimizing the resonance crossing rate and setting the solenoid's voltage to its maximum value, we obtained a spin-flip efficiency of about 94 ± 1% for the vector polarization; we also observed a partial spin-flip of the tensor polarization. We then used the rf-induced resonance to measure the vector and tensor polarizations' lifetimes at different distances from the resonance; the polarization lifetime ratio τvector/τtensor was about 1.9 ± 0.4

  10. In search of elementary spin 0 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Płaczek, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    The Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions uses point-like spin 1/2 particles as the building bricks of matter and point-like spin 1 particles as the force carriers. One of the most important questions to be answered by the present and future particle physics experiments is whether the elementary spin 0 particles exist, and if they do, what are their interactions with the spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles. Spin 0 particles have been searched extensively over the last decades. Several initial claims of their discoveries were finally disproved in the final experimental scrutiny process. The recent observation of the excess of events at the LHC in the final states involving a pair of vector bosons, or photons, is commonly interpreted as the discovery of the first elementary scalar particle, the Higgs boson. In this paper we recall examples of claims and subsequent disillusions in precedent searches spin 0 particles. We address the question if the LHC Higgs discovery can already be taken for granted, or, as it turned out important in the past, whether it requires a further experimental scrutiny before the existence of the first ever found elementary scalar particle is proven beyond any doubt. An example of the Double Drell–Yan process for which such a scrutiny is indispensable is discussed in some detail. - Highlights: • We present a short history of searches of spin 0 particles. • We construct a model of the Double Drell–Yan Process (DDYP) at the LHC. • We investigate the contribution of the DDYP to the Higgs searches background

  11. Support vector machine for diagnosis cancer disease: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser H. Sweilam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Support vector machine has become an increasingly popular tool for machine learning tasks involving classification, regression or novelty detection. Training a support vector machine requires the solution of a very large quadratic programming problem. Traditional optimization methods cannot be directly applied due to memory restrictions. Up to now, several approaches exist for circumventing the above shortcomings and work well. Another learning algorithm, particle swarm optimization, Quantum-behave Particle Swarm for training SVM is introduced. Another approach named least square support vector machine (LSSVM and active set strategy are introduced. The obtained results by these methods are tested on a breast cancer dataset and compared with the exact solution model problem.

  12. About the velocity operator for spinning particles in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesi, Giovanni [Universita Statale di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Recami, Erasmo; Rodrigues Junior, Waldyr A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada

    1995-12-01

    Starting from the formal expressions of the hydrodynamical (or local) quantities employed in the applications of Clifford Algebras to quantum mechanics, we introduce - in terms of the ordinary tensorial framework - a new definition for the field of a generic quantity. By translating from Clifford into sensor algebra, we also propose a new (non-relativistic) velocity operator for a spin 1/2 particle. This operator is the sum of the ordinary part p/m describing the mean motion (the motion of the center-of-mass), and of a second part associated with the so-called Zitterbewegung, which is the spin internal motion observed in the center-of-mass frame. This spin component of the velocity operator is non-zero not only in the Pauli theoretical framework in presence of external magnetic fields and spin precession, but also in the Schroedinger case, when the wave-function is a spin eigenstate. In the latter case, one gets a decomposition of the velocity field for the Madelueng fluid into two distinct parts: which constitutes the non-relativistic analogue of the Gordon decomposition for the Dirac current. We find furthermore that the Zitterbewegung motion involves a velocity field which is solenoidal, and that the local angular velocity is parallel to the spin vector. In presence of a non-constant spin vector (Pauli case) we have, besides the component normal to spin present even in the Schroedinger theory, also a component of the local velocity which is parallel to the rotor of the spin vector. (author). 19 refs.

  13. About the velocity operator for spinning particles in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salesi, Giovanni; Recami, Erasmo; Rodrigues Junior, Waldyr A.

    1995-12-01

    Starting from the formal expressions of the hydrodynamical (or local) quantities employed in the applications of Clifford Algebras to quantum mechanics, we introduce - in terms of the ordinary tensorial framework - a new definition for the field of a generic quantity. By translating from Clifford into sensor algebra, we also propose a new (non-relativistic) velocity operator for a spin 1/2 particle. This operator is the sum of the ordinary part p/m describing the mean motion (the motion of the center-of-mass), and of a second part associated with the so-called Zitterbewegung, which is the spin internal motion observed in the center-of-mass frame. This spin component of the velocity operator is non-zero not only in the Pauli theoretical framework in presence of external magnetic fields and spin precession, but also in the Schroedinger case, when the wave-function is a spin eigenstate. In the latter case, one gets a decomposition of the velocity field for the Madelueng fluid into two distinct parts: which constitutes the non-relativistic analogue of the Gordon decomposition for the Dirac current. We find furthermore that the Zitterbewegung motion involves a velocity field which is solenoidal, and that the local angular velocity is parallel to the spin vector. In presence of a non-constant spin vector (Pauli case) we have, besides the component normal to spin present even in the Schroedinger theory, also a component of the local velocity which is parallel to the rotor of the spin vector. (author). 19 refs

  14. Supergravity inspired vector curvaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2007-01-01

    It is investigated whether a massive Abelian vector field, whose gauge kinetic function is growing during inflation, can be responsible for the generation of the curvature perturbation in the Universe. Particle production is studied and it is shown that the vector field can obtain a scale-invariant superhorizon spectrum of perturbations with a reasonable choice of kinetic function. After inflation the vector field begins coherent oscillations, during which it corresponds to pressureless isotropic matter. When the vector field dominates the Universe, its perturbations give rise to the observed curvature perturbation following the curvaton scenario. It is found that this is possible if, after the end of inflation, the mass of the vector field increases at a phase transition at temperature of order 1 TeV or lower. Inhomogeneous reheating, whereby the vector field modulates the decay rate of the inflaton, is also studied

  15. Custodial vector model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads T.; Hapola, Tuomas; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum and interactions with the standard model fields lead to distinct signatures at the LHC in the diboson, dilepton, and associated Higgs channels.

  16. Vector Differential Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    HITZER, Eckhard MS

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the fundamentals of the vector differential calculus part of universal geometric calculus. Geometric calculus simplifies and unifies the structure and notation of mathematics for all of science and engineering, and for technological applications. In order to make the treatment self-contained, I first compile all important geometric algebra relationships,which are necesssary for vector differential calculus. Then differentiation by vectors is introduced and a host of major ve...

  17. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  18. Spin in hadron physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The following topics were ealt with: Hadron physics with proton and deuteron probes, physics projects with Georgian participation, spin physics with antiprotons and leptons, spin filtering experiments, ISTC projects, technical issues for FAIR. (HSI)

  19. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H B [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  20. Axial-vector gluons and the fine structure of heavy quark--antiquark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinberg, G.; Lynn, B.; Sucher, J.

    1979-01-01

    We point out that two models of the origin of spin-dependent forces in heavy quark systems make very different predictions about the relative size of these forces in c-barc and b-barb. The model in which these forces are relativistic corrections to vector or scalar gluon exchange predicts smaller spin-dependent effects in b-barb than in c-barc while a model in which these forces are due to exchange of axial-vector gluons predicts a similar size for spin-dependent splittings in the two systems

  1. Vectorized Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the global algorithms and local kernels of conventional general-purpose Monte Carlo codes shows that multigroup Monte Carlo methods have sufficient structure to permit efficient vectorization. A structured multigroup Monte Carlo algorithm for vector computers is developed in which many particle events are treated at once on a cell-by-cell basis. Vectorization of kernels for tracking and variance reduction is described, and a new method for discrete sampling is developed to facilitate the vectorization of collision analysis. To demonstrate the potential of the new method, a vectorized Monte Carlo code for multigroup radiation transport analysis was developed. This code incorporates many features of conventional general-purpose production codes, including general geometry, splitting and Russian roulette, survival biasing, variance estimation via batching, a number of cutoffs, and generalized tallies of collision, tracklength, and surface crossing estimators with response functions. Predictions of vectorized performance characteristics for the CYBER-205 were made using emulated coding and a dynamic model of vector instruction timing. Computation rates were examined for a variety of test problems to determine sensitivities to batch size and vector lengths. Significant speedups are predicted for even a few hundred particles per batch, and asymptotic speedups by about 40 over equivalent Amdahl 470V/8 scalar codes arepredicted for a few thousand particles per batch. The principal conclusion is that vectorization of a general-purpose multigroup Monte Carlo code is well worth the significant effort required for stylized coding and major algorithmic changes

  2. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  3. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  4. A Beautiful Spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiangdong

    2003-01-01

    Spin is a beautiful concept that plays an ever important role in modern physics. In this talk, I start with a discussion of the origin of spin, and then turn to three themes in which spin has been crucial in subatomic physics: a lab to explore physics beyond the standard model, a tool to measure physical observables that are hard to obtain otherwise, a probe to unravel nonperturbative QCD. I conclude with some remarks on a world without spin

  5. Spin-dependent parton distributions in the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cloet, I.C. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter and Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2005-04-15

    Spin-dependent quark light-cone momentum distributions are calculated for a nucleon in the nuclear medium. We utilize a modified NJL model where the nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state. Scalar and vector mean fields are incorporated in the nuclear medium and these fields couple to the confined quarks in the nucleon. The effect of these fields on the spin-dependent distributions and consequently the axial charges is investigated. Our results for the 'spin-dependent EMC effect' are also discussed.

  6. Spin-wave wavelength down-conversion at thickness steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigloher, Johannes; Taniguchi, Takuya; Madami, Marco; Decker, Martin; Körner, Helmut S.; Moriyama, Takahiro; Gubbiotti, Gianluca; Ono, Teruo; Back, Christian H.

    2018-05-01

    We report a systematic experimental study on the refraction and reflection of magnetostatic spin-waves at a thickness step between two Permalloy films of different thickness. The transmitted spin-waves for the transition from a thick film to a thin film have a higher wave vector compared to the incoming waves. Consequently, such systems may find use as passive wavelength transformers in magnonic networks. We investigate the spin-wave transmission behavior by studying the influence of the external magnetic field, incident angle, and thickness ratio of the films using time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy and micro-focused Brillouin light scattering.

  7. Spin-wave damping in ferromagnets in the ordered regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinecke, T.L.; Stinchcombe, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical results based on a high-density approach are compared with experimental measurements for the damping of long-wavelength spin waves in the nearly isotropic ferromagnet for temperatures up to the critical regime. The theory, which has no adjustable parameters, is shown to account well for the overall magnitude of the spin-wave widths measured in recent neutron scattering experiments on EuO, and it is also in satisfactory agreement with the measured wave vector and temperature dependence of these widths. An estimate is also given for the contribution of dipolar coupling to the spin-wave widths

  8. Spin at Lausanne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    From 25 September to 1 October, some 150 spin enthusiasts gathered in Lausanne for the 1980 International Symposium on High Energy Physics with Polarized Beams and Polarized Targets. The programme was densely packed, covering physics interests with spin as well as the accelerator and target techniques which make spin physics possible

  9. Spin-Caloritronic Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xiao-Qin; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Su, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The thermoelectric performance of a topological energy converter is analyzed. The H-shaped device is based on a combination of transverse topological effects involving the spin: the inverse spin Hall effect and the spin Nernst effect. The device can convert a temperature drop in one arm into an e...

  10. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  11. Solving Bilevel Multiobjective Programming Problem by Elite Quantum Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An elite quantum behaved particle swarm optimization (EQPSO algorithm is proposed, in which an elite strategy is exerted for the global best particle to prevent premature convergence of the swarm. The EQPSO algorithm is employed for solving bilevel multiobjective programming problem (BLMPP in this study, which has never been reported in other literatures. Finally, we use eight different test problems to measure and evaluate the proposed algorithm, including low dimension and high dimension BLMPPs, as well as attempt to solve the BLMPPs whose theoretical Pareto optimal front is not known. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is a feasible and efficient method for solving BLMPPs.

  12. A simple miniature device for wireless stimulation of neural circuits in small behaving animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yisi; Langford, Bruce; Kozhevnikov, Alexay

    2011-10-30

    The use of wireless neural stimulation devices offers significant advantages for neural stimulation experiments in behaving animals. We demonstrate a simple, low-cost and extremely lightweight wireless neural stimulation device which is made from off-the-shelf components. The device has low power consumption and does not require a high-power RF preamplifier. Neural stimulation can be carried out in either a voltage source mode or a current source mode. Using the device, we carry out wireless stimulation in the premotor brain area HVC of a songbird and demonstrate that such stimulation causes rapid perturbations of the acoustic structure of the song. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Pareto-Ranking Based Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization for Multiobjective Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on pareto-ranking based quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO for multiobjective optimization problems is presented in this paper. During the iteration, an external repository is maintained to remember the nondominated solutions, from which the global best position is chosen. The comparison between different elitist selection strategies (preference order, sigma value, and random selection is performed on four benchmark functions and two metrics. The results demonstrate that QPSO with preference order has comparative performance with sigma value according to different number of objectives. Finally, QPSO with sigma value is applied to solve multiobjective flexible job-shop scheduling problems.

  14. A novel fiber-free technique for brain activity imaging in multiple freely behaving mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Shigenori; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Nagai, Takeharu

    2018-02-01

    Brain functions and related psychiatric disorders have been investigated by recording electrophysiological field potential. When recording it, a conventional method requires fiber-based apparatus connected to the brain, which however hampers the simultaneous measurement in multiple animals (e.g. by a tangle of fibers). Here, we propose a fiber-free recording technique in conjunction with a ratiometric bioluminescent voltage indicator. Our method allows investigation of electrophysiological filed potential dynamics in multiple freely behaving animals simultaneously over a long time period. Therefore, this fiber-free technique opens up the way to investigate a new mechanism of brain function that governs social behaviors and animal-to-animal interaction.

  15. Anisotropic optical absorption induced by Rashba spin-orbit coupling in monolayer phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Xin; Wan, Qi; Bai, R.; Wen, Z. C.

    2018-04-01

    We obtain the effective Hamiltonian of the phosphorene including the effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the frame work of the low-energy theory. The spin-splitting energy bands show an anisotropy feature for the wave vectors along kx and ky directions, where kx orients to ΓX direction in the k space. We numerically study the optical absorption of the electrons for different wave vectors with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-flip transition from the valence band to the conduction band induced by the circular polarized light closes to zero with increasing the x-component wave vector when ky equals to zero, while it can be significantly increased to a large value when ky gets a small value. When the wave vector varies along the ky direction, the spin-flip transition can also increase to a large value, however, which shows an anisotropy feature for the optical absorption. Especially, the spin-conserved transitions keep unchanged and have similar varying trends for different wave vectors. This phenomenon provides a novel route for the manipulation of the spin-dependent property of the fermions in the monolayer phosphorene.

  16. Spin vector and shape of (6070) Rheinland and their implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vokrouhlický, D.; Ďurech, J.; Polishook, D.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Gaftonyuk, N. M.; Burkhonov, O.A.; Ehgamberdiev, S.A.; Karimov, R.; Molotov, I.E.; Pravec, Petr; Hornoch, Kamil; Kušnirák, Peter; Oey, J.; Galád, A.; Žižka, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 142, č. 5 (2011), 159/1-159/8 ISSN 0004-6256 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/08/0064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : minor planets * asteroids * ganeral Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.035, year: 2011

  17. New findings on asteroid spin-vector distributions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryszczynska, A.; La Spina, A.; Paolicchi, P.; Harris, A. W.; Breiter, S.; Pravec, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 192, č. 1 (2007), s. 223-237 ISSN 0019-1035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * rotation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2007

  18. Measurements of the n vector p vector total cross section differences for pure helicity states at 1.20, 2.50 and 3.66 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharov, V.I.; Zaporozhets, S.A.; Ad''yasevich, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    The quantity Δσ L (n vector p vector), the difference of n vector p vector total cross sections for antiparallel and parallel longitudinal (L) spin states, has been measured for the first time in an energy region of several GeV using a free polarized neutron beam and a polarized proton target. The new data are discussed together with existing results and modern theoretical predictions. This is the first of a planned series of measurements of Δσ L,T (n vector p vector) in this new energy region. 28 refs., 3 figs

  19. The Pauli equation with differential operators for the spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, E.

    1978-01-01

    The spin operator s = (h/2) sigma in the Pauli equation fulfills the commutation relation of the angular momentum and leads to half-integer eigenvalues of the eigenfunctions for s. If one tries to express s by canonically conjugated operators PHI and π = ( /i)delta/deltaPHI the formal angular momentum term s = PHIxπ fails because it leads only to whole-integer eigenvalues. However, the modification of this term in the form s = 1/2(π+PHI(PHI π)+PHIxπ) leads to the required result. The eigenfunction system belonging to this differential operator s(PHI, π) consists of (2s + 1) spin eigenfunctions xim(PHI) which are given explicitly. They form a basis for the wave functions of a particle of spin s. Applying this formalism to particles with s = 1/2, agreement is reached with Pauli's spin theory. The function s(PHI, π) follows from the theory of rotating rigid bodies. The continuous spin-variable PHI = ( x, y, z) can be interpreted classically as a 'turning vector' which defines the orientation in space of a rigid body. PHI is the positioning coordinate of the rigid body or the spin coordinate of the particle in analogy to the cartesian coordinate x. The spin s is a vector fixed to the body. (orig.) [de

  20. Classical aspects of higher spin topologically massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiandong

    2012-01-01

    We study the classical solutions of three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and its higher spin generalization, in the first-order formulation. The action of higher spin TMG has been proposed by Chen and Long (2011 J. High Energy Phys. JHEP12(2011)114) to be of a Chern–Simons-like form. The equations of motion are more complicated than the ones in pure higher spin AdS 3 gravity, but are still tractable. As all the solutions in higher spin gravity are automatically the solutions of higher spin TMG, we focus on other solutions. We manage to find the AdS pp-wave solutions with higher spin hair and find that the non-vanishing higher spin fields may or may not modify the pp-wave geometry. In order to discuss the warped spacetime, we introduce the notion of a special Killing vector, which is defined to be the symmetry on the frame-like fields. We reproduce various warped spacetimes of TMG in our framework, with the help of special Killing vectors. (paper)

  1. Connected and disconnected quark contributions to hadron spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, A.J.

    2014-12-01

    By introducing an external spin operator to the fermion action, the quark spin fractions of hadrons are determined from the linear response of the hadron energies using the Feynman-Hellmann (FH) theorem. At our SU(3)-flavour symmetric point, we find that the connected quark spin fractions are universally in the range 55-70% for vector mesons and octet and decuplet baryons. There is an indication that the amount of spin suppression is quite sensitive to the strength of SU(3) breaking. We also present first preliminary results applying the FH technique to calculations of quark-line disconnected contributions to hadronic matrix elements of axial and tensor operators. At the SU(3)-flavour symmetric point we find a small negative contribution to the nucleon spin from disconnected quark diagrams, while the corresponding tensor matrix elements are consistent with zero.

  2. Dynamical creation of complex vector solitons in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Bo; Gong Jiangbin

    2010-01-01

    By numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field equations, we show that the dynamical creation of stable complex vector solitons in a homogeneous spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate can be achieved by applying a localized magnetic field for a certain duration, with the initial uniform density prepared differently for the formation of different vector solitons. In particular, it is shown that stable dark-bright-dark vector solitons, dark-bright-bright vector solitons, and other analogous solutions can be dynamically created. It is also found that the peak intensity and the group velocity of the vector solitons thus generated can be tuned by adjusting the applied magnetic field. Extensions of our approach also allow for the creation of vector-soliton chains or the pumping of many vector solitons. The results can be useful for possible vector-soliton-based applications of dilute Bose-Einstein condensates.

  3. Two-spinor description of massive particles and relativistic spin projection operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Isaev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the Wigner unitary representations of the covering group ISL(2,C of the Poincaré group, we obtain spin-tensor wave functions of free massive particles with arbitrary spin. The wave functions automatically satisfy the Dirac–Pauli–Fierz equations. In the framework of the two-spinor formalism we construct spin-vectors of polarizations and obtain conditions that fix the corresponding relativistic spin projection operators (Behrends–Fronsdal projection operators. With the help of these conditions we find explicit expressions for relativistic spin projection operators for integer spins (Behrends–Fronsdal projection operators and then find relativistic spin projection operators for half integer spins. These projection operators determine the numerators in the propagators of fields of relativistic particles. We deduce generalizations of the Behrends–Fronsdal projection operators for arbitrary space–time dimensions D>2.

  4. Two-spinor description of massive particles and relativistic spin projection operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, A. P.; Podoinitsyn, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    On the basis of the Wigner unitary representations of the covering group ISL (2 , C) of the Poincaré group, we obtain spin-tensor wave functions of free massive particles with arbitrary spin. The wave functions automatically satisfy the Dirac-Pauli-Fierz equations. In the framework of the two-spinor formalism we construct spin-vectors of polarizations and obtain conditions that fix the corresponding relativistic spin projection operators (Behrends-Fronsdal projection operators). With the help of these conditions we find explicit expressions for relativistic spin projection operators for integer spins (Behrends-Fronsdal projection operators) and then find relativistic spin projection operators for half integer spins. These projection operators determine the numerators in the propagators of fields of relativistic particles. We deduce generalizations of the Behrends-Fronsdal projection operators for arbitrary space-time dimensions D > 2.

  5. Experimental verification of the rotational type of chiral spin spiral structures by spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze, Masahiro; Yoshida, Yasuo; Hasegawa, Yukio

    2017-10-16

    We report on experimental verification of the rotational type of chiral spin spirals in Mn thin films on a W(110) substrate using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM) with a double-axis superconducting vector magnet. From SP-STM images using Fe-coated W tips magnetized to the out-of-plane and [001] directions, we found that both Mn mono- and double-layers exhibit cycloidal rotation whose spins rotate in the planes normal to the propagating directions. Our results agree with the theoretical prediction based on the symmetry of the system, supporting that the magnetic structures are driven by the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  6. Gate tunable spin transport in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Dong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Sun, Litao

    2016-10-01

    Recently, it attracts much attention to study spin-resolved transport properties in graphene with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC). One remarkable finding is that Klein tunneling in single layer graphene (SLG) with RSOC (SLG + R for short below) behaves as in bi-layer graphene (BLG). Based on the effective Dirac theory, we reconsider this tunneling problem and derive the analytical solution for the transmission coefficients. Our result shows that Klein tunneling in SLG + R and BLG exhibits completely different behaviors. More importantly, we find two new transmission selection rules in SLG + R, i.e., the single band to single band (S → S) and the single band to multiple bands (S → M) transmission regimes, which strongly depend on the relative height among Fermi level, RSOC, and potential barrier. Interestingly, in the S → S transmission regime, only normally incident electrons have capacity to pass through the barrier, while in the S → M transmission regime the angle-dependent tunneling becomes very prominent. Using the transmission coefficients, we also derive spin-resolved conductance analytically, and conductance oscillation with the increasing barrier height and zero conductance gap are found in SLG + R. The present study offers new insights and opportunities for developing graphene-based spin devices.

  7. Behaviour of a neutral particle with spin in an axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, S.V.; Ehpp, V.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Proceeding from the Tamm-Good equation taking into account the spin influence on motion trajectory, the neutral particle motion tracjectory and vector turn of spin polarizition in axial magnetic field have been found. The behaviour of a neutral particle possessing its own magnetic moment in an axially-symmetric stationary magnetic field is considered

  8. Relativistic corrections to the algebra of position variables and spin-orbital interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Deriglazov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of vector model of spin, we discuss the problem of a covariant formalism [35] concerning the discrepancy between relativistic and Pauli Hamiltonians. We show how the spin-induced non-commutativity of a position accounts the discrepancy on the classical level, without appeal to the Dirac equation and Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation.

  9. Relativistic corrections to the algebra of position variables and spin-orbital interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deriglazov, Alexei A., E-mail: alexei.deriglazov@ufjf.edu.br [Departamento de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation); Pupasov-Maksimov, Andrey M., E-mail: pupasov.maksimov@ufjf.edu.br [Departamento de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2016-10-10

    In the framework of vector model of spin, we discuss the problem of a covariant formalism [35] concerning the discrepancy between relativistic and Pauli Hamiltonians. We show how the spin-induced non-commutativity of a position accounts the discrepancy on the classical level, without appeal to the Dirac equation and Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation.

  10. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  11. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  12. Brane vector phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter; Xiong, C.

    2009-01-01

    Local oscillations of the brane world are manifested as massive vector fields. Their coupling to the Standard Model can be obtained using the method of nonlinear realizations of the spontaneously broken higher-dimensional space-time symmetries, and to an extent, are model independent. Phenomenological limits on these vector field parameters are obtained using LEP collider data and dark matter constraints

  13. Dual Vector Spaces and Physical Singularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Peter

    Though we often refer to 3-D vector space as constructed from points, there is no mechanism from within its definition for doing this. In particular, space, on its own, cannot accommodate the singularities that we call fundamental particles. This requires a commutative combination of space as we know it with another 3-D vector space, which is dual to the first (in a physical sense). The combination of the two spaces generates a nilpotent quantum mechanics/quantum field theory, which incorporates exact supersymmetry and ultimately removes the anomalies due to self-interaction. Among the many natural consequences of the dual space formalism are half-integral spin for fermions, zitterbewegung, Berry phase and a zero norm Berwald-Moor metric for fermionic states.

  14. Flexible Coupling of Respiration and Vocalizations with Locomotion and Head Movements in the Freely Behaving Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Andrews Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quadrupedal mammals typically synchronize their respiration with body movements during rhythmic locomotion. In the rat, fast respiration is coupled to head movements during sniffing behavior, but whether respiration is entrained by stride dynamics is not known. We recorded intranasal pressure, head acceleration, instantaneous speed, and ultrasonic vocalizations from male and female adult rats while freely behaving in a social environment. We used high-speed video recordings of stride to understand how head acceleration signals relate to locomotion and developed techniques to identify episodes of sniffing, walking, trotting, and galloping from the recorded variables. Quantitative analysis of synchrony between respiration and head acceleration rhythms revealed that respiration and locomotion movements were coordinated but with a weaker coupling than expected from previous work in other mammals. We have recently shown that rats behaving in social settings produce high rates of ultrasonic vocalizations during locomotion bouts. Accordingly, rats emitted vocalizations in over half of the respiratory cycles during fast displacements. We present evidence suggesting that emission of these calls disrupts the entrainment of respiration by stride. The coupling between these two variables is thus flexible, such that it can be overridden by other behavioral demands.

  15. The games economists play: Why economics students behave more selfishly than other students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gerlach

    Full Text Available Do economics students behave more selfishly than other students? Experiments involving monetary allocations suggest so. This article investigates the underlying motives for the economic students' more selfish behavior by separating three potential explanatory mechanisms: economics students are less concerned with fairness when making allocation decisions; have a different notion of what is fair in allocations; or are more skeptical about other people's allocations, which in turn makes them less willing to comply with a shared fairness norm. The three mechanisms were tested by inviting students from various disciplines to participate in a relatively novel experimental game and asking all participants to give reasons for their choices. Compared with students of other disciplines, economics students were about equally likely to mention fairness in their comments; had a similar notion of what was fair in the situation; however, they expected lower offers, made lower offers, and were less willing to enforce compliance with a fair allocation at a cost to themselves. The economics students' lower expectations mediated their allocation decisions, suggesting that economics students behaved more selfishly because they expected others not to comply with the shared fairness norm.

  16. An Improved Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm with Elitist Breeding for Unconstrained Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhen-Lun; Wu, Angus; Min, Hua-Qing

    2015-01-01

    An improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization with elitist breeding (EB-QPSO) for unconstrained optimization is presented and empirically studied in this paper. In EB-QPSO, the novel elitist breeding strategy acts on the elitists of the swarm to escape from the likely local optima and guide the swarm to perform more efficient search. During the iterative optimization process of EB-QPSO, when criteria met, the personal best of each particle and the global best of the swarm are used to generate new diverse individuals through the transposon operators. The new generated individuals with better fitness are selected to be the new personal best particles and global best particle to guide the swarm for further solution exploration. A comprehensive simulation study is conducted on a set of twelve benchmark functions. Compared with five state-of-the-art quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithms, the proposed EB-QPSO performs more competitively in all of the benchmark functions in terms of better global search capability and faster convergence rate.

  17. A portable telemetry system for brain stimulation and neuronal activity recording in freely behaving small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xuesong; Wang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Shaomin; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Qingbo; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2008-09-30

    A portable multi-channel telemetry system which can be used for brain stimulation and neuronal activity recording in freely behaving small animals is described here. This system consists of three major components of headstage, backpack and portable Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). The headstage contains high precision instrument amplifiers with high input impedance. The backpack is comprised of two parts: (1) a main board (size: 36 mm x 22 mm x 3.5 mm and weight: 40 g with batteries, 20 g without), with current/voltage stimulator and special circuit suitable for neuronal activity recording and (2) and a bluetooth transceiver, with a high data transmission rate up to 70 kb/s, suitable for downloading stimulation commands and uploading acquired data. We recorded neuronal activities of the primary motor area of a freely behaving rat with 12-bit resolution at 12 k samples/s. The recorded data and analysis results showed that the system was successful by comparing with the commercial equipment Cerebus 128-Channel Data Acquisition System (Cyberkinetics Inc.). Using the PDA, we can control stimulation and recording. It provides a flexible method to do some research work in the circumstances where other approaches would be difficult or impossible.

  18. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  19. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields.......The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...

  20. Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.

    2007-09-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.

  1. Skyrmions and vector mesons: a symmetric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldi, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    We propose an extension of the effective, low-energy chiral Lagrangian known as the Skyrme model, to one formulated by a non-linear sigma model generalized to include vector mesons in a symmetric way. The model is based on chiral SU(6) x SU(6) symmetry spontaneously broken to static SU(6). The rho and other vector mesons are dormant Goldstone bosons since they are in the same SU(6) multiplet as the pion and other pseudoscalars. Hence the manifold of our generalized non-linear sigma model is the coset space (SU(6) x SU(6))/Su(6). Relativistic effects, via a spin-dependent mass term, break the static SU(6) and give the vectors a mass. The model can then be fully relativistic and covariant. The lowest-lying Skyrmion in this model is the whole baryonic 56-plet, which splits into the octet and decuplet in the presence of relativistic SU(6)-breaking. Due to the built-in SU(6) and the presence of vector mesons, the model is expected to have better phenomenological results, as well as providing a conceptually more unified picture of mesons and baryons. 29 references

  2. Vector properties in molecular photodissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, J.

    1999-12-01

    The technique of resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) of atomic and molecular species produced from a photofragmentation event combined with time-of flight (TOF) detection is used to examine scalar and vector properties following photodissociation. This technique is applied to the study of methyl bromide dissociation in a product state specific manner. We report measurements of the angular distributions and kinetic energy releases of the resulting bromine atoms in the ground and first spin-orbit excited state. Additionally we report measurements of the angular distributions and kinetic energy releases of the methyl fragment in the ground vibrational state, and also the excited state with one quanta in the ν 2 vibrational modes. These studies were carried out in the red wing of the absorption band at several wavelengths. For these measurements we were able to resolve the spin orbit state of the partner bromine fragment. From our observations we find new evidence for enhanced nonadiabatic curve crossing active in methyl bromide dissociation in comparison with earlier studies of methyl iodide. The atomic polarization produced following photodissociation of a diatomic molecule was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. We develop theoretical expressions relating the lab frame and molecular frame atomic polarization to the photoexcitation and subsequent dissociation of a diatomic molecule. This treatment includes both incoherent, coherent and non-adiabatic processes which may be active in the photodissociation process. We treat the general case of a polarized diatomic molecule yielding two fragments with non zero angular momentum. Experimentally, an investigation of the polarization of atomic Cl( 2 P 3/2 ) photofragments from the ∼330 nm photolysis of molecular chlorine using the REMPI-TOF technique is reported. We present a theoretical framework in which to treat such experiments allowing the extraction of parameters with direct physical

  3. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a non-equilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known equilibrium polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  4. Bulk electron spin polarization generated by the spin Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. L.

    2006-07-01

    It is shown that the spin Hall current generates a nonequilibrium spin polarization in the interior of crystals with reduced symmetry in a way that is drastically different from the previously well-known “equilibrium” polarization during the spin relaxation process. The steady state spin polarization value does not depend on the strength of spin-orbit interaction offering possibility to generate relatively high spin polarization even in the case of weak spin-orbit coupling.

  5. Education based thinking and behaving? Towards an identity perspective for studying education differentials in public opinion and political participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruyt, Bram; Kuppens, Toon

    2015-01-01

    Education based thinking and behaving? Towards and identity perspective for studying education differentials in public opinion and political participation Abstract Ever since scholars started studying public opinion and political behaviour, they have reported substantial educational differences.

  6. Spin dynamics of EuS in the paramagnetic phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, R.; Shastry, B.S.

    1988-07-01

    The spin dynamics of the semiclassical Heisenberg model on the fcc lattice, with ferromagnetic interaction in the first neighbour shell, anti-ferromagnetic interaction in the second neighbour shell and which undergoes a ferromagnetic transition, is studied in the paramagnetic phase at the temperature 1.1 T c using the Monte-Carlo molecular dynamics technique. The important quantities calculated are the dynamic structure function S(q-vector,ω) and the spin auto-correlation function i (O)·S-vector i (t)>. Our results for S(q-vector,ω) show the existence of purely diffusive modes in the low q regime. For q-vector close to the zone boundary, our calculated S(q-vector,ω) shows multi-peaked structure, signifying damped propagating modes. This result disagrees with the theoretical predictions of Young and Shastry and also of Lindgard. Our results for S(q-vector,ω) in the entire q-vector-space are in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the recent neutron scattering experiments of Boni et al. and also Bohn et al. Our calculated auto-correlation function shows a diffusive behaviour temporally. (author). 15 refs, 5 figs

  7. Nonequilibrium ensembles. 3. Spin 1/2 paramagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobouti, Y.; Khajeh-Pour, M.R.H.

    1990-07-01

    The thermodynamic state of a paramagnetic substance in which the spin vectors precess coherently is investigated. The state is a time dependent one. The corresponding density matrix and the thermodynamics emerging from it is worked out. A laboratory preparation of such a system is discussed. (author). 3 refs

  8. Muon spin relaxation in random spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu Yamazaki

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal relaxation function Gsub(z)(t) of the positive muon can reflect dynamical characters of local field in a unique way even when the correlation time is longer than the Larmor period of local field. This method has been applied to studies of spin dynamics in spin glass systems, revealing sharp but continuous temperature dependence of the correlation time. Its principle and applications are reviewed. (author)

  9. Classical and quantum 'EPR'-spin correlations in the triplet state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Bozic, M.

    1987-01-01

    Quantum correlations and joint probabilities in the triplet state as well as the correlations of components of two correlated classical spin vectors, are evaluated. Correlations in the states with |S tot z |=1 are different from correlations in the state with S tot z =0 which may serve to distinguish different states of the triplet. As in the singlet case, we can reproduce quantum correlations by correlated classical spin vectors which also provide a precision of the notion of ''parallel spins''. Triplet state correlations could in principle be measured, for example, in the decay reaction J/ψ → e + e - for which there is a sufficiently large branching ratio. (author). 12 refs

  10. Fractal vector optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-07-15

    We introduce the concept of a fractal, which provides an alternative approach for flexibly engineering the optical fields and their focal fields. We propose, design, and create a new family of optical fields-fractal vector optical fields, which build a bridge between the fractal and vector optical fields. The fractal vector optical fields have polarization states exhibiting fractal geometry, and may also involve the phase and/or amplitude simultaneously. The results reveal that the focal fields exhibit self-similarity, and the hierarchy of the fractal has the "weeding" role. The fractal can be used to engineer the focal field.

  11. On the Relativistic Origin of Pseudo spin Symmetry in Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1998-01-01

    We review the concept of pseudo spin symmetry and its role in nuclear spectroscopy. We survey the attempts to arrive at a microscopic understanding of this symmetry. In particular, we show that pseudo spin symmetry in nuclei could arise from nucleons moving in a relativistic mean field which has an attractive scalar (Vs) and repulsive vector (Vv) potential nearly equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. We show that the generators of pseudo spin symmetry are the non-relativistic limit of the generators of an SU(2) symmetry which leaves invariant the Dirac Hamiltonian with Vs 2= -Vv. Furthermore within this framework, we demonstrate that this symmetry may be approximately conserved for realistic scalar and vector potentials

  12. Optimasi Penempatan Menara BTS Menggunakan Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fatkhur Rohman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Universal Mobile Telecomunication System (UMTS saat ini dipandang sebagai sebuah sistem impian yang menggantikan Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM dan merupakan salah satu evolusi generasi ketiga (3G dari jaringan mobile. Salah satu komponen pendukung jaringan UMTS adalah Node B, Node B dapat dianalogikan sebagai BTS. Seiring perkembangan kebutuhan pelanggan yang semakin meningkat, kebutuhan akan BTS(Node B semakin bertambah, hal ini menyebabkan banyaknya jumlah menara BTS da menyebabkan pemandangan yang kurang bagus bagi visualisasi kota.oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan optimisasi penempatan menara BTS. Salah satu metode untuk mengoptimasi adalah Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization. Maka dalam penelitian ini akan dirancang simulasi optimasi penempatan BTS menggunakan QPSO dengan parameter yang akan dioptimasi adalah Coverage Area dan Trafik. Dari hasil penelitian yang dilakukan, Algoritma QPSO mampu mengurangi jumlah BTS dari 55 BTS menjadi 43 BTS.

  13. Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    rankings. The aim of this contribution is to provide a better understanding to food risk analysts of why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information. This paper presents some cases of seemingly irrational and inconsistent consumer behaviour with respect to food safety...... and risk information and provides explanations for these behaviours based on the nature of the risk and individual psychological processes. Potential solutions for rebuilding consumer confidence in food safety and bridging between lay and expert opinions towards food risks are reviewed. These include......In recent years, it seems that consumers are generally uncertain about the safety and quality of their food and their risk perception differs substantially from that of experts. Hormone and veterinary drug residues in meat persist to occupy a high position in European consumers' food concern...

  14. Draft Tube Baffle (DTB) crystallizers: A study of stationary and dynamically behaving Crystal Size Distributions (CSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleer, B. G. M.

    1981-11-01

    Based on population balance, CSD behavior as a function of geometrical and operating variables was studied, using a crystallizer. A potash alum-water system, involving a separation technique which uses surface active agents and an apolar, organic liquid to separate potash alum crystals from mother liquid under the influence of gravity was used to check experimental findings against literature data. Results show action of annular settling spaces is strongly influenced by fluid velocities perpendicular to those directed upwards. The well-mixed volume decreases with increasing crystallizer size until a minimum effective volume is reached. As supersaturation is constant throughout the crystallizer volume under stationary operating conditions, the annular settling space behaves like a growth chamber for crystals in its volume. Swirl in the lower part of the annular volume introduces significant back mixing. Crystals within this space either grow and return to the well-mixed part, or withdraw from the annular volume permanently.

  15. A Swarm Optimization Genetic Algorithm Based on Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Xu, Ming-Hai

    2017-01-01

    Quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm is a variant of the traditional particle swarm optimization (PSO). The QPSO that was originally developed for continuous search spaces outperforms the traditional PSO in search ability. This paper analyzes the main factors that impact the search ability of QPSO and converts the particle movement formula to the mutation condition by introducing the rejection region, thus proposing a new binary algorithm, named swarm optimization genetic algorithm (SOGA), because it is more like genetic algorithm (GA) than PSO in form. SOGA has crossover and mutation operator as GA but does not need to set the crossover and mutation probability, so it has fewer parameters to control. The proposed algorithm was tested with several nonlinear high-dimension functions in the binary search space, and the results were compared with those from BPSO, BQPSO, and GA. The experimental results show that SOGA is distinctly superior to the other three algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and convergence.

  16. Parameters estimation online for Lorenz system by a novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Tong Hengqing; Li Zhuoqiu

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (NQPSO) for the estimation of chaos' unknown parameters by transforming them into nonlinear functions' optimization. By means of the techniques in the following three aspects: contracting the searching space self-adaptively; boundaries restriction strategy; substituting the particles' convex combination for their centre of mass, this paper achieves a quite effective search mechanism with fine equilibrium between exploitation and exploration. Details of applying the proposed method and other methods into Lorenz systems are given, and experiments done show that NQPSO has better adaptability, dependability and robustness. It is a successful approach in unknown parameter estimation online especially in the cases with white noises

  17. An Image Enhancement Method Using the Quantum-Behaved Particle Swarm Optimization with an Adaptive Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement techniques are very important to image processing, which are used to improve image quality or extract the fine details in degraded images. In this paper, two novel objective functions based on the normalized incomplete Beta transform function are proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of grayscale image enhancement and color image enhancement, respectively. Using these objective functions, the parameters of transform functions are estimated by the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO. We also propose an improved QPSO with an adaptive parameter control strategy. The QPSO and the AQPSO algorithms, along with genetic algorithm (GA and particle swarm optimization (PSO, are tested on several benchmark grayscale and color images. The results show that the QPSO and AQPSO perform better than GA and PSO for the enhancement of these images, and the AQPSO has some advantages over QPSO due to its adaptive parameter control strategy.

  18. Spin Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.

    2015-10-01

    Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical

  19. The susceptibilities in the spin-S Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainane, A.; Saber, M.

    1995-08-01

    The susceptibilities of the spin-S Ising model are evaluated using the effective field theory introduced by Tucker et al. for studying general spin-S Ising model. The susceptibilities are studied for all spin values from S = 1/2 to S = 5/2. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  20. Neutron spin quantum precession using multilayer spin splitters and a phase-spin echo interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Toru; Tasaki, Seiji; Kawai, Takeshi; Hino, Masahiro; Akiyoshi, Tsunekazu; Achiwa, Norio; Otake, Yoshie; Funahashi, Haruhiko.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron spin quantum precession by multilayer spin splitter has been demonstrated using a new spin interferometer. The multilayer spin splitter consists of a magnetic multilayer mirror on top, followed by a gap layer and a non magnetic multilayer mirror which are evaporated on a silicon substrate. Using the multilayer spin splitter, a polarized neutron wave in a magnetic field perpendicular to the polarization is split into two spin eigenstates with a phase shift in the direction of the magnetic field. The spin quantum precession is equal to the phase shift, which depends on the effective thickness of the gap layer. The demonstration experiments verify the multilayer spin splitter as a neutron spin precession device as well as the coherent superposition principle of the two spin eigenstates. We have developed a new phase-spin echo interferometer using the multilayer spin splitters. We present successful performance tests of the multilayer spin splitter and the phase-spin echo interferometer. (author)

  1. Rodent scope: a user-configurable digital wireless telemetry system for freely behaving animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ball

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of a wireless neural telemetry system that enables new experimental paradigms, such as neural recordings during rodent navigation in large outdoor environments. RoSco, short for Rodent Scope, is a small lightweight user-configurable module suitable for digital wireless recording from freely behaving small animals. Due to the digital transmission technology, RoSco has advantages over most other wireless modules of noise immunity and online user-configurable settings. RoSco digitally transmits entire neural waveforms for 14 of 16 channels at 20 kHz with 8-bit encoding which are streamed to the PC as standard USB audio packets. Up to 31 RoSco wireless modules can coexist in the same environment on non-overlapping independent channels. The design has spatial diversity reception via two antennas, which makes wireless communication resilient to fading and obstacles. In comparison with most existing wireless systems, this system has online user-selectable independent gain control of each channel in 8 factors from 500 to 32,000 times, two selectable ground references from a subset of channels, selectable channel grounding to disable noisy electrodes, and selectable bandwidth suitable for action potentials (300 Hz-3 kHz and low frequency field potentials (4 Hz-3 kHz. Indoor and outdoor recordings taken from freely behaving rodents are shown to be comparable to a commercial wired system in sorting for neural populations. The module has low input referred noise, battery life of 1.5 hours and transmission losses of 0.1% up to a range of 10 m.

  2. Higher spin gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henneaux, Marc; Vasiliev, Mikhail A

    2017-01-01

    Symmetries play a fundamental role in physics. Non-Abelian gauge symmetries are the symmetries behind theories for massless spin-1 particles, while the reparametrization symmetry is behind Einstein's gravity theory for massless spin-2 particles. In supersymmetric theories these particles can be connected also to massless fermionic particles. Does Nature stop at spin-2 or can there also be massless higher spin theories. In the past strong indications have been given that such theories do not exist. However, in recent times ways to evade those constraints have been found and higher spin gauge theories have been constructed. With the advent of the AdS/CFT duality correspondence even stronger indications have been given that higher spin gauge theories play an important role in fundamental physics. All these issues were discussed at an international workshop in Singapore in November 2015 where the leading scientists in the field participated. This volume presents an up-to-date, detailed overview of the theories i...

  3. Noncausal Bayesian Vector Autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Luoto, Jani

    We propose a Bayesian inferential procedure for the noncausal vector autoregressive (VAR) model that is capable of capturing nonlinearities and incorporating effects of missing variables. In particular, we devise a fast and reliable posterior simulator that yields the predictive distribution...

  4. Understanding Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  5. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  6. Sesquilinear uniform vector integral

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    theory, together with his integral, dominate contemporary mathematics. ... directions belonging to Bartle and Dinculeanu (see [1], [6], [7] and [2]). ... in this manner, namely he integrated vector functions with respect to measures of bounded.

  7. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  8. Vector hysteresis models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel

    1991-01-01

    Roč. 2, - (1991), s. 281-292 ISSN 0956-7925 Keywords : vector hysteresis operator * hysteresis potential * differential inequality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.math.cas.cz/~krejci/b15p.pdf

  9. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Luyi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-17

    Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly

  10. The Nuclear Spin Nanomagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Korenev, V. L.

    2007-01-01

    Linearly polarized light tuned slightly below the optical transition of the negatively charged exciton (trion) in a single quantum dot causes the spontaneous nuclear spin polarization (self-polarization) at a level close to 100%. The effective magnetic field of spin-polarized nuclei brings the optical transition energy into resonance with photon energy. The resonantly enhanced Overhauser effect sustains the stability of the nuclear self-polarization even in the absence of spin polarization of...

  11. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  12. Exotic composite vector boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, K.; Hattori, T.; Yasue, M.

    1991-01-01

    An exotic composite vector boson V is introduced in two dynamical models of composite quarks, leptons, W, and Z. One is based on four-Fermi interactions, in which composite vector bosons are regarded as fermion-antifermion bound states and the other is based on the confining SU(2) L gauge model, in which they are given by scalar-antiscalar bound states. Both approaches describe the same effective interactions for the sector of composite quarks, leptons, W, Z, γ, and V

  13. Vector borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Melillo Fenech, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    A vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent. The transmission depends upon the attributes and requirements of at least three different Iiving organisms : the pathologic agent which is either a virus, protozoa, bacteria or helminth (worm); the vector, which is commonly an arthropod such as ticks or mosquitoes; and the human host.

  14. Vector financial rogue waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-01-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.

  15. A controllable spin prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakioglu, T

    2009-01-01

    Based on Khodas et al (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 92 086602), we propose a device acting like a controllable prism for an incident spin. The device is a large quantum well where Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions are present and controlled by the plunger gate potential, the electric field and the barrier height. A totally destructive interference can be manipulated externally between the Rashba and Dresselhaus couplings. The spin-dependent transmission/reflection amplitudes are calculated as the control parameters are changed. The device operates as a spin prism/converter/filter in different regimes and may stimulate research in promising directions in spintronics in analogy with linear optics.

  16. Operator spin foam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kaminski, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin

  17. PREFACE: Spin Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.

    2007-04-01

    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  18. Energy spectrum, the spin polarization, and the optical selection rules of the Kronig-Penney superlattice model with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui

    2018-02-01

    The Kronig-Penney model, an exactly solvable one-dimensional model of crystal in solid physics, shows how the allowed and forbidden bands are formed in solids. In this paper, we study this model in the presence of both strong spin-orbit coupling and the Zeeman field. We analytically obtain four transcendental equations that represent an implicit relation between the energy and the Bloch wave vector. Solving these four transcendental equations, we obtain the spin-orbital bands exactly. In addition to the usual band gap opened at the boundary of the Brillouin zone, a much larger spin-orbital band gap is also opened at some special sites inside the Brillouin zone. The x component of the spin-polarization vector is an even function of the Bloch wave vector, while the z component of the spin-polarization vector is an odd function of the Bloch wave vector. At the band edges, the optical transition rates between adjacent bands are nonzero.

  19. Topologically Massive Higher Spin Gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, A.; Lal, S.; Saha, A.; Sahoo, B.

    2011-01-01

    We look at the generalisation of topologically massive gravity (TMG) to higher spins, specifically spin-3. We find a special "chiral" point for the spin-three, analogous to the spin-two example, which actually coincides with the usual spin-two chiral point. But in contrast to usual TMG, there is the

  20. Angular velocity determination of spinning solar sails using only a sun sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The direction of the sun is the easiest and most reliable observation vector for a solar sail running in deep space exploration. This paper presents a new method using only raw measurements of the sun direction vector to estimate angular velocity for a spinning solar sail. In cases with a constant spin angular velocity, the estimation equation is formed based on the kinematic model for the apparent motion of the sun direction vector; the least-squares solution is then easily calculated. A performance criterion is defined and used to analyze estimation accuracy. In cases with a variable spin angular velocity, the estimation equation is developed based on the kinematic model for the apparent motion of the sun direction vector and the attitude dynamics equation. Simulation results show that the proposed method can quickly yield high-precision angular velocity estimates that are insensitive to certain measurement noises and modeling errors.

  1. Spin-orbit and spin-lattice coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Gerrit E.W.; Ziman, Timothy; Mori, Michiyasu

    2014-01-01

    We pursued theoretical research on the coupling of electron spins in the condensed matter to the lattice as mediated by the spin-orbit interaction with special focus on the spin and anomalous Hall effects. (author)

  2. Spin Current Noise of the Spin Seebeck Effect and Spin Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, M.; Ohnuma, Y.; Kato, T.; Maekawa, S.

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the fluctuation of a pure spin current induced by the spin Seebeck effect and spin pumping in a normal-metal-(NM-)ferromagnet(FM) bilayer system. Starting with a simple ferromagnet-insulator-(FI-)NM interface model with both spin-conserving and non-spin-conserving processes, we derive general expressions of the spin current and the spin-current noise at the interface within second-order perturbation of the FI-NM coupling strength, and estimate them for a yttrium-iron-garnet-platinum interface. We show that the spin-current noise can be used to determine the effective spin carried by a magnon modified by the non-spin-conserving process at the interface. In addition, we show that it provides information on the effective spin of a magnon, heating at the interface under spin pumping, and spin Hall angle of the NM.

  3. Reorientation effects for 52 MeV vector polarized deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurzynski, J.; Kihm, T.; Knopfle, K.T.; Mairle, G.; Clement, H.

    1987-01-01

    The differential cross sections and the vector analysing powers were measured for the elastic and inelastic scattering of 52 MeV vector polarized deuterons from 20 Ne, 22 Ne, 26 Mg, 28 Si, 32 S, 34 S, 36 Ar and 40 Ar nuclei. Coupled channels analysis was carried out using an axially symmetric rotational model with either prolate or oblate quadrupole deformations for each isotope. Calculations assuming harmonic vibrator model were also carried out. In general, reorientation effects were found to be weak. A global optical model potential containing an imaginary spin-orbit component was found to be the most suitable in describing the experimental data at this energy

  4. Effect of spin rotation coupling on spin transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, B.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the spin rotation coupling (SRC) as an ingredient to explain different spin-related issues. This special kind of coupling can play the role of a Dresselhaus like coupling in certain conditions. Consequently, one can control the spin splitting, induced by the Dresselhaus like term, which is unusual in a semiconductor heterostructure. Within this framework, we also study the renormalization of the spin-dependent electric field and spin current due to the k → ⋅p → perturbation, by taking into account the interband mixing in the rotating system. In this paper we predict the enhancement of the spin-dependent electric field resulting from the renormalized spin rotation coupling. The renormalization factor of the spin electric field is different from that of the SRC or Zeeman coupling. The effect of renormalized SRC on spin current and Berry curvature is also studied. Interestingly, in the presence of this SRC-induced SOC it is possible to describe spin splitting as well as spin galvanic effect in semiconductors. -- Highlights: •Studied effect of spin rotation coupling on the spin electric field, spin current and Berry curvature. •In the k → ⋅p → framework we study the renormalization of spin electric field and spin current. •For an inertial system we have discussed the spin splitting. •Expression for the Berry phase in the inertial system is discussed. •The inertial spin galvanic effect is studied

  5. Effect of spin rotation coupling on spin transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Debashree, E-mail: debashreephys@gmail.com; Basu, B., E-mail: sribbasu@gmail.com

    2013-12-15

    We have studied the spin rotation coupling (SRC) as an ingredient to explain different spin-related issues. This special kind of coupling can play the role of a Dresselhaus like coupling in certain conditions. Consequently, one can control the spin splitting, induced by the Dresselhaus like term, which is unusual in a semiconductor heterostructure. Within this framework, we also study the renormalization of the spin-dependent electric field and spin current due to the k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} perturbation, by taking into account the interband mixing in the rotating system. In this paper we predict the enhancement of the spin-dependent electric field resulting from the renormalized spin rotation coupling. The renormalization factor of the spin electric field is different from that of the SRC or Zeeman coupling. The effect of renormalized SRC on spin current and Berry curvature is also studied. Interestingly, in the presence of this SRC-induced SOC it is possible to describe spin splitting as well as spin galvanic effect in semiconductors. -- Highlights: •Studied effect of spin rotation coupling on the spin electric field, spin current and Berry curvature. •In the k{sup →}⋅p{sup →} framework we study the renormalization of spin electric field and spin current. •For an inertial system we have discussed the spin splitting. •Expression for the Berry phase in the inertial system is discussed. •The inertial spin galvanic effect is studied.

  6. Spin temperature concept verified by optical magnetometry of nuclear spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, M.; Cronenberger, S.; Scalbert, D.; Ryzhov, I. I.; Zapasskii, V. S.; Kozlov, G. G.; Lemaître, A.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a method of nonperturbative optical control over adiabatic remagnetization of the nuclear spin system and apply it to verify the spin temperature concept in GaAs microcavities. The nuclear spin system is shown to exactly follow the predictions of the spin temperature theory, despite the quadrupole interaction that was earlier reported to disrupt nuclear spin thermalization. These findings open a way for the deep cooling of nuclear spins in semiconductor structures, with the prospect of realizing nuclear spin-ordered states for high-fidelity spin-photon interfaces.

  7. Spin-motive Force Induced by Domain Wall Dynamics in the Antiferromagnetic Spin Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Ryoko; Ichimura, Masahiko; Takahashi, Saburo; Maekawa, Sadamichi; Crest Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    In spite of no net magnetization in antiferromagnetic (AF) textures, the local magnetic properties (Neel magnetization) can be manipulated in a similar fashion to ferromagnetic (F) ones. It is expected that, even in AF metals, spin transfer torques (STTs) lead to the domain wall (DW) motion and that the DW motion induces spin-motive force (SMF). In order to study the Neel magnetization dynamics and the resultant SMF, we treat the nano-structured F1/AF/F2 junction. The F1 and F2 leads behave as a spin current injector and a detector, respectively. Each F lead is fixed in the different magnetization direction. Torsions (DW in AF) are introduced reflecting the fixed magnetization of two F leads. We simulated the STT-induced Neel magnetization dynamics with the injecting current from F1 to F2 and evaluate induced SMF. Based on the adiabatic electron dynamics in the AF texture, Langevin simulations are performed at finite temperature. This research was supported by JST, CREST, Japan.

  8. Interfacial spin cluster effects in exchange bias systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R., E-mail: rc548@york.ac.uk; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O' Grady, K. [Department of Physics, The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-07

    In this work, the effect of exchange bias on the hysteresis loop of CoFe is observed. The evolution of the coercivities and the shift of the hysteresis loop during the annealing process has been measured for films deposited on NiCr and Cu seed layers. Through comparison of the as deposited and field annealed loops, it is clear that for an exchange biased material, the two coercivities are due to different reversal processes. This behaviour is attributed to spin clusters at the ferromagnet/antiferromagnet interface, which behave in a similar manner to a fine particle system.

  9. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  10. Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.

  11. Coherent manipulation of spin correlations in the Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, N.; Chan, C. F.; Gall, M.; Drewes, J. H.; Cocchi, E.; Miller, L. A.; Pertot, D.; Brennecke, F.; Köhl, M.

    2018-05-01

    We coherently manipulate spin correlations in a two-component atomic Fermi gas loaded into an optical lattice using spatially and time-resolved Ramsey spectroscopy combined with high-resolution in situ imaging. This technique allows us not only to imprint spin patterns but also to probe the static magnetic structure factor at an arbitrary wave vector, in particular, the staggered structure factor. From a measurement along the diagonal of the first Brillouin zone of the optical lattice, we determine the magnetic correlation length and the individual spatial spin correlators. At half filling, the staggered magnetic structure factor serves as a sensitive thermometer, which we employ to study the equilibration in the spin and density sector during a slow quench of the lattice depth.

  12. Recent trends in spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Taichi

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the Rashba effect on crystal surfaces and also the discovery of topological insulators, spin- and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (SARPES) has become more and more important, as the technique can measure directly the electronic band structure of materials with spin resolution. In the same way that the discovery of high-Tc superconductors promoted the development of high-resolution angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, the discovery of this new class of materials has stimulated the development of new SARPES apparatus with new functions and higher resolution, such as spin vector analysis, ten times higher energy and angular resolution than conventional SARPES, multichannel spin detection, and so on. In addition, the utilization of vacuum ultra violet lasers also opens a pathway to the realization of novel SARPES measurements. In this review, such recent trends in SARPES techniques and measurements will be overviewed.

  13. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  14. Resurvey of order and chaos in spinning compact binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xin; Xie Yi

    2008-01-01

    This paper is mainly devoted to applying the invariant, fast, Lyapunov indicator to clarify some doubt regarding the apparently conflicting results of chaos in spinning compact binaries at the second-order post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity from previous literatures. It is shown with a number of examples that no single physical parameter or initial condition can be described as responsible for causing chaos, but a complicated combination of all parameters and initial conditions is responsible. In other words, a universal rule for the dependence of chaos on each parameter or initial condition cannot be found in general. Chaos does not depend only on the mass ratio, and the maximal spins do not necessarily bring the strongest effect of chaos. Additionally, chaos does not always become drastic when the initial spin vectors are nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, and the alignment of spins cannot trigger chaos by itself

  15. Spinning test particles in the field of a black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tod, K P; de Felice, F [Padua Univ. (Italy); Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia

    1976-08-11

    It is studied the motion of spinning test bodies in the gravitational field of a rotating black hole, confining the examination of the pole-dipole approximation and of the special case of motion in the equatorial plane with the spin vector perpendicular to it. The study also provides the locus of the turning points for the equatorial orbits and also the exact limits of validity of the pole-dipole approximation for any given set of particle parameters. The innermost stable circular orbits are studied in details, and it is found that opposite spinning accreting particles are separated by the gravitational field of the black hole and that the fraction of energy ''at infinity'' which can be extracted when the particle spin is opposite to that of the black hole can be as high as 100%.

  16. Observation of linear spin wave dispersion in the reentrant spin glass Fe sub 0 sub . sub 7 Al sub 0 sub . sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, S M; Raymond, S; Lee, S H; Motoya, K

    2002-01-01

    Fe sub 0 sub . sub 7 Al sub 0 sub . sub 3 is a reentrant spin glass, which undergoes a transition from a paramagnet to a disordered ferromagnet at T sub c propor to 500 K; at a lower temperature the spins progressively freeze and it exhibits a spin-glass-like behavior. In the ferromagnetic phase spin waves with a q sup 2 dispersion are observed at small q, which broaden rapidly and become diffusive beyond a critical wave vector q sub 0. On cooling the spin waves also disappear and a strong elastic central peak develops. For measurements around the (1,1,1) Bragg peak, a new sharp excitation is observed which has a linear dispersion behavior. It disappears above T sub c , but persists throughout the spin-glass phase. It is not present in the stoichiometric Fe sub 3 Al material. (orig.)

  17. Physics lab in spin

    CERN Multimedia

    Hawkes, N

    1999-01-01

    RAL is fostering commerical exploitation of its research and facilities in two main ways : spin-out companies exploit work done at the lab, spin-in companies work on site taking advantage of the facilities and the expertise available (1/2 page).

  18. Summary: Symmetries and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity nonconservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence. 28 refs., 1 fig

  19. Spin, mass, and symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics

  20. Classical spins in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K

    1968-08-01

    It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.

  1. Spin, mass, and symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.

  2. More spinoff from spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaike, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Despite playing a major role in today's Standard Model, spin - the intrinsic angular momentum carried by particles - is sometimes dismissed as an inessential complication. However several major spin questions with important implications for the Standard Model remain unanswered, and recent results and new technological developments made the 10th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics, held in Nagoya, Japan, in November, highly topical. The symposium covered a wide range of physics, reflecting the diversity of spin effects, however four main themes were - the spin content of the nucleon, tests of symmetries and physics beyond standard models, intermediate energy physics, and spin technologies. Opening the meeting, T. Kinoshita reviewed the status of measurements of the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of the electron and the muon. The forthcoming experiment at Brookhaven (September 1991, page 23) will probe beyond the energy ranges open to existing electronpositron colliders. For example muon substructure will be opened up to 5 TeV and Ws to 2 TeV. R.L. Jaffe classified quark-parton distributions in terms of their spin dependence, pointing out their leftright attributes, and emphasized the importance of measuring transverse spin distributions through lepton pair production

  3. First measurement of the helicity-dependent (vector)({gamma})(vector)(p){yields}p{eta} differential cross-section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Aulenbacher, K.; Beck, R.; Drechsel, D.; Harrach, D. van; Heid, E. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Anton, G. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bradtke, C.; Goertz, S.; Harmsen, J. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Braghieri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); d' Hose, N. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dutz, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Grabmayr, P. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tuebingen, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Hansen, K. [Department of Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Hasegawa, S. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Hasegawa, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan); Helbing, K.; Holvoet, H.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Horikawa, N.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, O.; Jennewein, P.; Kageya, T.; Kiel, B.; Klein, F.; Kondratiev, R.; Kossert, K.; Krimmer, J.; Lang, M.; Lannoy, B.; Leukel, R.; Lisin, V.; Matsuda, T.; McGeorge, J.C.; Meier, A.; Menze, D.; Meyer, W.; Michel, T.; Naumann, J.; Panzeri, A.; Pedroni, P.; Pinelli, T.; Preobrajenski, I.; Radtke, E.; Reichert, E.; Reicherz, G.; Rohlof, Ch.; Rosner, G.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sauer, M.; Schoch, B.; Schumacher, M.; Seitz, B.; Speckner, T.; Takabayashi, N.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A.; Van de Vyver, R.; Wakai, A.; Weihofen, W.; Wissmann, F.; Zapadtka, F.; Zeitler, G.

    2003-06-01

    The helicity dependence of the (vector)({gamma})(vector)(p){yields}p{eta} reaction has been measured for the first time at a center-of-mass angle {theta}{sup *}{sub {eta}}=70 in the photon energy range from 780 MeV to 790 MeV. The experiment, performed at the Mainz microtron MAMI, used a 4{pi}-detector system, a circularly polarized, tagged photon beam, and a longitudinally polarized frozen-spin target. The helicity 3/2 cross-section is found to be small and the results for helicity 1/2 agree with predictions from the MAID analysis. (orig.)

  4. First measurement of the helicity-dependent vector gamma)vector(p)->p eta differential cross-section

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, J; Aulenbacher, K; Beck, R; Drechsel, D; Von Harrach, D; Heid, E; Altieri, S; Annand, J R M; Anton, G; Bradtke, C; Görtz, S; Harmsen, J; Braghieri, A; D'Hose, N; Dutz, H; Grabmayr, P; Hansen, K; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, T; Helbing, K; Holvoet, H; Van Hoorebeke, L; Horikawa, N; Iwata, T; Jahn, O; Jennewein, P; Kageya, T; Kiel, B; Klein, F; Kondratiev, R; Kossert, K; Krimmer, J; Lang, M; Lannoy, B; Leukel, R; Lisin, V; Matsuda, T; McGeorge, J C; Meier, A; Menze, D; Meyer, Werner T; Michel, T; Naumann, J; Panzeri, A; Pedroni, P; Pinelli, T; Preobrajenski, I; Radtke, E; Reichert, E; Reicherz, G; Rohlof, C; Rosner, G; Ryckbosch, D; Sauer, M C; Schoch, B; Schumacher, M; Seitz, B; Speckner, T; Takabayashi, N; Tamas, G; Thomas, A; Van De Vyver, R; Wakai, A; Weihofen, W; Wissmann, F; Zapadtka, F; Zeitler, G

    2003-01-01

    The helicity dependence of the vector(gamma)vector(p)->p eta reaction has been measured for the first time at a center-of-mass angle theta sup * subeta=70 in the photon energy range from 780 MeV to 790 MeV. The experiment, performed at the Mainz microtron MAMI, used a 4 pi-detector system, a circularly polarized, tagged photon beam, and a longitudinally polarized frozen-spin target. The helicity 3/2 cross-section is found to be small and the results for helicity 1/2 agree with predictions from the MAID analysis. (orig.)

  5. Evidence for Long-Timescale Patterns of Synaptic Inputs in CA1 of Awake Behaving Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Ilya; Talei Franzesi, Giovanni; Wang, Michael; Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Forest, Craig R; Boyden, Edward S; Singer, Annabelle C

    2018-02-14

    Repeated sequences of neural activity are a pervasive feature of neural networks in vivo and in vitro In the hippocampus, sequential firing of many neurons over periods of 100-300 ms reoccurs during behavior and during periods of quiescence. However, it is not known whether the hippocampus produces longer sequences of activity or whether such sequences are restricted to specific network states. Furthermore, whether long repeated patterns of activity are transmitted to single cells downstream is unclear. To answer these questions, we recorded intracellularly from hippocampal CA1 of awake, behaving male mice to examine both subthreshold activity and spiking output in single neurons. In eight of nine recordings, we discovered long (900 ms) reoccurring subthreshold fluctuations or "repeats." Repeats generally were high-amplitude, nonoscillatory events reoccurring with 10 ms precision. Using statistical controls, we determined that repeats occurred more often than would be expected from unstructured network activity (e.g., by chance). Most spikes occurred during a repeat, and when a repeat contained a spike, the spike reoccurred with precision on the order of ≤20 ms, showing that long repeated patterns of subthreshold activity are strongly connected to spike output. Unexpectedly, we found that repeats occurred independently of classic hippocampal network states like theta oscillations or sharp-wave ripples. Together, these results reveal surprisingly long patterns of repeated activity in the hippocampal network that occur nonstochastically, are transmitted to single downstream neurons, and strongly shape their output. This suggests that the timescale of information transmission in the hippocampal network is much longer than previously thought. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We found long (≥900 ms), repeated, subthreshold patterns of activity in CA1 of awake, behaving mice. These repeated patterns ("repeats") occurred more often than expected by chance and with 10 ms

  6. Vectorization in quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that the optimal vectorization algorithm for many steps (and sub-steps) in a typical ab initio calculation of molecular electronic structure is quite strongly dependent on the target vector machine. Details such as the availability (or lack) of a given vector construct in the hardware, vector startup times and asymptotic rates must all be considered when selecting the optimal algorithm. Illustrations are drawn from: gaussian integral evaluation, fock matrix construction, 4-index transformation of molecular integrals, direct-CI methods, the matrix multiply operation. A cross comparison of practical implementations on the CDC Cyber 205, the Cray-IS and Cray-XMP machines is presented. To achieve portability while remaining optimal on a wide range of machines it is necessary to code all available algorithms in a machine independent manner, and to select the appropriate algorithm using a procedure which is based on machine dependent parameters. Most such parameters concern the timing of certain vector loop kernals, which can usually be derived from a 'bench-marking' routine executed prior to the calculation proper

  7. Colored, spinning classical particle in an external non-Abelian gauge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.

    1982-04-01

    Classical non-relativistic equations of motion are derived for a colored, spinning point-like particle in an external SU(2) gauge field from Dirac equation. It is found that in addition to the classical spin and color spin vectors, S, I, it is necessary to introduce a new classical dynamical variable [Jsup(ab)], a,b = 1,2,3, describing a mixing of the spin and color. The constraint relations between [Jsup(ab)], S, I are also found. (Auth.)

  8. Attenuation of spin resonance signals in media with the multi-component system of collectivized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtenko, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Universal relaxation theory of spectral line form at electron scattering light with spin flip at scattering of neutrons and at electron paramagnetic resonance, is plotted. Signals of spin resonances are shown to be subjected to strong attenuation caused by mutual transformations of various current carriers in multicomponent spin systems contained in intermetallic actinides with heavy fermions, in HTSC-crystals, in indirect highly alloyed semiconductors, solid solutions and superlattices. Physical reasons of observation of light strong scattering with spin flip in intermetallic actinides with semi-width independent of the wave vector are discussed. 19 refs

  9. On the mechanism of spin-dependent (e,2e) scattering from a ferromagnetic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarin, S N; Sergeant, A D; Pravica, L; Cvejanovic, D; Wilkie, P; Guagliardo, P; Williams, J F; Artamonov, O M; Suvorova, A A

    2009-01-01

    A simple model is suggested for a qualitative analysis of spin-dependent (e,2e) reaction on a ferromagnetic surface. The model is based on the scattering of the primary electron with the average spin projection 1 > by the valence electron with the average spin projection 2 >. To test the model the energy distributions of correlated electron pairs are measured for parallel and anti-parallel orientations of the magnetic moment of the cobalt film and polarization vector of the incident beam. The proposed model explains qualitatively the spin-asymmetry of the measured binding energy spectrum.

  10. Spin-Wave Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Lan (兰金

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A diode, a device allowing unidirectional signal transmission, is a fundamental element of logic structures, and it lies at the heart of modern information systems. The spin wave or magnon, representing a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, is a promising candidate for an information carrier for the next-generation energy-saving technologies. Here, we propose a scalable and reprogrammable pure spin-wave logic hardware architecture using domain walls and surface anisotropy stripes as waveguides on a single magnetic wafer. We demonstrate theoretically the design principle of the simplest logic component, a spin-wave diode, utilizing the chiral bound states in a magnetic domain wall with a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and confirm its performance through micromagnetic simulations. Our findings open a new vista for realizing different types of pure spin-wave logic components and finally achieving an energy-efficient and hardware-reprogrammable spin-wave computer.

  11. Spin physics at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenstein, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    Spin Physics at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory is the most recent of new capabilities being explored at this facility. During the summer of 1984 the AGS accelerated beams of polarized protons to 16.5 GeV/c at 40% polarization to two experiments (E782, E785). These experiments; single spin asymmetry in inclusive polarized pp interactions; and spin-spin effects in polarized pp elastic scattering, operated at the highest polarized proton energy ever achieved by any accelerator in the world. These experiments are reviewed after the complementary spin physics program with unpolarized protons, and the future possibilities with a booster injector for the AGS and the secondary benefits of a Relativisitic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), are placed within the context of the present physics program

  12. Superconductivity and spin fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalapino, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The organizers of the Memorial Session for Herman Rietschel asked that the author review some of the history of the interplay of superconductivity and spin fluctuations. Initially, Berk and Schrieffer showed how paramagnon spin fluctuations could suppress superconductivity in nearly-ferromagnetic materials. Following this, Rietschel and various co-workers wrote a number of papers in which they investigated the role of spin fluctuations in reducing the Tc of various electron-phonon superconductors. Paramagnon spin fluctuations are also believed to provide the p-wave pairing mechanism responsible for the superfluid phases of 3 He. More recently, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations have been proposed as the mechanism for d-wave pairing in the heavy-fermion superconductors and in some organic materials as well as possibly the high-Tc cuprates. Here the author will review some of this early history and discuss some of the things he has learned more recently from numerical simulations

  13. Quantum dynamics of relativistic bosons through nonminimal vector square potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz P. de, E-mail: oliveira.phys@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    The dynamics of relativistic bosons (scalar and vectorial) through nonminimal vector square (well and barrier) potentials is studied in the Duffin–Kemmer–Petiau (DKP) formalism. We show that the problem can be mapped in effective Schrödinger equations for a component of the DKP spinor. An oscillatory transmission coefficient is found and there is total reflection. Additionally, the energy spectrum of bound states is obtained and reveals the Schiff–Snyder–Weinberg effect, for specific conditions the potential lodges bound states of particles and antiparticles. - Highlights: • DKP bosons in a nonminimal vector square potential are studied. • Spin zero and spin one bosons have the same results. • The Schiff–Snyder–Weinberg effect is observed.

  14. Vector Fields on Product Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    This short report establishes some basic properties of smooth vector fields on product manifolds. The main results are: (i) On a product manifold there always exists a direct sum decomposition into horizontal and vertical vector fields. (ii) Horizontal and vertical vector fields are naturally isomorphic to smooth families of vector fields defined on the factors. Vector fields are regarded as derivations of the algebra of smooth functions.

  15. Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Pauyac, C. O.

    2017-12-08

    A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.

  16. Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Pauyac, C. O.; Chshiev, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Nikolaev, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.

  17. The embodiment of tourism among bisexually-behaving Dominican male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B

    2008-10-01

    While theories of "structure" and social inequality have increasingly informed global health efforts for HIV prevention--with growing recognition of the linkages between large-scale political and economic factors in the distribution and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic--there is still little theorization of precisely how structural factors shape the very bodies and sexualities of specific populations and groups. In order to extend the theoretical understanding of these macro-micro linkages, this article examines how the growth of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has produced sexual practices and identities that reflect both the influence of large-scale structural processes and the resistant responses of local individuals. Drawing on social science theories of political economy, embodiment, and authenticity, I argue that an understanding of patterns of sexuality and HIV risk in the region requires analysis of how political-economic transformations related to tourism intersect with the individual experiences and practices of sexuality on the ground. The analysis draws on long-term ethnographic research with bisexually behaving male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. By examining the global and local values placed on these men's bodies and the ways sex workers use their bodies to broker tourists' pleasure, we may better understand how the large-scale structures of the tourism industry are linked to the specific meanings and practices of sexuality.

  18. Social class, power, and selfishness: when and why upper and lower class individuals behave unethically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, David; Rucker, Derek D; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-03-01

    Are the rich more unethical than the poor? To answer this question, the current research introduces a key conceptual distinction between selfish and unethical behavior. Based on this distinction, the current article offers 2 novel findings that illuminate the relationship between social class and unethical behavior. First, the effects of social class on unethical behavior are not invariant; rather, the effects of social class are moderated by whether unethical behavior benefits the self or others. Replicating past work, social class positively predicted unethical behavior; however, this relationship was only observed when that behavior was self-beneficial. When unethical behavior was performed to benefit others, social class negatively predicted unethical behavior; lower class individuals were more likely than upper class individuals to engage in unethical behavior. Overall, social class predicts people's tendency to behave selfishly, rather than predicting unethical behavior per se. Second, individuals' sense of power drove the effects of social class on unethical behavior. Evidence for this relationship was provided in three forms. First, income, but not education level, predicted unethical behavior. Second, feelings of power mediated the effect of social class on unethical behavior, but feelings of status did not. Third, two distinct manipulations of power produced the same moderation by self-versus-other beneficiary as was found with social class. The current theoretical framework and data both synthesize and help to explain a range of findings in the social class and power literatures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Solving the economic dispatch problem with a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jun; Fang Wei; Wang Daojun; Xu Wenbo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) method is proposed to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem in power systems, whose objective is to simultaneously minimize the generation cost rate while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method, denoted as QPSO-DM, combines the QPSO algorithm with differential mutation operation to enhance the global search ability of the algorithm. Many nonlinear characteristics of the generator, such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, and nonsmooth cost functions are considered when the proposed method is used in practical generator operation. The feasibility of the QPSO-DM method is demonstrated by three different power systems. It is compared with the QPSO, the differential evolution (DE), the particle swarm optimization (PSO), and the genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of the solution quality, robustness and convergence property. The simulation results show that the proposed QPSO-DM method is able to obtain higher quality solutions stably and efficiently in the ED problem than any other tested optimization algorithm.

  20. Solving the economic dispatch problem with a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Sun; Wei Fang; Daojun Wang; Wenbo Xu [School of Information Technology, Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) method is proposed to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem in power systems, whose objective is to simultaneously minimize the generation cost rate while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method, denoted as QPSO-DM, combines the QPSO algorithm with differential mutation operation to enhance the global search ability of the algorithm. Many nonlinear characteristics of the generator, such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, and nonsmooth cost functions are considered when the proposed method is used in practical generator operation. The feasibility of the QPSO-DM method is demonstrated by three different power systems. It is compared with the QPSO, the differential evolution (DE), the particle swarm optimization (PSO), and the genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of the solution quality, robustness and convergence property. The simulation results show that the proposed QPSO-DM method is able to obtain higher quality solutions stably and efficiently in the ED problem than any other tested optimization algorithm. (author)

  1. How Do Children Behave Regarding Their Birth Order in Dental Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Faezeh; Fijan, Soleiman; Hamedani, Shahram

    2015-12-01

    Prediction of child cooperation level in dental setting is an important issue for a dentist to select the proper behavior management method. Many psychological studies have emphasized the effect of birth order on patient behavior and personality; however, only a few researches evaluated the effect of birth order on child's behavior in dental setting. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of children ordinal position on their behavior in dental setting. A total of 158 children with at least one primary mandibular molar needing class I restoration were selected. Children were classified based on the ordinal position; first, middle, or last child as well as single child. A blinded examiner recorded the pain perception of children during injection based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Sound, Eye and Movement (SEM) scale. To assess the child's anxiety, the questionnaire known as "Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule" (CFSS-DS) was employed. The results showed that single children were significantly less cooperative and more anxious than the other children (p<0.001). The middle children were significantly more cooperative in comparison with the other child's position (p< 0.001). Single child may behave less cooperatively in dental setting. The order of child birth must also be considered in prediction of child's behavior for behavioral management.

  2. Dopamine Modulates Delta-Gamma Phase-Amplitude Coupling in the Prefrontal Cortex of Behaving Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino-Pavlovsky, Victoria; Souza, Annie C.; Scheffer-Teixeira, Robson; Tort, Adriano B. L.; Etchenique, Roberto; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine release and phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (CFC) have independently been implicated in prefrontal cortex (PFC) functioning. To causally investigate whether dopamine release affects phase-amplitude comodulation between different frequencies in local field potentials (LFP) recorded from the medial PFC (mPFC) of behaving rats, we used RuBiDopa, a light-sensitive caged compound that releases the neurotransmitter dopamine when irradiated with visible light. LFP power did not change in any frequency band after the application of light-uncaged dopamine, but significantly strengthened phase-amplitude comodulation between delta and gamma oscillations. Saline did not exert significant changes, while injections of dopamine and RuBiDopa produced a slow increase in comodulation for several minutes after the injection. The results show that dopamine release in the medial PFC shifts phase-amplitude comodulation from theta-gamma to delta-gamma. Although being preliminary results due to the limitation of the low number of animals present in this study, our findings suggest that dopamine-mediated modification of the frequencies involved in comodulation could be a mechanism by which this neurotransmitter regulates functioning in mPFC. PMID:28536507

  3. Seeing the whole picture: A comprehensive imaging approach to functional mapping of circuits in behaving zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierstein, C E; Portugues, R; Orger, M B

    2015-06-18

    In recent years, the zebrafish has emerged as an appealing model system to tackle questions relating to the neural circuit basis of behavior. This can be attributed not just to the growing use of genetically tractable model organisms, but also in large part to the rapid advances in optical techniques for neuroscience, which are ideally suited for application to the small, transparent brain of the larval fish. Many characteristic features of vertebrate brains, from gross anatomy down to particular circuit motifs and cell-types, as well as conserved behaviors, can be found in zebrafish even just a few days post fertilization, and, at this early stage, the physical size of the brain makes it possible to analyze neural activity in a comprehensive fashion. In a recent study, we used a systematic and unbiased imaging method to record the pattern of activity dynamics throughout the whole brain of larval zebrafish during a simple visual behavior, the optokinetic response (OKR). This approach revealed the broadly distributed network of neurons that were active during the behavior and provided insights into the fine-scale functional architecture in the brain, inter-individual variability, and the spatial distribution of behaviorally relevant signals. Combined with mapping anatomical and functional connectivity, targeted electrophysiological recordings, and genetic labeling of specific populations, this comprehensive approach in zebrafish provides an unparalleled opportunity to study complete circuits in a behaving vertebrate animal. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Glomerular barrier behaves as an atomically precise bandpass filter in a sub-nanometre regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bujie; Jiang, Xingya; Das, Anindita; Zhou, Qinhan; Yu, Mengxiao; Jin, Rongchao; Zheng, Jie

    2017-11-01

    The glomerular filtration barrier is known as a 'size cutoff' slit, which retains nanoparticles or proteins larger than 6-8 nm in the body and rapidly excretes smaller ones through the kidneys. However, in the sub-nanometre size regime, we have found that this barrier behaves as an atomically precise 'bandpass' filter to significantly slow down renal clearance of few-atom gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with the same surface ligands but different sizes (Au18, Au15 and Au10-11). Compared to Au25 (∼1.0 nm), just few-atom decreases in size result in four- to ninefold reductions in renal clearance efficiency in the early elimination stage, because the smaller AuNCs are more readily trapped by the glomerular glycocalyx than larger ones. This unique in vivo nano-bio interaction in the sub-nanometre regime also slows down the extravasation of sub-nanometre AuNCs from normal blood vessels and enhances their passive targeting to cancerous tissues through an enhanced permeability and retention effect. This discovery highlights the size precision in the body's response to nanoparticles and opens a new pathway to develop nanomedicines for many diseases associated with glycocalyx dysfunction.

  5. Charging and switching of ferroelectrets: how much can ferroelectrets behave like ferroelectrics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwoediauer, R.; Graz, I.; Bauer, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dielectrics with good charge storage capability, so called charge electrets, are non or weakly-polar materials. Despite their non-polar nature porous charge electrets with internally charged surfaces can exhibit very pronounced piezoelectricity. Such systems have been termed 'ferroelectrets' and they have been receiving growing attention over the last few years. Their puzzling and unexpected features resemble very much those normally known from traditional ferroelectrics: ferroelectrets are piezo- and pyroelectric, their polarization can be reversed by means of an external field and electrical as well as mechanical hysteresis loops were observed. As conventional ferroelectrics are different and more complicated than ferromagnets, so are ferroelectrets different and more complex than most ferroelectrics. Here we report about the very different charging and switching mechanism in ferroelectrets, both in simple model-systems and in less simple foam structures. These mechanisms are crucial and form the basis for the striking phenomenological similarities to ferroelectrics. We also want to address some of the specific peculiarities and pitfalls related to present ferroelectrets and their characterization. Interfacial charge injection at high electric fields and anelastic non-linearities, for instance, can be the cause for false ferroelectric-like hysteresis effects which do not reflect any polarization reversal. Our contribution is an attempt towards a more comprehensive picture of how much ferroelectrets behave like ferroelectrics. (author)

  6. A mathematical model for pressure-based organs behaving as biological pressure vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casha, Aaron R; Camilleri, Liberato; Gauci, Marilyn; Gatt, Ruben; Sladden, David; Chetcuti, Stanley; Grima, Joseph N

    2018-04-26

    We introduce a mathematical model that describes the allometry of physical characteristics of hollow organs behaving as pressure vessels based on the physics of ideal pressure vessels. The model was validated by studying parameters such as body and organ mass, systolic and diastolic pressures, internal and external dimensions, pressurization energy and organ energy output measurements of pressure-based organs in a wide range of mammals and birds. Seven rules were derived that govern amongst others, lack of size efficiency on scaling to larger organ sizes, matching organ size in the same species, equal relative efficiency in pressurization energy across species and direct size matching between organ mass and mass of contents. The lung, heart and bladder follow these predicted theoretical relationships with a similar relative efficiency across various mammalian and avian species; an exception is cardiac output in mammals with a mass exceeding 10kg. This may limit massive body size in mammals, breaking Cope's rule that populations evolve to increase in body size over time. Such a limit was not found in large flightless birds exceeding 100kg, leading to speculation about unlimited dinosaur size should dinosaurs carry avian-like cardiac characteristics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Low energy spin excitations in chromium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pynn, R.; Azuah, R.T.; Stirling, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments with full polarization analysis have been performed with a single crystal of chromium to study the low-energy spin fluctuations in the transverse spin density wave (TSDW) state. A number of remarkable results have been found. Inelastic scattering observed close to the TSDW satellite positions at (1 ± δ,0,0) does not behave as expected for magnon scattering. In particular, the scattering corresponds to almost equally strong magnetization fluctuations both parallel and perpendicular to the ordered moments of the TSDW phase. As the Neel temperature is approached from below, scattering at the commensurate wavevector (1,0,0) increases in intensity as a result of critical scattering at silent satellites (1,0, ± δ) being included within the spectrometer resolution function. This effect, first observed by Sternlieb et al, does not account for all of the inelastic scattering around the (1,0,0) position, however, Rather, there are further collective excitations, apparently emanating from the TSDW satellites, which correspond to magnetic fluctuations parallel to the ordered TSDW moments. These branches have a group velocity that is close to that of (1,0,0) longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons, but assigning their origin to magneto-elastic scattering raises other unanswered questions

  8. Vector meson photoproduction with a linearly polarized beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, V.; Nys, J.; Fernández-Ramírez, C.; Jackura, A.; Pilloni, A.; Sherrill, N.; Szczepaniak, A. P.; Fox, G.; Joint Physics Analysis Center

    2018-05-01

    We propose a model based on Regge theory to describe photoproduction of light vector mesons. We fit the SLAC data and make predictions for the energy and momentum-transfer dependence of the spin-density matrix elements in photoproduction of ω , ρ0 and ϕ mesons at Eγ˜8.5 GeV , which are soon to be measured at Jefferson Lab.

  9. Strangeness Vector and Axial-Vector Form Factors of the Nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pate Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A revised global fit of electroweak ep and vp elastic scattering data has been performed, with the goal of determining the strange quark contribution to the vector and axial-vector form factors of the nucleon in the momentum-transfer range 0 < Q2 < 1 GeV2. The two vector (electric and magnetic form factors GsE(Q2 and GsM(Q2 are strongly constrained by ep elastic scattering data, while the major source of information on the axial-vector form factor GsA(Q2 is vp scattering data. Combining the two kinds of data into a single global fit makes possible additional precision in the determination of these form factors, and provides a unique way to determine the strange quark contribution to the nucleon spin, ΔS , independently of leptonic deep-inelastic scattering. The fit makes use of data from the BNL-E734, SAMPLE, HAPPEx, G0, and PVA4 experiments; we will also compare the result of the fit with recent data from MiniBooNE, and anticipate how this fit can be improved when new data from MicroBooNE become available.

  10. Bunyavirus-Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate McElroy Horne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. The viruses within the Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are transmitted by hematophagous arthropods, such as mosquitoes, midges, flies, and ticks, and their associated arthropods not only serve as vectors but also as virus reservoirs in many cases. This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus-vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family.

  11. Sums and Gaussian vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Yurinsky, Vadim Vladimirovich

    1995-01-01

    Surveys the methods currently applied to study sums of infinite-dimensional independent random vectors in situations where their distributions resemble Gaussian laws. Covers probabilities of large deviations, Chebyshev-type inequalities for seminorms of sums, a method of constructing Edgeworth-type expansions, estimates of characteristic functions for random vectors obtained by smooth mappings of infinite-dimensional sums to Euclidean spaces. A self-contained exposition of the modern research apparatus around CLT, the book is accessible to new graduate students, and can be a useful reference for researchers and teachers of the subject.

  12. Duality in vector optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bot, Radu Ioan

    2009-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals and comprehensive results regarding duality for scalar, vector and set-valued optimization problems in a general setting. After a preliminary chapter dedicated to convex analysis and minimality notions of sets with respect to partial orderings induced by convex cones a chapter on scalar conjugate duality follows. Then investigations on vector duality based on scalar conjugacy are made. Weak, strong and converse duality statements are delivered and connections to classical results from the literature are emphasized. One chapter is exclusively consecrated to the s

  13. Multithreading in vector processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelinos, Constantinos; Kim, Changhoan; Nair, Ravi

    2018-01-16

    In one embodiment, a system includes a processor having a vector processing mode and a multithreading mode. The processor is configured to operate on one thread per cycle in the multithreading mode. The processor includes a program counter register having a plurality of program counters, and the program counter register is vectorized. Each program counter in the program counter register represents a distinct corresponding thread of a plurality of threads. The processor is configured to execute the plurality of threads by activating the plurality of program counters in a round robin cycle.

  14. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  15. Free topological vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, Saak S.; Morris, Sidney A.

    2016-01-01

    We define and study the free topological vector space $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ over a Tychonoff space $X$. We prove that $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is a $k_\\omega$-space if and only if $X$ is a $k_\\omega$-space. If $X$ is infinite, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ contains a closed vector subspace which is topologically isomorphic to $\\mathbb{V}(\\mathbb{N})$. It is proved that if $X$ is a $k$-space, then $\\mathbb{V}(X)$ is locally convex if and only if $X$ is discrete and countable. If $X$ is a metrizable space it is shown ...

  16. Scalar-vector bootstrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon-Barrera, Fernando [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Robbins, Daniel [Department of Physics, Texas A& M University,TAMU 4242, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2016-01-22

    We work out all of the details required for implementation of the conformal bootstrap program applied to the four-point function of two scalars and two vectors in an abstract conformal field theory in arbitrary dimension. This includes a review of which tensor structures make appearances, a construction of the projectors onto the required mixed symmetry representations, and a computation of the conformal blocks for all possible operators which can be exchanged. These blocks are presented as differential operators acting upon the previously known scalar conformal blocks. Finally, we set up the bootstrap equations which implement crossing symmetry. Special attention is given to the case of conserved vectors, where several simplifications occur.

  17. Cosmological viability of theories with massive spin-2 fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koennig, Frank

    2017-03-30

    Theories of spin-2 fields take on a particular role in modern physics. They do not only describe the mediation of gravity, the only theory of fundamental interactions of which no quantum field theoretical description exists, it furthermore was thought that they necessarily predict massless gauge bosons. Just recently, a consistent theory of a massive graviton was constructed and, subsequently, generalized to a bimetric theory of two interacting spin-2 fields. This thesis studies both the viability and consequences at cosmological scales in massive gravity as well as bimetric theories. We show that all consistent models that are free of gradient and ghost instabilities behave like the cosmological standard model, LCDM. In addition, we construct a new theory of massive gravity which is stable at both classical background and quantum level, even though it suffers from the Boulware-Deser ghost.

  18. The Role of Antisymmetric Exchange on the Quantum Interference between States of Different Spin Length in a dimeric Molecular Nanomagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Barco, Enrique

    2009-03-01

    We report direct evidence of quantum oscillations of the total spin length of a dimeric molecular nanomagnet through the observation of quantum interference associated with tunneling trajectories between states having different spin quantum numbers. As we outline, this is a consequence of the unique characteristics of a molecular Mn12 wheel which behaves as a (weak) ferromagnetic exchange-coupled molecular dimer: each half of the molecule acts as a single-molecule magnet (SMM), while the weak coupling between the two halves gives rise to an additional internal spin degree of freedom within the molecule, namely that its total spin may fluctuate. This extra degree of freedom accounts for several magnetization tunneling resonances that cannot be explained within the usual giant spin approximation. More importantly, the observation of quantum interference provides unambiguous evidence for the quantum mechanical superposition involving entangled states of both halves of the wheel. Magnetization results obtained in two other versions of this compound, in which the ligands have been modified, show that slight variations of the relative distance between the Mn ions determine whether the molecule behaves as a rigid magnetic unit of spin S = 7 or as two exchange-coupled halves of spin S = 7/2. We analyze the effect of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya antisymmetric exchange interaction in a molecule with a centre of inversion symmetry and propose a formal model to account for the observed broken degeneracy that preserves the molecular inversion symmetry.

  19. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  20. Nuclear spins in nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coish, W.A.; Baugh, J.

    2009-01-01

    We review recent theoretical and experimental advances toward understanding the effects of nuclear spins in confined nanostructures. These systems, which include quantum dots, defect centers, and molecular magnets, are particularly interesting for their importance in quantum information processing devices, which aim to coherently manipulate single electron spins with high precision. On one hand, interactions between confined electron spins and a nuclear-spin environment provide a decoherence source for the electron, and on the other, a strong effective magnetic field that can be used to execute local coherent rotations. A great deal of effort has been directed toward understanding the details of the relevant decoherence processes and to find new methods to manipulate the coupled electron-nuclear system. A sequence of spectacular new results have provided understanding of spin-bath decoherence, nuclear spin diffusion, and preparation of the nuclear state through dynamic polarization and more general manipulation of the nuclear-spin density matrix through ''state narrowing.'' These results demonstrate the richness of this physical system and promise many new mysteries for the future. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Belief propagation and replicas for inference and learning in a kinetic Ising model with hidden spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistin, C; Roudi, Y; Hertz, J; Tyrcha, J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm for inferring the state of hidden spins and reconstructing the connections in a synchronous kinetic Ising model, given the observed history. Focusing on the case in which the hidden spins are conditionally independent of each other given the state of observable spins, we show that calculating the likelihood of the data can be simplified by introducing a set of replicated auxiliary spins. Belief propagation (BP) and susceptibility propagation (SusP) can then be used to infer the states of hidden variables and to learn the couplings. We study the convergence and performance of this algorithm for networks with both Gaussian-distributed and binary bonds. We also study how the algorithm behaves as the fraction of hidden nodes and the amount of data are changed, showing that it outperforms the Thouless–Anderson–Palmer (TAP) equations for reconstructing the connections. (paper)

  2. Vectorial mapping of noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure of semiconducting FeSe surface with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Xiaole [Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen, Xianfeng [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L., E-mail: clgao@sjtu.edu.cn; Jia, Jin-Feng [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing (China); Luo, Weidong, E-mail: wdluo@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Natural Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing (China)

    2016-02-08

    Antiferromagnetic semiconductors gain increasing interest due to their possible application in spintronics. Using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy operating in a vector field, we mapped the noncollinear antiferromagnetic spin structure of a semiconducting hexagonal FeSe surface on the atomic scale. The surface possesses an in-plane compensated Néel structure which is further confirmed by first-principles calculations.

  3. Vectorial mapping of noncollinear antiferromagnetic structure of semiconducting FeSe surface with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, K. F.; Yang, Fang; Song, Y. R.; Zhang, Xiaole; Chen, Xianfeng; Liu, Canhua; Qian, Dong; Gao, C. L.; Jia, Jin-Feng; Luo, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic semiconductors gain increasing interest due to their possible application in spintronics. Using spin polarized scanning tunneling microscopy operating in a vector field, we mapped the noncollinear antiferromagnetic spin structure of a semiconducting hexagonal FeSe surface on the atomic scale. The surface possesses an in-plane compensated Néel structure which is further confirmed by first-principles calculations

  4. Topological-Sector Fluctuations and Curie-Law Crossover in Spin Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. C. Jaubert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At low temperatures, a spin ice enters a Coulomb phase—a state with algebraic correlations and topologically constrained spin configurations. We show how analytical and numerical approaches for model spin-ice systems reveal a crossover between two Curie laws. One of these laws characterizes the high-temperature paramagnetic regime, while the other, which we call the “spin-liquid Curie law,” characterizes the low-temperature Coulomb-phase regime, which provides implicit evidence that the topological sector fluctuates. We compare our theory with experiment for Ho_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7}, where this process leads to a nonstandard temperature evolution of the bulk susceptibility and the wave-vector-dependent magnetic susceptibility, as measured by neutron scattering. Theory and experiment agree for bulk quantities and at large scattering wave vectors, but differences at small wave vectors indicate that the classical spin-ice states are not equally populated at low temperatures. More generally, the crossover appears to be a generic property of the emergent gauge field for a classical spin liquid, and it sheds light on the experimental difficulty of measuring a precise Curie-Weiss temperature in frustrated materials. The susceptibility at finite wave vectors is shown to be a local probe of fluctuations among topological sectors on varying length scales.

  5. Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idrish Miah, M [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2008-09-15

    On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.

  6. Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Idrish Miah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.

  7. Spin drift and spin diffusion currents in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrish Miah, M

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a spin drift-diffusion model, we show how the spin current is composed and find that spin drift and spin diffusion contribute additively to the spin current, where the spin diffusion current decreases with electric field while the spin drift current increases, demonstrating that the extension of the spin diffusion length by a strong field does not result in a significant increase in spin current in semiconductors owing to the competing effect of the electric field on diffusion. We also find that there is a spin drift-diffusion crossover field for a process in which the drift and diffusion contribute equally to the spin current, which suggests a possible method of identifying whether the process for a given electric field is in the spin drift or spin diffusion regime. Spin drift-diffusion crossover fields for GaAs are calculated and are found to be quite small. We derive the relations between intrinsic spin diffusion length and the spin drift-diffusion crossover field of a semiconductor for different electron statistical regimes. The findings resulting from this investigation might be important for semiconductor spintronics.

  8. Quantifying Spin Hall Angles from Spin Pumping : Experiments and Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosendz, O.; Pearson, J.E.; Fradin, F.Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Bader, S.D.; Hoffmann, A.

    2010-01-01

    Spin Hall effects intermix spin and charge currents even in nonmagnetic materials and, therefore, ultimately may allow the use of spin transport without the need for ferromagnets. We show how spin Hall effects can be quantified by integrating Ni80Fe20|normal metal (N) bilayers into a coplanar

  9. Compound nucleus effects in spin-spin cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    By comparison with recent data, it is shown that spin-spin cross sections for low-energy neutrons may be dominated by a simple compound-elastic level-density effect, independent of spin-spin terms in the nucleon-nucleus optical-model potential. (Auth.)

  10. SPINning parallel systems software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlin, O.S.; Lusk, E.; McCune, W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our experiences in using Spin to verify parts of the Multi Purpose Daemon (MPD) parallel process management system. MPD is a distributed collection of processes connected by Unix network sockets. MPD is dynamic processes and connections among them are created and destroyed as MPD is initialized, runs user processes, recovers from faults, and terminates. This dynamic nature is easily expressible in the Spin/Promela framework but poses performance and scalability challenges. We present here the results of expressing some of the parallel algorithms of MPD and executing both simulation and verification runs with Spin

  11. Spins in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    McWeeny, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Originally delivered as a series of lectures, this volume systematically traces the evolution of the ""spin"" concept from its role in quantum mechanics to its assimilation into the field of chemistry. Author Roy McWeeny presents an in-depth illustration of the deductive methods of quantum theory and their application to spins in chemistry, following the path from the earliest concepts to the sophisticated physical methods employed in the investigation of molecular structure and properties. Starting with the origin and development of the spin concept, the text advances to an examination of sp

  12. NUCLEON SPIN: Enigma confirmed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In 1987 the European Muon Collaboration (EMC - June 1988, page 9) reported results from a polarized muon-proton scattering experiment at CERN which puzzled the particle and nuclear physics communities. Contrary to the prediction of the naive quark model, the EMC found that little of the proton spin seemed to be carried by the spins of the quarks. An extensive experimental programme was therefore immediately proposed at CERN, SLAC (Stanford) and DESY (Hamburg) to measure the spin structure function of the neutron and to repeat the proton measurement with improved accuracy

  13. High spin structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis explores deep inelastic scattering of a lepton beam from a polarized nuclear target with spin J=1. After reviewing the formation for spin-1/2, the structure functions for a spin-1 target are defined in terms of the helicity amplitudes for forward compton scattering. A version of the convolution model, which incorporates relativistic and binding energy corrections is used to calculate the structure functions of a neutron target. A simple parameterization of these structure functions is given in terms of a few neutron wave function parameters and the free nucleon structure functions. This allows for an easy comparison of structure functions calculated using different neutron models. (author)

  14. Spin Hall effect transistor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wunderlich, Joerg; Park, B.G.; Irvine, A.C.; Zarbo, Liviu; Rozkotová, E.; Němec, P.; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 330, č. 6012 (2010), s. 1801-1804 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : spin Hall effect * spintronics * spin transistor Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 31.364, year: 2010

  15. Spinning of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Wenkua; Zheng Han

    1989-01-01

    The effects of spinning process parameters including max. pass percentage reduction, spinning temperature, feed rate, lubricant and annealing technology on the quality of shaped components are summarized and discussed in the present paper. The above mentioned parameters are adopted in the process of spinning of barrel-shaped and specially shaped components of refractory metals and their alloys W, Mo, Nb, Zr, TZM molybdenum alloy, C-103, C-752 niobium alloy etc. The cause of leading to usual defects of spun products of refractory metals such as lamellar as 'scaling', crack, swelling, wrinkle, etc. have been analysed and the ways to eliminate the defects have been put forward. 8 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  16. Estimation of vector velocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  17. Production of lentiviral vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto-Wilhelm Merten

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vectors (LV have seen considerably increase in use as gene therapy vectors for the treatment of acquired and inherited diseases. This review presents the state of the art of the production of these vectors with particular emphasis on their large-scale production for clinical purposes. In contrast to oncoretroviral vectors, which are produced using stable producer cell lines, clinical-grade LV are in most of the cases produced by transient transfection of 293 or 293T cells grown in cell factories. However, more recent developments, also, tend to use hollow fiber reactor, suspension culture processes, and the implementation of stable producer cell lines. As is customary for the biotech industry, rather sophisticated downstream processing protocols have been established to remove any undesirable process-derived contaminant, such as plasmid or host cell DNA or host cell proteins. This review compares published large-scale production and purification processes of LV and presents their process performances. Furthermore, developments in the domain of stable cell lines and their way to the use of production vehicles of clinical material will be presented.

  18. Orthogonalisation of Vectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Gram-Schmidt process is one of the first things one learns in a course ... We might want to stay as close to the experimental data as possible when converting these vectors to orthonormal ones demanded by the model. The process of finding the closest or- thonormal .... is obtained by writing the matrix A = [aI, an], then.

  19. From vectors to mnesors

    OpenAIRE

    Champenois, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The mnesor theory is the adaptation of vectors to artificial intelligence. The scalar field is replaced by a lattice. Addition becomes idempotent and multiplication is interpreted as a selection operation. We also show that mnesors can be the foundation for a linear calculus.

  20. Calculus with vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Treiman, Jay S

    2014-01-01

    Calculus with Vectors grew out of a strong need for a beginning calculus textbook for undergraduates who intend to pursue careers in STEM. fields. The approach introduces vector-valued functions from the start, emphasizing the connections between one-variable and multi-variable calculus. The text includes early vectors and early transcendentals and includes a rigorous but informal approach to vectors. Examples and focused applications are well presented along with an abundance of motivating exercises. All three-dimensional graphs have rotatable versions included as extra source materials and may be freely downloaded and manipulated with Maple Player; a free Maple Player App is available for the iPad on iTunes. The approaches taken to topics such as the derivation of the derivatives of sine and cosine, the approach to limits, and the use of "tables" of integration have been modified from the standards seen in other textbooks in order to maximize the ease with which students may comprehend the material. Additio...

  1. On vector equilibrium problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [G] Giannessi F, Theorems of alternative, quadratic programs and complementarity problems, in: Variational Inequalities and Complementarity Problems (eds) R W Cottle, F Giannessi and J L Lions (New York: Wiley) (1980) pp. 151±186. [K1] Kazmi K R, Existence of solutions for vector optimization, Appl. Math. Lett. 9 (1996).

  2. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  3. Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2012-08-09

    Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin diffusion is considered theoretically. Combining ballistic tunneling across the barrier and diffusive transport in the electrodes, we solve the spin dynamics equation in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque, as well as a nonconventional thickness dependence of both spin torque components.

  4. Electron spin and nuclear spin manipulation in semiconductor nanosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Yoshiro; Yusa, Go; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Manipulations of electron spin and nuclear spin have been studied in AlGaAs/GaAs semiconductor nanosystems. Non-local manipulation of electron spins has been realized by using the correlation effect between localized and mobile electron spins in a quantum dot- quantum wire coupled system. Interaction between electron and nuclear spins was exploited to achieve a coherent control of nuclear spins in a semiconductor point contact device. Using this device, we have demonstrated a fully coherent manipulation of any two states among the four spin levels of Ga and As nuclei. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Spin-polarized neutron matter at different orders of chiral effective field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Sammarruca, F.; Machleidt, R.; Kaiser, N.

    2015-01-01

    Spin-polarized neutron matter is studied using chiral two- and three-body forces. We focus, in particular, on predictions of the energy per particle in ferromagnetic neutron matter at different orders of chiral effective field theory and for different choices of the resolution scale. We discuss the convergence pattern of the predictions and their cutoff dependence. We explore to which extent fully polarized neutron matter behaves (nearly) like a free Fermi gas. We also consider the more gener...

  6. Tetherless near-infrared control of brain activity in behaving animals using fully implantable upconversion microdevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Lin, Xudong; Chen, Xi; Chen, Xian; Xu, Zhen; Zhang, Wenchong; Liao, Qinghai; Duan, Xin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ming; Wang, Feng; He, Jufang; Shi, Peng

    2017-10-01

    Many nanomaterials can be used as sensors or transducers in biomedical research and they form the essential components of transformative novel biotechnologies. In this study, we present an all-optical method for tetherless remote control of neural activity using fully implantable micro-devices based on upconversion technology. Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) were used as transducers to convert near-infrared (NIR) energy to visible light in order to stimulate neurons expressing different opsin proteins. In our setup, UCNPs were packaged in a glass micro-optrode to form an implantable device with superb long-term biocompatibility. We showed that remotely applied NIR illumination is able to reliably trigger spiking activity in rat brains. In combination with a robotic laser projection system, the upconversion-based tetherless neural stimulation technique was implemented to modulate brain activity in various regions, including the striatum, ventral tegmental area, and visual cortex. Using this system, we were able to achieve behavioral conditioning in freely moving animals. Notably, our microscale device was at least one order of magnitude smaller in size (∼100 μm in diameter) and two orders of magnitude lighter in weight (less than 1 mg) than existing wireless optogenetic devices based on light-emitting diodes. This feature allows simultaneous implantation of multiple UCNP-optrodes to achieve modulation of brain function to control complex animal behavior. We believe that this technology not only represents a novel practical application of upconversion nanomaterials, but also opens up new possibilities for remote control of neural activity in the brains of behaving animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Laying hens behave differently in artificially and naturally sourced ammoniated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, B B; Dos Santos, V M; Wood, D; Van Heyst, B; Harlander-Matauschek, A

    2017-12-01

    Laying hens are chronically exposed to high levels of ammonia (NH3), one of the most abundant aerial pollutants in poultry houses. Tests for aversion to NH3 in laying hens have used artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures (i.e., from a gas cylinder) showing that birds prefer fresh air to NH3. However, artificially sourced NH3/air mixtures may not accurately reflect barn air conditions, where manure emits a variety of gases. Herein, we investigated whether laying hens differentiate between artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures and how exposure to NH3 affects foraging and aversive behavior. A total of 20 laying hens was exposed to artificially sourced [A] (from an anhydrous NH3 cylinder) and naturally sourced [N] (from conspecific laying hen excreta) gas mixtures. Hens were exposed to A and N mixtures with NH3 concentrations of 25 and 45 ppm, as well as fresh air [FA]. During the experiment, all birds were exposed to each treatment 3 times using a custom-built polycarbonate chamber, containing a foraging area (containing raisins, mealworms, and feed mix) and a gas delivery system. All testing sessions were video recorded, analyzed with INTERACT® software, and subjected to a GLIMMIX procedure in SAS. Our results showed that the laying hens spent less time foraging overall (P hens were more likely to forage for a longer time (with fewer interruptions) in N than in A treatments (P hens also reacted with greater aversion towards treatment A compared to treatment N (P hens of our study preferred fresh to ammoniated air and that they behaved differently in artificially and naturally sourced NH3/air mixtures, possibly due to the presence of familiar stimuli from the excreta. These findings have implications for new developments in methodological approaches for behavioral testing and for recommendations regarding NH3 levels inside poultry barns. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Head-mounted LED for optogenetic experiments of freely-behaving animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ki Yong; Gnade, Andrew G.; Rush, Alexander D.; Patten, Craig D.

    2016-03-01

    Recent developments in optogenetics have demonstrated the ability to target specific types of neurons with sub-millisecond temporal precision via direct optical stimulation of genetically modified neurons in the brain. In most applications, the beam of a laser is coupled to an optical fiber, which guides and delivers the optical power to the region of interest. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are an alternative light source for optogenetics and they provide many advantages over a laser based system including cost, size, illumination stability, and fast modulation. Their compact size and low power consumption make LEDs suitable light sources for a wireless optogenetic stimulation system. However, the coupling efficiency of an LED's output light into an optical fiber is lower than a laser due to its noncollimated output light. In typical chronic optogenetic experiment, the output of the light source is transmitted to the brain through a patch cable and a fiber stub implant, and this configuration requires two fiber-to-fiber couplings. Attenuation within the patch cable is potential source of optical power loss. In this study, we report and characterize a recently developed light delivery method for freely-behaving animal experiments. We have developed a head-mounted light source that maximizes the coupling efficiency of an LED light source by eliminating the need for a fiber optic cable. This miniaturized LED is designed to couple directly to the fiber stub implant. Depending on the desired optical power output, the head-mounted LED can be controlled by either a tethered (high power) or battery-powered wireless (moderate power) controller. In the tethered system, the LED is controlled through 40 gauge micro coaxial cable which is thinner, more flexible, and more durable than a fiber optic cable. The battery-powered wireless system uses either infrared or radio frequency transmission to achieve real-time control. Optical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal

  9. Tkachenko modes as sources of quasiperiodic pulsar spin variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha, Jorge; Sedrakian, Armen

    2008-01-01

    We study the long wavelength shear modes (Tkachenko waves) of triangular lattices of singly quantized vortices in neutron star interiors taking into account the mutual friction between the superfluid and the normal fluid as well as the shear viscosity of the normal fluid. The set of Tkachenko modes that propagate in the plane orthogonal to the spin vector are weakly damped if the coupling between the superfluid and the normal fluid is small. In strong coupling, their oscillation frequencies are lower and are undamped for small and moderate shear viscosities. The periods of these modes are consistent with the observed ∼100-1000 day variations of spin for PSR 1828-11

  10. Prima facie evidence against spin-two Higgs impostors

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John; Sanz, Veronica; You, Tevong

    2013-01-01

    The new particle X recently discovered by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations is widely expected to have spin zero, but this remains to be determined. The leading alternative is that X has spin two, presumably with graviton-like couplings. We show that measurements of the X particle to pairs of vector bosons constrain such scenarios. In particular, a graviton-like Higgs impostor in scenarios with a warped extra dimension of AdS type is prima facie excluded, principally because they predict too s...

  11. The spin symmetry for deformed generalized Poeschl-Teller potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai

    2009-01-01

    In the case of spin symmetry we solve the Dirac equation with scalar and vector deformed generalized Poeschl-Teller (DGPT) potential and obtain exact energy equation and spinor wave functions for s-wave bound states. We find that there are only positive energy states for bound states in the case of spin symmetry based on the strong regularity restriction condition λ<-η for the wave functions. The energy eigenvalue approaches a constant when the potential parameter α goes to zero. Two special cases such as generalized PT potential and standard PT potential are also briefly discussed.

  12. When measured spin polarization is not spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowben, P A; Wu Ning; Binek, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Spin polarization is an unusually ambiguous scientific idiom and, as such, is rarely well defined. A given experimental methodology may allow one to quantify a spin polarization but only in its particular context. As one might expect, these ambiguities sometimes give rise to inappropriate interpretations when comparing the spin polarizations determined through different methods. The spin polarization of CrO 2 and Cr 2 O 3 illustrate some of the complications which hinders comparisons of spin polarization values. (viewpoint)

  13. Two-Photon Functional Imaging of the Auditory Cortex in Behaving Mice: From Neural Networks to Single Spines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijie Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In vivo two-photon Ca2+ imaging is a powerful tool for recording neuronal activities during perceptual tasks and has been increasingly applied to behaving animals for acute or chronic experiments. However, the auditory cortex is not easily accessible to imaging because of the abundant temporal muscles, arteries around the ears and their lateral locations. Here, we report a protocol for two-photon Ca2+ imaging in the auditory cortex of head-fixed behaving mice. By using a custom-made head fixation apparatus and a head-rotated fixation procedure, we achieved two-photon imaging and in combination with targeted cell-attached recordings of auditory cortical neurons in behaving mice. Using synthetic Ca2+ indicators, we recorded the Ca2+ transients at multiple scales, including neuronal populations, single neurons, dendrites and single spines, in auditory cortex during behavior. Furthermore, using genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs, we monitored the neuronal dynamics over days throughout the process of associative learning. Therefore, we achieved two-photon functional imaging at multiple scales in auditory cortex of behaving mice, which extends the tool box for investigating the neural basis of audition-related behaviors.

  14. Spin wave dynamics in Heisenberg ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic single-walled nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Bin-Zhou, E-mail: mbzfjerry2008@126.com [Department of Basic Curriculum, North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing 101601 (China); Department of Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The spin wave dynamics, including the magnetization, spin wave dispersion relation, and energy level splitting, of Heisenberg ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic single-walled nanotubes are systematically calculated by use of the double-time Green’s function method within the random phase approximation. The role of temperature, diameter of the tube, and wave vector on spin wave energy spectrum and energy level splitting are carefully analyzed. There are two categories of spin wave modes, which are quantized and degenerate, and the total number of independent magnon branches is dependent on diameter of the tube, caused by the physical symmetry of nanotubes. Moreover, the number of flat spin wave modes increases with diameter of the tube rising. The spin wave energy and the energy level splitting decrease with temperature rising, and become zero as temperature reaches the critical point. At any temperature, the energy level splitting varies with wave vector, and for a larger wave vector it is smaller. When pb=π, the boundary of first Brillouin zone, spin wave energies are degenerate, and the energy level splittings are zero.

  15. Algebra of Complex Vectors and Applications in Electromagnetic Theory and Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundeti Muralidhar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A complex vector is a sum of a vector and a bivector and forms a natural extension of a vector. The complex vectors have certain special geometric properties and considered as algebraic entities. These represent rotations along with specified orientation and direction in space. It has been shown that the association of complex vector with its conjugate generates complex vector space and the corresponding basis elements defined from the complex vector and its conjugate form a closed complex four dimensional linear space. The complexification process in complex vector space allows the generation of higher n-dimensional geometric algebra from (n — 1-dimensional algebra by considering the unit pseudoscalar identification with square root of minus one. The spacetime algebra can be generated from the geometric algebra by considering a vector equal to square root of plus one. The applications of complex vector algebra are discussed mainly in the electromagnetic theory and in the dynamics of an elementary particle with extended structure. Complex vector formalism simplifies the expressions and elucidates geometrical understanding of the basic concepts. The analysis shows that the existence of spin transforms a classical oscillator into a quantum oscillator. In conclusion the classical mechanics combined with zeropoint field leads to quantum mechanics.

  16. Spin-4 extended conformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakas, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    We construct spin-4 extended conformal algebras using the second hamiltonian structure of the KdV hierarchy. In the presence of a U(1) current a family of spin-4 algebras exists but the additional requirement that the spin-1 and spin-4 currents commute fixes the algebra uniquely. (orig.)

  17. Anisotropic spin relaxation in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tombros, N.; Tanabe, S.; Veligura, A.; Jozsa, C.; Popinciuc, M.; Jonkman, H. T.; van Wees, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    Spin relaxation in graphene is investigated in electrical graphene spin valve devices in the nonlocal geometry. Ferromagnetic electrodes with in-plane magnetizations inject spins parallel to the graphene layer. They are subject to Hanle spin precession under a magnetic field B applied perpendicular

  18. Spin squeezing and quantum correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 states. A coherent spin-s state. (CSS) θ φ can then be thought of as having no quantum correlations as the constituent. 2s elementary spins point in the same direction ˆn(θ φ) which is the mean spin direction. 2. State classification and squeezing. In order to discuss squeezing, we begin with the squeezing condition itself.

  19. Geometry of spin coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssomalakos, C.; Guzmán-González, E.; Serrano-Ensástiga, E.

    2018-04-01

    Spin states of maximal projection along some direction in space are called (spin) coherent, and are, in many respects, the ‘most classical’ available. For any spin s, the spin coherent states form a 2-sphere in the projective Hilbert space \

  20. Terwilliger and spin physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'FAllon, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The history of spin physics experiments is presented, with emphasis of Kent Terwilliger's involvement. Development of polarized beams and targets at the ZGS and AGS is recalled. P-P elastic scattering experiments are reviewed

  1. Transverse spin effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of the role that transverse spin physics can play in providing information on the bound state dynamics in hadronic physics. Care is taken to distinguish between single- and double-spin measurements, each being discussed separately. In the case of single-spin effects it is stressed that as yet no satisfactory explanation has been provided within the framework if perturbative QCD which in fact generally predicts negligible effects. In order to clarify the situation experimental data at yet higher p T are necessary and semi-leptonic data could shed some light on the underlying scattering mechanisms. As regards double-spin correlations, the theoretical picture (although clouded by some ill-informed, often erroneous statements and even recent papers) is rather well understood and what is dearly missing is the experimental study of, for example, g 2 in deep-inelastic scattering. (author). 31 refs

  2. Spin polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyde, H.R.; Hernadi, S.I.

    1986-01-01

    Several ground state properties of (electron) spin-polarized deuterium (D) such as the energy, single quasiparticle energies and lifetimes, Landau parameters and sound velocities are evaluated. The calculations begin with the Kolos-Wolneiwicz potential and use the Galitskii-FeynmanHartree-Fock (GFHF) approximation. The deuteron nucleas has spin I = 1, and spin states I/sub z/ = 1,0,-1. We explore D 1 , D 2 and D 3 in which, respectively, one spin state only is populated, two states are equally populated, and three states are equally populated. We find the GFHF describes D 1 well, but D 2 and D 3 less well. The Landau parameters, F/sub L/, are small compared to liquid 3 He and very small for doubly polarized D 1 (i.e. the F/sub L/ decrease with nuclear polarization)

  3. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris, E-mail: hammel@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  4. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems.

  5. Microscopic studies of nonlocal spin dynamics and spin transport (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Cardellino, Jeremy; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Wolfe, Christopher S.; Wang, Hailong; Herman, Michael; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the behavior of spins coupling across interfaces in the study of spin current generation and transport is a fundamental challenge that is important for spintronics applications. The transfer of spin angular momentum from a ferromagnet into an adjacent normal material as a consequence of the precession of the magnetization of the ferromagnet is a process known as spin pumping. We find that, in certain circumstances, the insertion of an intervening normal metal can enhance spin pumping between an excited ferromagnetic magnetization and a normal metal layer as a consequence of improved spin conductance matching. We have studied this using inverse spin Hall effect and enhanced damping measurements. Scanned probe magnetic resonance techniques are a complementary tool in this context offering high resolution magnetic resonance imaging, localized spin excitation, and direct measurement of spin lifetimes or damping. Localized magnetic resonance studies of size-dependent spin dynamics in the absence of lithographic confinement in both ferromagnets and paramagnets reveal the close relationship between spin transport and spin lifetime at microscopic length scales. Finally, detection of ferromagnetic resonance of a ferromagnetic film using the photoluminescence of nitrogen vacancy spins in neighboring nanodiamonds demonstrates long-range spin transport between insulating materials, indicating the complexity and generality of spin transport in diverse, spatially separated, material systems

  6. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24?48 hours after attending a spi...

  7. Higher Spins & Strings

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The conjectured relation between higher spin theories on anti de-Sitter (AdS) spaces and weakly coupled conformal field theories is reviewed. I shall then outline the evidence in favour of a concrete duality of this kind, relating a specific higher spin theory on AdS3 to a family of 2d minimal model CFTs. Finally, I shall explain how this relation fits into the framework of the familiar stringy AdS/CFT correspondence.

  8. Spin eigen-states of Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremko, Alexander, E-mail: eremko@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Sttr., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Brizhik, Larissa, E-mail: brizhik@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Sttr., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); Loktev, Vadim, E-mail: vloktev@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrologichna Sttr., 14-b, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine); National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Peremohy av., 37, Kyiv, 03056 (Ukraine)

    2015-10-15

    Dirac equation for electrons in a potential created by quantum well is solved and the three sets of the eigen-functions are obtained. In each set the wavefunction is at the same time the eigen-function of one of the three spin operators, which do not commute with each other, but do commute with the Dirac Hamiltonian. This means that the eigen-functions of Dirac equation describe three independent spin eigen-states. The energy spectrum of electrons confined by the rectangular quantum well is calculated for each of these spin states at the values of energies relevant for solid state physics. It is shown that the standard Rashba spin splitting takes place in one of such states only. In another one, 2D electron subbands remain spin degenerate, and for the third one the spin splitting is anisotropic for different directions of 2D wave vector.

  9. Entangled spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salberger, Olof; Korepin, Vladimir

    We introduce a new model of interacting spin 1/2. It describes interactions of three nearest neighbors. The Hamiltonian can be expressed in terms of Fredkin gates. The Fredkin gate (also known as the controlled swap gate) is a computational circuit suitable for reversible computing. Our construction generalizes the model presented by Peter Shor and Ramis Movassagh to half-integer spins. Our model can be solved by means of Catalan combinatorics in the form of random walks on the upper half plane of a square lattice (Dyck walks). Each Dyck path can be mapped on a wave function of spins. The ground state is an equally weighted superposition of Dyck walks (instead of Motzkin walks). We can also express it as a matrix product state. We further construct a model of interacting spins 3/2 and greater half-integer spins. The models with higher spins require coloring of Dyck walks. We construct a SU(k) symmetric model (where k is the number of colors). The leading term of the entanglement entropy is then proportional to the square root of the length of the lattice (like in the Shor-Movassagh model). The gap closes as a high power of the length of the lattice [5, 11].

  10. Linear spin-wave theory of incommensurably modulated magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziman, Timothy; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1986-01-01

    Calculations of linearized theories of spin dynamics encounter difficulties when applied to incommensurable magnetic phases: lack of translational invariance leads to an infinite coupled system of equations. The authors resolve this for the case of a `single-Q' structure by mapping onto the problem......: at higher frequency there appear bands of response sharply defined in frequency, but broad in momentum transfer; at low frequencies there is a response maximum at the q vector corresponding to the modulation vector. They discuss generalizations necessary for application to rare-earth magnets...

  11. Theory of spin Hall effect

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.

    2007-01-01

    An extension of Drude model is proposed that accounts for spin and spin-orbit interaction of charge carriers. Spin currents appear due to combined action of the external electric field, crystal field and scattering of charge carriers. The expression for spin Hall conductivity is derived for metals and semiconductors that is independent of the scattering mechanism. In cubic metals, spin Hall conductivity $\\sigma_s$ and charge conductivity $\\sigma_c$ are related through $\\sigma_s = [2 \\pi \\hbar...

  12. Vector grammars and PN machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋昌俊

    1996-01-01

    The concept of vector grammars under the string semantic is introduced.The dass of vector grammars is given,which is similar to the dass of Chomsky grammars.The regular vector grammar is divided further.The strong and weak relation between the vector grammar and scalar grammar is discussed,so the spectrum system graph of scalar and vector grammars is made.The equivalent relation between the regular vector grammar and Petri nets (also called PN machine) is pointed.The hybrid PN machine is introduced,and its language is proved equivalent to the language of the context-free vector grammar.So the perfect relation structure between vector grammars and PN machines is formed.

  13. The vector meson with anomalous magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarkin, O.M.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of introducing an anomalous magnetic moment into the Stuckelberg version of the charged vector meson theory is considered. It is shown that the interference of states with spins equal to one and zero is absent in the presence of an anomalous magnetic moment of a particle. The differential cross section of scattering on the Coulomb field of a nucleus is calculated, and so are the differential and integral cross sections of meson pair production on annihilation of two gamma quanta. The two-photon mechanism of production of a meson pair in colliding electron-positron beams is considered. It is shown that with any value of the anomalous magnetic moment the cross section of the esup(+)esup(-) → esup(+)esup(-)γsup(*)γsup(*) → esup(+)esup(-)Wsup(+)Wsup(-) reaction exceeds that of the esup(+)esup(-) → γsup(*) → Wsup(+)Wsup(-) at sufficiently high energies

  14. Spin-current emission governed by nonlinear spin dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Takaharu; Matsuura, Saki; Nomura, Akiyo; Watanabe, Shun; Kang, Keehoon; Sirringhaus, Henning; Ando, Kazuya

    2015-10-16

    Coupling between conduction electrons and localized magnetization is responsible for a variety of phenomena in spintronic devices. This coupling enables to generate spin currents from dynamical magnetization. Due to the nonlinearity of magnetization dynamics, the spin-current emission through the dynamical spin-exchange coupling offers a route for nonlinear generation of spin currents. Here, we demonstrate spin-current emission governed by nonlinear magnetization dynamics in a metal/magnetic insulator bilayer. The spin-current emission from the magnetic insulator is probed by the inverse spin Hall effect, which demonstrates nontrivial temperature and excitation power dependences of the voltage generation. The experimental results reveal that nonlinear magnetization dynamics and enhanced spin-current emission due to magnon scatterings are triggered by decreasing temperature. This result illustrates the crucial role of the nonlinear magnon interactions in the spin-current emission driven by dynamical magnetization, or nonequilibrium magnons, from magnetic insulators.

  15. Magnetic structure and spin dynamics of the quasi-one-dimensional spin-chain antiferromagnet BaCo2V2O8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawasaki, Yu; Gavilano, Jorge L.; Keller, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    ,0,1), independent of external magnetic fields for fields below a critical value H-c(T). The ordered moments of 2.18 mu(B) per Co ion are aligned along the crystallographic c axis. Within the screw chains, along the c axis, the moments are arranged antiferromagnetically. In the basal planes the spins are arranged......We report a neutron diffraction and muon spin relaxation mu SR study of static and dynamical magnetic properties of BaCo2V2O8, a quasi-one-dimensional spin-chain system. A proposed model for the antiferromagnetic structure includes: a propagation vector (k) over right arrow (AF) = (0...

  16. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    buoyant underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength...underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength; an...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating

  17. Reciprocity in Vector Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Green’s Theorem to the left hand side of Equation (3.2) converts it to a surface integral that vanishes for the impedance boundary conditions one...There are situations where this assumption does not hold, such as at boundaries between layers or in an inhomogeneous layer , because the density gradient...instead of requiring one model run for each source location. Application of the vector-scalar reciprocity principle is demonstrated with analytic

  18. Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian

    2016-06-19

    In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the field of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin filtering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin filtering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic films, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall effect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic films, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.

  19. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-06-29

    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  20. Tensor Calculus: Unlearning Vector Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wha-Suck; Engelbrecht, Johann; Moller, Rita

    2018-01-01

    Tensor calculus is critical in the study of the vector calculus of the surface of a body. Indeed, tensor calculus is a natural step-up for vector calculus. This paper presents some pitfalls of a traditional course in vector calculus in transitioning to tensor calculus. We show how a deeper emphasis on traditional topics such as the Jacobian can…

  1. Einstein-Dirac theory in spin maximum I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crumeyrolle, A.

    1975-01-01

    An unitary Einstein-Dirac theory, first in spin maximum 1, is constructed. An original feature of this article is that it is written without any tetrapod technics; basic notions and existence conditions for spinor structures on pseudo-Riemannian fibre bundles are only used. A coupling gravitation-electromagnetic field is pointed out, in the geometric setting of the tangent bundle over space-time. Generalized Maxwell equations for inductive media in presence of gravitational field are obtained. Enlarged Einstein-Schroedinger theory, gives a particular case of this E.D. theory. E. S. theory is a truncated E.D. theory in spin maximum 1. A close relation between torsion-vector and Schroedinger's potential exists and nullity of torsion-vector has a spinor meaning. Finally the Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer theory is incorporated in this geometric setting [fr

  2. What is the phase variable in superconductors ?: theory of superconductivity based on the spin-vortex formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Hiroyasu

    2013-01-01

    When Schrödinger solved the Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom, he assumed the single-valuedness of the electronic wave function. Thereafter, this assumption has been one of the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics. When wave functions are multi-component, however, the imposing of the single-valued condition may become nontrivial. The spin-degree-of-freedom of electron makes electronic wave functions two-component. When spin-vortices are created by the conduction electrons and they move in the self-consistent field with the spin-vortices, the twisting of the spin basis occurs; then, the imposing of the single-valued condition becomes nontrivial, and a vector potential is induced. As a consequence, the effective vector potential becomes the sum of the vector potential from the induced one and that originates from the electric current. This effective vector potential is gauge invariant and the persistent current is generated by it. In the present work, we argue that if interactions that are omitted in the BCS reduced Hamiltonian are included, spin-vortices may be generated upon the application of a magnetic field. Then, the vector potential is induced and provides with the phase variable, θ, of the electron pair amplitude. The appearance of the spin-vortex provides with a new origin of θ; it originates from the induced gauge potential. This origin is compatible with the superselection rule for charge in contrast to the currently-accepted origin.

  3. Optical spin generation/detection and spin transport lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2011-01-01

    We generate electron spins in semiconductors by optical pumping. The detection of them is also performed by optical technique using time-resolved pump-probe photoluminescence polarization measurements in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the generated spin. The spin polarization in dependences of the pulse length, pump-probe delay and external magnetic field is studied. From the dependence of spin-polarization on the delay of the probe, the electronic spin transport lifetimes and the spin relaxation frequencies as a function of the strength of the magnetic field are estimated. The results are discussed based on hyperfine effects for interacting electrons.

  4. Optical spin generation/detection and spin transport lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2011-02-25

    We generate electron spins in semiconductors by optical pumping. The detection of them is also performed by optical technique using time-resolved pump-probe photoluminescence polarization measurements in the presence of an external magnetic field perpendicular to the generated spin. The spin polarization in dependences of the pulse length, pump-probe delay and external magnetic field is studied. From the dependence of spin-polarization on the delay of the probe, the electronic spin transport lifetimes and the spin relaxation frequencies as a function of the strength of the magnetic field are estimated. The results are discussed based on hyperfine effects for interacting electrons.

  5. Magnetocaloric effect in quantum spin-s chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Honecker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We compute the entropy of antiferromagnetic quantum spin-s chains in an external magnetic field using exact diagonalization and Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The magnetocaloric effect, i. e., temperature variations during adiabatic field changes, can be derived from the isentropes. First, we focus on the example of the spin-s=1 chain and show that one can cool by closing the Haldane gap with a magnetic field. We then move to quantum spin-s chains and demonstrate linear scaling with s close to the saturation field. In passing, we propose a new method to compute many low-lying excited states using the Lanczos recursion.

  6. Rotational Invariance of the 2d Spin - Spin Correlation Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Haru

    2012-09-01

    At the critical temperature in the 2d Ising model on the square lattice, we establish the rotational invariance of the spin-spin correlation function using the asymptotics of the spin-spin correlation function along special directions (McCoy and Wu in the two dimensional Ising model. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1973) and the finite difference Hirota equation for which the spin-spin correlation function is shown to satisfy (Perk in Phys Lett A 79:3-5, 1980; Perk in Proceedings of III international symposium on selected topics in statistical mechanics, Dubna, August 22-26, 1984, JINR, vol II, pp 138-151, 1985).

  7. Material Targets for Scaling All-Spin Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Young, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    All-spin-logic devices are promising candidates to augment and complement beyond-CMOS integrated circuit computing due to nonvolatility, ultralow operating voltages, higher logical efficiency, and high density integration. However, the path to reach lower energy-delay product performance compared to CMOS transistors currently is not clear. We show that scaling and engineering the nanoscale magnetic materials and interfaces is the key to realizing spin-logic devices that can surpass the energy-delay performance of CMOS transistors. With validated stochastic nanomagnetic and vector spin-transport numerical models, we derive the target material and interface properties for the nanomagnets and channels. We identify promising directions for material engineering and discovery focusing on the systematic scaling of magnetic anisotropy (Hk ) and saturation magnetization (Ms ), the use of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and the interface spin-mixing conductance of the ferromagnet-spin-channel interface (Gmix ). We provide systematic targets for scaling a spin-logic energy-delay product toward 2 aJ ns, comprehending the stochastic noise for nanomagnets.

  8. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  9. Hierarchal scalar and vector tetrahedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.P.; Forghani, B.

    1993-01-01

    A new set of scalar and vector tetrahedral finite elements are presented. The elements are hierarchal, allowing mixing of polynomial orders; scalar orders up to 3 and vector orders up to 2 are defined. The vector elements impose tangential continuity on the field but not normal continuity, making them suitable for representing the vector electric or magnetic field. Further, the scalar and vector elements are such that they can easily be used in the same mesh, a requirement of many quasi-static formulations. Results are presented for two 50 Hz problems: the Bath Cube, and TEAM Problem 7

  10. Leishmaniasis vector behaviour in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutinga, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Leishmaniasis in Kenya exists in two forms: cutaneous and visceral. The vectors of visceral leishmaniasis have been the subject of investigation by various researchers since World War II, when the outbreak of the disease was first noticed. The vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis were first worked on only a decade ago after the discovery of the disease focus in Mt. Elgon. The vector behaviour of these diseases, namely Phlebotomus pedifer, the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Phlebotomus martini, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis, are discussed in detail. P. pedifer has been found to breed and bite inside caves, whereas P. martini mainly bites inside houses. (author)

  11. Spin and intrinsic angular momentum; application to the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillere, P.

    1993-05-01

    Within the framework of the field theory governed by a Lagrangian, function of the tensor quantities and their covariant first derivatives, and starting with the third order intrinsic angular momentum tensor obtained from a variational principle, the intrinsic angular momentum vector of the electromagnetic field in vacuum is determined. This expression leads to spin matrices for the electromagnetic field, with unity as eigenvalue, thus allowing to bridge the gap between continuous physics and quantum physics. 6 refs

  12. Overview of spin physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokosawa, A.

    1992-01-01

    Spin physics activities at medium and high energies became significantly active when polarized targets and polarized beams became accessible for hadron-hadron scattering experiments. My overview of spin physics will be inclined to the study of strong interaction using facilities at Argonne ZGS, Brookhaven AGS (including RHIC), CERN, Fermilab, LAMPF, an SATURNE. In 1960 accelerator physicists had already been convinced that the ZGS could be unique in accelerating a polarized beam; polarized beams were being accelerated through linear accelerators elsewhere at that time. However, there was much concern about going ahead with the construction of a polarized beam because (i) the source intensity was not high enough to accelerate in the accelerator, (ii) the use of the accelerator would be limited to only polarized-beam physics, that is, proton-proton interaction, and (iii) p-p elastic scattering was not the most popular topic in high-energy physics. In fact, within spin physics, π-nucleon physics looked attractive, since the determination of spin and parity of possible πp resonances attracted much attention. To proceed we needed more data beside total cross sections and elastic differential cross sections; measurements of polarization and other parameters were urgently needed. Polarization measurements had traditionally been performed by analyzing the spin of recoil protons. The drawbacks of this technique are: (i) it involves double scattering, resulting in poor accuracy of the data, and (ii) a carbon analyzer can only be used for a limited region of energy

  13. Noise in tunneling spin current across coupled quantum spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftergood, Joshua; Takei, So

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically study the spin current and its dc noise generated between two spin-1 /2 spin chains weakly coupled at a single site in the presence of an over-population of spin excitations and a temperature elevation in one subsystem relative to the other, and we compare the corresponding transport quantities across two weakly coupled magnetic insulators hosting magnons. In the spin chain scenario, we find that applying a temperature bias exclusively leads to a vanishing spin current and a concomitant divergence in the spin Fano factor, defined as the spin current noise-to-signal ratio. This divergence is shown to have an exact analogy to the physics of electron scattering between fractional quantum Hall edge states and not to arise in the magnon scenario. We also reveal a suppression in the spin current noise that exclusively arises in the spin chain scenario due to the fermion nature of the spin-1/2 operators. We discuss how the spin Fano factor may be extracted experimentally via the inverse spin Hall effect used extensively in spintronics.

  14. Non-relativistic spinning particle in a Newton-Cartan background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, Andrea; Casalbuoni, Roberto; Gomis, Joaquim

    2018-01-01

    We construct the action of a non-relativistic spinning particle moving in a general torsionless Newton-Cartan background. The particle does not follow the geodesic equations, instead the motion is governed by the non-relativistic analog of Papapetrou equation. The spinning particle is described in terms of Grassmann variables. In the flat case the action is invariant under the non-relativistic analog of space-time vector supersymmetry.

  15. Spin Relaxation in III-V Semiconductors in various systems: Contribution of Electron-Electron Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Fatih; Kesserwan, Hasan; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-03-01

    In spintronics, most of the phenomena that we are interested happen at very fast time scales and are rich in structure in time domain. Our understanding, on the other hand, is mostly based on energy domain calculations. Many of the theoretical tools use approximations and simplifications that can be perceived as oversimplifications. We compare the structure, material, carrier density and temperature dependence of spin relaxation time in n-doped III-V semiconductors using Elliot-Yafet (EY) and D'yakanov-Perel'(DP) with real time analysis using kinetic spin Bloch equations (KSBE). The EY and DP theories fail to capture details as the system investigated is varied. KSBE, on the other hand, incorporates all relaxation sources as well as electron-electron interaction which modifies the spin relaxation time in a non-linear way. Since el-el interaction is very fast (~ fs) and spin-conserving, it is usually ignored in the analysis of spin relaxation. Our results indicate that electron-electron interaction cannot be neglected and its interplay with the other (spin and momentum) relaxation mechanisms (electron-impurity and electron-phonon scattering) dramatically alters the resulting spin dynamics. We use each interaction explicitly to investigate how, in the presence of others, each relaxation source behaves. We use GaAs and GaN for zinc-blend structure, and GaN and AlN for the wurtzite structure.

  16. Leading order finite size effects with spins for inspiralling compact binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, Michele [Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris VI, CNRS-UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Steinhoff, Jan [Max-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics - Albert-Einstein-Institute,Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa,Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-06-10

    The leading order finite size effects due to spin, namely that of the cubic and quartic in spin interactions, are derived for the first time for generic compact binaries via the effective field theory for gravitating spinning objects. These corrections enter at the third and a half and fourth post-Newtonian orders, respectively, for rapidly rotating compact objects. Hence, we complete the leading order finite size effects with spin up to the fourth post-Newtonian accuracy. We arrive at this by augmenting the point particle effective action with new higher dimensional nonminimal coupling worldline operators, involving higher-order derivatives of the gravitational field, and introducing new Wilson coefficients, corresponding to constants, which describe the octupole and hexadecapole deformations of the object due to spin. These Wilson coefficients are fixed to unity in the black hole case. The nonminimal coupling worldline operators enter the action with the electric and magnetic components of the Weyl tensor of even and odd parity, coupled to even and odd worldline spin tensors, respectively. Moreover, the non relativistic gravitational field decomposition, which we employ, demonstrates a coupling hierarchy of the gravito-magnetic vector and the Newtonian scalar, to the odd and even in spin operators, respectively, which extends that of minimal coupling. This observation is useful for the construction of the Feynman diagrams, and provides an instructive analogy between the leading order spin-orbit and cubic in spin interactions, and between the leading order quadratic and quartic in spin interactions.

  17. Experimental evidence for a vector-like behaviour of Pomeron exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Barberis, D.; Close, F.E.; Danielsen, K.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Earl, B.C.; Evans, D.; French, B.R.; Hino, T.; Inaba, S.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Khaustov, G.V.; Kinson, J.B.; Kirk, A.; Kondashov, A.A.; Lednev, A.A.; Lenti, V.; Minashvili, I.; Peigneux, J.P.; Romanovsky, V.; Russakovich, N.; Semenov, A.; Shagin, P.M.; Shimizu, H.; Singovsky, A.V.; Sobol, A.; Stassinaki, M.; Stroot, J.P.; Takamatsu, K.; Tsuru, T.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Votruba, M.F.; Yasu, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence is presented that the Pomeron act as a non-conserved vector current. A study has been made of the azimuthal angle phi, which is defined as the angle between the pT vectors of the two outgoing protons, in the reaction pp -> pp(X0) for those resonances (X0) which are compatible with being produced by double Pomeron exchange. These distributions have been compared with a model which describes the Pomeron as a non-conserved vector current and a qualitative agreement is found. In addition, when one of the particles exchanged is known to have spin 0, namely pi-Pomeron exchange, the phi distribution is flat.

  18. Helicity in proton–proton elastic scattering and the spin structure of the pomeron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ewerz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss different models for the spin structure of the nonperturbative pomeron: scalar, vector, and rank-2 symmetric tensor. The ratio of single-helicity-flip to helicity-conserving amplitudes in polarised high-energy proton–proton elastic scattering, known as the complex r5 parameter, is calculated for these models. We compare our results to experimental data from the STAR experiment. We show that the spin-0 (scalar pomeron model is clearly excluded by the data, while the vector pomeron is inconsistent with the rules of quantum field theory. The tensor pomeron is found to be perfectly consistent with the STAR data.

  19. Spin Structures in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Brok, Erik; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2013-01-01

    Spin structures in nanoparticles of ferrimagnetic materials may deviate locally in a nontrivial way from ideal collinear spin structures. For instance, magnetic frustration due to the reduced numbers of magnetic neighbors at the particle surface or around defects in the interior can lead to spin...... canting and hence a reduced magnetization. Moreover, relaxation between almost degenerate canted spin states can lead to anomalous temperature dependences of the magnetization at low temperatures. In ensembles of nanoparticles, interparticle exchange interactions can also result in spin reorientation....... Here, we give a short review of anomalous spin structures in nanoparticles....

  20. A canonical eight-dimensional formalism for linear and non-linear classical spin-orbit motion in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.P.; Heinemann, K.; Ripken, G.

    1991-05-01

    In the following report we begin to reformulate work by Derbenev on the behaviour of coupled quantized spin-orbit motion. To this end we present a classical symplectic treatment of linear and non-linear spin-orbit motion for storage rings using a fully coupled eight-dimensional formalism which generalizes earlier investigations of coupled synchro-betatron oscillations by introducing two additional canonical spin variables which behave, in a small-angle limit, like those already used in linearised spin theory. Thus in addition to the usual x-z-s couplings, both the spin to orbit and orbit to spin coupling are described canonically. Since the spin Hamiltonian can be expanded in a Taylor series in canonical variables, the formalism is convenient for use in 8-dimensional symplectic tracking calculations with the help, for example, of Lie algebra or differential algebra for the study of chaotic spin motion, for construction of spin normal forms and for the study of the effect of Stern-Gerlach forces. (orig.)

  1. A novel vibrotactile system for stimulating the glabrous skin of awake freely behaving rats during operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devecioğlu, İsmail; Güçlü, Burak

    2015-03-15

    Rat skin is innervated by mechanoreceptive fibers similar to those in other mammals. Tactile experiments with behaving rats mostly focus on the vibrissal system which does not exist in humans. The aim of this study was to design and implement a novel vibrotactile system to stimulate the glabrous skin of behaving rats during operant conditioning. A computer-controlled vibrotactile system was developed for various tasks in which the volar surface of unrestrained rats' fore- and hindpaws was stimulated in an operant chamber. The operant chamber was built from off-the-shelf components. A highly accurate electrodynamic shaker with a novel multi-probe design was used for generating mechanical displacements. Twenty-five rats were trained for four sequential tasks: (A) middle-lever (trial start signal) press, (B) side-lever press with an associated visual cue, (C) similar to (B) with the addition of an auditory/tactile stimulus, (D) auditory/tactile detection (yes/no) task. Out of 9 rats which could complete the tactile version of this training schedule, 5 had over 70% accuracy in the tactile version of the detection task. Unlike actuators for stimulating whiskers, this system does not require a particular head/body alignment and can be used with freely behaving animals. The vibrotactile system was found to be effective for conditioning freely behaving rats based on stimuli applied on the glabrous skin. However, detection accuracies were lower compared to those in tasks involving whisker stimulation reported previously, probably due to differences in cortical processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. SPIN-selling

    CERN Document Server

    Rackham, Neil

    1995-01-01

    True or false? In selling high-value products or services: "closing" increases your chance of success; it is essential to describe the benefits of your product or service to the customer; objection handling is an important skill; and open questions are more effective than closed questions. All false, says Neil Rackham. He and his team studied more than 35,000 sales calls made by 10,000 sales people in 23 countries over 12 years. Their findings revealed that many of the methods developed for selling low-value goods just don't work for major sales. Rackham went on to introduce his SPIN-selling method, where SPIN describes the whole selling process - Situation questions, Problem questions, Implication questions, Need-payoff questions. SPIN-selling provides you with a set of simple and practical techniques which have been tried in many of today's leading companies with dramatic improvements to their sales performance.

  3. Perspectives on spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Contucci, Pierluigi

    2013-01-01

    Presenting and developing the theory of spin glasses as a prototype for complex systems, this book is a rigorous and up-to-date introduction to their properties. The book combines a mathematical description with a physical insight of spin glass models. Topics covered include the physical origins of those models and their treatment with replica theory; mathematical properties like correlation inequalities and their use in the thermodynamic limit theory; main exact solutions of the mean field models and their probabilistic structures; and the theory of the structural properties of the spin glass phase such as stochastic stability and the overlap identities. Finally, a detailed account is given of the recent numerical simulation results and properties, including overlap equivalence, ultrametricity and decay of correlations. The book is ideal for mathematical physicists and probabilists working in disordered systems.

  4. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis after Spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Youjin; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung; Oh, Eun-Jung; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung

    2016-11-01

    Any strenuous muscular exercise may trigger rhabdomyolysis. We report an episode of clinically manifested exertional rhabdomyolysis due to stationary cycling, commonly known as spinning. Reports of spinning-related rhabdomyolysis are rare in the English literature, and the current case appears to be the first such case reported in South Korea. A previously healthy 21-year-old Asian woman presented with severe thigh pain and reddish-brown urinary discoloration 24-48 hours after attending a spinning class at a local gymnasium. Paired with key laboratory findings, her symptoms were suggestive of rhabdomyolysis. She required hospital admission to sustain renal function through fluid resuscitation therapy and fluid balance monitoring. Because exertional rhabdomyolysis may occur in any unfit but otherwise healthy individual who indulges in stationary cycling, the potential health risks of this activity must be considered.

  5. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden

    1975-01-01

    The selection rules for the linear couplings between magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of a simple basal-plane hcp ferromagnet are determined by general symmetry considerations. The acoustic-optical magnon-phonon interactions observed in the heavy-rare-earth metals have been...... explained by Liu as originating from the mixing of the spin states of the conduction electrons due to the spin-orbit coupling. We find that this coupling mechanism introduces interactions which violate the selection rules for a simple ferromagnet. The interactions between the magnons and phonons propagating...... in the c direction of Tb have been studied experimentally by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The magnons are coupled to both the acoustic- and optical-transverse phonons. By studying the behavior of the acoustic-optical coupling, we conclude that it is a spin-mixed-induced coupling as proposed...

  6. Detecting Magnetic Monopoles in Spin Ice with NV-magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Felix; Kirschner, Franziska; Yao, Norman; Blundell, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic monopoles, isolated north and south poles, appear not to exist as fundamental particles in our universe. Nevertheless, it has been proposed that they may emerge as quasiparticles in certain materials: the geometrically-frustrated `spin ice' pyrochlores dysprosium and holmium titanate. Despite a great deal of experimental and theoretical work, the smoking gun signature of magnetic monopoles in spin ice remains to be discovered. A promising candidate for the detection of individual magnetic monopoles comes in the form of Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defects in diamond, which act as very sensitive probes of vector magnetic fields on the nanometre scale. We present the result of Monte Carlo modeling for the precise signals one would expect to see with nanometre-scale probes such as NV-magnetometers or muon spin rotation.

  7. Spin Physics at COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment is a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS using muon and hadron beams for the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon and hadron spectroscopy. The main objective of the muon physics program is the study of the spin of the nucleon in terms of its constituents, quarks and gluons. COMPASS has accumulated data during 6 years scattering polarized muons off longitudinally or transversely polarized deuteron ( 6 LiD) or proton (NH 3 ) targets. Results for the gluon polarization are obtained from longitudinal double spin cross section asymmetries using two different channels, open charm production and high transverse momentum hadron pairs, both proceeding through the photon-gluon fusion process. Also, the longitudinal spin structure functions of the proton and the deuteron were measured in parallel as well as the helicity distributions for the three lightest quark flavours. With a transversely polarized target, results were obtained with proton and deuteron targets for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons as well as for identified kaons and pions. The Collins asymmetry is sensitive to the transverse spin structure of the nucleon, while the Sivers asymmetry reflects correlations between the quark transverse momentum and the nucleon spin. Recently, a new proposal for the COMPASS II experiment was accepted by the CERN SPS which includes two new topics: Exclusive reactions like DVCS and DVMP using the muon beam and a hydrogen target to study generalized parton distributions and Drell-Yan measurements using a pion beam and a polarized NH 3 target to study transverse momentum dependent distributions.

  8. Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Bao

    2011-03-01

    Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath

  9. Vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    After a request from the Europea n Commission, EFSA’s Panel on Animal Health and Welfaresummarised the main characteristics of 36 vector-borne disease s (VBDs) in 36 web-based storymaps.The risk of introduction in the EU through movement of livestock or pets was assessed for eac h of the36 VBDs......-agents for which the rate of introduction wasestimated to be very low, no further asse ssments were made. Due to the uncertainty related to someparameters used for the risk assessment or the instable or unpredictability disease situation in some ofthe source regions, it is recommended to update the assessment when...

  10. Scalar and vector Galileons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez, Yeinzon; Navarro, Andrés A.

    2017-01-01

    An alternative for the construction of fundamental theories is the introduction of Galileons. These are fields whose action leads to non higher than second-order equations of motion. As this is a necessary but not sufficient condition to make the Hamiltonian bounded from below, as long as the action is not degenerate, the Galileon construction is a way to avoid pathologies both at the classical and quantum levels. Galileon actions are, therefore, of great interest in many branches of physics, specially in high energy physics and cosmology. This proceedings contribution presents the generalities of the construction of both scalar and vector Galileons following two different but complimentary routes. (paper)

  11. Vectors to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Vector Pipeline project linking the Chicago supply hub to markets in eastern Canada, the northeastern U.S. and the Mid-Atlantic states, is described. Subsidiary objectives of the promoters are to match market timing to upstream pipelines and market requirements, and to provide low cost expandability to complement upstream expandability. The presentation includes description of the project, costs, leased facilities, rates and tariffs, right of way considerations, storage facilities and a project schedule. Construction is to begin in March 1999 and the line should be in service in November 1999

  12. Spin Physics at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    The physics goals that will be addressed by colliding polarized protons at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are described. The RHIC spin program provides a new generation of experiments that will unfold the quark, anti-quark and gluon contributions to the proton's spin. In addition to these longer term goals, this paper describes what was learned from the first polarized proton collisions at √(s)=200 GeV. These collisions took place in a five-week run during the second year of RHIC operation

  13. CONFERENCE: Muon spin rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Erik

    1986-11-15

    An international physics conference centred on muons without a word about leptons, weak interactions, EMC effects, exotic decay modes or any other standard high energy physics jargon. Could such a thing even have been imagined ten years ago? Yet about 120 physicists and chemists from 16 nations gathered at the end of June in Uppsala (Sweden) for their fourth meeting on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance, without worrying about the muon as an elementary particle. This reflects how the experimental techniques based on the muon spin interactions have reached maturity and are widely recognized by condensed matter physicists and specialized chemists as useful tools.

  14. Spin Waves in Terbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Houmann, Jens Christian Gylden; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1975-01-01

    with the symmetry, we deduce the dispersion relation for the spin waves in a basal-plane ferromagnet. This phenomenological spin-wave theory accounts for the observed behavior of the magnon energies in Tb. The two q⃗-dependent Bogoliubov components of the magnon energies are derived from the experimental results......, which are corrected for the effect of the direct coupling between the magnons and the phonons, and for the field dependence of the relative magnetization at finite temperatures. A large q⃗-dependent difference between the two energy components is observed, showing that the anisotropy of the two...

  15. Spin puzzle in nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, R.

    1994-09-01

    The object of this brief review is to reconcile different points of view on how the spin of proton is made up from its constituents. On the basis of naive quark model with flavour symmetry such as isospin or SU(3) one finds a static description. On the contrary the local SU(3) colour symmetry gives a dynamical view. Both these views are contrasted and the role of U(1) axial anomaly and the ambiguity for the measurable spin content is discussed. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig

  16. Flavor-singlet axial-vector current in quark model within background field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kun; Yan Mulin

    1993-01-01

    The flavor-singlet axial-vector current is calculated in a quark model within pseudoscalar background-field through the Seeley-DeWitt coefficients. This current is responsible for the quark spin content of proton and is of O(1) in the large-N e expansion

  17. Robust and Efficient Spin Purification for Determinantal Configuration Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fales, B Scott; Hohenstein, Edward G; Levine, Benjamin G

    2017-09-12

    The limited precision of floating point arithmetic can lead to the qualitative and even catastrophic failure of quantum chemical algorithms, especially when high accuracy solutions are sought. For example, numerical errors accumulated while solving for determinantal configuration interaction wave functions via Davidson diagonalization may lead to spin contamination in the trial subspace. This spin contamination may cause the procedure to converge to roots with undesired ⟨Ŝ 2 ⟩, wasting computer time in the best case and leading to incorrect conclusions in the worst. In hopes of finding a suitable remedy, we investigate five purification schemes for ensuring that the eigenvectors have the desired ⟨Ŝ 2 ⟩. These schemes are based on projection, penalty, and iterative approaches. All of these schemes rely on a direct, graphics processing unit-accelerated algorithm for calculating the S 2 c matrix-vector product. We assess the computational cost and convergence behavior of these methods by application to several benchmark systems and find that the first-order spin penalty method is the optimal choice, though first-order and Löwdin projection approaches also provide fast convergence to the desired spin state. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of these approaches, we computed the lowest several excited states of an open-shell silver cluster (Ag 19 ) using the state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field method, where spin purification was required to ensure spin stability of the CI vector coefficients. Several low-lying states with significant multiply excited character are predicted, suggesting the value of a multireference approach for modeling plasmonic nanomaterials.

  18. Spin O decay angular distribution for interfering mesons in electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H.; Gilfoyle, G.

    1994-04-01

    Self analyzing meson electroproduction experiments are currently being planned for the CEBAF CLAS detector. These experiments deduce the spin polarization of outgoing unstable spin s (?)0 mesons from their decay angular distribution, W({theta},{psi}). The large angular acceptance of the CLAS detector permits kinematic tracking of a sufficient number of these events to accurately determine electroproduction amplitudes from the deduced polarization. Maximum polarization information is obtained from W({theta},{psi}) for decay into spin 0 daughters. The helicity of the decaying meson is transferred to the daughter`s relative orbital angular momentum m-projection; none is {open_quotes}absorbed{close_quotes} into daughter helicities. The decaying meson`s helicity maximally appears in W({theta},{psi}). W({theta},{psi}) for spin 0 daughters has been derived for (1) vector meson electroproduction and (2) general interfering mesons produced by incident pions. This paper derives W({theta},{psi}) for electroproduction of two interfering mesons that decay into spin 0 daughters. An application is made to the case of interfering scalar and vector mesons. The derivation is an extension of work by Schil using the general decay formalism of Martin. The expressions can be easily extended to the case of N interfering mesons since interference occurs pairwise in the observable W ({theta},{psi}), a quadratic function of the meson amplitudes. The derivation uses the virtual photon density matrix of Schil which is transformed by a meson electroproduction transition operator, T. The resulting density matrix for the interfering mesons is then converted into a corresponding statistical tensor and contracted into the efficiency tensor for spin 0 daughters.

  19. Hawking radiation of spin-1 particles from a three-dimensional rotating hairy black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakalli, I.; Ovgun, A., E-mail: ali.ovgun@emu.edu.tr [Eastern Mediterranean University Famagusta, North Cyprus, Department of Physics (Turkey)

    2015-09-15

    We study the Hawking radiation of spin-1 particles (so-called vector particles) from a three-dimensional rotating black hole with scalar hair using a Hamilton–Jacobi ansatz. Using the Proca equation in the WKB approximation, we obtain the tunneling spectrum of vector particles. We recover the standard Hawking temperature corresponding to the emission of these particles from a rotating black hole with scalar hair.

  20. Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien; Matsumoto, R.; Jaffres, H.; Grollier, J.

    2012-01-01

    in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque

  1. Vector-vector production in photon-photon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of exclusive untagged /rho/ 0 /rho/ 0 , /rho//phi/, K/sup *//bar K//sup */, and /rho/ω production and tagged /rho/ 0 /rho/ 0 production in photon-photon interactions by the TPC/Two-Gamma experiment are reviewed. Comparisons to the results of other experiments and to models of vector-vector production are made. Fits to the data following a four quark model prescription for vector meson pair production are also presented. 10 refs., 9 figs

  2. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Vector control in leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, K; Kumar, V; Kesari, S; Dinesh, D S; Kumar, A J; Das, P; Bhattacharya, S K

    2006-03-01

    Indoor residual spraying is a simple and cost effective method of controlling endophilic vectors and DDT remains the insecticide of choice for the control of leishmaniasis. However resistance to insecticide is likely to become more widespread in the population especially in those areas in which insecticide has been used for years. In this context use of slow release emulsified suspension (SRES) may be the best substitute. In this review spraying frequencies of DDT and new schedule of spray have been discussed. Role of biological control and environment management in the control of leishmaniasis has been emphasized. Allethrin (coil) 0.1 and 1.6 per cent prallethrin (liquid) have been found to be effective repellents against Phlebotomus argentipes, the vector of Indian kalaazar. Insecticide impregnated bednets is another area which requires further research on priority basis for the control of leishmaniasis. Role of satellite remote sensing for early prediction of disease by identifying the sandflygenic conditions cannot be undermined. In future synthetic pheromons can be exploited in the control of leishmaniasis.

  4. Transverse Spin Physics: Recent Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Feng

    2008-01-01

    Transverse-spin physics has been very active and rapidly developing in the last few years. In this talk, I will briefly summarize recent theoretical developments, focusing on the associated QCD dynamics in transverse spin physics

  5. A stochastic picture of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Dankel has shown how to incorporate spin into stochastic mechanics. The resulting non-local hidden variable theory gives an appealing picture of spin correlation experiments in which Bell's inequality is violated. (orig.)

  6. Field-dependent spin chirality and frustration in V3 and Cu3 nanomagnets in transverse magnetic field. 2. Spin configurations, chirality and intermediate spin magnetization in distorted trimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinsky, Moisey I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Distorted spin configurations determine field behavior of the variable chiralities. • Distortions change spin chiralities, intermediate M 12 ± and staggered magnetization. • Magnetizations, distorted vector and scalar chiralities are strongly correlated. • Distorted V 3 , Cu 3 nanomagnets possess large vector chirality in the ground state in B ⊥ . • Chiralities and distortions in EPR, INS and NMR spectra were considered. - Abstract: Correlated spin configurations, magnetizations, frustration, vector κ ¯ z and scalar χ ¯ chiralities are considered for distorted V ‾ 3 , /Cu 3 / anisotropic DM nanomagnets in transverse B x ‖X and longitudinal B‖Z fields. Different planar configurations in the ground and excited states of distorted nanomagnets in B x determine different field behavior of the vector chiralities and the degenerate frustration in these states correlated with the M ~ 12 ± (B x ) intermediate spin (IS) magnetization which describes the S 12 characteristics, χ=0. Distortion results in the reduced κ ¯ z <1 chirality in the ground distorted configuration and in the maximum κ z =±1 in the excited states with the planar 120° configurations at avoided level crossing. In B‖Z, distorted longitudinal spin-collinear configurations are characterized by the reduced degenerate frustration, out-of-plane staggered and IS M ~ 12 ± (B z ) magnetizations, and in-plane toroidal moments, correlated with the κ ¯ z , χ ¯ chiralities, χ ¯ =±|κ ¯ z |. The chiralities and IS magnetization in EPR, INS and NMR spectra are considered. The quantitative correlations describe variable spin chirality, frustration and field manipulation of chiralities in nanomagnets

  7. Experimental demonstration of vector E x vector B plasma divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.; Kerst, D.W.; Sprott, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The vector E x vector B drift due to an applied radial electric field in a tokamak with poloidal divertor can speed the flow of plasma out of the scrape-off region, and provide a means of externally controlling the flow rate and thus the width of the density fall-off. An experiment in the Wisconsin levitated toroidal octupole, using vector E x vector B drifts alone, demonstrates divertor-like behavior, including 70% reduction of plasma density near the wall and 40% reduction of plasma flux to the wall, with no adverse effects on confinement of the main plasma

  8. Phase measurement for driven spin oscillations in a storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempelmann, N.; Hejny, V.; Pretz, J.; Soltner, H.; Augustyniak, W.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Bai, M.; Barion, L.; Berz, M.; Chekmenev, S.; Ciullo, G.; Dymov, S.; Eversmann, D.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Grzonka, D.; Guidoboni, G.; Heberling, D.; Hetzel, J.; Hinder, F.; Kacharava, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Keshelashvili, I.; Koop, I.; Kulikov, A.; Lehrach, A.; Lenisa, P.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Maanen, P.; Macharashvili, G.; Magiera, A.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Mey, S.; Müller, F.; Nass, A.; Nikolaev, N. N.; Nioradze, M.; Pesce, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Saleev, A.; Schmidt, V.; Semertzidis, Y.; Senichev, Y.; Shmakova, V.; Silenko, A.; Slim, J.; Stahl, A.; Stassen, R.; Stephenson, E.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Tagliente, G.; Talman, R.; Thörngren Engblom, P.; Trinkel, F.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Valetov, E.; Vassiliev, A.; Weidemann, C.; Wrońska, A.; Wüstner, P.; Zuprański, P.; Żurek, M.; JEDI Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports the first simultaneous measurement of the horizontal and vertical components of the polarization vector in a storage ring under the influence of a radio frequency (rf) solenoid. The experiments were performed at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY in Jülich using a vector polarized, bunched 0.97 GeV /c deuteron beam. Using the new spin feedback system, we set the initial phase difference between the solenoid field and the precession of the polarization vector to a predefined value. The feedback system was then switched off, allowing the phase difference to change over time, and the solenoid was switched on to rotate the polarization vector. We observed an oscillation of the vertical polarization component and the phase difference. The oscillations can be described using an analytical model. The results of this experiment also apply to other rf devices with horizontal magnetic fields, such as Wien filters. The precise manipulation of particle spins in storage rings is a prerequisite for measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of charged particles.

  9. Muonium spin exchange in spin-polarized media: Spin-flip and -nonflip collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senba, M.

    1994-01-01

    The transverse relaxation of the muon spin in muonium due to electron spin exchange with a polarized spin-1/2 medium is investigated. Stochastic calculations, which assume that spin exchange is a Poisson process, are carried out for the case where the electron spin polarization of the medium is on the same axis as the applied field. Two precession signals of muonium observed in intermediate fields (B>30 G) are shown to have different relaxation rates which depend on the polarization of the medium. Furthermore, the precession frequencies are shifted by an amount which depends on the spin-nonflip rate. From the two relaxation rates and the frequency shift in intermediate fields, one can determine (i) the encounter rate of muonium and the paramagnetic species, (ii) the polarization of the medium, and most importantly (iii) the quantum-mechanical phase shift (and its sign) associated with the potential energy difference between electron singlet and triplet encounters. Effects of spin-nonflip collisions on spin dynamics are discussed for non-Poisson as well as Poisson processes. In unpolarized media, the time evolution of the muon spin in muonium is not influenced by spin-nonflip collisions, if the collision process is Poissonian. This seemingly obvious statement is not true anymore in non-Poissonian processes, i.e., it is necessary to specify both spin-flip and spin-nonflip rates to fully characterize spin dynamics

  10. New Topological Configurations in the Continuous Heisenberg Spin Chain: Lower Bound for the Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossen Dandoloff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the spin configurations of the classical one-dimensional Heisenberg model, we map the normalized unit vector, representing the spin, on a space curve. We show that the total chirality of the configuration is a conserved quantity. If, for example, one end of the space curve is rotated by an angle of 2π relative to the other, the Frenet frame traces out a noncontractible loop in SO(3 and this defines a new class of topological spin configurations for the Heisenberg model.

  11. Antiferromagnetic spin-orbitronics

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien; Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Ghosh, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Antiferromagnets have long remained an intriguing and exotic state of matter, whose application has been restricted to enabling interfacial exchange bias in metallic and tunneling spin-valves [1]. Their role in the expanding field of applied spintronics has been mostly passive and the in-depth investigation of their basic properties mostly considered from a fundamental perspective.

  12. Antiferromagnetic spin-orbitronics

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-05-01

    Antiferromagnets have long remained an intriguing and exotic state of matter, whose application has been restricted to enabling interfacial exchange bias in metallic and tunneling spin-valves [1]. Their role in the expanding field of applied spintronics has been mostly passive and the in-depth investigation of their basic properties mostly considered from a fundamental perspective.

  13. Brookhaven: Spin result underlined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1990-09-15

    A recent experiment looking at violent proton-proton elastic scattering confirms, with high precision, earlier data which puzzled many theorists. Most pictures of strong interactions based on perturbative quark-gluon field theory (Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD) suggested that spin effects should disappear with energy and as the collisions become more violent.

  14. Nuclear Spin Relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    ments have shown that in some cases the nuclear spin systems may be held in special configurations called .... these methods have been commercialized, and used for clinical trials, in which hyperpolarized NMR is used to .... symmetric under exchange, meaning that exchanging the two nuclei leaves the state unchanged.

  15. Nuclear spin-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    This booklet gives examples of 'nuclear spin off', from research programmes carried out for the UKAEA, under the following headings; non destructive testing; tribology; environmental protection; flow measurement; material sciences; mechanical engineering; marine services; biochemical technology; electronic instrumentation. (U.K.)

  16. Spin and isospin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Sagawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Spin and isospin modes in nuclei are investigated. We discuss some of the following topics. 1. Spin-dipole excitations in 12 C and 16 O are studied (1). Effects of tensor and spin-orbit interactions on the distribution of the strengths are investigated, and neutral current neutrino scattering cross sections in 16 O are obtained for heavy-flavor neutrinos from the supernovae. 2. Gamow-Teller (GT) and spin-dipole (SD) modes in 208 Bi are investigated. Quenching and fragmentation of the GT strength are discussed (2). SD excitations and electric dipole (E1) transitions between the GT and SD states are studied (3). Calculated E1 strengths are compared with the sum rule values obtained within the 1p-1h and 1p-1h + 2p-2h configuration spaces. 3. Coulomb displacement energy (CDE) of the IAS of 14 Be is calculated, and the effects of the halo on the CDE and the configuration of the halo state are investigated. 4. Spreading width of IAS and isospin dependence of the width are investigated (4). Our formula for the width explains very well the observed isospin dependence (5). (author)

  17. Spin-polarized photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Peter D.

    1997-01-01

    Spin-polarized photoemission has developed into a versatile tool for the study of surface and thin film magnetism. In this review, we examine the methodology of the technique and its application to a number of different problems, including both valence band and core level studies. After a detailed review of spin-polarization measurement techniques and the related experimental requirements we consider in detail studies of the bulk properties both above and below the Curie temperature. This section also includes a discussion of observations relating to unique metastable phases obtained via epitaxial growth. The application of the technique to the study of surfaces, both clean and adsorbate covered, is reviewed. The report then examines, in detail, studies of the spin-polarized electronic structure of thin films and the related interfacial magnetism. Finally, observations of spin-polarized quantum well states in non-magnetic thin films are discussed with particular reference to their mediation of the oscillatory exchange coupling in related magnetic multilayers. (author)

  18. Spin physics at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althoff, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987 the new Bonn stretcher accelerator ELSA came into operation. In this paper a short description of the accelerator and the three experimental facilities PHOENICS, ELAN and SAPHIR is given. The determination of spin observables is one of the main subjects of the experimental program. Some experiments are discussed in more detail

  19. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakonov, Mikhail I

    2008-01-01

    This book describes beautiful optical and transport phenomena related to the electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors with emphasis on a clear presentation of the physics involved. Recent results on quantum wells and quantum dots are reviewed. The book is intended for students and researchers in the fields of semiconductor physics and nanoelectronics.

  20. Brookhaven: Spin result underlined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    A recent experiment looking at violent proton-proton elastic scattering confirms, with high precision, earlier data which puzzled many theorists. Most pictures of strong interactions based on perturbative quark-gluon field theory (Quantum Chromodynamics, QCD) suggested that spin effects should disappear with energy and as the collisions become more violent