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Sample records for spin torque switching

  1. Giant thermal spin-torque-assisted magnetic tunnel junction switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushp, Aakash; Phung, Timothy; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian P; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart S P

    2015-05-26

    Spin-polarized charge currents induce magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) switching by virtue of spin-transfer torque (STT). Recently, by taking advantage of the spin-dependent thermoelectric properties of magnetic materials, novel means of generating spin currents from temperature gradients, and their associated thermal-spin torques (TSTs), have been proposed, but so far these TSTs have not been large enough to influence MTJ switching. Here we demonstrate significant TSTs in MTJs by generating large temperature gradients across ultrathin MgO tunnel barriers that considerably affect the switching fields of the MTJ. We attribute the origin of the TST to an asymmetry of the tunneling conductance across the zero-bias voltage of the MTJ. Remarkably, we estimate through magneto-Seebeck voltage measurements that the charge currents that would be generated due to the temperature gradient would give rise to STT that is a thousand times too small to account for the changes in switching fields that we observe.

  2. Spin-torque switching of a nano-magnet using giant spin hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish V. Penumatcha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Giant Spin Hall Effect(GSHE in metals with high spin-orbit coupling is an efficient way to convert charge currents to spin currents, making it well-suited for writing information into magnets in non-volatile magnetic memory as well as spin-logic devices. We demonstrate the switching of an in-plane CoFeB magnet using a combination of GSHE and an external magnetic field. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current is used to estimate the spin hall angle with the help of a thermal activation model for spin-transfer torque switching of a nanomagnet.

  3. Dynamics of spin torque switching in all-perpendicular spin valve nanopillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H.; Bedau, D.; Sun, J.Z.; Mangin, S.; Fullerton, E.E.; Katine, J.A.; Kent, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a systematic experimental study of the spin-torque-induced magnetic switching statistics at room temperature, using all-perpendicularly magnetized spin-valves as a model system. Three physical regimes are distinguished: a short-time ballistic limit below a few nanoseconds, where spin-torque dominates the reversal dynamics from a thermal distribution of initial conditions; a long time limit, where the magnetization reversal probability is determined by spin-torque-amplified thermal activation; and a cross-over regime, where the spin-torque and thermal agitation both contribute. For a basic quantitative understanding of the physical processes involved, an analytical macrospin model is presented which contains both spin-torque dynamics and finite temperature effects. The latter was treated rigorously using a Fokker–Plank formalism, and solved numerically for specific sets of parameters relevant to the experiments to determine the switching probability behavior in the short-time and cross-over regimes. This analysis shows that thermal fluctuations during magnetization reversal greatly affect the switching probability over all the time scales studied, even in the short-time limit

  4. Effect of resistance feedback on spin torque-induced switching of nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, Samir; Webb, Richard A.; Covington, Mark; Kaka, Shehzaad; Crawford, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    In large magnetoresistance devices spin torque-induced changes in resistance can produce GHz current and voltage oscillations which can affect magnetization reversal. In addition, capacitive shunting in large resistance devices can further reduce the current, adversely affecting spin torque switching. Here, we simultaneously solve the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with spin torque and the transmission line telegrapher's equations to study the effects of resistance feedback and capacitance on magnetization reversal of both spin valves and magnetic tunnel junctions. While for spin valves parallel (P) to anti-parallel (AP) switching is adversely affected by the resistance feedback due to saturation of the spin torque, in low resistance magnetic tunnel junctions P-AP switching is enhanced. We study the effect of resistance feedback on the switching time of magnetic tunnel junctions, and show that magnetization switching is only affected by capacitive shunting in the pF range.

  5. Dependence of the Spin Transfer Torque Switching Current Density on the Exchange Stiffness Constant

    OpenAIRE

    You, Chun-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the dependence of the switching current density on the exchange stiffness constant in the spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junction structure with micromagnetic simulations. Since the widely accepted analytic expression of the switching current density is based on the macro-spin model, there is no dependence of the exchange stiffness constant. When the switching is occurred, however, the spin configuration forms C-, S-type, or complicated domain structures. Since the spi...

  6. Physical limitations to efficient high-speed spin-torque switching in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindl, R.; Rippard, W. H.; Russek, S. E.; Kos, A. B.

    2011-02-01

    We have investigated the physical limitations to efficient high-speed spin-torque switching by means of write error rates both experimentally as well as through macrospin simulations. The spin-torque-induced write operations were performed on in-plane MgO magnetic tunnel junctions. The write error rates were determined from up to 106 switching events as a function of pulse amplitude and duration (5 to 100 ns) for devices with different thermal stability factors. Both experiments and simulations show qualitatively similar results. In particular, the write error rates as a function of pulse voltage amplitude increase at higher rates for pulse durations below ≈50 ns. Simulations show that the write error rates can be reduced only to some extent by the use of materials with perpendicular anisotropy and reduced damping, whereas noncollinear orientation of the spin current polarization and the magnetic easy axis increases the write error rates. The cause for the write error rates is related to the underlying physics of spin-torque switching and the occurrence of the stagnation point on the magnetization switching trajectory where the spin-torque disappears and the device loses the energy needed to switch. The stagnation point can be accessed either during the initial magnetization distribution or by thermal diffusion during the switching process.

  7. Spin-transfer torque switched magnetic tunnel junctions in magnetic random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jonathan Z.

    2016-10-01

    Spin-transfer torque (or spin-torque, or STT) based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is at the heart of a new generation of magnetism-based solid-state memory, the so-called spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory, or STT-MRAM. Over the past decades, STT-based switchable magnetic tunnel junction has seen progress on many fronts, including the discovery of (001) MgO as the most favored tunnel barrier, which together with (bcc) Fe or FeCo alloy are yielding best demonstrated tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR); the development of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin CoFeB-type of thin films sufficient to support high density memories with junction sizes demonstrated down to 11nm in diameter; and record-low spin-torque switching threshold current, giving best reported switching efficiency over 5 kBT/μA. Here we review the basic device properties focusing on the perpendicularly magnetized MTJs, both in terms of switching efficiency as measured by sub-threshold, quasi-static methods, and of switching speed at super-threshold, forced switching. We focus on device behaviors important for memory applications that are rooted in fundamental device physics, which highlights the trade-off of device parameters for best suitable system integration.

  8. Spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in Co/Pt multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Zhang, Chaoliang; Kurenkov, Aleksandr; Bersweiler, Mathias; Sato, Hideo; Fukami, Shunsuke; Ohno, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    Spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced magnetization switching in Co/Pt multilayer structures with a Pt buffer layer is studied aiming to realize SOT-magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices with high thermal stability. Current-induced magnetization switching and effective fields are measured using Hall-bar devices. The switching efficiency, defined as a ratio of the areal anisotropy energy density to switching current density, increases with increasing the number of Co/Pt stacks. This trend is in accordance with the stacking number dependence of effective fields per unit current density. The effective spin-Hall angle of the Pt buffer layer for the sample with multiple Co/Pt stacks is significantly larger than that of Pt previously reported, suggesting a generation of SOT in Co/Pt multilayers. These results indicate that Co/Pt multilayers are promising for SOT-MRAM devices possessing high thermal stability and small switching current.

  9. Spin-torque switching and control using chirped AC currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klughertz, Guillaume; Friedland, Lazar; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    We propose to use oscillating spin currents with slowly varying frequency (chirp) to manipulate and control the magnetization dynamics in a nanomagnet. By recasting the Landau-Lifshitz-Slonczewski equation in a quantum-like two-level formalism, we show that a chirped spin current polarized in the direction normal to the anisotropy axis can induce a stable precession of the magnetic moment at any angle (up to 90^\\circ ) with respect to the anisotropy axis. The drive current can be modest (10^6~A~cm-2 or lower) provided the chirp rate is sufficiently slow. The induced precession is stable against thermal noise, even for small nano-objects at room temperature. Complete reversal of the magnetization can be achieved by adding a small external magnetic field antiparallel to the easy axis. Alternatively, a combination of chirped ac and dc currents with different polarization directions can also be used to trigger the reversal.

  10. Spin-orbit torque switching without an external field using interlayer exchange coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yong-Chang; Betto, Davide; Rode, Karsten; Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, Plamen

    2016-09-01

    Manipulation of the magnetization of a perpendicular ferromagnetic free layer by spin-orbit torque (SOT) is an attractive alternative to spin-transfer torque (STT) in oscillators and switches such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) where a high current is passed across an ultrathin tunnel barrier. A small symmetry-breaking bias field is usually needed for deterministic SOT switching but it is impractical to generate the field externally for spintronic applications. Here, we demonstrate robust zero-field SOT switching of a perpendicular CoFe free layer where the symmetry is broken by magnetic coupling to a second in-plane exchange-biased CoFe layer via a nonmagnetic Ru or Pt spacer. The preferred magnetic state of the free layer is determined by the current polarity and the sign of the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC). Our strategy offers a potentially scalable solution to realize bias-field-free switching that can lead to a generation of SOT devices, combining a high storage density and endurance with a low power consumption.

  11. Spin-Orbit Torque-Assisted Switching in Magnetic Insulator Thin Films with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingzhong

    As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque that can induce magnetization switching in a neighboring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. This presentation reports the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems.1 The experiments made use of Pt/BaFe12O19 bi-layered structures. Thanks to its strong spin-orbit coupling, Pt has been widely used to produce pure spin currents in previous studies. BaFe12O19 is an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite and is often referred as BaM. It is one of the few magnetic insulators with strong magneto-crystalline anisotropy and shows an effective uniaxial anisotropy field of about 17 kOe. It's found that the switching response in the BaM film strongly depends on the charge current applied to the Pt film. When a constant magnetic field is applied in the film plane, the charge current in the Pt film can switch the normal component of the magnetization (M⊥) in the BaM film between the up and down states. The current also dictates the up and down states of the remnant magnetization when the in-plane field is reduced to zero. When M⊥ is measured by sweeping an in-plane field, the response manifests itself as a hysteresis loop, which evolves in a completely opposite manner if the sign of the charge current is flipped. When the coercivity is measured by sweeping an out-of-plane field, its value can be reduced or increased by as much as about 500 Oe if an appropriate charge current is applied. 1. P. Li, T. Liu, H. Chang, A. Kalitsov, W. Zhang, G. Csaba, W. Li, D. Richardson, A. Demann, G. Rimal, H. Dey, J. S. Jiang, W. Porod, S. Field, J. Tang, M. C. Marconi, A. Hoffmann, O. Mryasov, and M. Wu, Nature Commun. 7:12688 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12688 (2016).

  12. Interface-Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torques and Current-Induced Magnetization Switching of Pd /Co /AlOx Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Gabureac, Mihai; Gambardella, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic heterostructures that combine large spin-orbit torque efficiency, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and low resistivity are key to developing electrically controlled memory and logic devices. Here, we report on vector measurements of the current-induced spin-orbit torques and magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Pd /Co /AlOx layers as a function of Pd thickness. We find sizable dampinglike (DL) and fieldlike (FL) torques, on the order of 1 mT per 107 A /cm2 , which have different thicknesses and magnetization angle dependencies. The analysis of the DL torque efficiency per unit current density and the electric field using drift-diffusion theory leads to an effective spin Hall angle and spin-diffusion length of Pd larger than 0.03 and 7 nm, respectively. The FL spin-orbit torque includes a significant interface contribution, is larger than estimated using drift-diffusion parameters, and, furthermore, is strongly enhanced upon rotation of the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane direction. Finally, taking advantage of the large spin-orbit torques in this system, we demonstrate bipolar magnetization switching of Pd /Co /AlOx layers with a similar current density to that used for Pt /Co layers with a comparable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  13. Voltage-controlled magnetization switching in MRAMs in conjunction with spin-transfer torque and applied magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Kamaram; Pandey, Sumeet C.; Kula, Witold; Sandhu, Gurtej S.

    2016-11-01

    Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect has attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years because of its low cell power consumption during the anisotropy modulation of a thin ferromagnetic film. However, the applied voltage or electric field alone is not enough to completely and reliably reverse the magnetization of the free layer of a magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell from anti-parallel to parallel configuration or vice versa. An additional symmetry-breaking mechanism needs to be employed to ensure the deterministic writing process. Combinations of voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy together with spin-transfer torque (STT) and with an applied magnetic field (Happ) were evaluated for switching reliability, time taken to switch with low error rate, and energy consumption during the switching process. In order to get a low write error rate in the MRAM cell with VCMA switching mechanism, a spin-transfer torque current or an applied magnetic field comparable to the critical current and field of the free layer is necessary. In the hybrid processes, the VCMA effect lowers the duration during which the higher power hungry secondary mechanism is in place. Therefore, the total energy consumed during the hybrid writing processes, VCMA + STT or VCMA + Happ, is less than the energy consumed during pure spin-transfer torque or applied magnetic field switching.

  14. Magnetization switching in a CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction by combining spin-transfer torque and electric field-effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, S.; Nakatani, Y.; Yamanouchi, M.; Ikeda, S.; Sato, H.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2014-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a scheme for magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions, in which two successive voltage pulses are applied to utilize both spin-transfer torque and electric field effect. Under this switching scheme, a CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic easy axis is shown to switch faster than by spin-transfer torque alone and more reliably than that by electric fields alone.

  15. Multiscale modeling of current-induced switching in magnetic tunnel junctions using ab initio spin-transfer torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Matthew O. A.; Stamenova, Maria; Sanvito, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    There exists a significant challenge in developing efficient magnetic tunnel junctions with low write currents for nonvolatile memory devices. With the aim of analyzing potential materials for efficient current-operated magnetic junctions, we have developed a multi-scale methodology combining ab initio calculations of spin-transfer torque with large-scale time-dependent simulations using atomistic spin dynamics. In this work we introduce our multiscale approach, including a discussion on a number of possible schemes for mapping the ab initio spin torques into the spin dynamics. We demonstrate this methodology on a prototype Co/MgO/Co/Cu tunnel junction showing that the spin torques are primarily acting at the interface between the Co free layer and MgO. Using spin dynamics we then calculate the reversal switching times for the free layer and the critical voltages and currents required for such switching. Our work provides an efficient, accurate, and versatile framework for designing novel current-operated magnetic devices, where all the materials details are taken into account.

  16. Critical current density for spin transfer torque switching with composite free layer structure

    OpenAIRE

    You, Chun-Yeol

    2009-01-01

    Critical current density of composite free layer (CFL) in magnetic tunneling junction is investigated. CFL consists of two exchange coupled ferromagnetic layers, where the coupling is parallel or anti-parallel. Instability condition of the CFL under the spin transfer torque, which is related with critical current density, is obtained by analytic spin wave excitation model and confirmed by macro-spin Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The critical current densities for the coupled two identical...

  17. Spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in nano-scale Ta/CoFeB/MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Fukami, S.; Sato, H.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2015-07-01

    We study the device size dependence of spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in a Ta/CoFeB/MgO structure with perpendicular easy axis. The miniaturization of the device from micrometer-sized wire to 80-nm dot results in the increase of the threshold current density Jth by one order, whereas Jth increases only slightly with further reducing the device size down to 30 nm. No significant increase in Jth is seen, as the current pulse width decreases from 100 ms down to 3 ns. We reveal that the switching in devices at reduced size is reasonably well explained by the macrospin model, in which the effects of both the Slonczewski-like torque and field-like torque are included.

  18. Competing effect of spin-orbit torque terms on perpendicular magnetization switching in structures with multiple inversion asymmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Guoqiang; Akyol, Mustafa; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Li, Xiang; He, Congli; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Alzate, Juan G.; Lang, Murong; Wong, Kin L.; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-01-01

    Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in structurally asymmetric multilayers have been used to efficiently manipulate magnetization. In a structure with vertical symmetry breaking, a damping-like SOT can deterministically switch a perpendicular magnet, provided an in-plane magnetic field is applied. Recently, it has been further demonstrated that the in-plane magnetic field can be eliminated by introducing a new type of perpendicular field-like SOT via incorporating a lateral structural a...

  19. Strain engineered magnetic tunnel junctions and spin-orbit torque switching (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Elyasi, Mehrdad; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo

    2016-10-01

    The efficient generation of pure spin currents and manipulation of the magnetization dynamics of magnetic structures is of central importance in the field of spintronics. The spin-orbit effect is one of the promising ways to generate spin currents, in which a charge current can be converted to a transverse spin current due to the spin-orbit interaction. We investigate the spin dynamics in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling materials such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3 oxide heterostructures. Angle dependent magnetoresistance measurements are employed to detect and understand the current-induced spin-orbit torques, and an effective field of 2.35 T is observed for a dc-current of 200 uA. In order to understand the interaction between light and spin currents, we use a femtosecond laser to excite an ultrafast transient spin current and subsequent terahertz (THz) emission in nonmagnet (NM)/ferromagnet (FM)/oxide heterostructures. The THz emission strongly relies on spin-orbit interaction, and is tailored by the magnitude and sign of the effective spin Hall angle of the NM. Our results can be utilized for ultrafast spintronic devices and tunable THz sources.

  20. Spin-torque transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, G.E.W.; Brataas, A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Van Wees, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    A magnetoelectronic thin-film transistor is proposed that can display negative differential resistance and gain. The working principle is the modulation of the soure–drain current in a spin valve by the magnetization of a third electrode, which is rotated by the spin-torque created by a control spin

  1. Spin Transfer Torque in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Chen, Zhihong

    2014-03-01

    Graphene is an idea channel material for spin transport due to its long spin diffusion length. To develop graphene based spin logic, it is important to demonstrate spin transfer torque in graphene. Here, we report the experimental measurement of spin transfer torque in graphene nonlocal spin valve devices. Assisted by a small external in-plane magnetic field, the magnetization reversal of the receiving magnet is induced by pure spin diffusion currents from the injector magnet. The magnetization switching is reversible between parallel and antiparallel configurations by controlling the polarity of the applied charged currents. Current induced heating and Oersted field from the nonlocal charge flow have also been excluded in this study. Next, we further enhance the spin angular momentum absorption at the interface of the receiving magnet and graphene channel by removing the tunneling barrier in the receiving magnet. The device with a tunneling barrier only at the injector magnet shows a comparable nonlocal spin valve signal but lower electrical noise. Moreover, in the same preset condition, the critical charge current density for spin torque in the single tunneling barrier device shows a substantial reduction if compared to the double tunneling barrier device.

  2. Calculation of energy-barrier lowering by incoherent switching in spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Kamaram; Visscher, P. B.

    2015-05-01

    To make a useful spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) device, it is necessary to be able to calculate switching rates, which determine the error rates of the device. In a single-macrospin model, one can use a Fokker-Planck equation to obtain a low-current thermally activated rate ∝exp(-Ee f f/kBT ) . Here, the effective energy barrier Eeff scales with the single-macrospin energy barrier KV, where K is the effective anisotropy energy density and V the volume. A long-standing paradox in this field is that the actual energy barrier appears to be much smaller than this. It has been suggested that incoherent motions may lower the barrier, but this has proved difficult to quantify. In the present paper, we show that the coherent precession has a magnetostatic instability, which allows quantitative estimation of the energy barrier and may resolve the paradox.

  3. Critical role of W deposition condition on spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in nanoscale W/CoFeB/MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Fukami, S.; Watanabe, K.; Ohkawara, A.; DuttaGupta, S.; Sato, H.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2016-11-01

    We study the spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in W/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures with W deposited under different sputtering conditions. We show that the crystal structure and resistivity of W depend on the employed sputtering conditions. Switching current of nanoscale devices is smaller while effective anisotropy field is larger for the devices with more resistive W channel deposited at lower sputtering power and higher Ar gas pressure. The effective spin Hall angle evaluated from the switching probability varies by a factor of 2-3 depending on the W resistivity controlled by the sputtering conditions.

  4. Fast Low-Current Spin-Orbit-Torque Switching of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions through Atomic Modifications of the Free-Layer Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shengjie; Ou, Yongxi; Aradhya, S. V.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    Future applications of spin-orbit torque will require new mechanisms to improve the efficiency of switching nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), while also controlling the magnetic dynamics to achieve fast nanosecond-scale performance with low-write-error rates. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to simultaneously enhance the interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy and suppress interfacial spin-memory loss by introducing subatomic and monatomic layers of Hf at the top and bottom interfaces of the ferromagnetic free layer of an in-plane magnetized three-terminal MTJ device. When combined with a β -W spin Hall channel that generates spin-orbit torque, the cumulative effect is a switching current density of 5.4 ×106 A /cm2 .

  5. Macrospin modeling of sub-ns pulse switching of perpendicularly magnetized free layer via spin-orbit torques for cryogenic memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junbo; Rowlands, G. E.; Lee, O. J.; Buhrman, R. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Ralph, D. C. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    We model, using the macrospin approximation, the magnetic reversal of a perpendicularly magnetized nanostructured free layer formed on a normal, heavy-metal nanostrip, subjected to spin-orbit torques (SOTs) generated by short (≤0.5 ns) current pulses applied to the nanostrip, to examine the potential for SOT-based fast, efficient cryogenic memory. Due to thermal fluctuations, if solely an anti-damping torque is applied, then, for a device with sufficiently low anisotropy (H{sub anis}{sup 0} ∼ 1 kOe) suitable for application in cryogenic memory, a high magnetic damping parameter (α∼0.1−0.2) is required for reliable switching over a significant variation of pulse current. The additional presence of a substantial field-like torque improves switching reliability even for low damping (α≤0.03).

  6. Macroscopic description of spin transfer torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnas, J.; Fert, A.; Gmitra, M.; Weymann, I.; Dugaev, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    A macroscopic description of the current-induced torque due to spin transfer has been developed for layered systems consisting of ferromagnetic films, separated by nonmagnetic layers. The description is based on the classical spin diffusion equations for the distribution functions used in the theory of current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR), and the relevant boundary conditions for the longitudinal and transverse components of the spin current and spin accumulation. The torque is expressed as a function of the usual parameters derived from CPP-GMR experiments and two additional parameters involved in the transverse boundary conditions. The model describes qualitatively the normal and inverse switching phenomena studied in recent experiments. We also discuss a structure for which the spin torque disappears at a noncollinear magnetic configuration

  7. Calculation of energy-barrier lowering by incoherent switching in spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munira, Kamaram [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 (United States); Visscher, P. B., E-mail: visscher@ua.edu [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    To make a useful spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) device, it is necessary to be able to calculate switching rates, which determine the error rates of the device. In a single-macrospin model, one can use a Fokker-Planck equation to obtain a low-current thermally activated rate ∝exp(−E{sub eff}/k{sub B}T). Here, the effective energy barrier E{sub eff} scales with the single-macrospin energy barrier KV, where K is the effective anisotropy energy density and V the volume. A long-standing paradox in this field is that the actual energy barrier appears to be much smaller than this. It has been suggested that incoherent motions may lower the barrier, but this has proved difficult to quantify. In the present paper, we show that the coherent precession has a magnetostatic instability, which allows quantitative estimation of the energy barrier and may resolve the paradox.

  8. Non-Uniform Switching of the Perpendicular Magnetization in a Spin-Torque Magnetic Nanopillar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, David

    2011-06-01

    Time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) measurements were performed to study the current-induced magnetization switching mechanism in nanopillars exhibiting strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). This technique provides both short time (70 ps) and high spatial (25 nm) resolution. Direct imaging of the magnetization demonstrates that, after an incubation time of {approx} 1.3 ns, a 100 x 300 nm{sup 2} ellipsoidal device switches in {approx} 1 ns via a central domain nucleation and opposite propagation of two domain walls towards the edges. High domain wall velocities on the order of 100m/s are measured. Micromagnetic simulations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results and provide insight into magnetization dynamics during the incubation and reversal period.

  9. Spin Orbit Interaction Engineering for beyond Spin Transfer Torque memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang L.

    Spin transfer torque memory uses electron current to transfer the spin torque of electrons to switch a magnetic free layer. This talk will address an alternative approach to energy efficient non-volatile spintronics through engineering of spin orbit interaction (SOC) and the use of spin orbit torque (SOT) by the use of electric field to improve further the energy efficiency of switching. I will first discuss the engineering of interface SOC, which results in the electric field control of magnetic moment or magneto-electric (ME) effect. Magnetic memory bits based on this ME effect, referred to as magnetoelectric RAM (MeRAM), is shown to have orders of magnitude lower energy dissipation compared with spin transfer torque memory (STTRAM). Likewise, interests in spin Hall as a result of SOC have led to many advances. Recent demonstrations of magnetization switching induced by in-plane current in heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures have been shown to arise from the large SOC. The large SOC is also shown to give rise to the large SOT. Due to the presence of an intrinsic extraordinarily strong SOC and spin-momentum lock, topological insulators (TIs) are expected to be promising candidates for exploring spin-orbit torque (SOT)-related physics. In particular, we will show the magnetization switching in a chromium-doped magnetic TI bilayer heterostructure by charge current. A giant SOT of more than three orders of magnitude larger than those reported in heavy metals is also obtained. This large SOT is shown to come from the spin-momentum locked surface states of TI, which may further lead to innovative low power applications. I will also describe other related physics of SOC at the interface of anti-ferromagnetism/ferromagnetic structure and show the control exchange bias by electric field for high speed memory switching. The work was in part supported by ERFC-SHINES, NSF, ARO, TANMS, and FAME.

  10. Acoustically assisted spin-transfer-torque switching of nanomagnets: An energy-efficient hybrid writing scheme for non-volatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Ayan K.; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2013-01-01

    We show that the energy dissipated to write bits in spin-transfer-torque random access memory can be reduced by an order of magnitude if a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is launched underneath the magneto-tunneling junctions (MTJs) storing the bits. The SAW-generated strain rotates the magnetization of every MTJs' soft magnet from the easy towards the hard axis, whereupon passage of a small spin-polarized current through a target MTJ selectively switches it to the desired state with > 99.99% probability at room temperature, thereby writing the bit. The other MTJs return to their original states at the completion of the SAW cycle

  11. Advanced Macro-Model with Pulse-Width Dependent Switching Characteristic for Spin Transfer Torque Based Magnetic-Tunnel-Junction Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojeong Kim,; Seungjun Lee,; Hyungsoon Shin,

    2010-04-01

    In spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), the switching depends on the current pulse-width as well as the magnitude of the switching current. We present an advanced macro-model of an STT-MTJ for a circuit simulator such as HSPICE. The macro-model can simulate the dependence of switching behavior on current pulse-width in an STT-MTJ. An imaginary resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit is adopted to emulate complex timing behavior which cannot be described nicely by existing functions in HSPICE. Simulation results show the resistance-current (R-I) curve and timing behavior is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Spin transfer torque switching in exchange-coupled amorphous GdFeCo/TbFe bilayers for thermally assisted MRAM application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bing; Guo, Yong; Zhu, Jiaqi; Kato, Takeshi; Iwata, Satoshi; Tsunashima, Shigeru; Yang, Lei; Han, Jiecai

    2017-04-01

    Exchange-coupled amorphous GdFeCo/TbFe memory layers in giant magneto-resistance (GMR) devices for spin transfer torque (STT) switching have been studied, and temperature dependence of the critical current density of the GMR devices was measured to discuss the effect of exchange-coupled bilayers as a memory layer of the thermally assisted magnetic random access memory (MRAM). The GMR devices having amorphous GdFeCo and TbFe memory bilayers with various thicknesses were prepared by magnetron sputtering and subsequent micro-fabrication processes. A pulsed current was applied to the GMR devices in order to investigate the spin transfer torque (STT) switching. The maximum magneto-resistance (MR) ratio was around 0.15%, and the coercivity of the memory bilayer increased with the TbFe thickness and decreased with elevating temperature. The critical current densities J c to switch the memory bilayer with structure of Gd21.4 (Fe90Co10)78.6(9 nm)/Tb16Fe84 (1 nm) as low as 2.2  ×  107 A cm-2 was obtained. The J c reduced with increasing the temperature and was found to scale with the effective anisotropy K eff of GdFeCo/TbFe bilayer, which is believed to be suitable for the application of thermally assisted STT-MRAM.

  13. Giant Spin Hall Effect and Switching Induced by Spin-Transfer Torque in a W /Co40Fe40B20/MgO Structure with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiang; Xiao, Gang

    2015-03-01

    We obtain robust perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in a β -W /Co40Fe40B20/MgO structure without the need of any insertion layer between W and Co40Fe40B20 . This is achieved within a broad range of W thicknesses (3.0-9.0 nm), using a simple fabrication technique. We determine the spin Hall angle (0.40) and spin-diffusion length for the bulk β form of tungsten with a large spin-orbit coupling. As a result of the giant spin Hall effect in β -W and careful magnetic annealing, we significantly reduce the critical current density for the spin-transfer-torque-induced magnetic switching in Co40Fe40B20 . The elemental β -W is a superior candidate for magnetic memory and spin-logic applications.

  14. Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.

    2018-01-01

    We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.

  15. Spin Torque Oscillator for High Performance Magnetic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Sbiaa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on spin transfer torque switching in a magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is presented. The switching current can be strongly reduced under a spin torque oscillator (STO, and its use in addition to the conventional transport in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ should be considered. The reduction of the switching current from the parallel state to the antiparallel state is greater than in  the opposite direction, thus minimizing the asymmetry of the resistance versus current in the hysteresis loop. This reduction of both switching current and asymmetry under a spin torque oscillator occurs only during the writing process and does not affect the thermal stability of the free layer.

  16. Next generation spin torque memories

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Anant Aravind; Prajapati, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book offers detailed insights into spin transfer torque (STT) based devices, circuits and memories. Starting with the basic concepts and device physics, it then addresses advanced STT applications and discusses the outlook for this cutting-edge technology. It also describes the architectures, performance parameters, fabrication, and the prospects of STT based devices. Further, moving from the device to the system perspective it presents a non-volatile computing architecture composed of STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices and demonstrates that efficient STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices can turn the dream of instant on/off non-volatile computing into reality.

  17. Heat-driven spin torques in antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Marcin; Bréchet, Sylvain; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    Heat-driven magnetization damping, which is a linear function of a temperature gradient, is predicted in antiferromagnets by considering the sublattice dynamics subjected to a heat-driven spin torque. This points to the possibility of achieving spin torque oscillator behavior. The model is based on the magnetic Seebeck effect acting on sublattices which are exchange coupled. The heat-driven spin torque is estimated and the feasibility of detecting this effect is discussed.

  18. Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2016-06-21

    Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read\\' and `write\\' in memory devices can be significantly improved. Hence, the manipulation of electron spin in electronic devices becomes more and more appealing for the advancement of microelectronics. In spin-based devices, the manipulation of ferromagnetic order parameter using electrical currents is a very useful means for current-driven operation. Nowadays, most of magnetic memory devices are based on the so-called spin transfer torque, which stems from the spin angular momentum transfer between a spin-polarized current and the magnetic order parameter. Recently, a novel spin torque effect, exploiting spin-orbit coupling in non-centrosymmetric magnets, has attracted a massive amount of attention. This thesis addresses the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport and torques in non-centrosymmetric magnetic semiconductors. We start with the theoretical study of spin orbit torque in three dimensional ferromagnetic GaMnAs. Using the Kubo formula, we calculate both the current-driven field-like torque and anti-damping-like torque. We compare the numerical results with the analytical expressions in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described. Subsequently we study spin-orbit torques in two dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. This thesis then addresses the influence of the quantum spin Hall

  19. Spin Currents and Spin Orbit Torques in Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ming

    This thesis focuses on the interactions of spin currents and materials with magnetic order, e.g., ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic thin films. The spin current is generated in two ways. First by spin-polarized conduction-electrons associated with the spin Hall effect in heavy metals (HMs) and, second, by exciting spin-waves in ferrimagnetic insulators using a microwave frequency magnetic field. A conduction-electron spin current can be generated by spin-orbit coupling in a heavy non-magnetic metal and transfer its spin angular momentum to a ferromagnet, providing a means of reversing the magnetization of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin films with currents that flow in the plane of the layers. The torques on the magnetization are known as spin-orbit torques (SOT). In the first part of my thesis project I investigated and contrasted the quasistatic (slowly swept current) and pulsed current-induced switching characteristics of micrometer scale Hall crosses consisting of very thin (thesis project studies and considers applications of SOT-driven domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin ferromagnet sandwiched between a heavy metal and an oxide. My experiment results demonstrate that the DW motion can be explained by a combination of the spin Hall effect, which generates a SOT, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which stabilizes chiral Neel-type DW. Based on SOT-driven DW motion and magnetic coupling between electrically isolated ferromagnetic elements, I proposed a new type of spin logic devices. I then demonstrate the device operation by using micromagnetic modeling which involves studying the magnetic coupling induced by fringe fields from chiral DWs in perpendicularly magnetized nanowires. The last part of my thesis project reports spin transport and spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O 12 (YIG)/NiO/Pt trilayers with varied NiO thickness. To characterize the spin transport through NiO we excite

  20. Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2012-08-09

    Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin diffusion is considered theoretically. Combining ballistic tunneling across the barrier and diffusive transport in the electrodes, we solve the spin dynamics equation in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque, as well as a nonconventional thickness dependence of both spin torque components.

  1. Spin-wave-induced spin torque in Rashba ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetsu, Nobuyuki; Miura, Daisuke; Sakuma, Akimasa

    2015-05-01

    We study the effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin torque induced by spin waves, which are the plane-wave dynamics of magnetization. The spin torque is derived from linear-response theory, and we calculate the dynamic spin torque by considering the impurity-ladder-sum vertex corrections. This dynamic spin torque is divided into three terms: a damping term, a distortion term, and a correction term for the equation of motion. The distorting torque describes a phenomenon unique to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling system, where the distorted motion of magnetization precession is subjected to the anisotropic force from the Rashba coupling. The oscillation mode of the precession exhibits an elliptical trajectory, and the ellipticity depends on the strength of the nesting effects, which could be reduced by decreasing the electron lifetime.

  2. Interfacial spin-orbit splitting and current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2011-05-17

    Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is investigated theoretically. Due to the presence of interfacial SOI, a current-driven spin torque can be generated at the second order in SOI, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. This torque possesses two components, one in plane and one perpendicular to the plane of rotation, that can induce either current-driven magnetization switching from an in-plane to out-of-plane configuration or magnetization precessions, similar to spin transfer torque in spin valves. Consequently, it appears that it is possible to control the magnetization steady state and dynamics by either varying the bias voltage or electrically modifying the SOI at the interface.

  3. Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.

  4. Study on torque algorithm of switched reluctance motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang LI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the torque ripple problem of switched reluctance motor under the traditional control method, a direct torque control method for switched reluctance motor is proposed. Direct torque algorithm controls flux magnitude and direction by querying appropriate voltage vector in switch list. Taking torque as direct control variable can reduce the torque ripple of the motor, which broadens the application fields of switched reluctance motor. Starting with the theory of direct torque algorithm, based on MATLAB/Simulink platform, direct torque control and chopped current control system simulation model are designed. Under the condition that switched reluctance motor model and its load are consistent, it is compared with chopped current algorithm. At last, the feasibility of direct torque algorithm is verified through the platform of hardware experiments. It demonstrates that using direct torque algorithm can make the torque ripple be controlled effectively, which provides a wider application field for the switched reluctance motor.

  5. Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Pauyac, C. O.

    2017-12-08

    A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.

  6. Spin transport and spin torque in antiferromagnetic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Železný, J.; Wadley, P.; Olejník, K.; Hoffmann, A.; Ohno, H.

    2018-03-01

    Ferromagnets are key materials for sensing and memory applications. In contrast, antiferromagnets, which represent the more common form of magnetically ordered materials, have found less practical application beyond their use for establishing reference magnetic orientations via exchange bias. This might change in the future due to the recent progress in materials research and discoveries of antiferromagnetic spintronic phenomena suitable for device applications. Experimental demonstration of the electrical switching and detection of the Néel order open a route towards memory devices based on antiferromagnets. Apart from the radiation and magnetic-field hardness, memory cells fabricated from antiferromagnets can be inherently multilevel, which could be used for neuromorphic computing. Switching speeds attainable in antiferromagnets far exceed those of ferromagnetic and semiconductor memory technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in electronic spin-transport and spin-torque phenomena in antiferromagnets that are dominantly of the relativistic quantum-mechanical origin. We discuss their utility in pure antiferromagnetic or hybrid ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic memory devices.

  7. Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ki-Seung

    2015-04-06

    In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.

  8. Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, Manuel; Garello, Kevin; Mendil, Johannes; Avci, Can O.; Grimaldi, Eva; Murer, Christoph; Feng, Junxiao; Gabureac, Mihai; Stamm, Christian; Acremann, Yves; Finizio, Simone; Wintz, Sebastian; Raabe, Jörg; Gambardella, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) represent one of the most effective ways to manipulate the magnetization in spintronic devices. The orthogonal torque-magnetization geometry, the strong damping, and the large domain wall velocities inherent to materials with strong spin-orbit coupling make SOTs especially appealing for fast switching applications in nonvolatile memory and logic units. So far, however, the timescale and evolution of the magnetization during the switching process have ...

  9. Spin-Orbit Torques in ferrimagnetic GdFeCo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschewsky, Niklas; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    Recently spin-orbit torques in antiferromagnets received a lot of attention due to intrinsic high frequency dynamics as well as robustness against perturbations from external magnetic fields. Here, we report on spin-orbit torque (SOT) switching in ferrimagnetic Gdx (Fe90Co10)100-x films on both sides of the magnetic compensation point. In addition to current driven switching experiments we performed harmonic Hall measurements of the effective SOT fields. We find that both the Slonczewski torque as well as the field-like torque diverge at the magnetization compensation point. However, the effective spin Hall angle ξ = (2 | e | / ℏ) MStFM (Heff / | jHM |) is found to be roughly constant across the investigated composition range. This provides important insight into the the angular momentum transfer process in ferrimagnets. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH11231 within the NEMM program (KC2204).

  10. Manipulation of spin transfer torque using light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontani, Massimo; Vendelbjerg, Karsten; Sham, Lu

    We show that the spin transfer torque induced by a spin-polarized current on a nanomagnet as the current flows through a semiconductor-nanomagnet-semiconductor junction is externally controlled by shining the junction off-resonantly with a strong laser beam. The excitonic coherence driven by the laser dresses the virtual electron-hole pairs coupling conduction and valence bands and inducing an evanescent state in the proximity of the nanomagnet. The Fano-like quantum interference between this localized state and the continuum spectrum is different in the two spin channels and hence it dramatically alters the spin transport, leading to the coherent control of the spin transfer torque. This work is supported by EU-FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network INDEX.

  11. Controlling the spin-torque efficiency with ferroelectric barriers

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, A.

    2015-02-11

    Nonequilibrium spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a ferroelectric barrier is theoretically investigated. The exact solutions of the free electron Schrödinger equation for electron tunneling in the presence of interfacial screening are obtained by combining Bessel and Airy functions. We demonstrate that the spin transfer torque efficiency, and more generally the bias dependence of tunneling magneto- and electroresistance, can be controlled by switching the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. In particular, the critical voltage at which the in-plane torque changes sign can be strongly enhanced or reduced depending on the direction of the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. This effect provides a supplementary way to electrically control the current-driven dynamic states of the magnetization and related magnetic noise in spin transfer devices.

  12. Possible evidence for spin-transfer torque induced by spin-triplet supercurrent

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lailai

    2017-10-04

    Cooper pairs in superconductors are normally spin singlet. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that spin-triplet Cooper pairs can be created at carefully engineered superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces. If Cooper pairs are spin-polarized they would transport not only charge but also a net spin component, but without dissipation, and therefore minimize the heating effects associated with spintronic devices. Although it is now established that triplet supercurrents exist, their most interesting property - spin - is only inferred indirectly from transport measurements. In conventional spintronics, it is well known that spin currents generate spin-transfer torques that alter magnetization dynamics and switch magnetic moments. The observation of similar effects due to spin-triplet supercurrents would not only confirm the net spin of triplet pairs but also pave the way for applications of superconducting spintronics. Here, we present a possible evidence for spin-transfer torques induced by triplet supercurrents in superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/F/S) Josephson junctions. Below the superconducting transition temperature T_c, the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) field at X-band (~ 9.0 GHz) shifts rapidly to a lower field with decreasing temperature due to the spin-transfer torques induced by triplet supercurrents. In contrast, this phenomenon is absent in ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) bilayers and superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/I/F/S) multilayers where no supercurrents pass through the ferromagnetic layer. These experimental observations are discussed with theoretical predictions for ferromagnetic Josephson junctions with precessing magnetization.

  13. Voltage induced magnetostrictive switching of nanomagnets: Strain assisted strain transfer torque random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Ghani, Tahir; Young, Ian A.

    2014-06-01

    A spintronic device, called the "strain assisted spin transfer torque (STT) random access memory (RAM)," is proposed by combining the magnetostriction effect and the spin transfer torque effect which can result in a dramatic improvement in the energy dissipation relative to a conventional STT-RAM. Magnetization switching in the device which is a piezoelectric-ferromagnetic heterostructure via the combined magnetostriction and STT effect is simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation incorporating the influence of thermal noise. The simulations show that, in such a device, each of these two mechanisms (magnetostriction and spin transfer torque) provides in a 90° rotation of the magnetization leading a deterministic 180° switching with a critical current significantly smaller than that required for spin torque alone. Such a scheme is an attractive option for writing magnetic RAM cells.

  14. Voltage induced magnetostrictive switching of nanomagnets: Strain assisted strain transfer torque random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Asif; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Ghani, Tahir; Young, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    A spintronic device, called the “strain assisted spin transfer torque (STT) random access memory (RAM),” is proposed by combining the magnetostriction effect and the spin transfer torque effect which can result in a dramatic improvement in the energy dissipation relative to a conventional STT-RAM. Magnetization switching in the device which is a piezoelectric-ferromagnetic heterostructure via the combined magnetostriction and STT effect is simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation incorporating the influence of thermal noise. The simulations show that, in such a device, each of these two mechanisms (magnetostriction and spin transfer torque) provides in a 90° rotation of the magnetization leading a deterministic 180° switching with a critical current significantly smaller than that required for spin torque alone. Such a scheme is an attractive option for writing magnetic RAM cells.

  15. Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2011-07-13

    Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian

    2016-06-19

    In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the field of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin filtering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin filtering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic films, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall effect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic films, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.

  17. Spin-transfer torque in spin filter tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian

    2014-12-08

    Spin-transfer torque in a class of magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations, referred to as spin filter tunnel junctions, is studied within the tight-binding model using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function technique within Keldysh formalism. These junctions consist of one ferromagnet (FM) adjacent to a magnetic insulator (MI) or two FM separated by a MI. We find that the presence of the magnetic insulator dramatically enhances the magnitude of the spin-torque components compared to conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The fieldlike torque is driven by the spin-dependent reflection at the MI/FM interface, which results in a small reduction of its amplitude when an insulating spacer (S) is inserted to decouple MI and FM layers. Meanwhile, the dampinglike torque is dominated by the tunneling electrons that experience the lowest barrier height. We propose a device of the form FM/(S)/MI/(S)/FM that takes advantage of these characteristics and allows for tuning the spin-torque magnitudes over a wide range just by rotation of the magnetization of the insulating layer.

  18. Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2013-05-16

    We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.

  19. Spin-orbit torques in magnetic bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Spintronics aims to utilize the coupling between charge transport and magnetic dynamics to develop improved and novel memory and logic devices. Future progress in spintronics may be enabled by exploiting the spin-orbit coupling present at the interface between thin film ferromagnets and heavy metals. In these systems, applying an in-plane electrical current can induce magnetic dynamics in single domain ferromagnets, or can induce rapid motion of domain wall magnetic textures. There are multiple effects responsible for these dynamics. They include spin-orbit torques and a chiral exchange interaction (the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction) in the ferromagnet. Both effects arise from the combination of ferromagnetism and spin-orbit coupling present at the interface. There is additionally a torque from the spin current flux impinging on the ferromagnet, arising from the spin hall effect in the heavy metal. Using a combination of approaches, from drift-diffusion to Boltzmann transport to first principles methods, we explore the relative contributions to the dynamics from these different effects. We additionally propose that the transverse spin current is locally enhanced over its bulk value in the vicinity of an interface which is oriented normal to the charge current direction.

  20. Enhancing current-induced torques by abutting additional spin polarizer layer to nonmagnetic metal layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Gyungchoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the switching of a perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnet (FM) by injecting an in-plane current into an attached non-magnet (NM) has become of emerging technological interest. This magnetization switching is attributed to the spin-orbit torque (SOT) originating from the strong spin-orbit coupling of the NM layer. However, the switching efficiency of the NM/FM structure itself may be insufficient for practical use, as for example, in spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here we investigate spin torque in an NM/FM structure with an additional spin polarizer (SP) layer abutted to the NM layer. In addition to the SOT contribution, a spin-polarized current from the SP layer creates an extra spin chemical potential difference at the NM/FM interface and gives rise to a STT on the FM layer. We show that, using typical parameters including device width, thickness, spin diffusion length, and the spin Hall angle, the spin torque from the SP layer can be much larger than that from the spin Hall effect (SHE) of the NM.

  1. Dual Control of Giant Field-like Spin Torque in Spin Filter Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.-H.; Chu, F.-C.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    We predict a giant field-like spin torque, , in spin-filter (SF) barrier tunnel junctions in sharp contrast to existing junctions based on nonmagnetic passive barriers. We demonstrate that has linear bias behavior, is independent of the SF thickness, and has odd parity with respect to the SF’s exchange splitting. Thus, it can be selectively controlled via external bias or external magnetic field which gives rise to sign reversal of via magnetic field switching. The underlying mechanism is the interlayer exchange coupling between the noncollinear magnetizations of the SF and free ferromagnetic electrode via the nonmagnetic insulating (I) spacer giving rise to giant spin-dependent reflection at the SF/I interface. These findings suggest that the proposed field-like-spin-torque MRAM may provide promising dual functionalities for both ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ processes which require lower critical current densities and faster writing and reading speeds.

  2. Joule heating and spin-transfer torque investigated on the atomic scale using a spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S; Herzog, G; Schlenhoff, A; Sonntag, A; Wiesendanger, R

    2011-10-28

    The influence of a high spin-polarized tunnel current onto the switching behavior of a superparamagnetic nanoisland on a nonmagnetic substrate is investigated by means of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. A detailed lifetime analysis allows for a quantification of the effective temperature rise of the nanoisland and the modification of the activation energy barrier for magnetization reversal, thereby using the nanoisland as a local thermometer and spin-transfer torque analyzer. Both the Joule heating and spin-transfer torque are found to scale linearly with the tunnel current. The results are compared to experiments performed on lithographically fabricated magneto-tunnel junctions, revealing a very high spin-transfer torque switching efficiency in our experiments.

  3. Manipulating spin transfer torque with light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendelbjerg, Karsten Leding; Rontani, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    We study the spin transfer torque (STT) induced onto a nanomagnet as a spin-polarized current flows through a junction made of the magnet sandwiched between two semiconductors. This junction is one-dimensional and highly idealized, the thin magnetic layer being mimicked by a spin-dependent contact force. We show that the STT may be externally controlled by shining the junction at sub-bandgap frequency with an intense laser beam. The excitonic coherence driven by the laser dresses the virtual electron-hole pairs coupling conduction and valence bands and inducing evanescent waves at the junction interface. The Fano-like quantum interference between these localized states and the continuum spectrum, being different in the two spin channels, significantly affects the STT.

  4. Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.

  5. Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated

  6. Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C., E-mail: claire.baraduc@cea.fr; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ducruet, C. [Crocus-Technology, 5, Place Robert Schuman, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Vila, L. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-09-07

    Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.

  7. Spin orbit torques in W(O) based three terminal magnetic memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Phung, Timothy; Garg, Chirag; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian. P.; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart. S. P.

    Recently, there has been a large interest in using spin orbit torques to controllably manipulate the magnetic order parameter in several promising magnetic memory devices such as racetrack memory and spin transfer torque MRAM. The efficient operation of such devices necessitates the finding of materials which exhibit efficient conversion of charge currents to spin orbit torques. This is typically quantified by the so-called spin Hall angle. The most efficient spin orbit torque generator to date based on the use of conventional metallic materials is W(O), wherein the effective spin hall angle is found to be -0.5. Here, we explore the use of W(O) to manipulate magnetization in three terminal magnetic memory devices. We find, consistent with the large spin orbit torques, observed in W(O), that the critical current required for switching a magnetic element is significantly smaller than compared to other metallic systems such as Pt, β-W, and Ta. Lastly, we shall discuss the technologically important high speed ( ns time scale) switching dynamics in these devices and the role of complex micromagnetic states upon the switching process.

  8. Spin-orbit torques in locally and globally noncentrosymmetric crystals: Antiferromagnets and ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Železný, J.

    2017-01-10

    One of the main obstacles that prevents practical applications of antiferromagnets is the difficulty of manipulating the magnetic order parameter. Recently, following the theoretical prediction [J. Železný, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 157201 (2014)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.157201, the electrical switching of magnetic moments in an antiferromagnet was demonstrated [P. Wadley, Science 351, 587 (2016)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aab1031. The switching is due to the so-called spin-orbit torque, which has been extensively studied in ferromagnets. In this phenomena a nonequilibrium spin-polarization exchange coupled to the ordered local moments is induced by current, hence exerting a torque on the order parameter. Here we give a general systematic analysis of the symmetry of the spin-orbit torque in locally and globally noncentrosymmetric crystals. We study when the symmetry allows for a nonzero torque, when is the torque effective, and its dependence on the applied current direction and orientation of magnetic moments. For comparison, we consider both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders. In two representative model crystals we perform microscopic calculations of the spin-orbit torque to illustrate its symmetry properties and to highlight conditions under which the spin-orbit torque can be efficient for manipulating antiferromagnetic moments.

  9. Self-consistent treatment of spin and magnetization dynamic effect in spin transfer switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jie; Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Koh, Dax Enshan; Han, Guchang; Meng, Hao

    2011-01-01

    The effect of itinerant spin moment (m) dynamic in spin transfer switching has been ignored in most previous theoretical studies of the magnetization (M) dynamics. Thus in this paper, we proposed a more refined micromagnetic model of spin transfer switching that takes into account in a self-consistent manner of the coupled m and M dynamics. The numerical results obtained from this model further shed insight on the switching profiles of m and M, both of which show particular sensitivity to parameters such as the anisotropy field, the spin torque field, and the initial deviation between m and M.

  10. Spin-torque generation in topological insulator based heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Fischer, Mark H.

    2016-03-11

    Heterostructures utilizing topological insulators exhibit a remarkable spin-torque efficiency. However, the exact origin of the strong torque, in particular whether it stems from the spin-momentum locking of the topological surface states or rather from spin-Hall physics of the topological-insulator bulk, remains unclear. Here, we explore a mechanism of spin-torque generation purely based on the topological surface states. We consider topological-insulator-based bilayers involving ferromagnetic metal (TI/FM) and magnetically doped topological insulators (TI/mdTI), respectively. By ascribing the key theoretical differences between the two setups to location and number of active surface states, we describe both setups within the same framework of spin diffusion of the nonequilibrium spin density of the topological surface states. For the TI/FM bilayer, we find large spin-torque efficiencies of roughly equal magnitude for both in-plane and out-of-plane spin torques. For the TI/mdTI bilayer, we elucidate the dominance of the spin-transfer-like torque. However, we cannot explain the orders of magnitude enhancement reported. Nevertheless, our model gives an intuitive picture of spin-torque generation in topological-insulator-based bilayers and provides theoretical constraints on spin-torque generation due to topological surface states.

  11. Parameter dependence of resonant spin torque magnetization reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, L.; Serrano-Guisan, S.; Schumacher, H.W.

    2012-01-01

    We numerically study ultra fast resonant spin torque (ST) magnetization reversal in magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJ) driven by current pulses having a direct current (DC) and a resonant alternating current (AC) component. The precessional ST dynamics of the single domain MTJ free layer cell are modeled in the macro spin approximation. The energy efficiency, reversal time, and reversal reliability are investigated under variation of pulse parameters like direct and AC current amplitude, AC frequency and AC phase. We find a range of AC and direct current amplitudes where robust resonant ST reversal is obtained with faster switching time and reduced energy consumption per pulse compared to purely direct current ST reversal. However, for a certain range of AC and direct current amplitudes a strong dependence of the reversal properties on AC frequency and phase is found. Such regions of unreliable reversal must be avoided for ST memory applications.

  12. Parameter dependence of resonant spin torque magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, L.; Serrano-Guisan, S.; Schumacher, H. W.

    2012-04-01

    We numerically study ultra fast resonant spin torque (ST) magnetization reversal in magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJ) driven by current pulses having a direct current (DC) and a resonant alternating current (AC) component. The precessional ST dynamics of the single domain MTJ free layer cell are modeled in the macro spin approximation. The energy efficiency, reversal time, and reversal reliability are investigated under variation of pulse parameters like direct and AC current amplitude, AC frequency and AC phase. We find a range of AC and direct current amplitudes where robust resonant ST reversal is obtained with faster switching time and reduced energy consumption per pulse compared to purely direct current ST reversal. However, for a certain range of AC and direct current amplitudes a strong dependence of the reversal properties on AC frequency and phase is found. Such regions of unreliable reversal must be avoided for ST memory applications.

  13. A non-unity torque sharing function for torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new torque ripple minimization technique for a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG). Although the SRG has many advantageous characteristics as a generator, it has not been widely employed in the industry. One of the most notorious disadvantages of the SRG is its high torque...... ripple. In this paper, a non-unity Torque Sharing Function (TSF) is proposed to minimize the torque ripple over a wide speed range of operation. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed torque ripple minimization technique....

  14. Robust spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2017-04-18

    We theoretically study the current-induced spin torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions, composed of two semi-infinite antiferromagnetic layers separated by a tunnel barrier, in both clean and disordered regimes. We find that the torque enabling electrical manipulation of the Néel antiferromagnetic order parameter is out of plane, ∼n×p, while the torque competing with the antiferromagnetic exchange is in plane, ∼n×(p×n). Here, p and n are the Néel order parameter direction of the reference and free layers, respectively. Their bias dependence shows behavior similar to that in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions, the in-plane torque being mostly linear in bias, while the out-of-plane torque is quadratic. Most importantly, we find that the spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions is much more robust against disorder than that in antiferromagnetic metallic spin valves due to the tunneling nature of spin transport.

  15. Smooth torque speed characteristic of switched reluctance motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Hui; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Hao

    2014-01-01

    The torque ripple of switched reluctance motors (SRMs) is the main disadvantage that limits the industrial application of these motors. Although several methods for smooth-toque operation (STO) have been proposed, STO works well only within a certain torque and speed range because...

  16. Spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves: From clean to disordered regimes

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2014-05-28

    Current-driven spin torques in metallic spin valves composed of antiferromagnets are theoretically studied using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method implemented on a tight-binding model. We focus our attention on G-type and L-type antiferromagnets in both clean and disordered regimes. In such structures, spin torques can either rotate the magnetic order parameter coherently (coherent torque) or compete with the internal antiferromagnetic exchange (exchange torque). We show that, depending on the symmetry of the spin valve, the coherent and exchange torques can either be in the plane, ∝n×(q×n) or out of the plane ∝n×q, where q and n are the directions of the order parameter of the polarizer and the free antiferromagnetic layers, respectively. Although disorder conserves the symmetry of the torques, it strongly reduces the torque magnitude, pointing out the need for momentum conservation to ensure strong spin torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves.

  17. Manipulating the voltage dependence of tunneling spin torques

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2012-10-01

    Voltage-driven spin transfer torques in magnetic tunnel junctions provide an outstanding tool to design advanced spin-based devices for memory and reprogrammable logic applications. The non-linear voltage dependence of the torque has a direct impact on current-driven magnetization dynamics and on devices performances. After a brief overview of the progress made to date in the theoretical description of the spin torque in tunnel junctions, I present different ways to alter and control the bias dependence of both components of the spin torque. Engineering the junction (barrier and electrodes) structural asymmetries or controlling the spin accumulation profile in the free layer offer promising tools to design effcient spin devices.

  18. Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Haney, Paul M.

    2013-12-19

    In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.

  19. Spin-Swapping Transport and Torques in Ultrathin Magnetic Bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2016-07-12

    Planar spin transport in disordered ultrathin magnetic bilayers comprising a ferromagnet and a normal metal (typically used for spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin-orbit torque experiments) is investigated theoretically. Using a tight-binding model that puts the extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin swapping on equal footing, we show that the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport dramatically depends on the ratio between the layer thickness d and the mean free path λ. While the spin Hall effect dominates in the diffusive limit (d≫λ), spin swapping dominates in the Knudsen regime (d≲λ). A remarkable consequence is that spin swapping induces a substantial fieldlike torque in the Knudsen regime.

  20. Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-07-07

    We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.

  1. Giant thermal spin-torque–assisted magnetic tunnel junction switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushp, Aakash; Phung, Timothy; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian P.; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Spin-polarized charge currents induce magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) switching by virtue of spin-transfer torque (STT). Recently, by taking advantage of the spin-dependent thermoelectric properties of magnetic materials, novel means of generating spin currents from temperature gradients, and their associated thermal-spin torques (TSTs), have been proposed, but so far these TSTs have not been large enough to influence MTJ switching. Here we demonstrate significant TSTs in MTJs by generating large temperature gradients across ultrathin MgO tunnel barriers that considerably affect the switching fields of the MTJ. We attribute the origin of the TST to an asymmetry of the tunneling conductance across the zero-bias voltage of the MTJ. Remarkably, we estimate through magneto-Seebeck voltage measurements that the charge currents that would be generated due to the temperature gradient would give rise to STT that is a thousand times too small to account for the changes in switching fields that we observe. PMID:25971730

  2. Spin-orbit-coupled transport and spin torque in a ferromagnetic heterostructure

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui

    2014-02-07

    Ferromagnetic heterostructures provide an ideal platform to explore the nature of spin-orbit torques arising from the interplay mediated by itinerant electrons between a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. For such a prototypic system, we develop a set of coupled diffusion equations to describe the diffusive spin dynamics and spin-orbit torques. We characterize the spin torque and its two prominent—out-of-plane and in-plane—components for a wide range of relative strength between the Rashba coupling and ferromagnetic exchange. The symmetry and angular dependence of the spin torque emerging from our simple Rashba model is in an agreement with experiments. The spin diffusion equation can be generalized to incorporate dynamic effects such as spin pumping and magnetic damping.

  3. Spin-transfer-torque efficiency enhanced by edge-damage of perpendicular magnetic random access memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kyungmi [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Jin, E-mail: kj-lee@korea.ac.kr [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    We numerically investigate the effect of magnetic and electrical damages at the edge of a perpendicular magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell on the spin-transfer-torque (STT) efficiency that is defined by the ratio of thermal stability factor to switching current. We find that the switching mode of an edge-damaged cell is different from that of an undamaged cell, which results in a sizable reduction in the switching current. Together with a marginal reduction of the thermal stability factor of an edge-damaged cell, this feature makes the STT efficiency large. Our results suggest that a precise edge control is viable for the optimization of STT-MRAM.

  4. Spin-transfer-torque efficiency enhanced by edge-damage of perpendicular magnetic random access memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyungmi; Lee, Kyung-Jin

    2015-08-01

    We numerically investigate the effect of magnetic and electrical damages at the edge of a perpendicular magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell on the spin-transfer-torque (STT) efficiency that is defined by the ratio of thermal stability factor to switching current. We find that the switching mode of an edge-damaged cell is different from that of an undamaged cell, which results in a sizable reduction in the switching current. Together with a marginal reduction of the thermal stability factor of an edge-damaged cell, this feature makes the STT efficiency large. Our results suggest that a precise edge control is viable for the optimization of STT-MRAM.

  5. Micromagnetic investigation of the dynamics of magnetization switching induced by a spin polarized current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Jin; Dieny, Bernard

    2006-03-01

    Using micromagnetic modeling, we tested a prediction of single-domain spin-torque theory which switching current density depends only weakly on magnetic cell size. The switching time and current density are strongly affected by the cell size for low spin polarization. Larger samples with a small length-to-width ratio and small spin polarization can exhibit a nonmonotonous dependence of switching time on current. Excitation of incoherent spin waves caused by the circular Oersted field due to the current is responsible for this nonmonotonous dependence. However, the magnetic dynamics recovers a single-domain-like behavior when the spin polarization is high and/or the cell size is small.

  6. Torque and Suspension Force in a Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Masatsugu; Chiba, Akira; Akagi, Hirofumi; Fukao, Tadashi

    Bearingless switched reluctance motors, which can control rotor radial positions with magnetic force, have been proposed. The bearingless switched reluctance motors are characterized by integration of switched reluctance motors and magnetic bearings. These motors have two kinds of stator windings composed of motor main windings and suspension windings in the same stator in order to produce suspension force that can realize rotor shaft suspension without mechanical contacts or lubrication. For successful stable operation, accurate theoretical formulae of instantaneous torque and suspension force are necessary to a rotational speed controller and a rotor radial position controller. This paper derives the theoretical formulae of the instantaneous torque and the suspension force from an assumption of simple permeance distribution. This derivation process makes an assumption that fringing fluxes are distributed on elliptical lines. It is shown with experimental results that the derived theoretical formulae are very accurate in terms of practical application.

  7. Dynamic viscoelasticity measurement under alternative torque using electromagnetically spinning method with quadruple electromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Hirano, Taichi; Sakai, Keiji

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we developed a novel type of rheological measurement system. Here, a spherical probe is driven to rotate periodically by applying torques using quadruple electromagnets in a noncontact manner. Moreover, this system is an enhancement of our electromagnetically spinning (EMS) viscometer, which is widely used for measuring rheological flow curves in various industrial fields. The quadruple EMS method provides the frequency spectrum of viscoelasticity, in addition to shear viscosity, in a steady flow by switching the operation modes of the driving torque. We show the results obtained for Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials and demonstrate the validity of the system.

  8. Spin-Orbit Torques in Co/Pd Multilayer Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Jamali, Mahdi

    2013-12-09

    Current induced spin-orbit torques have been studied in ferromagnetic nanowires made of 20 nm thick Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using Hall voltage and lock-in measurements, it is found that upon injection of an electric current both in-plane (Slonczewski-like) and perpendicular (fieldlike) torques build up in the nanowire. The torque efficiencies are found to be as large as 1.17 and 5 kOe at 108  A/cm2 for the in-plane and perpendicular components, respectively, which is surprisingly comparable to previous studies in ultrathin (∼1  nm) magnetic bilayers. We show that this result cannot be explained solely by spin Hall effect induced torque at the outer interfaces, indicating a probable contribution of the bulk of the Co/Pd multilayer.

  9. Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2015-04-01

    Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm×(uso×m). Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.

  10. Field-free deterministic ultrafast creation of magnetic skyrmions by spin-orbit torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Felix; Lemesh, Ivan; Schneider, Michael; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M.; Hessing, Piet; Geilhufe, Jan; Caretta, Lucas; Engel, Dieter; Krüger, Benjamin; Viefhaus, Jens; Eisebitt, Stefan; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic skyrmions are stabilized by a combination of external magnetic fields, stray field energies, higher-order exchange interactions and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). The last favours homochiral skyrmions, whose motion is driven by spin-orbit torques and is deterministic, which makes systems with a large DMI relevant for applications. Asymmetric multilayers of non-magnetic heavy metals with strong spin-orbit interactions and transition-metal ferromagnetic layers provide a large and tunable DMI. Also, the non-magnetic heavy metal layer can inject a vertical spin current with transverse spin polarization into the ferromagnetic layer via the spin Hall effect. This leads to torques that can be used to switch the magnetization completely in out-of-plane magnetized ferromagnetic elements, but the switching is deterministic only in the presence of a symmetry-breaking in-plane field. Although spin-orbit torques led to domain nucleation in continuous films and to stochastic nucleation of skyrmions in magnetic tracks, no practical means to create individual skyrmions controllably in an integrated device design at a selected position has been reported yet. Here we demonstrate that sub-nanosecond spin-orbit torque pulses can generate single skyrmions at custom-defined positions in a magnetic racetrack deterministically using the same current path as used for the shifting operation. The effect of the DMI implies that no external in-plane magnetic fields are needed for this aim. This implementation exploits a defect, such as a constriction in the magnetic track, that can serve as a skyrmion generator. The concept is applicable to any track geometry, including three-dimensional designs.

  11. Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Fang, F.; Li, Q.; Zhu, J.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Y. Z.; Zhao, H. B.; Lüpke, G.

    2015-10-01

    Optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new pathways to manipulate spin through its interaction with photon, orbit, charge or phonon. However, these processes are limited by either the long thermal recovery time or the low-temperature requirement. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrafast coherent spin precession via optical charge-transfer processes in the exchange-coupled Fe/CoO system at room temperature. The efficiency of spin precession excitation is significantly higher and the recovery time of the exchange-coupling torque is much shorter than for the demagnetization procedure, which is desirable for fast switching. The exchange coupling is a key issue in spin valves and tunnelling junctions, and hence our findings will help promote the development of exchange-coupled device concepts for ultrafast coherent spin manipulation.

  12. Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Fang, F; Li, Q; Zhu, J; Yang, Y; Wu, Y Z; Zhao, H B; Lüpke, G

    2015-10-28

    Optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new pathways to manipulate spin through its interaction with photon, orbit, charge or phonon. However, these processes are limited by either the long thermal recovery time or the low-temperature requirement. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrafast coherent spin precession via optical charge-transfer processes in the exchange-coupled Fe/CoO system at room temperature. The efficiency of spin precession excitation is significantly higher and the recovery time of the exchange-coupling torque is much shorter than for the demagnetization procedure, which is desirable for fast switching. The exchange coupling is a key issue in spin valves and tunnelling junctions, and hence our findings will help promote the development of exchange-coupled device concepts for ultrafast coherent spin manipulation.

  13. Skyrmionic spin Seebeck effect via dissipative thermomagnonic torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2014-06-01

    We derive thermomagnonic torque and its "β-type" dissipative correction from the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The β-type dissipative correction describes viscous coupling between magnetic dynamics and magnonic current and it stems from spin mistracking of the magnetic order. We show that thermomagnonic torque is important for describing temperature gradient induced motion of skyrmions in helical magnets while dissipative correction plays an essential role in generating transverse Magnus force. We propose to detect such skyrmionic motion by employing the transverse spin Seebeck effect geometry.

  14. Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator

    KAUST Repository

    Mellnik, A. R.

    2014-07-23

    Magnetic devices are a leading contender for the implementation of memory and logic technologies that are non-volatile, that can scale to high density and high speed, and that do not wear out. However, widespread application of magnetic memory and logic devices will require the development of efficient mechanisms for reorienting their magnetization using the least possible current and power. There has been considerable recent progress in this effort; in particular, it has been discovered that spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal/ferromagnet bilayers can produce strong current-driven torques on the magnetic layer, via the spin Hall effect in the heavy metal or the Rashba-Edelstein effect in the ferromagnet. In the search for materials to provide even more efficient spin-orbit-induced torques, some proposals have suggested topological insulators, which possess a surface state in which the effects of spin-orbit coupling are maximal in the sense that an electron\\' s spin orientation is fixed relative to its propagation direction. Here we report experiments showing that charge current flowing in-plane in a thin film of the topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) at room temperature can indeed exert a strong spin-transfer torque on an adjacent ferromagnetic permalloy (Ni81Fe19) thin film, with a direction consistent with that expected from the topological surface state. We find that the strength of the torque per unit charge current density in Bi 2Se3 is greater than for any source of spin-transfer torque measured so far, even for non-ideal topological insulator films in which the surface states coexist with bulk conduction. Our data suggest that topological insulators could enable very efficient electrical manipulation of magnetic materials at room temperature, for memory and logic applications. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yan

    2017-03-07

    We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in Cu40Au60/Ni80Fe20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.

  16. Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2018-01-29

    Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.

  17. Spin-torque oscillation in large size nano-magnet with perpendicular magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Linqiang, E-mail: LL6UK@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Kabir, Mehdi [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Dao, Nam; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Cyberey, Michael [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Institute of Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Stan, Mircea [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • 500 nm size nano-pillar device was fabricated by photolithography techniques. • A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved with perpendicular magnetic fields. • Spin torque switching and oscillation was demonstrated in the large sized device. • Micromagnetic simulations accurately reproduced the experimental results. • Simulations demonstrated the synchronization of magnetic inhomogeneities. - Abstract: DC current induced magnetization reversal and magnetization oscillation was observed in 500 nm large size Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Cu/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} pillars. A perpendicular external field enhanced the coercive field separation between the reference layer (Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}) and free layer (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) in the pseudo spin valve, allowing a large window of external magnetic field for exploring the free-layer reversal. A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved for the study of spin torque oscillation by applying a perpendicular field >3 kOe. The magnetization precession was manifested in terms of the multiple peaks on the differential resistance curves. Depending on the bias current and applied field, the regions of magnetic switching and magnetization precession on a dynamical stability diagram has been discussed in details. Micromagnetic simulations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results and provide insight for synchronization of inhomogeneities in large sized device. The ability to manipulate spin-dynamics on large size devices could be proved useful for increasing the output power of the spin-transfer nano-oscillators (STNOs).

  18. Spin-orbit torques and charge pumping in crystalline magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Chiara

    In magnetic crystals with an inversion asymmetric unit cell a non-zero global spin-polarization is generated by an electrical current, which acts with a torque on the magnetisation exciting magnetic dynamics. This relativistic non-equilibrium spin phenomenon also has a reciprocal effect in which the excitation of magnons results in the pumping of a charge current. The possibility to manipulate/read magnetism with electrical currents is highly relevant for magnetic memories and other spintronic devices. I will start by reviewing our recent research on spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in crystalline magnets, in particular our very recent measurements of the crystalline SOT at room temperature in half-Heusler NiMnSb thin films. With this experiment we are able to fully characterise magnitude and symmetry of the SOTs. I will then talk about the first demonstration of magnonic charge pumping in crystal magnet GaMnAs. In this effect, which is the reciprocal effect of SOTs, the precessing ferromagnet pumps a charge current. Differently from spin pumping, which is commonly used to electrically detect magnetization dynamics, in charge pumping magnons are converted within the ferromagnet into high-frequency currents via the relativistic spin-orbit interaction, without the need of a secondary spin-charge conversion element, such as heavy metals with large spin Hall angle.

  19. Bias dependence of spin transfer torque in Co2MnSi Heusler alloy based magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Phung, Timothy; Pushp, Aakash; Ferrante, Yari; Jeong, Jaewoo; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian P.; Yang, See-Hun; Jiang, Yong; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2017-04-01

    Heusler compounds are of interest as electrode materials for use in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) due to their half metallic character, which leads to 100% spin polarization and high tunneling magnetoresistance. Most work to date has focused on the improvements to tunneling magnetoresistance that can stem from the use of Heusler electrodes, while there is much less work investigating the influence of Heusler electrodes on the spin transfer torque properties of MTJs. Here, we investigate the bias dependence of the anti-damping like and field-like spin transfer torque components in both symmetric (Co2MnSi/MgO/Co2MnSi) and asymmetric (Co2MnSi/MgO/CoFe) structure Heusler based MTJs using spin transfer torque ferromagnetic resonance. We find that while the damping like torque is linear with respect to bias for both MTJ structures, the asymmetric MTJ structure has an additional linear component to the ordinarily quadratic field like torque bias dependence and that these results can be accounted for by a free electron tunneling model. Furthermore, our results suggest that the low damping and low saturation magnetization properties of Heusler alloys are more likely to lead significant improvements to spin torque switching efficiency rather than their half metallic character.

  20. A New Circuit Model for Spin-Torque Oscillator Including Perpendicular Torque of Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyein Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.

  1. Feedback control of noise in spin valves by the spin-transfer torque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandopadyay, S.; Brataas, A.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2011-01-01

    The miniaturization of magnetic read heads and random access memory elements makes them vulnerable to thermal fluctuations. We demonstrate how current-induced spin-transfer torques can be used to suppress the effects of thermal fluctuations. This enhances the fidelity of perpendicular magnetic spin

  2. Model for a collimated spin wave beam generated by a single layer, spin torque nanocontact

    OpenAIRE

    Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Stiles, M. D.

    2007-01-01

    A model of spin torque induced magnetization dynamics based upon semi-classical spin diffusion theory for a single layer nanocontact is presented. The model incorporates effects due to the current induced Oersted field and predicts the generation of a variety of spatially dependent, coherent, precessional magnetic wave structures. Directionally controllable collimated spin wave beams, vortex spiral waves, and localized standing waves are found to be excited by the interplay of the Oersted fie...

  3. Spin-flip scattering effect on the current-induced spin torque in ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhengang; Su Gang; Jin Biao; Zheng Qingrong

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the current-induced spin transfer torque of a ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet tunnel junction by taking the spin-flip scatterings into account. It is found that the spin-flip scattering can induce an additional spin torque, enhancing the maximum of the spin torque and giving rise to an angular shift compared to the case when the spin-flip scatterings are neglected. The effects of the molecular fields of the left and right ferromagnets on the spin torque are also studied. It is found that τ Rx /I e (τ Rx is the spin-transfer torque acting on the right ferromagnet and I e is the tunneling electrical current) does vary with the molecular fields. At two certain angles, τ Rx /I e is independent of the molecular field of the right ferromagnet, resulting in two crossing points in the curve of τ Rx /I e versus the relevant orientation for different molecular fields

  4. Spin state switching in iron coordination compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gütlich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with coordination compounds of iron(II that may exhibit thermally induced spin transition, known as spin crossover, depending on the nature of the coordinating ligand sphere. Spin transition in such compounds also occurs under pressure and irradiation with light. The spin states involved have different magnetic and optical properties suitable for their detection and characterization. Spin crossover compounds, though known for more than eight decades, have become most attractive in recent years and are extensively studied by chemists and physicists. The switching properties make such materials potential candidates for practical applications in thermal and pressure sensors as well as optical devices.The article begins with a brief description of the principle of molecular spin state switching using simple concepts of ligand field theory. Conditions to be fulfilled in order to observe spin crossover will be explained and general remarks regarding the chemical nature that is important for the occurrence of spin crossover will be made. A subsequent section describes the molecular consequences of spin crossover and the variety of physical techniques usually applied for their characterization. The effects of light irradiation (LIESST and application of pressure are subjects of two separate sections. The major part of this account concentrates on selected spin crossover compounds of iron(II, with particular emphasis on the chemical and physical influences on the spin crossover behavior. The vast variety of compounds exhibiting this fascinating switching phenomenon encompasses mono-, oligo- and polynuclear iron(II complexes and cages, polymeric 1D, 2D and 3D systems, nanomaterials, and polyfunctional materials that combine spin crossover with another physical or chemical property.

  5. Manipulating femtosecond spin-orbit torques with laser pulse sequences to control magnetic memory states and ringing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingos, P. C.; Wang, J.; Perakis, I. E.

    2015-05-01

    Femtosecond (fs) coherent control of collective order parameters is important for nonequilibrium phase dynamics in correlated materials. Here, we propose such control of ferromagnetic order based on using nonadiabatic optical manipulation of electron-hole (e -h ) photoexcitations to create fs carrier-spin pulses with controllable direction and time profile. These spin pulses are generated due to the time-reversal symmetry breaking arising from nonperturbative spin-orbit and magnetic exchange couplings of coherent photocarriers. By tuning the nonthermal populations of exchange-split, spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor band states, we can excite fs spin-orbit torques that control complex magnetization pathways between multiple magnetic memory states. We calculate the laser-induced fs magnetic anisotropy in the time domain by using density matrix equations of motion rather than the quasiequilibrium free energy. By comparing to pump-probe experiments, we identify a "sudden" out-of-plane magnetization canting displaying fs magnetic hysteresis, which agrees with switchings measured by the static Hall magnetoresistivity. This fs transverse spin-canting switches direction with magnetic state and laser frequency, which distinguishes it from the longitudinal nonlinear optical and demagnetization effects. We propose that sequences of clockwise or counterclockwise fs spin-orbit torques, photoexcited by shaping two-color laser-pulse sequences analogous to multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, can be used to timely suppress or enhance magnetic ringing and switching rotation in magnetic memories.

  6. Spin-orbit torque in a thin film of the topological insulator Bi2Se3: Crossover from the ballistic to diffusive regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y. J.; Deng, W. Y.; Geng, H.; Shen, R.; Shao, L. B.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The spin-orbit torque provides an efficient method for switching the direction of a magnetization by using an electric field. Owing to the spin-orbit coupling, when an electric field is applied, a nonequilibrium spin density is generated, which exerts a torque on the local magnetization. Here, we investigate the spin-orbit torque in a thin film of topological insulator \\text{Bi}2\\text{Se}3 based upon a Boltzmann equation, with proper boundary conditions, which is applicable from the ballistic regime to the diffusive regime. It is shown that due to the spin-momentum interlocking of the electron surface states, the magnitude of the field-like torque is simply in linear proportion to the longitudinal electrical current. For a fixed electric field, the spin-orbit torque is proportional to the sample length in the ballistic limit, and saturates to a constant in the diffusive limit. The dependence of the torque on the magnetization direction and exchange coupling strength is also studied. Our theory may offer useful guidance for experimental investigations of the spin-orbit torque in finite-size systems.

  7. Spin transfer torque generated magnetic droplet solitons (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Mohseni, S. M. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sani, S. R. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Iacocca, E.; Dumas, R. K.; Pogoryelov, Ye. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Anh Nguyen, T. N. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Laboratory for Nanotechnology (LNT), Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City (VNU-HCM), Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Muduli, P. K. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Eklund, A. [Devices and Circuits, School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Hoefer, M. [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Åkerman, J., E-mail: johan.akerman@physics.gu.se [Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2014-05-07

    We present recent experimental and numerical advancements in the understanding of spin transfer torque generated magnetic droplet solitons. The experimental work focuses on nano-contact spin torque oscillators (NC-STOs) based on orthogonal (pseudo) spin valves where the Co fixed layer has an easy-plane anisotropy, and the [Co/Ni] free layer has a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The NC-STO resistance and microwave signal generation are measured simultaneously as a function of drive current and applied perpendicular magnetic field. Both exhibit dramatic transitions at a certain current dependent critical field value, where the microwave frequency drops 10 GHz, modulation sidebands appear, and the resistance exhibits a jump, while the magnetoresistance changes sign. We interpret these observations as the nucleation of a magnetic droplet soliton with a large fraction of its magnetization processing with an angle greater than 90°, i.e., around a direction opposite that of the applied field. This interpretation is corroborated by numerical simulations. When the field is further increased, we find that the droplet eventually collapses under the pressure from the Zeeman energy.

  8. Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geranton, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag 2 Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag 2 Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT-based magnetic

  9. Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geranton, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag{sub 2}Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag{sub 2}Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT

  10. High frequency spin torque oscillators with composite free layer spin valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Kanimozhi; Arumugam, Brinda; Rajamani, Amuda

    2016-01-01

    We report the oscillations of magnetic spin components in a composite free layer spin valve. The associated Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert–Slonczewski (LLGS) equation is studied by stereographically projecting the spin on to a complex plane and the spin components were found. A fourth order Runge–Kutta numerical integration on LLGS equation also confirms the similar trajectories of the spin components. This study establishes the possibility of a Spin Torque Oscillator in a composite free layer spin valve, where the exchange coupling is ferromagnetic in nature. In-plane and out-of-plane precessional modes of magnetization oscillations were found in zero applied magnetic field and the frequencies of the oscillations were calculated from Fast Fourier Transform of the components of magnetization. Behavior of Power Spectral Density for a range of current density is studied. Finally our analysis shows the occurrence of highest frequency 150 GHz, which is in the second harmonics for the specific choice of system parameters.

  11. Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torque via Modulation of Spin Current Absorption

    KAUST Repository

    Qiu, Xuepeng

    2016-11-18

    The magnitude of spin-orbit torque (SOT), exerted to a ferromagnet (FM) from an adjacent heavy metal (HM), strongly depends on the amount of spin current absorbed in the FM. We exploit the large spin absorption at the Ru interface to manipulate the SOTs in HM/FM/Ru multilayers. While the FM thickness is smaller than its spin dephasing length of 1.2 nm, the top Ru layer largely boosts the absorption of spin currents into the FM layer and substantially enhances the strength of SOT acting on the FM. Spin-pumping experiments induced by ferromagnetic resonance support our conclusions that the observed increase in the SOT efficiency can be attributed to an enhancement of the spin-current absorption. A theoretical model that considers both reflected and transmitted mixing conductances at the two interfaces of FM is developed to explain the results.

  12. A novel macro-model for spin-transfer-torque based magnetic-tunnel-junction elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungyeon; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Sojeong; Lee, Seungjun; Shin, Hyungsoon

    2010-04-01

    Spin-transfer-torque (STT) switching in magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) has important merits over the conventional field induced magnetic switching (FIMS) MRAM in avoiding half-select problem, and improving scalability and selectivity. Design of MRAM circuitry using STT-based MTJ elements requires an accurate circuit model which exactly emulates the characteristics of an MTJ in a circuit simulator such as HSPICE. This work presents a novel macro-model that fully emulates the important characteristics of STT-based MTJ. The macro-model is realized as a three terminal sub-circuit that reproduces asymmetric resistance versus current (R-I) characteristics and temperature dependence of R-I hysteresis of STT-based MTJ element.

  13. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-down and motor braking forces. The control strategy of type two is achieved by simultaneously changing the target braking torque during different mode switch stages and controlling the motor to participate in active coordination control. Finally, the torque coordination control strategy is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink, and the results show that the proposed control strategy has a good effect in reducing the braking torque fluctuation and vehicle shocks during braking mode switches.

  14. Semitransparent anisotropic and spin Hall magnetoresistance sensor enabled by spin-orbit torque biasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yumeng; Xu, Yanjun; Xie, Hang; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate an ultrathin and semitransparent anisotropic and spin Hall magnetoresistance sensor based on NiFe/Pt heterostructures. The use of a spin-orbit torque effective field for transverse biasing allows us to reduce the total thickness of the sensors down to 3-4 nm, thereby leading to the semitransparency. Despite the extremely simple design, the spin-orbit torque effective field biased NiFe/Pt sensor exhibits levels of linearity and sensitivity comparable to those of sensors using more complex linearization schemes. In a proof-of-concept design using a full Wheatstone bridge comprising four sensing elements, we obtained a sensitivity up to 202.9 mΩ Oe-1, a linearity error below 5%, and a detection limit down to 20 nT. The transmittance of the sensor is over 50% in the visible range.

  15. Spin-Orbit Torques and Anisotropic Magnetization Damping in Skyrmion Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hals, Kjetil; Brataas, Arne

    2014-03-01

    We theoretically study the effects of reactive and dissipative homogeneous spin-orbit torques and anisotropic damping on the current-driven skyrmion dynamics in cubic chiral magnets. Our results demonstrate that spin-orbit torques play a significant role in the current-induced skyrmion velocity. The dissipative spin-orbit torque generates a relativistic Magnus force on the skyrmions, whereas the reactive spin-orbit torque yields a correction to both the drift velocity along the current direction and the transverse velocity associated with the Magnus force. The spin-orbit torque corrections to the velocity scale linearly with the skyrmion size, which is inversely proportional to the spin-orbit coupling. Consequently, the reactive spin-orbit torque correction can be the same order of magnitude as the non-relativistic contribution. More importantly, the dissipative spin-orbit torque can be the dominant force that causes a deflected motion of the skyrmions if the torque exhibits a linear or quadratic relationship with the spin-orbit coupling. In addition, we demonstrate that the skyrmion velocity is determined by anisotropic magnetization damping parameters governed by the skyrmion size.

  16. Large spin Hall magnetoresistance and its correlation to the spin-orbit torque in W/CoFeB/MgO structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soonha; Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Jo, Younghun; Park, Byong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    The phenomena based on spin-orbit interaction in heavy metal/ferromagnet/oxide structures have been investigated extensively due to their applicability to the manipulation of the magnetization direction via the in-plane current. This implies the existence of an inverse effect, in which the conductivity in such structures should depend on the magnetization orientation. In this work, we report a systematic study of the magnetoresistance (MR) of W/CoFeB/MgO structures and its correlation with the current-induced torque to the magnetization. We observe that the MR is independent of the angle between the magnetization and current direction but is determined by the relative magnetization orientation with respect to the spin direction accumulated by the spin Hall effect, for which the symmetry is identical to that of so-called the spin Hall magnetoresistance. The MR of ~1% in W/CoFeB/MgO samples is considerably larger than those in other structures of Ta/CoFeB/MgO or Pt/Co/AlOx, which indicates a larger spin Hall angle of W. Moreover, the similar W thickness dependence of the MR and the current-induced magnetization switching efficiency demonstrates that MR in a non-magnet/ferromagnet structure can be utilized to understand other closely correlated spin-orbit coupling effects such as the inverse spin Hall effect or the spin-orbit spin transfer torques. PMID:26423608

  17. Ultra-fast three terminal perpendicular spin-orbit torque MRAM (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, Olivier; Cubukcu, Murat; Hamelin, Claire; Lamard, Nathalie; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Mikuszeit, Nikolai; Garello, Kevin; Gambardella, Pietro; Langer, Juergen; Ocker, Berthold; Miron, Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles

    2015-09-01

    The discovery that a current flowing in a heavy metal can exert a torque on a neighboring ferromagnet has opened a new way to manipulate the magnetization at the nanoscale. This "spin orbit torque" (SOT) has been demonstrated in ultrathin magnetic multilayers with structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) and high spin orbit coupling, such as Pt/Co/AlOx multilayers. We have shown that this torque can lead to the magnetization switching of a perpendicularly magnetized nanomagnet by an in-plane current injection. The manipulation of magnetization by SOT has led to a novel concept of magnetic RAM memory, the SOT-MRAM, which combines non volatility, high speed, reliability and large endurance. These features make the SOT-MRAM a good candidate to replace SRAM for non-volatile cache memory application. We will present the proof of concept of a perpendicular SOT-MRAM cell composed of a Ta/FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB magnetic tunnel junction and demonstrate ultra-fast (down to 300 ps) deterministic bipolar magnetization switching. Macrospin and micromagnetic simulations including SOT cannot reproduce the experimental results, which suggests that additional physical mechanisms are at stacks. Our results show that SOT-MRAM is fast, reliable and low power, which is promising for non-volatile cache memory application. We will also discuss recent experiments of magnetization reversal in ultrathin multilayers Pt/Co/AlOx by very short (<200 ps) current pulses. We will show that in this material, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moryia interaction plays a key role in the reversal process.

  18. Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Haney, Paul M.

    2013-05-07

    In bilayer nanowires consisting of a ferromagnetic layer and a nonmagnetic layer with strong spin-orbit coupling, currents create torques on the magnetization beyond those found in simple ferromagnetic nanowires. The resulting magnetic dynamics appear to require torques that can be separated into two terms, dampinglike and fieldlike. The dampinglike torque is typically derived from models describing the bulk spin Hall effect and the spin transfer torque, and the fieldlike torque is typically derived from a Rashba model describing interfacial spin-orbit coupling. We derive a model based on the Boltzmann equation that unifies these approaches. We also consider an approximation to the Boltzmann equation, the drift-diffusion model, that qualitatively reproduces the behavior, but quantitatively differs in some regimes. We show that the Boltzmann equation with physically reasonable parameters can match the torques for any particular sample, but in some cases, it fails to describe the experimentally observed thickness dependencies.

  19. Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance in arbitrarily magnetized thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenar, Joseph

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) in non-magnetic metals can be used to generate spin-transfer-torque (STT), subsequently inducing ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in magnetic thin films; this experimental method is termed spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR). Most ST-FMR experiments that are reported have an applied magnetic field in the plane of the sample and the research focuses on material combinations that have large and efficient STT. The most common way ST-FMR signals are detected is through an anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) rectification process. In this work we will present ST-FMR results in thin films where the magnetization has both an in-plane and out-of-plane component. The arbitrary magnetization direction is achieved by tipping the applied magnetic field out of the sample plane. We find that when the material system is a permalloy/Pt bilayer, ST-FMR signals are not mirror-symmetric upon magnetic field reversal . This is because the combination of both a STT from the bulk SHE and the Oersted field-like torque from the device do not drive the dynamics in the same manner when the field is reversed. We interpret our results in the Py/Pt experiment by extending an already established ST-FMR lineshape model to describe the general case of arbitrarily magnetized films. We compare and contrast our Py/Pt experiment with another system we measured, a Py/MoS2 bilayer. For the Py/MoS2 system, in-plane experiments suggest that a large STT is present and are comparable to what is observed for the more traditional Py/Pt system . On the other hand, the out-of-plane experiment for the Py/MoS2 system is qualitatively very different from Py/Pt. Our results suggest that ST-FMR experiments for arbitrarily magnetized magnetic films are useful in characterizing STT generated from interface rather than bulk effects. Work at Northwestern was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division under grant

  20. Spin-orbit torque induced spike-timing dependent plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Abhronil, E-mail: asengup@purdue.edu; Al Azim, Zubair; Fong, Xuanyao; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Nanoelectronic devices that mimic the functionality of synapses are a crucial requirement for performing cortical simulations of the brain. In this work, we propose a ferromagnet-heavy metal heterostructure that employs spin-orbit torque to implement spike-timing dependent plasticity. The proposed device offers the advantage of decoupled spike transmission and programming current paths, thereby leading to reliable operation during online learning. Possible arrangement of such devices in a crosspoint architecture can pave the way for ultra-dense neural networks. Simulation studies indicate that the device has the potential of achieving pico-Joule level energy consumption (maximum 2 pJ per synaptic event) which is comparable to the energy consumption for synaptic events in biological synapses.

  1. Spin-orbit torque in two-dimensional antiferromagnetic topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2017-01-24

    We investigate spin transport in two-dimensional ferromagnetic (FTI) and antiferromagnetic (AFTI) topological insulators. In the presence of an in-plane magnetization AFTI supports zero energy modes, which enables topologically protected edge conduction at low energy. We address the nature of current-driven spin torque in these structures and study the impact of spin-independent disorder. Interestingly, upon strong disorder the spin torque develops an antidamping component (i.e., even upon magnetization reversal) along the edges, which could enable current-driven manipulation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. This antidamping torque decreases when increasing the system size and when the system enters the trivial insulator regime.

  2. Artificial neural network based torque calculation of switched reluctance motor without locking the rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Fuat; Goto, Hiroki; Guo, Hai-Jiao; Ichinokura, Osamu

    2009-04-01

    Feedback of motor torque is required in most of switched reluctance (SR) motor applications in order to control torque and its ripple. An SR motor shows highly nonlinear property which does not allow calculating torque analytically. Torque can be directly measured by torque sensor, but it inevitably increases the cost and has to be properly mounted on the motor shaft. Instead of torque sensor, finite element analysis (FEA) may be employed for torque calculation. However, motor modeling and calculation takes relatively long time. The results of FEA may also differ from the actual results. The most convenient way seems to calculate torque from the measured values of rotor position, current, and flux linkage while locking the rotor at definite positions. However, this method needs an extra assembly to lock the rotor. In this study, a novel torque calculation based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) is presented. Magnetizing data are collected while a 6/4 SR motor is running. They need to be interpolated for torque calculation. ANN is very strong tool for data interpolation. ANN based torque estimation is verified on the 6/4 SR motor and is compared by FEA based torque estimation to show its validity.

  3. Scaling Projections on Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debasis; Tulapurkar, Ashwin; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2018-02-01

    We investigate scaling of technologically relevant magnetic tunnel junction devices in the trilayer and pentalayer configurations by varying the cross-sectional area along the transverse direction using the non-equilibrium Green's function spin transport formalism. We study the geometry dependence by considering square and circular cross-sections. As the transverse dimension in each case reduces, we demonstrate that the transverse mode energy profile plays a major role in the resistance-area product. Both types of devices show constant tunnel magnetoresistance at larger cross-sectional areas but achieve ultra-high magnetoresistance at small cross-sectional areas, while maintaining low resistance-area products. We notice that although the critical switching voltage for switching the magnetization of the free layer nanomagnet in the trilayer case remains constant at larger areas, it needs more energy to switch at smaller areas. In the pentalayer case, we observe an oscillatory behavior at smaller areas as a result of double barrier tunneling. We also describe how switching characteristics of both kinds of devices are affected by the scaling.

  4. Angular dependence and symmetry of Rashba spin torque in ferromagnetic heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian

    2013-06-26

    In a ferromagnetic heterostructure, the interplay between Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange splitting gives rise to a current-driven spin torque. In a realistic device setup, we investigate the Rashba spin torque in the diffusive regime and report two major findings: (i) a nonvanishing torque exists at the edges of the device even when the magnetization and effective Rashba field are aligned; (ii) anisotropic spin relaxation rates driven by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling assign the spin torque a general expression T = T y (θ) m × (y × m) + T y (θ) y × m + T z (θ) m × (z × m) + T z (θ) z × m, where the coefficients T, y, z depend on the magnetization direction. Our results agree with recent experiments. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  5. Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2016-01-11

    We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.

  6. Spin orbit torques and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in dual-interfaced Co-Ni multilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Jiawei

    2016-09-07

    We study the spin orbit torque (SOT) and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in the dual-interfaced Co-Ni perpendicular multilayers. Through the combination of top and bottom layer materials (Pt, Ta, MgO and Cu), SOT and DMI are efficiently manipulated due to an enhancement or cancellation of the top and bottom contributions. However, SOT is found to originate mostly from the bulk of a heavy metal (HM), while DMI is more of interfacial origin. In addition, we find that the direction of the domain wall (DW) motion can be either along or against the electron flow depending on the DW tilting angle when there is a large DMI. Such an abnormal DW motion induces a large assist field required for hysteretic magnetization reversal. Our results provide insight into the role of DMI in SOT driven magnetization switching, and demonstrate the feasibility of achieving desirable SOT and DMI for spintronic devices.

  7. 3D Cross-Point Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongxin; Wang, Xiaobin; Hao, Xiaojie; Wang, Zihui; Malmhall, Roger; Gan, Huadong; Satoh, Kimihiro; Zhang, Jing; Jung, Dong Ha; Zhou, Yuchen; Yen, Bing K.; Huai, Yiming

    We explore a 3D cross-point spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) array based on the integration of a perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (pMTJ) with a matching two-terminal selector. The integrated two-terminal device provides a unique opportunity for a high density, low cost stackable storage class memory that can achieve a fast operation speed, long data retention, low bit error rate (BER) and high endurance. 55nm size pillar shaped pMTJ and selector devices have been fabricated and characterized. The selector is compatible with pMTJ whether it is in the high or low resistance state. The pMTJ can be RESET and SET after the selector turns on. We model the dynamic switching of the coupled pMTJ and selector devices. Our model shows the importance of the optimal matching of pMTJ magnetic properties with selector resistive properties to achieve high performance.

  8. Non-stationary excitation of two localized spin-wave modes in a nano-contact spin torque oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolo, G.; Finocchio, G.; Siracusano, G.; Bonetti, S.; Eklund, A.; Åkerman, J.; Azzerboni, B.

    2013-10-01

    We measure and simulate micromagnetically a framework based upon a nano-contact spin torque oscillator where two distinct localized evanescent spin-wave modes can be detected. The resulting frequency spectrum is composed by two peaks, corresponding to the excited modes, which lie below the ferromagnetic resonance frequency, and a low-frequency tail, which we attribute to the non-stationary switching between these modes. By using Fourier, wavelet, and Hilbert-Huang transforms, we investigate the properties of these modes in time and spatial domains, together with their spatial distribution. The existence of an additional localized mode (which was neither predicted by theory nor by previous numerical and experimental findings) has to be attributed to the large influence of the current-induced Oersted field strength which, in the present setup, is of the same order of magnitude as the external field. As a further consequence, the excited spin-waves, contrarily to what usually assumed, do not possess cylindrical symmetry: the Oersted field induces these modes to be excited at the two opposite sides of the region beneath the nano-contact.

  9. Research Update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Sklenar, Joseph; Hsu, Bo; Jiang, Wanjun; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Xiao, Jiao; Fradin, Frank Y.; Liu, Yaohua; Pearson, John E.; Ketterson, John B.; Yang, Zheng; Hoffmann, Axel

    2016-03-01

    We observe current induced spin transfer torque resonance in permalloy (Py) grown on monolayer MoS2. By passing rf current through the Py/MoS2 bilayer, field-like and damping-like torques are induced which excite the ferromagnetic resonance of Py. The signals are detected via a homodyne voltage from anisotropic magnetoresistance of Py. In comparison to other bilayer systems with strong spin-orbit torques, the monolayer MoS2 cannot provide bulk spin Hall effects and thus indicates the purely interfacial nature of the spin transfer torques. Therefore our results indicate the potential of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide for the use of interfacial spin-orbitronics applications.

  10. Research Update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We observe current induced spin transfer torque resonance in permalloy (Py grown on monolayer MoS2. By passing rf current through the Py/MoS2 bilayer, field-like and damping-like torques are induced which excite the ferromagnetic resonance of Py. The signals are detected via a homodyne voltage from anisotropic magnetoresistance of Py. In comparison to other bilayer systems with strong spin-orbit torques, the monolayer MoS2 cannot provide bulk spin Hall effects and thus indicates the purely interfacial nature of the spin transfer torques. Therefore our results indicate the potential of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide for the use of interfacial spin-orbitronics applications.

  11. Turn-on Angle Control Using Modified Torque Sharing Function for Torque Ripple Reduction in Switched Reluctance Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Daryanush

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the use of switched reluctance motors (SRM in industrial applications has been increased. In this regard, a large amount of research studies have been conducted on controlling the speed and torque of the aforementioned motors. These motors not only have a simple and stable structure, but also production cost is low. In addition, these motors take advantage of great power, the ability to work in high speeds and inadequate environments (hot and dusty, reliability, control-ability, and high efficiency. However, discrete torque production of SRM along with enormous magnetic saturation in their cores reduces the variety of their industrial applications and also causes the inappropriate torque ripples. In this paper, a modified logical-rule-based method is proposed which employs the technique of controlling torque sharing function. Moreover, the optimized turn-on angle for conducting each phase is achieved by estimating the inductance curve in the vicinity of unaligned position and based on an analytical solution. Simulation results on a four-phase switched reluctance motor and a comparison with the conventional methods indicates validity and effectiveness of the proposed modified method.

  12. Analytical description of ballistic spin currents and torques in magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Chshiev, M.

    2015-09-21

    In this work we demonstrate explicit analytical expressions for both charge and spin currents which constitute the 2×2 spinor in magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations under applied voltage. The calculations have been performed within the free electron model in the framework of the Keldysh formalism and WKB approximation. We demonstrate that spin/charge currents and spin transfer torques are all explicitly expressed through only three irreducible quantities, without further approximations. The conditions and mechanisms of deviation from the conventional sine angular dependence of both spin currents and torques are shown and discussed. It is shown in the thick barrier approximation that all tunneling transport quantities can be expressed in an extremely simplified form via Slonczewski spin polarizations and our effective spin averaged interfacial transmission probabilities and effective out-of-plane polarizations at both interfaces. It is proven that the latter plays a key role in the emergence of perpendicular spin torque as well as in the angular dependence character of all spin and charge transport considered. It is demonstrated directly also that for any applied voltage, the parallel component of spin current at the FM/I interface is expressed via collinear longitudinal spin current components. Finally, spin transfer torque behavior is analyzed in a view of transverse characteristic length scales for spin transport.

  13. Multi-Valued Spin Switch in a Semiconductor Microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraïso, T. K.; Wouters, M.; Léger, Y.; Morier-Genoud, F.; Deveaudhyphen; Plédran, B.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we report on the first realization of multi-valued spin switching in the solid-state. We investigate the physics of spinor bistability with microcavity polaritons in a trap. Spinor interactions lead to special bistability regimes with decoupled thresholds for spin-up and spin-down polaritons. This allows us to establish state-of-the-art spin switching operations. We evidence polarization hysteresis and determine appropriate conditions to achieve spin multistability. For a given excitation condition, three stable spin states coexist for the system. These results open new pathways for the development of innovative spin-based logic gates and memory devices.

  14. Oscillation characteristics of zero-field spin transfer oscillators with field-like torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Xue, Hai-Bin, E-mail: xuehaibin@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducer and Intelligent Control system, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Zhe-Jie, E-mail: pandanlzj@hotmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-05-15

    We theoretically investigate the influence of the field-like spin torque term on the oscillation characteristics of spin transfer oscillators, which are based on MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) consisting of a perpendicular magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer. It is demonstrated that the field-like torque has a strong impact on the steady-state precession current region and the oscillation frequency. In particular, the steady-state precession can occur at zero applied magnetic field when the ratio between the field-like torque and the spin transfer torque takes up a negative value. In addition, the dependence of the oscillation properties on the junction sizes has also been analyzed. The results indicate that this compact structure of spin transfer oscillator without the applied magnetic field is practicable under certain conditions, and it may be a promising configuration for the new generation of on-chip oscillators.

  15. Oscillation characteristics of zero-field spin transfer oscillators with field-like torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Guo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate the influence of the field-like spin torque term on the oscillation characteristics of spin transfer oscillators, which are based on MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs consisting of a perpendicular magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer. It is demonstrated that the field-like torque has a strong impact on the steady-state precession current region and the oscillation frequency. In particular, the steady-state precession can occur at zero applied magnetic field when the ratio between the field-like torque and the spin transfer torque takes up a negative value. In addition, the dependence of the oscillation properties on the junction sizes has also been analyzed. The results indicate that this compact structure of spin transfer oscillator without the applied magnetic field is practicable under certain conditions, and it may be a promising configuration for the new generation of on-chip oscillators.

  16. Theory for a dissipative droplet soliton excited by a spin torque nanocontact

    OpenAIRE

    Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Keller, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    A novel type of solitary wave is predicted to form in spin torque oscillators when the free layer has a sufficiently large perpendicular anisotropy. In this structure, which is a dissipative version of the conservative droplet soliton originally studied in 1977 by Ivanov and Kosevich, spin torque counteracts the damping that would otherwise destroy the mode. Asymptotic methods are used to derive conditions on perpendicular anisotropy strength and applied current under which a dissipative drop...

  17. Perpendicular spin transfer torque magnetic random access memories with high spin torque efficiency and thermal stability for embedded applications (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Luc, E-mail: luc.thomas@headway.com; Jan, Guenole; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Huanlong; Lee, Yuan-Jen; Le, Son; Tong, Ru-Ying; Pi, Keyu; Wang, Yu-Jen; Shen, Dongna; He, Renren; Haq, Jesmin; Teng, Jeffrey; Lam, Vinh; Huang, Kenlin; Zhong, Tom; Torng, Terry; Wang, Po-Kang [TDK-Headway Technologies, Inc., Milpitas, California 95035 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Magnetic random access memories based on the spin transfer torque phenomenon (STT-MRAMs) have become one of the leading candidates for next generation memory applications. Among the many attractive features of this technology are its potential for high speed and endurance, read signal margin, low power consumption, scalability, and non-volatility. In this paper, we discuss our recent results on perpendicular STT-MRAM stack designs that show STT efficiency higher than 5 k{sub B}T/μA, energy barriers higher than 100 k{sub B}T at room temperature for sub-40 nm diameter devices, and tunnel magnetoresistance higher than 150%. We use both single device data and results from 8 Mb array to demonstrate data retention sufficient for automotive applications. Moreover, we also demonstrate for the first time thermal stability up to 400 °C exceeding the requirement of Si CMOS back-end processing, thus opening the realm of non-volatile embedded memory to STT-MRAM technology.

  18. Modulation of spin-orbit torque efficiency by thickness control of heavy metal layers in Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, P.; Krishnia, S.; Li, S.H.; Lew, W.S., E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg

    2017-03-15

    We investigate and quantify spin-orbit torque (SOT) strength by current induced effective in-plane magnetic fields and spin Hall angle (SHA) using AC harmonic Hall voltage measurements techniques on Ta/Pt/Co/Pt/Co/Ta thin film structures. The proposed Co/Pt thin film double stack gives property enhancement on thermal stability and perpendicular magnetization anisotropy strength over the single stack Pt/Co/Ta. In the proposed Co/Pt double stack we observed that increasing the Ta capping thickness to three times enhances the SHA in similar order, consistent with larger spin injection efficiency. Doubling the Pt spacer layer thickness reduces the SHA by nearly 1.4 times, due to partial cancellation of SOT by bottom layer Pt, negating the increase from the top Co/Pt interface. The in-plane current threshold for magnetization switching is lower with the increase of the SHA.

  19. Sign Reversal of Fieldlike Spin-Orbit Torque in an Ultrathin Cr /Ni Bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arnab; Singh, Hanuman; Kushwaha, Varun Kumar; Bhuktare, Swapnil; Dutta, Sutapa; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A.

    2018-01-01

    Relativistically originated spin-orbit torque is one of the promising ways to control the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnet, which can be useful for the next generation of spintronic memory applications. Plenty of effort has been made to address the physical origin of spin-orbit torque and improve its efficiency. In this work, we demonstrate that in ultrathin chromium/nickel (Cr /Ni ) heterostructure, spin-orbit torque is significantly enhanced for a Cr thickness below 6 nm, which is related to the possible phase change of Cr at a lower thickness. We have also observed an unconventional sign reversal of a fieldlike torque which can be attributed to the interfacial Rashba-like coupling. We experimentally obtain that approximately a 35-Oe Rashba-like magnetic field is created on 8-nm-thick in-plane magnetized Ni film when 108 A /cm2 current density flows through the Cr layer.

  20. Signatures of asymmetric and inelastic tunneling on the spin torque bias dependence

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2010-11-15

    The influence of structural asymmetries (barrier height and exchange splitting), as well as inelastic scattering (magnons and phonons) on the bias dependence of the spin transfer torque in a magnetic tunnel junction is studied theoretically using the free-electron model. We show that they modify the “conventional” bias dependence of the spin transfer torque, together with the bias dependence of the conductance. In particular, both structural asymmetries and bulk (inelastic) scattering add antisymmetric terms to the perpendicular torque (∝V and ∝je|V|) while the interfacial inelastic scattering conserves the junction symmetry and only produces symmetric terms (∝|V|n, n∊N). The analysis of spin torque and conductance measurements displays a signature revealing the origin (asymmetry or inelastic scattering) of the discrepancy.

  1. Computation of Electromagnetic Torque in a Double Rotor Switched Reluctance Motor Using Flux Tube Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hamiruce Marhaban

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With their highly robust nature and simple design, switched reluctance machines are finding their way into numerous modern day applications. However, they produce oscillatory torque that generates torque ripple and mechanical vibrations. A double rotor structure to maximize the flux linkage and thereby increase the torque generating capability is proposed. As the machine operates close to saturation, the torque computation depends heavily on the energy conversion as the rotor rolls over the stator for a fixed pole pitch. The flux linkage characteristics are highly non-linear, hence estimation of the magnetic and mechanical parameters is extremely cumbersome. Magnetic circuit analysis by interpretation of the number of flux tubes using integration techniques at different positions of the machine to develop the flux linkage characteristics of the double rotor structure is presented. Computation of the inductances during the movement of rotor from unaligned to aligned is crucial in determining the generated torque. Relevant equations of calculations for inductance and flux linkages in the aligned, partially aligned and unaligned positions are computed. The partially aligned computation is based on the average on two intermediate positions, namely the 1/4th aligned and 3/4th aligned conditions. The static torque characteristics based on the energy conversion principles are used to compute the torque value. Results from simulation and experiments used for performance evaluation of the proposed flux tube analysis for computation of the electro-magnetic torque are presented.

  2. Writing and reading antiferromagnetic Mn2Au by Néel spin-orbit torques and large anisotropic magnetoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, S Yu; Šmejkal, L; Turek, I; Jungwirth, T; Gomonay, O; Sinova, J; Sapozhnik, A A; Elmers, H-J; Kläui, M; Jourdan, M

    2018-01-24

    Using antiferromagnets as active elements in spintronics requires the ability to manipulate and read-out the Néel vector orientation. Here we demonstrate for Mn 2 Au, a good conductor with a high ordering temperature suitable for applications, reproducible switching using current pulse generated bulk spin-orbit torques and read-out by magnetoresistance measurements. Reversible and consistent changes of the longitudinal resistance and planar Hall voltage of star-patterned epitaxial Mn 2 Au(001) thin films were generated by pulse current densities of ≃10 7  A/cm 2 . The symmetry of the torques agrees with theoretical predictions and a large read-out magnetoresistance effect of more than ≃6% is reproduced by ab initio transport calculations.

  3. Exchange magnetic field torques in YIG/Pt bilayers observed by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlietstra, N.; Shan, J.; Castel, V.; Ben Youssef, J.; Bauer, G. E. W.; van Wees, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    The effective field torque of an yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) film on the spin accumulation in an attached platinum (Pt) film is measured by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). As a result, the magnetization direction of a ferromagnetic insulating layer can be measured electrically. Experimental

  4. Model for a collimated spin-wave beam generated by a single-layer spin torque nanocontact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Stiles, M. D.

    2008-04-01

    A model of spin-torque-induced magnetization dynamics based on semiclassical spin diffusion theory for a single-layer nanocontact is presented. The model incorporates effects due to the current-induced Oersted field and predicts the generation of a variety of spatially dependent, coherent, precessional magnetic wave structures. Directionally controllable collimated spin-wave beams, vortex spiral waves, and localized standing waves are found to be excited by the interplay of the Oersted field and the orientation of an applied field. These fields act as a spin-wave “corral” around the nanocontact that controls the propagation of spin waves in certain directions.

  5. Spin force and torque in non-relativistic Dirac oscillator on a sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikakhwa, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The spin force operator on a non-relativistic Dirac oscillator (in the non-relativistic limit the Dirac oscillator is a spin one-half 3D harmonic oscillator with strong spin-orbit interaction) is derived using the Heisenberg equations of motion and is seen to be formally similar to the force by the electromagnetic field on a moving charged particle. When confined to a sphere of radius R, it is shown that the Hamiltonian of this non-relativistic oscillator can be expressed as a mere kinetic energy operator with an anomalous part. As a result, the power by the spin force and torque operators in this case are seen to vanish. The spin force operator on the sphere is calculated explicitly and its torque is shown to be equal to the rate of change of the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator, again with an anomalous part. This, along with the conservation of the total angular momentum, suggests that the spin force exerts a spin-dependent torque on the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator in order to conserve total angular momentum. The presence of an anomalous spin part in the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator gives rise to an oscillatory behavior similar to the Zitterbewegung. It is suggested that the underlying physics that gives rise to the spin force and the Zitterbewegung is one and the same in NRDO and in systems that manifest spin Hall effect.

  6. Voltage-driven versus current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunneling junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2011-10-01

    Nonequilibrium spin transport in a magnetic tunnel junction comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is studied theoretically. The interfacial SOI generates a spin torque of the form T=T∥ M×(z× M)+T⊥ z× M, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. For thick and large tunnel barriers, the torque reduces to the perpendicular component T⊥, which can be electrically tuned by applying a voltage across the insulator. In the limit of thin and low tunnel barriers, the in-plane torque T∥ emerges, proportional to the tunneling current density. Experimental implications on magnetic devices are discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Minimal model of spin-transfer torque and spin pumping caused by the spin Hall Effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, W.; Sigrist, M.; Sinova, Jairo; Manske, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 21 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 217203. ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin tronics * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  8. Spin-orbit-torque and magnetic damping in tailored ferromagnetic bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, DongJoon; Kim, JongHyuk; Park, HeeGyum; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Min, Byoung-Chul; Lee, OukJae

    2018-01-01

    We study spin-orbit-torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in ferromagnetic (FM) bilayers, consisting of Co and permalloy (Py), sandwiched between Pt and MgO layers. We find that the FM layer in contact with the Pt layers dominantly determines that spin Hall angle, which is consistent with the spin-transparency model. By contrast, the FMR linewidths are considerably influenced not only by the spin-pumping effect across the Pt|FM in terface but also by the spin relaxation such as two-magn...

  9. Room-temperature spin-orbit torque in NiMnSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, C.; Anderson, L.; Tshitoyan, V.; Ferguson, A. J.; Gerhard, F.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Gayles, J.; Železný, J.; Šmejkal, L.; Yuan, Z.; Sinova, J.; Freimuth, F.; Jungwirth, T.

    2016-09-01

    Materials that crystallize in diamond-related lattices, with Si and GaAs as their prime examples, are at the foundation of modern electronics. Simultaneously, inversion asymmetries in their crystal structure and relativistic spin-orbit coupling led to discoveries of non-equilibrium spin-polarization phenomena that are now extensively explored as an electrical means for manipulating magnetic moments in a variety of spintronic structures. Current research of these relativistic spin-orbit torques focuses primarily on magnetic transition-metal multilayers. The low-temperature diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ga, Mn)As, in which spin-orbit torques were initially discovered, has so far remained the only example showing the phenomenon among bulk non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Here we present a general framework, based on the complete set of crystallographic point groups, for identifying the potential presence and symmetry of spin-orbit torques in non-centrosymmetric crystals. Among the candidate room-temperature ferromagnets we chose to use NiMnSb, which is a member of the broad family of magnetic Heusler compounds. By performing all-electrical ferromagnetic resonance measurements in single-crystal epilayers of NiMnSb we detect room-temperature spin-orbit torques generated by effective fields of the expected symmetry and of a magnitude consistent with our ab initio calculations.

  10. Transport theory for femtosecond laser-induced spin-transfer torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláž, Pavel; Žonda, Martin; Carva, Karel; Maldonado, Pablo; Oppeneer, Peter M.

    2018-03-01

    Ultrafast demagnetization of magnetic layers pumped by a femtosecond laser pulse is accompanied by a nonthermal spin-polarized current of hot electrons. These spin currents are studied here theoretically in a spin valve with noncollinear magnetizations. To this end, we introduce an extended model of superdiffusive spin transport that enables the treatment of noncollinear magnetic configurations, and apply it to the perpendicular spin valve geometry. We show how spin-transfer torques arise due to this mechanism and calculate their action on the magnetization present, as well as how the latter depends on the thicknesses of the layers and other transport parameters. We demonstrate that there exists a certain optimum thickness of the out-of-plane magnetized spin-current polarizer such that the torque acting on the second magnetic layer is maximal. Moreover, we study the magnetization dynamics excited by the superdiffusive spin-transfer torque due to the flow of hot electrons employing the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Thereby we show that a femtosecond laser pulse applied to one magnetic layer can excite small-angle precessions of the magnetization in the second magnetic layer. We compare our calculations with recent experimental results.

  11. Transport theory for femtosecond laser-induced spin-transfer torques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baláž, Pavel; Žonda, Martin; Carva, Karel; Maldonado, Pablo; Oppeneer, Peter M

    2018-03-21

    Ultrafast demagnetization of magnetic layers pumped by a femtosecond laser pulse is accompanied by a nonthermal spin-polarized current of hot electrons. These spin currents are studied here theoretically in a spin valve with noncollinear magnetizations. To this end, we introduce an extended model of superdiffusive spin transport that enables the treatment of noncollinear magnetic configurations, and apply it to the perpendicular spin valve geometry. We show how spin-transfer torques arise due to this mechanism and calculate their action on the magnetization present, as well as how the latter depends on the thicknesses of the layers and other transport parameters. We demonstrate that there exists a certain optimum thickness of the out-of-plane magnetized spin-current polarizer such that the torque acting on the second magnetic layer is maximal. Moreover, we study the magnetization dynamics excited by the superdiffusive spin-transfer torque due to the flow of hot electrons employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Thereby we show that a femtosecond laser pulse applied to one magnetic layer can excite small-angle precessions of the magnetization in the second magnetic layer. We compare our calculations with recent experimental results.

  12. Theory for a dissipative droplet soliton excited by a spin torque nanocontact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Keller, Mark W.

    2010-08-01

    A distinct type of solitary wave is predicted to form in spin torque oscillators when the free layer has a sufficiently large perpendicular anisotropy. In this structure, which is a dissipative version of the conservative droplet soliton originally studied in 1977 by Ivanov and Kosevich, spin torque counteracts the damping that would otherwise destroy the mode. Asymptotic methods are used to derive conditions on perpendicular anisotropy strength and applied current under which a dissipative droplet can be nucleated and sustained. Numerical methods are used to confirm the stability of the droplet against various perturbations that are likely in experiments, including tilting of the applied field, nonzero spin torque asymmetry, and nontrivial Oersted fields. Under certain conditions, the droplet experiences a drift instability in which it propagates away from the nanocontact and is then destroyed by damping.

  13. Inductive detection of fieldlike and dampinglike ac inverse spin-orbit torques in ferromagnet/normal-metal bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrew J.; Edwards, Eric R. J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Karenowska, Alexy D.; Weiler, Mathias; Silva, Thomas J.

    2018-03-01

    Functional spintronic devices rely on spin-charge interconversion effects, such as the reciprocal processes of electric field-driven spin torque and magnetization dynamics-driven spin and charge flow. Both dampinglike and fieldlike spin-orbit torques have been observed in the forward process of current-driven spin torque and dampinglike inverse spin-orbit torque has been well studied via spin pumping into heavy metal layers. Here, we demonstrate that established microwave transmission spectroscopy of ferromagnet/normal metal bilayers under ferromagnetic resonance can be used to inductively detect the ac charge currents driven by the inverse spin-charge conversion processes. This technique relies on vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) measurements. We show that in addition to the commonly extracted spectroscopic information, VNA-FMR measurements can be used to quantify the magnitude and phase of all ac charge currents in the sample, including those due to spin pumping and spin-charge conversion. Our findings reveal that Ni80Fe20/Pt bilayers exhibit both dampinglike and fieldlike inverse spin-orbit torques. While the magnitudes of both the dampinglike and fieldlike inverse spin-orbit torque are of comparable scale to prior reported values for similar material systems, we observed a significant dependence of the dampinglike magnitude on the order of deposition. This suggests interface quality plays an important role in the overall strength of the dampinglike spin-to-charge conversion.

  14. Synchronization of propagating spin-wave modes in a double-contact spin-torque oscillator: A micromagnetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puliafito, V.; Consolo, G.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Azzerboni, B.

    2014-01-01

    This work tackles theoretical investigations on the synchronization of spin-wave modes generated by spin-transfer-torque in a double nano-contact geometry. The interaction mechanisms between the resulting oscillators are analyzed in the case of propagating modes which are excited via a normal-to-plane magnetic bias field. To characterize the underlying physical mechanisms, a multi-domain analysis is performed. It makes use of an equivalent electrical circuit, to deduce the output electrical power, and of micromagnetic simulations, through which information on the frequency spectra and on the spatial distribution of the wavefront of the emitted spin-waves is extracted. This study provides further and intriguing insights into the physical mechanisms giving rise to synchronization of spin-torque oscillators

  15. Controlled spin switching in a metallocene molecular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormaza, M; Abufager, P; Verlhac, B; Bachellier, N; Bocquet, M-L; Lorente, N; Limot, L

    2017-12-07

    The active control of a molecular spin represents one of the main challenges in molecular spintronics. Up to now spin manipulation has been achieved through the modification of the molecular structure either by chemical doping or by external stimuli. However, the spin of a molecule adsorbed on a surface depends primarily on the interaction between its localized orbitals and the electronic states of the substrate. Here we change the effective spin of a single molecule by modifying the molecule/metal interface in a controlled way using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope. A nickelocene molecule reversibly switches from a spin 1 to 1/2 when varying the electrode-electrode distance from tunnel to contact regime. This switching is experimentally evidenced by inelastic and elastic spin-flip mechanisms observed in reproducible conductance measurements and understood using first principle calculations. Our work demonstrates the active control over the spin state of single molecule devices through interface manipulation.

  16. Macro-spin modeling and experimental study of spin-orbit torque biased magnetic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Luo, Ziyan; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong

    2017-11-01

    We reported a systematic study of spin-orbit torque biased magnetic sensors based on NiFe/Pt bilayers through both macro-spin modeling and experiments. The simulation results show that it is possible to achieve a linear sensor with a dynamic range of 0.1-10 Oe, power consumption of 1 μW-1mW, and sensitivity of 0.1-0.5 Ω/Oe. These characteristics can be controlled by varying the sensor dimension and current density in the Pt layer. The latter is in the range of 1 × 105-107 A/cm2. Experimental results of fabricated sensors with selected sizes agree well with the simulation results. For a Wheatstone bridge sensor comprising of four sensing elements, a sensitivity up to 0.548 Ω/Oe, linearity error below 6%, and detectivity of about 2.8 nT/√Hz were obtained. The simple structure and ultrathin thickness greatly facilitate the integration of these sensors for on-chip applications. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate its application in detection of current flowing in an on-chip Cu wire.

  17. Dependence of the Efficiency of Spin Hall Torque on the Transparency of Pt-Ferromagnetic Layer Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Chi-Feng; Ou, Yongxi; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that spin current transport across Pt-ferromagnet (FM) interfaces is strongly dependent on the type and the thickness of the FM layer and on post-deposition processing protocols. By employing both harmonic voltage measurements and spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements, we find that the efficiency of the Pt spin Hall effect in exerting a damping-like spin torque on the FM ranges from 0.10 under different interfacial conditions. We also show that the temperature...

  18. Giant spin-torque diode sensitivity in the absence of bias magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bin; Carpentieri, Mario; Hao, Xiaojie; Jiang, Hongwen; Katine, Jordan A.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; Ocker, Berthold; Langer, Juergen; Wang, Kang L.; Zhang, Baoshun; Azzerboni, Bruno; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Finocchio, Giovanni; Zeng, Zhongming

    2016-01-01

    Microwave detectors based on the spin-torque diode effect are among the key emerging spintronic devices. By utilizing the spin of electrons in addition to charge, they have the potential to overcome the theoretical performance limits of their semiconductor (Schottky) counterparts. However, so far, practical implementations of spin-diode microwave detectors have been limited by the necessity to apply a magnetic field. Here, we demonstrate nanoscale magnetic tunnel junction microwave detectors, exhibiting high-detection sensitivity of 75,400 mV mW−1 at room temperature without any external bias fields, and for low-input power (micro-Watts or lower). This sensitivity is significantly larger than both state-of-the-art Schottky diode detectors and existing spintronic diodes. Micromagnetic simulations and measurements reveal the essential role of injection locking to achieve this sensitivity performance. This mechanism may provide a pathway to enable further performance improvement of spin-torque diode microwave detectors. PMID:27052973

  19. Efficiency improvement and torque ripple minimization of Switched Reluctance Motor using FEM and Seeker Optimization Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navardi, Mohammad Javad; Babaghorbani, Behnaz; Ketabi, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper proposes a new method to optimize a Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM). • A combination of SOA and GA with Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis is employed to solve the SRM design optimization. • The results show that optimized SRM obtains higher average torque and higher efficiency. - Abstract: In this paper, performance optimization of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) was determined using Seeker Optimization Algorithm (SOA). The most efficient aim of the algorithm was found for maximum torque value at a minimum mass of the entire construction, following changing the geometric parameters. The optimization process was carried out using a combination of Seeker Optimization Algorithm and Finite Element Method (FEM). Fitness value was calculated by FEM analysis using COMSOL3.4, and the SOA was realized by MATLAB. The proposed method has been applied for a case study and it has been also compared with Genetic Algorithm (GA). The results show that the optimized motor using SOA had higher torque value and efficiency with lower mass and torque ripple, exhibiting the validity of this methodology for SRM design

  20. Soft controller switching technique to minimize the torque and current pulsations of a SCIM during its reswitching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The direct-on-line starting of induction motor draws heavy current and to limit this Inrush current to a safe level normally a star-delta switch is used. However, the switching over from star to delta causes over current transients and this leads to torque pulsations. Therefore, in this paper the current and torque pulsations developed during the switching process are focused and a soft-switched controller is devised to minimize the re-closure transient currents and torque pulsations during star-delta switching of induction motor. The designed system can readily handles the sensing of favorable conditions of re closure of a switched-off running induction motor and it minimizes the inrush current and hence the pulsations of torque of all types of induction motors, whether, single-phase or three phase. An investigation is made into the transient currents and pulsation torques generated due to opening the circuit of a running induction motor and the switching pattern of star-delta switching. The re-switching control scheme for the induction motor is practically tested in the laboratory with and without soft controller. (author)

  1. Impact of Dwell Angle on the Electromagnetic Torque Ripplesof the Switched Reluctance Motor

    OpenAIRE

    G. Bhuvaneswari; P. Srinivasa Rao; Sarit Guha Thakurta; S.S. Murthy

    2008-01-01

    Switched reluctance motors (SRM) are emerging as promising competitors to the vector-controlled induction motor (VCIM) drives and permanent magnet (PM) motor drives in the variable-speed drive market owing to their robust nature coupled with low cost, simplicity, and capabilityto operate in harsh environments. They are also suitable for nuclear and aerospace applicationsdue to their low inertia and capability to be fed from a dc supply through a simple power converter.The principle of torque ...

  2. Simulation of stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin torque oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Houbing, E-mail: hbhuang@ustb.edu.cn; Zhao, Congpeng; Ma, Xingqiao, E-mail: xqma@sas.ustb.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    We investigated stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin transfer torque oscillator by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase field microelasticity theory, by encapsulating the magnetic tunnel junction into multilayers structures. We proposed a novel method of using an external stress to control the magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator instead of an external magnetic field. The stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by externally applied uniaxial in-plane stress, with a tunable range 4.4–7.0 GHz under the stress of 10 MPa. By comparison, the out-of-plane stress imposes negligible influence on the precession frequency due to the large out-of-plane demagnetization field. The results offer new inspiration to the design of spin torque oscillator devices that simultaneously process high frequency, narrow output band, and tunable over a wide range of frequencies via external stress. - Highlights: • We proposed stress-modulated magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator. • The magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by in-plane stress. • The stress also can widen the magnetization frequency range 4.4–7.0 GHz. • The stress-modulated oscillation frequency can simplify STO devices.

  3. Spin-transfer torques in antiferromagnetic textures: efficiency and quantification method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yamane, Y.; Ieda, J.; Sinova, Jairo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 5 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 054409. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin-transfer torques * antiferromagnets Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  4. Efficient switching of 3-terminal magnetic tunnel junctions by the giant spin Hall effect of Pt85Hf15 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Hai; Shi, Shengjie; Rowlands, Graham E.; Aradhya, Sriharsha V.; Jermain, Colin L.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has indicated that introducing impurities that increase the resistivity of Pt can enhance the efficiency of the spin Hall torque it generates. Here, we directly demonstrate the usefulness of this strategy by fabricating prototype 3-terminal in-plane-magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions that utilize the spin Hall torque from a Pt85Hf15 alloy and measuring the critical currents for switching. We find that Pt85Hf15 reduces the switching current densities compared to pure Pt by approximately a factor of 2 for both quasi-static ramped current biases and nanosecond-scale current pulses, thereby proving the feasibility of this approach in assisting the development of efficient embedded magnetic memory technologies.

  5. Nanosecond-Timescale Low Energy Switching of In-Plane Magnetic Tunnel Junctions through Dynamic Oersted-Field-Assisted Spin Hall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, S V; Rowlands, G E; Oh, J; Ralph, D C; Buhrman, R A

    2016-10-12

    We investigate fast-pulse switching of in-plane-magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) within 3-terminal devices in which spin-transfer torque is applied to the MTJ by the giant spin Hall effect. We measure reliable switching, with write error rates down to 10 -5 , using current pulses as short as just 2 ns in duration. This represents the fastest reliable switching reported to date for any spin-torque-driven magnetic memory geometry and corresponds to a characteristic time scale that is significantly shorter than predicted possible within a macrospin model for in-plane MTJs subject to thermal fluctuations at room temperature. Using micromagnetic simulations, we show that in the three-terminal spin-Hall devices the Oersted magnetic field generated by the pulse current strongly modifies the magnetic dynamics excited by the spin-Hall torque, enabling this unanticipated performance improvement. Our results suggest that in-plane MTJs controlled by Oersted-field-assisted spin-Hall torque are a promising candidate for both cache memory applications requiring high speed and for cryogenic memories requiring low write energies.

  6. Observation of thermally driven field-like spin torque in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Arnab, E-mail: arnabbose@ee.iitb.ac.in; Jain, Sourabh; Asam, Nagarjuna; Bhuktare, Swapnil; Singh, Hanuman; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Shukla, Amit Kumar; Konishi, Katsunori; Lam, Duc Duong; Fujii, Yuya; Miwa, Shinji; Suzuki, Yoshishige [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2016-07-18

    We report the thermally driven giant field-like spin-torque in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on application of heat current from top to bottom. The field-like term is detected by the shift of the magneto-resistance hysteresis loop applying temperature gradient. We observed that the field-like term depends on the magnetic symmetry of the MTJ. In asymmetric structures, with different ferromagnetic materials for free and fixed layers, the field-like term is greatly enhanced. Our results show that a pure spin current density of the order of 10{sup 9 }A/m{sup 2} can be produced by creating a 120 mK temperature difference across 0.9 nm thick MgO tunnelling barrier. Our results will be useful for writing MTJ and domain wall-based memories using thermally driven spin torque.

  7. Magnetization switching of a metallic nanomagnet via current-induced surface spin-polarization of an underlying topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Urmimala; Dey, Rik; Pramanik, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Bahniman; Register, Leonard F.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a thermally stable, metallic nanoscale ferromagnet (FM) subject to spin-polarized current injection and exchange coupling from the spin-helically locked surface states of a topological insulator (TI) to evaluate possible non-volatile memory applications. We consider parallel transport in the TI and the metallic FM, and focus on the efficiency of magnetization switching as a function of transport between the TI and the FM. Transport is modeled as diffusive in the TI beneath the FM, consistent with the mobility in the TI at room temperature, and in the FM, which essentially serves as a constant potential region albeit spin-dependent except in the low conductivity, diffusive limit. Thus, it can be captured by drift-diffusion simulation, which allows for ready interpretation of the results. We calculate switching time and energy consumed per write operation using self-consistent transport, spin-transfer-torque (STT), and magnetization dynamics calculations. Calculated switching energies and times compare favorably to conventional spin-torque memory schemes for substantial interlayer conductivity. Nevertheless, we find that shunting of current from the TI to a metallic nanomagnet can substantially limit efficiency. Exacerbating the problem, STT from the TI effectively increases the TI resistivity. We show that for optimum performance, the sheet resistivity of the FM layer should be comparable to or larger than that of the TI surface layer. Thus, the effective conductivity of the FM layer becomes a critical design consideration for TI-based non-volatile memory

  8. Spin torque nanooscillators: new applications in information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Ferran; Kent, Andrew D.; Hoppensteadt, Frank C.

    2013-03-01

    Nanonometer scale electrical contacts to ferromagnetic thin films (STNOs) can provide sufficient current densities to excite magnetic-moment dynamics resulting in emission of short wave-length spin waves. We discuss several applications of spin-wave patterns created from STNOs and their interaction with background oscillations. We review how to encode information in STNOs signals -modulating their amplitude, frequency or phase - and stability against noise. We first model arrays of STNOs in extended ferromagnetic thin films and define conditions to control spin-waves emission directions. We also study arrays of oscillators in patterned ferromagnetic thin films and we put forward a method to build an STNO lookup tables or an STNO based network analyzer. Using spin waves complements digital semiconductor technologies and offers new possibilities for increased memory capacity and computation performance. This work was supported by Marie Curie IOF 253214 and by ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-08-1-0317 and NSF Grant No. ECS 07- 25280.

  9. Analysis of self-heating of thermally assisted spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Deschenes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal assistance has been shown to significantly reduce the required operation power for spin torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM. Proposed heating methods include modified material stack compositions that result in increased self-heating or external heat sources. In this work we analyze the self-heating process of a standard perpendicular magnetic anisotropy STT-MRAM device through numerical simulations in order to understand the relative contributions of Joule, thermoelectric Peltier and Thomson, and tunneling junction heating. A 2D rotationally symmetric numerical model is used to solve the coupled electro-thermal equations including thermoelectric effects and heat absorbed or released at the tunneling junction. We compare self-heating for different common passivation materials, positive and negative electrical current polarity, and different device thermal anchoring and boundaries resistance configurations. The variations considered are found to result in significant differences in maximum temperatures reached. Average increases of 3 K, 10 K, and 100 K for different passivation materials, positive and negative polarity, and different thermal anchoring configurations, respectively, are observed. The highest temperatures, up to 424 K, are obtained for silicon dioxide as the passivation material, positive polarity, and low thermal anchoring with thermal boundary resistance configurations. Interestingly it is also found that due to the tunneling heat, Peltier effect, device geometry, and numerous interfacial layers around the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ, most of the heat is dissipated on the lower potential side of the magnetic junction. This asymmetry in heating, which has also been observed experimentally, is important as thermally assisted switching requires heating of the free layer specifically and this will be significantly different for the two polarity operations, set and reset.

  10. Analysis of self-heating of thermally assisted spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Austin; Muneer, Sadid; Akbulut, Mustafa; Gokirmak, Ali; Silva, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Thermal assistance has been shown to significantly reduce the required operation power for spin torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM). Proposed heating methods include modified material stack compositions that result in increased self-heating or external heat sources. In this work we analyze the self-heating process of a standard perpendicular magnetic anisotropy STT-MRAM device through numerical simulations in order to understand the relative contributions of Joule, thermoelectric Peltier and Thomson, and tunneling junction heating. A 2D rotationally symmetric numerical model is used to solve the coupled electro-thermal equations including thermoelectric effects and heat absorbed or released at the tunneling junction. We compare self-heating for different common passivation materials, positive and negative electrical current polarity, and different device thermal anchoring and boundaries resistance configurations. The variations considered are found to result in significant differences in maximum temperatures reached. Average increases of 3 K, 10 K, and 100 K for different passivation materials, positive and negative polarity, and different thermal anchoring configurations, respectively, are observed. The highest temperatures, up to 424 K, are obtained for silicon dioxide as the passivation material, positive polarity, and low thermal anchoring with thermal boundary resistance configurations. Interestingly it is also found that due to the tunneling heat, Peltier effect, device geometry, and numerous interfacial layers around the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), most of the heat is dissipated on the lower potential side of the magnetic junction. This asymmetry in heating, which has also been observed experimentally, is important as thermally assisted switching requires heating of the free layer specifically and this will be significantly different for the two polarity operations, set and reset.

  11. Theory of mode coupling in spin torque oscillators coupled to a thermal bath of magnons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Shulei; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle

    Recently, numerous experimental investigations have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator (STO) exhibits complex behavior stemming from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator. Examples are the observed mode-hopping and mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In this work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the presence of the current-driven spin transfer torques. We will first show, in general, that how a linear mode coupling would arise through the coupling of the system to a thermal bath of magnons, which implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. We then apply our theory to two experimentally interesting systems: 1) a STO patterned into nano-pillar with circular or elliptical cross-sections and 2) a nano-contact STO. For both cases, we found that in order to get mode coupling, it would be necessary to have either a finite in-plane component of the external field or an Oersted field. We will also discuss the temperature dependence of the linear mode coupling. Y. Zhou acknowledges the support by the Seed Funding Program for Basic Research from the University of Hong Kong, and University Grants Committee of Hong Kong (Contract No. AoE/P-04/08).

  12. Torque Ripple Minimization with Instantaneous Current Feedback Compensation for Switched Reluctance Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishab, Paudel; Ishikawa, Hiroki; Naitoh, Haruo

    This paper presents a novel strategy for torque ripple minimization with instantaneous current feedback compensation for switched reluctance motors (SRMs). The authors have already proposed suitable reference current profiles and a control algorithm to obtain an instantaneously flat torque of an SRM and confirmed the effectiveness of the algorithm by performing experiment in the low-speed range. In the high-speed range, however, the winding current cannot track the reference current owing to the lack of necessary voltage. In this study, mathematical analyses on the inability to trace the current profiles are performed. A new current control with compensation of the current profiles with instantaneous feedback is proposed. The validity of the proposed control is demonstrated by the experimental results.

  13. Role of spin-transfer torques on synchronization and resonance phenomena in stochastic magnetic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accioly, Artur [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Locatelli, Nicolas; Querlioz, Damien; Kim, Joo-Von [Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Mizrahi, Alice [Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F91767 Palaiseau (France); Pereira, Luis G. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Grollier, Julie [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F91767 Palaiseau (France)

    2016-09-07

    A theoretical study on how synchronization and resonance-like phenomena in superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be driven by spin-transfer torques is presented. We examine the magnetization of a superparamagnetic free layer that reverses randomly between two well-defined orientations due to thermal fluctuations, acting as a stochastic oscillator. When subject to an external ac forcing, this system can present stochastic resonance and noise-enhanced synchronization. We focus on the roles of the mutually perpendicular damping-like and field-like torques, showing that the response of the system is very different at low and high frequencies. We also demonstrate that the field-like torque can increase the efficiency of the current-driven forcing, especially at sub-threshold electric currents. These results can be useful for possible low-power, more energy efficient applications.

  14. Effects on fatigue life of gate valves due to higher torque switch settings during operability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richins, W.D.; Snow, S.D.; Miller, G.K.; Russell, M.J.; Ware, A.G.

    1995-12-01

    Some motor operated valves now have higher torque switch settings due to regulatory requirements to ensure valve operability with appropriate margins at design basis conditions. Verifying operability with these settings imposes higher stem loads during periodic inservice testing. These higher test loads increase stresses in the various valve internal parts which may in turn increase the fatigue usage factors. This increased fatigue is judged to be a concern primarily in the valve disks, seats, yokes, stems, and stem nuts. Although the motor operators may also have significantly increased loading, they are being evaluated by the manufacturers and are beyond the scope of this study. Two gate valves representative of both relatively weak and strong valves commonly used in commercial nuclear applications were selected for fatigue analyses. Detailed dimensional and test data were available for both valves from previous studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Finite element models were developed to estimate maximum stresses in the internal parts of the valves and to identity the critical areas within the valves where fatigue may be a concern. Loads were estimated using industry standard equations for calculating torque switch settings prior and subsequent to the testing requirements of USNRC Generic Letter 89--10. Test data were used to determine both; (1) the overshoot load between torque switch trip and final seating of the disk during valve closing and (2) the stem thrust required to open the valves. The ranges of peak stresses thus determined were then used to estimate the increase in the fatigue usage factors due to the higher stem thrust loads. The usages that would be accumulated by 100 base cycles plus one or eight test cycles per year over 40 and 60 years of operation were calculated

  15. Fast electrical switching of spin injection in nonlocal spin transport devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, A.; Alvarado, S. F.; Salis, G.; Allenspach, R.

    2011-05-01

    We present spin-injection experiments in a nonlocal spin transport device where spin is injected from a ferromagnetic FeCo electrode into a GaAs epilayer. The magnetization of the injection contact is switched by Oersted fields generated by alternating current pulses. This enables fast and offset-free measurements of nonlocal spin signals. Due to a negligible time-averaged electron spin polarization, dynamic nuclear polarization effects are small and Hanle curves measured down to T =3 K can be fit very accurately by drift-diffusion theory if a small constant Overhauser field BN=0.4 mT is accounted for.

  16. Spin-torque diode radio-frequency detector with voltage tuned resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowroński, Witold, E-mail: skowron@agh.edu.pl; Frankowski, Marek; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Wrona, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Singulus Technologies, Kahl am Main 63796 (Germany); Ogrodnik, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Barnaś, Józef [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2014-08-18

    We report on a voltage-tunable radio-frequency (RF) detector based on a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The spin-torque diode effect is used to excite and/or detect RF oscillations in the magnetic free layer of the MTJ. In order to reduce the overall in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the free layer, we take advantage of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ferromagnetic and insulating layers. The applied bias voltage is shown to have a significant influence on the magnetic anisotropy, and thus on the resonance frequency of the device. This influence also depends on the voltage polarity. The obtained results are accounted for in terms of the interplay of spin-transfer-torque and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy effects.

  17. Spin-transfer torque induced dynamics of magnetic vortices in nanopillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluka, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this work are lithographically defined cylindrical nanopillars containing a stack of two Iron disks separated by a nonmagnetic spacer. The dimensions of the ferromagnetic disks are chosen such that at low magnetic fields, the so-called magnetic vortex is stabilized. In zero field, the magnetization of these objects is basically parallel to the disk plane and circulates the disk center. In doing so, the build-up of large in-plane stray fields is avoided. At the center of this distribution however, exchange forces turn the magnetization out of the disk plane, resulting in the formation of what is referred to as the vortex core. Magnetic vortices have attracted much attention in recent years. This interest is in large parts due to the highly interesting dynamic properties of these structures. In this work the static and dynamic properties of magnetic vortices and their behavior under the influence of spin-transfer torque are investigated. This is achieved by measuring the static and time dependent magnetoresistance under the influence of external magnetic fields. The samples allow the formation of a large variety of states. First, the focus is set on configurations, where one disk is in a vortex state while the other one is homogeneously magnetized. It is shown that spin-transfer torque excites the vortex gyrotropic mode in this configuration. The dependence of the mode frequency on the magnetic field is analyzed. The measurements show that as the vortex center of gyration shifts through the disk under the action of the magnetic field, the effective potential in which it is moving undergoes a change in shape. This shape change is reflected in a V-shaped field dependence of the gyration frequency. Analytical calculations are performed to investigate the effect of the asymmetry of the spin-transfer torque efficiency function on the vortex dynamics. It is shown that by means of asymmetry, spin-transfer torque can transfer energy to a gyrating vortex even

  18. Bias-voltage dependence of perpendicular spin-transfer torque in asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Se Chung

    2009-10-25

    Spin-transfer torque (STT) allows the electrical control of magnetic states in nanostructures. The STT in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is of particular importance owing to its potential for device applications. It has been demonstrated that the MTJ has a sizable perpendicular STT (, field-like torque), which substantially affects STT-driven magnetization dynamics. In contrast to symmetric MTJs where the bias dependence of is quadratic, it is theoretically predicted that the symmetry breaking of the system causes an extra linear bias dependence. Here, we report experimental results that are consistent with the predicted linear bias dependence in asymmetric MTJs. The linear contribution is quite significant and its sign changes from positive to negative as the asymmetry is modified. This result opens a way to design the bias dependence of the field-like term, which is useful for device applications by allowing, in particular, the suppression of the abnormal switching-back phenomena. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. Spin star as a switch for quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, Man-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Quantum state transfer is an important task in quantum information processing. It is known that one can engineer the couplings of a one-dimensional spin chain to achieve the goal of perfect state transfer. To leverage the value of these spin chains, a spin star is potentially useful for connecting different parts of a quantum network. In this work, we extend the spin-chain engineering problem to the problems with a topology of a star network. We show that a permanently coupled spin star can function as a network switch for transferring quantum states selectively from one node to another by varying the local potentials only. Together with one-dimensional chains, this result allows applications of quantum state transfer to be applied to more general quantum networks.

  20. Position Sensorless Speed Estimation in Switched Reluctance Motor Drive with Direct Torque Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuk, Fuat; Goto, Hiroki; Guo, Hai-Jiao; Ichinokura, Osamu

    Feedback signals of rotor speed and motor torque are essential in most of Switched Reluctance (SR) motor control applications. An SR motor has highly nonlinear characteristic that does not allow to be modeled by simple equations. In Direct Torque Control (DTC) drive, which enables easy control of torque ripple in the SR motor, position sensor is employed to obtain the feedback signals. Position sensor causes DTC drive not only less reliable but also more expensive. Estimation of feedback signals is required in order to eliminate position sensor. This paper concerns about sensorless speed estimation under the DTC condition and presents a simple method. Simple sensorless speed estimation is proposed based on inductance vector angle. The inductance vector angle is obtained by applying α-β transformation to the phase inductances. A relay triggers a speed calculation circuit according to its band limits and the inductance vector angle. Inside the circuit, triggering time is kept in a memory until the next triggering. Rotor pole pitch is divided by the time difference between two consecutive triggerings. Finally, the estimation circuit outputs the rotor speed. Sensorless speed estimation is simulated and verified experimentally to show its validity.

  1. All-electric-controlled spin current switching in single-molecule magnet-tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhong; Shen, Rui; Sheng, Li; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Wang, Bai-Gen; Xing, Ding-Yu

    2011-04-01

    A single-molecule magnet (SMM) coupled to two normal metallic electrodes can both switch spin-up and spin-down electronic currents within two different windows of SMM gate voltage. Such spin current switching in the SMM tunnel junction arises from spin-selected single electron resonant tunneling via the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit of the SMM. Since it is not magnetically controlled but all-electrically controlled, the proposed spin current switching effect may have potential applications in future spintronics.

  2. Electrical-field and spin-transfer torque effects in CoFeB/MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Chikako, E-mail: cyoshida@jp.fujitsu.com; Noshiro, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Sugii, Toshihiro [Fujitsu limited, 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0197 (Japan); Furuya, Atsushi; Ataka, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Uehara, Yuji [Fujitsu limited, 4-1-1 Kamikodanaka, Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 211-8588 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The electric-field (E) dependence of the magnetoresistance (RH) loops for top-pinned perpendicular CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in the presence of a spin-transfer torque (STT)-current was measured. The E effects were distinguished from the STT-current effects using a micromagnetic simulation. The coercive field (H{sub c}) decreased and the RH loop shifted as both the positive and negative bias E increased owing to the STT current. Furthermore, E-assisted switching for an MTJ with a diameter of 20 nm, which exhibited a nearly coherent magnetization reversal, was demonstrated using micromagnetic simulation.

  3. An Enhanced Three-Level Voltage Switching State Scheme for Direct Torque Controlled Open End Winding Induction Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisetti, V. Praveen Kumar; Thippiripati, Vinay Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Open End Winding Induction Motors (OEWIM) are popular for electric vehicles, ship propulsion applications due to less DC link voltage. Electric vehicles, ship propulsions require ripple free torque. In this article, an enhanced three-level voltage switching state scheme for direct torque controlled OEWIM drive is implemented to reduce torque and flux ripples. The limitations of conventional Direct Torque Control (DTC) are: possible problems during low speeds and starting, it operates with variable switching frequency due to hysteresis controllers and produces higher torque and flux ripple. The proposed DTC scheme can abate the problems of conventional DTC with an enhanced voltage switching state scheme. The three-level inversion was obtained by operating inverters with equal DC-link voltages and it produces 18 voltage space vectors. These 18 vectors are divided into low and high frequencies of operation based on rotor speed. The hardware results prove the validity of proposed DTC scheme during steady-state and transients. From simulation and experimental results, proposed DTC scheme gives less torque and flux ripples on comparison to two-level DTC. The proposed DTC is implemented using dSPACE DS-1104 control board interface with MATLAB/SIMULINK-RTI model.

  4. Few-nanosecond pulse switching with low write error for in-plane nanomagnets using the spin-Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Sriharsha; Rowlands, Graham; Shi, Shengjie; Oh, Junseok; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, Robert

    Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) using spin transfer torques (STT) holds great promise for replacing existing best-in-class memory technologies in several application domains. Research on conventional two-terminal STT-MRAM thus far has revealed the existence of limitations that constrain switching reliability and speed for both in-plane and perpendicularly magnetized devices. Recently, spin torque arising from the giant spin-Hall effect in Ta, W and Pt has been shown to be an efficient mechanism to switch magnetic bits in a three-terminal geometry. Here we report highly reliable, nanosecond timescale pulse switching of three-terminal devices with in-plane magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions. We obtain write error rates (WER) down to ~10-5 using pulses as short as 2 ns, in contrast to conventional in-plane STT-MRAM devices where write speeds were limited to a few tens of nanoseconds for comparable WER. Utilizing micro-magnetic simulations, we discuss the differences from conventional MRAM that allow for this unanticipated and significant performance improvement. Finally, we highlight the path towards practical application enabled by the ability to separately optimize the read and write pathways in three-terminal devices.

  5. Steady motion of skyrmions and domains walls under diffusive spin torques

    KAUST Repository

    Elías, Ricardo Gabriel

    2017-03-09

    We explore the role of the spin diffusion of conducting electrons in two-dimensional magnetic textures (domain walls and skyrmions) with spatial variation of the order of the spin precession length λex. The effect of diffusion reflects in four additional torques that are third order in spatial derivatives of magnetization and bilinear in λex and in the nonadiabatic parameter β′. In order to study the dynamics of the solitons when these diffusive torques are present, we derive the Thiele equation in the limit of steady motion and we compare the results with the nondiffusive limit. When considering a homogenous current these torques increase the longitudinal velocity of transverse domain walls of width Δ by a factor (λex/Δ)2(α/3), α being the magnetic damping constant. In the case of single skyrmions with core radius r0 these new contributions tend to increase the Magnus effect in an amount proportional to (λex/r0)2(1+2αβ′).

  6. High-efficiency control of spin-wave propagation in ultra-thin yttrium iron garnet by the spin-orbit torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E., E-mail: demidov@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Bessonov, V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Demokritov, S. O. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Prieto, J. L. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnologa (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne CNRS, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Naletov, V. V. [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Loubens, G. de [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France)

    2016-04-25

    We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.

  7. Quantum size effects on spin-transfer torque in a double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (semiconductor) spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching. - Highlights: • The quantum size effects are studied in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. • Spin torque (ST) components oscillate for increasing of middle spacer thicknesses. • Due to the resonant tunneling in the quantum well, oscillations have appeared. • By replacement a metal spacer with a semiconductor (ZnO) ST has increased. • The ST components vs. bias show gradually decreasing unlike spin valves or MTJs.

  8. Intrinsic synchronization of an array of spin-torque oscillators driven by the spin-Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siracusano, G.; Puliafito, V.; Giordano, A.; Azzerboni, B.; Finocchio, G.; Tomasello, R.; La Corte, A.; Carpentieri, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper micromagnetically studies the magnetization dynamics driven by the spin-Hall effect in a Platinum/Permalloy bi-layer. For a certain field and current range, the excitation of a uniform mode, characterized by a power with a spatial distribution in the whole ferromagnetic cross section, is observed. We suggest to use the ferromagnet of the bi-layer as basis for the realization of an array of spin-torque oscillators (STOs): the Permalloy ferromagnet will act as shared free layer, whereas the spacers and the polarizers are built on top of it. Following this strategy, the frequency of the uniform mode will be the same for the whole device, creating an intrinsic synchronization. The synchronization of an array of parallely connected STOs will allow to increase the output power, as necessary for technological applications

  9. Analytic expression of the temperature increment in a spin transfer torque nanopillar structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Chun-Yeol; Ha, Seung-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Woo

    2009-01-01

    The temperature increment due to the Joule heating in a nanopillar spin transfer torque system is investigated. We obtain a time-dependent analytic solution of the heat conduction equation in nanopillar geometry by using the Green's function method after some simplifications of the problem. While Holm's equation is applicable only to steady states in metallic systems, our solution describes the time dependence and is also applicable to a nanopillar-shaped magnetic tunneling junction with an insulator barrier layer. The validity of the analytic solution is confirmed by numerical finite element method simulations and by the comparison with Holm's equation.

  10. Materials and Physics Challenges for Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, O.

    2014-10-05

    Magnetic random access memories utilizing the spin transfer torque effect for writing information are a strong contender for non-volatile memories scalable to the 20 nm node, and perhaps beyond. I will here examine how these devices behave as the device size is scaled down from 70 nm size to 20 nm. As device sizes go below ~50 nm, the size becomes comparable to intrinsic magnetic length scales and the device behavior does not simply scale with size. This has implications for the device design and puts additional constraints on the materials in the device.

  11. Decoherence and mode hopping in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muduli, P K; Heinonen, O G; Akerman, Johan

    2012-05-18

    We discuss the coherence of magnetic oscillations in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator as a function of the external field angle. Time-frequency analysis shows mode hopping between distinct oscillator modes, which arises from linear and nonlinear couplings in the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, analogous to mode hopping observed in semiconductor ring lasers. These couplings and, therefore, mode hopping are minimized near the current threshold for the antiparallel alignment of free-layer with reference layer magnetization. Away from the antiparallel alignment, mode hopping limits oscillator coherence.

  12. Phase locking of vortex-based spin-torque nanocontact oscillators by antivortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaspel, C. E.

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic vortices formed at a nanocontact undergo gyrotropic oscillations when driven by a spin-torque providing potential applications as microwave nano-oscillators; however, to increase the power output it is necessary to use an array of synchronized oscillators. Here a theory is developed for two nanocontact oscillators that are interacting through an intermediate antivortex. The confining potential for the two vortices formed at each nanocontact as well as the antivortex is the Oersted-Ampere field about each nanocontact. Solution of the Thiele equation for this system indicates that the nanocontact vortex oscillators will be phase locked over a wide range of nanocontact currents.

  13. Critical current density of domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, T; Imamura, H, E-mail: tomohiro-taniguchi@aist.go.jp, E-mail: h-imamura@aist.go.jp [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    The domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque was studied by numerically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. For a domain wall whose rotation angle {theta}{sub max} is less than 180{sup 0}, we found the existence of the critical current density above which the magnetization dynamics are induced. We studied the dependence of the critical current density on the rotation angle {theta}{sub max} and found that the critical current density is proportional to 180{sup 0} - {theta}{sub max}.

  14. A Novel Sensing Circuit with Large Sensing Margin for Embedded Spin-Transfer Torque MRAMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheriye, Leila; Toofan, Siroos; Saeidi, Roghayeh

    Abstract— Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) has emerged as a promising candidate for next-generation computing systems. However, with increasing process variation and decreasing supply voltage, a big design challenge of embedded STT-MRAMs is to guarantee negligible read......-disturbance and high yield. In this paper, to deal with the read reliability challenge, a high sensing margin sensing circuit with strong positive feedback is proposed. It improves the sensing margin (SM) by 10.42X/3.3X and a with 1.24X/1.59X lower read energy at iso-sensing time (2ns) in comparison...

  15. Spin-orbit torque in 3D topological insulator-ferromagnet heterostructure: crossover between bulk and surface transport

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2017-11-29

    Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore, our model accounts for spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large damping torque reported recently is more likely attributed to interfacial magnetoelectric effect, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.

  16. Spin-orbit torque in a three-dimensional topological insulator–ferromagnet heterostructure: Crossover between bulk and surface transport

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2018-04-02

    Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three-dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore our model accounts for the spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large dampinglike torque reported recently is more likely attributed to the Berry curvature of interfacial states, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.

  17. A Possible Output Area of Torque and Suspension Force in a Switched Reluctance Type Bearingless Motor with One Phase Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Masatsugu; Chiba, Akira; Akagi, Hirofumi; Fukao, Tadashi

    Switched reluctance type bearingless motors are characterized by integration of switched reluctance motors and magnetic bearings. Therefore, these motors can control radial rotor positions with magnetic force actively. Production of suspension force for rotor shaft magnetic suspension is explained with differential stator windings. In the previous paper, accurate theoretical formulae of instantaneous torque and suspension force generated by one phase excitation were derived from an assumption of simple permeance distribution. From the derived theoretical formulae, it is found that there exist cross coupling between the instantaneous torque and the suspension force. This paper derives a possible output area of the instantaneous torque and the suspension force considering the cross coupling in order to realize a stable operation. It is shown with experimental results that the possible output area of the proposed motors is very accurate in terms of practical application.

  18. Spin Current Switching and Spin-Filtering Effects in Mn-Doped Boron Nitride Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Nemnes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spin transport properties are investigated by means of the first principle approach for boron nitride nanoribbons with one or two substitutional Mn impurities, connected to graphene electrodes. The spin current polarization is evaluated using the nonequilibrium Green’s function formalism for each structure and bias. The structure with one Mn impurity reveals a transfer characteristics suitable for a spin current switch. In the case of two Mn impurities, the system behaves as an efficient spin-filter device, independent on the ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic configurations of the magnetic impurities. The experimental availability of the building blocks as well as the magnitudes of the obtained spin current polarizations indicates a strong potential of the analyzed structures for future spintronic devices.

  19. Electric-field assisted spin torque nano-oscillator and binary frequency shift keying modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangli; Chen, Hao-Hsuan; Zhang, Zongzhi; Liu, Yaowen

    2018-04-01

    Electric-controlled magnetization precession introduces technologically relevant possibility for developing spin torque nano-oscillators (STNO) with potential applications in microwave emission. Using the perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), we show that the magnetization oscillation frequency can be tuned by the co-action of electric field and spin polarized current. The dynamical phase diagram of MTJ-based STNO is analytically predicted through coordinate transformation from the laboratory frame to the rotation frame, by which the nonstationary out-of-plane magnetization precession process is therefore transformed into the stationary process in the rotation frame. Furthermore, using this STNO as a microwave source, we numerically demonstrate that the bit signal can be transmitted by a binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation technique. The BFSK scheme shows good modulation features with no transient state.

  20. Adiabatic spin-transfer-torque-induced domain wall creep in a magnetic metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttagupta, S.; Fukami, S.; Zhang, C.; Sato, H.; Yamanouchi, M.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of elastic interfaces is a general field of interest in statistical physics, where magnetic domain wall has served as a prototypical example. Domain wall `creep’ under the action of sub-threshold driving forces with thermal activation is known to be described by a scaling law with a certain universality class, which represents the mechanism of the interaction of domain walls with the applied forces over the disorder of the system. Here we show different universality classes depending on the driving forces, magnetic field or spin-polarized current, in a metallic system, which have hitherto been seen only in a magnetic semiconductor. We reveal that an adiabatic spin-transfer torque plays a major role in determining the universality class of current-induced creep, which does not depend on the intricacies of material disorder. Our results shed light on the physics of the creep motion of domain walls and other elastic systems.

  1. The magnetization dynamics of nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, Paul

    The operation of nano-contact (NC) spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) is underpinned by vortex gyration in response to spin-torque delivered by high density current passing through the magnetic layers of a spin valve. Gyration directly beneath the NC yields radio frequency (RF) emission through the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect, which can be readily detected electronically. The magnetization dynamics that extend beyond the NC perimeter contribute little to the GMR signal, but are crucial for synchronization of multiple NC-STVOs that share the same spin valve film. In this work time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to directly image the extended dynamics of STVOs phase-locked to an injected RF current. In this talk the dynamics of single 250-nm diameter NCs, and a pair of 100-nm diameter NCs, will be presented. In general the Kerr images reveal well-defined localized and far-field dynamics, driven by spin-torque and RF current Oersted fields respectively. The RF frequency, RF Oersted field, direction of an in-plane magnetic field, and equilibrium magnetic state, all influenced the spatial character of the dynamics observed in single NCs. In the pair of NCs, two modes were observed in the RF emission. Kerr images revealed that a vortex was formed beneath each NC and that the mode with enhanced spectral amplitude and line quality appeared to be correlated with two localized regions oscillating with similar amplitude and phase, while a second weaker mode exhibited amplitude and phase differences. This suggests that the RF emission was generated by collective modes of vortex gyration dynamically coupled via magnetization dynamics and dipolar interactions of the shared magnetic layers. Within the constraints of injection locking, this work demonstrates that TRSKM can provide valuable insight into the spatial character and time-evolution of magnetization dynamics generated by NC-STVOs and the conditions that may favor their synchronization

  2. Spin-orbit torques for current parallel and perpendicular to a domain wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Tomek; Lee, Kyujoon; Karnad, Gurucharan V. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Alejos, Oscar [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belen, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martinez, Eduardo; Moretti, Simone [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caidos s/n, E-38008 Salamanca (Spain); Hals, Kjetil M. D. [Niels Bohr International Academy and the Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, Karin; Ravelosona, Dafiné [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vila, Laurent [Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Lo Conte, Roberto; Kläui, Mathias [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Graduate School of Excellence “Materials Science in Mainz” (MAINZ), Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Ocker, Berthold [Singulus Technologies AG, 63796 Kahl am Main (Germany); Brataas, Arne [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-09-21

    We report field- and current-induced domain wall (DW) depinning experiments in Ta\\Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}\\MgO nanowires through a Hall cross geometry. While purely field-induced depinning shows no angular dependence on in-plane fields, the effect of the current depends crucially on the internal DW structure, which we manipulate by an external magnetic in-plane field. We show depinning measurements for a current sent parallel to the DW and compare its depinning efficiency with the conventional case of current flowing perpendicularly to the DW. We find that the maximum efficiency is similar for both current directions within the error bars, which is in line with a dominating damping-like spin-orbit torque (SOT) and indicates that no large additional torques arise for currents perpendicular to the DW. Finally, we find a varying dependence of the maximum depinning efficiency angle for different DWs and pinning levels. This emphasizes the importance of our full angular scans compared with previously used measurements for just two field directions (parallel and perpendicular to the DW) to determine the real torque strength and shows the sensitivity of the SOT to the precise DW structure and pinning sites.

  3. Spin-transfer torque magnetic memory as a stochastic memristive synapse for neuromorphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Adrien F; Larroque, Jerome; Locatelli, Nicolas; Ben Romdhane, Nesrine; Bichler, Olivier; Gamrat, Christian; Zhao, Wei Sheng; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Galdin-Retailleau, Sylvie; Querlioz, Damien

    2015-04-01

    Spin-transfer torque magnetic memory (STT-MRAM) is currently under intense academic and industrial development, since it features non-volatility, high write and read speed and high endurance. In this work, we show that when used in a non-conventional regime, it can additionally act as a stochastic memristive device, appropriate to implement a "synaptic" function. We introduce basic concepts relating to spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junction (STT-MTJ, the STT-MRAM cell) behavior and its possible use to implement learning-capable synapses. Three programming regimes (low, intermediate and high current) are identified and compared. System-level simulations on a task of vehicle counting highlight the potential of the technology for learning systems. Monte Carlo simulations show its robustness to device variations. The simulations also allow comparing system operation when the different programming regimes of STT-MTJs are used. In comparison to the high and low current regimes, the intermediate current regime allows minimization of energy consumption, while retaining a high robustness to device variations. These results open the way for unexplored applications of STT-MTJs in robust, low power, cognitive-type systems.

  4. Asymmetric and partial injection locking of a three-terminal spin-torque oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jué, Emilie; Pufall, Matthew R.; Rippard, William H.

    2018-03-01

    We measure the injection locking of a three-terminal spin-torque oscillator (STO) excited by spin-orbit torque. The device consists of a magnetic tunnel junction on top of a Pt wire. A DC and an AC current are applied through the Pt wire to induce the oscillations and injection lock the STO, respectively. The injection locking is studied at fMW ≈ f0 or at fMW ≈ 2f0, where fMW is the microwave frequency and f0 is the free running frequency of the STO. The frequency response is qualitatively different from the injection locking in STOs generally reported experimentally and theoretically. Whereas typical phase-locking behavior is observed at fMW ≈ 2f0, the injection locking at fMW ≈ f0 is only partial and exhibits a strongly asymmetric frequency response. Defining the frequency deviation range as the frequency range where the STO differs from its free running frequency, we show that the asymmetric interaction is characterized by a pulling effect present on only one side of the frequency deviation range, the presence of a sideband inside the frequency deviation range, and an interaction of the STO with the microwave current that is wider than the frequency deviation range.

  5. Spin-dependent transport and current-induced spin transfer torque in a disordered zigzag silicene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Liu, Guang; Guo, Dan; Zhou, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically the spin-dependent transport and the current-induced spin transfer torque (STT) for a zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR) with Anderson-type disorders between two ferromagnetic electrodes. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, it is predicted that the transport property and STT through the junction depend sensitively on the disorder, especially around the Dirac point. As a result, the conductance decreases and increases for two electrode in parallel and antiparallel configurations, respectively. Due to the disorder, the magnetoresistance (MR) decreases accordingly even within the energy regime for the perfect plateau without disorders. In addition, the conductance versus the relative angle of the magnetization shows a cosine-like behavior. The STT per unit of the bias voltage versus the angle of the magnetization exhibits a sine-like behavior, and versus the Fermi energy is antisymmetrical to the Dirac point and exhibits sharp peaks. Furthermore, the peaks of the STT are suppressed much as the disorder strength increases, especially around the Dirac point. The results obtained here may provide a valuable suggestion to experimentally design spin valve devices based on ZSiNR.

  6. Episodic Spin-up and Spin-down Torque on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabinski, Victor J.; Mendonca, Antonio A.

    2018-04-01

    Variations in Earth rotation angle are traditionally expressed by the time difference (ΔT=TT-UT1) between Terrestrial Time (TT) as told by atomic clocks and Universal Time UT1, the time variable used by the Earth-rotation formula. A plot of ΔT versus TT over the past 160 years shows a continuous curve with approximate straight-line segments with different spans of order ~20 years. Removing the tidal and seasonal variations from the data gives these line segments which represent the “decadal variations” in Earth rotation.The slope of a straight-line segment is proportional to the departure of Earth rotation rate from a reference value at the time. The change in slope over the relatively short time between segments indicates an episodic spin-up or spin-down in Earth rotation. The daily combination of VLBI, SLR, and other modern data available since 1973 gives us accurate, daily values of ΔT and the corresponding LOD (Length Of Day) values during these episodes. These allow us to determine the rotational acceleration occurring then.The three largest spin-speed changes found during the VLBI era have the following characteristics:Episode _____________ Duration__ ΔLOD__LOD Rate1983 Dec 30-1984 Jan 28 ... 29 d ...-0.65 ms ..-8.3 ms/y ..........spin-up1989 Mar 15-1989 May 23 ...69 d ....0.68 .......+3.6 ..............spin-down1994 Jan 21-2001 Apr 01 ... 6.5 y ...-2.2 .........-0.36 ..extended spin-upFor the first two episodes listed, we find the acceleration grows from zero (or at least a relatively small value) to its extreme value in ~1 day, stays approximately constant at this value for 29 or 69 days, and then decays back to zero over ~1 day. The acceleration, while it occurs, gives an LOD rate much greater than the 0.02 ms/y rate from tidal friction.The third episode shows that occasionally a several-year-long episode occurs. The acceleration magnitude is smaller but can make a larger total change in LOD (and spin rate). Tidal friction requires >100 y to equal

  7. Mutual synchronization of spin-torque oscillators consisting of perpendicularly magnetized free layers and in-plane magnetized pinned layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    A mutual synchronization of spin-torque oscillators coupled through current injection is studied theoretically. Models of electrical coupling in parallel and series circuits are proposed. Solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, excitation of in-phase or antiphase synchronization, depending on the ways the oscillators are connected, is found. It is also found from both analytical and numerical calculations that the current-frequency relations for both parallel and series circuits are the same as that for a single spin-torque oscillator.

  8. Novel compact model for multi-level spin torque magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Sanjay; Verma, Shivam; Kulkarni, Anant Aravind; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Spin-transfer torque (STT) and spin-orbit torque (SOT) based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices are emerging as strong contenders for the next generation memories. Conventional STT magneto-resistive random access memory (MRAM) offers lower power, non-volatility and CMOS process compatibility. However, higher current requirement during the write operation leads to tunnel barrier reliability issues and larger access devices. SOT-MRAM eliminates the reliability issues with strong spin polarized current (100%) and separate read/write current paths; however, the additional two access transistors in SOT-MRAM results into increased cell area. Multilevel cell (MLC) structure paves a way to circumvent the problems related to the conventional STT/SOT based MTJ devices and provides enhanced integration density at reduced cost per bit. Conventional STT/SOT-MRAM requires a unit cell area of 10-60 F2 and reported simulations have been based on available single-level MTJ compact models. However, till date no compact model exists that can capture the device physics of MLC-MTJ accurately. Hence, a novel compact model is proposed in this paper to capture the accurate device physics and behaviour of the MLC-MTJs. It is designed for MLCs with different MTJ configurations demonstrated so far, such as series and parallel free layer based MLC-MTJs. The proposed model is coded in Verilog-A, which is compatible with SPICE for circuit level simulations. The model is in close agreement with the experimental results exhibiting an average error of less than 15%.

  9. Ferromagnetic resonance study of the half-Heusler alloy NiMnSb. The benefit of using NiMnSb as a ferromagnetic layer in pseudo-spin-valve based spin-torque oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegler, Andreas

    2011-11-25

    Since the discovery of spin torque in 1996, independently by Berger and Slonczewski, and given its potential impact on information storage and communication technologies, (e.g. through the possibility of switching the magnetic configuration of a bit by current instead of a magnetic field, or the realization of high frequency spin torque oscillators (STO)), this effect has been an important field of spintronics research. One aspect of this research focuses on ferromagnets with low damping. The lower the damping in a ferromagnet, the lower the critical current that is needed to induce switching of a spin valve or induce precession of its magnetization. In this thesis ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) studies of NiMnSb layers are presented along with experimental studies on various spin-torque (ST) devices using NiMnSb. NiMnSb, when crystallized in the half-Heusler structure, is a half-metal which is predicted to have 100% spin polarization, a consideration which further increases its potential as a candidate for memory devices based on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect. The FMR measurements show an outstandingly low damping factor for NiMnSb, in low 10{sup -3} range. This is about a factor of two lower than permalloy and well comparable to lowest damping for iron grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). According to theory the 100% spin polarization properties of the bulk disappear at interfaces where the break in translational symmetry causes the gap in the minority spin band to collapse but can remain in other crystal symmetries such as (111). Consequently NiMnSb layers on (111)(In,Ga)As buffer are characterized in respect of anisotropies and damping. The FMR measurements on these samples indicates a higher damping that for the 001 samples, and a thickness dependent uniaxial in-plane anisotropy. Investigations of the material for device use is pursued by considering sub-micrometer sized elements of NiMnSb on 001 substrates, which were fabricated by electron

  10. Characterization of perpendicular STT-MRAM by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Chengcen; Yang, Liu; Lee, Han Kyu; Barsukov, Igor; Zhang, Jieyi; Krivorotov, Ilya

    We describe a method for simple quantitative measurement of magnetic anisotropy and Gilbert damping of the MTJ free layer in individual perpendicular STT-MRAM devices by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) with magnetic field modulation. We first show the dependence of ST-FMR spectra of an STT-MRAM element on out-of-plane magnetic field. In these spectra, resonances arising from excitation of the quasi-uniform and higher order spin wave eigenmodes of the free layer as well as acoustic mode of the synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) are clearly seen. The quasi-uniform mode frequency at zero field gives magnetic anisotropy field of the free layer. Then we show dependence of the quasi-uniform mode linewidth on frequency is linear over a range of frequencies but deviatesfrom linearity in the low and high frequency regimes. Comparison to ST-FMR spectrareveals that the high frequency line broadening is linked to the SAF mode softening near the SAF spin flop transition at 5 kG. In the low field regime, the SAF mode frequency approaches that of the quasi-uniform mode, and resonant coupling of the modes leads to the line broadening. A linear fit to the linewidth data outside of the high and low field regimes gives the Gilbert damping parameter of the free layer. This work was supported by the Samsung Global MRAM Innovation Program.

  11. Spin-transfer torque in Co/Graphene/Co vertical heterostructures: A route toward magnetic memories with low write energy and ultrahigh magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolui, Kapildeb; Chang, Po-Hao; Mahfouzi, Farzad; Markussen, Troels; Stokbro, Kurt; Nikolić, Branislav K.

    The MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) are presently the workhorse of first generation spintronics, based on magnetoresistitive phenomena, as well as for second generation spintronics largely focused on spin-transfer torque (STT) phenomena. Although MgO-based MTJs offer large tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), required to detect current-driven magnetization switching from parallel to antiparallel state, they demand high bias voltage to initiate the switching dynamics which can lead to tunnel barrier degradation. Thus, an ideal physical system for envisioned STT-based memory devices and their integration with low-power CMOS technology would exhibit high TMR and low resistance-area (RA) product, ensuring small write voltages and write energy. Using first-principles quantum transport formalism, we predict that Co/Grn/Co vertical heterostructures, where Co(111) electrodes sandwich n layers of graphene, offer such physical system. Although Co/Gr1/Co junctions show similar STT magnitude as Co/Cu/Co spin valves in the linear-response regime, TMR >100% requires Co/Gr3/Co junctions whose RA product is still two orders of magnitude smaller than in MgO-based MTJs, while their magnetization switching can be initiated with bias voltages as small as Vb < 0 . 1 V.

  12. Using a spin torque nano-oscillator to read memory based on the magnetic permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, J. R.; Urazhdin, S.; Wieland, K. A.; Fischer, G. A.; Edelstein, A. S.

    2014-02-01

    We present an archival memory utilizing a spin torque nano-oscillator (STNO) to read bits of data with different magnetic permeability. Basing a magnetic memory on this intrinsic property rather than remanent magnetization reduces the risk of data corruption. The permeability of the bits is read as changes in an applied probe field near the media. These changes in the probe field are measured by detecting microwave frequency shifts in STNOs. The probe field can be tuned over hundreds of Oe to optimize the reading of the media. Using a 400 Oe probe field, we have measured 2% frequency shifts in a STNO near micrometre-sized bits of (1) lithographically-patterned permalloy lines and (2) laser-crystallized Metglas lines. Data from either media was not corrupted by exposure to fields of 6400 Oe and temperatures of 523 K.

  13. Anomalous Tunnel Magnetoresistance and Spin Transfer Torque in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with Embedded Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useinov, Arthur; Ye, Lin-Xiu; Useinov, Niazbeck; Wu, Te-Ho; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2015-01-01

    The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with embedded nanoparticles (NPs) was calculated in range of the quantum-ballistic model. The simulation was performed for electron tunneling through the insulating layer with embedded magnetic and non-magnetic NPs within the approach of the double barrier subsystem connected in parallel to the single barrier one. This model can be applied for both MTJs with in-plane magnetization and perpendicular one. We also calculated the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque (STT) versus the applied voltage in MTJs with magnetic NPs and determined that its value can be much larger than in single barrier system (SBS) for the same tunneling thickness. The reported simulation reproduces experimental data of the TMR suppression and peak-like TMR anomalies at low voltages available in leterature. PMID:26681336

  14. Spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory technologies for normally off computing (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, K.; Yuasa, S.; Fujita, S.; Ito, J.; Yoda, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakatani, Y.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-01-01

    Most parts of present computer systems are made of volatile devices, and the power to supply them to avoid information loss causes huge energy losses. We can eliminate this meaningless energy loss by utilizing the non-volatile function of advanced spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) technology and create a new type of computer, i.e., normally off computers. Critical tasks to achieve normally off computers are implementations of STT-MRAM technologies in the main memory and low-level cache memories. STT-MRAM technology for applications to the main memory has been successfully developed by using perpendicular STT-MRAMs, and faster STT-MRAM technologies for applications to the cache memory are now being developed. The present status of STT-MRAMs and challenges that remain for normally off computers are discussed

  15. Spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory technologies for normally off computing (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K., E-mail: ando-koji@aist.go.jp; Yuasa, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Fujita, S.; Ito, J.; Yoda, H. [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki 212-8582 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-8531 (Japan); Nakatani, Y. [Department of Communication Engineering and Informatics, University of Electro-Communication, Chofu 182-8585 (Japan); Miyazaki, T. [WPI-AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    Most parts of present computer systems are made of volatile devices, and the power to supply them to avoid information loss causes huge energy losses. We can eliminate this meaningless energy loss by utilizing the non-volatile function of advanced spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) technology and create a new type of computer, i.e., normally off computers. Critical tasks to achieve normally off computers are implementations of STT-MRAM technologies in the main memory and low-level cache memories. STT-MRAM technology for applications to the main memory has been successfully developed by using perpendicular STT-MRAMs, and faster STT-MRAM technologies for applications to the cache memory are now being developed. The present status of STT-MRAMs and challenges that remain for normally off computers are discussed.

  16. Mode-hopping mechanism generating colored noise in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Raghav; Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Heinonen, O. G.; Åkerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. We find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. These results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping, which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.

  17. Using a spin torque nano-oscillator to read memory based on the magnetic permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, J R; Wieland, K A; Fischer, G A; Edelstein, A S; Urazhdin, S

    2014-01-01

    We present an archival memory utilizing a spin torque nano-oscillator (STNO) to read bits of data with different magnetic permeability. Basing a magnetic memory on this intrinsic property rather than remanent magnetization reduces the risk of data corruption. The permeability of the bits is read as changes in an applied probe field near the media. These changes in the probe field are measured by detecting microwave frequency shifts in STNOs. The probe field can be tuned over hundreds of Oe to optimize the reading of the media. Using a 400 Oe probe field, we have measured 2% frequency shifts in a STNO near micrometre-sized bits of (1) lithographically-patterned permalloy lines and (2) laser-crystallized Metglas lines. Data from either media was not corrupted by exposure to fields of 6400 Oe and temperatures of 523 K. (paper)

  18. Exploring Spin-transfer-torque devices and memristors for logic and memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajouhi, Zoha

    As scaling CMOS devices is approaching its physical limits, researchers have begun exploring newer devices and architectures to replace CMOS. Due to their non-volatility and high density, Spin Transfer Torque (STT) devices are among the most prominent candidates for logic and memory applications. In this research, we first considered a new logic style called All Spin Logic (ASL). Despite its advantages, ASL consumes a large amount of static power; thus, several optimizations can be performed to address this issue. We developed a systematic methodology to perform the optimizations to ensure stable operation of ASL. Second, we investigated reliable design of STT-MRAM bit-cells and addressed the conflicting read and write requirements, which results in overdesign of the bit-cells. Further, a Device/Circuit/Architecture co-design framework was developed to optimize the STT-MRAM devices by exploring the design space through jointly considering yield enhancement techniques at different levels of abstraction. Recent advancements in the development of memristive devices have opened new opportunities for hardware implementation of non-Boolean computing. To this end, the suitability of memristive devices for swarm intelligence algorithms has enabled researchers to solve a maze in hardware. In this research, we utilized swarm intelligence of memristive networks to perform image edge detection. First, we proposed a hardware-friendly algorithm for image edge detection based on ant colony. Next, we designed the image edge detection algorithm using memristive networks.

  19. Spin-transfer induced ultrafast precessional switching enhanced by interface anisotropy in a ferromagnetic nanopillar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, M.; Sabareesan, P.

    2009-07-01

    Spin-transfer induced ultrafast precessional switching of magnetization in the Co/Cu/Co nanopillar device is studied. Micromagnetic calculations show that, precessional magnetization switching occurs above a threshold current. The presence of interface uniaxial anisotropy in the Co-thin film free layer, influences heavily the current and energy required to initiate the switching in the device, and the speed of the precessional switching. The threshold current and the precessional switching time are significantly reduced by this effect. (author)

  20. Oxygen control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and spin-orbit torques in Ta/ CoFeB/ MgO trilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Harsha; Chen, Yunpeng; Haughey, Kevin; Xiao, John

    Current-induced magnetization switching allows the integration of magnetic capabilities into electric circuits. The spin-orbit interaction in heavy-metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures are of profound interest, since they provide an efficient way to manipulate the magnetization, via strong current driven spin orbital torques (SOTs). Materials possessing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) are the preferred choice for the fabrication of memory devices since its magnetization can be switched with a small current density. Here we present the Oxygen control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Ta/ CoFeB/ MgO, which is accomplished by fabricating a thin wedge layer of Al on top of the MgO layer followed by oxidation in Oxygen plasma. Thinner end of the Al wedge will be over oxidized and the thicker end will be under oxidized, hence degree of oxidation varies from thinner to the thicker end. This in effect provides a means to control the Oxygen content at the CoFeB/ MgO interface and to control the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We will further discuss the dependence of SOTs, measured with adiabatic harmonic Hall technique on varying PMA.

  1. Dependence of the colored frequency noise in spin torque oscillators on current and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, Anders; Sani, Sohrab R.; Chung, Sunjae; Amir Hossein Banuazizi, S.; Östling, Mikael; Gunnar Malm, B.; Bonetti, Stefano; Majid Mohseni, S.; Persson, Johan; Iacocca, Ezio; Åkerman, Johan

    2014-01-01

    The nano-scale spin torque oscillator (STO) is a compelling device for on-chip, highly tunable microwave frequency signal generation. Currently, one of the most important challenges for the STO is to increase its longer-time frequency stability by decreasing the 1/f frequency noise, but its high level makes even its measurement impossible using the phase noise mode of spectrum analyzers. Here, we present a custom made time-domain measurement system with 150 MHz measurement bandwidth making possible the investigation of the variation of the 1/f as well as the white frequency noise in a STO over a large set of operating points covering 18–25 GHz. The 1/f level is found to be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude-frequency non-linearity and the vicinity of unexcited oscillation modes. These findings elucidate the need for a quantitative theoretical treatment of the low-frequency, colored frequency noise in STOs. Based on the results, we suggest that the 1/f frequency noise possibly can be decreased by improving the microstructural quality of the metallic thin films

  2. Influence of output power of a spin torque oscillator on phase locked loop operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji

    2016-09-01

    This work investigates the influence of the output power of a spin torque oscillator (STO) on the operation of a phase locked loop (PLL) circuit. Timing jitter and minimum output power for stable PLL operation determined by Johnson noise and shot noise are first theoretically calculated, and compared with experimental results. The theory and experiment show a reasonably good agreement, indicating that smaller than -50 dBm (10 nW), or -60 dBm (1 nW) when a low pass filter is used, of output power is sufficient for stable PLL operation if a large timing jitter is acceptable. However, it is also shown that a large output power is needed to suppress timing jitter down to the level comparable to state-of-the-art commercial PLL circuits. The estimate of minimum output power for stable PLL operation is verified by intentionally attenuating the STO output signal down to -55 dBm (3.2 nW) and demonstrating a stable phase locked oscillation.

  3. Current induced multi-mode propagating spin waves in a spin transfer torque nano-contact with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, S. Morteza; Yazdi, H. F.; Hamdi, M.; Brächer, T.; Mohseni, S. Majid

    2018-03-01

    Current induced spin wave excitations in spin transfer torque nano-contacts are known as a promising way to generate exchange-dominated spin waves at the nano-scale. It has been shown that when these systems are magnetized in the film plane, broken spatial symmetry of the field around the nano-contact induced by the Oersted field opens the possibility for spin wave mode co-existence including a non-linear self-localized spin-wave bullet and a propagating mode. By means of micromagnetic simulations, here we show that in systems with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the free layer, two propagating spin wave modes with different frequency and spatial distribution can be excited simultaneously. Our results indicate that in-plane magnetized spin transfer nano-contacts in PMA materials do not host a solitonic self-localized spin-wave bullet, which is different from previous studies for systems with in plane magnetic anisotropy. This feature renders them interesting for nano-scale magnonic waveguides and crystals since magnon transport can be configured by tuning the applied current.

  4. Structure and properties of quarternary and tetragonal Heusler compounds for spintronics and spin transver torque applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Vajiheh Alijani

    2012-03-07

    This work is divided into two parts: part 1 is focused on the prediction of half-metallicity in quaternary Heusler compounds and their potential for spintronic applications and part 2 on the structural properties of Mn{sub 2}-based Heusler alloys and tuning the magnetism of them from soft to hard-magnetic for spin-transfer torque applications. In part 1, three different series of quaternary Heusler compounds are investigated, XX'MnGa (X=Cu, Ni and X'=Fe,Co), CoFeMnZ (Z=Al,Ga,Si,Ge), and Co{sub 2-x}Rh{sub x}MnZ (Z=Ga,Sn,Sb). All of these quaternary compounds except CuCoMnGa are predicted to be half-metallic ferromagnets by ab-initio electronic structure calculations. In the XX'MnGa class of compounds, NiFeMnGa has a low Curie temperature for technological applications but NiCoMnGa with a high spin polarization, magnetic moment, and Curie temperature is an interesting new material for spintronics applications. All CoFeMnZ compounds exhibit a cubic Heusler structur and their magnetic moments are in fair agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule indicating the halfmetallicity and high spin polarization required for spintronics applications. Their high Curie temperatures make them suitable for utilization at room temperature and above. The structural investigation revealed that the crystal structure of all Co{sub 2-x}Rh{sub x}MnZ compounds aside from CoRhMnSn exhibit different types of anti-site disorder. The magnetic moments of the disordered compounds deviate from the Slater-Pauling rule indicating that 100% spin polarization are not realized in CoRhMnGa, CoRhMnSb, and Co{sub 0.5}Rh{sub 1.5}MnSb. Exchange of one Co in Co{sub 2}MnSn by Rh results in the stable, well-ordered compound CoRhMnSn. This exchange of one of the magnetic Co atoms by a non-magnetic Rh atom keeps the magnetic properties and half-metallicity intact. In part 2, two series of Mn{sub 2}-based Heusler alloys are investigated, Mn{sub 3-x}Co{sub x}Ga and Mn{sub 2-x}Rh{sub 1+x}Sn. It has been

  5. Torque Ripple Reduction of a Novel Modular Arc-Linear Flux-Switching Permanent-Magnet Motor with Rotor Step Skewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel modular arc-linear flux-switching permanent-magnet motor (MAL-FSPM used for scanning system instead of reduction gearboxes and kinematic mechanisms is proposed and researched in this paper by the finite element method (FEM. The MAL-FSPM combines characteristics of flux-switching permanent-magnet motor and linear motor and can realize the direct driving and limited angular movement. Structure and operation principle of the MAL-FSPM are analyzed. Cogging torque model of the MAL-FSPM is established. The characteristics of cogging torque and torque ripple are investigated for: (1 distance (dend between left end of rotor and left end of stator is more than two rotor tooth pitch (τp; and (2 dend is less than two rotor tooth pitch. Cogging torque is an important component of torque ripple and the period ratio of the cogging torque to the back electromotive force (EMF equals one for the MAL-FSPM before optimization. In order to reduce the torque ripple as much as possible and affect the back EMF as little as possible, influence of period ratio of cogging torque to back EMF on rotor step skewing is investigated. Rotor tooth width and stator slot open width are optimized to increase the period ratio of cogging torque to back EMF. After the optimization, torque ripple is decreased by 79.8% for dend > τp and torque ripple is decreased by 49.7% for dend < τp. Finally, 3D FEM model is established to verify the 2D results.

  6. Speed control with torque ripple reduction of switched reluctance motor by Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Saha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control scheme for simultaneous control of the speed of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM and minimizing the torque ripple employing Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search Algorithm (Hybrid MOLGSA technique. The control mechanism includes two controlling loops, the outer loop is governed for speed control and a current controller for the inner loop, intelligent selection of turn on and turn off angle for a 60 KW, 3-phase 6/8 SRM. It is noticed that the torque ripple coefficient, ISE of speed & current are reduced by 12.81%, 38.60%, 16.74% respectively by Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA algorithm. It is also observed that the settling times for the controller using the parameter values for obtaining best values of torque ripple, Integral square error of speed and current are reduced by 51.25%, 58.04% and 59.375% by proposed Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to the GSA algorithm.

  7. Switching effects and spin-valley Andreev resonant peak shifting in silicene superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soodchomshom, Bumned; Niyomsoot, Kittipong; Pattrawutthiwong, Eakkarat

    2018-03-01

    The magnetoresistance and spin-valley transport properties in a silicene-based NM/FB/SC junction are investigated, where NM, FB and SC are normal, ferromagnetic and s-wave superconducting silicene, respectively. In the FB region, perpendicular electric and staggered exchange fields are applied. The quasiparticles may be described by Dirac Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation due to Cooper pairs formed by spin-valley massive fermions. The spin-valley conductances are calculated based on the modified Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. We find the spin-valley dependent Andreev resonant peaks in the junction shifted by applying exchange field. Perfect conductance switch generated by interplay of intrinsic spin orbit interaction and superconducting gap has been predicted. Spin and valley polarizations are almost linearly dependent on biased voltage near zero bias and then turn into perfect switch at biased voltage approaching the superconducting gap. The perfect switching of large magnetoresistance has been also predicted at biased energy near the superconducting gap. These switching effects may be due to the presence of spin-valley Andreev resonant peak near the superconducting gap. Our work reveals potential of silicene as applications of electronic switching devices and linear control of spin and valley polarizations.

  8. Exploration of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy material system for application in spin transfer torque - Random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajarathinam, Anusha

    Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) materials have unique advantages when used in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) which are the most critical part of spin-torque transfer random access memory devices (STT-RAMs) that are being researched intensively as future non-volatile memory technology. They have high magnetoresistance which improves their sensitivity. The STT-RAM has several advantages over competing technologies, for instance, low power consumption, non-volatility, ultra-fast read and write speed and high endurance. In personal computers, it can replace SRAM for high-speed applications, Flash for non-volatility, and PSRAM and DRAM for high-speed program execution. The main aim of this research is to identify and optimize the best perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) material system for application to STT-RAM technology. Preliminary search for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) materials for pinned layer for MTJs started with the exploration and optimization of crystalline alloys such as Co50Pd50 alloy, Mn50Al50 and amorphous alloys such as Tb21Fe72Co7 and are first presented in this work. Further optimization includes the study of Co/[Pd/Pt]x multilayers (ML), and the development of perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnets (SAF) utilizing these multilayers. Focused work on capping and seed layers to evaluate interfacial perpendicular anisotropy in free layers for pMTJs is then discussed. Optimization of the full perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) includes the CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB trilayer coupled to a pinned/pinning layer with perpendicular Co/[Pd/Pt]x SAF and a thin Ta seeded CoFeB free layer. Magnetometry, simulations, annealing studies, transport measurements and TEM analysis on these samples will then be presented.

  9. Imaging magnetisation dynamics in nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators exhibiting gyrotropic mode splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keatley, Paul Steven; Hicken, Robert James; Sani, Sohrab Redjai; Åkerman, Johan; Hrkac, Gino; Mohseni, Seyed Majid; Dürrenfeld, Philipp

    2017-01-01

    Nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) are anticipated to find application as nanoscale sources of microwave emission in future technological applications. Presently the output power and phase stability of individual STVOs are not competitive with existing oscillator technologies. Synchronisation of multiple nano-contact STVOs via magnetisation dynamics has been proposed to enhance the microwave emission. The control of device-to-device variations, such as mode splitting of the microwave emission, is essential if multiple STVOs are to be successfully synchronised. In this work a combination of electrical measurements and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to demonstrate how mode splitting in the microwave emission of STVOs was related to the magnetisation dynamics that are generated. The free-running STVO response to a DC current only was used to identify devices and bias magnetic field configurations for which single and multiple modes of microwave emission were observed. Stroboscopic Kerr images were acquired by injecting a small amplitude RF current to phase lock the free-running STVO response. The images showed that the magnetisation dynamics of a multimode device with moderate splitting could be controlled by the injected RF current so that they exhibit similar spatial character to that of a single mode. Significant splitting was found to result from a complicated equilibrium magnetic state that was observed in Kerr images as irregular spatial characteristics of the magnetisation dynamics. Such dynamics were observed far from the nano-contact and so their presence cannot be detected in electrical measurements. This work demonstrates that TRSKM is a powerful tool for the direct observation of the magnetisation dynamics generated by STVOs that exhibit complicated microwave emission. Characterisation of such dynamics outside the nano-contact perimeter permits a deeper insight into the requirements for optimal phase-locking of

  10. Superconducting spin switch based on superconductor-ferromagnet nanostructures for spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrle, Jan; Mueller, Claus; Obermeier, Guenter; Schreck, Matthias; Gsell, Stefan; Horn, Siegfried; Tidecks, Reinhard; Zdravkov, Vladimir; Morari, Roman; Sidorencko, Anatoli; Prepelitsa, Andrei; Antropov, Evgenii; Socrovisciiuc, Alexei; Nold, Eberhard; Tagirov, Lenar

    2011-01-01

    Very rapid developing area, spintronics, needs new devices, based on new physical principles. One of such devices - a superconducting spin-switch, consists of ferromagnetic and superconducting layers, and is based on a new phenomenon - reentrant superconductivity. The tuning of the superconducting and ferromagnetic layers thickness is investigated to optimize superconducting spin-switch effect for Nb/Cu 41 Ni 59 based nanoscale layered systems.

  11. Gate-controlled switching between persistent and inverse persistent spin helix states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizumi, K.; Sasaki, A.; Kohda, M.; Nitta, J.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate gate-controlled switching between persistent spin helix (PSH) state and inverse PSH state, which are detected by quantum interference effect on magneto-conductance. These special symmetric spin states showing weak localization effect give rise to a long spin coherence when the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is close to that of Dresselhaus SOI. Furthermore, in the middle of two persistent spin helix states, where the Rashba SOI can be negligible, the bulk Dresselhaus SOI parameter in a modulation doped InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well is determined.

  12. Gate-controlled switching between persistent and inverse persistent spin helix states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, K.; Sasaki, A.; Kohda, M.; Nitta, J. [Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-28

    We demonstrate gate-controlled switching between persistent spin helix (PSH) state and inverse PSH state, which are detected by quantum interference effect on magneto-conductance. These special symmetric spin states showing weak localization effect give rise to a long spin coherence when the strength of Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is close to that of Dresselhaus SOI. Furthermore, in the middle of two persistent spin helix states, where the Rashba SOI can be negligible, the bulk Dresselhaus SOI parameter in a modulation doped InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well is determined.

  13. Voltage switching technique for detecting nuclear spin polarization in a quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryo; Kono, Kimitoshi; Tarucha, Seigo; Ono, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    We have introduced a source-drain voltage switching technique for studying nuclear spins in a vertical double quantum dot. Switching the source-drain voltage between the spin-blockade state and the zero-bias Coulomb blockade state can tune the energy difference between the spin singlet and triplet, and effectively turn on/off the hyperfine interaction. Since the change in the nuclear spin state affects the source-drain current, nuclear spin properties can only be detected by transport measurement. Using this technique, we have succeeded in measuring the timescale of nuclear spin depolarization. Furthermore, combining this technique and an RF ac magnetic field, we successfully detected continuous-wave NMR signals of 75 As, 69 Ga, and 71 Ga, which are contained in a quantum dot. (author)

  14. SIMULTANEOUS SPACE VECTOR MODULATION DIRECT TORQUE CONTROL OF TWO INDUCTION MOTORS USED IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES BY A NINE-SWITCH INVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. SHAMLOU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel two output nine switch-inverter is proposed in order to increase the synchronization speed of induction motors used in electric vehicles (EVs while improving the efficiency and controllability of the system. The number of switches in the proposed inverter is reduced by 25% compared to double six-switch inverters which conventionally used in EVs. The main characteristics of the considered inverter can be noted as follows: sinusoidal input and outputs, unity output power factor, and specifically, low construction cost due to active switch number reduction. The classical direct torque control method causes torque ripple and speed fluctuations. Therefore, in order to increase accuracy and dynamics of drive system, the SVM-DTC method is proposed, leading to less torque ripple and constant switching frequency. The obtained torque ripple is 2% which is less than the existing structures In order to illustrate advantages of the proposed approach, performance of the EVs in the standard cycles is evaluated.

  15. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom's/SMM's spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonan...

  16. Imaging magnetisation dynamics in nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators exhibiting gyrotropic mode splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keatley, Paul Steven; Redjai Sani, Sohrab; Hrkac, Gino; Majid Mohseni, Seyed; Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Åkerman, Johan; Hicken, Robert James

    2017-04-01

    Nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) are anticipated to find application as nanoscale sources of microwave emission in future technological applications. Presently the output power and phase stability of individual STVOs are not competitive with existing oscillator technologies. Synchronisation of multiple nano-contact STVOs via magnetisation dynamics has been proposed to enhance the microwave emission. The control of device-to-device variations, such as mode splitting of the microwave emission, is essential if multiple STVOs are to be successfully synchronised. In this work a combination of electrical measurements and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to demonstrate how mode splitting in the microwave emission of STVOs was related to the magnetisation dynamics that are generated. The free-running STVO response to a DC current only was used to identify devices and bias magnetic field configurations for which single and multiple modes of microwave emission were observed. Stroboscopic Kerr images were acquired by injecting a small amplitude RF current to phase lock the free-running STVO response. The images showed that the magnetisation dynamics of a multimode device with moderate splitting could be controlled by the injected RF current so that they exhibit similar spatial character to that of a single mode. Significant splitting was found to result from a complicated equilibrium magnetic state that was observed in Kerr images as irregular spatial characteristics of the magnetisation dynamics. Such dynamics were observed far from the nano-contact and so their presence cannot be detected in electrical measurements. This work demonstrates that TRSKM is a powerful tool for the direct observation of the magnetisation dynamics generated by STVOs that exhibit complicated microwave emission. Characterisation of such dynamics outside the nano-contact perimeter permits a deeper insight into the requirements for optimal phase-locking of

  17. Switching Magnetism and Superconductivity with Spin-Polarized Current in Iron-Based Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seokhwan; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ok, Jong Mok; Lee, Yeonghoon; Jang, Won-Jun; Lee, Alex Taekyung; Kuk, Young; Lee, SungBin; Heinrich, Andreas J.; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bang, Yunkyu; Johnston, Steven; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-12-01

    We explore a new mechanism for switching magnetism and superconductivity in a magnetically frustrated iron-based superconductor using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM). Our SPSTM study on single-crystal Sr2VO3FeAs shows that a spin-polarized tunneling current can switch the Fe-layer magnetism into a nontrivial C4 (2 ×2 ) order, which cannot be achieved by thermal excitation with an unpolarized current. Our tunneling spectroscopy study shows that the induced C4 (2 ×2 ) order has characteristics of plaquette antiferromagnetic order in the Fe layer and strongly suppresses superconductivity. Also, thermal agitation beyond the bulk Fe spin ordering temperature erases the C4 state. These results suggest a new possibility of switching local superconductivity by changing the symmetry of magnetic order with spin-polarized and unpolarized tunneling currents in iron-based superconductors.

  18. Switching Magnetism and Superconductivity with Spin-Polarized Current in Iron-Based Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seokhwan; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ok, Jong Mok; Lee, Yeonghoon; Jang, Won-Jun; Lee, Alex Taekyung; Kuk, Young; Lee, SungBin; Heinrich, Andreas J; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bang, Yunkyu; Johnston, Steven; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-12-01

    We explore a new mechanism for switching magnetism and superconductivity in a magnetically frustrated iron-based superconductor using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM). Our SPSTM study on single-crystal Sr_{2}VO_{3}FeAs shows that a spin-polarized tunneling current can switch the Fe-layer magnetism into a nontrivial C_{4} (2×2) order, which cannot be achieved by thermal excitation with an unpolarized current. Our tunneling spectroscopy study shows that the induced C_{4} (2×2) order has characteristics of plaquette antiferromagnetic order in the Fe layer and strongly suppresses superconductivity. Also, thermal agitation beyond the bulk Fe spin ordering temperature erases the C_{4} state. These results suggest a new possibility of switching local superconductivity by changing the symmetry of magnetic order with spin-polarized and unpolarized tunneling currents in iron-based superconductors.

  19. Vector spin modeling for magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage dependent effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Young, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Integration and co-design of CMOS and spin transfer devices requires accurate vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. A physically realistic model of the MTJ should comprehend the spin torque dynamics of nanomagnet interacting with an injected vector spin current and the voltage dependent spin torque. Vector spin modeling allows for calculation of 3 component spin currents and potentials along with the charge currents/potentials in non-collinear magnetic systems. Here, we show 4-component vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction devices coupled with spin transfer torque in the nanomagnet. Nanomagnet dynamics, voltage dependent spin transport, and thermal noise are comprehended in a self-consistent fashion. We show comparison of the model with experimental magnetoresistance (MR) of MTJs and voltage degradation of MR with voltage. Proposed model enables MTJ circuit design that comprehends voltage dependent spin torque effects, switching error rates, spin degradation, and back hopping effects

  20. Steady-state domain wall motion driven by adiabatic spin-transfer torque with assistance of microwave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, D. [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2013-12-23

    We have studied the current-induced displacement of a 180° Bloch wall by means of micromagnetic simulation and analytical approach. It is found that the adiabatic spin-transfer torque can sustain a steady-state domain wall (DW) motion in the direction opposite to that of the electron flow without Walker Breakdown when a transverse microwave field is applied. This kind of motion is very sensitive to the microwave frequency and can be resonantly enhanced by exciting the domain wall thickness oscillation mode. A one-dimensional analytical model was established to account for the microwave-assisted wall motion. These findings may be helpful for reducing the critical spin-polarized current density and designing DW-based spintronic devices.

  1. Complementary spin-Hall and inverse spin-galvanic effect torques in a ferromagnet/semiconductor bilayer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skinner, T.D.; Olejník, Kamil; Cunningham, L.K.; Kurebayashi, H.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Ferguson, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, Mar (2015), s. 6730 ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * current induced torques Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 11.329, year: 2015

  2. Dependences of the Tunnel Magnetoresistance and Spin Transfer Torque on the Sizes and Concentration of Nanoparticles in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, A. M.; Useinov, A. N.; Useinov, N. Kh.

    2018-01-01

    Dependences of the tunnel magnetoresistance and in-plane component of the spin transfer torque on the applied voltage in a magnetic tunnel junction have been calculated in the approximation of ballistic transport of conduction electrons through an insulating layer with embedded magnetic or nonmagnetic nanoparticles. A single-barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nanoparticle embedded in an insulator forms a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction. It has been shown that the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque in the double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction can be higher than that in the single-barrier one at the same thickness of the insulating layer. The calculations show that nanoparticles embedded in the tunnel junction increase the probability of tunneling of electrons, create resonance conditions, and ensure the quantization of the conductance in contrast to the tunnel junction without nanoparticles. The calculated dependences of the tunnel magnetoresistance correspond to experimental data demonstrating peak anomalies and suppression of the maximum magnetoresistances at low voltages.

  3. Enhancement of spin Hall effect induced torques for current-driven magnetic domain wall motion: Inner interface effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bang, Do

    2016-05-23

    We investigate the current-induced domain wall motion in perpendicular magnetized Tb/Co wires with structure inversion asymmetry and different layered structures. We find that the critical current density to drive domain wall motion strongly depends on the layered structure. The lowest critical current density ∼15MA/cm2 and the highest slope of domain wall velocity curve are obtained for the wire having thin Co sublayers and more inner Tb/Co interfaces, while the largest critical current density ∼26MA/cm2 required to drive domain walls is observed in the Tb-Co alloy magnetic wire. It is found that the Co/Tb interface contributes negligibly to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, while the effective spin-orbit torque strongly depends on the number of Tb/Co inner interfaces (n). An enhancement of the antidamping torques by extrinsic spin Hall effect due to Tb rare-earth impurity-induced skew scattering is suggested to explain the high efficiency of current-induced domain wall motion.

  4. Two Micron Pixel Pitch Active Matrix Spatial Light Modulator Driven by Spin Transfer Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Kinjo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an active matrix-addressed magneto-optical spatial light modulator driven by spin-transfer switching (spin-SLM which has a 100 × 100 array pixel layout with a 2 µm pixel pitch. It has pixel-selection-transistors and logic circuits which convert serial data into parallel data to reduce input terminals. We have confirmed successful magnetization switching of each pixel by injecting a pulse current generated from the logic circuit, and its optical display capability by showing digital characters.

  5. Magnetic Switching of a Single Molecular Magnet due to Spin-Polarized Current

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnas, Józef

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic switching of a single molecular magnet (SMM) due to spin-polarized current flowing between ferromagnetic metallic electrodes is investigated theoretically. Magnetic moments of the electrodes are assumed to be collinear and parallel to the magnetic easy axis of the molecule. Electrons tunneling through a barrier between magnetic leads are coupled to the SMM via exchange interaction. The current flowing through the system as well as the spin relaxation times of the SMM are calculated f...

  6. Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonietz, F.; Mühlbauer, S.; Pfleiderer, C.; Neubauer, A.; Münzer, W.; Bauer, A.; Adams, T.; Georgii, R.; Böni, P.; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Everschor, K.; Garst, M.; Rosch, A.

    2010-01-01

    Spin manipulation using electric currents is one of the most promising directions in the field of spintronics. We used neutron scattering to observe the influence of an electric current on the magnetic structure in a bulk material. In the skyrmion lattice of manganese silicon, where the spins form a

  7. Room-temperature spin-orbit torque in NiMnSb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciccarelli, C.; Anderson, L.; Tshitoyan, V.; Ferguson, A.J.; Gerhard, F.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Gayles, J.; Železný, Jakub; Šmejkal, Libor; Yuan, Z.; Sinova, Jairo; Freimuth, F.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 9 (2016), s. 855-861 ISSN 1745-2473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relativistic spintronics * current induced torques Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 22.806, year: 2016

  8. Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, H.; Gao, L.; Zarbo, Liviu; Výborný, Karel; Wang, X.; Garate, I.; Dogan, F.; Čejchan, Antonín; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Manchon, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 13 (2015), , "134402-1"-"134402-9" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * current induced torques Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  9. Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, F; Mühlbauer, S; Pfleiderer, C; Neubauer, A; Münzer, W; Bauer, A; Adams, T; Georgii, R; Böni, P; Duine, R A; Everschor, K; Garst, M; Rosch, A

    2010-12-17

    Spin manipulation using electric currents is one of the most promising directions in the field of spintronics. We used neutron scattering to observe the influence of an electric current on the magnetic structure in a bulk material. In the skyrmion lattice of manganese silicon, where the spins form a lattice of magnetic vortices similar to the vortex lattice in type II superconductors, we observe the rotation of the diffraction pattern in response to currents that are over five orders of magnitude smaller than those typically applied in experimental studies on current-driven magnetization dynamics in nanostructures. We attribute our observations to an extremely efficient coupling of inhomogeneous spin currents to topologically stable knots in spin structures.

  10. Nanoscale layer-selective readout of magnetization direction from a magnetic multilayer using a spin-torque oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Technology for detecting the magnetization direction of nanoscale magnetic material is crucial for realizing high-density magnetic recording devices. Conventionally, a magnetoresistive device is used that changes its resistivity in accordance with the direction of the stray field from an objective magnet. However, when several magnets are near such a device, the superposition of stray fields from all the magnets acts on the sensor, preventing selective recognition of their individual magnetization directions. Here we introduce a novel readout method for detecting the magnetization direction of a nanoscale magnet by use of a spin-torque oscillator (STO). The principles behind this method are dynamic dipolar coupling between an STO and a nanoscale magnet, and detection of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of this coupled system from the STO signal. Because the STO couples with a specific magnet by tuning the STO oscillation frequency to match its FMR frequency, this readout method can selectively determine the magnetization direction of the magnet. (papers)

  11. Artificial Intelligence-based control for torque ripple minimization in switched reluctance motor drives - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.18097

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Lakshmanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, various intelligent controllers such as Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS-based current compensating techniques are employed for minimizing the torque ripples in switched reluctance motor. FLC and ANFIS controllers are tuned using MATLAB Toolbox. For the purpose of comparison, the performance of conventional Proportional-Integral (PI controller is also considered. The statistical parameters like minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation of total torque, torque ripple coefficient and the settling time of speed response for various controllers are reported. From the simulation results, it is found that both FLC and ANFIS controllers gives better performance than PI controller. Among the intelligent controllers, ANFIS gives outer performance than FLC due to its good learning and generalization capabilities thereby improves the dynamic performance of SRM drives.

  12. Negative optical radiation force and spin torques on subwavelength prolate and oblate spheroids in fractional Bessel-Gauss pincers light-sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2017-07-01

    Fractional Bessel-Gauss light-sheets [J. Opt.19, 055602 (2017)JOOPDB0150-536X10.1088/2040-8986/aa649a], which correspond to finite optical "slices" in 2D and possess asymmetric slit openings and bending characteristics, are examined from the standpoint of optical radiation force and spin torque theories for a subwavelength spheroid with arbitrary orientation in space. The vector angular spectrum decomposition method in addition to the Lorenz gauge condition and Maxwell's equations are used to determine the Cartesian components of the incident radiated electric field of the Bessel-Gauss light-sheets. In the framework of the dipole approximation, the numerical results for the Cartesian components of the optical radiation force and spin torque vectors show that negative forces (oriented in the opposite direction of wave motion) and spin torques arise depending on the beam parameters, the orientation of the subwavelength spheroid in 3D space, and its aspect ratio (i.e., prolate versus oblate). The spin torque sign reversal reveals that counter-clockwise or clockwise rotations around the center of mass of the spheroid can occur. The results find important applications in the application of auto-focusing light-sheets in particle manipulation, rotation, and optical sorting devices.

  13. Magnetic switching of a single molecular magnet due to spin-polarized current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2007-04-01

    Magnetic switching of a single molecular magnet (SMM) due to spin-polarized current flowing between ferromagnetic metallic leads (electrodes) is investigated theoretically. Magnetic moments of the leads are assumed to be collinear and parallel to the magnetic easy axis of the molecule. Electrons tunneling through the barrier between magnetic leads are coupled to the SMM via exchange interaction. The current flowing through the system, as well as the spin relaxation times of the SMM, are calculated from the Fermi golden rule. It is shown that spin of the SMM can be reversed by applying a certain voltage between the two magnetic electrodes. Moreover, the switching may be visible in the corresponding current-voltage characteristics.

  14. Spin torque and critical currents for magnetic vortex nano-oscillator in nanopillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guslienko, K Y; Gonzalez, J [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Aranda, G R, E-mail: sckguslk@ehu.es [Centro de Fisica de Materiales UPV/EHU-CSIC, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-04-01

    We calculated the main dynamic parameters of the spin polarized current induced magnetic vortex oscillations in nanopillars, such as the range of current density, where vortex steady oscillations exist, the oscillation frequency and orbit radius. We accounted for both the non-linear vortex frequency and non-linear vortex damping. To describe the vortex excitations by the spin polarized current we used a generalized Thiele approach to motion of the vortex core as a collective coordinate. All the calculation results are represented via the free layer sizes, saturation magnetization, and the Gilbert damping. Predictions of the developed model can be checked experimentally.

  15. Partial spin absorption induced magnetization switching and its voltage-assisted improvement in an asymmetrical all spin logic device at the mesoscopic scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Zhizhong; Wang, Lezhi; Nan, Jiang; Zheng, Zhenyi; Li, Xiang; Wong, Kin; Wang, Yu; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Zhang, Youguang; Wang, Kang L.; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-07-01

    Beyond memory and storage, future logic applications put forward higher requirements for electronic devices. All spin logic devices (ASLDs) have drawn exceptional interest as they utilize pure spin current instead of charge current, which could promise ultra-low power consumption. However, relatively low efficiencies of spin injection, transport, and detection actually impede high-speed magnetization switching and challenge perspectives of ASLD. In this work, we study partial spin absorption induced magnetization switching in asymmetrical ASLD at the mesoscopic scale, in which the injector and detector have the nano-fabrication compatible device size (>100 nm) and their contact areas are different. The enlarged contact area of the detector is conducive to the spin current absorption, and the contact resistance difference between the injector and the detector can decrease the spin current backflow. Rigorous spin circuit modeling and micromagnetic simulations have been carried out to analyze the electrical and magnetic features. The results show that, at the fabrication-oriented technology scale, the ferromagnetic layer can hardly be switched by geometrically partial spin current absorption. The voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect has been applied on the detector to accelerate the magnetization switching by modulating magnetic anisotropy of the ferromagnetic layer. With a relatively high VCMA coefficient measured experimentally, a voltage of 1.68 V can assist the whole magnetization switching within 2.8 ns. This analysis and improving approach will be of significance for future low-power, high-speed logic applications.

  16. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-07-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom’s or SMM’s spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonant peaks in the average values of the molecule’s spin and in the charge current. These features appear at some resonant fields and are observable when at least one of the electrodes is ferromagnetic.

  17. Femtosecond switching of magnetism via strongly correlated spin-charge quantum excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianqi; Patz, Aaron; Mouchliadis, Leonidas; Yan, Jiaqiang; Lograsso, Thomas A; Perakis, Ilias E; Wang, Jigang

    2013-04-04

    The technological demand to push the gigahertz (10(9) hertz) switching speed limit of today's magnetic memory and logic devices into the terahertz (10(12) hertz) regime underlies the entire field of spin-electronics and integrated multi-functional devices. This challenge is met by all-optical magnetic switching based on coherent spin manipulation. By analogy to femtosecond chemistry and photosynthetic dynamics--in which photoproducts of chemical and biochemical reactions can be influenced by creating suitable superpositions of molecular states--femtosecond-laser-excited coherence between electronic states can switch magnetic order by 'suddenly' breaking the delicate balance between competing phases of correlated materials: for example, manganites exhibiting colossal magneto-resistance suitable for applications. Here we show femtosecond (10(-15) seconds) photo-induced switching from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic ordering in Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3, by observing the establishment (within about 120 femtoseconds) of a huge temperature-dependent magnetization with photo-excitation threshold behaviour absent in the optical reflectivity. The development of ferromagnetic correlations during the femtosecond laser pulse reveals an initial quantum coherent regime of magnetism, distinguished from the picosecond (10(-12) seconds) lattice-heating regime characterized by phase separation without threshold behaviour. Our simulations reproduce the nonlinear femtosecond spin generation and underpin fast quantum spin-flip fluctuations correlated with coherent superpositions of electronic states to initiate local ferromagnetic correlations. These results merge two fields, femtosecond magnetism in metals and band insulators, and non-equilibrium phase transitions of strongly correlated electrons, in which local interactions exceeding the kinetic energy produce a complex balance of competing orders.

  18. Pneumatic switched angle spinning NMR probe with capacitively coupled double saddle coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvak, Ilya M; Espinosa, Catalina A; Shapiro, Rebecca A; Oldham, Andrew N; Duong, Vincent V; Martin, Rachel W

    2010-10-01

    Switched angle spinning (SAS) experiments can be used for generating isotropic-anisotropic correlations in oriented samples in a single experiment. In order for these methods to become widespread, specialized hardware is required. Here we describe the electronic and mechanical design and performance of a double-resonance SAS probe. Unlike many previous SAS probe implementations, the focus here is on systems where the dipolar couplings are partially averaged by molecular motion. This probe has a moving double saddle coil capacitively coupled to the stationary circuit. Angle switching is accomplished by a steam engine-type pneumatic mechanism. The speed and stability of the switching hardware for SAS experiments are demonstrated using spectra of model compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thin Co/Ni-based bottom pinned spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory stacks with high annealing tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Y.; Swerts, J.; Mertens, S.; Lin, T.; Couet, S.; Liu, E.; Sankaran, K.; Pourtois, G.; Kim, W.; Souriau, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kar, G.; Furnemont, A.

    2016-01-01

    Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is considered as a replacement for next generation embedded and stand-alone memory applications. One of the main challenges in the STT-MRAM stack development is the compatibility of the stack with CMOS process flows in which thermal budgets up to 400 °C are applied. In this letter, we report on a perpendicularly magnetized MgO-based tunnel junction (p-MTJ) on a thin Co/Ni perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnetic layer with high annealing tolerance. Tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) loss after annealing occurs when the reference layer loses its perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to reduction of the CoFeB/MgO interfacial anisotropy. A stable Co/Ni based p-MTJ stack with TMR values of 130% at resistance-area products of 9 Ω μm2 after 400 °C anneal is achieved via moment control of the Co/Ta/CoFeB reference layer. Thinning of the CoFeB polarizing layer down to 0.8 nm is the key enabler to achieve 400 °C compatibility with limited TMR loss. Thinning the Co below 0.6 nm leads to a loss of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling strength through Ru. Insight into the thickness and moment engineering of the reference layer is displayed to obtain the best magnetic properties and high thermal stability for thin Co/Ni SAF-based STT-MRAM stacks.

  20. The effect of current-induced spin switching in the presence of quantum tunneling of magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of transport properties of individual large-spin (S > 1 / 2) atoms/molecules exhibiting magnetic anisotropy is of key importance from the point of view of information processing technologies. The ultimate aim is to incorporate such objects as functional elements of spintronic devices, with the objective of employing spin-polarized currents to control the magnetic state of the system. In particular, for an atom/molecule with the predominant `easy-axis' uniaxial magnetic anisotropy this allows for switching the system's spin between two metastable states. However, the uniaxial component of magnetic anisotropy, underlying the magnetic bistability, is frequently accompanied by the transverse one, whose presence manifests, e.g., as quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM). Here, we show that not only does QTM induce an effective energy barrier for the spin switching, but also its effect on the transport reveals as an additional signal in transport characteristics. Furthermore, we propose how to experimentally investigate QTM by means of the STM inelastic transport spectroscopy. also at Adam Mickiewicz University

  1. Perfect switching of the spin polarization in a ferromagnetic gapless graphene/superconducting gapped graphene junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soodchomshom, Bumned; Tang, I-Ming; Hoonsawat, Rassmidara

    2010-01-01

    With the fabrication of gapped graphene, interest in the tunneling spectroscopy in graphene-based FG/SG junctions in which one side consists of a gapless ferro-magnetic graphene (FG) and the other side, of a gapped superconducting graphene (SG) has arisen. The carriers in the gapless (gapped) graphene are 2D relativistic particles having an energy spectrum given by E=√(h 2 v F 2 k 2 +(mv F 2 ) 2 ) (where mv F 2 is the gap and v F is the Fermi velocity). The spin currents in this FG/SG junction are obtained within the framework of the extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk (BTK) formalism. The effects of the superconducting energy gap in SG, of the gap mv F 2 which opened in the superconducting graphene, of the exchange field in FG, of the spin-dependent specular Andreev reflection, of the effective Fermi energy (E FF ) of FG and of the bias voltage across the junction (V) are simulated. It is seen that by adjusting E FF or V, the spin polarization (defined as SP(%) = 100% x (G ↑ - G ↓ )/(G ↑ + G ↓ )) can be switched from a pure spin up (SP = +100%) state to pure spin down (SP = -100%) state.

  2. Temperature induced Spin Switching in SmFeO3 Single Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixun; Zhao, Huazhi; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang; Ren, Wei

    2014-08-01

    The prospect of controlling the magnetization (M) of a material is of great importance from the viewpoints of fundamental physics and future applications of emerging spintronics. A class of rare-earth orthoferrites RFeO3 (R is rare-earth element) materials exhibit striking physical properties of spin switching and magnetization reversal induced by temperature and/or applied magnetic field. Furthermore, due to the novel magnetic, magneto-optic and multiferroic properties etc., RFeO3 materials are attracting more and more interests in recent years. We have prepared and investigated a prototype of RFeO3 materials, namely SmFeO3 single-crystal. And we report magnetic measurements upon both field cooling (FC) and zero-field cooling (ZFC) of the sample, as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. The central findings of this study include that the magnetization of single-crystal SmFeO3 can be switched by temperature, and tuning the magnitude of applied magnetic field allows us to realize such spin switching even at room temperature.

  3. Size dependence of vortex-type spin torque oscillation in a Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si Heusler alloy disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, T.; Kubota, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Takanashi, K.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the systematic investigation of vortex-type spin torque oscillation in circular disks of highly spin-polarized Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) Heusler alloys. We fabricated the current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) devices with various disk diameters (D) using the layer stack of CFMS/Ag3Mg/CFMS. The gyrotropic motion of the vortex core was successfully excited for the CFMS circular disks with 0.2 µm  ⩽  D  ⩽  0.3 µm. The CPP-GMR device with D  =  0.2 µm exhibited the Q factor of more than 5000 and the large output power of 0.4 nW owing to the high coherency of vortex dynamics and the high spin-polarization of CFMS. However, the Q factor was remarkably decreased as D was reduced from 0.2 µm to 0.14 µm. The comparison with the calculated resonance frequencies suggested that this degradation of the Q factor was due to the transition of the oscillation mode from the vortex mode to other modes such as the low-coherent out-of-plane precession mode. The present experimental results also suggest that there exists an adequate disk size for the enhanced Q factor of the vortex-type spin torque oscillation.

  4. Thin Co/Ni-based bottom pinned spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory stacks with high annealing tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, Y., E-mail: Yoann.Tomczak@imec.be [IMEC Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Swerts, J.; Mertens, S.; Lin, T.; Couet, S.; Sankaran, K.; Pourtois, G.; Kim, W.; Souriau, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kar, G.; Furnemont, A. [IMEC Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Liu, E. [Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-25

    Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is considered as a replacement for next generation embedded and stand-alone memory applications. One of the main challenges in the STT-MRAM stack development is the compatibility of the stack with CMOS process flows in which thermal budgets up to 400 °C are applied. In this letter, we report on a perpendicularly magnetized MgO-based tunnel junction (p-MTJ) on a thin Co/Ni perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnetic layer with high annealing tolerance. Tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) loss after annealing occurs when the reference layer loses its perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to reduction of the CoFeB/MgO interfacial anisotropy. A stable Co/Ni based p-MTJ stack with TMR values of 130% at resistance-area products of 9 Ω μm{sup 2} after 400 °C anneal is achieved via moment control of the Co/Ta/CoFeB reference layer. Thinning of the CoFeB polarizing layer down to 0.8 nm is the key enabler to achieve 400 °C compatibility with limited TMR loss. Thinning the Co below 0.6 nm leads to a loss of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling strength through Ru. Insight into the thickness and moment engineering of the reference layer is displayed to obtain the best magnetic properties and high thermal stability for thin Co/Ni SAF-based STT-MRAM stacks.

  5. Resistive switching and voltage induced modulation of tunneling magnetoresistance in nanosized perpendicular organic spin valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Göckeritz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale multifunctional perpendicular organic spin valves have been fabricated. The devices based on an La0.7Sr0.3MnO3/Alq3/Co trilayer show resistive switching of up to 4-5 orders of magnitude and magnetoresistance as high as -70% the latter even changing sign when voltage pulses are applied. This combination of phenomena is typically observed in multiferroic tunnel junctions where it is attributed to magnetoelectric coupling between a ferromagnet and a ferroelectric material. Modeling indicates that here the switching originates from a modification of the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 surface. This modification influences the tunneling of charge carriers and thus both the electrical resistance and the tunneling magnetoresistance which occurs at pinholes in the organic layer.

  6. Resistive switching and voltage induced modulation of tunneling magnetoresistance in nanosized perpendicular organic spin valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Göckeritz, Robert; Homonnay, Nico; Müller, Alexander [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Fuhrmann, Bodo [Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Materialwissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Schmidt, Georg, E-mail: georg.schmidt@physik.uni-halle.de [Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Materialwissenschaften, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Nanoscale multifunctional perpendicular organic spin valves have been fabricated. The devices based on an La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/Alq3/Co trilayer show resistive switching of up to 4-5 orders of magnitude and magnetoresistance as high as -70% the latter even changing sign when voltage pulses are applied. This combination of phenomena is typically observed in multiferroic tunnel junctions where it is attributed to magnetoelectric coupling between a ferromagnet and a ferroelectric material. Modeling indicates that here the switching originates from a modification of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} surface. This modification influences the tunneling of charge carriers and thus both the electrical resistance and the tunneling magnetoresistance which occurs at pinholes in the organic layer.

  7. Atomistic switch of giant magnetoresistance and spin thermopower in graphene-like nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Ming-Xing; Wang, Xue-Feng

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that the giant magnetoresistance can be switched off (on) in even- (odd-) width zigzag graphene-like nanoribbons by an atomistic gate potential or edge disorder inside the domain wall in the antiparallel (ap) magnetic configuration. A strong magneto-thermopower effect is also predicted that the spin thermopower can be greatly enhanced in the ap configuration while the charge thermopower remains low. The results extracted from the tight-binding model agree well with those obtained by first-principles simulations for edge doped graphene nanoribbons. Analytical expressions in the simplest case are obtained to facilitate qualitative analyses in general contexts. PMID:27857156

  8. Switching of a spin-spiral-induced polarization in multiferroic MnWO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Tim; Meier, Dennis; Fiebig, Manfred [HISKP, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Becker-Bohaty, Petra; Bohaty, Ladislav [Institut fuer Kristallographie, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Coexisting ferroic orders become interesting when there is an interaction between them. Especially applying an electric field and thus changing the magnetic order is highly desirable for possible applications. In spite of the declared interest in multiferroics to switch a magnetization by an electric field nothing is known about the dynamics of the actual switching process. The coupling of ferroelectric and magnetic order is intrinsically strong in spin-spiral multiferroics, where ferroelectricity emerges as a consequence of complex magnetic long-range order. Here we observe the manipulation of magnetically-induced ferroelectric domains in MnWO{sub 4} by optical second harmonic generation (SHG). Application of an electric field allows to transform the sample to an electric as well as magnetic single-domain state. Moreover we obtained images of the domain structures during the transition revealing the growth of the domains. When cooled in zero-field, the domains have a bubble-like topology. Interestingly, after recovery from a single domain state the shape changes to a stripe structure and the domain size is significantly increased. Effects of the shape and duration of the electric-field poling pulses are investigated. Furthermore, in contrast to typical ionic ferroelectrics the spontaneous polarization can be switched without fatigue - no defects or pinning effects constrain the movement of domain walls.

  9. Symmetric and Asymmetric Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with Embedded Nanoparticles: Effects of Size Distribution and Temperature on Tunneling Magnetoresistance and Spin Transfer Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useinov, Arthur; Lin, Hsiu-Hau; Lai, Chih-Huang

    2017-08-21

    The problem of the ballistic electron tunneling is considered in magnetic tunnel junction with embedded non-magnetic nanoparticles (NP-MTJ), which creates additional conducting middle layer. The strong temperature impact was found in the system with averaged NP diameter d av  tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) voltage behaviors. The low temperature approach also predicts step-like TMR and quantized in-plane spin transfer torque (STT) effects. The robust asymmetric STT respond is found due to voltage sign inversion in NP-MTJs with barrier asymmetry. Furthermore, it is shown how size distribution of NPs as well as quantization rules modify the spin-current filtering properties of the nanoparticles in ballistic regime. Different quantization rules for the transverse component of the wave vector are considered to overpass the dimensional threshold (d av  ≈ 1.8 nm) between quantum well and bulk-assisted states of the middle layer.

  10. Weak-field precession of nano-pillar spin-torque oscillators using MgO-based perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changxin; Fang, Bin; Wang, Bochong; Zeng, Zhongming

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a steady auto-oscillation in a spin-torque oscillator using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a perpendicular polarizer and a perpendicular free layer. As the injected d.c. current varied from 1.5 to 3.0 mA under a weak magnetic field of 290 Oe, the oscillation frequency decreased from 1.85 to 1.3 GHz, and the integrated power increased from 0.1 to 74 pW. A narrow linewidth down to 7 MHz corresponding to a high Q factor of 220 was achieved at 2.7 mA, which was ascribed to the spatial coherent procession of the free layer magnetization. Moreover, the oscillation frequency was quite sensitive to the applied field, about 3.07 MHz/Oe, indicating the potential applications as a weak magnetic field detector. These results suggested that the MgO-based MTJ with perpendicular magnetic easy axis could be helpful for developing spin-torque oscillators with narrow-linewidth and high sensitive.

  11. Quantifying angular dependence of spin-orbit torques in Ta/CoFeB/MgO trilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Celik, Halise; Wang, Tao; Kannan, Harsha; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; Xiao, John Q.

    2017-04-01

    The spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal/ferromagnet heterostructures have attracted considerable attention because they provide an efficient way to manipulate the magnetization with strong current-driven spin-orbit torques (SOTs) via the spin Hall effect in the heavy metal or Rashba effect due to the symmetry breaking at the interface. Theoretical calculations predict no dependence of the SOTs on the out-of-plane angle of magnetization due to spin Hall effect, but Rashba effect induces a nontrivial angular dependence of SOTs. Quantitative measurements with adiabatic harmonic Hall technique have observed the angular dependence in Ta/CoFeB/MgO or Pt /Co /Al Ox with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. However, this method is complicated because the signal consists of both anomalous and planar Hall contributions. In addition, the fitting of the measurement data is sensitive to the fitting parameters, particularly to the perpendicular anisotropy, in a certain angle region (40-70°). To avoid this uncertainty, we have developed a scheme to quantify the angular dependence of SOTs based on the magneto-optic Kerr effect with field calibration. Without fitting procedures, we precisely determine the SOTs and their angle dependence on the magnetization orientation. We observe a strong angular dependence that is different from the previous experimental observations. Based on this strong dependence, we conclude that a Rashba effect at the same interface, that is responsible for the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, is the dominant mechanism for the current-driven SOTs in this system.

  12. Circular polarization switching and bistability in an optically injected 1300 nm spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharthi, S. S., E-mail: ssmalh@essex.ac.uk; Henning, I. D.; Adams, M. J. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Hurtado, A. [School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Institute of Photonics, Physics Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, 106 Rottenrow East, Glasgow G4 0NW, Scotland (United Kingdom); Korpijarvi, V.-M.; Guina, M. [Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC), Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2015-01-12

    We report the experimental observation of circular polarization switching (PS) and polarization bistability (PB) in a 1300 nm dilute nitride spin-vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). We demonstrate that the circularly polarized optical signal at 1300 nm can gradually or abruptly switch the polarization ellipticity of the spin-VCSEL from right-to-left circular polarization and vice versa. Moreover, different forms of PS and PB between right- and left-circular polarizations are observed by controlling the injection strength and the initial wavelength detuning. These results obtained at the telecom wavelength of 1300 nm open the door for novel uses of spin-VCSELs in polarization sensitive applications in future optical systems.

  13. Toward nonlinear magnonics: Intensity-dependent spin-wave switching in insulating side-coupled magnetic stripes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Odintsov, S. A.; Beginin, E. N.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate that the nonlinear spin-wave transport in two laterally parallel magnetic stripes exhibit the intensity-dependent power exchange between the adjacent spin-wave channels. By the means of Brillouin light scattering technique, we investigate collective nonlinear spin-wave dynamics in the presence of magnetodipolar coupling. The nonlinear intensity-dependent effect reveals itself in the spin-wave mode transformation and differential nonlinear spin-wave phase shift in each adjacent magnetic stripe. The proposed analytical theory, based on the coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations, predicts the geometry design involving the reduction of power requirement to the all-magnonic switching. A very good agreement between calculation and experiment was found. In addition, a micromagnetic and finite-element approach has been independently used to study the nonlinear behavior of spin waves in adjacent stripes and the nonlinear transformation of spatial profiles of spin-wave modes. Our results show that the proposed spin-wave coupling mechanism provides the basis for nonlinear magnonic circuits and opens the perspectives for all-magnonic computing architecture.

  14. Long-term reliable physically unclonable function based on oxide tunnel barrier breakdown on two-transistors two-magnetic-tunnel-junctions cell-based embedded spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Satoshi; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Noguchi, Hiroki; Ikegami, Kazutaka; Abe, Keiko; Fujita, Shinobu

    2017-04-01

    Among the diverse applications of spintronics, security for internet-of-things (IoT) devices is one of the most important. A physically unclonable function (PUF) with a spin device (spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory, STT-MRAM) is presented. Oxide tunnel barrier breakdown is used to realize long-term stability for PUFs. A secure PUF has been confirmed by evaluating the Hamming distance of a 32-bit STT-MRAM-PUF fabricated using 65 nm CMOS technology.

  15. Switching and sensing spin states of co-porphyrin in bimolecular reactions on Au111 using scanning tunneling microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Howon; Chang, Yun Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyeong; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kahng, Se-Jong

    2013-10-22

    Controlling and sensing spin states of magnetic molecules at the single-molecule level is essential for spintronic molecular device applications. Here, we demonstrate that spin states of Co-porphyrin on Au(111) can be reversibly switched over by binding and unbinding of the NO molecule and can be sensed using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM and STS). Before NO exposure, Co-porphryin showed a clear zero-bias peak, a signature of Kondo effect in STS, whereas after NO exposures, it formed a molecular complex, NO-Co-porphyrin, that did not show any zero-bias feature, implying that the Kondo effect was switched off by binding of NO. The Kondo effect could be switched back on by unbinding of NO through single-molecule manipulation or thermal desorption. Our density functional theory calculation results explain the observations with pairing of unpaired spins in dz(2) and ppπ* orbitals of Co-porphyrin and NO, respectively. Our study opens up ways to control molecular spin state and Kondo effect by means of enormous variety of bimolecular binding and unbinding reactions on metallic surfaces.

  16. The influence of thermal activation and the intrinsic temperature dependence of the spin torque effect in current-induced domain wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagras, P; Klaeui, M; Laufenberg, M; Bedau, D; Vila, L; Faini, G; Vaz, C A F; Bland, J A C; Ruediger, U

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study of domain wall motion in Ni 80 Fe 20 ring structures induced by current pulses as well as conventional magnetic fields is presented. Using constrictions we demonstrate that current-induced domain wall motion can be used to displace walls into parts of the structure where no pulsed currents are flowing. Measurements at variable temperatures between 2 and 300 K show that the fields necessary for wall motion decrease with increasing temperature, which can be explained by thermal activation. For the current-induced case we find, depending on the geometry and temperature range, that the current densities necessary for displacement can increase or decrease with rising temperature. This indicates that, in addition to thermal excitations, an intrinsic temperature dependence of the efficiency of the spin torque effect is present and leads to an increase in the critical current density with increasing temperature

  17. Quantifying data retention of perpendicular spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory chips using an effective thermal stability factor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Luc, E-mail: luc.thomas@headway.com; Jan, Guenole; Le, Son; Wang, Po-Kang [TDK-Headway Technologies, Inc., 463 S. Milpitas Boulevard, Milpitas, California 95035 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    The thermal stability of perpendicular Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) devices is investigated at chip level. Experimental data are analyzed in the framework of the Néel-Brown model including distributions of the thermal stability factor Δ. We show that in the low error rate regime important for applications, the effect of distributions of Δ can be described by a single quantity, the effective thermal stability factor Δ{sub eff}, which encompasses both the median and the standard deviation of the distributions. Data retention of memory chips can be assessed accurately by measuring Δ{sub eff} as a function of device diameter and temperature. We apply this method to show that 54 nm devices based on our perpendicular STT-MRAM design meet our 10 year data retention target up to 120 °C.

  18. Robust and Selective Switching of an FeIII Spin-Crossover Compound on Cu2N/Cu(100) with Memristance Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper-Toennies, Torben; Gruber, Manuel; Karan, Sujoy; Jacob, Hanne; Tuczek, Felix; Berndt, Richard

    2017-11-08

    The switching between two spin states makes spin-crossover molecules on surfaces very attractive for potential applications in molecular spintronics. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the successful deposition of [Fe(pap) 2 ] + (pap = N-2-pyridylmethylidene-2-hydroxyphenylaminato) molecules on Cu 2 N/Cu(100) surface is evidenced. The deposited Fe III spin-crossover compound is controllably switched between three different states, each of them exhibiting a characteristic tunneling conductance. The conductance is therefore employed to readily read the state of the molecules. A comparison of the experimental data with the results of density functional theory calculations reveals that all Fe(pap) 2 molecules are initially in their high-spin state. The two other states are compatible with the low-spin state of the molecule but differ with respect to their coupling to the substrate. As a proof of concept, the reversible and selective nature of the switching is used to build a two-molecule memory.

  19. Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.

    1987-01-01

    Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.

  20. Magnetization switching schemes for nanoscale three-terminal spintronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Shunsuke; Ohno, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    Utilizing spintronics-based nonvolatile memories in integrated circuits offers a promising approach to realize ultralow-power and high-performance electronics. While two-terminal devices with spin-transfer torque switching have been extensively developed nowadays, there has been a growing interest in devices with a three-terminal structure. Of primary importance for applications is the efficient manipulation of magnetization, corresponding to information writing, in nanoscale devices. Here we review the studies of current-induced domain wall motion and spin-orbit torque-induced switching, which can be applied to the write operation of nanoscale three-terminal spintronics devices. For domain wall motion, the size dependence of device properties down to less than 20 nm will be shown and the underlying mechanism behind the results will be discussed. For spin-orbit torque-induced switching, factors governing the threshold current density and strategies to reduce it will be discussed. A proof-of-concept demonstration of artificial intelligence using an analog spin-orbit torque device will also be reviewed.

  1. Influence of cooling rate in planar thermally assisted magnetic random access memory: Improved writeability due to spin-transfer-torque influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavent, A.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Creuzet, C.; Alvarez-Hérault, J.; Vila, L.; Sousa, R. C.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of a controlled cooling rate on magnetic field reversal assisted by spin transfer torque (STT) in thermally assisted magnetic random access memory. By using a gradual linear decrease of the voltage at the end of the write pulse, the STT decays more slowly or at least at the same rate as the temperature. This condition is necessary to make sure that the storage layer magnetization remains in the desired written direction during cooling of the cell. The influence of the write current pulse decay rate was investigated on two exchange biased synthetic ferrimagnet (SyF) electrodes. For a NiFe based electrode, a significant improvement in writing reproducibility was observed using a gradual linear voltage transition. The write error rate decreases by a factor of 10 when increasing the write pulse fall-time from ∼3 ns to 70 ns. For comparison, a second CoFe/NiFe based electrode was also reversed by magnetic field assisted by STT. In this case, no difference between sharp and linear write pulse fall shape was observed. We attribute this observation to the higher thermal stability of the CoFe/NiFe electrode during cooling. In real-time measurements of the magnetization reversal, it was found that Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling in the SyF electrode vanishes for the highest pulse voltages that were used due to the high temperature reached during write. As a result, during the cooling phase, the final state is reached through a spin-flop transition of the SyF storage layer

  2. Transient magnetization dynamics of spin-torque oscillator and magnetic dot coupled by magnetic dipolar interaction: Reading of magnetization direction using magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, Taro; Suto, Hirofumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2018-01-01

    We study the magnetization dynamics of a spin-torque oscillator (STO) and a magnetic dot coupled by a magnetic dipolar field using micromagnetic simulation with the aim of developing a read method in magnetic recording that uses magnetic resonance. We propose an STO with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and an in-plane-magnetized fixed layer as a suitable STO for this resonance read method. When the oscillation frequency of the STO is near the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency of the magnetic dot, the oscillation amplitude of the STO decreases because FMR excited in the magnetic dot causes additional dissipation. To estimate the read rate of the resonance read method, we study the transient magnetization dynamics to the coupled oscillation state from an initial state where the STO is in a free-running state and the magnetic dot is in a stationary stable state. The STO shows transient dynamics within a time scale of 1 ns, which means that the STO can perform resonance reading with a response time within this time scale. This response time is shorter when the separation length between the STO and the magnetic dot is shorter, which indicates that the response speed can become faster by increasing the strength of the interaction between the STO and the magnetic dot. Successive reads are demonstrated by moving the STO over an array of magnetic dots.

  3. Nanoscale control of stripe-ordered magnetic domain walls by vertical spin transfer torque in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Shizhe; Ma, Ji; Xie, Lishan; Wang, Chuanshou; Malik, Iftikhar Ahmed; Zhang, Yuelin; Xia, Ke; Nan, Ce-Wen; Zhang, Jinxing

    2018-02-01

    Stripe-ordered domains with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been intensively investigated due to their potential applications in high-density magnetic data-storage devices. However, the conventional control methods (e.g., epitaxial strain, local heating, magnetic field, and magnetoelectric effect) of the stripe-ordered domain walls either cannot meet the demands for miniaturization and low power consumption of spintronic devices or require high strength of the electric field due to the small value of the magnetoelectric effect at room temperature. Here, a domain-wall resistive effect of 0.1% was clarified in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films between the configurations of current in the plane and perpendicular to the plane of walls. Furthermore, a reversible nanoscale control of the domain-wall re-orientation by vertical spin transfer torque across the probe/film interface was achieved, where a probe voltage of 0.1 V was applied on a manganite-based capacitor. We also demonstrated that the stripe-ordered magnetic domain-wall re-orientation strongly depends on the AC frequency of the scanning probe voltage which was applied on the capacitor.

  4. Cross-point-type spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory cell with multi-pillar vertical body channel MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Taro; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, from the viewpoint of cell size and sensing margin, the impact of a novel cross-point-type one transistor and one magnetic tunnel junction (1T–1MTJ) spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) cell with a multi-pillar vertical body channel (BC) MOSFET is shown for high density and wide sensing margin STT-MRAM, with a 10 ns writing period and 1.2 V V DD. For that purpose, all combinations of n/p-type MOSFETs and bottom/top-pin MTJs are compared, where the diameter of MTJ (D MTJ) is scaled down from 55 to 15 nm and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio is increased from 100 to 200%. The results show that, benefiting from the proposed STT-MRAM cell with no back bias effect, the MTJ with a high TMR ratio (200%) can be used in the design of smaller STT-MRAM cells (over 72.6% cell size reduction), which is a difficult task for conventional planar MOSFET based design.

  5. Direct Torque Control of Asynchronous Motor With Fuzzy Logic Swithching

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Fatih; KORKMAZ, Yılmaz

    2011-01-01

    control method in asynchronous motors, are known as high speed and torque ripples. In this study, direct torque control with fuzzy logic based switching method have been studied in order to reduce the speed and torque ripples which occurs during the direct torque control of asynchronous motors. Hysteresis controllers and vector selector that used in conventional control were removed, and fuzzy logic based switching method was used instead of them. Conventional and fuzzy control methods were s...

  6. Activation of coherent lattice phonon following ultrafast molecular spin-state photo-switching: A molecule-to-lattice energy transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We combine ultrafast optical spectroscopy with femtosecond X-ray absorption to study the photo-switching dynamics of the [Fe(PM-AzA2(NCS2] spin-crossover molecular solid. The light-induced excited spin-state trapping process switches the molecules from low spin to high spin (HS states on the sub-picosecond timescale. The change of the electronic state (<50 fs induces a structural reorganization of the molecule within 160 fs. This transformation is accompanied by coherent molecular vibrations in the HS potential and especially a rapidly damped Fe-ligand breathing mode. The time-resolved studies evidence a delayed activation of coherent optical phonons of the lattice surrounding the photoexcited molecules.

  7. Casimir torque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Guzman, Jose C [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Mochan, W Luis [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-05-26

    We develop a formalism for the calculation of the flow of angular momentum carried by the fluctuating electromagnetic field within a cavity bounded by two flat anisotropic materials. By generalizing a procedure employed recently for the calculation of the Casimir force between arbitrary materials, we obtain an expression for the torque between anisotropic plates in terms of their reflection amplitude matrices. We evaluate the torque in 1D for ideal and dispersive model materials.

  8. Diffusive Spin Dynamics in Ferromagnetic Thin Films with a Rashba Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xuhui

    2012-03-13

    In a ferromagnetic metal layer, the coupled charge and spin diffusion equations are obtained in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit interaction and magnetism. The misalignment between the magnetization and the nonequilibrium spin density induced by the Rashba field gives rise to Rashba spin torque acting on the ferromagnetic order parameter. In a general form, we find that the Rashba torque consists of both in-plane and out-of-plane components, i.e., T=T Sy×m+T Sm×(y×m). Numerical simulations on a two-dimensional nanowire consider the impact of diffusion on the Rashba torque and reveal a large enhancement to the ratio T/T S for thin wires. Our theory provides an explanation for the mechanism driving the magnetization switching in a single ferromagnet as observed in the recent experiments. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  9. Circuit Simulation of All-Spin Logic

    KAUST Repository

    Alawein, Meshal

    2016-05-01

    With the aggressive scaling of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) nearing an inevitable physical limit and its well-known power crisis, the quest for an alternative/augmenting technology that surpasses the current semiconductor electronics is needed for further technological progress. Spintronic devices emerge as prime candidates for Beyond CMOS era by utilizing the electron spin as an extra degree of freedom to decrease the power consumption and overcome the velocity limit connected with the charge. By using the nonvolatility nature of magnetization along with its direction to represent a bit of information and then manipulating it by spin-polarized currents, routes are opened for combined memory and logic. This would not have been possible without the recent discoveries in the physics of nanomagnetism such as spin-transfer torque (STT) whereby a spin-polarized current can excite magnetization dynamics through the transfer of spin angular momentum. STT have expanded the available means of switching the magnetization of magnetic layers beyond old classical techniques, promising to fulfill the need for a new generation of dense, fast, and nonvolatile logic and storage devices. All-spin logic (ASL) is among the most promising spintronic logic switches due to its low power consumption, logic-in-memory structure, and operation on pure spin currents. The device is based on a lateral nonlocal spin valve and STT switching. It utilizes two nanomagnets (whereby information is stored) that communicate with pure spin currents through a spin-coherent nonmagnetic channel. By using the well-known spin physics and the recently proposed four-component spin circuit formalism, ASL can be thoroughly studied and simulated. Previous attempts to model ASL in the linear and diffusive regime either neglect the dynamic characteristics of transport or do not provide a scalable and robust platform for full micromagnetic simulations and inclusion of other effects like spin Hall

  10. Spin Mode Switching at the Edge of a Quantum Hall System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Udit; Murthy, Ganpathy; Rao, Sumathi; Gefen, Yuval

    2017-11-03

    Quantum Hall states can be characterized by their chiral edge modes. Upon softening the edge potential, the edge has long been known to undergo spontaneous reconstruction driven by charging effects. In this Letter we demonstrate a qualitatively distinct phenomenon driven by exchange effects, in which the ordering of the edge modes at ν=3 switches abruptly as the edge potential is made softer, while the ordering in the bulk remains intact. We demonstrate that this phenomenon is robust, and has many verifiable experimental signatures in transport.

  11. Impact of Disorder on Spin Dependent Transport Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed

    2016-07-03

    The impact of the spin degree of freedom on the transport properties of electrons traveling through magnetic materials has been known since the pioneer work of Mott [1]. Since then it has been demonstrated that the spin angular momentum plays a key role in the scattering process of electrons in magnetic multilayers. This role has been emphasized by the discovery of the Giant Magnetoresistance in 1988 by Fert and Grunberg [2, 3]. Among the numerous applications and effects that emerged in mesoscopic devices two mechanisms have attracted our attention during the course of this thesis: the spin transfer torque and the spin Hall effects. The former consists in the transfer of the spin angular momentum from itinerant carriers to local magnetic moments [4]. This mechanism results in the current-driven magnetization switching and excitations, which has potential application in terms of magnetic data storage and non-volatile memories. The latter, spin Hall effect, is considered as well to be one of the most fascinating mechanisms in condensed matter physics due to its ability of generating non-equilibrium spin currents without the need for any magnetic materials. In fact the spin Hall effect relies only on the presence of the spin-orbit interaction in order to create an imbalance between the majority and minority spins. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the impact of disorder on spin dependent transport phenomena. To do so, we identified three classes of systems on which such disorder may have a dramatic influence: (i) antiferromagnetic materials, (ii) impurity-driven spin-orbit coupled systems and (iii) two dimensional semiconducting electron gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Antiferromagnetic materials - We showed that in antiferromagnetic spin-valves, spin transfer torque is highly sensitive to disorder, which prevents its experimental observation. To solve this issue, we proposed to use either a tunnel barrier as a spacer or a local spin torque using

  12. Magnon-mediated Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya torque in homogeneous ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-12-01

    In thin magnetic layers with structural inversion asymmetry and spin-orbit coupling, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction arises at the interface. When a spin-wave current jm flows in a system with a homogeneous magnetization m, this interaction produces an effective fieldlike torque of the form TFLm×(z×jm) as well as a dampinglike torque, TDLm×[(z×jm)×m], the latter only in the presence of spin-wave relaxation (z is normal to the interface). These torques mediated by the magnon flow can reorient the time-averaged magnetization direction and display a number of similarities with the torques arising from the electron flow in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This magnon-mediated spin-orbit torque can be efficient in the case of magnons driven by a thermal gradient.

  13. Three terminal magnetic tunnel junction utilizing the spin Hall effect of iridium-doped copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanouchi, Michihiko; Chen, Lin; Kim, Junyeon; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Sato, Hideo; Fukami, Shunsuke; Ikeda, Shoji; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo

    2013-05-01

    We show a three terminal magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a 10-nm thick channel based on an interconnection material Cu with 10% Ir doping. By applying a current density of less than 1012 A m-2 to the channel, depending on the current direction, switching of a MTJ defined on the channel takes place. We show that spin transfer torque (STT) plays a critical role in determining the threshold current. By assuming the spin Hall effect in the channel being the source of the STT, the lower bound of magnitude of the spin Hall angle is evaluated to be 0.03.

  14. Spin-Hall-assisted magnetic random access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, A. van den; Swagten, H. J. M.; Koopmans, B.; Cosemans, S.; Manfrini, M.; Van Roy, W.; Min, T.; Cornelissen, S.; Vaysset, A.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a write scheme for perpendicular spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory that significantly reduces the required tunnel current density and write energy. A sub-nanosecond in-plane polarized spin current pulse is generated using the spin-Hall effect, disturbing the stable magnetic state. Subsequent switching using out-of-plane polarized spin current becomes highly efficient. Through evaluation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, we quantitatively assess the viability of this write scheme for a wide range of system parameters. A typical example shows an eight-fold reduction in tunnel current density, corresponding to a fifty-fold reduction in write energy, while maintaining a 1 ns write time

  15. Discussions on switching mechanism for ultimate reduction in energy consumption for STT-MRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, H.; Shimomura, N.

    2016-10-01

    Critical switching current, ICsw, of STT (Spin Transfer Torque)-MRAM has been reduced by several orders with PMA (Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy)-MTJs and the state-of-the-art writing-charge, Qw, becomes the order of 100fC. With the small Qw, MRAM starts to save energy consumption even for mobile applications. The key to the Qw reduction is a development of MTJs having higher writing-efficiency. Especially coherent switching of storage-layer magnetization was found to be the root key to the high efficiency.

  16. Sensorless vector and direct torque control

    CERN Document Server

    Vas, Peter

    1998-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on sensorless high performance a.c. drives. It is essential reading for anyone interested in acquiring a solid background on sensorless torque-controlled drives. It presents a detailed and unified treatment of sensorless vector-controlled and direct-torque controlled drive systems. It also discusses the applications of artificial intelligence to drives. Where possible, space vector theory is used and emphasis is laid on detailed mathematical and physical analysis. Sensorless drive schemes for different types of permanent magnet synchronous motors, synchronous reluctance motors, and induction motors are also presented. These include more than twenty vector drives e.g. five types of MRAS-based vector drives, and eleven types of direct-torque-controlled (DTC) drives, e.g. the ABB DTC drive. However, torque-controlled switched reluctance motor drives are also discussed due to their emerging importance. The book also covers various drive applications using artificial intellige...

  17. High torque DC motor fabrication and test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makus, P.

    1976-01-01

    The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.

  18. Theory of magnetic-field-induced polarization flop in spin-spiral multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Masahito

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic-field-induced 90∘ flop of ferroelectric polarization P in a spin-spiral multiferroic material TbMnO3 is theoretically studied based on a microscopic spin model. I find that the direction of the P flop or the choice of +Pa or -Pa after the flop is governed by magnetic torques produced by the applied magnetic field H acting on the Mn spins and thus is selected in a deterministic way, in contradistinction to the naively anticipated probabilistic flop. This mechanism resolves a puzzle of the previously reported memory effect in the P direction depending on the history of the magnetic-field sweep, and enables controlled switching of multiferroic domains by externally applied magnetic fields. My Monte-Carlo analysis also uncovers that the magnetic structure in the P ∥a phase under H ∥b is not a previously anticipated simple a b -plane spin cycloid but a conical spin structure.

  19. Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Farle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.

  20. Manipulating the spin states in a double molecular magnets tunneling junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liang; Liu, Xi [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Zhengzhong, E-mail: zeikeezhang@126.com [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Nano Science and Technology Institute, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou 215123 (China); Wang, Ruiqiang [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-01-17

    We theoretically explore the spin transport through nano-structures consisting of two serially coupled single-molecular magnets (SMM) sandwiched between two nonmagnetic electrodes. We find that the magnetization of SMM can be controlled by the spin transfer torque with respect to the bias voltage direction, and the electron current can be switched on/off in different magnetic structures. Such a manipulation is performed by full electrical manner, and needs neither external magnetic field nor ferromagnetic electrodes in the tunneling junction. The proposal device scheme can be realized with the use of the present technology and has potential applications in molecular spintronics or quantum information processing.

  1. Manipulating the spin states in a double molecular magnets tunneling junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liang; Liu, Xi; Zhang, Zhengzhong; Wang, Ruiqiang

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically explore the spin transport through nano-structures consisting of two serially coupled single-molecular magnets (SMM) sandwiched between two nonmagnetic electrodes. We find that the magnetization of SMM can be controlled by the spin transfer torque with respect to the bias voltage direction, and the electron current can be switched on/off in different magnetic structures. Such a manipulation is performed by full electrical manner, and needs neither external magnetic field nor ferromagnetic electrodes in the tunneling junction. The proposal device scheme can be realized with the use of the present technology [6] and has potential applications in molecular spintronics or quantum information processing.

  2. Current-driven thermo-magnetic switching in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, A. F.; Polishchuk, D. M.; Pashchenko, V. A.; Tovstolytkin, A. I.; Korenivski, V.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate switching of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) driven by the thermal effect of the transport current through the junctions. The switching occurs in a specially designed composite free layer, which acts as one of the MTJ electrodes, and is due to a current-driven ferro-to-paramagnetic Curie transition with the associated exchange decoupling within the free layer leading to magnetic reversal. We simulate the current and heat propagation through the device and show how heat focusing can be used to improve the power efficiency. The Curie-switch MTJ demonstrated in this work has the advantage of being highly tunable in terms of its operating temperature range, conveniently to or just above room temperature, which can be of technological significance and competitive with the known switching methods using spin-transfer torques.

  3. A spin transfer torque magnetoresistance random access memory-based high-density and ultralow-power associative memory for fully data-adaptive nearest neighbor search with current-mode similarity evaluation and time-domain minimum searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yitao; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2017-04-01

    A high-density nonvolatile associative memory (NV-AM) based on spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM), which achieves highly concurrent and ultralow-power nearest neighbor search with full adaptivity of the template data format, has been proposed and fabricated using the 90 nm CMOS/70 nm perpendicular-magnetic-tunnel-junction hybrid process. A truly compact current-mode circuitry is developed to realize flexibly controllable and high-parallel similarity evaluation, which makes the NV-AM adaptable to any dimensionality and component-bit of template data. A compact dual-stage time-domain minimum searching circuit is also developed, which can freely extend the system for more template data by connecting multiple NM-AM cores without additional circuits for integrated processing. Both the embedded STT-MRAM module and the computing circuit modules in this NV-AM chip are synchronously power-gated to completely eliminate standby power and maximally reduce operation power by only activating the currently accessed circuit blocks. The operations of a prototype chip at 40 MHz are demonstrated by measurement. The average operation power is only 130 µW, and the circuit density is less than 11 µm2/bit. Compared with the latest conventional works in both volatile and nonvolatile approaches, more than 31.3% circuit area reductions and 99.2% power improvements are achieved, respectively. Further power performance analyses are discussed, which verify the special superiority of the proposed NV-AM in low-power and large-memory-based VLSIs.

  4. Torque ripple reduction in direct torque controlled five-phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The five-phase induction motor inherently has the minimal torque ripple. However, when it is controlled by direct torque control (DTC) technique, the torque ripple increases due to the presence of a hysteresis torque comparator. The classical five-level torque comparator is presented in the previous literatures to control the ...

  5. Magnetization switching in ferromagnets by adsorbed chiral molecules without current or external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Dor, Oren; Yochelis, Shira; Radko, Anna; Vankayala, Kiran; Capua, Eyal; Capua, Amir; Yang, See-Hun; Baczewski, Lech Tomasz; Parkin, Stuart Stephen Papworth; Naaman, Ron; Paltiel, Yossi

    2017-02-01

    Ferromagnets are commonly magnetized by either external magnetic fields or spin polarized currents. The manipulation of magnetization by spin-current occurs through the spin-transfer-torque effect, which is applied, for example, in modern magnetoresistive random access memory. However, the current density required for the spin-transfer torque is of the order of 1 × 106 A.cm-2, or about 1 × 1025 electrons s-1 cm-2. This relatively high current density significantly affects the devices' structure and performance. Here we demonstrate magnetization switching of ferromagnetic thin layers that is induced solely by adsorption of chiral molecules. In this case, about 1013 electrons per cm2 are sufficient to induce magnetization reversal. The direction of the magnetization depends on the handedness of the adsorbed chiral molecules. Local magnetization switching is achieved by adsorbing a chiral self-assembled molecular monolayer on a gold-coated ferromagnetic layer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These results present a simple low-power magnetization mechanism when operating at ambient conditions.

  6. Switching methods in magnetic random access memory for low power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guchang, Han; Jiancheng, Huang; Cheow Hin, Sim; Tran, Michael; Sze Ter, Lim

    2015-06-01

    Effect of saturation magnetization (Ms) of the free layer (FL) on the switching current is analyzed for spin transfer torque (STT) magnetic random access memory (MRAM). For in-plane FL, critical switching current (Ic0) decreases as Ms decreases. However, reduction in Ms also results in a low thermal stability factor (Δ), which must be compensated through increasing shape anisotropy, thus limiting scalability. For perpendicular FL, Ic0 reduction by using low-Ms materials is actually at the expense of data retention. To save energy consumed by STT current, two electric field (EF) controlled switching methods are proposed. Our simulation results show that elliptical FL can be switched by an EF pulse with a suitable width. However, it is difficult to implement this type of switching in real MRAM devices due to the distribution of the required switching pulse widths. A reliable switching method is to use an Oersted field guided switching. Our simulation and experimental results show that the bi-directional magnetization switching could be realized by an EF with an external field as low as  ±5 Oe if the offset field could be removed.

  7. GMAG Dissertation Award Talk: All Spin Logic -- Multimagnet Networks interacting via Spin currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Srikant

    2012-02-01

    Digital logic circuits have traditionally been based on storing information as charge on capacitors, and the stored information is transferred by controlling the flow of charge. However, electrons carry both charge and spin, the latter being responsible for magnetic phenomena. In the last few decades, there has been a significant improvement in our ability to control spins and their interaction with magnets. All Spin Logic (ASL) represents a new approach to information processing where spins and magnets now mirror the roles of charges and capacitors in conventional logic circuits. In this talk I first present a model [1] that couples non-collinear spin transport with magnet-dynamics to predict the switching behavior of the basic ASL device. This model is based on established physics and is benchmarked against available experimental data that demonstrate spin-torque switching in lateral structures. Next, the model is extended to simulate multi-magnet networks coupled with spin transport channels. The simulations suggest ASL devices have the essential characteristics for building logic circuits. In particular, (1) the example of an ASL ring oscillator [2, 3] is used to provide a clear signature of directed information transfer in cascaded ASL devices without the need for external control circuitry and (2) a simulated NAND [4] gate with fan-out of 2 suggests that ASL can implement universal logic and drive subsequent stages. Finally I will discuss how ASL based circuits could also have potential use in the design of neuromorphic circuits suitable for hybrid analog/digital information processing because of the natural mapping of ASL devices to neurons [4]. [4pt] [1] B. Behin-Aein, A. Sarkar, S. Srinivasan, and S. Datta, ``Switching Energy-Delay of All-Spin Logic devices,'' Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 123510 (2011).[0pt] [2] S. Srinivasan, A. Sarkar, B. Behin-Aein, and S. Datta, ``All Spin Logic Device with Inbuilt Non-reciprocity,'' IEEE Trans. Magn., 47, 10 (2011).[0pt] [3

  8. Current-induced switching in transport through anisotropic magnetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Niels; Arrachea, Liliana; Lozano, Gustavo S.; Nunner, Tamara S.; von Oppen, Felix

    2012-03-01

    Anisotropic single-molecule magnets may be thought of as molecular switches, with possible applications to molecular spintronics. In this paper, we consider current-induced switching in single-molecule junctions containing an anisotropic magnetic molecule. We assume that the carriers interact with the magnetic molecule through the exchange interaction and focus on the regime of high currents in which the molecular spin dynamics is slow compared to the time which the electrons spend on the molecule. In this limit, the molecular spin obeys a nonequilibrium Langevin equation which takes the form of a generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and which we derive microscopically by means of a nonequilibrium Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We exploit this Langevin equation to identify the relevant switching mechanisms and to derive the current-induced switching rates. As a by-product, we also derive S-matrix expressions for the various torques entering into the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation which generalize previous expressions in the literature to nonequilibrium situations.

  9. Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2014-04-13

    The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.

  10. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  11. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  12. SENSORLESS FLUX REGION MODIFICATION OF DTC CONTROLLED IM FOR TORQUE RIPPLE REDUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    USER, Yavuz; GULEZ, Kayhan; OZEN, Sukru

    2014-01-01

    A Direct Torque Control (DTC) drive allows direct and independent control of flux linkage and electromagnetic torque by the selection of optimum inverter switching tables. There is no need for any complex transformation of current or voltage. However, each vector selected from the switching table cannot produce the required accurate stator voltage vector to provide the desired torque and flux. This results in the production of ripples in the torque as well as flux waveforms. In this study, we...

  13. Distinguishing between coherent magnetization rotation and generation of incoherent spin waves in a spin-transfer effect experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaliy, Yaroslaw; Jones, Barbara

    2002-03-01

    Electric current flowing from one metallic ferromagnet to another induces an interaction between them [1,2]. This interaction is qualitatively different from the one observed in equilibrium and creates a so-called ``spin-transfer'' torque - a subject of recent interest in the field of spintronics. Technologically spin-transfer effect is very interesting due to its possible usefulness for the memory writing process based on ``current induced switching" in metallic magnetic structures. Physics of spin-transfer torque involves interesting issues of spin-injection, spin-accumulation and excitation of different types of magnetic modes in the ferromagnets. The result of spin-transfer torque action depends on which magnetic mode is most easily excited by the spin-polarized current. Currently there are two views on the nature of this mode. In one approach [1] it is assumed that a coherent rotation of magnetization is induced and in the other [2,3] - that incoherent spin waves are generated. While in a real experiment both modes are probably excited at the same time, intuitively it seems natural that coherent rotation is more likely to happen when the angle between injected spins and magnetization is large. On the contrary in a collinear case spin-wave generation is more likely to happen. In the experiments done so far [4] the effect of spin-transfer torque was studied in the collinear setup. In [5] we applied the general approach of Ref.1 to this experiment and were able to give exact predictions for the particular magnetic anisotropy of the experiment [4]. While those predictions do not completely agree with the experimental results, a theory based on spin-wave generation [6] also seems to be ruled out by [4]. Here we propose a relatively easy modification of experiment [4] in which the spin-polarization of incoming current is no longer collinear with magnetization and recalculate the switching behavior of the device. We expect that a better agreement with experiment will

  14. Reliable switching in MRAM and multiferroic logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Kamaram; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Chen, Eugene; Ghosh, Avik W.

    2012-02-01

    Low reliable writing in spintronic devices limits their applicability in the automotive and defense industries. Coupling stochastic macromagnetic simulator with quantum transport, we show how greater reliable switching can be achieved in MRAM and multiferroic logic. Using a combination of spin-transfer torque and small applied perpendicular field in MRAM, the error rate can be considerably reduced for a given voltage pulse. In multiferroic logic, strain plays the role of the magnetic field. Information is passed along an array of nanomagnets (NM) (magnetostrictive + piezoelectric layers) through dipole coupling with neighboring NMs. A low voltage applied to the piezoelectric element causes the NM's magnetization to switch to its hard axis. Upon releasing the stress, the magnetization of the NM relaxes to the easy axis, with its final orientation determined by the dipolar coupling with the left NM, thus achieving a low power Bennett clocked computation. In the face of stagnation points along the potential energy landscape, the success rate of the straintronic switching can be controlled with by how fast the stress is removed from the NM. (Funding: DARPA, GRANDIS, NSF-NEB).

  15. Intrinsic nonadiabatic topological torque in magnetic skyrmions and vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2017-03-01

    We propose that topological spin currents flowing in topologically nontrivial magnetic textures, such as magnetic skyrmions and vortices, produce an intrinsic nonadiabatic torque of the form Tt∼[(∂xm×∂ym)·m]∂ym. We show that this torque, which is absent in one-dimensional domain walls and/or nontopological textures, is responsible for the enhanced nonadiabaticity parameter observed in magnetic vortices compared to one-dimensional textures. The impact of this torque on the motion of magnetic skyrmions is expected to be crucial, especially to determine their robustness against defects and pinning centers.

  16. Torque harmonics of an asynchronous motor supplied by a voltage- or current-sourced inverter quasi-square operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Voltage- and current-sourced dc-ac converters operating in quasi-square area are compared. Their characteristics are calculated with switching vector, which is space-vector of switching functions. When the load is an asynchronous motor various analytical equations, including torque, are calculated efficiently. Motor current and torque approximations are compared with the simulated ones. (orig.) 6 refs.

  17. Spin Hall effects in metallic antiferromagnets – perspectives for future spin-orbitronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Sklenar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate angular dependent spin-orbit torques from the spin Hall effect in a metallic antiferromagnet using the spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance technique. The large spin Hall effect exists in PtMn, a prototypical CuAu-I-type metallic antiferromagnet. By applying epitaxial growth, we previously reported an appreciable difference in spin-orbit torques for c- and a-axis orientated samples, implying anisotropic effects in magnetically ordered materials. In this work we demonstrate through bipolar-magnetic-field experiments a small but noticeable asymmetric behavior in the spin-transfer-torque that appears as a hysteresis effect. We also suggest that metallic antiferromagnets may be good candidates for the investigation of various unidirectional effects related to novel spin-orbitronics phenomena.

  18. Switched reluctance motor optimal geometry design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Neamt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM analysis using Finite Element Method (FEM for geometrical optimization in terms of volume ratio of torque on the rotor, the so-called specific torque. The optimization parameter is the pair: stator and rotor pole angles, which forms a crucial part of the design process.

  19. Optical torque on a magneto-dielectric Rayleigh absorptive sphere by a vector Bessel (vortex) beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renxian; Yang, Ruiping; Ding, Chunying; Mitri, F. G.

    2017-04-01

    The optical torque exerted on an absorptive megneto-dielectric sphere by an axicon-generated vector Bessel (vortex) beam with selected polarizations is investigated in the framework of the dipole approximation. The total optical torque is expressed as the sum of orbital and spin torques. The axial orbital torque component is calculated from the z-component of the cross-product of the vector position r and the optical force exerted on the sphere F. Depending on the beam characteristics (such as the half-cone angle and polarization type) and the physical properties of the sphere, it is shown here that the axial orbital torque vanishes before reversing sign, indicating a counter-intuitive orbital motion in opposite handedness of the angular momentum carried by the incident waves. Moreover, analytical formulas for the spin torque, which is divided into spin torques induced by electric and magnetic dipoles, are derived. The corresponding components of both the optical spin and orbital torques are numerically calculated, and the effects of polarization, the order of the beam, and half-cone angle are discussed in detail. The left-handed (i.e., negative) optical torque is discussed, and the conditions for generating optical spin and orbital torque sign reversal are numerically investigated. The transverse optical spin torque has a vortex-like character, whose direction depends on the polarization, the half-cone angle, and the order of the beam. Numerical results also show that the vortex direction depends on the radial position of the particle in the transverse plane. This means that a sphere may rotate with different directions when it moves radially. Potential applications are in particle manipulation and rotation, single beam optical tweezers, and other emergent technologies using vector Bessel beams on a small magneto-dielectric (nano) particle.

  20. Spin transfer and spin pumping in disordered normal metal-antiferromagnetic insulator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbrandsen, Sverre A.; Brataas, Arne

    2018-02-01

    We consider an antiferromagnetic insulator that is in contact with a metal. Spin accumulation in the metal can induce spin-transfer torques on the staggered field and on the magnetization in the antiferromagnet. These torques relate to spin pumping: the emission of spin currents into the metal by a precessing antiferromagnet. We investigate how the various components of the spin-transfer torque are affected by spin-independent disorder and spin-flip scattering in the metal. Spin-conserving disorder reduces the coupling between the spins in the antiferromagnet and the itinerant spins in the metal in a manner similar to Ohm's law. Spin-flip scattering leads to spin-memory loss with a reduced spin-transfer torque. We discuss the concept of a staggered spin current and argue that it is not a conserved quantity. Away from the interface, the staggered spin current varies around a 0 mean in an irregular manner. A network model explains the rapid decay of the staggered spin current.

  1. Spin glasses (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.H.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental results of spin glass studies are reviewed and related to existing theories. Investigations of spin glasses are concentrated on atomic structure, metallurgical treatment, and high-temperature susceptibility of alloys, on magnetic properties at low temperature and near the freezing temperature, on anisotropy behaviour measured by ESR, NMR and torque, on specific heat, Moessbauer effect, neutron scattering and muon-spin depolarization experiments, ultrasound and transport properties. Some new theories of spin glasses are discussed which have been developed since Part I appeared

  2. Influence of Shape Anisotropy on Magnetization Dynamics Driven by Spin Hall Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. G. Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the lateral dimension of spin Hall effect based magnetic random-access memory (SHE-RAM devices is scaled down, shape anisotropy has varied influence on both the magnetic field and the current-driven switching characteristics. In this paper, we study such influences on elliptic film nanomagnets and theoretically investigate the switching characteristics for SHE-RAM element with in-plane magnetization. The analytical expressions for critical current density are presented and the results are compared with those obtained from macrospin and micromagnetic simulation. It is found that the key performance indicators for in-plane SHE-RAM, including thermal stability and spin torque efficiency, are highly geometry dependent and can be effectively improved by geometric design.

  3. Observerless Scheme for Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM Using Direct Torque Control Method With LP Filter

    OpenAIRE

    BEKIROGLU, N.; OZCIRA, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, direct torque control (DTC) of a permanent magnet synchronous motor is realized with a sensorless speed control technique without using an observer. Space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique is applied in order to determine the switching sequence of the voltage source inverter. Torque and flux, the main variables of the DTC, are estimated by using the mathematical model of the motor. Estimated torque and flux values are compared with their references in every con...

  4. Bearingless switched reluctance motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  5. Inverse-magnetostriction-induced switching current reduction of STT-MTJs and its application for low-voltage MRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Yota; Shuto, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Shu'uichiro; Funakubo, Hiroshi; Kurosawa, Minoru Kuribayashi; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Sugahara, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    A new spin-transfer torque (STT) magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) using an inverse magnetostriction (IMS) material for the free layer is proposed for low-voltage MRAMs. The MTJ is surrounded by a piezoelectric gate structure so that a pressure for introducing the IMS effect can efficiently be applied to the free layer without any high-yield-strength support structure. During STT-induced magnetization switching, the energy barrier height for the switching can be lowered by the IMS effect, and thus a critical current density (JC) for the magnetization switching can dramatically be reduced. Energy performance of a low-voltage STT-MRAM cell using the proposed MTJ and a FinFET is also demonstrated.

  6. Torque and optical traps

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Optical traps are an important tool for research in the field of single molecule biophysics. Recent advances in optical trapping have extended their functionality from simple linear manipulation and measurement of forces, to now the ability to rotate objects and measure torques. This mini review summarizes ...

  7. Large Torque Variations in Two Soft Gamma Repeaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woods, P.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Göğüş, E.; Finger, M.H.; Swank, J.; Markwardt, C.B.; Hurley, K.; van der Klis, M.

    2002-01-01

    We have monitored the pulse frequencies of the two soft gamma repeaters SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 through the beginning of year 2001 using primarily Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations. In both sources, we observe large changes in the spin-down torque up to a factor

  8. Induction machine Direct Torque Control system based on fuzzy adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-ping; Yu, Yan; Jiao, Zhen-gang; Gu, Shu-sheng

    2009-07-01

    Direct Torque Control technology is a high-performance communication control method, it uses the space voltage vector method, and then to the inverter switch state control, to obtain high torque dynamic performance. But none of the switching states is able to generate the exact voltage vector to produce the desired changes in torque and flux in most of the switching instances. This causes a high ripple in torque. To solve this problem, a fuzzy implementation of Direct Torque Control of Induction machine is presented here. Error of stator flux, error of motor electromagnetic torque and position of angle of flux are taken as fuzzy variables. In order to further solve nonlinear problem of variation parameters in direct torque control system, the paper proposes a fuzzy parameter PID adaptive control method which is suitable for the direct torque control of an asynchronous motor. The generation of its fuzzy control is obtained by analyzing and optimizing PID control step response and combining expert's experience. For this reason, it carries out fuzzy work to PID regulator of motor speed to achieve to regulate PID parameters. Therefore the control system gets swifter response velocity, stronger robustness and higher precision of velocity control. The computer simulated results verify the validity of this novel method.

  9. Observation of the Spin Peltier Effect for Magnetic Insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipse, J.; Dejene, F.K.; Wagenaar, D.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Ben Youssef, J.; Van Wees, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin

  10. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College and Graduate School, The City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Jaafar, Reem [Department of Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science, LaGuardia Community College, The City University of New York, 31-10 Thomson Avenue, Long Island City, New York 11101 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.

  11. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem

    2015-01-01

    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained

  12. Butterfly valve torque prediction methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldiwany, B.H.; Sharma, V.; Kalsi, M.S.; Wolfe, K.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored the development of methodologies for predicting thrust and torque requirements of gate, globe, and butterfly MOVs. This paper presents the methodology that will be used by utilities to calculate the dynamic torque requirements for butterfly valves. The total dynamic torque at any disc position is the sum of the hydrodynamic torque, bearing torque (which is induced by the hydrodynamic force), as well as other small torque components (such as packing torque). The hydrodynamic torque on the valve disc, caused by the fluid flow through the valve, depends on the disc angle, flow velocity, upstream flow disturbances, disc shape, and the disc aspect ratio. The butterfly valve model provides sets of nondimensional flow and torque coefficients that can be used to predict flow rate and hydrodynamic torque throughout the disc stroke and to calculate the required actuation torque and the maximum transmitted torque throughout the opening and closing stroke. The scope of the model includes symmetric and nonsymmetric discs of different shapes and aspects ratios in compressible and incompressible fluid applications under both choked and nonchoked flow conditions. The model features were validated against test data from a comprehensive flowloop and in situ test program. These tests were designed to systematically address the effect of the following parameters on the required torque: valve size, disc shapes and disc aspect ratios, upstream elbow orientation and its proximity, and flow conditions. The applicability of the nondimensional coefficients to valves of different sizes was validated by performing tests on 42-in. valve and a precisely scaled 6-in. model. The butterfly valve model torque predictions were found to bound test data from the flow-loop and in situ testing, as shown in the examples provided in this paper

  13. Imaging Spin Dynamics on the Nanoscale using X-Ray Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann eStoll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of emergent magnetic quasiparticles, such as vortices, domain walls, and bubbles are studied by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM, combining magnetic (XMCD contrast with about 25 nm lateral resolution as well as 70 ps time resolution. Essential progress in the understanding of magnetic vortex dynamics is achieved by vortex core reversal observed by sub-GHz excitation of the vortex gyromode, either by ac magnetic fields or spin transfer torque. The basic switching scheme for this vortex core reversal is the generation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Much faster vortex core reversal is obtained by exciting azimuthal spin wave modes with (multi-GHz rotating magnetic fields or orthogonal monopolar field pulses in x and y direction, down to 45 ps in duration. In that way unidirectional vortex core reversal to the vortex core 'down' or 'up' state only can be achieved with switching times well below 100 ps. Coupled modes of interacting vortices mimic crystal properties. The individual vortex oscillators determine the properties of the ensemble, where the gyrotropic mode represents the fundamental excitation. By self-organized state formation we investigate distinct vortex core polarization configurations and understand these eigenmodes in an extended Thiele model. Analogies with photonic crystals are drawn. Oersted fields and spin-polarized currents are used to excite the dynamics of domain walls and magnetic bubbles. From the measured phase and amplitude of the displacement of domain walls we deduce the size of the non-adiabatic spin-transfer torque. For sensing applications, the displacement of domain walls is studied and a direct correlation between domain wall velocity and spin structure is found. Finally the synchronous displacement of multiple domain walls using perpendicular field pulses is demonstrated as a possible paradigm shift for magnetic memory and logic applications.

  14. Detent torque from the soft magnetic stator stack of a hybrid stepper motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, K. R.; Singh, Bhim; Singh, B. P.

    2003-05-01

    The residual magnetism present in the stator stack of a hybrid stepper motor, which will be of the last excited polarity, will develop a detent torque, similar to the static torque of the last excited phase, but with reduced excitation. The predominant component is fundamental. Even though this torque is the result of the stator excitation, it can be considered as a detent torque as it is available when the stator excitation is withdrawn. This detent torque is in addition to the inherent one due to the rotor permanent magnet, and it will be present until the next phase is switched ON. Once the excitation is removed from the second phase, because of the hysteresis the detent torque will be available, similar to the static torque profile for phase 2, but with less excitation. This means because of the hysteresis the detent torque follows the static torque of the phases. The magnitude of this detent torque will depend upon the level to which the phase was excited. Experiments have been carried out on a 0.5° hybrid stepper motor to study the effects of the excitation on the detent torque profiles. Harmonic analyses of the measured detent torque curves had been carried out and it is seen that the fundamental detent torque increases with the excitation and also follows the respective phases. Therefore, the residual flux density and the coercive force of the soft magnetic material used for the stator stack have to be as small as possible to get rid of this effect. Controlling a hybrid stepper motor by a suitable switching scheme for a given application requires the measured static torque profiles of the motor for all the phases at the exact working voltage (or voltages in case of a variable voltage supply) and detent torque profiles both before and after excitation. Harmonic spectrum of the measured static and detent torque profiles have to be accounted for while simulating stepping behavior of the motor, from which an appropriate switching scheme can be arrived at.

  15. Manual Torque Data Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundt, Mark Osroe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Matthew Ronald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Varela, Jeanette Judith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gilmore, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Allie [Pantex Plant (PTX), Amarillo, TX (United States)

    2018-01-11

    At the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX, Production Technicians (PTs) build and disassemble nuclear weapon systems. The weapons are held in an integrated work stand for stability and to increase the safety environment for the workers and for the materials being processed. There are many occasions in which a knob must be turned to tighten an assembly part. This can help to secure or manipulate pieces of the system. As there are so many knobs to turn, the instructions given to the PTs are to twist the knob to a hand-tight setting, without the aid of a torque wrench. There are inherent risks in this procedure as the knobs can be tightened too loosely such that the apparatus falls apart or too tightly such that the force can crush or pinch components in the system that contain energetic materials. We want to study these operations at Pantex. Our goal is to collect torque data to assess the safety and reliability of humantooling interfaces.

  16. Excitation and Transmitted Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. H. Gubran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, stress analysis of fiber reinforced thin composite shafts subjected to unbalance excitation and steady torque, is carried out. Shafts of uniform as well as variable wall thickness are considered. The shaft is modeled as a simply supported Timoshenko beam in which shear deformation, rotary inertia and gyroscopic effects have been included. Modified equivalent modulus beam theory has been adopted. Rayleigh-Ritz displacements are used for deriving the solution equations. Shafts with a uniform wall thickness, and with variable wall thickness in which the thickness is varied along the axial length of the shaft for three different cases of fiber angles have been studied. Axial variation of stresses is studied in detail. Results obtained indicate that the stresses in the variable wall thickness are smaller than the one with uniform wall thickness, even for the same weight of the shaft.

  17. Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor with Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf Salloum Gaeid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The matrix converter (MC with direct torque control (DTC combination is efficient way to get better performance specifications in the industry. The MC and the DTC advantages are combined together. The reduction of complexity and cost of DC link in the DTC since it has no capacitors in the circuit. However, the controlling torque is a big problem it in DTC because of high ripple torque production which results in vibrations response in the operation of the iductuction motor as it has no PID to control the torque directly. To overcome this, a combination of MC with DTC is applied to reduce the fluctuation in the output torque and minimize the steady state error. This paper presents the simulation analysis of induction machine drives using Maltlab/Simulink toolbox R2012a. Design of DTC induction motor drive, MC with constant switching frequency, speed controller and stability investigation as well as controllability and observabilty with minimum final prediction (FPE steady state error and loss functionality has been carried out precisely.

  18. Design and control of the phase current of a brushless dc motor to eliminate cogging torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, G. H.; Lee, C. J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a design and control method of the phase current to reduce the torque ripple of a brushless dc (BLDC) motor by eliminating cogging torque. The cogging torque is the main source of torque ripple and consequently of speed error, and it is also the excitation source to generate the vibration and noise of a motor. This research proposes a modified current wave form, which is composed of main and auxiliary currents. The former is the conventional current to generate the commutating torque. The latter generates the torque with the same magnitude and opposite sign of the corresponding cogging torque at the given position in order to eliminate the cogging torque. Time-stepping finite element method simulation considering pulse-width-modulation switching method has been performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, and it shows that this proposed method reduces torque ripple by 36%. A digital-signal-processor-based controller is also developed to implement the proposed method, and it shows that this proposed method reduces the speed ripple significantly.

  19. Hybrid synchronous motor electromagnetic torque research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorkova Elena E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic field distribution models in reluctance and permanent magnet parts were made by means of Elcut. Dependences of electromagnetic torque on torque angle were obtained.

  20. Improved direct torque control for induction motor drives with rapid prototyping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, Ralph; El-kholy, Elwy E.; Mahmoud, Sabry; El-refaei, Abdou; Elkady, Farouk

    2006-01-01

    Direct torque control is an AC drives control method especially designed to provide fast and robust responses, but they usually behave like hysteresis controllers. Consequently, there are similar problems like non-constant switching frequencies and high torque ripple, especially when operation conditions result in low switching frequencies. In this paper, the basic concept of DTC will be improved by modifying the classical method. Problems that arise when using standard DTC methods are explained, and improvements are derived to overcome these problems. Two theoretical approaches are verified and compared with standard DTC by measurements and experiments. The proposed methods provide a constant switching frequency and solve the starting problem without dither signal. Further results are a reduction of torque pulsations as well as a new method for stator flux estimation. Experimental results of the new DTC method obtained by an experimental rapid prototype system for drives are presented

  1. Improved direct torque control for induction motor drives with rapid prototyping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennel, Ralph [Electrical Machines and Drives, Wuppertal University, D-42097 Wuppertal, Wuppertal (Germany); El-kholy, Elwy E. [Electrical Engineering Departement, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-kom (Egypt)]. E-mail: eelkholy@yahoo.com; Mahmoud, Sabry [Electrical Engineering Departement, Faculty of Engineering, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-kom (Egypt); El-refaei, Abdou [Electrical Technology Departement, Industrial College (IEC), Cairo (Egypt); Elkady, Farouk [Electrical Technology Departement, Industrial College (IEC), Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-08-15

    Direct torque control is an AC drives control method especially designed to provide fast and robust responses, but they usually behave like hysteresis controllers. Consequently, there are similar problems like non-constant switching frequencies and high torque ripple, especially when operation conditions result in low switching frequencies. In this paper, the basic concept of DTC will be improved by modifying the classical method. Problems that arise when using standard DTC methods are explained, and improvements are derived to overcome these problems. Two theoretical approaches are verified and compared with standard DTC by measurements and experiments. The proposed methods provide a constant switching frequency and solve the starting problem without dither signal. Further results are a reduction of torque pulsations as well as a new method for stator flux estimation. Experimental results of the new DTC method obtained by an experimental rapid prototype system for drives are presented.

  2. Torque coordinating robust control of shifting process for dry dual clutch transmission equipped in a hybrid car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z.-G.; Chen, H.-J.; Yang, Y.-Y.; He, L.

    2015-09-01

    For a hybrid car equipped with dual clutch transmission (DCT), the coordination control problems of clutches and power sources are investigated while taking full advantage of the integrated starter generator motor's fast response speed and high accuracy (speed and torque). First, a dynamic model of the shifting process is established, the vehicle acceleration is quantified according to the intentions of the driver, and the torque transmitted by clutches is calculated based on the designed disengaging principle during the torque phase. Next, a robust H∞ controller is designed to ensure speed synchronisation despite the existence of model uncertainties, measurement noise, and engine torque lag. The engine torque lag and measurement noise are used as external disturbances to initially modify the output torque of the power source. Additionally, during the torque switch phase, the torque of the power sources is smoothly transitioned to the driver's demanded torque. Finally, the torque of the power sources is further distributed based on the optimisation of system efficiency, and the throttle opening of the engine is constrained to avoid sharp torque variations. The simulation results verify that the proposed control strategies effectively address the problem of coordinating control of clutches and power sources, establishing a foundation for the application of DCT in hybrid cars.

  3. Electrical torques on the electrostatic gyro in the gyro relativity experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, P.; Darbo, W.

    1980-10-01

    A comprehensive discussion and calculation of electrical torques on an electrostatic gyro as they relate to the gyroscope experiment to test general relativity is presented. Drift rates were computed for some typical state of the art rotors, including higher harmonics in the rotor shape. The effect of orbital averaging of gravity gradient forces, roll averaging of torques, and the effect of spin averaging on the effective shape of the rotor were considered. The electrical torques are reduced sufficiently in a low g environment to permit a measurement of the relativistic drifts predicted by general relativity.

  4. Unidirectional spin-Hall and Rashba-Edelstein magnetoresistance in topological insulator-ferromagnet layer heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Kally, James; Zhang, Delin; Lee, Joon Sue; Jamali, Mahdi; Samarth, Nitin; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2018-01-09

    The large spin-orbit coupling in topological insulators results in helical spin-textured Dirac surface states that are attractive for topological spintronics. These states generate an efficient spin-orbit torque on proximal magnetic moments. However, memory or logic spin devices based upon such switching require a non-optimal three-terminal geometry, with two terminals for the writing current and one for reading the state of the device. An alternative two-terminal device geometry is now possible by exploiting the recent discovery of the unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance in heavy metal/ferromagnet bilayers and unidirectional magnetoresistance in magnetic topological insulators. Here, we report the observation of such unidirectional magnetoresistance in a technologically relevant device geometry that combines a topological insulator with a conventional ferromagnetic metal. Our devices show a figure of merit (magnetoresistance per current density per total resistance) that is more than twice as large as the highest reported values in all-metal Ta/Co bilayers.

  5. Zero torque gear head wrench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdougal, A. R.; Norman, R. M. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gear head wrench particularly suited for use in applying torque to bolts without transferring torsional stress to bolt-receiving structures is introduced. The wrench is characterized by a coupling including a socket, for connecting a bolt head with a torque multiplying gear train, provided within a housing having an annulus concentrically related to the socket and adapted to be coupled with a spacer interposed between the bolt head and the juxtaposed surface of the bolt-receiving structure for applying a balancing counter-torque to the spacer as torque is applied to the bolt head whereby the bolt-receiving structure is substantially isolated from torsional stress. As a result of the foregoing, the operator of the wrench is substantially isolated from any forces which may be imposed.

  6. Torque-Summing Brushless Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.

  7. New concept of direct torque neuro-fuzzy control for induction motor drives. Simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, P.Z. [Institute of Control and Industrial Electronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a new control strategy in the discrete Direct Torque Control (DTC) based on neuro-fuzzy structure. Two schemes are proposed: neuro-fuzzy switching times calculator and neuro-fuzzy incremental controller with space vector modulator. These control strategies guarantee very good dynamic and steady-states characteristics, with very low sampling time and constant switching frequency. The proposed techniques are verified by simulation study of the whole drive system and results are compared with conventional discrete Direct Torque Control method. (orig.) 18 refs.

  8. Spin Transport in Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Textures

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins A.

    2016-12-07

    In this dissertation, we provide an accurate description of spin transport in magnetic textures and in particular, we investigate in detail, the nature of spin torque and magnetic damping in such systems. Indeed, as will be further discussed in this thesis, the current-driven velocity of magnetic textures is related to the ratio between the so-called non-adiabatic torque and magnetic damping. Uncovering the physics underlying these phenomena can lead to the optimal design of magnetic systems with improved efficiency. We identified three interesting classes of systems which have attracted enormous research interest (i) Magnetic textures in systems with broken inversion symmetry: We investigate the nature of magnetic damping in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Based on phenomenological and microscopic derivations, we show that the magnetic damping becomes chiral, i.e. depends on the chirality of the magnetic texture. (ii) Ferromagnetic domain walls, skyrmions and vortices: We address the physics of spin transport in sharp disordered magnetic domain walls and vortex cores. We demonstrate that upon spin-independent scattering, the non-adiabatic torque can be significantly enhanced. Such an enhancement is large for vortex cores compared to transverse domain walls. We also show that the topological spin currents owing in these structures dramatically enhances the non-adiabaticity, an effect unique to non-trivial topological textures (iii) Antiferromagnetic skyrmions: We extend this study to antiferromagnetic skyrmions and show that such an enhanced topological torque also exist in these systems. Even more interestingly, while such a non-adiabatic torque inuences the undesirable transverse velocity of ferromagnetic skyrmions, in antiferromagnetic skyrmions, the topological non-adiabatic torque directly determines the longitudinal velocity. As a consequence, scaling down the antiferromagnetic skyrmion results in a much more efficient spin torque.

  9. 14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for maximum... compressor jamming). (b) For reciprocating engines, the limit torque may not be less than the mean torque for maximum continuous power multiplied by— (1) 1.33, for engines with five or more cylinders; and (2) Two...

  10. Magnonic Charge Pumping via Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Chiara; Hals, Kjetil; Irvine, Andrew; Novak, Vit; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Kurebayashi, Hidekazu; Brataas, Arne; Ferguson, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The interplay between spin, charge and orbital degrees of freedom has led to the development of spintronic devices such as spin-torque oscillators and spin-transfer torque MRAM. In this development, spin pumping represents a convenient way to electrically detect magnetization dynamics. The effect originates from direct conversion of low-energy quantized spin waves in the magnet, known as magnons, into a flow of spins from the precessing magnet to adjacent leads. In this case, a secondary spin-charge conversion element, such as heavy metals with large spin Hall angle or multilayer layouts, is required to convert the spin current into a charge signal. Here, we report the observation of charge pumping in which a precessing ferromagnet pumps a charge current, demonstrating direct conversion of magnons into high-frequency currents via spin-orbit interaction. The generated electric current, unlike spin currents generated by spin-pumping, can be directly detected without the need of any additional spin-charge conversion mechanism. The charge-pumping phenomenon is generic and gives a deeper understanding of its reciprocal effect, the spin orbit torque, which is currently attracting interest for their potential in manipulating magnetic information.

  11. An Air Bearing Balance with 1-DOF Spin Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magill, J. C; McManus, K. R; Malonson, M. R; Ziehler, J. A; Hinds, M. F

    1998-01-01

    .... Five load components are measured by sensing pressures in the air bearing film. The sixth component - rolling torque - is determined by sensing the current needed by the brushless spin motor to maintain a given rotation rate...

  12. Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haiming, E-mail: haiming.yu@buaa.edu.cn [Fert Beijing Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, BDBC, Beihang University (China); Brechet, Sylvain D. [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland); Ansermet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.ansermet@epfl.ch [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland)

    2017-03-03

    Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal

  13. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.

  14. Theory of high-resolution tunneling spin transport on a magnetic skyrmion

    OpenAIRE

    Palotás, Krisztián; Rózsa, Levente; Szunyogh, László

    2018-01-01

    Tunneling spin transport characteristics of a magnetic skyrmion are described theoretically in magnetic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The spin-polarized charge current in STM (SP-STM) and tunneling spin transport vector quantities, the longitudinal spin current and the spin transfer torque are calculated in high spatial resolution within the same theoretical framework. A connection between the conventional charge current SP-STM image contrasts and the magnitudes of the spin transport v...

  15. Charge and Spin Transport in Spin-orbit Coupled and Topological Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-10-31

    In the search for low power operation of microelectronic devices, spin-based solutions have attracted undeniable increasing interest due to their intrinsic magnetic nonvolatility. The ability to electrically manipulate the magnetic order using spin-orbit interaction, associated with the recent emergence of topological spintronics with its promise of highly efficient charge-to-spin conversion in solid state, offer alluring opportunities in terms of system design. Although the related technology is still at its infancy, this thesis intends to contribute to this engaging field by investigating the nature of the charge and spin transport in spin-orbit coupled and topological systems using quantum transport methods. We identified three promising building blocks for next-generation technology, three classes of systems that possibly enhance the spin and charge transport efficiency: (i)- topological insulators, (ii)- spin-orbit coupled magnonic systems, (iii)- topological magnetic textures (skyrmions and 3Q magnetic state). Chapter 2 reviews the basics and essential concepts used throughout the thesis: the spin-orbit coupling, the mathematical notion of topology and its importance in condensed matter physics, then topological magnetism and a zest of magnonics. In Chapter 3, we study the spin-orbit torques at the magnetized interfaces of 3D topological insulators. We demonstrated that their peculiar form, compared to other spin-orbit torques, have important repercussions in terms of magnetization reversal, charge pumping and anisotropic damping. In Chapter 4, we showed that the interplay between magnon current jm and magnetization m in homogeneous ferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, produces a field-like torque as well as a damping-like torque. These DM torques mediated by spin wave can tilt the imeaveraged magnetization direction and are similar to Rashba torques for electronic systems. Moreover, the DM torque is more efficient when magnons are

  16. Direct Torque Control for Three-Level Neutral Point Clamped Inverter-Fed Induction Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Sahu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct torque control (DTC is a control technique in AC drive systems to obtain high performance torque control. The classical DTC drive contains a pair of hysteresis comparators and suffers from variable switching frequency and high torque ripple. These problems can be solved by using space vector depending on the reference torque and flux. In this paper the space vector modulation technique is applied to the three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC inverter control in the proposed DTC-based induction motor drive system, resulting to a significant reduce of torque ripple. Three-level neutral point clamped inverters have been widely used in medium voltage applications. This type of inverters have several advantages over standard two-level VSI, such as greater number of levels in the output voltage waveforms, less harmonic distortion in voltage and current waveforms and lower switching frequencies. This paper emphasizes the derivation of switching states using the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM technique. The control scheme is implemented using Matlab/Simulink. Experimental results using dSPACE validate the steady-state and the dynamic performance of the proposed control strategy.

  17. Tunable spin-charge conversion through topological phase transitions in zigzag nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang

    2016-06-29

    We study spin-orbit torques and charge pumping in magnetic quasi-one-dimensional zigzag nanoribbons with a hexagonal lattice, in the presence of large intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Such a system experiences a topological phase transition from a trivial band insulator to a quantum spin Hall insulator by tuning of either the magnetization direction or the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-charge conversion efficiency (i.e., spin-orbit torque and charge pumping) is dramatically enhanced at the topological transition, displaying a substantial angular anisotropy.

  18. Torque ripple reduction in direct torque controlled five-phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogesh Tatte

    MS received 4 May 2016; revised 25 April 2017; accepted 3 June 2017; published online 7 February 2018. Abstract. ...... The data and parameters of the machine are depicted in table 3. Figures 6 and 7 summarize the performance of five- phase IM controlled by DTC method with the classical five- level torque comparator ...

  19. Nonlocal Gilbert damping tensor within the torque-torque correlation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonig, Danny; Kvashnin, Yaroslav; Eriksson, Olle; Pereiro, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    An essential property of magnetic devices is the relaxation rate in magnetic switching, which depends strongly on the damping in the magnetization dynamics. It was recently measured that damping depends on the magnetic texture and, consequently, is a nonlocal quantity. The damping enters the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation as the phenomenological Gilbert damping parameter α , which does not, in a straightforward formulation, account for nonlocality. Efforts were spent recently to obtain Gilbert damping from first principles for magnons of wave vector q . However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no report about real-space nonlocal Gilbert damping αi j. Here, a torque-torque correlation model based on a tight-binding approach is applied to the bulk elemental itinerant magnets and it predicts significant off-site Gilbert damping contributions, which could be also negative. Supported by atomistic magnetization dynamics simulations, we reveal the importance of the nonlocal Gilbert damping in atomistic magnetization dynamics. This study gives a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the magnetic moments and dissipation processes in real magnetic materials. Ways of manipulating nonlocal damping are explored, either by temperature, materials doping, or strain.

  20. Friction torque in thrust ball bearings grease lubricated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuş, G.; Dumitraşcu, A. C.; Cârlescu, V.; Olaru, D. N.

    2016-08-01

    The authors investigated experimentally and theoretically the friction torque in a modified thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls operating at low axial load and lubricated with NGLI-00 and NGLI-2 greases. The experiments were made by using spin-down methodology and the results were compared with the theoretical values based on Biboulet&Houpert's rolling friction equations. Also, the results were compared with the theoretical values obtained with SKF friction model adapted for 3 balls. A very good correlation between experiments and Biboulet_&_Houpert's predicted results was obtained for the two greases. Also was observed that the theoretical values for the friction torque calculated with SKF model adapted for a thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls are smaller that the experimental values.

  1. Load Torque Compensator for Model Predictive Direct Current Control in High Power PMSM Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preindl, Matthias; Schaltz, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The widely used cascade speed and torque controllers have a limited control performance in most high power applications due to the low switching frequency of power electronic converters and the convenience to avoid speed overshoots and oscillations for lifetime considerations. Model Predictive...

  2. Toroidal field coil torque structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    A torque structure is disclosed particularly suitable for utilization in a power reactor of the Tokamak-type, and operable therein for purposes of providing support for the toroidal field (TF) coils that comprise one of the major operating components of such a Tokamak power reactor. The subject torque structure takes the form of a frame structure that is operable to enable torque loads acting on the TF coils to be equilibrated as close to the area of force application as feasible. The aforesaid torque structure includes an intercoil structure composed of spacer wedges that are interposed between each adjacent pair of TF coils. The spacer wedges, in turn, consist of bearing plates positioned between the TF coils so as to be in contacting relation therewith and a number of cross plates that are cooperatively associated with the bearing plates so as to form therewith a rigid assembly. The intercoil structure is affixed to a segmented, membrane shell that surrounds, encloses and supports the TF coil frames. Access is had to the interior of the shell through an opening formed for this purpose in a reinforced portion of the shell. Eddy current losses are minimized by insulating the joints formed at the juncture of adjoining segments of the shell

  3. Nonlocal torque operators in ab initio theory of the Gilbert damping in random ferromagnetic alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 21 (2015), 214407-1-214407-11 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic damping * spin torque Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  4. 14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mean torque for maximum continuous power multiplied by 1.25; (2) The torque required by § 29.923; (3... for maximum continuous power multiplied by— (1) 1.33, for engines with five or more cylinders; and (2...

  5. A graphite based STT-RAM cell with reduction in switching current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghani, Ali; Peiravi, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Spin Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) is a serious candidate for "universal memory" because of its non-volatility, fast access time, high density, good scalability, high endurance and relatively low power dissipation. However, problems with low write speed and large write current are important existing challenges in STT-RAM design and there is a tradeoff between them and data retention time. In this study, a novel STT-RAM cell structure which uses perfect graphite based Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) is proposed. First, the cross-section of the structure is selected to be an ellipse of 45 nm and 180 nm dimensions and a six-layer graphite is used as tunnel barrier. By passing a lateral current with a short pulse width (before applying STT current and independent of it) through four middle graphene layers of the tunnel barrier, a 27% reduction in the amplitude of the switching current (for fast switching time of 2 ns) or a 58% reduction in its pulse width is achieved without any reduction in data retention time. Finally, the effect of downscaling of technology on the proposed structure is evaluated. A reduction of 31.6% and 9% in switching current is achieved for 90 and 22 nm cell width respectively by passing sufficient current (100 μA with 0.1 ns pulse width) through the tunnel barrier. Simulations are done using Object Oriented Micro Magnetic Framework (OOMMF).

  6. Universal Mechanism of Spin Relaxation in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene

    2006-03-01

    Conventional elastic theory ignores internal local twists and torques. Meantime, spin-lattice relaxation is inherently coupled with local elastic twists through conservation of the total angular momentum (spin + lattice). This coupling gives universal lower bound (free of fitting parameters) on the relaxation of the atomic or molecular spin in a solid [1] and on the relaxation of the electron spin in a quantum dot [2]. [1] E. M. Chudnovsky, D. A. Garanin, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. B 72, 094426 (2005). [2] C. Calero, E. M. Chudnovsky, and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166603 (2005).

  7. PREFACE: Spin Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.

    2007-04-01

    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  8. Calibration of the optical torque wrench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedaci, F.; Huang, Z.; Van Oene, M.; Dekker, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    The optical torque wrench is a laser trapping technique that expands the capability of standard optical tweezers to torque manipulation and measurement, using the laser linear polarization to orient tailored microscopic birefringent particles. The ability to measure torque of the order of kBT (?4 pN

  9. Measuring the uncertainty of tapping torque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An uncertainty budget is carried out for torque measurements performed at the Institut for Procesteknik for the evaluation of cutting fluids. Thirty test blanks were machined with one tool and one fluid, torque diagrams were recorded and the repeatability of single torque measurements was estimat...

  10. Pseudospark switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billault, P.; Riege, H.; Gulik, M. van; Boggasch, E.; Frank, K.

    1987-01-01

    The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)

  11. Spin-resolved electron waiting times in a quantum-dot spin valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gaomin; Xu, Fuming; Mi, Shuo; Wang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    We study the electronic waiting-time distributions (WTDs) in a noninteracting quantum-dot spin valve by varying spin polarization and the noncollinear angle between the magnetizations of the leads using the scattering matrix approach. Since the quantum-dot spin valve involves two channels (spin up and down) in both the incoming and outgoing channels, we study three different kinds of WTDs, which are two-channel WTD, spin-resolved single-channel WTD, and cross-channel WTD. We analyze the behaviors of WTDs in short times, correlated with the current behaviors for different spin polarizations and noncollinear angles. Cross-channel WTD reflects the correlation between two spin channels and can be used to characterize the spin-transfer torque process. We study the influence of the earlier detection on the subsequent detection from the perspective of cross-channel WTD, and define the influence degree quantity as the cumulative absolute difference between cross-channel WTDs and first-passage time distributions to quantitatively characterize the spin-flip process. We observe that influence degree versus spin-transfer torque for different noncollinear angles as well as different polarizations collapse into a single curve showing universal behaviors. This demonstrates that cross-channel WTDs can be a pathway to characterize spin correlation in spintronics system.

  12. The Control of Switched Reluctance Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The control of SRM was discussed: current chopping control, angle position control. This paper presents an inverter circuit and a fuzzy sliding mode control method to minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM. Based on the experimental results, Using the inverter circuit and fuzzy sliding mode control method can effectively minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM, For the switched reluctance motor applications in electric vehicles to provide a theoretical basis.

  13. Switching antidepressants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depressive disorder, with response rates of 50-60%. Switching within or between classes of antidepressants is often required in patients with an insufficient response to SSRIs.12 Because they share a similar mechanism of action, the immediate substitution of one SSRI for another is probably the easiest switching option.

  14. Comparison of three-level torque hysteresis controllers for direct torque control

    OpenAIRE

    Beerten, Jef; Verveckken, Jan; Driesen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison is made between different implementations of the three-level torque comparator for a Direct Torque Control (DTC) based induction motor drive. The DTC scheme controls stator flux and torque by means of hysteresis comparators, respectively a two-level control structure for the stator flux and a three-level comparator for the electromagnetic torque. The standard three-level hysteresis controller has a DC offset torque error. In this paper, an additive implementation i...

  15. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni

    2011-01-01

    phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid......In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...

  16. Towards developing a compact model for magnetization switching in straintronics magnetic random access memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barangi, Mahmood; Erementchouk, Mikhail; Mazumder, Pinaki

    2016-08-01

    Strain-mediated magnetization switching in a magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) by exploiting a combination of piezoelectricity and magnetostriction has been proposed as an energy efficient alternative to spin transfer torque (STT) and field induced magnetization switching methods in MTJ-based magnetic random access memories (MRAM). Theoretical studies have shown the inherent advantages of strain-assisted switching, and the dynamic response of the magnetization has been modeled using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. However, an attempt to use LLG for simulating dynamics of individual elements in large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAM leads to extremely time-consuming calculations. Hence, a compact analytical solution, predicting the flipping delay of the magnetization vector in the nanomagnet under stress, combined with a liberal approximation of the LLG dynamics in the straintronics MTJ, can lead to a simplified model of the device suited for fast large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAMs. In this work, a tensor-based approach is developed to study the dynamic behavior of the stressed nanomagnet. First, using the developed method, the effect of stress on the switching behavior of the magnetization is investigated to realize the margins between the underdamped and overdamped regimes. The latter helps the designer realize the oscillatory behavior of the magnetization when settling along the minor axis, and the dependency of oscillations on the stress level and the damping factor. Next, a theoretical model to predict the flipping delay of the magnetization vector is developed and tested against LLG-based numerical simulations to confirm the accuracy of findings. Lastly, the obtained delay is incorporated into the approximate solutions of the LLG dynamics, in order to create a compact model to liberally and quickly simulate the magnetization dynamics of the MTJ under stress. Using the developed delay equation, the

  17. Towards developing a compact model for magnetization switching in straintronics magnetic random access memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barangi, Mahmood, E-mail: barangi@umich.edu; Erementchouk, Mikhail; Mazumder, Pinaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2121 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Strain-mediated magnetization switching in a magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) by exploiting a combination of piezoelectricity and magnetostriction has been proposed as an energy efficient alternative to spin transfer torque (STT) and field induced magnetization switching methods in MTJ-based magnetic random access memories (MRAM). Theoretical studies have shown the inherent advantages of strain-assisted switching, and the dynamic response of the magnetization has been modeled using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. However, an attempt to use LLG for simulating dynamics of individual elements in large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAM leads to extremely time-consuming calculations. Hence, a compact analytical solution, predicting the flipping delay of the magnetization vector in the nanomagnet under stress, combined with a liberal approximation of the LLG dynamics in the straintronics MTJ, can lead to a simplified model of the device suited for fast large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAMs. In this work, a tensor-based approach is developed to study the dynamic behavior of the stressed nanomagnet. First, using the developed method, the effect of stress on the switching behavior of the magnetization is investigated to realize the margins between the underdamped and overdamped regimes. The latter helps the designer realize the oscillatory behavior of the magnetization when settling along the minor axis, and the dependency of oscillations on the stress level and the damping factor. Next, a theoretical model to predict the flipping delay of the magnetization vector is developed and tested against LLG-based numerical simulations to confirm the accuracy of findings. Lastly, the obtained delay is incorporated into the approximate solutions of the LLG dynamics, in order to create a compact model to liberally and quickly simulate the magnetization dynamics of the MTJ under stress. Using the developed delay equation, the

  18. Towards developing a compact model for magnetization switching in straintronics magnetic random access memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barangi, Mahmood; Erementchouk, Mikhail; Mazumder, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    Strain-mediated magnetization switching in a magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) by exploiting a combination of piezoelectricity and magnetostriction has been proposed as an energy efficient alternative to spin transfer torque (STT) and field induced magnetization switching methods in MTJ-based magnetic random access memories (MRAM). Theoretical studies have shown the inherent advantages of strain-assisted switching, and the dynamic response of the magnetization has been modeled using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. However, an attempt to use LLG for simulating dynamics of individual elements in large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAM leads to extremely time-consuming calculations. Hence, a compact analytical solution, predicting the flipping delay of the magnetization vector in the nanomagnet under stress, combined with a liberal approximation of the LLG dynamics in the straintronics MTJ, can lead to a simplified model of the device suited for fast large-scale simulations of multi-megabyte straintronics MRAMs. In this work, a tensor-based approach is developed to study the dynamic behavior of the stressed nanomagnet. First, using the developed method, the effect of stress on the switching behavior of the magnetization is investigated to realize the margins between the underdamped and overdamped regimes. The latter helps the designer realize the oscillatory behavior of the magnetization when settling along the minor axis, and the dependency of oscillations on the stress level and the damping factor. Next, a theoretical model to predict the flipping delay of the magnetization vector is developed and tested against LLG-based numerical simulations to confirm the accuracy of findings. Lastly, the obtained delay is incorporated into the approximate solutions of the LLG dynamics, in order to create a compact model to liberally and quickly simulate the magnetization dynamics of the MTJ under stress. Using the developed delay equation, the

  19. Spin torques in ferromagnetic/normal-metal structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Xia, K.; Kelly, P. J.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Brataas, A.; Turek, Ilja

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 22 (2002), s. 220401 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/0122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : tunneling * interface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002

  20. Colossal spin transfer torque effect on skyrmion along the edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Junichi; Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-08-13

    We study by the micromagnetic simulations the skyrmion motion along the edge driven by the current transverse to it. We found that (i) the velocity is enhanced by the factor of ∼ 1/α (α: the Gilbert damping) with the maximum value determined only by the confining force from the edge, (ii) the inertia appear due to the confining potential with the coordinate perpendicular to the edge playing the role of the kinetic momentum, and (iii) the collision between the two skyrmions is almost elastic without causing any internal distortions.

  1. Spin transport in metal and oxide devices at the nanoscale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parui, Subir; Rana, Kumari Gaurav; Banerjee, Tamalika

    2012-01-01

    Here we discuss a non-destructive technique that characterizes spin and charge transport at the nanometer scale, across buried layers and interfaces, in magnetic memory elements as used in spin transfer torque based Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM). While probing in the

  2. Nonlinear dynamics of spin transfer nano-oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oscillations, is termed as spin transfer torque nano-oscillator or simply spin transfer nano- oscillator (STNO). However, the above nanoscale level microwave source lacks efficiency on two counts: (1) low output power (∼ nW), (2) high signal-to-noise ratio. Both the issues can be handled by phase locking a large array of ...

  3. Influence of the cage on friction torque in low loaded thrust ball bearing operating in dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, D.; Balan, M. R.; Tufescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The authors investigated analytically and experimentally the friction torque in a modified thrust ball bearing operating at very low axial load in dry conditions by using only three balls and a cage. The experiments were conducted by using spin-down methodology. The results evidenced the influence of the sliding friction between the cage and the balls on the total friction torque. It was concluded that at very low loads the friction between cage and balls in a thrust ball bearing has an important contribution on total friction torque.

  4. Junction size effect on switching current and thermal stability in CoFeB/MgO perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.; Yamanouchi, M.; Miura, K.; Ikeda, S.; Gan, H. D.; Mizunuma, K.; Koizumi, R.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2011-07-01

    Junction size dependence of critical current (IC0) for spin transfer torque switching and thermal stability factor (E/kBT) was examined in CoFeB/MgO perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs). The IC0 increased with increasing recording layer area (Srec). On the other hand, the E/kBT showed almost constant values even though the Srec was increased from ˜1500 nm2 (44 nmφ) to ˜5000 nm2 (76 nmφ). Both IC0 and E/kBT behavior can be explained with assuming that the nucleation type magnetization reversal takes place in CoFeB/MgO p-MTJs.

  5. Limited Angle Torque Motors Having High Torque Density, Used in Accurate Drive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Obreja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A torque motor is a special electric motor that is able to develop the highest possible torque in a certain volume. A torque motor usually has a pancake configuration, and is directly jointed to a drive system (without a gear box. A limited angle torque motor is a torque motor that has no rotary electromagnetic field — in certain papers it is referred to as a linear electromagnet. The main intention of the authors for this paper is to present a means for analyzing and designing a limited angle torque motor only through the finite element method. Users nowadays require very high-performance limited angle torque motors with high density torque. It is therefore necessary to develop the highest possible torque in a relatively small volume. A way to design such motors is by using numerical methods based on the finite element method.

  6. Magnetic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirbie, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs

  7. Combined vector control and direct torque control method for high performance induction motor drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaez-Zadeh, S.; Jalali, E.

    2007-01-01

    A new control method is proposed for three phase high performance induction motor drives. The control system enjoys the advantages of vector control and direct torque control and avoids some of the implementation difficulties of either of the two control methods. In particular, the proposed control system includes a current vector control in connection with a switching table. An extensive comparative performance evaluation of a motor under the proposed control method confirms the effectiveness of the method and its partial superiority over either vector control or direct torque control despite its relative structural simplicity

  8. Digital simulation and hardware implementation of a simple scheme for direct torque control of induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Dinkar; Panigrahi, Bibhu Prasad; SenGupta, Sabyasachi

    2008-01-01

    A simple scheme that allows fast control of induction motor torque has been presented. It is different from the conventional direct torque control (DTC) scheme in the sense that it does not use the popular DTC switching table. Also, it does not require use of any online fast computing device like a microprocessor, personal computer (PC) or digital signal processor (DSP). The proposed scheme uses only commonly used discrete hardware components for its implementation. The experimental results obtained from the hardware realization of the proposed scheme are found to be in close agreement with the simulation results

  9. High-Speed Computation using FPGA for Excellent Performance of Direct Torque Control of Induction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tole Sutikno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The major problems in hysteresis-based DTC are high torque ripple and variable switching frequency. In order to minimize the torque ripple, high sampling time and fast digital realization should be applied. The high sampling and fast digital realization time can be achieved by utilizing high-speed processor where the operation of the discrete hysteresis regulator is becoming similar to the operation of analog-based comparator. This can be achieved by utilizing field programmable gate array (FPGA which can perform a sampling at a very high speed, compared to the fact that developing an ASIC chip is expensive and laborious.

  10. Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize Lecture: Transfer of spin momentum between magnets: its genesis and prospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonczewski, John

    2013-03-01

    Consider two nanoscopic monodomain magnets connected by a spacer that is composed of a non-magnetic metal or a tunnel barrier. Any externally applied electric current flowing through these three layers contributes tiny pseudo-torques to both magnetic moments (J . S . 1989). Such a weak spin-transfer torque (STT) may counteract and overcome a comparably small torque caused by viscous dissipation (L. Berger1996; J . S . 1996). Any initial motion (e. g. excited by ambient temperature) of one moment (or both), may grow in amplitude and culminate in steady precession or a transient switch to a new direction of static equilibrium. In a memory element, the STT effect writes 0 or 1 in a magnetic-tunnel junction. Indeed, world-wide developments of memory arrays and radio-frequency oscillators utilizing current-driven STT today enjoy a nine-digit dollar commitment. But the fact that transfer of each half-unit of spin momentum h/4 π through a barrier requires the transfer of at least one unit of electric charge limits its efficiency. Arguably, STT should also arise from the flow of external heat, in either direction, between an insulating magnet, of ferrite or garnet (e. g. YIG) composition, and a metallic spacer (J . S . 2010). Whenever s-d exchange annihilates a hot magnon at the insulator/metal-spacer interface, it transfers one unit h/2 π of spin momentum to the spacer. Conduction electrons within the spacer will transport this spin momentum to the second magnet without requiring an electric current. Such a thermagnonicmethod, modestly powered by a Joule-effect heater, can substantially increase the efficiency of STT. Support for this prediction comes from (1) an estimate of the sd-exchange coefficient from data on spin relaxation in magnetically dilute (Cu,Ag,Au):Mn alloys; (2) a DFT computation (J. Xiao et al 2010); and (3) most persuasively, data from spin pumping driven across a YIG/Au interface by ferromagnetic resonance (B. Heinrich et al 2011; C. Burrowes et al

  11. Gate-Driven Pure Spin Current in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyang; Su, Li; Si, Zhizhong; Zhang, Youguang; Bournel, Arnaud; Zhang, Yue; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Fert, Albert; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-09-01

    The manipulation of spin current is a promising solution for low-power devices beyond CMOS. However, conventional methods, such as spin-transfer torque or spin-orbit torque for magnetic tunnel junctions, suffer from large power consumption due to frequent spin-charge conversions. An important challenge is, thus, to realize long-distance transport of pure spin current, together with efficient manipulation. Here, the mechanism of gate-driven pure spin current in graphene is presented. Such a mechanism relies on the electrical gating of carrier-density-dependent conductivity and spin-diffusion length in graphene. The gate-driven feature is adopted to realize the pure spin-current demultiplexing operation, which enables gate-controllable distribution of the pure spin current into graphene branches. Compared with the Elliott-Yafet spin-relaxation mechanism, the D'yakonov-Perel spin-relaxation mechanism results in more appreciable demultiplexing performance. The feature of the pure spin-current demultiplexing operation will allow a number of logic functions to be cascaded without spin-charge conversions and open a route for future ultra-low-power devices.

  12. Observerless Scheme for Sensorless Speed Control of PMSM Using Direct Torque Control Method With LP Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEKIROGLU, N.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, direct torque control (DTC of a permanent magnet synchronous motor is realized with a sensorless speed control technique without using an observer. Space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM technique is applied in order to determine the switching sequence of the voltage source inverter. Torque and flux, the main variables of the DTC, are estimated by using the mathematical model of the motor. Estimated torque and flux values are compared with their references in every control cycle. Then, according to the torque and flux demand, the voltage vector is constituted. In the proposed control scheme, speed is estimated by using flux calculations and a PI controller is used to process the torque and flux errors. Furthermore, a low-pass (LP filter is implemented within the proposed system for voltage and current harmonics suppression. The results proved that proposed scheme for the DTC provides the speed control under various torque demands without employing a sensor. The proposed system performs very well for a sensorless operation and effectively eliminates the harmonics due to the LP filter.

  13. Sensorless sliding mode torque control of an IPMSM drive based on active flux concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Hassan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a novel direct torque control of a sensorless interior permanent magnet synchronous motor based on a sliding mode technique. The speed and position of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor are estimated online based on active flux concept. To overcome the large ripple content associated with the direct torque, a torque/flux sliding mode controller has been employed. Two integral surface functions are used to construct the sliding mode controller. The command voltage is estimated from the torque and flux errors based on the two switching functions. The idea of the total sliding mode is used to eliminate the problem of reaching phase stability. The space vector modulation is combined with the sliding mode controller to ensure minimum torque and flux ripples and provides high resolution voltage control. The proposed scheme has the advantages of simple implementation, and does not require an external signal injection. In addition, it combines the merits of the direct torque control, sliding mode controller, and space vector modulation besides to the sensorless control. Simulation works are carried out to demonstrate the ability of the proposed scheme at different operating conditions. The results confirm the high performance of the proposed scheme at standstill, low and high speeds including load disturbance and parameters variation.

  14. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  15. Improvements in remote equipment torquing and fastening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, J.

    1978-01-01

    Remote torquing and fastening is a requirement of generic interest for application in an environment not readily accessible to man. The developments over the last 30 years in torque-controlled equipment above 200 nm (150 ft/lb) have not been emphasized. The development of specialized subassemblies to torque and fasten equipment in a remotely controlled environment is an integral part of the Advanced Fuel Recycle Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Commercially available subassemblies have been adapted into a system that would provide remote torquing and fastening in the range of 200 to 750 nm (150 to 550 ft/lb). 9 figures

  16. A New Low-Cost Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor for Adjustable-Speed Pump Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Watkins, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new low-cost hybrid switched reluctance (HSR) motor intended for use in adjustable-speed pump drive systems. The motor is a single-phase motor, driven by a unipolar converter, which uses both the reluctance torque and the permanent magnet interaction torque. Compared...... with conventional single-phase switched reluctance motors, it has an increased torque density. The cogging torque is beneficially used in this motor for reducing the torque ripple. It is demonstrated that such a motor drive system can be a suitable candidate to advantageously compete with the existing motor drive...... systems for low-cost applications. Finite-element models are used to analyze and predict the motor's performance. The proposed motor drive system has been fabricated, and its performance has been tested in the laboratory. These experimental results are also presented....

  17. Spin-Hall nano-oscillator: A micromagnetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, A.; Azzerboni, B.; Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Carpentieri, M. [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Laudani, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Roma Tre, via V. Volterra 62, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Gubbiotti, G. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Unità di Perugia c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-07-28

    This Letter studies the dynamical behavior of spin-Hall nanoscillators from a micromagnetic point of view. The model parameters have been identified by reproducing recent experimental data quantitatively. Our results indicate that a strongly localized mode is observed for in-plane bias fields such as in the experiments, while predict the excitation of an asymmetric propagating mode for large enough out-of plane bias field similarly to what observed in spin-torque nanocontact oscillators. Our findings show that spin-Hall nanoscillators can find application as spin-wave emitters for magnonic applications where spin waves are used for transmission and processing information on nanoscale.

  18. Current-induced magnetization switching in atom-thick tungsten engineered perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with large tunnel magnetoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxing; Cai, Wenlong; Cao, Kaihua; Zhou, Jiaqi; Wrona, Jerzy; Peng, Shouzhong; Yang, Huaiwen; Wei, Jiaqi; Kang, Wang; Zhang, Youguang; Langer, Jürgen; Ocker, Berthold; Fert, Albert; Zhao, Weisheng

    2018-02-14

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions based on MgO/CoFeB structures are of particular interest for magnetic random-access memories because of their excellent thermal stability, scaling potential, and power dissipation. However, the major challenge of current-induced switching in the nanopillars with both a large tunnel magnetoresistance ratio and a low junction resistance is still to be met. Here, we report spin transfer torque switching in nano-scale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with a magnetoresistance ratio up to 249% and a resistance area product as low as 7.0 Ω µm 2 , which consists of atom-thick W layers and double MgO/CoFeB interfaces. The efficient resonant tunnelling transmission induced by the atom-thick W layers could contribute to the larger magnetoresistance ratio than conventional structures with Ta layers, in addition to the robustness of W layers against high-temperature diffusion during annealing. The critical switching current density could be lower than 3.0 MA cm -2 for devices with a 45-nm radius.

  19. Electrical Spin Generation and Transport in Spin-Orbit Coupled Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qian

    2005-03-01

    We consider spin generation and transport in bands with built-in spin-orbit coupling. A number of fundamental issues will be discussed: (1) the existence of spin-dipole and torque-dipole of wave packets which model the carriers; (2) source terms in the continuity equation (spin generation and relaxation); (3) the composition of the spin current (Berry phase and more); (4) spin Hall conductivity and its reciprocal; (5) the spin current responsible for spin accumulation. *References: *1 D. Culcer, J. Sinova, N. A. Sinitsyn, T. Jungwirth, A. H.MacDonald, Q. Niu, `Semiclassical theory of spin transport in spin-orbit coupled systems', Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 046602 (2004). *2 P. Zhang and Q. Niu, `Charge-Hall effect driven by spin force: reciprocal of the spin-Hall effect' Cond-mat/0406436. *3 D. Culcer, Y. G. Yao, A. H. MacDonald, and Q. Niu, `Electric generation of spin in crystals with reduced symmetry', Cond-mat/0408020.

  20. Game programmer's guide to Torque under the hood of the Torque game engine

    CERN Document Server

    Maurina , Edward F

    2006-01-01

    game programmer working with the Torque game engine must have ""The Game Programmer's Guide To Torque"": it teaches everything needed to design your own game, using experiences of game makers and industry veterans well versed in Torque technology. A Torque Game engine demo is included on an accompanying cd while step-by-step examples tell how to use it. Its focus on all the basics makes for an exceptional coverage for all levels of game programmer. -Bookwatch, August 2006

  1. Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-03-27

    A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.

  2. Load Torque Compensator for Model Predictive Direct Current Control in High Power PMSM Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preindl, Matthias; Schaltz, Erik

    2010-01-01

    the use of a current controller which takes into account the discrete states of the inverter, e.g. DTC or a more modern approach: Model Predictive Direct Current Control (MPDCC). Moreover overshoots and oscillations in the speed are not desired in many applications, since they lead to mechanical stress......In drive systems the most used control structure is the cascade control with an inner torque, i.e. current and an outer speed control loop. The fairly small converter switching frequency in high power applications, e.g. wind turbines lead to modest speed control performance. An improvement bring...... behaviour. It compensates the load torque influence on the speed control setting a feed forward torque value, i.e. current reference value. The benefits are twice. The speed controller reaches immediately the speed reference value avoiding offsets which must be compensated by the weak integrator. Moreover...

  3. Electrical and mechanical magnetization torques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalev, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Only charge degree of freedom is utilized in most electronic devices. The use of the spin degree of freedom is relatively recent. The discovery of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) effect initiated the development of magnetoelectronics - the field that studies effects on electron transport involving

  4. Half-metallic superconducting triplet spin multivalves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoust, Mohammad; Halterman, Klaus

    2018-02-01

    We study spin switching effects in finite-size superconducting multivalve structures. We examine F1F2SF3 and F1F2SF3F4 hybrids where a singlet superconductor (S) layer is sandwiched among ferromagnet (F) layers with differing thicknesses and magnetization orientations. Our results reveal a considerable number of experimentally viable spin-valve configurations that lead to on-off switching of the superconducting state. For S widths on the order of the superconducting coherence length ξ0, noncollinear magnetization orientations in adjacent F layers with multiple spin axes leads to a rich variety of triplet spin-valve effects. Motivated by recent experiments, we focus on samples where the magnetizations in the F1 and F4 layers exist in a fully spin-polarized half-metallic phase, and calculate the superconducting transition temperature, spatially and energy resolved density of states, and the spin-singlet and spin-triplet superconducting correlations. Our findings demonstrate that superconductivity in these devices can be completely switched on or off over a wide range of magnetization misalignment angles due to the generation of equal-spin and opposite-spin triplet pairings.

  5. Investigation study of geometric dimensions of the magnetic system of the switched-reluctance machine influence on magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushin, A.; Shevkunova, A.

    2018-02-01

    The article deals with the investigation concentrated to optimizing the active part of the switched-reluctance motor with the aim of increasing the value of the average electromagnetic torque. Susceptibility of the average value of the electromagnetic torque to changes of the geometric dimensions of the magnetic system found in the optimization process was set.

  6. 40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturer's instructions for linearizing your torque sensor's output. We recommend that you calibrate the... combinations for each applicable torque-measuring range, spacing the weight quantities about equally over the... range, spacing the force quantities about equally over the range. Oscillate or rotate the dynamometer...

  7. Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2011-01-01

    To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce…

  8. The Venus-Earth-Jupiter spin-orbit coupling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, I. R. G.

    2013-12-01

    A Venus-Earth-Jupiter spin-orbit coupling model is constructed from a combination of the Venus-Earth-Jupiter tidal-torquing model and the gear effect. The new model produces net tangential torques that act upon the outer convective layers of the Sun with periodicities that match many of the long-term cycles that are found in the 10Be and 14C proxy records of solar activity.

  9. DESIGN EVALUATIONS OF DOUBLE ROTOR SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. ARAVIND

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The absence of magnets makes the reluctance machine typical for low cogging operations with the torque depending on the stator rotor interaction area. The air gap between stator pole and rotor pole gives a huge effect on the reluctance variation. The primitive double rotor switched reluctance machine lags to improvise the effect of the ripple value though the torque density is higher compared to conventional machines. An optimised circular hole position and dimensioned in the stator pole of lowers the torque ripple and reduce the acoustic noise as presented in this paper. A comparative evaluation of the conventional double rotor machine with this improved structure is done through numerical design and evaluations for the same sizing. It is found that the motor constant square density. It is found that the double rotor switched reluctance machine is improved by 140% to conventional machine.

  10. A parametric study of the behavior of the angular momentum vector during spin rate changes of rigid body spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuski, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    During a spin-up or spin-down maneuver of a spinning spacecraft, it is usual to have not only a constant body-fixed torque about the desired spin axis, but also small undesired constant torques about the transverse axes. This causes the orientation of the angular momentum vector to change in inertial space. Since an analytic solution is available for the angular momentum vector as a function of time, this behavior can be studied for large variations of the dynamic parameters, such as the initial spin rate, the inertial properties and the torques. As an example, the spin-up and spin-down maneuvers of the Galileo spacecraft was studied and as a result, very simple heuristic solutions were discovered which provide very good approximations to the parametric behavior of the angular momentum vector orientation.

  11. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  12. Study of the origin of magnetic couples induced by spin-orbit coupling in Co/Pt-based asymmetrical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouard, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce power consumption in next generations' electronic devices, one potential solution is to implement non-volatility in memory cells. In this goal, the magnetization switching of a ferromagnetic material has been used in a memory concept: the MRAM. The latest development of this technology, called SOT-RAM, is based on new phenomena called SOTs (Spin-Orbit Torques) in order to control magnetization direction. Contrary to precedent generations (STT-MRAM), it should achieve a higher operating speed and an endurance adapted for cache and main memories applications. SOTs is a generic term referring to all the effects, linked to the spin-orbit interaction, and that enable magnetization reversal. They are yet not perfectly understood. The main objective of this Ph.D. was then to study these SOTs through a quasi-static experimental measurement setup based on anomalous and planar Hall effects. Its implementation and the associated analysis method, as well as the required theoretical considerations for data interpretation are detailed in this manuscript. It has been highlighted that magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetization cobalt-platinum Systems cannot be explained by the simple models considered thus far in the literature. As a matter of fact it has been evidenced that at least two effects have to be considered in order to explain observed phenomena. In addition, they present different susceptibility both to a modification of the crystal structure and to a temperature change. (author) [fr

  13. Spin-Orbitronics at Transition Metal Interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2017-11-09

    The presence of large spin–orbit interaction at transition metal interfaces enables the emergence of a variety of fascinating phenomena that have been at the forefront of spintronics research in the past 10 years. The objective of the present chapter is to offer a review of these various effects from a theoretical perspective, with a particular focus on spin transport, chiral magnetism, and their interplay. After a brief description of the orbital hybridization scheme at transition metal interfaces, we address the impact of spin–orbit coupling on the interfacial magnetic configuration, through the celebrated Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction. We then discuss the physics of spin transport and subsequent torques occurring at these interfaces. We particularly address the spin Hall, spin swapping, and inverse spin-galvanic effects. Finally, the interplay between flowing charges and chiral magnetic textures and their induced dynamics are presented. We conclude this chapter by proposing some perspectives on promising research directions.

  14. An antidamping spin–orbit torque originating from the Berry curvature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kurebayashi, H.; Sinova, Jairo; Fang, D.; Irvine, A.C.; Skinner, T.D.; Wunderlich, Joerg; Novák, Vít; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Vehsthedt, E.K.; Zarbo, Liviu; Výborný, Karel; Ferguson, A. J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2014), s. 211-217 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * spin torque * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 34.048, year: 2014

  15. Design and analysis of an MR rotary brake for self-regulating braking torques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dongwon; Koo, Jeong-Hoi

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a novel Magneto-rheological (MR) brake system that can self-regulate the output braking torques. The proposed MR brake can generate a braking torque at a critical rotation speed without an external power source, sensors, or controllers, making it a simple and cost-effective device. The brake system consists of a rotary disk, permanent magnets, springs, and MR fluid. The permanent magnets are attached to the rotary disk via the springs, and they move outward through grooves with two different gap distances along the radial direction of the stator due to the centrifugal force. Thus, the position of the magnets is dependent on the spin speed, and it can determine the magnetic fields applied to MR fluids. Proper design of the stator geometry gives the system unique torque characteristics. To show the performance of an MR brake system, the electromagnetic characteristics of the system are analyzed, and the torques generated by the brake are calculated using the result of the electromagnetic analysis. Using a baseline model, a parametric study is conducted to investigate how the design parameters (geometric shapes and material selection) affect the performance of the brake system. After the simulation study, a prototype brake system is constructed and its performance is experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that the prototype produced the maximum torque of 1.2 N m at the rotational speed of 100 rpm. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed MR brake as a speed regulator in rotating systems.

  16. Spin transport properties in a double quantum ring with Rashba spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Azadeh S.; Eslami, Leila; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi; Abolhassani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    We study spin-resolved electron transport in a double quantum ring in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction and a magnetic flux using quantum waveguide theory. We show that, at the proper values of the system parameters such as the Rashba coupling constant, the radius of the rings, and the angle between the leads, the double quantum ring can act as a perfect electron spin-inverter with very high efficiency. Also, the double quantum ring can work as a spin switch. The spin polarization of transmitted electrons can be controlled and changed from -1 to +1 by using a magnetic flux.

  17. Magnonic interferometric switch for multi-valued logic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balynsky, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Alexander; Khivintsev, Yuri; Bhowmick, Tonmoy; Gutierrez, David; Chiang, Howard; Dudko, Galina; Filimonov, Yuri; Liu, Guanxiong; Jiang, Chenglong; Balandin, Alexander A.; Lake, Roger; Khitun, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a possible use of the magnonic interferometric switches in multi-valued logic circuits. The switch is a three-terminal device consisting of two spin channels where input, control, and output signals are spin waves. Signal modulation is achieved via the interference between the source and gate spin waves. We report experimental data on a micrometer scale prototype based on the Y3Fe2(FeO4)3 structure. The output characteristics are measured at different angles of the bias magnetic field. The On/Off ratio of the prototype exceeds 13 dB at room temperature. Experimental data are complemented by the theoretical analysis and the results of micro magnetic simulations showing spin wave propagation in a micrometer size magnetic junction. We also present the results of numerical modeling illustrating the operation of a nanometer-size switch consisting of just 20 spins in the source-drain channel. The utilization of spin wave interference as a switching mechanism makes it possible to build nanometer-scale logic gates, and minimize energy per operation, which is limited only by the noise margin. The utilization of phase in addition to amplitude for information encoding offers an innovative route towards multi-state logic circuits. We describe possible implementation of the three-value logic circuits based on the magnonic interferometric switches. The advantages and shortcomings inherent in interferometric switches are also discussed.

  18. Effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin structure of deposited transition-metal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankovsky, S.; Bornemann, S.; Minár, J.; Polesya, S.; Ebert, H.; Staunton, J. B.; Lichtenstein, A. I.

    2009-07-01

    The influence of the spin-orbit coupling on the magnetic structure of deposited transition-metal nanostructures has been studied by fully relativistic electronic-structure calculations. The interplay of exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy was monitored by studying the corresponding magnetic torque calculated within ab initio and model approaches. We find that a spin-orbit-induced Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction has a profound effect on the spin structure of such complex magnetic systems and that in combination with magnetic anisotropies and isotropic exchange this can result in peculiar magnetic properties.

  19. Forearm Torque and Lifting Strength: Normative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Peter; Fredrikson, Per; Nilsson, Anders; Andersson, Jonny K; Kärrholm, Johan

    2018-02-10

    To establish reference values for new methods designed to quantitatively measure forearm torque and lifting strength and to compare these values with grip strength. A total of 499 volunteers, 262 males and 237 females, aged 15 to 85 (mean, 44) years, were tested for lifting strength and forearm torque with the Kern and Baseline dynamometers. These individuals were also tested for grip strength with a Jamar dynamometer. Standardized procedures were used and information about sex, height, weight, hand dominance, and whether their work involved high or low manual strain was collected. Men had approximately 70% higher forearm torque and lifting strength compared with females. Male subjects aged 26 to 35 years and female subjects aged 36 to 45 years showed highest strength values. In patients with dominant right side, 61% to 78% had a higher or equal strength on this side in the different tests performed. In patients with dominant left side, the corresponding proportions varied between 41% and 65%. There was a high correlation between grip strength and forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, body height, body weight, and age showed a significant correlation to the strength measurements. In a multiple regression model sex, age (entered as linear and squared) could explain 51% to 63% of the total variances of forearm torque strength and 30% to 36% of lifting strength. Reference values for lifting strength and forearm torque to be used in clinical practice were acquired. Grip strength has a high correlation to forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, age, and height can be used to predict forearm torque and lifting strength. Prediction equations using these variables were generated. Normative data of forearm torque and lifting strength might improve the quality of assessment of wrist and forearm disorders as well as their treatments. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Drag and Torque on Locked Screw Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tabaczek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few data on drag and torque on locked propeller towed in water are available in literature. Those data refer to propellers of specific geometry (number of blades, blade area, pitch and skew of blades. The estimation of drag and torque of an arbitrary propeller considered in analysis of ship resistance or propulsion is laborious. The authors collected and reviewed test data available in the literature. Based on collected data there were developed the empirical formulae for estimation of hydrodynamic drag and torque acting on locked screw propeller. Supplementary CFD computations were carried out in order to prove the applicability of the formulae to modern moderately skewed screw propellers.

  1. Magnetoelectric control of spin currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, J. E.; Vargas, J. M.; Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Instituto de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CNEA) and Conicet, 8400 Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)

    2016-06-13

    The ability to control the spin current injection has been explored on a hybrid magnetoelectric system consisting of a (011)-cut ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) single crystal, a ferromagnetic FePt alloy, and a metallic Pt. With this PMNT/FePt/Pt structure we have been able to control the magnetic field position or the microwave excitation frequency at which the spin pumping phenomenon between FePt and Pt occurs. We demonstrate that the magnetoelectric heterostructure operating in the L-T (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized) mode couples the PMNT crystal to the magnetostrictive FePt/Pt bilayer, displaying a strong magnetoelectric coefficient of ∼140 Oe cm kV{sup −1}. Our results show that this mechanism can be effectively exploited as a tunable spin current intensity emitter and open the possibility to create an oscillating or a bistable switch to effectively manipulate spin currents.

  2. Magnetoelectric control of spin currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez, J. E.; Vargas, J. M.; Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to control the spin current injection has been explored on a hybrid magnetoelectric system consisting of a (011)-cut ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) single crystal, a ferromagnetic FePt alloy, and a metallic Pt. With this PMNT/FePt/Pt structure we have been able to control the magnetic field position or the microwave excitation frequency at which the spin pumping phenomenon between FePt and Pt occurs. We demonstrate that the magnetoelectric heterostructure operating in the L-T (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized) mode couples the PMNT crystal to the magnetostrictive FePt/Pt bilayer, displaying a strong magnetoelectric coefficient of ∼140 Oe cm kV −1 . Our results show that this mechanism can be effectively exploited as a tunable spin current intensity emitter and open the possibility to create an oscillating or a bistable switch to effectively manipulate spin currents.

  3. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  4. Improved computed torque control for industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebel, Mark; Minis, Ioannis; Cleary, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The authors examine the computed torque control problem for a robot arm with flexible, geared, joint drive systems which are typical in many industrial robots. The standard computed torque algorithm is not directly applicable to this class of manipulators due to the dynamics introduced by the joint drive systems. The proposed approach overcomes this problem by combining a novel computed torque algorithm with simple torque controllers at each joint of the robot. The control scheme is applied to a seven degree-of-freedom industrial manipulator, and the system performance in standard tasks is evaluated using both dynamic simulation and actual experiments. The results show that the proposed controller leads to improved tracking performance over a conventional PD (proportional plus derivative) controller.

  5. High-torque magnetorheological fluid clutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavlicoglu, Barkan M.; Gordaninejad, Faramarz; Evrensel, Cahit A.; Cobanoglu, Nigar; Liu, Yanming; Fuchs, Alan; Korol, George

    2002-06-01

    This study focuses on the design and characterization of a radial double-plate magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) clutch. The clutch's torque output can be controlled by adjusting the applied magnetic field. Electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to design and optimize the clutch. The shear stress distribution in MRF between the plates is theoretically predicted using the magnetic flux density distribution evaluated from the FEA. The output torque of the clutch is derived by using the Bingham plastic constitutive model. The output torque values are recorded for different input velocities and applied magnetic fields, and they are compared with the theoretical results. It was demonstrated that the clutch is capable of producing high controllable torques.

  6. 14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... takeoff power and propeller speed, multiplied by a factor accounting for propeller control system... compressor jamming). (2) A limit engine torque load imposed by the maximum acceleration of the engine. (c...

  7. 14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... by a factor accounting for propeller control system malfunction, including quick feathering, acting... malfunction or structural failure (such as compressor jamming). (2) A limit engine torque load imposed by the...

  8. Influence of Different Rotor Teeth Shapes on the Performance of Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machines Used for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated a 12-slot/11-pole flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM machine used for electric vehicles (EVs. Five novel rotor teeth shapes are proposed and researched to reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple of the FSPM machine. These rotor teeth shapes are notched teeth, stepped teeth, eccentric teeth, combination of notched and stepped teeth, and combination of notched and eccentric teeth. They are applied on the rotor and optimized, respectively. The influences of different rotor teeth shapes on cogging torque, torque ripple and electromagnetic torque are analyzed by the 2-D finite-element method (FEM. Then, the performance of FSPMs with different rotor teeth shapes are compared and evaluated comprehensively from the points of view of cogging torque, torque ripple, electromagnetic torque, flux linkage, back electromotive force (EMF, and so on. The results show that the presented rotor teeth shapes, especially the combination of stepped and notched teeth, can greatly reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple with only slight changes in the average electromagnetic torque.

  9. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  10. Knudsen torque on heated micro beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qi; Liang, Tengfei; Ye, Wenjing [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clearwater Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2014-12-09

    Thermally induced mechanical loading has been shown to have significant effects on micro/nano objects immersed in a gas with a non-uniform temperature field. While the majority of existing studies and related applications focus on forces, we investigate the torque, and thus the rotational motion, produced by such a mechanism. Using the asymptotic analysis in the near continuum regime, the Knudsen torque acting on an asymmetrically located uniformly heated microbeam in a cold enclosure is investigated. The existence of a non-zero net torque is demonstrated. In addition, it has been found that by manipulating the system configuration, the rotational direction of the torque can be changed. Two types of rotational motion of the microbeam have been identified: the pendulum motion of a rectangular beam, and the unidirectional rotation of a cylindrical beam. A rotational frequency of 4 rpm can be achieved for the cylindrical beam with a diameter of 3μm at Kn = 0.005. Illustrated by the simulations using the direct simulation of Monte Carlo, the Knudsen torque can be much increased in the transition regime, demonstrating the potential of Knudsen torque serving as a rotation engine for micro/nano objects.

  11. Spin Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    applications, a ferromagnetic metal may be used as a source of spin-polarized electronics to be injected into a semiconductor, a superconductor or a...physical phenomena in II-VI and III-V semiconductors. In II-VI systems, the Mn2+ ions act to boost the electron spin precession up to terahertz ...conductors, proximity effect between ferromagnets and superconductors , and the effects of spin injection on the physical properties of the

  12. Spin doctoring

    OpenAIRE

    Vozková, Markéta

    2011-01-01

    1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...

  13. Heisenberg spin glass experiments and the chiral ordering scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Ian A.; Petit, Dorothee C.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    An overview is given of experimental data on Heisenberg spin glass materials so as to make detailed comparisons with numerical results on model Heisenberg spin glasses, with particular reference to the chiral driven ordering transition scenario due to Kawamura and collaborators. On weak anisotropy systems, experiments show critical exponents which are very similar to those estimated numerically for the model Heisenberg chiral ordering transition but which are quite different from those at Ising spin glass transitions. Again on weak anisotropy Heisenberg spin glasses, experimental torque data show well defined in-field transverse ordering transitions up to strong applied fields, in contrast to Ising spin glasses where fields destroy ordering. When samples with stronger anisotropies are studied, critical and in-field behavior tend progressively towards the Ising limit. It can be concluded that the essential physics of laboratory Heisenberg spin glasses mirrors that of model Heisenberg spin glasses, where chiral ordering has been demonstrated numerically. (author)

  14. EXPERIMENTATION OF THREE PHASE OUTER ROTATING SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR WITH SOFT MAGNETIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. LENIN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Soft Magnetic Composite (SMC material in Outer Rotating Switched Reluctance Motor (ORSRM. The presented stator core of the Switched Reluctance Motor was made of two types of material, the classical laminated silicon steel sheet and the soft magnetic composite material. First, the stator core made of laminated steel has been analysed. The next step is to analyse the identical geometry SRM with the soft magnetic composite material, SOMALOY for its stator core. The comparisons of both cores include the calculated torque and torque ripple, magnetic conditions, simplicity of fabrication and cost. The finite element method has been used to analyse the magnetic conditions and the calculated torque. Finally, tested results shows that SMC is a better choice for SRM in terms of torque ripple and power density.

  15. Spin-orbit torques from interfacial spin-orbit coupling for various interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kim, K.W.; Lee, K.J.; Sinova, Jairo; Lee, H. W.; Stiles, M.D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 10 (2017), s. 1-23, č. článku 104438. ISSN 2469-9950 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 610115 - SC2 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : topological insulator * domain- walls * magnitude * transport * systems Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  16. Extraneous torque and compensation control on the electric load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zongxia; Li, Chenggong; Ren, Zhiting

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a novel motor-drive load simulator based on compensation control strategy is proposed and designed. Through analyzing the torque control system consisting of DC torque motor, PWM module and torque sensor, it is shown that performance of the motor-drive load simulator is possible to be as good as that of the electro-hydraulic load simulator in the range of small torque. In the course of loading, the rotation of the actuator would cause a strong disturbance torque through the motor back-EMF, which produces extraneous torque similar as in electro-hydraulic load simulator. This paper analyzes the cause of extraneous torque inside the torque motor in detail and presents an appropriate compensation control with which the extraneous torque can be compensated and the good performance of the torque control system can be obtained. The results of simulation indicate that the compensation is very effective and the track performance is according with the request.

  17. Spin amplification by controlled symmetry breaking for spin-based logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Roland K.

    2015-09-01

    Spin amplification is one of the most critical challenges for spintronics and spin-based logic in order to achieve spintronic circuits with fan-out. We propose a new concept for spin amplification that will allow a small spin current in a non-magnetic spin channel to control the magnetization of an attached ferromagnet. The key step is to bring the ferromagnet into an unstable symmetric state (USS), so that a small spin transfer torque from a small spin current can provide a magnetic bias to control the spontaneous symmetry breaking and select the final magnetization direction of the ferromagnet. Two proposed methods for achieving the USS configuration are voltage-controlled Curie temperature (VC-TC) and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VC-MA). We believe the development of new 2D magnetic materials with greater tunability of VC-TC and VC-MA will be needed for practical applications. A successful realization of spin amplification by controlled symmetry breaking will be important for the implementation of existing spin-logic proposals (e.g. ‘all spin logic’) and could inspire alternative ideas for spintronic circuits and devices.

  18. Spin amplification by controlled symmetry breaking for spin-based logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Roland K

    2015-01-01

    Spin amplification is one of the most critical challenges for spintronics and spin-based logic in order to achieve spintronic circuits with fan-out. We propose a new concept for spin amplification that will allow a small spin current in a non-magnetic spin channel to control the magnetization of an attached ferromagnet. The key step is to bring the ferromagnet into an unstable symmetric state (USS), so that a small spin transfer torque from a small spin current can provide a magnetic bias to control the spontaneous symmetry breaking and select the final magnetization direction of the ferromagnet. Two proposed methods for achieving the USS configuration are voltage-controlled Curie temperature (VC-T C ) and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VC-MA). We believe the development of new 2D magnetic materials with greater tunability of VC-T C and VC-MA will be needed for practical applications. A successful realization of spin amplification by controlled symmetry breaking will be important for the implementation of existing spin-logic proposals (e.g. ‘all spin logic’) and could inspire alternative ideas for spintronic circuits and devices. (paper)

  19. Angular momentum from tidal torques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Efstathiou, G.; Cambridge Univ., England)

    1987-01-01

    The origin of the angular momentum of bound objects in large N-body simulations is studied using three sets of models. One model with white-noise initial conditions is analyzed as well as two in which the initial conditions have more power on large scales, as predicted in models with cold dark matter. The growth and distribution of angular momentum in individual objects is studied and it is found that the specific angular momentum distribution of bound clumps increases in a near linear fashion with radius while the orientation of the angular momentum in the inner high-density regions is often poorly correlated with that of the outer parts. It is also found that the dimensionless spin parameter is insensitive to the initial perturbation spectrum and has a median value of about 0.05. 61 references

  20. Potentiation increases peak twitch torque by enhancing rates of torque development and relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando Gabe; Jensen, Jørgen; Noakes, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which potentiation changes in response to an isometric maximal voluntary contraction. Eleven physically active subjects participated in two separate studies. Single stimulus of electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure torque at rest in unpotentiated quadriceps muscles (study 1 and 2), and potentiated quadriceps muscles torque in a 10 min period after a 5 s isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps muscles (study 1). Additionally, potentiated quadriceps muscles torque was measured every min after a further 10 maximal voluntary contractions repeated every min (study 2). Electrical stimulation repeated several times without previous maximal voluntary contraction showed similar peak twitch torque. Peak twitch torque 4 s after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction increased by 45±13% (study 1) and by 56±10% (study 2), the rate of torque development by 53±13% and 82±29%, and the rate of relaxation by 50±17% and 59±22%, respectively, but potentiation was lost already two min after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction. There was a tendency for peak twitch torque to increase for the first five repeated maximal voluntary contractions, suggesting increased potentiation with additional maximal voluntary contractions. Correlations for peak twitch torque vs the rate of torque development and for the rate of relaxation were r(2)= 0.94 and r(2)=0.97. The correlation between peak twitch torque, the rate of torque development and the rate of relaxation suggests that potentiation is due to instantaneous changes in skeletal muscle contractility and relaxation.

  1. Research on a novel Rotor Structure Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingquan; Yu, Haiwei

    The paper proposes a novel switched reluctance motor with improved rotor structure, in which the segment core is embedded in aluminum rotor block in order to increase the mechanical strength and easy manufacturing as well as to improve the performance characteristics and reduce the vibration and acoustic noise. The effect of design parameters on the average torque is investigated using the finite element method. Comparison with conventional VR type SRM and segment type SRM without conductive metal construction rotor show the proposed novel SRM has advantages in the torque performances and the vibration and noise characteristics. The performance is also investigated by experiment.

  2. Electromagnetic deflection of spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to obtain self-consistent and physically acceptable relativistic classical equations of motion for a point-like spin-half particle possessing an electric charge and magnetic dipole moment, directly from a manifestly covariant Lagrangian, if the classical degrees of freedom are appropriately chosen. The equations obtained encompass the well-tested Lorentz force and Thomas-Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi spin equations, as well as providing a definite specification of the classical magnetic dipole force, whose exact form has been the subject of recent debate. Radiation reaction - the force and torque on an accelerated particle due to its self-interaction - is neglected at this stage. 18 refs

  3. Design of a PC based Data Acquistion System for a Switched Reluctance Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Chandramouli, G.

    1988-01-01

    The Switched Reluctance Motors(SRM) have gained considerable attention in the variable speed drive market mainly due to the simple construction of the motor and the possibility of developing low cost converters and controllers. As these machines are under development, a considerable amount of research effort is directed to the experimental performance evaluation of the SRM drives. System efficiency, electromagnetic torque, torque ripple, output and losses are some of the requir...

  4. Standard practice for calibration of torque-measuring instruments for verifying the torque indication of torque testing machines

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice is to specify procedure for the calibration of elastic torque-measuring instruments. Note 1—Verification by deadweight and a lever arm is an acceptable method of verifying the torque indication of a torque testing machine. Tolerances for weights used are tabulated in Practice WK6364; methods for calibration of the weights are given in NIST Technical Note 577, Methods of Calibrating Weights for Piston Gages. 1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.3 This practice is intended for the calibration of static or quasi-static torque measuring instruments. The practice is not applicable for high speed torque calibrations or measurements. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any,...

  5. Magnetization dynamics of single-domain nanodots and minimum energy dissipation during either irreversible or reversible switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madami, Marco; Gubbiotti, Gianluca; Tacchi, Silvia; Carlotti, Giovanni

    2017-11-01

    Single- or multi-layered planar magnetic dots, with lateral dimensions ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers, are used as elemental switches in current and forthcoming devices for information and communication technology (ICT), including magnetic memories, spin-torque oscillators and nano-magnetic logic gates. In this review article, we will first discuss energy dissipation during irreversible switching protocols of dots of different dimensions, ranging from a few tens of nanometers to the micrometric range. Then we will focus on the fundamental energy limits of adiabatic (slow) erasure and reversal of a magnetic nanodot, showing that dissipationless operation is achievable, provided that both dynamic reversibility (arbitrarily slow application of external fields) and entropic reversibility (no free entropy increase) are insured. However, recent theoretical and experimental tests of magnetic-dot erasure reveal that intrinsic defects related to materials imperfections such as roughness or polycrystallinity, may cause an excess of dissipation if compared to the minimum theoretical limit. We will conclude providing an outlook on the most promising strategies to achieve a new generation of power-saving nanomagnetic logic devices based on clusters of interacting dots and on straintronics.

  6. Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2015-03-12

    Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.

  7. Analysis of the Torque Ripples in Designing a Disk Type Brushless Direct Current Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stepanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the torque ripples of disk-type low-power brushless direct current motor (BDCM with permanent magnets. In spite of numerous studies on designing of valve engines this issue is understudied as yet. The torque ripples cause noise and vibration and can significantly limit accuracy when used in instrumentation, computer technology.We consider a motor that includes a power unit consisting of a rotor and a stator. There are ferrite elements of sensor on the rotor, and the nonmagnetic disk, bonded to it, contains permanent magnets. The rotor is mounted on a rotating shaft. The stator consists of a steel casing and bonded to it non-magnetic, non-conductive disk with holes. In the disk holes from both sides are mounted armature coils. The armature winding consists of two sections each of which has 6 coils. Each adjacent coil in section has an opposite direction of winding. The coils are arranged circumferentially and are shifted relative to each other; the displacement angle between the coils of one section is equal to 2π/6 (rad. Sections are also shifted relative to each other; the angular shift is π/6 (rad. Sections are connected to the output terminals of the electronic switch. Sections of motor windings have the reverse full-wave power.The paper has investigated the steady operation at four-stroke switching and under constant load (torque. In this case, the electromagnetic torque and rotor speed are periodical functions of the rotor rotation angle. The dependencies of the averaged torque on the rotation speed have been obtained. The spectral distribution of the torque ripples at various rotor speeds of rotation has been calculated. The dependencies of the torque on the speed were studied both at constant speed and taking into account the uneven speed. Based on the research findings of disk type BDCM was computed a level of ripples amounted to 0.8 - 5%, which is quite acceptable for use in a drive. The results are useful for

  8. Energy efficient and fast reversal of a fixed skyrmion two-terminal memory with spin current assisted by voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Mamun Al-Rashid, Md; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2017-10-01

    Recent work (P-H Jang et al 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 107 202401, J. Sampaio et al 2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 108 112403) suggests that ferromagnetic reversal with spin transfer torque (STT) requires more current in a system in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) than switching a typical ferromagnet of the same dimensions and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). However, DMI promotes the stabilization of skyrmions and we report that when perpendicular anisotropy is modulated (reduced) for both the skyrmion and ferromagnet, it takes a much smaller current to reverse the fixed skyrmion than to reverse the ferromagnet in the same amount of time, or the skyrmion reverses much faster than the ferromagnet at similar levels of current. We show with rigorous micromagnetic simulations that skyrmion switching proceeds along a different path at very low PMA, which results in a significant reduction in the spin current or time required for reversal. This can offer potential for memory applications where a relatively simple modification of the standard STT-RAM (to include a heavy metal adjacent to the soft magnetic layer and with appropriate design of the tunnel barrier) can lead to an energy efficient and fast magnetic memory device based on the reversal of fixed skyrmions.

  9. Switched reluctance motor with magnetic slot wedges for automotive traction application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadi, M.'Hamed; Krebs, Guillaume; Marchand, Claude; Hannoun, Hala; Mininger, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    The switched reluctance motor (SRM) is very attractive because of its many advantages especially in electric vehicle (EV). However, it presents two major drawbacks: torque ripples and stator vibrations. These phenomena are the cause of a disturbing noise. In order to reduce the torque ripples and the radial force (main cause of the stator vibrations), one solution is to add magnetic slot wedges. In this paper, a SRM with wedges is compared to the conventional one including some static and dynamic features. First, field lines, magnetization curves and static torques are discussed. Secondly, torque-speed curves, harmonic analyzes and cartographies with minimum ripples are compared. The last includes several operating points (speed-torque) in steady state.

  10. A method to accurately estimate the muscular torques of human wearing exoskeletons by torque sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2015-04-09

    In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user's muscular effort is important to recognize the user's motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users' muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user's limb accurately from the measured torque. The user's limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user's muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions.

  11. A Method to Accurately Estimate the Muscular Torques of Human Wearing Exoskeletons by Torque Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beomsoo Hwang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user’s muscular effort is important to recognize the user’s motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users’ muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user’s limb accurately from the measured torque. The user’s limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user’s muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions.

  12. Decoupled Speed and Torque Control of IPMSM Drives Using a Novel Load Torque Estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAKY, M.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes decoupled speed and torque control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM drives using a novel load torque estimator (LTE. The proposed LTE is applied for computing a load torque and yielding a feed-forward value in the speed controller to separate the torque control from the speed control. Indirect flux weakening using direct current component is obtained for high speed operation of the IPMSM drive, and its value for maximum torque per ampere (MTPA control in constant torque region is also used. LTE uses values of direct and quadrature currents to improve the behavior of the speed controller under the reference tracking and torque disturbances. The complete IPMSM drive by Matlab/Simulink is built. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme using an experimental setup of the complete drive system implemented on a DSP-DS1102 control board is confirmed. Extensive results over a wide speed range are verified. The efficacy of the proposed method is confirmed in comparison to a conventional PI controller under both the reference speed tracking and load torque disturbance.

  13. A Method to Accurately Estimate the Muscular Torques of Human Wearing Exoskeletons by Torque Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung

    2015-01-01

    In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user’s muscular effort is important to recognize the user’s motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users’ muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user’s limb accurately from the measured torque. The user’s limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user’s muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions. PMID:25860074

  14. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  15. Active Return-to-Center Control Based on Torque and Angle Sensors for Electric Power Steering Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pan-Pan; Su, Hao; Tang, Gong-You

    2018-03-14

    This paper presents a complete control strategy of the active return-to-center (RTC) control for electric power steering (EPS) systems. We first establish the mathematical model of the EPS system and analyze the source and influence of the self-aligning torque (SAT). Second, based on the feedback signals of steering column torque and steering wheel angle, we give the trigger conditions of a state switch between the steering assist state and the RTC state. In order to avoid the sudden change of the output torque for the driving motor when the state switches frequently between the steering assist state and the RTC state, we design an undisturbed state switching logic algorithm. This state switching logic algorithm ensures that the output value of the RTC controller is set to an initial value and increases in given steps up to a maximum value after entering the RTC state, and the output value of the RTC controller will reduce in given steps down to zero when exiting the RTC state. This therefore ensures smooth switch control between the two states and improves the driver's steering feeling. Third, we design the RTC controller, which depends upon the feedback signals of the steering wheel angle and the angular velocity. In addition, the controller increases the auxiliary control function of the RTC torque based on vehicle speed. The experimental results show that the active RTC control method does not affect the basic assist characteristics, which effectively reduces the residual angle of the steering wheel at low vehicle speed and improves the RTC performance of the vehicle.

  16. Active Return-to-Center Control Based on Torque and Angle Sensors for Electric Power Steering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Du

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete control strategy of the active return-to-center (RTC control for electric power steering (EPS systems. We first establish the mathematical model of the EPS system and analyze the source and influence of the self-aligning torque (SAT. Second, based on the feedback signals of steering column torque and steering wheel angle, we give the trigger conditions of a state switch between the steering assist state and the RTC state. In order to avoid the sudden change of the output torque for the driving motor when the state switches frequently between the steering assist state and the RTC state, we design an undisturbed state switching logic algorithm. This state switching logic algorithm ensures that the output value of the RTC controller is set to an initial value and increases in given steps up to a maximum value after entering the RTC state, and the output value of the RTC controller will reduce in given steps down to zero when exiting the RTC state. This therefore ensures smooth switch control between the two states and improves the driver’s steering feeling. Third, we design the RTC controller, which depends upon the feedback signals of the steering wheel angle and the angular velocity. In addition, the controller increases the auxiliary control function of the RTC torque based on vehicle speed. The experimental results show that the active RTC control method does not affect the basic assist characteristics, which effectively reduces the residual angle of the steering wheel at low vehicle speed and improves the RTC performance of the vehicle.

  17. Brownian motion and entropic torque driven motion of domain walls in antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengren; Chen, Zhiyuan; Qin, Minghui; Lu, Xubing; Gao, Xingsen; Liu, Junming

    2018-02-01

    We study the spin dynamics in antiferromagnetic nanowire under an applied temperature gradient using micromagnetic simulations on a classical spin model with a uniaxial anisotropy. The entropic torque driven domain-wall motion and the Brownian motion are discussed in detail, and their competition determines the antiferromagnetic wall motion towards the hotter or colder region. Furthermore, the spin dynamics in an antiferromagnet can be well tuned by the anisotropy and the temperature gradient. Thus, this paper not only strengthens the main conclusions obtained in earlier works [Kim et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 020402(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.020402; Selzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 107201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.107201], but more importantly gives the concrete conditions under which these conclusions apply, respectively. Our results may provide useful information on the antiferromagnetic spintronics for future experiments and storage device design.

  18. Torque shudder protection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R.D.; Doncker, R.W.A.A. De.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1997-03-11

    A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency. 5 figs.

  19. Electrostatic sensor modeling for torque measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Michał; Dannert, Mirjam; Mett, Felix; Weber, Harry; Mathis, Wolfgang; Nackenhorst, Udo

    2017-09-01

    Torque load measurements play an important part in various engineering applications, as for automotive industry, in which the drive torque of a motor has to be determined. A widely used measuring method are strain gauges. A thin flexible foil, which supports a metallic pattern, is glued to the surface of the object the torque is being applied to. In case of a deformation due to the torque load, the change in the electrical resistance is measured. With the combination of constitutive equations the applied torque load is determined by the change of electrical resistance. The creep of the glue and the foil material, together with the temperature and humidity dependence, may become an obstacle for some applications Kapralov and Fesenko (1984). Thus, there have been optical and magnetical, as well as capacitive sensors introduced). This paper discusses the general idea behind an electrostatic capacitive sensor based on a simple draft of an exemplary measurement setup. For better understanding an own electrostatical, geometrical and mechanical model of this setup has been developed.

  20. Electrostatic sensor modeling for torque measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Torque load measurements play an important part in various engineering applications, as for automotive industry, in which the drive torque of a motor has to be determined. A widely used measuring method are strain gauges. A thin flexible foil, which supports a metallic pattern, is glued to the surface of the object the torque is being applied to. In case of a deformation due to the torque load, the change in the electrical resistance is measured. With the combination of constitutive equations the applied torque load is determined by the change of electrical resistance. The creep of the glue and the foil material, together with the temperature and humidity dependence, may become an obstacle for some applications Kapralov and Fesenko(1984. Thus, there have been optical and magnetical, as well as capacitive sensors introduced . This paper discusses the general idea behind an electrostatic capacitive sensor based on a simple draft of an exemplary measurement setup. For better understanding an own electrostatical, geometrical and mechanical model of this setup has been developed.

  1. Magnonic charge pumping via spin-orbit coupling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ciccarelli, C.; Hals, K.M.D.; Irvine, A.; Novák, Vít; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Kurebayashi, H.; Brataas, A.; Ferguson, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), 50-54 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * spin-orbit torque * GaMnAs Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 35.267, year: 2015

  2. Light-induced spin polarizations in quantum rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joibari, F.K.; Blanter, Y.M.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Nonresonant circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation can exert torques on magnetizations by the inverse Faraday effect (IFE). Here, we discuss the enhancement of IFE by spin-orbit interactions. We illustrate the principle by studying a simple generic model system, i.e., the

  3. Fossil evidence for spin alignment of SDSS galaxies in filaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Bernard J.T.; Weygaert, Rien van de; Arag´on-Calvo, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    We search for and find fossil evidence that the distribution of the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This would indicate that the action of large scale tidal torques effected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic

  4. Disentanglement of bulk and interfacial spin Hall effect in ferromagnet/normal metal interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Tang, M.; Fan, X. L.; Qiu, X. P.; Zhou, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    Spin Hall effect in PdPt alloys in contact with ferromagnetic Ni80Fe20 alloys has been studied by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance technique. The spin torque spin Hall angle (ST-SHA) proves to be contributed by the interfacial and bulk SHAs. The bulk SHA is dominated by the skew scattering and reaches a maximal value for the largest randomization of Pt and Pd atoms at the intermediate alloy composition. In particular, the interfacial SHA becomes prominent for Pt-rich alloys. This phenomenon indicates the enhanced Rashba spin-orbit coupling at the interface, as Pt has a stronger spin-orbit coupling and larger z -potential gradient compared to Pd. The present work highlights the interfacial SHA and provides a pathway to improve the functionality and performance of the next generation spintronic devices.

  5. Helicopter Anti-Torque System Using Strakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, H. L.; Wilson, J. C.; Phelps, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A helicopter is disclosed with a system for controlling main-rotor torque which reduces the power and size requirements of conventional anti-torque means. The torque countering forces are generated by disrupting the main rotor downwash flowing around the fuselage. The downwash flow is separated from the fuselage surface by a strake positioned at a specified location on the fuselage. This location is determined by the particular helicopter wash pattern and fuselage configuration, generally being located between 20 deg before top dead center (TDC) and 80 deg from TDC on the fuselage side to which the main rotor blade approaches during rotation. The strake extends along the fuselage from the cabin section to the aft end and can be continuous or separated for aerodynamic surfaces such as a horizontal stabilizer.

  6. RFID Torque Sensing Tag System for Fasteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an RFID-based torque sensor that can be used to quickly monitor off the shelf fasteners including fasteners that are used in expensive satellites or other uses where fastener failure can be very costly. In one embodiment, an antenna, RFID ring and spring comprise a sensor tag that can be interrogated with an interrogation signal produced by an interrogator device. When sufficient torque is applied to the fastener, an RFID circuit is connected, and produces a radio frequency (RF) signal that can be read by the interrogator. In one embodiment, the RFID circuit does not transmit when the spring member is not compressed, thereby indicating insufficient tensioning of the fastener. The present invention offers the ability to remotely, quickly, and inexpensively verify that any number of fasteners are torqued properly upon initial installation. Where applicable, the present invention allows low cost monitoring over the life of the fastener.

  7. Self-Induced Torque in Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Pavel; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Poddubny, Alexander N.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2013-07-01

    Optical forces constitute a fundamental phenomenon important in various fields of science, from astronomy to biology. Generally, intense external radiation sources are required to achieve measurable effects suitable for applications. Here we demonstrate that quantum emitters placed in a homogeneous anisotropic medium induce self-torques, aligning themselves in the well-defined direction determined by an anisotropy, in order to maximize their radiation efficiency. We develop a universal quantum-mechanical theory of self-induced torques acting on an emitter placed in a material environment. The theoretical framework is based on the radiation reaction approach utilizing the rigorous Langevin local quantization of electromagnetic excitations. We show more than 2 orders of magnitude enhancement of the self-torque by an anisotropic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion, having negative ratio of permittivity tensor components, in comparison with conventional anisotropic crystals with the highest naturally available anisotropy.

  8. AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.

  9. Switched on!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...

  10. Development of a magnetostrictive Torque sensor. Jiwaishiki torque sensor no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanizaki, K.; Aoki, H.; Maruyama, J.; Shimada, M. (Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-06-25

    In the present report, new torque sensor, utilizing the magnetostrictive effect, was explained in structure of sensor, material problem of the shaft, playing a functionally important role therein, and examples, verifying the characteristics. The magnetic substance is constituted as a set substance of small regions, called magnetic sections, directionally constant in spontaneous magnetization. If stress acts on the magnetic substance, there occur dislocation of magnetic wall, which is border between those sections, and rotation of magnetization, which occurrence causes change in magnetization of all the magnetic substance, ie., magnetostrictive effect. The torque sensor constitutes plural concave/convex forms, directionally oblique to the main torsional stress, on the shaft surface, composed as magnetic substance, and which surface is installed confrontedly with a pair of coils. Result of using a torque sensor for the engine torque measurement could grasp, in each cylinder, both torque generation by combustion and torque decrease by flameout, good in respondency. Example for the transmission to be internally equipped with a sensor could also grasp a large and very quick change in torque with a high respondency. 8 refs., 14 figs.

  11. Observation of the spin Peltier effect for magnetic insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flipse, J; Dejene, F K; Wagenaar, D; Bauer, G E W; Ben Youssef, J; van Wees, B J

    2014-07-11

    We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin current in the Pt into a magnon current in the YIG. Via magnon-phonon interactions the magnetic fluctuations modulate the phonon temperature that is detected by a thermopile close to the interface. By finite-element modeling we verify the reciprocity between the spin Peltier and spin Seebeck effect. The observed strong coupling between thermal magnons and phonons in YIG is attractive for nanoscale cooling techniques.

  12. Designing magnetic droplet soliton nucleation employing spin polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Morteza; Mohseni, Majid

    2018-04-01

    We show by means of micromagnetic simulations that spin polarizer in nano-contact (NC) spin torque oscillators as the representative of the fixed layer in an orthogonal pseudo-spin valve can be employed to design and to control magnetic droplet soliton nucleation and dynamics. We found that using a tilted spin polarizer layer decreases the droplet nucleation time which is more suitable for high speed applications. However, a tilted spin polarizer increases the nucleation current and decreases the frequency stability of the droplet. Additionally, by driving the magnetization inhomogenously at the NC region, it is found that a tilted spin polarizer reduces the precession angle of the droplet and through an interplay with the Oersted field of the DC current, it breaks the spatial symmetry of the droplet profile. Our findings explore fundamental insight into nano-scale magnetic droplet soliton dynamics with potential tunability parameters for future microwave electronics.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.

  14. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  15. Spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.H.; Hertz, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Spin glasses, simply defined by the authors as a collection of spins (i.e., magnetic moments) whose low-temperature state is a frozen disordered one, represent one of the fascinating new fields of study in condensed matter physics, and this book is the first to offer a comprehensive account of the subject. Included are discussions of the most important developments in theory, experimental work, and computer modeling of spin glasses, all of which have taken place essentially within the last two decades. The first part of the book gives a general introduction to the basic concepts and a discussion of mean field theory, while the second half concentrates on experimental results, scaling theory, and computer simulation of the structure of spin glasses

  16. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ali; Kerem, Alper

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

  17. Digital signal processing control of induction machine`s torque and stator flux utilizing the direct stator flux field orientation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiz, Julie Burger [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents a review of the Direct Stator Flux Field Orientation control method. This method can be used to control an induction motor`s torque and flux directly and is the application of interest for this thesis. This control method is implemented without the traditional feedback loops and associated hardware. Predictions are made, by mathematical calculations, of the stator voltage vector. The voltage vector is determined twice a switching period. The switching period is fixed throughout the analysis. The three phase inverter duty cycle necessary to control the torque and flux of the induction machine is determined by the voltage space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. Transient performance of either the flux or torque requires an alternate modulation scheme which is also addressed in this thesis. A block diagram of this closed loop system is provided. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. The role of interaction torque and muscle torque in the control of downward squatting

    OpenAIRE

    Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Murakami, Kenichi; Kawakami, Shingo; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purposes of this study were first to analyze the multijoint dynamics of downward squatting, and to examine the contribution of interaction torque and muscle torque to net torque, and second, to examine mechanisms of movement control. [Subjects] The subjects were 31 healthy men with a mean age of 21.0 ? 1.2?years (range, 19?24?years). [Methods] Squatting tasks with the trunk in two positions, an erect and anterior tilt position, were performed by the subjects. Net, interaction, m...

  19. New Simple Torque-Sensorless Torque Control for Quasi-Perfect Compensation of 6th Harmonic Torque Ripple Due to Nonsinusoidal Distribution of Back EMF of PMSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaka, Shinji; Kishida, Hideo

    This paper proposes a new torque-sensorless torque control method for permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The proposed method can almost perfectly compensate the 6th harmonic torque ripple that is caused by the nonsinusoidal distributions of the back EMF and rotor magnetic flux of PMSMs. The torque control system is, in principle, constructed on the basis of the vector control, but has two new dedicated speed-varying devices—a harmonic torque observer and current controller. The speed-varying harmonic torque observer can estimate the harmonic component over a wide speed range, even in the case where the produced torque is constant, and generate a suitable compensating signal. The speed-varying current controller shows stable control performance over a wide speed range, it can fully track the compensated current command containing the dc and 6th harmonic components. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined and verified through extensive numerical experiments.

  20. Torque limit of PM motors for field-weakening region operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH

    2012-02-14

    The invention includes a motor controller and technique for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by receiving a torque command, determining a physical torque limit based on a stator frequency, determining a theoretical torque limit based on a maximum available voltage and motor inductance ratio, and limiting the torque command to the smaller of the physical torque limit and the theoretical torque limit. Receiving the torque command may include normalizing the torque command to obtain a normalized torque command, determining the physical torque limit may include determining a normalized physical torque limit, determining a theoretical torque limit may include determining a normalized theoretical torque limit, and limiting the torque command may include limiting the normalized torque command to the smaller of the normalized physical torque limit and the normalized theoretical torque limit.

  1. Muscle response to pneumatic hand tool torque reaction forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwin, R G; VanBergeijk, E; Armstrong, T J

    1989-06-01

    Surface electromyography was used for studying the effects of torque reaction force acting against the hand, on forearm muscle activity and grip force for five subjects operating right angle, air shut-off nutrunners. Four tools having increasing spindle torque were operated using short and long torque reaction times. Nutrunner spindle torque ranged between 30 Nm and 100 Nm. Short torque reaction time was considered 0.5 s while long torque reaction time was 2 s. Peak horizontal force was the greatest component of the reaction force acting against the hand and accounted for more than 97% of the peak resultant hand force. Peak hand force increased from 89 N for the smallest tool to 202 N for the largest tool. Forearm muscle rms EMG, scaled for grip force, indicated average flexor activity during the Torque-reaction phase was more than four times greater than the Pre-start and Post Shut-off phases, and two times greater than the Run-down phase. Flexor EMG activity during the Torque-reaction phase increased for increasing tool peak spindle torque. Average flexor rms EMG activity, scaled for grip force, during the Torque-reaction phase increased from 372 N for the 30 Nm nutrunner to 449 N for the 100 Nm nutrunner. Flexor rms EMG activity averaged during the Torque-reaction phase and scaled for grip force was 390 N for long torque reaction times and increased to 440 N for short torque reaction times. Flexor rms EMG integrated over the torque reaction phase was 839 Ns for long torque reaction times and decreased to 312 Ns for short torque reaction times. The average latency between tool spindle torque onset and peak initial flexor rms EMG for long torque reaction times was 294 ms which decreased to 161 ms for short torque reaction times. The average latency between peak tool spindle torque, just prior to tool shut-off, and peak final rms EMG for long torque reaction times was 97 ms for flexors and 188 ms for extensors, which decreased for short torque reaction times to 47

  2. Study on Power Switching Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM achieve a variety of driving modes by two power sources—the engine and the IWM. One of the critical problems that exists in such vehicle is the different transient characteristics between the engine and the IWM. Therefore, switching processes between the power sources have noteworthy impacts on vehicle dynamics and driving performance. For the particular switching process of the pure electric mode to the engine driving mode, a specific control strategy coordinating clutch torque, motor torque, and engine torque was proposed to solve drivability issues caused by inconsistent responses of different power sources during the mode transition. The specific switching process could be described as follows: the engine was started by IWM with the clutch serving as a key enabling actuator, dynamic torque compensation through IWM was implemented after engine started, and, meanwhile, engine speed was controlled to track the target speed through the closed loop PID control strategy. The bench tests results showed that the vehicle jerk caused during mode switching was reduced and fast and smooth mode switching was realized, which leads to the improvement of vehicle’s riding comfort.

  3. Spin-filtering junctions with double ferroelectric barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ju; Ding-Yu, Xing

    2009-01-01

    An FS/FE/NS/FE/FS double tunnel junction is suggested to have the ability to inject, modulate and detect the spin-polarized current electrically in a single device, where FS is the ferromagnetic semiconductor electrode, NS is the nonmagnetic semiconductor, and FE the ferroelectric barrier. The spin polarization of the current injected into the NS region can be switched between a highly spin-polarized state and a spin unpolarized state. The high spin polarization may be detected by measuring the tunneling magnetoresistance ratio of the double tunnel junction

  4. Deterministic switching of a magnetoelastic single-domain nano-ellipse using bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Cheng-Yen; Sepulveda, Abdon; Keller, Scott; Carman, Gregory P. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    In this paper, a fully coupled analytical model between elastodynamics with micromagnetics is used to study the switching energies using voltage induced mechanical bending of a magnetoelastic bit. The bit consists of a single domain magnetoelastic nano-ellipse deposited on a thin film piezoelectric thin film (500 nm) attached to a thick substrate (0.5 mm) with patterned electrodes underneath the nano-dot. A voltage applied to the electrodes produces out of plane deformation with bending moments induced in the magnetoelastic bit modifying the magnetic anisotropy. To minimize the energy, two design stages are used. In the first stage, the geometry and bias field (H{sub b}) of the bit are optimized to minimize the strain energy required to rotate between two stable states. In the second stage, the bit's geometry is fixed, and the electrode position and control mechanism is optimized. The electrical energy input is about 200 (aJ) which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than spin transfer torque approaches.

  5. Application of spin-exchange relaxation-free magnetometry to the Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Aybas, Deniz; Blanchard, John W.; Centers, Gary; Kelley, Sean R. O.'; Wickenbrock, Arne; Fang, Jiancheng; Budker, Dmitry

    2018-03-01

    The Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment (CASPEr) seeks to measure oscillating torques on nuclear spins caused by axion or axion-like-particle (ALP) dark matter via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. A sample spin-polarized along a leading magnetic field experiences a resonance when the Larmor frequency matches the axion/ALP Compton frequency, generating precessing transverse nuclear magnetization. Here we demonstrate a Spin-Exchange Relaxation-Free (SERF) magnetometer with sensitivity ≈ 1 fT /√{ Hz } and an effective sensing volume of 0.1 cm3 that may be useful for NMR detection in CASPEr. A potential drawback of SERF-magnetometer-based NMR detection is the SERF's limited dynamic range. Use of a magnetic flux transformer to suppress the leading magnetic field is considered as a potential method to expand the SERF's dynamic range in order to probe higher axion/ALP Compton frequencies.

  6. Development and analysis of U-core switched reluctance machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Rasmus; Nielsen, Simon Staal; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    Switched reluctance machines (SRMs) have seen a lot of interest due to their rugged and fault tolerant construction as well as their high efficiency over a wide speed range. The technology however suffers from torque ripple, acoustic noise and low torque density. Many concepts to address these di......Switched reluctance machines (SRMs) have seen a lot of interest due to their rugged and fault tolerant construction as well as their high efficiency over a wide speed range. The technology however suffers from torque ripple, acoustic noise and low torque density. Many concepts to address...... these disadvantages have been presented, but not all of them have been demonstrated practically. This paper presents a practical demonstration and assessment of a segmented U-core SRM, which copes with some of the disadvantages of the regular SRM. The U-core SRM has a segmented stator, with a short flux path......, which addresses the shortcomings of the U-core technology, as well as general considerations for SRMs. This allows for further development and improvement of the technology, and also contributes to improve the development and modelling of conventional SRMs....

  7. Modeling of Static Characteristics of Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the running characteristics of a switched reluctance motor, the static characteristics and related input data tables are required. The static characteristics comprise of flux linkage, co-energy and static torque characteristics. The co-energy and static torque are calculated once data of magnetization characteristics is available. The data of co-energy is required for the calculation of static torque characteristics. The simulation model includes the data of static characteristics for prediction of the instantaneous and steady state performance of the motor. In this research a computer based procedure of experiments is carried out for measurement of the magnetization characteristics. For every set of measurements, the removal of eddy current is carefully addressed. The experiments are carried out on an existing 8/6 pole rotary switched reluctance motor. Additionally, the instantaneous phase current, instantaneous torque and flux waveforms are produced by using linear, which is by default and spline data interpolation separately. The information obtained from theses simulation results will help in an improved simulation model for predicting the performance of the machine.

  8. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.

  9. Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Motta Streva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. RESULTS: The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º. For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º. Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment.

  10. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David; Lega, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r s ), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  11. Stabilization of Rigid Body Dynamics by Internal and External Torques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bloch, A. M; Krishnaprasad, P. S; Marsden, J. E; Sanchez de Alvarez, G

    1990-01-01

    ...] with quadratic feedback torques for internal rotors. We show that with such torques, the equations for the rigid body with momentum wheels are Hamiltonian with respect to a Lie-Poisson bracket structure. Further...

  12. Comparison of Stretch Reflex Torques in Ankle Dorsiflexors and Plantarflexors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tung, J

    2001-01-01

    ...) ankle muscles, Pulse, step, and a combination of random perturbation and step inputs were used to identify the reflex and intrinsic contributions to the measured torque, TA reflex torques were very...

  13. TIDAL FRICTION AND TIDAL LAGGING. APPLICABILITY LIMITATIONS OF A POPULAR FORMULA FOR THE TIDAL TORQUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroimsky, Michael; Makarov, Valeri V.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal torques play a key role in rotational dynamics of celestial bodies. They govern these bodies' tidal despinning and also participate in the subtle process of entrapment of these bodies into spin-orbit resonances. This makes tidal torques directly relevant to the studies of habitability of planets and their moons. Our work begins with an explanation of how friction and lagging should be built into the theory of bodily tides. Although much of this material can be found in various publications, a short but self-consistent summary on the topic has been lacking in the hitherto literature, and we are filling the gap. After these preparations, we address a popular concise formula for the tidal torque, which is often used in the literature, for planets or stars. We explain why the derivation of this expression, offered in the paper by Goldreich and in the books by Kaula (Equation (4.5.29)) and Murray and Dermott (Equation (4.159)), implicitly sets the time lag to be frequency independent. Accordingly, the ensuing expression for the torque can be applied only to bodies having a very special (and very hypothetical) rheology which makes the time lag frequency independent, i.e., the same for all Fourier modes in the spectrum of tide. This expression for the torque should not be used for bodies of other rheologies. Specifically, the expression cannot be combined with an extra assertion of the geometric lag being constant, because at finite eccentricities the said assumption is incompatible with the constant-time-lag condition.

  14. TIDAL FRICTION AND TIDAL LAGGING. APPLICABILITY LIMITATIONS OF A POPULAR FORMULA FOR THE TIDAL TORQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroimsky, Michael; Makarov, Valeri V., E-mail: michael.efroimsky@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: vvm@usno.navy.mil [US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    Tidal torques play a key role in rotational dynamics of celestial bodies. They govern these bodies' tidal despinning and also participate in the subtle process of entrapment of these bodies into spin-orbit resonances. This makes tidal torques directly relevant to the studies of habitability of planets and their moons. Our work begins with an explanation of how friction and lagging should be built into the theory of bodily tides. Although much of this material can be found in various publications, a short but self-consistent summary on the topic has been lacking in the hitherto literature, and we are filling the gap. After these preparations, we address a popular concise formula for the tidal torque, which is often used in the literature, for planets or stars. We explain why the derivation of this expression, offered in the paper by Goldreich and in the books by Kaula (Equation (4.5.29)) and Murray and Dermott (Equation (4.159)), implicitly sets the time lag to be frequency independent. Accordingly, the ensuing expression for the torque can be applied only to bodies having a very special (and very hypothetical) rheology which makes the time lag frequency independent, i.e., the same for all Fourier modes in the spectrum of tide. This expression for the torque should not be used for bodies of other rheologies. Specifically, the expression cannot be combined with an extra assertion of the geometric lag being constant, because at finite eccentricities the said assumption is incompatible with the constant-time-lag condition.

  15. Increasing Elbow Torque Output of Stroke Patients by EMG-Controlled External Torque

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, C

    2001-01-01

    .... The control signal to the manipulator is the difference between the weighted biceps and triceps EMG, so that the system moves with the forearm and provides assisting torque proportional to the voluntary effort...

  16. Mathematical and Simulation Model Development of Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Aleksandrovsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The switched reluctance motor (SRM represents a great interest while being applied in various fields as an alternative to asynchronous motors with a short-circuit rotor. A SRM disadvantage is a nonlinearity of its characteristics. Due to this reason it is desirable to execute investigations using a developed simulation model. The simulation results (electromagnetic torque and current are in good agreement with those values studied in the literature.

  17. Improved direct torque control of induction motor with dither injection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dither signal is injected of minute amplitude (5% of rated torque and 5% of reference flux as hysteresis band in torque control and flux control loops respectively) in the error block. The optimal value of dither frequency and magnitude is found out under free running condition. This technique gives minimum torque ripple, low ...

  18. Calculation of Cogging Torque in Hybrid Stepping Motors | Agber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the windings of a hybrid stepping motor are unexcited the permanent magnet's flux produces cogging torque. This torque has both desirable and undesirable features depending on the application that the motor is put into. This paper formulates an analytical method for predicting cogging torque using measured ...

  19. Improved direct torque control of induction motor with dither injection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, a three-level inverter-fed induction motor drive operating under Direct Torque Control (DTC) is presented. A triangular wave is used as dither signal of minute amplitude (for torque hysteresis band and flux hysteresis band respectively) in the error block. This method minimizes flux and torque ripple in ...

  20. [Influence of slot size on torque control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Liu, Zhong-Hao; Zhang, Ding; Wu, Chuan-Jun

    2009-12-01

    To study the influence of two slot size brackets on torque control when teeth interacted in the same arch. After the upper arch was aligned and leveled in Typodont study, the inclinations of upper teeth 5 +/- 5 were measured when 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm OPA-K brackets and 0.558 8 mmx0.711 2 mm OPA-K brackets were filled with 0.431 8 mm x 0.635 0 mm stainless steel wire. This experiment was duplicated 10 times. The inclin of each tooth were transformed to the absolute values of the torque play angle psi by computing program, and paired-t test was used. The two kinds of slot size brackets were different with statistical significance on torque control. When the brackets were filled with 0.431 8 mm x 0.635 0 mm stainless steel wire, the absolute values of the angle psi in 0.558 8 mm x 0.711 2 mm and 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm slot size brackets were 6.140 degrees +/- 3.758 degrees and 2.608 degrees +/- 1.479 degrees respectively, and the average difference of that between the two slot size brackets was 3.532 degrees. The absolute values of the angle psi in the upper left and right canine brackets were 2.560 degrees +/- 2.605 degrees, 4.230 degrees +/- 2.817 degrees, 1.260 degrees +/- 0.747 degrees and 2.070 degrees +/- 0.663 degrees respectively, and average differences between them were smaller than that in the other teeth. There was difference between the two kinds of slot size brackets on torque control, and 0.457 2 mm x 0.635 0 mm slot size bracket controls torque better when filled with the same size wire. In this study, the teeth interaction in the same arch probably caused the result that the difference of two slot size brackets on torque control was less than the study results of the theory calculations and material studys before.