Spin Torque Oscillator for High Performance Magnetic Memory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rachid Sbiaa
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A study on spin transfer torque switching in a magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is presented. The switching current can be strongly reduced under a spin torque oscillator (STO, and its use in addition to the conventional transport in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ should be considered. The reduction of the switching current from the parallel state to the antiparallel state is greater than in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the asymmetry of the resistance versus current in the hysteresis loop. This reduction of both switching current and asymmetry under a spin torque oscillator occurs only during the writing process and does not affect the thermal stability of the free layer.
Oscillation characteristics of zero-field spin transfer oscillators with field-like torque
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Xue, Hai-Bin, E-mail: xuehaibin@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Transducer and Intelligent Control system, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Zhe-Jie, E-mail: pandanlzj@hotmail.com [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2015-05-15
We theoretically investigate the influence of the field-like spin torque term on the oscillation characteristics of spin transfer oscillators, which are based on MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) consisting of a perpendicular magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer. It is demonstrated that the field-like torque has a strong impact on the steady-state precession current region and the oscillation frequency. In particular, the steady-state precession can occur at zero applied magnetic field when the ratio between the field-like torque and the spin transfer torque takes up a negative value. In addition, the dependence of the oscillation properties on the junction sizes has also been analyzed. The results indicate that this compact structure of spin transfer oscillator without the applied magnetic field is practicable under certain conditions, and it may be a promising configuration for the new generation of on-chip oscillators.
Oscillation characteristics of zero-field spin transfer oscillators with field-like torque
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuan-Yuan Guo
2015-05-01
Full Text Available We theoretically investigate the influence of the field-like spin torque term on the oscillation characteristics of spin transfer oscillators, which are based on MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs consisting of a perpendicular magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer. It is demonstrated that the field-like torque has a strong impact on the steady-state precession current region and the oscillation frequency. In particular, the steady-state precession can occur at zero applied magnetic field when the ratio between the field-like torque and the spin transfer torque takes up a negative value. In addition, the dependence of the oscillation properties on the junction sizes has also been analyzed. The results indicate that this compact structure of spin transfer oscillator without the applied magnetic field is practicable under certain conditions, and it may be a promising configuration for the new generation of on-chip oscillators.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyein Lim
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.
High frequency spin torque oscillators with composite free layer spin valve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Natarajan, Kanimozhi; Arumugam, Brinda; Rajamani, Amuda
2016-01-01
We report the oscillations of magnetic spin components in a composite free layer spin valve. The associated Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert–Slonczewski (LLGS) equation is studied by stereographically projecting the spin on to a complex plane and the spin components were found. A fourth order Runge–Kutta numerical integration on LLGS equation also confirms the similar trajectories of the spin components. This study establishes the possibility of a Spin Torque Oscillator in a composite free layer spin valve, where the exchange coupling is ferromagnetic in nature. In-plane and out-of-plane precessional modes of magnetization oscillations were found in zero applied magnetic field and the frequencies of the oscillations were calculated from Fast Fourier Transform of the components of magnetization. Behavior of Power Spectral Density for a range of current density is studied. Finally our analysis shows the occurrence of highest frequency 150 GHz, which is in the second harmonics for the specific choice of system parameters.
Spin force and torque in non-relativistic Dirac oscillator on a sphere
Shikakhwa, M. S.
2018-03-01
The spin force operator on a non-relativistic Dirac oscillator (in the non-relativistic limit the Dirac oscillator is a spin one-half 3D harmonic oscillator with strong spin-orbit interaction) is derived using the Heisenberg equations of motion and is seen to be formally similar to the force by the electromagnetic field on a moving charged particle. When confined to a sphere of radius R, it is shown that the Hamiltonian of this non-relativistic oscillator can be expressed as a mere kinetic energy operator with an anomalous part. As a result, the power by the spin force and torque operators in this case are seen to vanish. The spin force operator on the sphere is calculated explicitly and its torque is shown to be equal to the rate of change of the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator, again with an anomalous part. This, along with the conservation of the total angular momentum, suggests that the spin force exerts a spin-dependent torque on the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator in order to conserve total angular momentum. The presence of an anomalous spin part in the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator gives rise to an oscillatory behavior similar to the Zitterbewegung. It is suggested that the underlying physics that gives rise to the spin force and the Zitterbewegung is one and the same in NRDO and in systems that manifest spin Hall effect.
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Huang, Houbing, E-mail: hbhuang@ustb.edu.cn; Zhao, Congpeng; Ma, Xingqiao, E-mail: xqma@sas.ustb.edu.cn
2017-03-15
We investigated stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin transfer torque oscillator by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase field microelasticity theory, by encapsulating the magnetic tunnel junction into multilayers structures. We proposed a novel method of using an external stress to control the magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator instead of an external magnetic field. The stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by externally applied uniaxial in-plane stress, with a tunable range 4.4–7.0 GHz under the stress of 10 MPa. By comparison, the out-of-plane stress imposes negligible influence on the precession frequency due to the large out-of-plane demagnetization field. The results offer new inspiration to the design of spin torque oscillator devices that simultaneously process high frequency, narrow output band, and tunable over a wide range of frequencies via external stress. - Highlights: • We proposed stress-modulated magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator. • The magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by in-plane stress. • The stress also can widen the magnetization frequency range 4.4–7.0 GHz. • The stress-modulated oscillation frequency can simplify STO devices.
Phase locking of vortex-based spin-torque nanocontact oscillators by antivortices
Zaspel, C. E.
2013-02-01
Magnetic vortices formed at a nanocontact undergo gyrotropic oscillations when driven by a spin-torque providing potential applications as microwave nano-oscillators; however, to increase the power output it is necessary to use an array of synchronized oscillators. Here a theory is developed for two nanocontact oscillators that are interacting through an intermediate antivortex. The confining potential for the two vortices formed at each nanocontact as well as the antivortex is the Oersted-Ampere field about each nanocontact. Solution of the Thiele equation for this system indicates that the nanocontact vortex oscillators will be phase locked over a wide range of nanocontact currents.
Decoherence and mode hopping in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator.
Muduli, P K; Heinonen, O G; Akerman, Johan
2012-05-18
We discuss the coherence of magnetic oscillations in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator as a function of the external field angle. Time-frequency analysis shows mode hopping between distinct oscillator modes, which arises from linear and nonlinear couplings in the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, analogous to mode hopping observed in semiconductor ring lasers. These couplings and, therefore, mode hopping are minimized near the current threshold for the antiparallel alignment of free-layer with reference layer magnetization. Away from the antiparallel alignment, mode hopping limits oscillator coherence.
Spin-torque oscillation in large size nano-magnet with perpendicular magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Linqiang, E-mail: LL6UK@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Kabir, Mehdi [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Dao, Nam; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Cyberey, Michael [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Institute of Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Stan, Mircea [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • 500 nm size nano-pillar device was fabricated by photolithography techniques. • A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved with perpendicular magnetic fields. • Spin torque switching and oscillation was demonstrated in the large sized device. • Micromagnetic simulations accurately reproduced the experimental results. • Simulations demonstrated the synchronization of magnetic inhomogeneities. - Abstract: DC current induced magnetization reversal and magnetization oscillation was observed in 500 nm large size Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Cu/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} pillars. A perpendicular external field enhanced the coercive field separation between the reference layer (Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}) and free layer (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) in the pseudo spin valve, allowing a large window of external magnetic field for exploring the free-layer reversal. A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved for the study of spin torque oscillation by applying a perpendicular field >3 kOe. The magnetization precession was manifested in terms of the multiple peaks on the differential resistance curves. Depending on the bias current and applied field, the regions of magnetic switching and magnetization precession on a dynamical stability diagram has been discussed in details. Micromagnetic simulations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results and provide insight for synchronization of inhomogeneities in large sized device. The ability to manipulate spin-dynamics on large size devices could be proved useful for increasing the output power of the spin-transfer nano-oscillators (STNOs).
Theory of mode coupling in spin torque oscillators coupled to a thermal bath of magnons
Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Shulei; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle
Recently, numerous experimental investigations have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator (STO) exhibits complex behavior stemming from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator. Examples are the observed mode-hopping and mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In this work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in the presence of the current-driven spin transfer torques. We will first show, in general, that how a linear mode coupling would arise through the coupling of the system to a thermal bath of magnons, which implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. We then apply our theory to two experimentally interesting systems: 1) a STO patterned into nano-pillar with circular or elliptical cross-sections and 2) a nano-contact STO. For both cases, we found that in order to get mode coupling, it would be necessary to have either a finite in-plane component of the external field or an Oersted field. We will also discuss the temperature dependence of the linear mode coupling. Y. Zhou acknowledges the support by the Seed Funding Program for Basic Research from the University of Hong Kong, and University Grants Committee of Hong Kong (Contract No. AoE/P-04/08).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puliafito, V.; Consolo, G.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Azzerboni, B.
2014-01-01
This work tackles theoretical investigations on the synchronization of spin-wave modes generated by spin-transfer-torque in a double nano-contact geometry. The interaction mechanisms between the resulting oscillators are analyzed in the case of propagating modes which are excited via a normal-to-plane magnetic bias field. To characterize the underlying physical mechanisms, a multi-domain analysis is performed. It makes use of an equivalent electrical circuit, to deduce the output electrical power, and of micromagnetic simulations, through which information on the frequency spectra and on the spatial distribution of the wavefront of the emitted spin-waves is extracted. This study provides further and intriguing insights into the physical mechanisms giving rise to synchronization of spin-torque oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Accioly, Artur [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Locatelli, Nicolas; Querlioz, Damien; Kim, Joo-Von [Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Mizrahi, Alice [Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France); Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F91767 Palaiseau (France); Pereira, Luis G. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Grollier, Julie [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, F91767 Palaiseau (France)
2016-09-07
A theoretical study on how synchronization and resonance-like phenomena in superparamagnetic tunnel junctions can be driven by spin-transfer torques is presented. We examine the magnetization of a superparamagnetic free layer that reverses randomly between two well-defined orientations due to thermal fluctuations, acting as a stochastic oscillator. When subject to an external ac forcing, this system can present stochastic resonance and noise-enhanced synchronization. We focus on the roles of the mutually perpendicular damping-like and field-like torques, showing that the response of the system is very different at low and high frequencies. We also demonstrate that the field-like torque can increase the efficiency of the current-driven forcing, especially at sub-threshold electric currents. These results can be useful for possible low-power, more energy efficient applications.
Electric-field assisted spin torque nano-oscillator and binary frequency shift keying modulation
Zhang, Xiangli; Chen, Hao-Hsuan; Zhang, Zongzhi; Liu, Yaowen
2018-04-01
Electric-controlled magnetization precession introduces technologically relevant possibility for developing spin torque nano-oscillators (STNO) with potential applications in microwave emission. Using the perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), we show that the magnetization oscillation frequency can be tuned by the co-action of electric field and spin polarized current. The dynamical phase diagram of MTJ-based STNO is analytically predicted through coordinate transformation from the laboratory frame to the rotation frame, by which the nonstationary out-of-plane magnetization precession process is therefore transformed into the stationary process in the rotation frame. Furthermore, using this STNO as a microwave source, we numerically demonstrate that the bit signal can be transmitted by a binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation technique. The BFSK scheme shows good modulation features with no transient state.
Critical current density of domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taniguchi, T; Imamura, H, E-mail: tomohiro-taniguchi@aist.go.jp, E-mail: h-imamura@aist.go.jp [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)
2011-04-01
The domain wall oscillation due to spin-transfer torque was studied by numerically solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. For a domain wall whose rotation angle {theta}{sub max} is less than 180{sup 0}, we found the existence of the critical current density above which the magnetization dynamics are induced. We studied the dependence of the critical current density on the rotation angle {theta}{sub max} and found that the critical current density is proportional to 180{sup 0} - {theta}{sub max}.
Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi
2018-01-01
A mutual synchronization of spin-torque oscillators coupled through current injection is studied theoretically. Models of electrical coupling in parallel and series circuits are proposed. Solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, excitation of in-phase or antiphase synchronization, depending on the ways the oscillators are connected, is found. It is also found from both analytical and numerical calculations that the current-frequency relations for both parallel and series circuits are the same as that for a single spin-torque oscillator.
Asymmetric and partial injection locking of a three-terminal spin-torque oscillator
Jué, Emilie; Pufall, Matthew R.; Rippard, William H.
2018-03-01
We measure the injection locking of a three-terminal spin-torque oscillator (STO) excited by spin-orbit torque. The device consists of a magnetic tunnel junction on top of a Pt wire. A DC and an AC current are applied through the Pt wire to induce the oscillations and injection lock the STO, respectively. The injection locking is studied at fMW ≈ f0 or at fMW ≈ 2f0, where fMW is the microwave frequency and f0 is the free running frequency of the STO. The frequency response is qualitatively different from the injection locking in STOs generally reported experimentally and theoretically. Whereas typical phase-locking behavior is observed at fMW ≈ 2f0, the injection locking at fMW ≈ f0 is only partial and exhibits a strongly asymmetric frequency response. Defining the frequency deviation range as the frequency range where the STO differs from its free running frequency, we show that the asymmetric interaction is characterized by a pulling effect present on only one side of the frequency deviation range, the presence of a sideband inside the frequency deviation range, and an interaction of the STO with the microwave current that is wider than the frequency deviation range.
The magnetization dynamics of nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators
Keatley, Paul
The operation of nano-contact (NC) spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) is underpinned by vortex gyration in response to spin-torque delivered by high density current passing through the magnetic layers of a spin valve. Gyration directly beneath the NC yields radio frequency (RF) emission through the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect, which can be readily detected electronically. The magnetization dynamics that extend beyond the NC perimeter contribute little to the GMR signal, but are crucial for synchronization of multiple NC-STVOs that share the same spin valve film. In this work time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to directly image the extended dynamics of STVOs phase-locked to an injected RF current. In this talk the dynamics of single 250-nm diameter NCs, and a pair of 100-nm diameter NCs, will be presented. In general the Kerr images reveal well-defined localized and far-field dynamics, driven by spin-torque and RF current Oersted fields respectively. The RF frequency, RF Oersted field, direction of an in-plane magnetic field, and equilibrium magnetic state, all influenced the spatial character of the dynamics observed in single NCs. In the pair of NCs, two modes were observed in the RF emission. Kerr images revealed that a vortex was formed beneath each NC and that the mode with enhanced spectral amplitude and line quality appeared to be correlated with two localized regions oscillating with similar amplitude and phase, while a second weaker mode exhibited amplitude and phase differences. This suggests that the RF emission was generated by collective modes of vortex gyration dynamically coupled via magnetization dynamics and dipolar interactions of the shared magnetic layers. Within the constraints of injection locking, this work demonstrates that TRSKM can provide valuable insight into the spatial character and time-evolution of magnetization dynamics generated by NC-STVOs and the conditions that may favor their synchronization
Using a spin torque nano-oscillator to read memory based on the magnetic permeability
Petrie, J. R.; Urazhdin, S.; Wieland, K. A.; Fischer, G. A.; Edelstein, A. S.
2014-02-01
We present an archival memory utilizing a spin torque nano-oscillator (STNO) to read bits of data with different magnetic permeability. Basing a magnetic memory on this intrinsic property rather than remanent magnetization reduces the risk of data corruption. The permeability of the bits is read as changes in an applied probe field near the media. These changes in the probe field are measured by detecting microwave frequency shifts in STNOs. The probe field can be tuned over hundreds of Oe to optimize the reading of the media. Using a 400 Oe probe field, we have measured 2% frequency shifts in a STNO near micrometre-sized bits of (1) lithographically-patterned permalloy lines and (2) laser-crystallized Metglas lines. Data from either media was not corrupted by exposure to fields of 6400 Oe and temperatures of 523 K.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Raghav; Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Heinonen, O. G.; Åkerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.
2014-01-01
The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. We find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. These results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping, which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.
Using a spin torque nano-oscillator to read memory based on the magnetic permeability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrie, J R; Wieland, K A; Fischer, G A; Edelstein, A S; Urazhdin, S
2014-01-01
We present an archival memory utilizing a spin torque nano-oscillator (STNO) to read bits of data with different magnetic permeability. Basing a magnetic memory on this intrinsic property rather than remanent magnetization reduces the risk of data corruption. The permeability of the bits is read as changes in an applied probe field near the media. These changes in the probe field are measured by detecting microwave frequency shifts in STNOs. The probe field can be tuned over hundreds of Oe to optimize the reading of the media. Using a 400 Oe probe field, we have measured 2% frequency shifts in a STNO near micrometre-sized bits of (1) lithographically-patterned permalloy lines and (2) laser-crystallized Metglas lines. Data from either media was not corrupted by exposure to fields of 6400 Oe and temperatures of 523 K. (paper)
Intrinsic synchronization of an array of spin-torque oscillators driven by the spin-Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siracusano, G.; Puliafito, V.; Giordano, A.; Azzerboni, B.; Finocchio, G.; Tomasello, R.; La Corte, A.; Carpentieri, M.
2015-01-01
This paper micromagnetically studies the magnetization dynamics driven by the spin-Hall effect in a Platinum/Permalloy bi-layer. For a certain field and current range, the excitation of a uniform mode, characterized by a power with a spatial distribution in the whole ferromagnetic cross section, is observed. We suggest to use the ferromagnet of the bi-layer as basis for the realization of an array of spin-torque oscillators (STOs): the Permalloy ferromagnet will act as shared free layer, whereas the spacers and the polarizers are built on top of it. Following this strategy, the frequency of the uniform mode will be the same for the whole device, creating an intrinsic synchronization. The synchronization of an array of parallely connected STOs will allow to increase the output power, as necessary for technological applications
Dependence of the colored frequency noise in spin torque oscillators on current and magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eklund, Anders; Sani, Sohrab R.; Chung, Sunjae; Amir Hossein Banuazizi, S.; Östling, Mikael; Gunnar Malm, B.; Bonetti, Stefano; Majid Mohseni, S.; Persson, Johan; Iacocca, Ezio; Åkerman, Johan
2014-01-01
The nano-scale spin torque oscillator (STO) is a compelling device for on-chip, highly tunable microwave frequency signal generation. Currently, one of the most important challenges for the STO is to increase its longer-time frequency stability by decreasing the 1/f frequency noise, but its high level makes even its measurement impossible using the phase noise mode of spectrum analyzers. Here, we present a custom made time-domain measurement system with 150 MHz measurement bandwidth making possible the investigation of the variation of the 1/f as well as the white frequency noise in a STO over a large set of operating points covering 18–25 GHz. The 1/f level is found to be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude-frequency non-linearity and the vicinity of unexcited oscillation modes. These findings elucidate the need for a quantitative theoretical treatment of the low-frequency, colored frequency noise in STOs. Based on the results, we suggest that the 1/f frequency noise possibly can be decreased by improving the microstructural quality of the metallic thin films
Influence of output power of a spin torque oscillator on phase locked loop operation
Tamaru, Shingo; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji
2016-09-01
This work investigates the influence of the output power of a spin torque oscillator (STO) on the operation of a phase locked loop (PLL) circuit. Timing jitter and minimum output power for stable PLL operation determined by Johnson noise and shot noise are first theoretically calculated, and compared with experimental results. The theory and experiment show a reasonably good agreement, indicating that smaller than -50 dBm (10 nW), or -60 dBm (1 nW) when a low pass filter is used, of output power is sufficient for stable PLL operation if a large timing jitter is acceptable. However, it is also shown that a large output power is needed to suppress timing jitter down to the level comparable to state-of-the-art commercial PLL circuits. The estimate of minimum output power for stable PLL operation is verified by intentionally attenuating the STO output signal down to -55 dBm (3.2 nW) and demonstrating a stable phase locked oscillation.
Non-stationary excitation of two localized spin-wave modes in a nano-contact spin torque oscillator
Consolo, G.; Finocchio, G.; Siracusano, G.; Bonetti, S.; Eklund, A.; Åkerman, J.; Azzerboni, B.
2013-10-01
We measure and simulate micromagnetically a framework based upon a nano-contact spin torque oscillator where two distinct localized evanescent spin-wave modes can be detected. The resulting frequency spectrum is composed by two peaks, corresponding to the excited modes, which lie below the ferromagnetic resonance frequency, and a low-frequency tail, which we attribute to the non-stationary switching between these modes. By using Fourier, wavelet, and Hilbert-Huang transforms, we investigate the properties of these modes in time and spatial domains, together with their spatial distribution. The existence of an additional localized mode (which was neither predicted by theory nor by previous numerical and experimental findings) has to be attributed to the large influence of the current-induced Oersted field strength which, in the present setup, is of the same order of magnitude as the external field. As a further consequence, the excited spin-waves, contrarily to what usually assumed, do not possess cylindrical symmetry: the Oersted field induces these modes to be excited at the two opposite sides of the region beneath the nano-contact.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keatley, Paul Steven; Hicken, Robert James; Sani, Sohrab Redjai; Åkerman, Johan; Hrkac, Gino; Mohseni, Seyed Majid; Dürrenfeld, Philipp
2017-01-01
Nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) are anticipated to find application as nanoscale sources of microwave emission in future technological applications. Presently the output power and phase stability of individual STVOs are not competitive with existing oscillator technologies. Synchronisation of multiple nano-contact STVOs via magnetisation dynamics has been proposed to enhance the microwave emission. The control of device-to-device variations, such as mode splitting of the microwave emission, is essential if multiple STVOs are to be successfully synchronised. In this work a combination of electrical measurements and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to demonstrate how mode splitting in the microwave emission of STVOs was related to the magnetisation dynamics that are generated. The free-running STVO response to a DC current only was used to identify devices and bias magnetic field configurations for which single and multiple modes of microwave emission were observed. Stroboscopic Kerr images were acquired by injecting a small amplitude RF current to phase lock the free-running STVO response. The images showed that the magnetisation dynamics of a multimode device with moderate splitting could be controlled by the injected RF current so that they exhibit similar spatial character to that of a single mode. Significant splitting was found to result from a complicated equilibrium magnetic state that was observed in Kerr images as irregular spatial characteristics of the magnetisation dynamics. Such dynamics were observed far from the nano-contact and so their presence cannot be detected in electrical measurements. This work demonstrates that TRSKM is a powerful tool for the direct observation of the magnetisation dynamics generated by STVOs that exhibit complicated microwave emission. Characterisation of such dynamics outside the nano-contact perimeter permits a deeper insight into the requirements for optimal phase-locking of
Spin torque and critical currents for magnetic vortex nano-oscillator in nanopillars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guslienko, K Y; Gonzalez, J [Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Aranda, G R, E-mail: sckguslk@ehu.es [Centro de Fisica de Materiales UPV/EHU-CSIC, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)
2011-04-01
We calculated the main dynamic parameters of the spin polarized current induced magnetic vortex oscillations in nanopillars, such as the range of current density, where vortex steady oscillations exist, the oscillation frequency and orbit radius. We accounted for both the non-linear vortex frequency and non-linear vortex damping. To describe the vortex excitations by the spin polarized current we used a generalized Thiele approach to motion of the vortex core as a collective coordinate. All the calculation results are represented via the free layer sizes, saturation magnetization, and the Gilbert damping. Predictions of the developed model can be checked experimentally.
Keatley, Paul Steven; Redjai Sani, Sohrab; Hrkac, Gino; Majid Mohseni, Seyed; Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Åkerman, Johan; Hicken, Robert James
2017-04-01
Nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) are anticipated to find application as nanoscale sources of microwave emission in future technological applications. Presently the output power and phase stability of individual STVOs are not competitive with existing oscillator technologies. Synchronisation of multiple nano-contact STVOs via magnetisation dynamics has been proposed to enhance the microwave emission. The control of device-to-device variations, such as mode splitting of the microwave emission, is essential if multiple STVOs are to be successfully synchronised. In this work a combination of electrical measurements and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to demonstrate how mode splitting in the microwave emission of STVOs was related to the magnetisation dynamics that are generated. The free-running STVO response to a DC current only was used to identify devices and bias magnetic field configurations for which single and multiple modes of microwave emission were observed. Stroboscopic Kerr images were acquired by injecting a small amplitude RF current to phase lock the free-running STVO response. The images showed that the magnetisation dynamics of a multimode device with moderate splitting could be controlled by the injected RF current so that they exhibit similar spatial character to that of a single mode. Significant splitting was found to result from a complicated equilibrium magnetic state that was observed in Kerr images as irregular spatial characteristics of the magnetisation dynamics. Such dynamics were observed far from the nano-contact and so their presence cannot be detected in electrical measurements. This work demonstrates that TRSKM is a powerful tool for the direct observation of the magnetisation dynamics generated by STVOs that exhibit complicated microwave emission. Characterisation of such dynamics outside the nano-contact perimeter permits a deeper insight into the requirements for optimal phase-locking of
Heat-driven spin torques in antiferromagnets
Białek, Marcin; Bréchet, Sylvain; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
2018-04-01
Heat-driven magnetization damping, which is a linear function of a temperature gradient, is predicted in antiferromagnets by considering the sublattice dynamics subjected to a heat-driven spin torque. This points to the possibility of achieving spin torque oscillator behavior. The model is based on the magnetic Seebeck effect acting on sublattices which are exchange coupled. The heat-driven spin torque is estimated and the feasibility of detecting this effect is discussed.
Bauer, G.E.W.; Brataas, A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Van Wees, B.J.
2003-01-01
A magnetoelectronic thin-film transistor is proposed that can display negative differential resistance and gain. The working principle is the modulation of the soure–drain current in a spin valve by the magnetization of a third electrode, which is rotated by the spin-torque created by a control spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie
2014-01-01
Technology for detecting the magnetization direction of nanoscale magnetic material is crucial for realizing high-density magnetic recording devices. Conventionally, a magnetoresistive device is used that changes its resistivity in accordance with the direction of the stray field from an objective magnet. However, when several magnets are near such a device, the superposition of stray fields from all the magnets acts on the sensor, preventing selective recognition of their individual magnetization directions. Here we introduce a novel readout method for detecting the magnetization direction of a nanoscale magnet by use of a spin-torque oscillator (STO). The principles behind this method are dynamic dipolar coupling between an STO and a nanoscale magnet, and detection of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of this coupled system from the STO signal. Because the STO couples with a specific magnet by tuning the STO oscillation frequency to match its FMR frequency, this readout method can selectively determine the magnetization direction of the magnet. (papers)
Spin-wave-induced spin torque in Rashba ferromagnets
Umetsu, Nobuyuki; Miura, Daisuke; Sakuma, Akimasa
2015-05-01
We study the effects of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the spin torque induced by spin waves, which are the plane-wave dynamics of magnetization. The spin torque is derived from linear-response theory, and we calculate the dynamic spin torque by considering the impurity-ladder-sum vertex corrections. This dynamic spin torque is divided into three terms: a damping term, a distortion term, and a correction term for the equation of motion. The distorting torque describes a phenomenon unique to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling system, where the distorted motion of magnetization precession is subjected to the anisotropic force from the Rashba coupling. The oscillation mode of the precession exhibits an elliptical trajectory, and the ellipticity depends on the strength of the nesting effects, which could be reduced by decreasing the electron lifetime.
Size dependence of vortex-type spin torque oscillation in a Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si Heusler alloy disk
Seki, T.; Kubota, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Takanashi, K.
2018-02-01
This paper reports the systematic investigation of vortex-type spin torque oscillation in circular disks of highly spin-polarized Co2Fe0.4Mn0.6Si (CFMS) Heusler alloys. We fabricated the current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) devices with various disk diameters (D) using the layer stack of CFMS/Ag3Mg/CFMS. The gyrotropic motion of the vortex core was successfully excited for the CFMS circular disks with 0.2 µm ⩽ D ⩽ 0.3 µm. The CPP-GMR device with D = 0.2 µm exhibited the Q factor of more than 5000 and the large output power of 0.4 nW owing to the high coherency of vortex dynamics and the high spin-polarization of CFMS. However, the Q factor was remarkably decreased as D was reduced from 0.2 µm to 0.14 µm. The comparison with the calculated resonance frequencies suggested that this degradation of the Q factor was due to the transition of the oscillation mode from the vortex mode to other modes such as the low-coherent out-of-plane precession mode. The present experimental results also suggest that there exists an adequate disk size for the enhanced Q factor of the vortex-type spin torque oscillation.
Zhang, Changxin; Fang, Bin; Wang, Bochong; Zeng, Zhongming
2018-04-01
This paper presents a steady auto-oscillation in a spin-torque oscillator using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a perpendicular polarizer and a perpendicular free layer. As the injected d.c. current varied from 1.5 to 3.0 mA under a weak magnetic field of 290 Oe, the oscillation frequency decreased from 1.85 to 1.3 GHz, and the integrated power increased from 0.1 to 74 pW. A narrow linewidth down to 7 MHz corresponding to a high Q factor of 220 was achieved at 2.7 mA, which was ascribed to the spatial coherent procession of the free layer magnetization. Moreover, the oscillation frequency was quite sensitive to the applied field, about 3.07 MHz/Oe, indicating the potential applications as a weak magnetic field detector. These results suggested that the MgO-based MTJ with perpendicular magnetic easy axis could be helpful for developing spin-torque oscillators with narrow-linewidth and high sensitive.
Spin Transfer Torque in Graphene
Lin, Chia-Ching; Chen, Zhihong
2014-03-01
Graphene is an idea channel material for spin transport due to its long spin diffusion length. To develop graphene based spin logic, it is important to demonstrate spin transfer torque in graphene. Here, we report the experimental measurement of spin transfer torque in graphene nonlocal spin valve devices. Assisted by a small external in-plane magnetic field, the magnetization reversal of the receiving magnet is induced by pure spin diffusion currents from the injector magnet. The magnetization switching is reversible between parallel and antiparallel configurations by controlling the polarity of the applied charged currents. Current induced heating and Oersted field from the nonlocal charge flow have also been excluded in this study. Next, we further enhance the spin angular momentum absorption at the interface of the receiving magnet and graphene channel by removing the tunneling barrier in the receiving magnet. The device with a tunneling barrier only at the injector magnet shows a comparable nonlocal spin valve signal but lower electrical noise. Moreover, in the same preset condition, the critical charge current density for spin torque in the single tunneling barrier device shows a substantial reduction if compared to the double tunneling barrier device.
Kanao, Taro; Suto, Hirofumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie
2018-01-01
We study the magnetization dynamics of a spin-torque oscillator (STO) and a magnetic dot coupled by a magnetic dipolar field using micromagnetic simulation with the aim of developing a read method in magnetic recording that uses magnetic resonance. We propose an STO with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and an in-plane-magnetized fixed layer as a suitable STO for this resonance read method. When the oscillation frequency of the STO is near the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency of the magnetic dot, the oscillation amplitude of the STO decreases because FMR excited in the magnetic dot causes additional dissipation. To estimate the read rate of the resonance read method, we study the transient magnetization dynamics to the coupled oscillation state from an initial state where the STO is in a free-running state and the magnetic dot is in a stationary stable state. The STO shows transient dynamics within a time scale of 1 ns, which means that the STO can perform resonance reading with a response time within this time scale. This response time is shorter when the separation length between the STO and the magnetic dot is shorter, which indicates that the response speed can become faster by increasing the strength of the interaction between the STO and the magnetic dot. Successive reads are demonstrated by moving the STO over an array of magnetic dots.
Next generation spin torque memories
Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Anant Aravind; Prajapati, Sanjay
2017-01-01
This book offers detailed insights into spin transfer torque (STT) based devices, circuits and memories. Starting with the basic concepts and device physics, it then addresses advanced STT applications and discusses the outlook for this cutting-edge technology. It also describes the architectures, performance parameters, fabrication, and the prospects of STT based devices. Further, moving from the device to the system perspective it presents a non-volatile computing architecture composed of STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices and demonstrates that efficient STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices can turn the dream of instant on/off non-volatile computing into reality.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riegler, Andreas
2011-11-25
Since the discovery of spin torque in 1996, independently by Berger and Slonczewski, and given its potential impact on information storage and communication technologies, (e.g. through the possibility of switching the magnetic configuration of a bit by current instead of a magnetic field, or the realization of high frequency spin torque oscillators (STO)), this effect has been an important field of spintronics research. One aspect of this research focuses on ferromagnets with low damping. The lower the damping in a ferromagnet, the lower the critical current that is needed to induce switching of a spin valve or induce precession of its magnetization. In this thesis ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) studies of NiMnSb layers are presented along with experimental studies on various spin-torque (ST) devices using NiMnSb. NiMnSb, when crystallized in the half-Heusler structure, is a half-metal which is predicted to have 100% spin polarization, a consideration which further increases its potential as a candidate for memory devices based on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect. The FMR measurements show an outstandingly low damping factor for NiMnSb, in low 10{sup -3} range. This is about a factor of two lower than permalloy and well comparable to lowest damping for iron grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). According to theory the 100% spin polarization properties of the bulk disappear at interfaces where the break in translational symmetry causes the gap in the minority spin band to collapse but can remain in other crystal symmetries such as (111). Consequently NiMnSb layers on (111)(In,Ga)As buffer are characterized in respect of anisotropies and damping. The FMR measurements on these samples indicates a higher damping that for the 001 samples, and a thickness dependent uniaxial in-plane anisotropy. Investigations of the material for device use is pursued by considering sub-micrometer sized elements of NiMnSb on 001 substrates, which were fabricated by electron
Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors
Li, Hang
2016-06-21
Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read\\' and `write\\' in memory devices can be significantly improved. Hence, the manipulation of electron spin in electronic devices becomes more and more appealing for the advancement of microelectronics. In spin-based devices, the manipulation of ferromagnetic order parameter using electrical currents is a very useful means for current-driven operation. Nowadays, most of magnetic memory devices are based on the so-called spin transfer torque, which stems from the spin angular momentum transfer between a spin-polarized current and the magnetic order parameter. Recently, a novel spin torque effect, exploiting spin-orbit coupling in non-centrosymmetric magnets, has attracted a massive amount of attention. This thesis addresses the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport and torques in non-centrosymmetric magnetic semiconductors. We start with the theoretical study of spin orbit torque in three dimensional ferromagnetic GaMnAs. Using the Kubo formula, we calculate both the current-driven field-like torque and anti-damping-like torque. We compare the numerical results with the analytical expressions in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described. Subsequently we study spin-orbit torques in two dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. This thesis then addresses the influence of the quantum spin Hall
Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2012-08-09
Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin diffusion is considered theoretically. Combining ballistic tunneling across the barrier and diffusive transport in the electrodes, we solve the spin dynamics equation in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque, as well as a nonconventional thickness dependence of both spin torque components.
Nonlinear dynamics of spin transfer nano-oscillators
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
oscillations, is termed as spin transfer torque nano-oscillator or simply spin transfer nano- oscillator (STNO). However, the above nanoscale level microwave source lacks efficiency on two counts: (1) low output power (∼ nW), (2) high signal-to-noise ratio. Both the issues can be handled by phase locking a large array of ...
Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets
Manchon, Aurelien
2017-02-01
We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.
Macroscopic description of spin transfer torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnas, J.; Fert, A.; Gmitra, M.; Weymann, I.; Dugaev, V.K.
2006-01-01
A macroscopic description of the current-induced torque due to spin transfer has been developed for layered systems consisting of ferromagnetic films, separated by nonmagnetic layers. The description is based on the classical spin diffusion equations for the distribution functions used in the theory of current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR), and the relevant boundary conditions for the longitudinal and transverse components of the spin current and spin accumulation. The torque is expressed as a function of the usual parameters derived from CPP-GMR experiments and two additional parameters involved in the transverse boundary conditions. The model describes qualitatively the normal and inverse switching phenomena studied in recent experiments. We also discuss a structure for which the spin torque disappears at a noncollinear magnetic configuration
Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets
Pauyac, C. O.
2017-12-08
A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.
Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques
Lee, Ki-Seung
2015-04-06
In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.
Manipulation of spin transfer torque using light
Rontani, Massimo; Vendelbjerg, Karsten; Sham, Lu
We show that the spin transfer torque induced by a spin-polarized current on a nanomagnet as the current flows through a semiconductor-nanomagnet-semiconductor junction is externally controlled by shining the junction off-resonantly with a strong laser beam. The excitonic coherence driven by the laser dresses the virtual electron-hole pairs coupling conduction and valence bands and inducing an evanescent state in the proximity of the nanomagnet. The Fano-like quantum interference between this localized state and the continuum spectrum is different in the two spin channels and hence it dramatically alters the spin transport, leading to the coherent control of the spin transfer torque. This work is supported by EU-FP7 Marie Curie Initial Training Network INDEX.
Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-07-13
Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2016-06-19
In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the ﬁeld of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin ﬁltering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin ﬁltering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall eﬀect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.
Spin-transfer torque in spin filter tunnel junctions
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2014-12-08
Spin-transfer torque in a class of magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations, referred to as spin filter tunnel junctions, is studied within the tight-binding model using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function technique within Keldysh formalism. These junctions consist of one ferromagnet (FM) adjacent to a magnetic insulator (MI) or two FM separated by a MI. We find that the presence of the magnetic insulator dramatically enhances the magnitude of the spin-torque components compared to conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The fieldlike torque is driven by the spin-dependent reflection at the MI/FM interface, which results in a small reduction of its amplitude when an insulating spacer (S) is inserted to decouple MI and FM layers. Meanwhile, the dampinglike torque is dominated by the tunneling electrons that experience the lowest barrier height. We propose a device of the form FM/(S)/MI/(S)/FM that takes advantage of these characteristics and allows for tuning the spin-torque magnitudes over a wide range just by rotation of the magnetization of the insulating layer.
Spin Orbit Interaction Engineering for beyond Spin Transfer Torque memory
Wang, Kang L.
Spin transfer torque memory uses electron current to transfer the spin torque of electrons to switch a magnetic free layer. This talk will address an alternative approach to energy efficient non-volatile spintronics through engineering of spin orbit interaction (SOC) and the use of spin orbit torque (SOT) by the use of electric field to improve further the energy efficiency of switching. I will first discuss the engineering of interface SOC, which results in the electric field control of magnetic moment or magneto-electric (ME) effect. Magnetic memory bits based on this ME effect, referred to as magnetoelectric RAM (MeRAM), is shown to have orders of magnitude lower energy dissipation compared with spin transfer torque memory (STTRAM). Likewise, interests in spin Hall as a result of SOC have led to many advances. Recent demonstrations of magnetization switching induced by in-plane current in heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures have been shown to arise from the large SOC. The large SOC is also shown to give rise to the large SOT. Due to the presence of an intrinsic extraordinarily strong SOC and spin-momentum lock, topological insulators (TIs) are expected to be promising candidates for exploring spin-orbit torque (SOT)-related physics. In particular, we will show the magnetization switching in a chromium-doped magnetic TI bilayer heterostructure by charge current. A giant SOT of more than three orders of magnitude larger than those reported in heavy metals is also obtained. This large SOT is shown to come from the spin-momentum locked surface states of TI, which may further lead to innovative low power applications. I will also describe other related physics of SOC at the interface of anti-ferromagnetism/ferromagnetic structure and show the control exchange bias by electric field for high speed memory switching. The work was in part supported by ERFC-SHINES, NSF, ARO, TANMS, and FAME.
Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Li, Hang
2013-05-16
We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.
Spin-orbit torques in magnetic bilayers
Haney, Paul
2015-03-01
Spintronics aims to utilize the coupling between charge transport and magnetic dynamics to develop improved and novel memory and logic devices. Future progress in spintronics may be enabled by exploiting the spin-orbit coupling present at the interface between thin film ferromagnets and heavy metals. In these systems, applying an in-plane electrical current can induce magnetic dynamics in single domain ferromagnets, or can induce rapid motion of domain wall magnetic textures. There are multiple effects responsible for these dynamics. They include spin-orbit torques and a chiral exchange interaction (the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction) in the ferromagnet. Both effects arise from the combination of ferromagnetism and spin-orbit coupling present at the interface. There is additionally a torque from the spin current flux impinging on the ferromagnet, arising from the spin hall effect in the heavy metal. Using a combination of approaches, from drift-diffusion to Boltzmann transport to first principles methods, we explore the relative contributions to the dynamics from these different effects. We additionally propose that the transverse spin current is locally enhanced over its bulk value in the vicinity of an interface which is oriented normal to the charge current direction.
Effect of resistance feedback on spin torque-induced switching of nanomagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garzon, Samir; Webb, Richard A.; Covington, Mark; Kaka, Shehzaad; Crawford, Thomas M.
2009-01-01
In large magnetoresistance devices spin torque-induced changes in resistance can produce GHz current and voltage oscillations which can affect magnetization reversal. In addition, capacitive shunting in large resistance devices can further reduce the current, adversely affecting spin torque switching. Here, we simultaneously solve the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with spin torque and the transmission line telegrapher's equations to study the effects of resistance feedback and capacitance on magnetization reversal of both spin valves and magnetic tunnel junctions. While for spin valves parallel (P) to anti-parallel (AP) switching is adversely affected by the resistance feedback due to saturation of the spin torque, in low resistance magnetic tunnel junctions P-AP switching is enhanced. We study the effect of resistance feedback on the switching time of magnetic tunnel junctions, and show that magnetization switching is only affected by capacitive shunting in the pF range.
Theory for a dissipative droplet soliton excited by a spin torque nanocontact
Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Keller, Mark W.
2010-01-01
A novel type of solitary wave is predicted to form in spin torque oscillators when the free layer has a sufficiently large perpendicular anisotropy. In this structure, which is a dissipative version of the conservative droplet soliton originally studied in 1977 by Ivanov and Kosevich, spin torque counteracts the damping that would otherwise destroy the mode. Asymptotic methods are used to derive conditions on perpendicular anisotropy strength and applied current under which a dissipative drop...
Manipulating spin transfer torque with light
Vendelbjerg, Karsten Leding; Rontani, Massimo
2017-08-01
We study the spin transfer torque (STT) induced onto a nanomagnet as a spin-polarized current flows through a junction made of the magnet sandwiched between two semiconductors. This junction is one-dimensional and highly idealized, the thin magnetic layer being mimicked by a spin-dependent contact force. We show that the STT may be externally controlled by shining the junction at sub-bandgap frequency with an intense laser beam. The excitonic coherence driven by the laser dresses the virtual electron-hole pairs coupling conduction and valence bands and inducing evanescent waves at the junction interface. The Fano-like quantum interference between these localized states and the continuum spectrum, being different in the two spin channels, significantly affects the STT.
Spin Currents and Spin Orbit Torques in Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets
Hung, Yu-Ming
This thesis focuses on the interactions of spin currents and materials with magnetic order, e.g., ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic thin films. The spin current is generated in two ways. First by spin-polarized conduction-electrons associated with the spin Hall effect in heavy metals (HMs) and, second, by exciting spin-waves in ferrimagnetic insulators using a microwave frequency magnetic field. A conduction-electron spin current can be generated by spin-orbit coupling in a heavy non-magnetic metal and transfer its spin angular momentum to a ferromagnet, providing a means of reversing the magnetization of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin films with currents that flow in the plane of the layers. The torques on the magnetization are known as spin-orbit torques (SOT). In the first part of my thesis project I investigated and contrasted the quasistatic (slowly swept current) and pulsed current-induced switching characteristics of micrometer scale Hall crosses consisting of very thin (thesis project studies and considers applications of SOT-driven domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin ferromagnet sandwiched between a heavy metal and an oxide. My experiment results demonstrate that the DW motion can be explained by a combination of the spin Hall effect, which generates a SOT, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which stabilizes chiral Neel-type DW. Based on SOT-driven DW motion and magnetic coupling between electrically isolated ferromagnetic elements, I proposed a new type of spin logic devices. I then demonstrate the device operation by using micromagnetic modeling which involves studying the magnetic coupling induced by fringe fields from chiral DWs in perpendicularly magnetized nanowires. The last part of my thesis project reports spin transport and spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) in yttrium iron garnet Y3Fe5O 12 (YIG)/NiO/Pt trilayers with varied NiO thickness. To characterize the spin transport through NiO we excite
Spin-torque generation in topological insulator based heterostructures
Fischer, Mark H.
2016-03-11
Heterostructures utilizing topological insulators exhibit a remarkable spin-torque efficiency. However, the exact origin of the strong torque, in particular whether it stems from the spin-momentum locking of the topological surface states or rather from spin-Hall physics of the topological-insulator bulk, remains unclear. Here, we explore a mechanism of spin-torque generation purely based on the topological surface states. We consider topological-insulator-based bilayers involving ferromagnetic metal (TI/FM) and magnetically doped topological insulators (TI/mdTI), respectively. By ascribing the key theoretical differences between the two setups to location and number of active surface states, we describe both setups within the same framework of spin diffusion of the nonequilibrium spin density of the topological surface states. For the TI/FM bilayer, we find large spin-torque efficiencies of roughly equal magnitude for both in-plane and out-of-plane spin torques. For the TI/mdTI bilayer, we elucidate the dominance of the spin-transfer-like torque. However, we cannot explain the orders of magnitude enhancement reported. Nevertheless, our model gives an intuitive picture of spin-torque generation in topological-insulator-based bilayers and provides theoretical constraints on spin-torque generation due to topological surface states.
Spin transfer torque generated magnetic droplet solitons (invited)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, S. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Mohseni, S. M. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sani, S. R. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Iacocca, E.; Dumas, R. K.; Pogoryelov, Ye. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Anh Nguyen, T. N. [Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Laboratory for Nanotechnology (LNT), Vietnam National University - Ho Chi Minh City (VNU-HCM), Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Muduli, P. K. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Eklund, A. [Devices and Circuits, School of ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Hoefer, M. [Department of Mathematics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Åkerman, J., E-mail: johan.akerman@physics.gu.se [Materials Physics, School of ICT, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); NanOsc AB, Electrum 205, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)
2014-05-07
We present recent experimental and numerical advancements in the understanding of spin transfer torque generated magnetic droplet solitons. The experimental work focuses on nano-contact spin torque oscillators (NC-STOs) based on orthogonal (pseudo) spin valves where the Co fixed layer has an easy-plane anisotropy, and the [Co/Ni] free layer has a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The NC-STO resistance and microwave signal generation are measured simultaneously as a function of drive current and applied perpendicular magnetic field. Both exhibit dramatic transitions at a certain current dependent critical field value, where the microwave frequency drops 10 GHz, modulation sidebands appear, and the resistance exhibits a jump, while the magnetoresistance changes sign. We interpret these observations as the nucleation of a magnetic droplet soliton with a large fraction of its magnetization processing with an angle greater than 90°, i.e., around a direction opposite that of the applied field. This interpretation is corroborated by numerical simulations. When the field is further increased, we find that the droplet eventually collapses under the pressure from the Zeeman energy.
Spin-Hall nano-oscillator: A micromagnetic study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giordano, A.; Azzerboni, B.; Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Carpentieri, M. [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Laudani, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Roma Tre, via V. Volterra 62, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Gubbiotti, G. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Unità di Perugia c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy)
2014-07-28
This Letter studies the dynamical behavior of spin-Hall nanoscillators from a micromagnetic point of view. The model parameters have been identified by reproducing recent experimental data quantitatively. Our results indicate that a strongly localized mode is observed for in-plane bias fields such as in the experiments, while predict the excitation of an asymmetric propagating mode for large enough out-of plane bias field similarly to what observed in spin-torque nanocontact oscillators. Our findings show that spin-Hall nanoscillators can find application as spin-wave emitters for magnonic applications where spin waves are used for transmission and processing information on nanoscale.
Robust spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2017-04-18
We theoretically study the current-induced spin torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions, composed of two semi-infinite antiferromagnetic layers separated by a tunnel barrier, in both clean and disordered regimes. We find that the torque enabling electrical manipulation of the Néel antiferromagnetic order parameter is out of plane, ∼n×p, while the torque competing with the antiferromagnetic exchange is in plane, ∼n×(p×n). Here, p and n are the Néel order parameter direction of the reference and free layers, respectively. Their bias dependence shows behavior similar to that in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions, the in-plane torque being mostly linear in bias, while the out-of-plane torque is quadratic. Most importantly, we find that the spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions is much more robust against disorder than that in antiferromagnetic metallic spin valves due to the tunneling nature of spin transport.
Spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves: From clean to disordered regimes
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2014-05-28
Current-driven spin torques in metallic spin valves composed of antiferromagnets are theoretically studied using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method implemented on a tight-binding model. We focus our attention on G-type and L-type antiferromagnets in both clean and disordered regimes. In such structures, spin torques can either rotate the magnetic order parameter coherently (coherent torque) or compete with the internal antiferromagnetic exchange (exchange torque). We show that, depending on the symmetry of the spin valve, the coherent and exchange torques can either be in the plane, ∝n×(q×n) or out of the plane ∝n×q, where q and n are the directions of the order parameter of the polarizer and the free antiferromagnetic layers, respectively. Although disorder conserves the symmetry of the torques, it strongly reduces the torque magnitude, pointing out the need for momentum conservation to ensure strong spin torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves.
Manipulating the voltage dependence of tunneling spin torques
Manchon, Aurelien
2012-10-01
Voltage-driven spin transfer torques in magnetic tunnel junctions provide an outstanding tool to design advanced spin-based devices for memory and reprogrammable logic applications. The non-linear voltage dependence of the torque has a direct impact on current-driven magnetization dynamics and on devices performances. After a brief overview of the progress made to date in the theoretical description of the spin torque in tunnel junctions, I present different ways to alter and control the bias dependence of both components of the spin torque. Engineering the junction (barrier and electrodes) structural asymmetries or controlling the spin accumulation profile in the free layer offer promising tools to design effcient spin devices.
Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling
Haney, Paul M.
2013-12-19
In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.
Spin-Swapping Transport and Torques in Ultrathin Magnetic Bilayers
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2016-07-12
Planar spin transport in disordered ultrathin magnetic bilayers comprising a ferromagnet and a normal metal (typically used for spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin-orbit torque experiments) is investigated theoretically. Using a tight-binding model that puts the extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin swapping on equal footing, we show that the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport dramatically depends on the ratio between the layer thickness d and the mean free path λ. While the spin Hall effect dominates in the diffusive limit (d≫λ), spin swapping dominates in the Knudsen regime (d≲λ). A remarkable consequence is that spin swapping induces a substantial fieldlike torque in the Knudsen regime.
Theory for a dissipative droplet soliton excited by a spin torque nanocontact
Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Keller, Mark W.
2010-08-01
A distinct type of solitary wave is predicted to form in spin torque oscillators when the free layer has a sufficiently large perpendicular anisotropy. In this structure, which is a dissipative version of the conservative droplet soliton originally studied in 1977 by Ivanov and Kosevich, spin torque counteracts the damping that would otherwise destroy the mode. Asymptotic methods are used to derive conditions on perpendicular anisotropy strength and applied current under which a dissipative droplet can be nucleated and sustained. Numerical methods are used to confirm the stability of the droplet against various perturbations that are likely in experiments, including tilting of the applied field, nonzero spin torque asymmetry, and nontrivial Oersted fields. Under certain conditions, the droplet experiences a drift instability in which it propagates away from the nanocontact and is then destroyed by damping.
Spin transport and spin torque in antiferromagnetic devices
Železný, J.; Wadley, P.; Olejník, K.; Hoffmann, A.; Ohno, H.
2018-03-01
Ferromagnets are key materials for sensing and memory applications. In contrast, antiferromagnets, which represent the more common form of magnetically ordered materials, have found less practical application beyond their use for establishing reference magnetic orientations via exchange bias. This might change in the future due to the recent progress in materials research and discoveries of antiferromagnetic spintronic phenomena suitable for device applications. Experimental demonstration of the electrical switching and detection of the Néel order open a route towards memory devices based on antiferromagnets. Apart from the radiation and magnetic-field hardness, memory cells fabricated from antiferromagnets can be inherently multilevel, which could be used for neuromorphic computing. Switching speeds attainable in antiferromagnets far exceed those of ferromagnetic and semiconductor memory technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in electronic spin-transport and spin-torque phenomena in antiferromagnets that are dominantly of the relativistic quantum-mechanical origin. We discuss their utility in pure antiferromagnetic or hybrid ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic memory devices.
Spin-orbit-coupled transport and spin torque in a ferromagnetic heterostructure
Wang, Xuhui
2014-02-07
Ferromagnetic heterostructures provide an ideal platform to explore the nature of spin-orbit torques arising from the interplay mediated by itinerant electrons between a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. For such a prototypic system, we develop a set of coupled diffusion equations to describe the diffusive spin dynamics and spin-orbit torques. We characterize the spin torque and its two prominent—out-of-plane and in-plane—components for a wide range of relative strength between the Rashba coupling and ferromagnetic exchange. The symmetry and angular dependence of the spin torque emerging from our simple Rashba model is in an agreement with experiments. The spin diffusion equation can be generalized to incorporate dynamic effects such as spin pumping and magnetic damping.
Oscillating spin-2 dark matter
Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Urban, Federico R.
2018-01-01
The negative outcomes of laboratory searches, juxtaposed with cosmological observations, may indicate that dark matter has a gravitational origin. We show that coherent oscillations of a massive spin-2 field emerging from bimetric theory can easily account for the observed dark matter abundance. The framework, based on the only known consistent extension of general relativity to interacting spin-2 fields, is testable in precision measurements of the electric charge variation by means of atomic clocks, molecular systems, dedicated resonant mass detectors, as well as gravity interferometers and axionlike-particle experiments. These searches, therefore, provide a new window into the phenomenology of gravity which complements the results of dedicated tests of gravitation. We also present a multimetric extension of the scenario that straightforwardly implements the clockwork mechanism for gravity, explaining the apparent weakness of this force.
Spin-Orbit Torques in Co/Pd Multilayer Nanowires
Jamali, Mahdi
2013-12-09
Current induced spin-orbit torques have been studied in ferromagnetic nanowires made of 20 nm thick Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using Hall voltage and lock-in measurements, it is found that upon injection of an electric current both in-plane (Slonczewski-like) and perpendicular (fieldlike) torques build up in the nanowire. The torque efficiencies are found to be as large as 1.17 and 5 kOe at 108 A/cm2 for the in-plane and perpendicular components, respectively, which is surprisingly comparable to previous studies in ultrathin (∼1 nm) magnetic bilayers. We show that this result cannot be explained solely by spin Hall effect induced torque at the outer interfaces, indicating a probable contribution of the bulk of the Co/Pd multilayer.
Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets
Li, Hang
2015-04-01
Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm×(uso×m). Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.
Giant thermal spin-torque-assisted magnetic tunnel junction switching.
Pushp, Aakash; Phung, Timothy; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian P; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart S P
2015-05-26
Spin-polarized charge currents induce magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) switching by virtue of spin-transfer torque (STT). Recently, by taking advantage of the spin-dependent thermoelectric properties of magnetic materials, novel means of generating spin currents from temperature gradients, and their associated thermal-spin torques (TSTs), have been proposed, but so far these TSTs have not been large enough to influence MTJ switching. Here we demonstrate significant TSTs in MTJs by generating large temperature gradients across ultrathin MgO tunnel barriers that considerably affect the switching fields of the MTJ. We attribute the origin of the TST to an asymmetry of the tunneling conductance across the zero-bias voltage of the MTJ. Remarkably, we estimate through magneto-Seebeck voltage measurements that the charge currents that would be generated due to the temperature gradient would give rise to STT that is a thousand times too small to account for the changes in switching fields that we observe.
Skyrmionic spin Seebeck effect via dissipative thermomagnonic torques
Kovalev, Alexey A.
2014-06-01
We derive thermomagnonic torque and its "β-type" dissipative correction from the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The β-type dissipative correction describes viscous coupling between magnetic dynamics and magnonic current and it stems from spin mistracking of the magnetic order. We show that thermomagnonic torque is important for describing temperature gradient induced motion of skyrmions in helical magnets while dissipative correction plays an essential role in generating transverse Magnus force. We propose to detect such skyrmionic motion by employing the transverse spin Seebeck effect geometry.
Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator
Mellnik, A. R.
2014-07-23
Magnetic devices are a leading contender for the implementation of memory and logic technologies that are non-volatile, that can scale to high density and high speed, and that do not wear out. However, widespread application of magnetic memory and logic devices will require the development of efficient mechanisms for reorienting their magnetization using the least possible current and power. There has been considerable recent progress in this effort; in particular, it has been discovered that spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal/ferromagnet bilayers can produce strong current-driven torques on the magnetic layer, via the spin Hall effect in the heavy metal or the Rashba-Edelstein effect in the ferromagnet. In the search for materials to provide even more efficient spin-orbit-induced torques, some proposals have suggested topological insulators, which possess a surface state in which the effects of spin-orbit coupling are maximal in the sense that an electron\\' s spin orientation is fixed relative to its propagation direction. Here we report experiments showing that charge current flowing in-plane in a thin film of the topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) at room temperature can indeed exert a strong spin-transfer torque on an adjacent ferromagnetic permalloy (Ni81Fe19) thin film, with a direction consistent with that expected from the topological surface state. We find that the strength of the torque per unit charge current density in Bi 2Se3 is greater than for any source of spin-transfer torque measured so far, even for non-ideal topological insulator films in which the surface states coexist with bulk conduction. Our data suggest that topological insulators could enable very efficient electrical manipulation of magnetic materials at room temperature, for memory and logic applications. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys
Wen, Yan
2017-03-07
We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in Cu40Au60/Ni80Fe20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.
Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems
Manchon, Aurelien
2018-01-29
Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.
Interfacial spin-orbit splitting and current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-05-17
Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is investigated theoretically. Due to the presence of interfacial SOI, a current-driven spin torque can be generated at the second order in SOI, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. This torque possesses two components, one in plane and one perpendicular to the plane of rotation, that can induce either current-driven magnetization switching from an in-plane to out-of-plane configuration or magnetization precessions, similar to spin transfer torque in spin valves. Consequently, it appears that it is possible to control the magnetization steady state and dynamics by either varying the bias voltage or electrically modifying the SOI at the interface.
Controlling the spin-torque efficiency with ferroelectric barriers
Useinov, A.
2015-02-11
Nonequilibrium spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a ferroelectric barrier is theoretically investigated. The exact solutions of the free electron Schrödinger equation for electron tunneling in the presence of interfacial screening are obtained by combining Bessel and Airy functions. We demonstrate that the spin transfer torque efficiency, and more generally the bias dependence of tunneling magneto- and electroresistance, can be controlled by switching the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. In particular, the critical voltage at which the in-plane torque changes sign can be strongly enhanced or reduced depending on the direction of the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. This effect provides a supplementary way to electrically control the current-driven dynamic states of the magnetization and related magnetic noise in spin transfer devices.
Spin-orbit torques and charge pumping in crystalline magnets
Ciccarelli, Chiara
In magnetic crystals with an inversion asymmetric unit cell a non-zero global spin-polarization is generated by an electrical current, which acts with a torque on the magnetisation exciting magnetic dynamics. This relativistic non-equilibrium spin phenomenon also has a reciprocal effect in which the excitation of magnons results in the pumping of a charge current. The possibility to manipulate/read magnetism with electrical currents is highly relevant for magnetic memories and other spintronic devices. I will start by reviewing our recent research on spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in crystalline magnets, in particular our very recent measurements of the crystalline SOT at room temperature in half-Heusler NiMnSb thin films. With this experiment we are able to fully characterise magnitude and symmetry of the SOTs. I will then talk about the first demonstration of magnonic charge pumping in crystal magnet GaMnAs. In this effect, which is the reciprocal effect of SOTs, the precessing ferromagnet pumps a charge current. Differently from spin pumping, which is commonly used to electrically detect magnetization dynamics, in charge pumping magnons are converted within the ferromagnet into high-frequency currents via the relativistic spin-orbit interaction, without the need of a secondary spin-charge conversion element, such as heavy metals with large spin Hall angle.
Spin-torque diode radio-frequency detector with voltage tuned resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skowroński, Witold, E-mail: skowron@agh.edu.pl; Frankowski, Marek; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Wrona, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Singulus Technologies, Kahl am Main 63796 (Germany); Ogrodnik, Piotr [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Barnaś, Józef [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)
2014-08-18
We report on a voltage-tunable radio-frequency (RF) detector based on a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ). The spin-torque diode effect is used to excite and/or detect RF oscillations in the magnetic free layer of the MTJ. In order to reduce the overall in-plane magnetic anisotropy of the free layer, we take advantage of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the interface between ferromagnetic and insulating layers. The applied bias voltage is shown to have a significant influence on the magnetic anisotropy, and thus on the resonance frequency of the device. This influence also depends on the voltage polarity. The obtained results are accounted for in terms of the interplay of spin-transfer-torque and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy effects.
Spin-Orbit Torques in ferrimagnetic GdFeCo
Roschewsky, Niklas; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Salahuddin, Sayeef
Recently spin-orbit torques in antiferromagnets received a lot of attention due to intrinsic high frequency dynamics as well as robustness against perturbations from external magnetic fields. Here, we report on spin-orbit torque (SOT) switching in ferrimagnetic Gdx (Fe90Co10)100-x films on both sides of the magnetic compensation point. In addition to current driven switching experiments we performed harmonic Hall measurements of the effective SOT fields. We find that both the Slonczewski torque as well as the field-like torque diverge at the magnetization compensation point. However, the effective spin Hall angle ξ = (2 | e | / ℏ) MStFM (Heff / | jHM |) is found to be roughly constant across the investigated composition range. This provides important insight into the the angular momentum transfer process in ferrimagnets. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05-CH11231 within the NEMM program (KC2204).
Spin-torque switching of a nano-magnet using giant spin hall effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashish V. Penumatcha
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The Giant Spin Hall Effect(GSHE in metals with high spin-orbit coupling is an efficient way to convert charge currents to spin currents, making it well-suited for writing information into magnets in non-volatile magnetic memory as well as spin-logic devices. We demonstrate the switching of an in-plane CoFeB magnet using a combination of GSHE and an external magnetic field. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current is used to estimate the spin hall angle with the help of a thermal activation model for spin-transfer torque switching of a nanomagnet.
Possible evidence for spin-transfer torque induced by spin-triplet supercurrent
Li, Lailai
2017-10-04
Cooper pairs in superconductors are normally spin singlet. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that spin-triplet Cooper pairs can be created at carefully engineered superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces. If Cooper pairs are spin-polarized they would transport not only charge but also a net spin component, but without dissipation, and therefore minimize the heating effects associated with spintronic devices. Although it is now established that triplet supercurrents exist, their most interesting property - spin - is only inferred indirectly from transport measurements. In conventional spintronics, it is well known that spin currents generate spin-transfer torques that alter magnetization dynamics and switch magnetic moments. The observation of similar effects due to spin-triplet supercurrents would not only confirm the net spin of triplet pairs but also pave the way for applications of superconducting spintronics. Here, we present a possible evidence for spin-transfer torques induced by triplet supercurrents in superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/F/S) Josephson junctions. Below the superconducting transition temperature T_c, the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) field at X-band (~ 9.0 GHz) shifts rapidly to a lower field with decreasing temperature due to the spin-transfer torques induced by triplet supercurrents. In contrast, this phenomenon is absent in ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) bilayers and superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/I/F/S) multilayers where no supercurrents pass through the ferromagnetic layer. These experimental observations are discussed with theoretical predictions for ferromagnetic Josephson junctions with precessing magnetization.
Feedback control of noise in spin valves by the spin-transfer torque
Bandopadyay, S.; Brataas, A.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2011-01-01
The miniaturization of magnetic read heads and random access memory elements makes them vulnerable to thermal fluctuations. We demonstrate how current-induced spin-transfer torques can be used to suppress the effects of thermal fluctuations. This enhances the fidelity of perpendicular magnetic spin
Dynamics of spin torque switching in all-perpendicular spin valve nanopillars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, H.; Bedau, D.; Sun, J.Z.; Mangin, S.; Fullerton, E.E.; Katine, J.A.; Kent, A.D.
2014-01-01
We present a systematic experimental study of the spin-torque-induced magnetic switching statistics at room temperature, using all-perpendicularly magnetized spin-valves as a model system. Three physical regimes are distinguished: a short-time ballistic limit below a few nanoseconds, where spin-torque dominates the reversal dynamics from a thermal distribution of initial conditions; a long time limit, where the magnetization reversal probability is determined by spin-torque-amplified thermal activation; and a cross-over regime, where the spin-torque and thermal agitation both contribute. For a basic quantitative understanding of the physical processes involved, an analytical macrospin model is presented which contains both spin-torque dynamics and finite temperature effects. The latter was treated rigorously using a Fokker–Plank formalism, and solved numerically for specific sets of parameters relevant to the experiments to determine the switching probability behavior in the short-time and cross-over regimes. This analysis shows that thermal fluctuations during magnetization reversal greatly affect the switching probability over all the time scales studied, even in the short-time limit
Model for a collimated spin wave beam generated by a single layer, spin torque nanocontact
Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Stiles, M. D.
2007-01-01
A model of spin torque induced magnetization dynamics based upon semi-classical spin diffusion theory for a single layer nanocontact is presented. The model incorporates effects due to the current induced Oersted field and predicts the generation of a variety of spatially dependent, coherent, precessional magnetic wave structures. Directionally controllable collimated spin wave beams, vortex spiral waves, and localized standing waves are found to be excited by the interplay of the Oersted fie...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Zhengang; Su Gang; Jin Biao; Zheng Qingrong
2003-01-01
We have investigated the current-induced spin transfer torque of a ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet tunnel junction by taking the spin-flip scatterings into account. It is found that the spin-flip scattering can induce an additional spin torque, enhancing the maximum of the spin torque and giving rise to an angular shift compared to the case when the spin-flip scatterings are neglected. The effects of the molecular fields of the left and right ferromagnets on the spin torque are also studied. It is found that τ Rx /I e (τ Rx is the spin-transfer torque acting on the right ferromagnet and I e is the tunneling electrical current) does vary with the molecular fields. At two certain angles, τ Rx /I e is independent of the molecular field of the right ferromagnet, resulting in two crossing points in the curve of τ Rx /I e versus the relevant orientation for different molecular fields
Exchange magnon induced resistance asymmetry in permalloy spin-Hall oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langenfeld, S. [Microelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Walter Schottky Institut and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tshitoyan, V.; Fang, Z.; Ferguson, A. J., E-mail: ajf1006@cam.ac.uk [Microelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wells, A.; Moore, T. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2016-05-09
We investigate magnetization dynamics in a spin-Hall oscillator using a direct current measurement as well as conventional microwave spectrum analysis. When the current applies an anti-damping spin-transfer torque, we observe a change in resistance which we ascribe mainly to the excitation of incoherent exchange magnons. A simple model is developed based on the reduction of the effective saturation magnetization, quantitatively explaining the data. The observed phenomena highlight the importance of exchange magnons on the operation of spin-Hall oscillators.
Spin-transfer torque induced dynamics of magnetic vortices in nanopillars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sluka, Volker
2011-01-01
if the spin-polarization of the current is perfectly homogeneous. Subsequently so-called double vortex configurations are considered. These configurations involve states where each of the disks is in a vortex state. Methods for preparing such states are developed and the spin-transfer torque induced dynamics of these configurations is investigated. Rich dynamics is observed, and differences in mode frequencies can be identified as being caused by different combinations of vortex core polarities. The experiments show that double vortex systems are nonlinear oscillators which show the property of phase locking to an external periodic signal.
Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geranton, Guillaume
2017-01-01
This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag 2 Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag 2 Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT-based magnetic
Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geranton, Guillaume
2017-09-01
This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag{sub 2}Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag{sub 2}Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT
Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torque via Modulation of Spin Current Absorption
Qiu, Xuepeng
2016-11-18
The magnitude of spin-orbit torque (SOT), exerted to a ferromagnet (FM) from an adjacent heavy metal (HM), strongly depends on the amount of spin current absorbed in the FM. We exploit the large spin absorption at the Ru interface to manipulate the SOTs in HM/FM/Ru multilayers. While the FM thickness is smaller than its spin dephasing length of 1.2 nm, the top Ru layer largely boosts the absorption of spin currents into the FM layer and substantially enhances the strength of SOT acting on the FM. Spin-pumping experiments induced by ferromagnetic resonance support our conclusions that the observed increase in the SOT efficiency can be attributed to an enhancement of the spin-current absorption. A theoretical model that considers both reflected and transmitted mixing conductances at the two interfaces of FM is developed to explain the results.
Dual Control of Giant Field-like Spin Torque in Spin Filter Tunnel Junctions
Tang, Y.-H.; Chu, F.-C.; Kioussis, Nicholas
2015-06-01
We predict a giant field-like spin torque, , in spin-filter (SF) barrier tunnel junctions in sharp contrast to existing junctions based on nonmagnetic passive barriers. We demonstrate that has linear bias behavior, is independent of the SF thickness, and has odd parity with respect to the SF’s exchange splitting. Thus, it can be selectively controlled via external bias or external magnetic field which gives rise to sign reversal of via magnetic field switching. The underlying mechanism is the interlayer exchange coupling between the noncollinear magnetizations of the SF and free ferromagnetic electrode via the nonmagnetic insulating (I) spacer giving rise to giant spin-dependent reflection at the SF/I interface. These findings suggest that the proposed field-like-spin-torque MRAM may provide promising dual functionalities for both ‘reading’ and ‘writing’ processes which require lower critical current densities and faster writing and reading speeds.
Parameter dependence of resonant spin torque magnetization reversal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fricke, L.; Serrano-Guisan, S.; Schumacher, H.W.
2012-01-01
We numerically study ultra fast resonant spin torque (ST) magnetization reversal in magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJ) driven by current pulses having a direct current (DC) and a resonant alternating current (AC) component. The precessional ST dynamics of the single domain MTJ free layer cell are modeled in the macro spin approximation. The energy efficiency, reversal time, and reversal reliability are investigated under variation of pulse parameters like direct and AC current amplitude, AC frequency and AC phase. We find a range of AC and direct current amplitudes where robust resonant ST reversal is obtained with faster switching time and reduced energy consumption per pulse compared to purely direct current ST reversal. However, for a certain range of AC and direct current amplitudes a strong dependence of the reversal properties on AC frequency and phase is found. Such regions of unreliable reversal must be avoided for ST memory applications.
Parameter dependence of resonant spin torque magnetization reversal
Fricke, L.; Serrano-Guisan, S.; Schumacher, H. W.
2012-04-01
We numerically study ultra fast resonant spin torque (ST) magnetization reversal in magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJ) driven by current pulses having a direct current (DC) and a resonant alternating current (AC) component. The precessional ST dynamics of the single domain MTJ free layer cell are modeled in the macro spin approximation. The energy efficiency, reversal time, and reversal reliability are investigated under variation of pulse parameters like direct and AC current amplitude, AC frequency and AC phase. We find a range of AC and direct current amplitudes where robust resonant ST reversal is obtained with faster switching time and reduced energy consumption per pulse compared to purely direct current ST reversal. However, for a certain range of AC and direct current amplitudes a strong dependence of the reversal properties on AC frequency and phase is found. Such regions of unreliable reversal must be avoided for ST memory applications.
Yang, Yumeng; Xu, Yanjun; Xie, Hang; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong
2017-07-01
We demonstrate an ultrathin and semitransparent anisotropic and spin Hall magnetoresistance sensor based on NiFe/Pt heterostructures. The use of a spin-orbit torque effective field for transverse biasing allows us to reduce the total thickness of the sensors down to 3-4 nm, thereby leading to the semitransparency. Despite the extremely simple design, the spin-orbit torque effective field biased NiFe/Pt sensor exhibits levels of linearity and sensitivity comparable to those of sensors using more complex linearization schemes. In a proof-of-concept design using a full Wheatstone bridge comprising four sensing elements, we obtained a sensitivity up to 202.9 mΩ Oe-1, a linearity error below 5%, and a detection limit down to 20 nT. The transmittance of the sensor is over 50% in the visible range.
Spin-Orbit Torques and Anisotropic Magnetization Damping in Skyrmion Crystals
Hals, Kjetil; Brataas, Arne
2014-03-01
We theoretically study the effects of reactive and dissipative homogeneous spin-orbit torques and anisotropic damping on the current-driven skyrmion dynamics in cubic chiral magnets. Our results demonstrate that spin-orbit torques play a significant role in the current-induced skyrmion velocity. The dissipative spin-orbit torque generates a relativistic Magnus force on the skyrmions, whereas the reactive spin-orbit torque yields a correction to both the drift velocity along the current direction and the transverse velocity associated with the Magnus force. The spin-orbit torque corrections to the velocity scale linearly with the skyrmion size, which is inversely proportional to the spin-orbit coupling. Consequently, the reactive spin-orbit torque correction can be the same order of magnitude as the non-relativistic contribution. More importantly, the dissipative spin-orbit torque can be the dominant force that causes a deflected motion of the skyrmions if the torque exhibits a linear or quadratic relationship with the spin-orbit coupling. In addition, we demonstrate that the skyrmion velocity is determined by anisotropic magnetization damping parameters governed by the skyrmion size.
Spin torque nanooscillators: new applications in information processing
Macia, Ferran; Kent, Andrew D.; Hoppensteadt, Frank C.
2013-03-01
Nanonometer scale electrical contacts to ferromagnetic thin films (STNOs) can provide sufficient current densities to excite magnetic-moment dynamics resulting in emission of short wave-length spin waves. We discuss several applications of spin-wave patterns created from STNOs and their interaction with background oscillations. We review how to encode information in STNOs signals -modulating their amplitude, frequency or phase - and stability against noise. We first model arrays of STNOs in extended ferromagnetic thin films and define conditions to control spin-waves emission directions. We also study arrays of oscillators in patterned ferromagnetic thin films and we put forward a method to build an STNO lookup tables or an STNO based network analyzer. Using spin waves complements digital semiconductor technologies and offers new possibilities for increased memory capacity and computation performance. This work was supported by Marie Curie IOF 253214 and by ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-08-1-0317 and NSF Grant No. ECS 07- 25280.
Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling
Haney, Paul M.
2013-05-07
In bilayer nanowires consisting of a ferromagnetic layer and a nonmagnetic layer with strong spin-orbit coupling, currents create torques on the magnetization beyond those found in simple ferromagnetic nanowires. The resulting magnetic dynamics appear to require torques that can be separated into two terms, dampinglike and fieldlike. The dampinglike torque is typically derived from models describing the bulk spin Hall effect and the spin transfer torque, and the fieldlike torque is typically derived from a Rashba model describing interfacial spin-orbit coupling. We derive a model based on the Boltzmann equation that unifies these approaches. We also consider an approximation to the Boltzmann equation, the drift-diffusion model, that qualitatively reproduces the behavior, but quantitatively differs in some regimes. We show that the Boltzmann equation with physically reasonable parameters can match the torques for any particular sample, but in some cases, it fails to describe the experimentally observed thickness dependencies.
Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance in arbitrarily magnetized thin films
Sklenar, Joseph
The spin Hall effect (SHE) in non-magnetic metals can be used to generate spin-transfer-torque (STT), subsequently inducing ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in magnetic thin films; this experimental method is termed spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR). Most ST-FMR experiments that are reported have an applied magnetic field in the plane of the sample and the research focuses on material combinations that have large and efficient STT. The most common way ST-FMR signals are detected is through an anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) rectification process. In this work we will present ST-FMR results in thin films where the magnetization has both an in-plane and out-of-plane component. The arbitrary magnetization direction is achieved by tipping the applied magnetic field out of the sample plane. We find that when the material system is a permalloy/Pt bilayer, ST-FMR signals are not mirror-symmetric upon magnetic field reversal . This is because the combination of both a STT from the bulk SHE and the Oersted field-like torque from the device do not drive the dynamics in the same manner when the field is reversed. We interpret our results in the Py/Pt experiment by extending an already established ST-FMR lineshape model to describe the general case of arbitrarily magnetized films. We compare and contrast our Py/Pt experiment with another system we measured, a Py/MoS2 bilayer. For the Py/MoS2 system, in-plane experiments suggest that a large STT is present and are comparable to what is observed for the more traditional Py/Pt system . On the other hand, the out-of-plane experiment for the Py/MoS2 system is qualitatively very different from Py/Pt. Our results suggest that ST-FMR experiments for arbitrarily magnetized magnetic films are useful in characterizing STT generated from interface rather than bulk effects. Work at Northwestern was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division under grant
Spin-orbit torque induced spike-timing dependent plasticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sengupta, Abhronil, E-mail: asengup@purdue.edu; Al Azim, Zubair; Fong, Xuanyao; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2015-03-02
Nanoelectronic devices that mimic the functionality of synapses are a crucial requirement for performing cortical simulations of the brain. In this work, we propose a ferromagnet-heavy metal heterostructure that employs spin-orbit torque to implement spike-timing dependent plasticity. The proposed device offers the advantage of decoupled spike transmission and programming current paths, thereby leading to reliable operation during online learning. Possible arrangement of such devices in a crosspoint architecture can pave the way for ultra-dense neural networks. Simulation studies indicate that the device has the potential of achieving pico-Joule level energy consumption (maximum 2 pJ per synaptic event) which is comparable to the energy consumption for synaptic events in biological synapses.
Spin-orbit torque in two-dimensional antiferromagnetic topological insulators
Ghosh, Sumit
2017-01-24
We investigate spin transport in two-dimensional ferromagnetic (FTI) and antiferromagnetic (AFTI) topological insulators. In the presence of an in-plane magnetization AFTI supports zero energy modes, which enables topologically protected edge conduction at low energy. We address the nature of current-driven spin torque in these structures and study the impact of spin-independent disorder. Interestingly, upon strong disorder the spin torque develops an antidamping component (i.e., even upon magnetization reversal) along the edges, which could enable current-driven manipulation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. This antidamping torque decreases when increasing the system size and when the system enters the trivial insulator regime.
Spin-orbit torque switching without an external field using interlayer exchange coupling
Lau, Yong-Chang; Betto, Davide; Rode, Karsten; Coey, J. M. D.; Stamenov, Plamen
2016-09-01
Manipulation of the magnetization of a perpendicular ferromagnetic free layer by spin-orbit torque (SOT) is an attractive alternative to spin-transfer torque (STT) in oscillators and switches such as magnetic random-access memory (MRAM) where a high current is passed across an ultrathin tunnel barrier. A small symmetry-breaking bias field is usually needed for deterministic SOT switching but it is impractical to generate the field externally for spintronic applications. Here, we demonstrate robust zero-field SOT switching of a perpendicular CoFe free layer where the symmetry is broken by magnetic coupling to a second in-plane exchange-biased CoFe layer via a nonmagnetic Ru or Pt spacer. The preferred magnetic state of the free layer is determined by the current polarity and the sign of the interlayer exchange coupling (IEC). Our strategy offers a potentially scalable solution to realize bias-field-free switching that can lead to a generation of SOT devices, combining a high storage density and endurance with a low power consumption.
Spin-torque switching and control using chirped AC currents
Klughertz, Guillaume; Friedland, Lazar; Hervieux, Paul-Antoine; Manfredi, Giovanni
2017-10-01
We propose to use oscillating spin currents with slowly varying frequency (chirp) to manipulate and control the magnetization dynamics in a nanomagnet. By recasting the Landau-Lifshitz-Slonczewski equation in a quantum-like two-level formalism, we show that a chirped spin current polarized in the direction normal to the anisotropy axis can induce a stable precession of the magnetic moment at any angle (up to 90^\\circ ) with respect to the anisotropy axis. The drive current can be modest (10^6~A~cm-2 or lower) provided the chirp rate is sufficiently slow. The induced precession is stable against thermal noise, even for small nano-objects at room temperature. Complete reversal of the magnetization can be achieved by adding a small external magnetic field antiparallel to the easy axis. Alternatively, a combination of chirped ac and dc currents with different polarization directions can also be used to trigger the reversal.
Angular dependence and symmetry of Rashba spin torque in ferromagnetic heterostructures
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2013-06-26
In a ferromagnetic heterostructure, the interplay between Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange splitting gives rise to a current-driven spin torque. In a realistic device setup, we investigate the Rashba spin torque in the diffusive regime and report two major findings: (i) a nonvanishing torque exists at the edges of the device even when the magnetization and effective Rashba field are aligned; (ii) anisotropic spin relaxation rates driven by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling assign the spin torque a general expression T = T y (θ) m × (y × m) + T y (θ) y × m + T z (θ) m × (z × m) + T z (θ) z × m, where the coefficients T, y, z depend on the magnetization direction. Our results agree with recent experiments. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals
Li, Hang
2016-01-11
We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.
Research Update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS _{2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Wei; Sklenar, Joseph; Hsu, Bo; Jiang, Wanjun; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Xiao, Jiao; Fradin, Frank Y.; Liu, Yaohua; Pearson, John E.; Ketterson, John B.; Yang, Zheng; Hoffmann, Axel
2016-03-01
We observe current induced spin transfer torque resonance in permalloy (Py) grown on monolayer MoS2. By passing rf current through the Py/MoS2 bilayer, field-like and damping-like torques are induced which excite the ferromagnetic resonance of Py. The signals are detected via a homodyne voltage from anisotropic magnetoresistance of Py. In comparison to other bilayer systems with strong spin-orbit torques, the monolayer MoS2 cannot provide bulk spin Hall effects and thus indicates the purely interfacial nature of the spin transfer torques. Therefore our results indicate the potential of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide for the use of interfacial spin-orbitronics applications.
Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.
2015-09-01
Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.
Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.
2015-01-01
Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated
Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C., E-mail: claire.baraduc@cea.fr; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPINTEC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ducruet, C. [Crocus-Technology, 5, Place Robert Schuman, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Vila, L. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, INAC-SP2M, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2015-09-07
Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.
Research Update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Zhang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We observe current induced spin transfer torque resonance in permalloy (Py grown on monolayer MoS2. By passing rf current through the Py/MoS2 bilayer, field-like and damping-like torques are induced which excite the ferromagnetic resonance of Py. The signals are detected via a homodyne voltage from anisotropic magnetoresistance of Py. In comparison to other bilayer systems with strong spin-orbit torques, the monolayer MoS2 cannot provide bulk spin Hall effects and thus indicates the purely interfacial nature of the spin transfer torques. Therefore our results indicate the potential of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide for the use of interfacial spin-orbitronics applications.
Analytical description of ballistic spin currents and torques in magnetic tunnel junctions
Chshiev, M.
2015-09-21
In this work we demonstrate explicit analytical expressions for both charge and spin currents which constitute the 2×2 spinor in magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations under applied voltage. The calculations have been performed within the free electron model in the framework of the Keldysh formalism and WKB approximation. We demonstrate that spin/charge currents and spin transfer torques are all explicitly expressed through only three irreducible quantities, without further approximations. The conditions and mechanisms of deviation from the conventional sine angular dependence of both spin currents and torques are shown and discussed. It is shown in the thick barrier approximation that all tunneling transport quantities can be expressed in an extremely simplified form via Slonczewski spin polarizations and our effective spin averaged interfacial transmission probabilities and effective out-of-plane polarizations at both interfaces. It is proven that the latter plays a key role in the emergence of perpendicular spin torque as well as in the angular dependence character of all spin and charge transport considered. It is demonstrated directly also that for any applied voltage, the parallel component of spin current at the FM/I interface is expressed via collinear longitudinal spin current components. Finally, spin transfer torque behavior is analyzed in a view of transverse characteristic length scales for spin transport.
Spin-excited oscillations in two-component fermion condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Bertsch, George F.
2006-01-01
We investigate collective spin excitations in two-component fermion condensates with special consideration of unequal populations of the two components. The frequencies of monopole and dipole modes are calculated using Thomas-Fermi theory and the scaling approximation. As the fermion-fermion coupling is varied, the system shows various phases of the spin configuration. We demonstrate that spin oscillations have more sensitivity to the spin phase structures than the density oscillations
Go, Gyungchoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young Keun
2017-04-01
Recently, the switching of a perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnet (FM) by injecting an in-plane current into an attached non-magnet (NM) has become of emerging technological interest. This magnetization switching is attributed to the spin-orbit torque (SOT) originating from the strong spin-orbit coupling of the NM layer. However, the switching efficiency of the NM/FM structure itself may be insufficient for practical use, as for example, in spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here we investigate spin torque in an NM/FM structure with an additional spin polarizer (SP) layer abutted to the NM layer. In addition to the SOT contribution, a spin-polarized current from the SP layer creates an extra spin chemical potential difference at the NM/FM interface and gives rise to a STT on the FM layer. We show that, using typical parameters including device width, thickness, spin diffusion length, and the spin Hall angle, the spin torque from the SP layer can be much larger than that from the spin Hall effect (SHE) of the NM.
Krause, S; Herzog, G; Schlenhoff, A; Sonntag, A; Wiesendanger, R
2011-10-28
The influence of a high spin-polarized tunnel current onto the switching behavior of a superparamagnetic nanoisland on a nonmagnetic substrate is investigated by means of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. A detailed lifetime analysis allows for a quantification of the effective temperature rise of the nanoisland and the modification of the activation energy barrier for magnetization reversal, thereby using the nanoisland as a local thermometer and spin-transfer torque analyzer. Both the Joule heating and spin-transfer torque are found to scale linearly with the tunnel current. The results are compared to experiments performed on lithographically fabricated magneto-tunnel junctions, revealing a very high spin-transfer torque switching efficiency in our experiments.
Železný, J.
2017-01-10
One of the main obstacles that prevents practical applications of antiferromagnets is the difficulty of manipulating the magnetic order parameter. Recently, following the theoretical prediction [J. Železný, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 157201 (2014)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.157201, the electrical switching of magnetic moments in an antiferromagnet was demonstrated [P. Wadley, Science 351, 587 (2016)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aab1031. The switching is due to the so-called spin-orbit torque, which has been extensively studied in ferromagnets. In this phenomena a nonequilibrium spin-polarization exchange coupled to the ordered local moments is induced by current, hence exerting a torque on the order parameter. Here we give a general systematic analysis of the symmetry of the spin-orbit torque in locally and globally noncentrosymmetric crystals. We study when the symmetry allows for a nonzero torque, when is the torque effective, and its dependence on the applied current direction and orientation of magnetic moments. For comparison, we consider both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders. In two representative model crystals we perform microscopic calculations of the spin-orbit torque to illustrate its symmetry properties and to highlight conditions under which the spin-orbit torque can be efficient for manipulating antiferromagnetic moments.
Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques
Baumgartner, Manuel; Garello, Kevin; Mendil, Johannes; Avci, Can O.; Grimaldi, Eva; Murer, Christoph; Feng, Junxiao; Gabureac, Mihai; Stamm, Christian; Acremann, Yves; Finizio, Simone; Wintz, Sebastian; Raabe, Jörg; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-01-01
Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) represent one of the most effective ways to manipulate the magnetization in spintronic devices. The orthogonal torque-magnetization geometry, the strong damping, and the large domain wall velocities inherent to materials with strong spin-orbit coupling make SOTs especially appealing for fast switching applications in nonvolatile memory and logic units. So far, however, the timescale and evolution of the magnetization during the switching process have ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Luc, E-mail: luc.thomas@headway.com; Jan, Guenole; Zhu, Jian; Liu, Huanlong; Lee, Yuan-Jen; Le, Son; Tong, Ru-Ying; Pi, Keyu; Wang, Yu-Jen; Shen, Dongna; He, Renren; Haq, Jesmin; Teng, Jeffrey; Lam, Vinh; Huang, Kenlin; Zhong, Tom; Torng, Terry; Wang, Po-Kang [TDK-Headway Technologies, Inc., Milpitas, California 95035 (United States)
2014-05-07
Magnetic random access memories based on the spin transfer torque phenomenon (STT-MRAMs) have become one of the leading candidates for next generation memory applications. Among the many attractive features of this technology are its potential for high speed and endurance, read signal margin, low power consumption, scalability, and non-volatility. In this paper, we discuss our recent results on perpendicular STT-MRAM stack designs that show STT efficiency higher than 5 k{sub B}T/μA, energy barriers higher than 100 k{sub B}T at room temperature for sub-40 nm diameter devices, and tunnel magnetoresistance higher than 150%. We use both single device data and results from 8 Mb array to demonstrate data retention sufficient for automotive applications. Moreover, we also demonstrate for the first time thermal stability up to 400 °C exceeding the requirement of Si CMOS back-end processing, thus opening the realm of non-volatile embedded memory to STT-MRAM technology.
Spin orbit torques in W(O) based three terminal magnetic memory devices
Zhang, Jie; Phung, Timothy; Garg, Chirag; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian. P.; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart. S. P.
Recently, there has been a large interest in using spin orbit torques to controllably manipulate the magnetic order parameter in several promising magnetic memory devices such as racetrack memory and spin transfer torque MRAM. The efficient operation of such devices necessitates the finding of materials which exhibit efficient conversion of charge currents to spin orbit torques. This is typically quantified by the so-called spin Hall angle. The most efficient spin orbit torque generator to date based on the use of conventional metallic materials is W(O), wherein the effective spin hall angle is found to be -0.5. Here, we explore the use of W(O) to manipulate magnetization in three terminal magnetic memory devices. We find, consistent with the large spin orbit torques, observed in W(O), that the critical current required for switching a magnetic element is significantly smaller than compared to other metallic systems such as Pt, β-W, and Ta. Lastly, we shall discuss the technologically important high speed ( ns time scale) switching dynamics in these devices and the role of complex micromagnetic states upon the switching process.
Sign Reversal of Fieldlike Spin-Orbit Torque in an Ultrathin Cr /Ni Bilayer
Bose, Arnab; Singh, Hanuman; Kushwaha, Varun Kumar; Bhuktare, Swapnil; Dutta, Sutapa; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A.
2018-01-01
Relativistically originated spin-orbit torque is one of the promising ways to control the magnetization dynamics of a ferromagnet, which can be useful for the next generation of spintronic memory applications. Plenty of effort has been made to address the physical origin of spin-orbit torque and improve its efficiency. In this work, we demonstrate that in ultrathin chromium/nickel (Cr /Ni ) heterostructure, spin-orbit torque is significantly enhanced for a Cr thickness below 6 nm, which is related to the possible phase change of Cr at a lower thickness. We have also observed an unconventional sign reversal of a fieldlike torque which can be attributed to the interfacial Rashba-like coupling. We experimentally obtain that approximately a 35-Oe Rashba-like magnetic field is created on 8-nm-thick in-plane magnetized Ni film when 108 A /cm2 current density flows through the Cr layer.
Signatures of asymmetric and inelastic tunneling on the spin torque bias dependence
Manchon, Aurelien
2010-11-15
The influence of structural asymmetries (barrier height and exchange splitting), as well as inelastic scattering (magnons and phonons) on the bias dependence of the spin transfer torque in a magnetic tunnel junction is studied theoretically using the free-electron model. We show that they modify the “conventional” bias dependence of the spin transfer torque, together with the bias dependence of the conductance. In particular, both structural asymmetries and bulk (inelastic) scattering add antisymmetric terms to the perpendicular torque (∝V and ∝je|V|) while the interfacial inelastic scattering conserves the junction symmetry and only produces symmetric terms (∝|V|n, n∊N). The analysis of spin torque and conductance measurements displays a signature revealing the origin (asymmetry or inelastic scattering) of the discrepancy.
Exchange magnetic field torques in YIG/Pt bilayers observed by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance
Vlietstra, N.; Shan, J.; Castel, V.; Ben Youssef, J.; Bauer, G. E. W.; van Wees, B. J.
2013-01-01
The effective field torque of an yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) film on the spin accumulation in an attached platinum (Pt) film is measured by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). As a result, the magnetization direction of a ferromagnetic insulating layer can be measured electrically. Experimental
Model for a collimated spin-wave beam generated by a single-layer spin torque nanocontact
Hoefer, M. A.; Silva, T. J.; Stiles, M. D.
2008-04-01
A model of spin-torque-induced magnetization dynamics based on semiclassical spin diffusion theory for a single-layer nanocontact is presented. The model incorporates effects due to the current-induced Oersted field and predicts the generation of a variety of spatially dependent, coherent, precessional magnetic wave structures. Directionally controllable collimated spin-wave beams, vortex spiral waves, and localized standing waves are found to be excited by the interplay of the Oersted field and the orientation of an applied field. These fields act as a spin-wave “corral” around the nanocontact that controls the propagation of spin waves in certain directions.
Voltage-driven versus current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunneling junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-10-01
Nonequilibrium spin transport in a magnetic tunnel junction comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is studied theoretically. The interfacial SOI generates a spin torque of the form T=T∥ M×(z× M)+T⊥ z× M, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. For thick and large tunnel barriers, the torque reduces to the perpendicular component T⊥, which can be electrically tuned by applying a voltage across the insulator. In the limit of thin and low tunnel barriers, the in-plane torque T∥ emerges, proportional to the tunneling current density. Experimental implications on magnetic devices are discussed. © 2011 IEEE.
Minimal model of spin-transfer torque and spin pumping caused by the spin Hall Effect
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chen, W.; Sigrist, M.; Sinova, Jairo; Manske, D.
2016-01-01
Roč. 115, č. 21 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 217203. ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin tronics * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016
Critical current density for spin transfer torque switching with composite free layer structure
You, Chun-Yeol
2009-01-01
Critical current density of composite free layer (CFL) in magnetic tunneling junction is investigated. CFL consists of two exchange coupled ferromagnetic layers, where the coupling is parallel or anti-parallel. Instability condition of the CFL under the spin transfer torque, which is related with critical current density, is obtained by analytic spin wave excitation model and confirmed by macro-spin Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The critical current densities for the coupled two identical...
Dependence of the Spin Transfer Torque Switching Current Density on the Exchange Stiffness Constant
You, Chun-Yeol
2012-01-01
We investigate the dependence of the switching current density on the exchange stiffness constant in the spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junction structure with micromagnetic simulations. Since the widely accepted analytic expression of the switching current density is based on the macro-spin model, there is no dependence of the exchange stiffness constant. When the switching is occurred, however, the spin configuration forms C-, S-type, or complicated domain structures. Since the spi...
Spin-orbit-torque and magnetic damping in tailored ferromagnetic bilayers
Lee, DongJoon; Kim, JongHyuk; Park, HeeGyum; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Min, Byoung-Chul; Lee, OukJae
2018-01-01
We study spin-orbit-torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in ferromagnetic (FM) bilayers, consisting of Co and permalloy (Py), sandwiched between Pt and MgO layers. We find that the FM layer in contact with the Pt layers dominantly determines that spin Hall angle, which is consistent with the spin-transparency model. By contrast, the FMR linewidths are considerably influenced not only by the spin-pumping effect across the Pt|FM in terface but also by the spin relaxation such as two-magn...
Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-07-07
We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, D. [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)
2013-12-23
We have studied the current-induced displacement of a 180° Bloch wall by means of micromagnetic simulation and analytical approach. It is found that the adiabatic spin-transfer torque can sustain a steady-state domain wall (DW) motion in the direction opposite to that of the electron flow without Walker Breakdown when a transverse microwave field is applied. This kind of motion is very sensitive to the microwave frequency and can be resonantly enhanced by exciting the domain wall thickness oscillation mode. A one-dimensional analytical model was established to account for the microwave-assisted wall motion. These findings may be helpful for reducing the critical spin-polarized current density and designing DW-based spintronic devices.
Room-temperature spin-orbit torque in NiMnSb
Ciccarelli, C.; Anderson, L.; Tshitoyan, V.; Ferguson, A. J.; Gerhard, F.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Gayles, J.; Železný, J.; Šmejkal, L.; Yuan, Z.; Sinova, J.; Freimuth, F.; Jungwirth, T.
2016-09-01
Materials that crystallize in diamond-related lattices, with Si and GaAs as their prime examples, are at the foundation of modern electronics. Simultaneously, inversion asymmetries in their crystal structure and relativistic spin-orbit coupling led to discoveries of non-equilibrium spin-polarization phenomena that are now extensively explored as an electrical means for manipulating magnetic moments in a variety of spintronic structures. Current research of these relativistic spin-orbit torques focuses primarily on magnetic transition-metal multilayers. The low-temperature diluted magnetic semiconductor (Ga, Mn)As, in which spin-orbit torques were initially discovered, has so far remained the only example showing the phenomenon among bulk non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Here we present a general framework, based on the complete set of crystallographic point groups, for identifying the potential presence and symmetry of spin-orbit torques in non-centrosymmetric crystals. Among the candidate room-temperature ferromagnets we chose to use NiMnSb, which is a member of the broad family of magnetic Heusler compounds. By performing all-electrical ferromagnetic resonance measurements in single-crystal epilayers of NiMnSb we detect room-temperature spin-orbit torques generated by effective fields of the expected symmetry and of a magnitude consistent with our ab initio calculations.
Transport theory for femtosecond laser-induced spin-transfer torques
Baláž, Pavel; Žonda, Martin; Carva, Karel; Maldonado, Pablo; Oppeneer, Peter M.
2018-03-01
Ultrafast demagnetization of magnetic layers pumped by a femtosecond laser pulse is accompanied by a nonthermal spin-polarized current of hot electrons. These spin currents are studied here theoretically in a spin valve with noncollinear magnetizations. To this end, we introduce an extended model of superdiffusive spin transport that enables the treatment of noncollinear magnetic configurations, and apply it to the perpendicular spin valve geometry. We show how spin-transfer torques arise due to this mechanism and calculate their action on the magnetization present, as well as how the latter depends on the thicknesses of the layers and other transport parameters. We demonstrate that there exists a certain optimum thickness of the out-of-plane magnetized spin-current polarizer such that the torque acting on the second magnetic layer is maximal. Moreover, we study the magnetization dynamics excited by the superdiffusive spin-transfer torque due to the flow of hot electrons employing the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Thereby we show that a femtosecond laser pulse applied to one magnetic layer can excite small-angle precessions of the magnetization in the second magnetic layer. We compare our calculations with recent experimental results.
Transport theory for femtosecond laser-induced spin-transfer torques.
Baláž, Pavel; Žonda, Martin; Carva, Karel; Maldonado, Pablo; Oppeneer, Peter M
2018-03-21
Ultrafast demagnetization of magnetic layers pumped by a femtosecond laser pulse is accompanied by a nonthermal spin-polarized current of hot electrons. These spin currents are studied here theoretically in a spin valve with noncollinear magnetizations. To this end, we introduce an extended model of superdiffusive spin transport that enables the treatment of noncollinear magnetic configurations, and apply it to the perpendicular spin valve geometry. We show how spin-transfer torques arise due to this mechanism and calculate their action on the magnetization present, as well as how the latter depends on the thicknesses of the layers and other transport parameters. We demonstrate that there exists a certain optimum thickness of the out-of-plane magnetized spin-current polarizer such that the torque acting on the second magnetic layer is maximal. Moreover, we study the magnetization dynamics excited by the superdiffusive spin-transfer torque due to the flow of hot electrons employing the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Thereby we show that a femtosecond laser pulse applied to one magnetic layer can excite small-angle precessions of the magnetization in the second magnetic layer. We compare our calculations with recent experimental results.
Berger, Andrew J.; Edwards, Eric R. J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Karenowska, Alexy D.; Weiler, Mathias; Silva, Thomas J.
2018-03-01
Functional spintronic devices rely on spin-charge interconversion effects, such as the reciprocal processes of electric field-driven spin torque and magnetization dynamics-driven spin and charge flow. Both dampinglike and fieldlike spin-orbit torques have been observed in the forward process of current-driven spin torque and dampinglike inverse spin-orbit torque has been well studied via spin pumping into heavy metal layers. Here, we demonstrate that established microwave transmission spectroscopy of ferromagnet/normal metal bilayers under ferromagnetic resonance can be used to inductively detect the ac charge currents driven by the inverse spin-charge conversion processes. This technique relies on vector network analyzer ferromagnetic resonance (VNA-FMR) measurements. We show that in addition to the commonly extracted spectroscopic information, VNA-FMR measurements can be used to quantify the magnitude and phase of all ac charge currents in the sample, including those due to spin pumping and spin-charge conversion. Our findings reveal that Ni80Fe20/Pt bilayers exhibit both dampinglike and fieldlike inverse spin-orbit torques. While the magnitudes of both the dampinglike and fieldlike inverse spin-orbit torque are of comparable scale to prior reported values for similar material systems, we observed a significant dependence of the dampinglike magnitude on the order of deposition. This suggests interface quality plays an important role in the overall strength of the dampinglike spin-to-charge conversion.
Macro-spin modeling and experimental study of spin-orbit torque biased magnetic sensors
Xu, Yanjun; Yang, Yumeng; Luo, Ziyan; Xu, Baoxi; Wu, Yihong
2017-11-01
We reported a systematic study of spin-orbit torque biased magnetic sensors based on NiFe/Pt bilayers through both macro-spin modeling and experiments. The simulation results show that it is possible to achieve a linear sensor with a dynamic range of 0.1-10 Oe, power consumption of 1 μW-1mW, and sensitivity of 0.1-0.5 Ω/Oe. These characteristics can be controlled by varying the sensor dimension and current density in the Pt layer. The latter is in the range of 1 × 105-107 A/cm2. Experimental results of fabricated sensors with selected sizes agree well with the simulation results. For a Wheatstone bridge sensor comprising of four sensing elements, a sensitivity up to 0.548 Ω/Oe, linearity error below 6%, and detectivity of about 2.8 nT/√Hz were obtained. The simple structure and ultrathin thickness greatly facilitate the integration of these sensors for on-chip applications. As a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrate its application in detection of current flowing in an on-chip Cu wire.
Pai, Chi-Feng; Ou, Yongxi; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.
2014-01-01
We report that spin current transport across Pt-ferromagnet (FM) interfaces is strongly dependent on the type and the thickness of the FM layer and on post-deposition processing protocols. By employing both harmonic voltage measurements and spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements, we find that the efficiency of the Pt spin Hall effect in exerting a damping-like spin torque on the FM ranges from 0.10 under different interfacial conditions. We also show that the temperature...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Fang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We experimentally studied spin-transfer-torque induced magnetization oscillations in an asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction device consisting of an in-plane magnetized free layer and an out-of-plane magnetized polarizer. A steady auto-oscillation was achieved at zero magnetic field and room temperature, with an oscillation frequency that was strongly dependent on bias currents, with a large frequency tunability of 1.39 GHz/mA. Our results suggest that this new structure has a high potential for new microwave device designs.
Physical limitations to efficient high-speed spin-torque switching in magnetic tunnel junctions
Heindl, R.; Rippard, W. H.; Russek, S. E.; Kos, A. B.
2011-02-01
We have investigated the physical limitations to efficient high-speed spin-torque switching by means of write error rates both experimentally as well as through macrospin simulations. The spin-torque-induced write operations were performed on in-plane MgO magnetic tunnel junctions. The write error rates were determined from up to 106 switching events as a function of pulse amplitude and duration (5 to 100 ns) for devices with different thermal stability factors. Both experiments and simulations show qualitatively similar results. In particular, the write error rates as a function of pulse voltage amplitude increase at higher rates for pulse durations below ≈50 ns. Simulations show that the write error rates can be reduced only to some extent by the use of materials with perpendicular anisotropy and reduced damping, whereas noncollinear orientation of the spin current polarization and the magnetic easy axis increases the write error rates. The cause for the write error rates is related to the underlying physics of spin-torque switching and the occurrence of the stagnation point on the magnetization switching trajectory where the spin-torque disappears and the device loses the energy needed to switch. The stagnation point can be accessed either during the initial magnetization distribution or by thermal diffusion during the switching process.
Giant spin-torque diode sensitivity in the absence of bias magnetic field
Fang, Bin; Carpentieri, Mario; Hao, Xiaojie; Jiang, Hongwen; Katine, Jordan A.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; Ocker, Berthold; Langer, Juergen; Wang, Kang L.; Zhang, Baoshun; Azzerboni, Bruno; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Finocchio, Giovanni; Zeng, Zhongming
2016-01-01
Microwave detectors based on the spin-torque diode effect are among the key emerging spintronic devices. By utilizing the spin of electrons in addition to charge, they have the potential to overcome the theoretical performance limits of their semiconductor (Schottky) counterparts. However, so far, practical implementations of spin-diode microwave detectors have been limited by the necessity to apply a magnetic field. Here, we demonstrate nanoscale magnetic tunnel junction microwave detectors, exhibiting high-detection sensitivity of 75,400 mV mW−1 at room temperature without any external bias fields, and for low-input power (micro-Watts or lower). This sensitivity is significantly larger than both state-of-the-art Schottky diode detectors and existing spintronic diodes. Micromagnetic simulations and measurements reveal the essential role of injection locking to achieve this sensitivity performance. This mechanism may provide a pathway to enable further performance improvement of spin-torque diode microwave detectors. PMID:27052973
Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes
Ma, X.; Fang, F.; Li, Q.; Zhu, J.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Y. Z.; Zhao, H. B.; Lüpke, G.
2015-10-01
Optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new pathways to manipulate spin through its interaction with photon, orbit, charge or phonon. However, these processes are limited by either the long thermal recovery time or the low-temperature requirement. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrafast coherent spin precession via optical charge-transfer processes in the exchange-coupled Fe/CoO system at room temperature. The efficiency of spin precession excitation is significantly higher and the recovery time of the exchange-coupling torque is much shorter than for the demagnetization procedure, which is desirable for fast switching. The exchange coupling is a key issue in spin valves and tunnelling junctions, and hence our findings will help promote the development of exchange-coupled device concepts for ultrafast coherent spin manipulation.
Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes.
Ma, X; Fang, F; Li, Q; Zhu, J; Yang, Y; Wu, Y Z; Zhao, H B; Lüpke, G
2015-10-28
Optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new pathways to manipulate spin through its interaction with photon, orbit, charge or phonon. However, these processes are limited by either the long thermal recovery time or the low-temperature requirement. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrafast coherent spin precession via optical charge-transfer processes in the exchange-coupled Fe/CoO system at room temperature. The efficiency of spin precession excitation is significantly higher and the recovery time of the exchange-coupling torque is much shorter than for the demagnetization procedure, which is desirable for fast switching. The exchange coupling is a key issue in spin valves and tunnelling junctions, and hence our findings will help promote the development of exchange-coupled device concepts for ultrafast coherent spin manipulation.
Spin-transfer torques in antiferromagnetic textures: efficiency and quantification method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Yamane, Y.; Ieda, J.; Sinova, Jairo
2016-01-01
Roč. 94, č. 5 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 054409. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin-transfer torques * antiferromagnets Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016
Spin-transfer torque switched magnetic tunnel junctions in magnetic random access memory
Sun, Jonathan Z.
2016-10-01
Spin-transfer torque (or spin-torque, or STT) based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) is at the heart of a new generation of magnetism-based solid-state memory, the so-called spin-transfer-torque magnetic random access memory, or STT-MRAM. Over the past decades, STT-based switchable magnetic tunnel junction has seen progress on many fronts, including the discovery of (001) MgO as the most favored tunnel barrier, which together with (bcc) Fe or FeCo alloy are yielding best demonstrated tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR); the development of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin CoFeB-type of thin films sufficient to support high density memories with junction sizes demonstrated down to 11nm in diameter; and record-low spin-torque switching threshold current, giving best reported switching efficiency over 5 kBT/μA. Here we review the basic device properties focusing on the perpendicularly magnetized MTJs, both in terms of switching efficiency as measured by sub-threshold, quasi-static methods, and of switching speed at super-threshold, forced switching. We focus on device behaviors important for memory applications that are rooted in fundamental device physics, which highlights the trade-off of device parameters for best suitable system integration.
Wu, Yang; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Elyasi, Mehrdad; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo
2016-10-01
The efficient generation of pure spin currents and manipulation of the magnetization dynamics of magnetic structures is of central importance in the field of spintronics. The spin-orbit effect is one of the promising ways to generate spin currents, in which a charge current can be converted to a transverse spin current due to the spin-orbit interaction. We investigate the spin dynamics in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling materials such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3 oxide heterostructures. Angle dependent magnetoresistance measurements are employed to detect and understand the current-induced spin-orbit torques, and an effective field of 2.35 T is observed for a dc-current of 200 uA. In order to understand the interaction between light and spin currents, we use a femtosecond laser to excite an ultrafast transient spin current and subsequent terahertz (THz) emission in nonmagnet (NM)/ferromagnet (FM)/oxide heterostructures. The THz emission strongly relies on spin-orbit interaction, and is tailored by the magnitude and sign of the effective spin Hall angle of the NM. Our results can be utilized for ultrafast spintronic devices and tunable THz sources.
Field-free deterministic ultrafast creation of magnetic skyrmions by spin-orbit torques
Büttner, Felix; Lemesh, Ivan; Schneider, Michael; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M.; Hessing, Piet; Geilhufe, Jan; Caretta, Lucas; Engel, Dieter; Krüger, Benjamin; Viefhaus, Jens; Eisebitt, Stefan; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.
2017-11-01
Magnetic skyrmions are stabilized by a combination of external magnetic fields, stray field energies, higher-order exchange interactions and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). The last favours homochiral skyrmions, whose motion is driven by spin-orbit torques and is deterministic, which makes systems with a large DMI relevant for applications. Asymmetric multilayers of non-magnetic heavy metals with strong spin-orbit interactions and transition-metal ferromagnetic layers provide a large and tunable DMI. Also, the non-magnetic heavy metal layer can inject a vertical spin current with transverse spin polarization into the ferromagnetic layer via the spin Hall effect. This leads to torques that can be used to switch the magnetization completely in out-of-plane magnetized ferromagnetic elements, but the switching is deterministic only in the presence of a symmetry-breaking in-plane field. Although spin-orbit torques led to domain nucleation in continuous films and to stochastic nucleation of skyrmions in magnetic tracks, no practical means to create individual skyrmions controllably in an integrated device design at a selected position has been reported yet. Here we demonstrate that sub-nanosecond spin-orbit torque pulses can generate single skyrmions at custom-defined positions in a magnetic racetrack deterministically using the same current path as used for the shifting operation. The effect of the DMI implies that no external in-plane magnetic fields are needed for this aim. This implementation exploits a defect, such as a constriction in the magnetic track, that can serve as a skyrmion generator. The concept is applicable to any track geometry, including three-dimensional designs.
Observation of thermally driven field-like spin torque in magnetic tunnel junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bose, Arnab, E-mail: arnabbose@ee.iitb.ac.in; Jain, Sourabh; Asam, Nagarjuna; Bhuktare, Swapnil; Singh, Hanuman; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Shukla, Amit Kumar; Konishi, Katsunori; Lam, Duc Duong; Fujii, Yuya; Miwa, Shinji; Suzuki, Yoshishige [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)
2016-07-18
We report the thermally driven giant field-like spin-torque in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) on application of heat current from top to bottom. The field-like term is detected by the shift of the magneto-resistance hysteresis loop applying temperature gradient. We observed that the field-like term depends on the magnetic symmetry of the MTJ. In asymmetric structures, with different ferromagnetic materials for free and fixed layers, the field-like term is greatly enhanced. Our results show that a pure spin current density of the order of 10{sup 9 }A/m{sup 2} can be produced by creating a 120 mK temperature difference across 0.9 nm thick MgO tunnelling barrier. Our results will be useful for writing MTJ and domain wall-based memories using thermally driven spin torque.
Matsuura, Yusuke; Hirano, Taichi; Sakai, Keiji
2017-07-01
In this study, we developed a novel type of rheological measurement system. Here, a spherical probe is driven to rotate periodically by applying torques using quadruple electromagnets in a noncontact manner. Moreover, this system is an enhancement of our electromagnetically spinning (EMS) viscometer, which is widely used for measuring rheological flow curves in various industrial fields. The quadruple EMS method provides the frequency spectrum of viscoelasticity, in addition to shear viscosity, in a steady flow by switching the operation modes of the driving torque. We show the results obtained for Newtonian fluids and viscoelastic materials and demonstrate the validity of the system.
Dynamics of chiral oscillations: a comparative analysis with spin flipping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernardini, A E
2006-01-01
Chiral oscillation as well as spin flipping effects correspond to quantum phenomena of fundamental importance in the context of particle physics and, in particular, of neutrino physics. From the point of view of first quantized theories, we are specifically interested in pointing out the differences between chirality and helicity by obtaining their dynamic equations for a fermionic Dirac-type particle (neutrino). We also identify both effects when the non-minimal coupling with an external (electro)magnetic field in the neutrino interacting Lagrangian is taken into account. We demonstrate that, however, there is no constraint between chiral oscillations, when it takes place in vacuum, and the process of spin flipping related to the helicity quantum number, which does not take place in vacuum. To conclude, we show that the origin of chiral oscillations (in vacuum) can be interpreted as projections of very rapid oscillations of position onto the longitudinal direction of momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader
2016-01-01
We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching. - Highlights: • The quantum size effects are studied in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. • Spin torque (ST) components oscillate for increasing of middle spacer thicknesses. • Due to the resonant tunneling in the quantum well, oscillations have appeared. • By replacement a metal spacer with a semiconductor (ZnO) ST has increased. • The ST components vs. bias show gradually decreasing unlike spin valves or MTJs.
Multi-photon Rabi oscillations in high spin paramagnetic impurity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertaina, S; Groll, N; Chen, L; Chiorescu, I
2011-01-01
We report on multiple photon monochromatic quantum oscillations (Rabi oscillations) observed by pulsed EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) of Mn 2+ (S = 5/2) impurities in MgO. We find that when the microwave magnetic field is similar or large than the anisotropy splitting, the Rabi oscillations have a spectrum made of many frequencies not predicted by the S = l/2 Rabi model. We show that these new frequencies come from multiple photon coherent manipulation of the multi-level spin impurity. We develop a model based on the crystal field theory and the rotating frame approximation, describing the observed phenomenon with a very good agreement.
Rabi spin oscillations generated by ultrasound in solids.
Calero, C; Chudnovsky, E M
2007-07-27
It is shown that ultrasound in the gigahertz range can generate space-time Rabi oscillations between spin states of molecular magnets. We compute dynamics of the magnetization generated by surface acoustic waves and discuss conditions under which this novel quantum effect can be observed.
Scaling Projections on Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Tunnel Junctions
Das, Debasis; Tulapurkar, Ashwin; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran
2018-02-01
We investigate scaling of technologically relevant magnetic tunnel junction devices in the trilayer and pentalayer configurations by varying the cross-sectional area along the transverse direction using the non-equilibrium Green's function spin transport formalism. We study the geometry dependence by considering square and circular cross-sections. As the transverse dimension in each case reduces, we demonstrate that the transverse mode energy profile plays a major role in the resistance-area product. Both types of devices show constant tunnel magnetoresistance at larger cross-sectional areas but achieve ultra-high magnetoresistance at small cross-sectional areas, while maintaining low resistance-area products. We notice that although the critical switching voltage for switching the magnetization of the free layer nanomagnet in the trilayer case remains constant at larger areas, it needs more energy to switch at smaller areas. In the pentalayer case, we observe an oscillatory behavior at smaller areas as a result of double barrier tunneling. We also describe how switching characteristics of both kinds of devices are affected by the scaling.
Frequency Modulation of Spin-Transfer Oscillators
Pufall, M. R.; Rippard, W. H.; Kaka, S.; Silva, T. J.; Russek, S. E.
2004-01-01
Spin-polarized dc electric current flowing into a magnetic layer can induce precession of the magnetization at a frequency that depends on current. We show that addition of an ac current to this dc bias current results in a frequency modulated (FM) spectral output, generating sidebands spaced at the modulation frequency. The sideband amplitudes and shift of the center frequency with drive amplitude are in good agreement with a nonlinear FM model that takes into account the nonlinear frequency...
Ghosh, Abhijit; Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Gabureac, Mihai; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-01-01
Magnetic heterostructures that combine large spin-orbit torque efficiency, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and low resistivity are key to developing electrically controlled memory and logic devices. Here, we report on vector measurements of the current-induced spin-orbit torques and magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Pd /Co /AlOx layers as a function of Pd thickness. We find sizable dampinglike (DL) and fieldlike (FL) torques, on the order of 1 mT per 107 A /cm2 , which have different thicknesses and magnetization angle dependencies. The analysis of the DL torque efficiency per unit current density and the electric field using drift-diffusion theory leads to an effective spin Hall angle and spin-diffusion length of Pd larger than 0.03 and 7 nm, respectively. The FL spin-orbit torque includes a significant interface contribution, is larger than estimated using drift-diffusion parameters, and, furthermore, is strongly enhanced upon rotation of the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane direction. Finally, taking advantage of the large spin-orbit torques in this system, we demonstrate bipolar magnetization switching of Pd /Co /AlOx layers with a similar current density to that used for Pt /Co layers with a comparable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.
Steady motion of skyrmions and domains walls under diffusive spin torques
Elías, Ricardo Gabriel
2017-03-09
We explore the role of the spin diffusion of conducting electrons in two-dimensional magnetic textures (domain walls and skyrmions) with spatial variation of the order of the spin precession length λex. The effect of diffusion reflects in four additional torques that are third order in spatial derivatives of magnetization and bilinear in λex and in the nonadiabatic parameter β′. In order to study the dynamics of the solitons when these diffusive torques are present, we derive the Thiele equation in the limit of steady motion and we compare the results with the nondiffusive limit. When considering a homogenous current these torques increase the longitudinal velocity of transverse domain walls of width Δ by a factor (λex/Δ)2(α/3), α being the magnetic damping constant. In the case of single skyrmions with core radius r0 these new contributions tend to increase the Magnus effect in an amount proportional to (λex/r0)2(1+2αβ′).
Bias dependence of spin transfer torque in Co2MnSi Heusler alloy based magnetic tunnel junctions
Zhang, Jie; Phung, Timothy; Pushp, Aakash; Ferrante, Yari; Jeong, Jaewoo; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian P.; Yang, See-Hun; Jiang, Yong; Parkin, Stuart S. P.
2017-04-01
Heusler compounds are of interest as electrode materials for use in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) due to their half metallic character, which leads to 100% spin polarization and high tunneling magnetoresistance. Most work to date has focused on the improvements to tunneling magnetoresistance that can stem from the use of Heusler electrodes, while there is much less work investigating the influence of Heusler electrodes on the spin transfer torque properties of MTJs. Here, we investigate the bias dependence of the anti-damping like and field-like spin transfer torque components in both symmetric (Co2MnSi/MgO/Co2MnSi) and asymmetric (Co2MnSi/MgO/CoFe) structure Heusler based MTJs using spin transfer torque ferromagnetic resonance. We find that while the damping like torque is linear with respect to bias for both MTJ structures, the asymmetric MTJ structure has an additional linear component to the ordinarily quadratic field like torque bias dependence and that these results can be accounted for by a free electron tunneling model. Furthermore, our results suggest that the low damping and low saturation magnetization properties of Heusler alloys are more likely to lead significant improvements to spin torque switching efficiency rather than their half metallic character.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E., E-mail: demidov@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Bessonov, V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Demokritov, S. O. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Prieto, J. L. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnologa (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne CNRS, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Naletov, V. V. [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Loubens, G. de [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France)
2016-04-25
We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.
Performance analysis of spin-oscillator system based on Simulink
Liao, Xubo; Wang, Zhiguo; Hu, Shaomin; Luo, Hui; Li, Yingying
2017-10-01
The spin oscillator has been widely used in the field of frontier science, and it is of great significance to research its properties. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the noise performance of the spin oscillator system and discover the influence of the filter on the self-excited closed-loop system. We consider to set three noise points at My, Bz, Bx respectively. When SNRMy =104; SNRBz =107; SNRBx =104, we can meet the standard deviation accuracy at 0.1μHz. On this condition. The effect of the filter is discussed that the bandwidth is linearly related to the frequency offset. Besides, a scheme has been proposed to guarantee a high precision phase compensation tracking when the center frequency is changed.
Analytic expression of the temperature increment in a spin transfer torque nanopillar structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You, Chun-Yeol; Ha, Seung-Seok; Lee, Hyun-Woo
2009-01-01
The temperature increment due to the Joule heating in a nanopillar spin transfer torque system is investigated. We obtain a time-dependent analytic solution of the heat conduction equation in nanopillar geometry by using the Green's function method after some simplifications of the problem. While Holm's equation is applicable only to steady states in metallic systems, our solution describes the time dependence and is also applicable to a nanopillar-shaped magnetic tunneling junction with an insulator barrier layer. The validity of the analytic solution is confirmed by numerical finite element method simulations and by the comparison with Holm's equation.
Materials and Physics Challenges for Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinonen, O.
2014-10-05
Magnetic random access memories utilizing the spin transfer torque effect for writing information are a strong contender for non-volatile memories scalable to the 20 nm node, and perhaps beyond. I will here examine how these devices behave as the device size is scaled down from 70 nm size to 20 nm. As device sizes go below ~50 nm, the size becomes comparable to intrinsic magnetic length scales and the device behavior does not simply scale with size. This has implications for the device design and puts additional constraints on the materials in the device.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Kyungmi [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung-Jin, E-mail: kj-lee@korea.ac.kr [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-07
We numerically investigate the effect of magnetic and electrical damages at the edge of a perpendicular magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell on the spin-transfer-torque (STT) efficiency that is defined by the ratio of thermal stability factor to switching current. We find that the switching mode of an edge-damaged cell is different from that of an undamaged cell, which results in a sizable reduction in the switching current. Together with a marginal reduction of the thermal stability factor of an edge-damaged cell, this feature makes the STT efficiency large. Our results suggest that a precise edge control is viable for the optimization of STT-MRAM.
Song, Kyungmi; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2015-08-01
We numerically investigate the effect of magnetic and electrical damages at the edge of a perpendicular magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell on the spin-transfer-torque (STT) efficiency that is defined by the ratio of thermal stability factor to switching current. We find that the switching mode of an edge-damaged cell is different from that of an undamaged cell, which results in a sizable reduction in the switching current. Together with a marginal reduction of the thermal stability factor of an edge-damaged cell, this feature makes the STT efficiency large. Our results suggest that a precise edge control is viable for the optimization of STT-MRAM.
A Novel Sensing Circuit with Large Sensing Margin for Embedded Spin-Transfer Torque MRAMs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagheriye, Leila; Toofan, Siroos; Saeidi, Roghayeh
Abstract— Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) has emerged as a promising candidate for next-generation computing systems. However, with increasing process variation and decreasing supply voltage, a big design challenge of embedded STT-MRAMs is to guarantee negligible read......-disturbance and high yield. In this paper, to deal with the read reliability challenge, a high sensing margin sensing circuit with strong positive feedback is proposed. It improves the sensing margin (SM) by 10.42X/3.3X and a with 1.24X/1.59X lower read energy at iso-sensing time (2ns) in comparison...
Ghosh, Sumit
2017-11-29
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore, our model accounts for spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large damping torque reported recently is more likely attributed to interfacial magnetoelectric effect, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Ghosh, Sumit
2018-04-02
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three-dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore our model accounts for the spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large dampinglike torque reported recently is more likely attributed to the Berry curvature of interfacial states, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in Co/Pt multilayers
Jinnai, Butsurin; Zhang, Chaoliang; Kurenkov, Aleksandr; Bersweiler, Mathias; Sato, Hideo; Fukami, Shunsuke; Ohno, Hideo
2017-09-01
Spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced magnetization switching in Co/Pt multilayer structures with a Pt buffer layer is studied aiming to realize SOT-magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices with high thermal stability. Current-induced magnetization switching and effective fields are measured using Hall-bar devices. The switching efficiency, defined as a ratio of the areal anisotropy energy density to switching current density, increases with increasing the number of Co/Pt stacks. This trend is in accordance with the stacking number dependence of effective fields per unit current density. The effective spin-Hall angle of the Pt buffer layer for the sample with multiple Co/Pt stacks is significantly larger than that of Pt previously reported, suggesting a generation of SOT in Co/Pt multilayers. These results indicate that Co/Pt multilayers are promising for SOT-MRAM devices possessing high thermal stability and small switching current.
Adiabatic spin-transfer-torque-induced domain wall creep in a magnetic metal
Duttagupta, S.; Fukami, S.; Zhang, C.; Sato, H.; Yamanouchi, M.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.
2016-04-01
The dynamics of elastic interfaces is a general field of interest in statistical physics, where magnetic domain wall has served as a prototypical example. Domain wall `creep’ under the action of sub-threshold driving forces with thermal activation is known to be described by a scaling law with a certain universality class, which represents the mechanism of the interaction of domain walls with the applied forces over the disorder of the system. Here we show different universality classes depending on the driving forces, magnetic field or spin-polarized current, in a metallic system, which have hitherto been seen only in a magnetic semiconductor. We reveal that an adiabatic spin-transfer torque plays a major role in determining the universality class of current-induced creep, which does not depend on the intricacies of material disorder. Our results shed light on the physics of the creep motion of domain walls and other elastic systems.
Wu, Mingzhong
As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque that can induce magnetization switching in a neighboring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. This presentation reports the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems.1 The experiments made use of Pt/BaFe12O19 bi-layered structures. Thanks to its strong spin-orbit coupling, Pt has been widely used to produce pure spin currents in previous studies. BaFe12O19 is an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite and is often referred as BaM. It is one of the few magnetic insulators with strong magneto-crystalline anisotropy and shows an effective uniaxial anisotropy field of about 17 kOe. It's found that the switching response in the BaM film strongly depends on the charge current applied to the Pt film. When a constant magnetic field is applied in the film plane, the charge current in the Pt film can switch the normal component of the magnetization (M⊥) in the BaM film between the up and down states. The current also dictates the up and down states of the remnant magnetization when the in-plane field is reduced to zero. When M⊥ is measured by sweeping an in-plane field, the response manifests itself as a hysteresis loop, which evolves in a completely opposite manner if the sign of the charge current is flipped. When the coercivity is measured by sweeping an out-of-plane field, its value can be reduced or increased by as much as about 500 Oe if an appropriate charge current is applied. 1. P. Li, T. Liu, H. Chang, A. Kalitsov, W. Zhang, G. Csaba, W. Li, D. Richardson, A. Demann, G. Rimal, H. Dey, J. S. Jiang, W. Porod, S. Field, J. Tang, M. C. Marconi, A. Hoffmann, O. Mryasov, and M. Wu, Nature Commun. 7:12688 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12688 (2016).
Spin-orbit torques for current parallel and perpendicular to a domain wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, Tomek; Lee, Kyujoon; Karnad, Gurucharan V. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Alejos, Oscar [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belen, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martinez, Eduardo; Moretti, Simone [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caidos s/n, E-38008 Salamanca (Spain); Hals, Kjetil M. D. [Niels Bohr International Academy and the Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, Karin; Ravelosona, Dafiné [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vila, Laurent [Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Lo Conte, Roberto; Kläui, Mathias [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Graduate School of Excellence “Materials Science in Mainz” (MAINZ), Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Ocker, Berthold [Singulus Technologies AG, 63796 Kahl am Main (Germany); Brataas, Arne [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)
2015-09-21
We report field- and current-induced domain wall (DW) depinning experiments in Ta\\Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}\\MgO nanowires through a Hall cross geometry. While purely field-induced depinning shows no angular dependence on in-plane fields, the effect of the current depends crucially on the internal DW structure, which we manipulate by an external magnetic in-plane field. We show depinning measurements for a current sent parallel to the DW and compare its depinning efficiency with the conventional case of current flowing perpendicularly to the DW. We find that the maximum efficiency is similar for both current directions within the error bars, which is in line with a dominating damping-like spin-orbit torque (SOT) and indicates that no large additional torques arise for currents perpendicular to the DW. Finally, we find a varying dependence of the maximum depinning efficiency angle for different DWs and pinning levels. This emphasizes the importance of our full angular scans compared with previously used measurements for just two field directions (parallel and perpendicular to the DW) to determine the real torque strength and shows the sensitivity of the SOT to the precise DW structure and pinning sites.
Spin-transfer torque magnetic memory as a stochastic memristive synapse for neuromorphic systems.
Vincent, Adrien F; Larroque, Jerome; Locatelli, Nicolas; Ben Romdhane, Nesrine; Bichler, Olivier; Gamrat, Christian; Zhao, Wei Sheng; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Galdin-Retailleau, Sylvie; Querlioz, Damien
2015-04-01
Spin-transfer torque magnetic memory (STT-MRAM) is currently under intense academic and industrial development, since it features non-volatility, high write and read speed and high endurance. In this work, we show that when used in a non-conventional regime, it can additionally act as a stochastic memristive device, appropriate to implement a "synaptic" function. We introduce basic concepts relating to spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junction (STT-MTJ, the STT-MRAM cell) behavior and its possible use to implement learning-capable synapses. Three programming regimes (low, intermediate and high current) are identified and compared. System-level simulations on a task of vehicle counting highlight the potential of the technology for learning systems. Monte Carlo simulations show its robustness to device variations. The simulations also allow comparing system operation when the different programming regimes of STT-MTJs are used. In comparison to the high and low current regimes, the intermediate current regime allows minimization of energy consumption, while retaining a high robustness to device variations. These results open the way for unexplored applications of STT-MTJs in robust, low power, cognitive-type systems.
Ultra-fast three terminal perpendicular spin-orbit torque MRAM (Presentation Recording)
Boulle, Olivier; Cubukcu, Murat; Hamelin, Claire; Lamard, Nathalie; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Mikuszeit, Nikolai; Garello, Kevin; Gambardella, Pietro; Langer, Juergen; Ocker, Berthold; Miron, Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles
2015-09-01
The discovery that a current flowing in a heavy metal can exert a torque on a neighboring ferromagnet has opened a new way to manipulate the magnetization at the nanoscale. This "spin orbit torque" (SOT) has been demonstrated in ultrathin magnetic multilayers with structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) and high spin orbit coupling, such as Pt/Co/AlOx multilayers. We have shown that this torque can lead to the magnetization switching of a perpendicularly magnetized nanomagnet by an in-plane current injection. The manipulation of magnetization by SOT has led to a novel concept of magnetic RAM memory, the SOT-MRAM, which combines non volatility, high speed, reliability and large endurance. These features make the SOT-MRAM a good candidate to replace SRAM for non-volatile cache memory application. We will present the proof of concept of a perpendicular SOT-MRAM cell composed of a Ta/FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB magnetic tunnel junction and demonstrate ultra-fast (down to 300 ps) deterministic bipolar magnetization switching. Macrospin and micromagnetic simulations including SOT cannot reproduce the experimental results, which suggests that additional physical mechanisms are at stacks. Our results show that SOT-MRAM is fast, reliable and low power, which is promising for non-volatile cache memory application. We will also discuss recent experiments of magnetization reversal in ultrathin multilayers Pt/Co/AlOx by very short (<200 ps) current pulses. We will show that in this material, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moryia interaction plays a key role in the reversal process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Liu, Guang; Guo, Dan; Zhou, Guanghui
2016-01-01
We study theoretically the spin-dependent transport and the current-induced spin transfer torque (STT) for a zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR) with Anderson-type disorders between two ferromagnetic electrodes. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, it is predicted that the transport property and STT through the junction depend sensitively on the disorder, especially around the Dirac point. As a result, the conductance decreases and increases for two electrode in parallel and antiparallel configurations, respectively. Due to the disorder, the magnetoresistance (MR) decreases accordingly even within the energy regime for the perfect plateau without disorders. In addition, the conductance versus the relative angle of the magnetization shows a cosine-like behavior. The STT per unit of the bias voltage versus the angle of the magnetization exhibits a sine-like behavior, and versus the Fermi energy is antisymmetrical to the Dirac point and exhibits sharp peaks. Furthermore, the peaks of the STT are suppressed much as the disorder strength increases, especially around the Dirac point. The results obtained here may provide a valuable suggestion to experimentally design spin valve devices based on ZSiNR.
Episodic Spin-up and Spin-down Torque on Earth
Slabinski, Victor J.; Mendonca, Antonio A.
2018-04-01
Variations in Earth rotation angle are traditionally expressed by the time difference (ΔT=TT-UT1) between Terrestrial Time (TT) as told by atomic clocks and Universal Time UT1, the time variable used by the Earth-rotation formula. A plot of ΔT versus TT over the past 160 years shows a continuous curve with approximate straight-line segments with different spans of order ~20 years. Removing the tidal and seasonal variations from the data gives these line segments which represent the “decadal variations” in Earth rotation.The slope of a straight-line segment is proportional to the departure of Earth rotation rate from a reference value at the time. The change in slope over the relatively short time between segments indicates an episodic spin-up or spin-down in Earth rotation. The daily combination of VLBI, SLR, and other modern data available since 1973 gives us accurate, daily values of ΔT and the corresponding LOD (Length Of Day) values during these episodes. These allow us to determine the rotational acceleration occurring then.The three largest spin-speed changes found during the VLBI era have the following characteristics:Episode _____________ Duration__ ΔLOD__LOD Rate1983 Dec 30-1984 Jan 28 ... 29 d ...-0.65 ms ..-8.3 ms/y ..........spin-up1989 Mar 15-1989 May 23 ...69 d ....0.68 .......+3.6 ..............spin-down1994 Jan 21-2001 Apr 01 ... 6.5 y ...-2.2 .........-0.36 ..extended spin-upFor the first two episodes listed, we find the acceleration grows from zero (or at least a relatively small value) to its extreme value in ~1 day, stays approximately constant at this value for 29 or 69 days, and then decays back to zero over ~1 day. The acceleration, while it occurs, gives an LOD rate much greater than the 0.02 ms/y rate from tidal friction.The third episode shows that occasionally a several-year-long episode occurs. The acceleration magnitude is smaller but can make a larger total change in LOD (and spin rate). Tidal friction requires >100 y to equal
Novel compact model for multi-level spin torque magnetic tunnel junctions
Prajapati, Sanjay; Verma, Shivam; Kulkarni, Anant Aravind; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar
2016-10-01
Spin-transfer torque (STT) and spin-orbit torque (SOT) based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices are emerging as strong contenders for the next generation memories. Conventional STT magneto-resistive random access memory (MRAM) offers lower power, non-volatility and CMOS process compatibility. However, higher current requirement during the write operation leads to tunnel barrier reliability issues and larger access devices. SOT-MRAM eliminates the reliability issues with strong spin polarized current (100%) and separate read/write current paths; however, the additional two access transistors in SOT-MRAM results into increased cell area. Multilevel cell (MLC) structure paves a way to circumvent the problems related to the conventional STT/SOT based MTJ devices and provides enhanced integration density at reduced cost per bit. Conventional STT/SOT-MRAM requires a unit cell area of 10-60 F2 and reported simulations have been based on available single-level MTJ compact models. However, till date no compact model exists that can capture the device physics of MLC-MTJ accurately. Hence, a novel compact model is proposed in this paper to capture the accurate device physics and behaviour of the MLC-MTJs. It is designed for MLCs with different MTJ configurations demonstrated so far, such as series and parallel free layer based MLC-MTJs. The proposed model is coded in Verilog-A, which is compatible with SPICE for circuit level simulations. The model is in close agreement with the experimental results exhibiting an average error of less than 15%.
Characterization of perpendicular STT-MRAM by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance
Sha, Chengcen; Yang, Liu; Lee, Han Kyu; Barsukov, Igor; Zhang, Jieyi; Krivorotov, Ilya
We describe a method for simple quantitative measurement of magnetic anisotropy and Gilbert damping of the MTJ free layer in individual perpendicular STT-MRAM devices by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) with magnetic field modulation. We first show the dependence of ST-FMR spectra of an STT-MRAM element on out-of-plane magnetic field. In these spectra, resonances arising from excitation of the quasi-uniform and higher order spin wave eigenmodes of the free layer as well as acoustic mode of the synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) are clearly seen. The quasi-uniform mode frequency at zero field gives magnetic anisotropy field of the free layer. Then we show dependence of the quasi-uniform mode linewidth on frequency is linear over a range of frequencies but deviatesfrom linearity in the low and high frequency regimes. Comparison to ST-FMR spectrareveals that the high frequency line broadening is linked to the SAF mode softening near the SAF spin flop transition at 5 kG. In the low field regime, the SAF mode frequency approaches that of the quasi-uniform mode, and resonant coupling of the modes leads to the line broadening. A linear fit to the linewidth data outside of the high and low field regimes gives the Gilbert damping parameter of the free layer. This work was supported by the Samsung Global MRAM Innovation Program.
Phase measurement for driven spin oscillations in a storage ring
Hempelmann, N.; Hejny, V.; Pretz, J.; Soltner, H.; Augustyniak, W.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Bai, M.; Barion, L.; Berz, M.; Chekmenev, S.; Ciullo, G.; Dymov, S.; Eversmann, D.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Grzonka, D.; Guidoboni, G.; Heberling, D.; Hetzel, J.; Hinder, F.; Kacharava, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Keshelashvili, I.; Koop, I.; Kulikov, A.; Lehrach, A.; Lenisa, P.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Maanen, P.; Macharashvili, G.; Magiera, A.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Mey, S.; Müller, F.; Nass, A.; Nikolaev, N. N.; Nioradze, M.; Pesce, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Saleev, A.; Schmidt, V.; Semertzidis, Y.; Senichev, Y.; Shmakova, V.; Silenko, A.; Slim, J.; Stahl, A.; Stassen, R.; Stephenson, E.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Tagliente, G.; Talman, R.; Thörngren Engblom, P.; Trinkel, F.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Valetov, E.; Vassiliev, A.; Weidemann, C.; Wrońska, A.; Wüstner, P.; Zuprański, P.; Żurek, M.; JEDI Collaboration
2018-04-01
This paper reports the first simultaneous measurement of the horizontal and vertical components of the polarization vector in a storage ring under the influence of a radio frequency (rf) solenoid. The experiments were performed at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY in Jülich using a vector polarized, bunched 0.97 GeV /c deuteron beam. Using the new spin feedback system, we set the initial phase difference between the solenoid field and the precession of the polarization vector to a predefined value. The feedback system was then switched off, allowing the phase difference to change over time, and the solenoid was switched on to rotate the polarization vector. We observed an oscillation of the vertical polarization component and the phase difference. The oscillations can be described using an analytical model. The results of this experiment also apply to other rf devices with horizontal magnetic fields, such as Wien filters. The precise manipulation of particle spins in storage rings is a prerequisite for measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of charged particles.
Ellis, Matthew O. A.; Stamenova, Maria; Sanvito, Stefano
2017-12-01
There exists a significant challenge in developing efficient magnetic tunnel junctions with low write currents for nonvolatile memory devices. With the aim of analyzing potential materials for efficient current-operated magnetic junctions, we have developed a multi-scale methodology combining ab initio calculations of spin-transfer torque with large-scale time-dependent simulations using atomistic spin dynamics. In this work we introduce our multiscale approach, including a discussion on a number of possible schemes for mapping the ab initio spin torques into the spin dynamics. We demonstrate this methodology on a prototype Co/MgO/Co/Cu tunnel junction showing that the spin torques are primarily acting at the interface between the Co free layer and MgO. Using spin dynamics we then calculate the reversal switching times for the free layer and the critical voltages and currents required for such switching. Our work provides an efficient, accurate, and versatile framework for designing novel current-operated magnetic devices, where all the materials details are taken into account.
Cho, Soonha; Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Jo, Younghun; Park, Byong-Guk
2015-01-01
The phenomena based on spin-orbit interaction in heavy metal/ferromagnet/oxide structures have been investigated extensively due to their applicability to the manipulation of the magnetization direction via the in-plane current. This implies the existence of an inverse effect, in which the conductivity in such structures should depend on the magnetization orientation. In this work, we report a systematic study of the magnetoresistance (MR) of W/CoFeB/MgO structures and its correlation with the current-induced torque to the magnetization. We observe that the MR is independent of the angle between the magnetization and current direction but is determined by the relative magnetization orientation with respect to the spin direction accumulated by the spin Hall effect, for which the symmetry is identical to that of so-called the spin Hall magnetoresistance. The MR of ~1% in W/CoFeB/MgO samples is considerably larger than those in other structures of Ta/CoFeB/MgO or Pt/Co/AlOx, which indicates a larger spin Hall angle of W. Moreover, the similar W thickness dependence of the MR and the current-induced magnetization switching efficiency demonstrates that MR in a non-magnet/ferromagnet structure can be utilized to understand other closely correlated spin-orbit coupling effects such as the inverse spin Hall effect or the spin-orbit spin transfer torques. PMID:26423608
A novel macro-model for spin-transfer-torque based magnetic-tunnel-junction elements
Lee, Seungyeon; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Sojeong; Lee, Seungjun; Shin, Hyungsoon
2010-04-01
Spin-transfer-torque (STT) switching in magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) has important merits over the conventional field induced magnetic switching (FIMS) MRAM in avoiding half-select problem, and improving scalability and selectivity. Design of MRAM circuitry using STT-based MTJ elements requires an accurate circuit model which exactly emulates the characteristics of an MTJ in a circuit simulator such as HSPICE. This work presents a novel macro-model that fully emulates the important characteristics of STT-based MTJ. The macro-model is realized as a three terminal sub-circuit that reproduces asymmetric resistance versus current (R-I) characteristics and temperature dependence of R-I hysteresis of STT-based MTJ element.
Useinov, Arthur; Ye, Lin-Xiu; Useinov, Niazbeck; Wu, Te-Ho; Lai, Chih-Huang
2015-01-01
The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with embedded nanoparticles (NPs) was calculated in range of the quantum-ballistic model. The simulation was performed for electron tunneling through the insulating layer with embedded magnetic and non-magnetic NPs within the approach of the double barrier subsystem connected in parallel to the single barrier one. This model can be applied for both MTJs with in-plane magnetization and perpendicular one. We also calculated the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque (STT) versus the applied voltage in MTJs with magnetic NPs and determined that its value can be much larger than in single barrier system (SBS) for the same tunneling thickness. The reported simulation reproduces experimental data of the TMR suppression and peak-like TMR anomalies at low voltages available in leterature. PMID:26681336
Spin orbit torques and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in dual-interfaced Co-Ni multilayers
Yu, Jiawei
2016-09-07
We study the spin orbit torque (SOT) and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in the dual-interfaced Co-Ni perpendicular multilayers. Through the combination of top and bottom layer materials (Pt, Ta, MgO and Cu), SOT and DMI are efficiently manipulated due to an enhancement or cancellation of the top and bottom contributions. However, SOT is found to originate mostly from the bulk of a heavy metal (HM), while DMI is more of interfacial origin. In addition, we find that the direction of the domain wall (DW) motion can be either along or against the electron flow depending on the DW tilting angle when there is a large DMI. Such an abnormal DW motion induces a large assist field required for hysteretic magnetization reversal. Our results provide insight into the role of DMI in SOT driven magnetization switching, and demonstrate the feasibility of achieving desirable SOT and DMI for spintronic devices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ando, K.; Yuasa, S.; Fujita, S.; Ito, J.; Yoda, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakatani, Y.; Miyazaki, T.
2014-01-01
Most parts of present computer systems are made of volatile devices, and the power to supply them to avoid information loss causes huge energy losses. We can eliminate this meaningless energy loss by utilizing the non-volatile function of advanced spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) technology and create a new type of computer, i.e., normally off computers. Critical tasks to achieve normally off computers are implementations of STT-MRAM technologies in the main memory and low-level cache memories. STT-MRAM technology for applications to the main memory has been successfully developed by using perpendicular STT-MRAMs, and faster STT-MRAM technologies for applications to the cache memory are now being developed. The present status of STT-MRAMs and challenges that remain for normally off computers are discussed
3D Cross-Point Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory
Yang, Hongxin; Wang, Xiaobin; Hao, Xiaojie; Wang, Zihui; Malmhall, Roger; Gan, Huadong; Satoh, Kimihiro; Zhang, Jing; Jung, Dong Ha; Zhou, Yuchen; Yen, Bing K.; Huai, Yiming
We explore a 3D cross-point spin transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) array based on the integration of a perpendicular magnetic tunneling junction (pMTJ) with a matching two-terminal selector. The integrated two-terminal device provides a unique opportunity for a high density, low cost stackable storage class memory that can achieve a fast operation speed, long data retention, low bit error rate (BER) and high endurance. 55nm size pillar shaped pMTJ and selector devices have been fabricated and characterized. The selector is compatible with pMTJ whether it is in the high or low resistance state. The pMTJ can be RESET and SET after the selector turns on. We model the dynamic switching of the coupled pMTJ and selector devices. Our model shows the importance of the optimal matching of pMTJ magnetic properties with selector resistive properties to achieve high performance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ando, K., E-mail: ando-koji@aist.go.jp; Yuasa, S. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Fujita, S.; Ito, J.; Yoda, H. [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki 212-8582 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-8531 (Japan); Nakatani, Y. [Department of Communication Engineering and Informatics, University of Electro-Communication, Chofu 182-8585 (Japan); Miyazaki, T. [WPI-AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
2014-05-07
Most parts of present computer systems are made of volatile devices, and the power to supply them to avoid information loss causes huge energy losses. We can eliminate this meaningless energy loss by utilizing the non-volatile function of advanced spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) technology and create a new type of computer, i.e., normally off computers. Critical tasks to achieve normally off computers are implementations of STT-MRAM technologies in the main memory and low-level cache memories. STT-MRAM technology for applications to the main memory has been successfully developed by using perpendicular STT-MRAMs, and faster STT-MRAM technologies for applications to the cache memory are now being developed. The present status of STT-MRAMs and challenges that remain for normally off computers are discussed.
Exploring Spin-transfer-torque devices and memristors for logic and memory applications
Pajouhi, Zoha
As scaling CMOS devices is approaching its physical limits, researchers have begun exploring newer devices and architectures to replace CMOS. Due to their non-volatility and high density, Spin Transfer Torque (STT) devices are among the most prominent candidates for logic and memory applications. In this research, we first considered a new logic style called All Spin Logic (ASL). Despite its advantages, ASL consumes a large amount of static power; thus, several optimizations can be performed to address this issue. We developed a systematic methodology to perform the optimizations to ensure stable operation of ASL. Second, we investigated reliable design of STT-MRAM bit-cells and addressed the conflicting read and write requirements, which results in overdesign of the bit-cells. Further, a Device/Circuit/Architecture co-design framework was developed to optimize the STT-MRAM devices by exploring the design space through jointly considering yield enhancement techniques at different levels of abstraction. Recent advancements in the development of memristive devices have opened new opportunities for hardware implementation of non-Boolean computing. To this end, the suitability of memristive devices for swarm intelligence algorithms has enabled researchers to solve a maze in hardware. In this research, we utilized swarm intelligence of memristive networks to perform image edge detection. First, we proposed a hardware-friendly algorithm for image edge detection based on ant colony. Next, we designed the image edge detection algorithm using memristive networks.
Lingos, P. C.; Wang, J.; Perakis, I. E.
2015-05-01
Femtosecond (fs) coherent control of collective order parameters is important for nonequilibrium phase dynamics in correlated materials. Here, we propose such control of ferromagnetic order based on using nonadiabatic optical manipulation of electron-hole (e -h ) photoexcitations to create fs carrier-spin pulses with controllable direction and time profile. These spin pulses are generated due to the time-reversal symmetry breaking arising from nonperturbative spin-orbit and magnetic exchange couplings of coherent photocarriers. By tuning the nonthermal populations of exchange-split, spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor band states, we can excite fs spin-orbit torques that control complex magnetization pathways between multiple magnetic memory states. We calculate the laser-induced fs magnetic anisotropy in the time domain by using density matrix equations of motion rather than the quasiequilibrium free energy. By comparing to pump-probe experiments, we identify a "sudden" out-of-plane magnetization canting displaying fs magnetic hysteresis, which agrees with switchings measured by the static Hall magnetoresistivity. This fs transverse spin-canting switches direction with magnetic state and laser frequency, which distinguishes it from the longitudinal nonlinear optical and demagnetization effects. We propose that sequences of clockwise or counterclockwise fs spin-orbit torques, photoexcited by shaping two-color laser-pulse sequences analogous to multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, can be used to timely suppress or enhance magnetic ringing and switching rotation in magnetic memories.
High spin rotations of nuclei with the harmonic oscillator potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerkaski, M.; Szymanski, Z.
1978-01-01
Calculations of the nuclear properties at high angular momentum have been performed recently. They are based on the liquid drop model of a nucleus and/or on the assumption of the single particle shell structure of the nucleonic motion. The calculations are usually complicated and involve long computer codes. In this article we shall discuss general trends in fast rotating nuclei in the approximation of the harmonic oscillator potential. We shall see that using the Bohr Mottelson simplified version of the rigorous solution of Valatin one can perform a rather simple analysis of the rotational bands, structure of the yrast line, moments of inertia etc. in the rotating nucleus. While the precision fit to experimental data in actual nuclei is not the purpose of this paper, one can still hope to reach some general understanding within the model of the simple relations resulting in nuclei at high spin. (author)
Ren, Y. J.; Deng, W. Y.; Geng, H.; Shen, R.; Shao, L. B.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.
2017-12-01
The spin-orbit torque provides an efficient method for switching the direction of a magnetization by using an electric field. Owing to the spin-orbit coupling, when an electric field is applied, a nonequilibrium spin density is generated, which exerts a torque on the local magnetization. Here, we investigate the spin-orbit torque in a thin film of topological insulator \\text{Bi}2\\text{Se}3 based upon a Boltzmann equation, with proper boundary conditions, which is applicable from the ballistic regime to the diffusive regime. It is shown that due to the spin-momentum interlocking of the electron surface states, the magnitude of the field-like torque is simply in linear proportion to the longitudinal electrical current. For a fixed electric field, the spin-orbit torque is proportional to the sample length in the ballistic limit, and saturates to a constant in the diffusive limit. The dependence of the torque on the magnetization direction and exchange coupling strength is also studied. Our theory may offer useful guidance for experimental investigations of the spin-orbit torque in finite-size systems.
Decay of Rabi Oscillations by Dipolar-Coupled Dynamical Spin Environments
Dobrovitski, V.V.; Feiguin, A.E.; Hanson, R.; Awschalom, D.D.
2009-01-01
We study the Rabi oscillations decay of a spin decohered by a spin bath whose internal dynamics is caused by dipolar coupling between the bath spins. The form and rate of decay as a function of the intrabath coupling is obtained analytically, and confirmed numerically. The complex form of decay
Spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in nano-scale Ta/CoFeB/MgO
Zhang, C.; Fukami, S.; Sato, H.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.
2015-07-01
We study the device size dependence of spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in a Ta/CoFeB/MgO structure with perpendicular easy axis. The miniaturization of the device from micrometer-sized wire to 80-nm dot results in the increase of the threshold current density Jth by one order, whereas Jth increases only slightly with further reducing the device size down to 30 nm. No significant increase in Jth is seen, as the current pulse width decreases from 100 ms down to 3 ns. We reveal that the switching in devices at reduced size is reasonably well explained by the macrospin model, in which the effects of both the Slonczewski-like torque and field-like torque are included.
Yu, Guoqiang; Akyol, Mustafa; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Li, Xiang; He, Congli; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Alzate, Juan G.; Lang, Murong; Wong, Kin L.; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.
2016-01-01
Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in structurally asymmetric multilayers have been used to efficiently manipulate magnetization. In a structure with vertical symmetry breaking, a damping-like SOT can deterministically switch a perpendicular magnet, provided an in-plane magnetic field is applied. Recently, it has been further demonstrated that the in-plane magnetic field can be eliminated by introducing a new type of perpendicular field-like SOT via incorporating a lateral structural a...
Munira, Kamaram; Pandey, Sumeet C.; Kula, Witold; Sandhu, Gurtej S.
2016-11-01
Voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) effect has attracted a significant amount of attention in recent years because of its low cell power consumption during the anisotropy modulation of a thin ferromagnetic film. However, the applied voltage or electric field alone is not enough to completely and reliably reverse the magnetization of the free layer of a magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cell from anti-parallel to parallel configuration or vice versa. An additional symmetry-breaking mechanism needs to be employed to ensure the deterministic writing process. Combinations of voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy together with spin-transfer torque (STT) and with an applied magnetic field (Happ) were evaluated for switching reliability, time taken to switch with low error rate, and energy consumption during the switching process. In order to get a low write error rate in the MRAM cell with VCMA switching mechanism, a spin-transfer torque current or an applied magnetic field comparable to the critical current and field of the free layer is necessary. In the hybrid processes, the VCMA effect lowers the duration during which the higher power hungry secondary mechanism is in place. Therefore, the total energy consumed during the hybrid writing processes, VCMA + STT or VCMA + Happ, is less than the energy consumed during pure spin-transfer torque or applied magnetic field switching.
Kanai, S.; Nakatani, Y.; Yamanouchi, M.; Ikeda, S.; Sato, H.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.
2014-05-01
We propose and demonstrate a scheme for magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions, in which two successive voltage pulses are applied to utilize both spin-transfer torque and electric field effect. Under this switching scheme, a CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic easy axis is shown to switch faster than by spin-transfer torque alone and more reliably than that by electric fields alone.
Mohseni, S. Morteza; Yazdi, H. F.; Hamdi, M.; Brächer, T.; Mohseni, S. Majid
2018-03-01
Current induced spin wave excitations in spin transfer torque nano-contacts are known as a promising way to generate exchange-dominated spin waves at the nano-scale. It has been shown that when these systems are magnetized in the film plane, broken spatial symmetry of the field around the nano-contact induced by the Oersted field opens the possibility for spin wave mode co-existence including a non-linear self-localized spin-wave bullet and a propagating mode. By means of micromagnetic simulations, here we show that in systems with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the free layer, two propagating spin wave modes with different frequency and spatial distribution can be excited simultaneously. Our results indicate that in-plane magnetized spin transfer nano-contacts in PMA materials do not host a solitonic self-localized spin-wave bullet, which is different from previous studies for systems with in plane magnetic anisotropy. This feature renders them interesting for nano-scale magnonic waveguides and crystals since magnon transport can be configured by tuning the applied current.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zamani, Vajiheh Alijani
2012-03-07
This work is divided into two parts: part 1 is focused on the prediction of half-metallicity in quaternary Heusler compounds and their potential for spintronic applications and part 2 on the structural properties of Mn{sub 2}-based Heusler alloys and tuning the magnetism of them from soft to hard-magnetic for spin-transfer torque applications. In part 1, three different series of quaternary Heusler compounds are investigated, XX'MnGa (X=Cu, Ni and X'=Fe,Co), CoFeMnZ (Z=Al,Ga,Si,Ge), and Co{sub 2-x}Rh{sub x}MnZ (Z=Ga,Sn,Sb). All of these quaternary compounds except CuCoMnGa are predicted to be half-metallic ferromagnets by ab-initio electronic structure calculations. In the XX'MnGa class of compounds, NiFeMnGa has a low Curie temperature for technological applications but NiCoMnGa with a high spin polarization, magnetic moment, and Curie temperature is an interesting new material for spintronics applications. All CoFeMnZ compounds exhibit a cubic Heusler structur and their magnetic moments are in fair agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule indicating the halfmetallicity and high spin polarization required for spintronics applications. Their high Curie temperatures make them suitable for utilization at room temperature and above. The structural investigation revealed that the crystal structure of all Co{sub 2-x}Rh{sub x}MnZ compounds aside from CoRhMnSn exhibit different types of anti-site disorder. The magnetic moments of the disordered compounds deviate from the Slater-Pauling rule indicating that 100% spin polarization are not realized in CoRhMnGa, CoRhMnSb, and Co{sub 0.5}Rh{sub 1.5}MnSb. Exchange of one Co in Co{sub 2}MnSn by Rh results in the stable, well-ordered compound CoRhMnSn. This exchange of one of the magnetic Co atoms by a non-magnetic Rh atom keeps the magnetic properties and half-metallicity intact. In part 2, two series of Mn{sub 2}-based Heusler alloys are investigated, Mn{sub 3-x}Co{sub x}Ga and Mn{sub 2-x}Rh{sub 1+x}Sn. It has been
Optically driven Rabi oscillations and adiabatic passage of single electron spins in diamond.
Golter, D Andrew; Wang, Hailin
2014-03-21
Rabi oscillations and adiabatic passage of single electron spins in a diamond nitrogen vacancy center are demonstrated with two Raman-resonant optical pulses that are detuned from the respective dipole optical transitions. We show that the optical spin control is nuclear-spin selective and can be robust against rapid decoherence, including radiative decay and spectral diffusion, of the underlying optical transitions. A direct comparison between the Rabi oscillation and the adiabatic passage, along with a detailed theoretical analysis, provides significant physical insights into the connections and differences between these coherent spin processes and also elucidates the role of spectral diffusion in these processes. The optically driven coherent spin processes enable the use of nitrogen vacancy excited states to mediate coherent spin-phonon coupling, opening the door to combining optical control of both spin and mechanical degrees of freedom.
Electromagnetic properties of neutrinos: three new phenomena in neutrino spin oscillations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Studenikin Alexander
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In studies of neutrino electromagnetic properties we discuss three very inter-esting aspects related to neutrino spin oscillations. First we consider neutrino mixing and oscillations in the mass and flavour bases under the influence of a constant magnetic field with nonzero transversal and longitudinal components. Then we discuss the effect of neutrino spin oscillations induced by electroweak interactions of neutrino with moving matter in case there is matter transversal current or polarization. In the final part of the paper we discuss recently developed approach to description of neutrino spin and spin-flavour oscillations in a constant magnetic field that is based on the use of the exact neutrino stationary states in the magnetic field.
Analysis of self-heating of thermally assisted spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Austin Deschenes
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Thermal assistance has been shown to significantly reduce the required operation power for spin torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM. Proposed heating methods include modified material stack compositions that result in increased self-heating or external heat sources. In this work we analyze the self-heating process of a standard perpendicular magnetic anisotropy STT-MRAM device through numerical simulations in order to understand the relative contributions of Joule, thermoelectric Peltier and Thomson, and tunneling junction heating. A 2D rotationally symmetric numerical model is used to solve the coupled electro-thermal equations including thermoelectric effects and heat absorbed or released at the tunneling junction. We compare self-heating for different common passivation materials, positive and negative electrical current polarity, and different device thermal anchoring and boundaries resistance configurations. The variations considered are found to result in significant differences in maximum temperatures reached. Average increases of 3 K, 10 K, and 100 K for different passivation materials, positive and negative polarity, and different thermal anchoring configurations, respectively, are observed. The highest temperatures, up to 424 K, are obtained for silicon dioxide as the passivation material, positive polarity, and low thermal anchoring with thermal boundary resistance configurations. Interestingly it is also found that due to the tunneling heat, Peltier effect, device geometry, and numerous interfacial layers around the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ, most of the heat is dissipated on the lower potential side of the magnetic junction. This asymmetry in heating, which has also been observed experimentally, is important as thermally assisted switching requires heating of the free layer specifically and this will be significantly different for the two polarity operations, set and reset.
Analysis of self-heating of thermally assisted spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory.
Deschenes, Austin; Muneer, Sadid; Akbulut, Mustafa; Gokirmak, Ali; Silva, Helena
2016-01-01
Thermal assistance has been shown to significantly reduce the required operation power for spin torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM). Proposed heating methods include modified material stack compositions that result in increased self-heating or external heat sources. In this work we analyze the self-heating process of a standard perpendicular magnetic anisotropy STT-MRAM device through numerical simulations in order to understand the relative contributions of Joule, thermoelectric Peltier and Thomson, and tunneling junction heating. A 2D rotationally symmetric numerical model is used to solve the coupled electro-thermal equations including thermoelectric effects and heat absorbed or released at the tunneling junction. We compare self-heating for different common passivation materials, positive and negative electrical current polarity, and different device thermal anchoring and boundaries resistance configurations. The variations considered are found to result in significant differences in maximum temperatures reached. Average increases of 3 K, 10 K, and 100 K for different passivation materials, positive and negative polarity, and different thermal anchoring configurations, respectively, are observed. The highest temperatures, up to 424 K, are obtained for silicon dioxide as the passivation material, positive polarity, and low thermal anchoring with thermal boundary resistance configurations. Interestingly it is also found that due to the tunneling heat, Peltier effect, device geometry, and numerous interfacial layers around the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), most of the heat is dissipated on the lower potential side of the magnetic junction. This asymmetry in heating, which has also been observed experimentally, is important as thermally assisted switching requires heating of the free layer specifically and this will be significantly different for the two polarity operations, set and reset.
Natarajarathinam, Anusha
Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) materials have unique advantages when used in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) which are the most critical part of spin-torque transfer random access memory devices (STT-RAMs) that are being researched intensively as future non-volatile memory technology. They have high magnetoresistance which improves their sensitivity. The STT-RAM has several advantages over competing technologies, for instance, low power consumption, non-volatility, ultra-fast read and write speed and high endurance. In personal computers, it can replace SRAM for high-speed applications, Flash for non-volatility, and PSRAM and DRAM for high-speed program execution. The main aim of this research is to identify and optimize the best perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) material system for application to STT-RAM technology. Preliminary search for perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) materials for pinned layer for MTJs started with the exploration and optimization of crystalline alloys such as Co50Pd50 alloy, Mn50Al50 and amorphous alloys such as Tb21Fe72Co7 and are first presented in this work. Further optimization includes the study of Co/[Pd/Pt]x multilayers (ML), and the development of perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnets (SAF) utilizing these multilayers. Focused work on capping and seed layers to evaluate interfacial perpendicular anisotropy in free layers for pMTJs is then discussed. Optimization of the full perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) includes the CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB trilayer coupled to a pinned/pinning layer with perpendicular Co/[Pd/Pt]x SAF and a thin Ta seeded CoFeB free layer. Magnetometry, simulations, annealing studies, transport measurements and TEM analysis on these samples will then be presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sethi, P.; Krishnia, S.; Li, S.H.; Lew, W.S., E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg
2017-03-15
We investigate and quantify spin-orbit torque (SOT) strength by current induced effective in-plane magnetic fields and spin Hall angle (SHA) using AC harmonic Hall voltage measurements techniques on Ta/Pt/Co/Pt/Co/Ta thin film structures. The proposed Co/Pt thin film double stack gives property enhancement on thermal stability and perpendicular magnetization anisotropy strength over the single stack Pt/Co/Ta. In the proposed Co/Pt double stack we observed that increasing the Ta capping thickness to three times enhances the SHA in similar order, consistent with larger spin injection efficiency. Doubling the Pt spacer layer thickness reduces the SHA by nearly 1.4 times, due to partial cancellation of SOT by bottom layer Pt, negating the increase from the top Co/Pt interface. The in-plane current threshold for magnetization switching is lower with the increase of the SHA.
Influence of locomotive traction drive design on main forms of self-oscillations during spinning
Antipin, D. Ya; Izmerov, O. V.; Kopyilov, S. O.
2017-10-01
The problem of the effect of the locomotive traction drive design on the main forms of self-oscillations during spinning is considered. It is established that in most cases it is sufficient to carry out a simulation for 2-3 prevailing self-oscillation modes, which simplifies the analysis of the results and selects the best variant of the traction drive.
Bodnar, S Yu; Šmejkal, L; Turek, I; Jungwirth, T; Gomonay, O; Sinova, J; Sapozhnik, A A; Elmers, H-J; Kläui, M; Jourdan, M
2018-01-24
Using antiferromagnets as active elements in spintronics requires the ability to manipulate and read-out the Néel vector orientation. Here we demonstrate for Mn 2 Au, a good conductor with a high ordering temperature suitable for applications, reproducible switching using current pulse generated bulk spin-orbit torques and read-out by magnetoresistance measurements. Reversible and consistent changes of the longitudinal resistance and planar Hall voltage of star-patterned epitaxial Mn 2 Au(001) thin films were generated by pulse current densities of ≃10 7 A/cm 2 . The symmetry of the torques agrees with theoretical predictions and a large read-out magnetoresistance effect of more than ≃6% is reproduced by ab initio transport calculations.
Akhtar, Waseem; Sekiguchi, Takeharu; Itahashi, Tatsumasa; Filidou, Vasileia; Morton, John J. L.; Vlasenko, Leonid; Itoh, Kohei M.
2012-09-01
We report on a pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of the photoexcited triplet state (S=1) of oxygen-vacancy centers in silicon. Rabi oscillations between the triplet sublevels are observed using coherent manipulation with a resonant microwave pulse. The Hahn echo and stimulated echo decay profiles are superimposed with strong modulations known as electron-spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM). The ESEEM spectra reveal a weak but anisotropic hyperfine coupling between the triplet electron spin and a 29Si nuclear spin (I=1/2) residing at a nearby lattice site, that cannot be resolved in conventional field-swept EPR spectra.
Yuan, X. B.; Cai, L. L.; Tian, Y. L.; Hu, G. C.; Ren, J. F.
2018-01-01
First-principles calculation are presented to study the influences of external electric fields on the spin polarization properties of benzene/Cu(100) system which do not contain any magnetic atom. Our simulations show that an obvious spontaneous spin polarization oscillation occurred in the benzene molecule when the electric fields are applied. The density of states (DOS), spin density distributions, charge transfer properties are also obtained. It is found that the p-d orbital coupling between the benzene molecule and the electrode leads to spin non-degeneration of the DOS near the fermi energy, so the transferred charges from the Cu atoms to the molecule will fill these spin non-degenerate coupled orbitals, and then the benzene molecule becomes spin polarized. The strength of the p-d orbital coupling as well as the transferred charges oscillated with the external electric fields, which induce spin polarization oscillation. The results are favorable for the understanding of spin polarization properties in organic/nonmagnetic metal structures.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Skinner, T.D.; Olejník, Kamil; Cunningham, L.K.; Kurebayashi, H.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Ferguson, A.J.
2015-01-01
Roč. 6, Mar (2015), s. 6730 ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * current induced torques Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 11.329, year: 2015
Esmaeili, A. M.; Useinov, A. N.; Useinov, N. Kh.
2018-01-01
Dependences of the tunnel magnetoresistance and in-plane component of the spin transfer torque on the applied voltage in a magnetic tunnel junction have been calculated in the approximation of ballistic transport of conduction electrons through an insulating layer with embedded magnetic or nonmagnetic nanoparticles. A single-barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nanoparticle embedded in an insulator forms a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction. It has been shown that the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque in the double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction can be higher than that in the single-barrier one at the same thickness of the insulating layer. The calculations show that nanoparticles embedded in the tunnel junction increase the probability of tunneling of electrons, create resonance conditions, and ensure the quantization of the conductance in contrast to the tunnel junction without nanoparticles. The calculated dependences of the tunnel magnetoresistance correspond to experimental data demonstrating peak anomalies and suppression of the maximum magnetoresistances at low voltages.
Bang, Do
2016-05-23
We investigate the current-induced domain wall motion in perpendicular magnetized Tb/Co wires with structure inversion asymmetry and different layered structures. We find that the critical current density to drive domain wall motion strongly depends on the layered structure. The lowest critical current density ∼15MA/cm2 and the highest slope of domain wall velocity curve are obtained for the wire having thin Co sublayers and more inner Tb/Co interfaces, while the largest critical current density ∼26MA/cm2 required to drive domain walls is observed in the Tb-Co alloy magnetic wire. It is found that the Co/Tb interface contributes negligibly to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, while the effective spin-orbit torque strongly depends on the number of Tb/Co inner interfaces (n). An enhancement of the antidamping torques by extrinsic spin Hall effect due to Tb rare-earth impurity-induced skew scattering is suggested to explain the high efficiency of current-induced domain wall motion.
Analysis of synchronized regimes for injection-locked spin-transfer nano-oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Aquino, M., E-mail: daquino@uniparthenope.it [Department of Technology, University of Napoli ' Parthenope' , 80143 Napoli (Italy); Serpico, C. [Department of Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Bonin, R. [Politecnico di Torino - Sede di Verres, 11029 Verres (Aosta) (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, 10135 Torino (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [ECE Dept. and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2012-05-01
The large-angle magnetization dynamics of an injection-locked spin-transfer nano-oscillator (STNO) is studied. The magnetic system is subject to the action of time-varying spin-polarized currents and external magnetic fields. The uniform mode theory is developed and describes the hysteretic synchronization mechanism in terms of bifurcations of equilibria and limit cycles of appropriate dynamical systems. Analytical predictions of control parameters for the synchronization between the magnetization self-oscillation and the external microwave excitations (current, field) are provided. The effect of temperature on the locking band and the hysteretic character of the oscillation response is analyzed. An analytical approach is developed to determine the thermally induced sidebands in the power spectral density of phase-locked oscillations as a function of control parameters. The analytical predictions are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.
Spin-wave instabilities, auto-oscillations, and chaos in yttrium-iron-garnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezende, S.M.; de Aguiar, F.M.
1990-01-01
Spin-wave instabilities driven by microwave fields display auto-oscillations, intermittency, quasiperiodicity, period-doubling and chaos like other nonlinear dynamic systems. Several of these phenomena, first observed nearly 30 years ago, only recently have been investigated systematically and understood in the light of modern nonlinear dynamics. The authors review recent experimental results in yttrium-iron-garnet subject to three different spin-wave pumping mechanisms: parallel pumping, subsidiary resonance (first-order Suhl process) and premature saturation of the main resonance (second-order Suhl process). A theoretical model derived from first principles leading to coupled nonlinear spin-ave equations is used to interpret the observed spin-wave instabilities, auto-oscillations, and chaotic dynamics. Improvements needed in the model are also indicated
Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities
Jonietz, F.; Mühlbauer, S.; Pfleiderer, C.; Neubauer, A.; Münzer, W.; Bauer, A.; Adams, T.; Georgii, R.; Böni, P.; Duine, R.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Everschor, K.; Garst, M.; Rosch, A.
2010-01-01
Spin manipulation using electric currents is one of the most promising directions in the field of spintronics. We used neutron scattering to observe the influence of an electric current on the magnetic structure in a bulk material. In the skyrmion lattice of manganese silicon, where the spins form a
Shi, Shengjie; Ou, Yongxi; Aradhya, S. V.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.
2018-01-01
Future applications of spin-orbit torque will require new mechanisms to improve the efficiency of switching nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), while also controlling the magnetic dynamics to achieve fast nanosecond-scale performance with low-write-error rates. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to simultaneously enhance the interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy and suppress interfacial spin-memory loss by introducing subatomic and monatomic layers of Hf at the top and bottom interfaces of the ferromagnetic free layer of an in-plane magnetized three-terminal MTJ device. When combined with a β -W spin Hall channel that generates spin-orbit torque, the cumulative effect is a switching current density of 5.4 ×106 A /cm2 .
Nonlinear dynamics of spin transfer nano-oscillators
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
integration with CMOS circuits, we establish suitable electrical connections between the oscilla- tors. Although the electrical connection makes the system more complex, the applied microwave magnetic field drives the ..... is shown in figure 3. (2) Out-of-plane oscillation (as shown in figure 4) – the magnetization vector (m).
Oscillating spin-density pattern in gold metallocene and phthalocyanine molecules
Carrascal, Diego; Fernández-Seivane, Lucas; Ferrer, Jaime
2009-11-01
We present a theoretical study of the magnetic properties of the spin-1/2 dicyclopentadienyl metallocene (MCp2) and phthalocyanine molecules that contain the transition-metal atoms M=Co , Cu, and Au. We find that the spin-density pattern of gold molecules shows a fully delocalized and oscillating behavior. This spin pattern is to be contrasted with the well-known cases of cobalt or iron molecules, where the magnetic moment is strongly localized at the transition-metal ion.
Room-temperature spin-orbit torque in NiMnSb
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ciccarelli, C.; Anderson, L.; Tshitoyan, V.; Ferguson, A.J.; Gerhard, F.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Gayles, J.; Železný, Jakub; Šmejkal, Libor; Yuan, Z.; Sinova, Jairo; Freimuth, F.; Jungwirth, Tomáš
2016-01-01
Roč. 12, č. 9 (2016), s. 855-861 ISSN 1745-2473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relativistic spintronics * current induced torques Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 22.806, year: 2016
Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Li, H.; Gao, L.; Zarbo, Liviu; Výborný, Karel; Wang, X.; Garate, I.; Dogan, F.; Čejchan, Antonín; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Manchon, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 91, č. 13 (2015), , "134402-1"-"134402-9" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * current induced torques Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Spin transfer torques in MnSi at ultralow current densities.
Jonietz, F; Mühlbauer, S; Pfleiderer, C; Neubauer, A; Münzer, W; Bauer, A; Adams, T; Georgii, R; Böni, P; Duine, R A; Everschor, K; Garst, M; Rosch, A
2010-12-17
Spin manipulation using electric currents is one of the most promising directions in the field of spintronics. We used neutron scattering to observe the influence of an electric current on the magnetic structure in a bulk material. In the skyrmion lattice of manganese silicon, where the spins form a lattice of magnetic vortices similar to the vortex lattice in type II superconductors, we observe the rotation of the diffraction pattern in response to currents that are over five orders of magnitude smaller than those typically applied in experimental studies on current-driven magnetization dynamics in nanostructures. We attribute our observations to an extremely efficient coupling of inhomogeneous spin currents to topologically stable knots in spin structures.
De Raedt, Hans; Barbara, Bernard; Miyashita, Seiji; Michielsen, Kristel; Bertaina, Sylvain; Gambarelli, Serge
2012-01-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments show that the decay of Rabi oscillations of ensembles of spin qubits depends noticeably on the microwave power, and more precisely on the Rabi frequency, an effect recently called "driven decoherence." By direct numerical solution of the time-dependent
Munira, Kamaram; Visscher, P. B.
2015-05-01
To make a useful spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) device, it is necessary to be able to calculate switching rates, which determine the error rates of the device. In a single-macrospin model, one can use a Fokker-Planck equation to obtain a low-current thermally activated rate ∝exp(-Ee f f/kBT ) . Here, the effective energy barrier Eeff scales with the single-macrospin energy barrier KV, where K is the effective anisotropy energy density and V the volume. A long-standing paradox in this field is that the actual energy barrier appears to be much smaller than this. It has been suggested that incoherent motions may lower the barrier, but this has proved difficult to quantify. In the present paper, we show that the coherent precession has a magnetostatic instability, which allows quantitative estimation of the energy barrier and may resolve the paradox.
Oh, Se Chung
2009-10-25
Spin-transfer torque (STT) allows the electrical control of magnetic states in nanostructures. The STT in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is of particular importance owing to its potential for device applications. It has been demonstrated that the MTJ has a sizable perpendicular STT (, field-like torque), which substantially affects STT-driven magnetization dynamics. In contrast to symmetric MTJs where the bias dependence of is quadratic, it is theoretically predicted that the symmetry breaking of the system causes an extra linear bias dependence. Here, we report experimental results that are consistent with the predicted linear bias dependence in asymmetric MTJs. The linear contribution is quite significant and its sign changes from positive to negative as the asymmetry is modified. This result opens a way to design the bias dependence of the field-like term, which is useful for device applications by allowing, in particular, the suppression of the abnormal switching-back phenomena. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Proposal for a Domain Wall Nano-Oscillator driven by Non-uniform Spin Currents
Sharma, Sanchar; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran; Tulapurkar, Ashwin
2015-09-01
We propose a new mechanism and a related device concept for a robust, magnetic field tunable radio-frequency (rf) oscillator using the self oscillation of a magnetic domain wall subject to a uniform static magnetic field and a spatially non-uniform vertical dc spin current. The self oscillation of the domain wall is created as it translates periodically between two unstable positions, one being in the region where both the dc spin current and the magnetic field are present, and the other, being where only the magnetic field is present. The vertical dc spin current pushes it away from one unstable position while the magnetic field pushes it away from the other. We show that such oscillations are stable under noise and can exhibit a quality factor of over 1000. A domain wall under dynamic translation, not only being a source for rich physics, is also a promising candidate for advancements in nanoelectronics with the actively researched racetrack memory architecture, digital and analog switching paradigms as candidate examples. Devising a stable rf oscillator using a domain wall is hence another step towards the realization of an all domain wall logic scheme.
Mitri, F G
2017-07-01
Fractional Bessel-Gauss light-sheets [J. Opt.19, 055602 (2017)JOOPDB0150-536X10.1088/2040-8986/aa649a], which correspond to finite optical "slices" in 2D and possess asymmetric slit openings and bending characteristics, are examined from the standpoint of optical radiation force and spin torque theories for a subwavelength spheroid with arbitrary orientation in space. The vector angular spectrum decomposition method in addition to the Lorenz gauge condition and Maxwell's equations are used to determine the Cartesian components of the incident radiated electric field of the Bessel-Gauss light-sheets. In the framework of the dipole approximation, the numerical results for the Cartesian components of the optical radiation force and spin torque vectors show that negative forces (oriented in the opposite direction of wave motion) and spin torques arise depending on the beam parameters, the orientation of the subwavelength spheroid in 3D space, and its aspect ratio (i.e., prolate versus oblate). The spin torque sign reversal reveals that counter-clockwise or clockwise rotations around the center of mass of the spheroid can occur. The results find important applications in the application of auto-focusing light-sheets in particle manipulation, rotation, and optical sorting devices.
Analysis of thermally induced magnetization dynamics in spin-transfer nano-oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Aquino, M., E-mail: daquino@uniparthenope.it [Department of Technology, University of Naples ' Parthenope' , 80143 Naples (Italy); Serpico, C. [Department of Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica 10135 Torino (Italy); Bonin, R. [Politecnico di Torino - Sede di Verres, 11029 Verres (Aosta) (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2012-05-01
The thermally induced magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin-polarized currents injected into a spin-valve-like structure used as microwave spin-transfer nano-oscillator (STNO) is considered. Magnetization dynamics is described by the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Slonczewski (LLS) equation. First, it is shown that, in the presence of thermal fluctuations, the spectrum of the output signal of the STNO exhibits multiple peaks at low and high frequencies. This circumstance is associated with the occurrence of thermally induced transitions between stationary states and magnetization self-oscillations. Then, a theoretical approach based on the separation of time-scales is developed to obtain a stochastic dynamics only in the slow state variable, namely the energy. The stationary distribution of the energy and the aforementioned transition rates are analytically computed and compared with the results of direct integration of the LLS dynamics, showing very good agreement.
Spin-Transfer-Torque Nano-Oscillators: Fabrication, Characterization and Dynamics
Costa, Jose Diogo Teixeira Barbosa
Este trabalho aborda algumas propriedades magneticas e estruturais de nanoparticulas de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro crescidos em matrizes hibridas orgânicas-inorgânicas. As matrizes hibridas, denominadas di-ureasils e obtidas pelo processo sol-gel, sao compostas por uma rede siliciosa ligada covalentemente por pontes ureia a cadeias orgânicas de diferente peso molecular. A estrutura local dos di-ureasils nao dopados esta modelada como grupos de dominios siliciosos com dimensoes nanometricas, estruturalmente correlacionados no seio de uma matriz rica em polimero. Neste trabalho mostra-se que os di-ureasils permitem o crescimento controlado de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro, incluindo a magnetite, maguemite, oxihidroxinitrato de ferro e ferrihidrite. O crescimento das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite da-se em condicoes acidas a superficie dos dominios siliciosos, junto aos grupos carbonilo, que funcionam como pontos de nucleacao. Desse modo da-se uma nucleacao heterogenea, onde o tamanho das nanoparticulas depende da concentracao de ferro (entre 1 e 6% em massa), sendo a concentracao de particulas constante. As propriedades magneticas das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite revelam a existencia de interaccoes antiferromagneticas e de momentos descompensados. A contribuicao destas duas componentes nas curvas de magnetizacao em funcao do campo magnetico pode ser separada usando um metodo aqui proposto, o que permite um adequado estudo da evolucao do momento magnetico com a temperatura. O estudo das propriedades magneticas dinâmicas das particulas de ferrihidrite, atraves de susceptibilidade ac, medidas de relaxacao e medidas de efeito Mossbauer, permitiu estudar a evolucao das interaccoes dipolares em funcao da concentracao de ferro, bem como determinar a distribuicao de barreiras de energia de anisotropia no caso em que essas interaccoes sao desprezaveis. E apresentado um novo metodo para comparacao desta distribuicao com a distribuicao de tamanhos, que permitiu concluir que os momentos magneticos descompensados estao aleatoriamente distribuidos em volume. Usando baixas concentracoes de agua, foi possivel crescer fases de oxihidroxinitrato de ferro com diferentes graus de cristalinidade, sendo algumas precursoras da ferrihidrite (como observado noutros trabalhos) e sendo outras novas fases. O crescimento de nanoparticulas de maguemite e magnetite acontece apos incorporacao de ioes de Fe2+ e Fe3+ seguidos de tratamento basico e termico. Estes sistemas apresentam propriedades magneticas tipicas de nanoparticulas superparamagneticas sem interaccoes dipolares. As propriedades magneticas dependem criticamente da existencia de grupos isocianato livres, que actuarao como pontos de nucleacao. None
Hao, Qiang; Xiao, Gang
2015-03-01
We obtain robust perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in a β -W /Co40Fe40B20/MgO structure without the need of any insertion layer between W and Co40Fe40B20 . This is achieved within a broad range of W thicknesses (3.0-9.0 nm), using a simple fabrication technique. We determine the spin Hall angle (0.40) and spin-diffusion length for the bulk β form of tungsten with a large spin-orbit coupling. As a result of the giant spin Hall effect in β -W and careful magnetic annealing, we significantly reduce the critical current density for the spin-transfer-torque-induced magnetic switching in Co40Fe40B20 . The elemental β -W is a superior candidate for magnetic memory and spin-logic applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Junbo; Rowlands, G. E.; Lee, O. J.; Buhrman, R. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Ralph, D. C. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)
2014-09-08
We model, using the macrospin approximation, the magnetic reversal of a perpendicularly magnetized nanostructured free layer formed on a normal, heavy-metal nanostrip, subjected to spin-orbit torques (SOTs) generated by short (≤0.5 ns) current pulses applied to the nanostrip, to examine the potential for SOT-based fast, efficient cryogenic memory. Due to thermal fluctuations, if solely an anti-damping torque is applied, then, for a device with sufficiently low anisotropy (H{sub anis}{sup 0} ∼ 1 kOe) suitable for application in cryogenic memory, a high magnetic damping parameter (α∼0.1−0.2) is required for reliable switching over a significant variation of pulse current. The additional presence of a substantial field-like torque improves switching reliability even for low damping (α≤0.03).
Ramsey, Christopher; Del Barco, Enrique; Hill, Stephen; Shah, Sonali; Beedle, Christopher; Hendrickson, David
2008-03-01
The synthetic flexibility of molecular magnets allows one to systematically produce samples with desirable properties such as those with entangled spin states for implementation in quantum logic gates. Here we report direct evidence of quantum oscillations of the total spin length of a dimeric molecular nanomagnet through the observation of quantum interference associated with tunneling trajectories between states having different spin quantum numbers. As we outline, this is a consequence of the unique characteristics of a molecular Mn12 wheel which behaves as a (weak) ferromagnetic exchange-coupled molecular dimer: each half of the molecule acts as a single-molecule magnet (SMM), while the weak coupling between the two halves gives rise to an additional internal spin degree of freedom within the molecule, namely that its total spin may fluctuate. This extra degree of freedom accounts for several magnetization tunneling resonances that cannot be explained within the usual giant spin approximation. More importantly, the observation of quantum interference provides unambiguous evidence for the quantum mechanical superposition involving entangled states of both halves of the wheel.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munira, Kamaram [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 (United States); Visscher, P. B., E-mail: visscher@ua.edu [Center for Materials for Information Technology, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35401 (United States)
2015-05-07
To make a useful spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) device, it is necessary to be able to calculate switching rates, which determine the error rates of the device. In a single-macrospin model, one can use a Fokker-Planck equation to obtain a low-current thermally activated rate ∝exp(−E{sub eff}/k{sub B}T). Here, the effective energy barrier E{sub eff} scales with the single-macrospin energy barrier KV, where K is the effective anisotropy energy density and V the volume. A long-standing paradox in this field is that the actual energy barrier appears to be much smaller than this. It has been suggested that incoherent motions may lower the barrier, but this has proved difficult to quantify. In the present paper, we show that the coherent precession has a magnetostatic instability, which allows quantitative estimation of the energy barrier and may resolve the paradox.
Tomczak, Y.; Swerts, J.; Mertens, S.; Lin, T.; Couet, S.; Liu, E.; Sankaran, K.; Pourtois, G.; Kim, W.; Souriau, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kar, G.; Furnemont, A.
2016-01-01
Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is considered as a replacement for next generation embedded and stand-alone memory applications. One of the main challenges in the STT-MRAM stack development is the compatibility of the stack with CMOS process flows in which thermal budgets up to 400 °C are applied. In this letter, we report on a perpendicularly magnetized MgO-based tunnel junction (p-MTJ) on a thin Co/Ni perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnetic layer with high annealing tolerance. Tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) loss after annealing occurs when the reference layer loses its perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to reduction of the CoFeB/MgO interfacial anisotropy. A stable Co/Ni based p-MTJ stack with TMR values of 130% at resistance-area products of 9 Ω μm2 after 400 °C anneal is achieved via moment control of the Co/Ta/CoFeB reference layer. Thinning of the CoFeB polarizing layer down to 0.8 nm is the key enabler to achieve 400 °C compatibility with limited TMR loss. Thinning the Co below 0.6 nm leads to a loss of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling strength through Ru. Insight into the thickness and moment engineering of the reference layer is displayed to obtain the best magnetic properties and high thermal stability for thin Co/Ni SAF-based STT-MRAM stacks.
Zhang, C.; Fukami, S.; Watanabe, K.; Ohkawara, A.; DuttaGupta, S.; Sato, H.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.
2016-11-01
We study the spin-orbit torque induced magnetization switching in W/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures with W deposited under different sputtering conditions. We show that the crystal structure and resistivity of W depend on the employed sputtering conditions. Switching current of nanoscale devices is smaller while effective anisotropy field is larger for the devices with more resistive W channel deposited at lower sputtering power and higher Ar gas pressure. The effective spin Hall angle evaluated from the switching probability varies by a factor of 2-3 depending on the W resistivity controlled by the sputtering conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Ayan K.; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha
2013-01-01
We show that the energy dissipated to write bits in spin-transfer-torque random access memory can be reduced by an order of magnitude if a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is launched underneath the magneto-tunneling junctions (MTJs) storing the bits. The SAW-generated strain rotates the magnetization of every MTJs' soft magnet from the easy towards the hard axis, whereupon passage of a small spin-polarized current through a target MTJ selectively switches it to the desired state with > 99.99% probability at room temperature, thereby writing the bit. The other MTJs return to their original states at the completion of the SAW cycle
Coherent Dynamics of a Hybrid Quantum Spin-Mechanical Oscillator System
Lee, Kenneth William, III
A fully functional quantum computer must contain at least two important components: a quantum memory for storing and manipulating quantum information and a quantum data bus to securely transfer information between quantum memories. Typically, a quantum memory is composed of a matter system, such as an atom or an electron spin, due to their prolonged quantum coherence. Alternatively, a quantum data bus is typically composed of some propagating degree of freedom, such as a photon, which can retain quantum information over long distances. Therefore, a quantum computer will likely be a hybrid quantum device, consisting of two or more disparate quantum systems. However, there must be a reliable and controllable quantum interface between the memory and bus in order to faithfully interconvert quantum information. The current engineering challenge for quantum computers is scaling the device to large numbers of controllable quantum systems, which will ultimately depend on the choice of the quantum elements and interfaces utilized in the device. In this thesis, we present and characterize a hybrid quantum device comprised of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers embedded in a high quality factor diamond mechanical oscillator. The electron spin of the NV center is a leading candidate for the realization of a quantum memory due to its exceptional quantum coherence times. On the other hand, mechanical oscillators are highly sensitive to a wide variety of external forces, and have the potential to serve as a long-range quantum bus between quantum systems of disparate energy scales. These two elements are interfaced through crystal strain generated by vibrations of the mechanical oscillator. Importantly, a strain interface allows for a scalable architecture, and furthermore, opens the door to integration into a larger quantum network through coupling to an optical interface. There are a few important engineering challenges associated with this device. First, there have been no
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomczak, Y., E-mail: Yoann.Tomczak@imec.be [IMEC Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Swerts, J.; Mertens, S.; Lin, T.; Couet, S.; Sankaran, K.; Pourtois, G.; Kim, W.; Souriau, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kar, G.; Furnemont, A. [IMEC Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Liu, E. [Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2016-01-25
Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is considered as a replacement for next generation embedded and stand-alone memory applications. One of the main challenges in the STT-MRAM stack development is the compatibility of the stack with CMOS process flows in which thermal budgets up to 400 °C are applied. In this letter, we report on a perpendicularly magnetized MgO-based tunnel junction (p-MTJ) on a thin Co/Ni perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnetic layer with high annealing tolerance. Tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) loss after annealing occurs when the reference layer loses its perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to reduction of the CoFeB/MgO interfacial anisotropy. A stable Co/Ni based p-MTJ stack with TMR values of 130% at resistance-area products of 9 Ω μm{sup 2} after 400 °C anneal is achieved via moment control of the Co/Ta/CoFeB reference layer. Thinning of the CoFeB polarizing layer down to 0.8 nm is the key enabler to achieve 400 °C compatibility with limited TMR loss. Thinning the Co below 0.6 nm leads to a loss of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling strength through Ru. Insight into the thickness and moment engineering of the reference layer is displayed to obtain the best magnetic properties and high thermal stability for thin Co/Ni SAF-based STT-MRAM stacks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshida, Chikako, E-mail: cyoshida@jp.fujitsu.com; Noshiro, Hideyuki; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Sugii, Toshihiro [Fujitsu limited, 10-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa, 243-0197 (Japan); Furuya, Atsushi; Ataka, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Uehara, Yuji [Fujitsu limited, 4-1-1 Kamikodanaka, Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 211-8588 (Japan)
2016-05-15
The electric-field (E) dependence of the magnetoresistance (RH) loops for top-pinned perpendicular CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in the presence of a spin-transfer torque (STT)-current was measured. The E effects were distinguished from the STT-current effects using a micromagnetic simulation. The coercive field (H{sub c}) decreased and the RH loop shifted as both the positive and negative bias E increased owing to the STT current. Furthermore, E-assisted switching for an MTJ with a diameter of 20 nm, which exhibited a nearly coherent magnetization reversal, was demonstrated using micromagnetic simulation.
Atzori, Matteo; Tesi, Lorenzo; Morra, Elena; Chiesa, Mario; Sorace, Lorenzo; Sessoli, Roberta
2016-02-24
Here we report the investigation of the magnetic relaxation and the quantum coherence of vanadyl phthalocyanine, VOPc, a multifunctional and easy-processable potential molecular spin qubit. VOPc in its pure form (1) and its crystalline dispersions in the isostructural diamagnetic host TiOPc in different stoichiometric ratios, namely VOPc:TiOPc 1:10 (2) and 1:1000 (3), were investigated via a multitechnique approach based on the combination of alternate current (AC) susceptometry, continuous wave, and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. AC susceptibility measurements revealed a linear increase of the relaxation rate with temperature up to 20 K, as expected for a direct mechanism, but τ remains slow over a very wide range of applied static field values (up to ∼5 T). Pulsed EPR spectroscopy experiments on 3 revealed quantum coherence up to room temperature with T(m) ∼1 μs at 300 K, representing the highest value obtained to date for molecular electronic spin qubits. Rabi oscillations are observed in this nuclear spin-active environment ((1)H and (14)N nuclei) at room temperature also for 2, indicating an outstanding robustness of the quantum coherence in this molecular semiconductor exploitable in spintronic devices.
Useinov, Arthur; Lin, Hsiu-Hau; Lai, Chih-Huang
2017-08-21
The problem of the ballistic electron tunneling is considered in magnetic tunnel junction with embedded non-magnetic nanoparticles (NP-MTJ), which creates additional conducting middle layer. The strong temperature impact was found in the system with averaged NP diameter d av tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) voltage behaviors. The low temperature approach also predicts step-like TMR and quantized in-plane spin transfer torque (STT) effects. The robust asymmetric STT respond is found due to voltage sign inversion in NP-MTJs with barrier asymmetry. Furthermore, it is shown how size distribution of NPs as well as quantization rules modify the spin-current filtering properties of the nanoparticles in ballistic regime. Different quantization rules for the transverse component of the wave vector are considered to overpass the dimensional threshold (d av ≈ 1.8 nm) between quantum well and bulk-assisted states of the middle layer.
Dai, Bing; Guo, Yong; Zhu, Jiaqi; Kato, Takeshi; Iwata, Satoshi; Tsunashima, Shigeru; Yang, Lei; Han, Jiecai
2017-04-01
Exchange-coupled amorphous GdFeCo/TbFe memory layers in giant magneto-resistance (GMR) devices for spin transfer torque (STT) switching have been studied, and temperature dependence of the critical current density of the GMR devices was measured to discuss the effect of exchange-coupled bilayers as a memory layer of the thermally assisted magnetic random access memory (MRAM). The GMR devices having amorphous GdFeCo and TbFe memory bilayers with various thicknesses were prepared by magnetron sputtering and subsequent micro-fabrication processes. A pulsed current was applied to the GMR devices in order to investigate the spin transfer torque (STT) switching. The maximum magneto-resistance (MR) ratio was around 0.15%, and the coercivity of the memory bilayer increased with the TbFe thickness and decreased with elevating temperature. The critical current densities J c to switch the memory bilayer with structure of Gd21.4 (Fe90Co10)78.6(9 nm)/Tb16Fe84 (1 nm) as low as 2.2 × 107 A cm-2 was obtained. The J c reduced with increasing the temperature and was found to scale with the effective anisotropy K eff of GdFeCo/TbFe bilayer, which is believed to be suitable for the application of thermally assisted STT-MRAM.
Fabrication of Spin-Transfer Nano-Oscillator by Colloidal Lithography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Fang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We fabricate nanoscale spin-transfer oscillators (STOs by utilizing colloidal nanoparticles as a lithographic mask. By this approach, high quality STO devices can be fabricated, and as an example the fabricated STO devices using MgO magnetic tunnel junction as the basic cell exhibit current-induced microwave emission with a large frequency tunability of 0.22 GHz/mA. Compared to the conventional approaches that involve a step of defining nanoscale elements by means of electron beam lithography, which is not readily available for many groups, our strategy for STO fabrication does not require the sophisticated equipment (~ million dollars per unit and expensive lithography resist, while being cost-effective and easy to use in laboratory level. This will accelerate efforts to implement STO into on-chip integrated high-radio frequency applications.
Chen, Yunpeng; Celik, Halise; Wang, Tao; Kannan, Harsha; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; Xiao, John Q.
2017-04-01
The spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal/ferromagnet heterostructures have attracted considerable attention because they provide an efficient way to manipulate the magnetization with strong current-driven spin-orbit torques (SOTs) via the spin Hall effect in the heavy metal or Rashba effect due to the symmetry breaking at the interface. Theoretical calculations predict no dependence of the SOTs on the out-of-plane angle of magnetization due to spin Hall effect, but Rashba effect induces a nontrivial angular dependence of SOTs. Quantitative measurements with adiabatic harmonic Hall technique have observed the angular dependence in Ta/CoFeB/MgO or Pt /Co /Al Ox with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. However, this method is complicated because the signal consists of both anomalous and planar Hall contributions. In addition, the fitting of the measurement data is sensitive to the fitting parameters, particularly to the perpendicular anisotropy, in a certain angle region (40-70°). To avoid this uncertainty, we have developed a scheme to quantify the angular dependence of SOTs based on the magneto-optic Kerr effect with field calibration. Without fitting procedures, we precisely determine the SOTs and their angle dependence on the magnetization orientation. We observe a strong angular dependence that is different from the previous experimental observations. Based on this strong dependence, we conclude that a Rashba effect at the same interface, that is responsible for the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, is the dominant mechanism for the current-driven SOTs in this system.
Tunneling conductance oscillations in spin-orbit coupled metal-insulator-superconductor junctions
Kapri, Priyadarshini; Basu, Saurabh
2018-01-01
The tunneling conductance for a device consisting of a metal-insulator-superconductor (MIS) junction is studied in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) via an extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. We find that the tunneling conductance as a function of an effective barrier potential that defines the insulating layer and lies intermediate to the metallic and superconducting electrodes, displays an oscillatory behavior. The tunneling conductance shows high sensitivity to the RSOC for certain ranges of this potential, while it is insensitive to the RSOC for others. Additionally, when the period of oscillations is an odd multiple of a certain value of the effective potential, the conductance spectrum as a function of the biasing energy demonstrates a contrasting trend with RSOC, compared to when it is not an odd multiple. The explanations for the observation can be found in terms of a competition between the normal and Andreev reflections. Similar oscillatory behavior of the conductance spectrum is also seen for other superconducting pairing symmetries, thereby emphasizing that the insulating layer plays a decisive role in the conductance oscillations of a MIS junction. For a tunable Rashba coupling, the current flowing through the junction can be controlled with precision.
Magnonic Charge Pumping via Spin-Orbit Coupling
Ciccarelli, Chiara; Hals, Kjetil; Irvine, Andrew; Novak, Vit; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Kurebayashi, Hidekazu; Brataas, Arne; Ferguson, Andrew
2015-03-01
The interplay between spin, charge and orbital degrees of freedom has led to the development of spintronic devices such as spin-torque oscillators and spin-transfer torque MRAM. In this development, spin pumping represents a convenient way to electrically detect magnetization dynamics. The effect originates from direct conversion of low-energy quantized spin waves in the magnet, known as magnons, into a flow of spins from the precessing magnet to adjacent leads. In this case, a secondary spin-charge conversion element, such as heavy metals with large spin Hall angle or multilayer layouts, is required to convert the spin current into a charge signal. Here, we report the observation of charge pumping in which a precessing ferromagnet pumps a charge current, demonstrating direct conversion of magnons into high-frequency currents via spin-orbit interaction. The generated electric current, unlike spin currents generated by spin-pumping, can be directly detected without the need of any additional spin-charge conversion mechanism. The charge-pumping phenomenon is generic and gives a deeper understanding of its reciprocal effect, the spin orbit torque, which is currently attracting interest for their potential in manipulating magnetic information.
Kozlov, I. V.; Kolesnichenko, Yu. A.
2017-07-01
We present a theoretical study of the spatial distribution of the local density of states (LDOS) and the local magnetization density (LMD) in the vicinity of a magnetic point-defect in a degenerate two-dimensional electron gas with a mixed Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling interaction (SOI). The dependence of the Friedel oscillations, which arise under these conditions, on the ratio of the SOI constants is investigated. We obtain asymptotic expressions for the oscillatory parts of the LDOS and the LMD, that are accurate for large distances from the defect. It is shown, that the Friedel oscillations are significantly anisotropic and contain several harmonics for certain ratios of the SOI constants. Period of the oscillations for directions along the symmetry axes of the Fermi contours are determined. Finally, we introduce a method for determining the values of the two SOI constants by measuring the period of the Friedel oscillations of the LDOS and the LMD for different harmonics.
Takaya, Satoshi; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Noguchi, Hiroki; Ikegami, Kazutaka; Abe, Keiko; Fujita, Shinobu
2017-04-01
Among the diverse applications of spintronics, security for internet-of-things (IoT) devices is one of the most important. A physically unclonable function (PUF) with a spin device (spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory, STT-MRAM) is presented. Oxide tunnel barrier breakdown is used to realize long-term stability for PUFs. A secure PUF has been confirmed by evaluating the Hamming distance of a 32-bit STT-MRAM-PUF fabricated using 65 nm CMOS technology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2010-09-15
We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, Mustafa; Kantar, Ersin
2010-01-01
We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.
Sojeong Kim,; Seungjun Lee,; Hyungsoon Shin,
2010-04-01
In spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), the switching depends on the current pulse-width as well as the magnitude of the switching current. We present an advanced macro-model of an STT-MTJ for a circuit simulator such as HSPICE. The macro-model can simulate the dependence of switching behavior on current pulse-width in an STT-MTJ. An imaginary resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit is adopted to emulate complex timing behavior which cannot be described nicely by existing functions in HSPICE. Simulation results show the resistance-current (R-I) curve and timing behavior is in good agreement with the experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dagras, P; Klaeui, M; Laufenberg, M; Bedau, D; Vila, L; Faini, G; Vaz, C A F; Bland, J A C; Ruediger, U
2007-01-01
An experimental study of domain wall motion in Ni 80 Fe 20 ring structures induced by current pulses as well as conventional magnetic fields is presented. Using constrictions we demonstrate that current-induced domain wall motion can be used to displace walls into parts of the structure where no pulsed currents are flowing. Measurements at variable temperatures between 2 and 300 K show that the fields necessary for wall motion decrease with increasing temperature, which can be explained by thermal activation. For the current-induced case we find, depending on the geometry and temperature range, that the current densities necessary for displacement can increase or decrease with rising temperature. This indicates that, in addition to thermal excitations, an intrinsic temperature dependence of the efficiency of the spin torque effect is present and leads to an increase in the critical current density with increasing temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Luc, E-mail: luc.thomas@headway.com; Jan, Guenole; Le, Son; Wang, Po-Kang [TDK-Headway Technologies, Inc., 463 S. Milpitas Boulevard, Milpitas, California 95035 (United States)
2015-04-20
The thermal stability of perpendicular Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM) devices is investigated at chip level. Experimental data are analyzed in the framework of the Néel-Brown model including distributions of the thermal stability factor Δ. We show that in the low error rate regime important for applications, the effect of distributions of Δ can be described by a single quantity, the effective thermal stability factor Δ{sub eff}, which encompasses both the median and the standard deviation of the distributions. Data retention of memory chips can be assessed accurately by measuring Δ{sub eff} as a function of device diameter and temperature. We apply this method to show that 54 nm devices based on our perpendicular STT-MRAM design meet our 10 year data retention target up to 120 °C.
Zhou, Jingwei; Huang, Pu; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zixiang; Tan, Tian; Xu, Xiangkun; Shi, Fazhan; Rong, Xing; Ashhab, S; Du, Jiangfeng
2014-01-10
It is theoretically known that the quantum interference of a long sequence of Landau-Zener transitions can result in Rabi oscillations. Because of its stringent requirements, however, this phenomenon has never been experimentally observed in the time domain. Using a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center spin in isotopically purified diamond, we observed the Rabi oscillations resulting from more than 100 Landau-Zener processes. Our results demonstrate favorable quantum controllability of NV centers, which could find applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing.
Size Distribution Imaging by Non-Uniform Oscillating-Gradient Spin Echo (NOGSE MRI.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noam Shemesh
Full Text Available Objects making up complex porous systems in Nature usually span a range of sizes. These size distributions play fundamental roles in defining the physicochemical, biophysical and physiological properties of a wide variety of systems - ranging from advanced catalytic materials to Central Nervous System diseases. Accurate and noninvasive measurements of size distributions in opaque, three-dimensional objects, have thus remained long-standing and important challenges. Herein we describe how a recently introduced diffusion-based magnetic resonance methodology, Non-Uniform-Oscillating-Gradient-Spin-Echo (NOGSE, can determine such distributions noninvasively. The method relies on its ability to probe confining lengths with a (length6 parametric sensitivity, in a constant-time, constant-number-of-gradients fashion; combined, these attributes provide sufficient sensitivity for characterizing the underlying distributions in μm-scaled cellular systems. Theoretical derivations and simulations are presented to verify NOGSE's ability to faithfully reconstruct size distributions through suitable modeling of their distribution parameters. Experiments in yeast cell suspensions - where the ground truth can be determined from ancillary microscopy - corroborate these trends experimentally. Finally, by appending to the NOGSE protocol an imaging acquisition, novel MRI maps of cellular size distributions were collected from a mouse brain. The ensuing micro-architectural contrasts successfully delineated distinctive hallmark anatomical sub-structures, in both white matter and gray matter tissues, in a non-invasive manner. Such findings highlight NOGSE's potential for characterizing aberrations in cellular size distributions upon disease, or during normal processes such as development.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez-Fuentes, C.; Gallardo, R. A., E-mail: rodolfo.gallardo@usm.cl; Landeros, P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, 2390123 Valparaíso (Chile)
2015-10-05
An analytical model for studying the stability of a single domain ferromagnetic layer under the influence of a spin-polarized current is presented. The theory is applied to bias-field-free nano-oscillators with perpendicular anisotropy, which allows to obtain a polarizer-angle vs. current phase diagram that describes the stability of magnetic states. Explicit formulae for the critical current densities unveil the influence of the relative orientation between free and polarizer layers, allowing the emergence of precessional steady-states, and also the possibility to reduce the magnitude of the threshold current density to produce microwave oscillations. It is shown that oscillating steady-states arise in a broad angular region, and the dependence of their boundaries is fully specified by the model. The reliability of the analytical results has been corroborated by comparison to numerical calculations. Such structures are currently under intense research because of remarkable properties offering new prospects for microwave applications in communication technologies.
Kannan, Harsha; Chen, Yunpeng; Haughey, Kevin; Xiao, John
Current-induced magnetization switching allows the integration of magnetic capabilities into electric circuits. The spin-orbit interaction in heavy-metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures are of profound interest, since they provide an efficient way to manipulate the magnetization, via strong current driven spin orbital torques (SOTs). Materials possessing perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) are the preferred choice for the fabrication of memory devices since its magnetization can be switched with a small current density. Here we present the Oxygen control of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Ta/ CoFeB/ MgO, which is accomplished by fabricating a thin wedge layer of Al on top of the MgO layer followed by oxidation in Oxygen plasma. Thinner end of the Al wedge will be over oxidized and the thicker end will be under oxidized, hence degree of oxidation varies from thinner to the thicker end. This in effect provides a means to control the Oxygen content at the CoFeB/ MgO interface and to control the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We will further discuss the dependence of SOTs, measured with adiabatic harmonic Hall technique on varying PMA.
Dolui, Kapildeb; Chang, Po-Hao; Mahfouzi, Farzad; Markussen, Troels; Stokbro, Kurt; Nikolić, Branislav K.
The MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) are presently the workhorse of first generation spintronics, based on magnetoresistitive phenomena, as well as for second generation spintronics largely focused on spin-transfer torque (STT) phenomena. Although MgO-based MTJs offer large tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), required to detect current-driven magnetization switching from parallel to antiparallel state, they demand high bias voltage to initiate the switching dynamics which can lead to tunnel barrier degradation. Thus, an ideal physical system for envisioned STT-based memory devices and their integration with low-power CMOS technology would exhibit high TMR and low resistance-area (RA) product, ensuring small write voltages and write energy. Using first-principles quantum transport formalism, we predict that Co/Grn/Co vertical heterostructures, where Co(111) electrodes sandwich n layers of graphene, offer such physical system. Although Co/Gr1/Co junctions show similar STT magnitude as Co/Cu/Co spin valves in the linear-response regime, TMR >100% requires Co/Gr3/Co junctions whose RA product is still two orders of magnitude smaller than in MgO-based MTJs, while their magnetization switching can be initiated with bias voltages as small as Vb < 0 . 1 V.
2011-08-09
Tsoi, A. G. M. Jansen, J. Bass, W. C. Chiang, V. Tsoi, and P. Wyder, “Generation and detection of phase-coherent current-driven magnons in magnetic...multilayers”, Nature, vol. 406, pp. 46–48 (2000). [5] M. Tsoi, “Phase-coherent current-driven magnons in magnetic multilayers”, J. Magn. Magn. Mater
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Gueldal, S.
2009-01-01
We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, M., E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, O. [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Gueldal, S. [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2009-12-14
We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, Mustafa; Polat, Yasin
2009-01-01
The phase diagrams of the nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on square lattice under a time-dependent external magnetic field are presented by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins σ=3/2 and S=2, and we take only nearest-neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at absolute temperature T abs and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip of the Glauber dynamics. First, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters to find the phases in the system and then the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) phase transitions. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p), ferrimagnetic (i 1 , i 2 , i 3 ) phases, and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely i 1 +p, i 2 +p and i 3 +p mixed phases that strongly depend on interaction parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Polat, Yasin [Institutes of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2009-12-15
The phase diagrams of the nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on square lattice under a time-dependent external magnetic field are presented by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins {sigma}=3/2 and S=2, and we take only nearest-neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at absolute temperature T{sub abs} and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip of the Glauber dynamics. First, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters to find the phases in the system and then the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) phase transitions. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p), ferrimagnetic (i{sub 1}, i{sub 2}, i{sub 3}) phases, and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely i{sub 1}+p, i{sub 2}+p and i{sub 3}+p mixed phases that strongly depend on interaction parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chavent, A.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Creuzet, C.; Alvarez-Hérault, J.; Vila, L.; Sousa, R. C.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of a controlled cooling rate on magnetic field reversal assisted by spin transfer torque (STT) in thermally assisted magnetic random access memory. By using a gradual linear decrease of the voltage at the end of the write pulse, the STT decays more slowly or at least at the same rate as the temperature. This condition is necessary to make sure that the storage layer magnetization remains in the desired written direction during cooling of the cell. The influence of the write current pulse decay rate was investigated on two exchange biased synthetic ferrimagnet (SyF) electrodes. For a NiFe based electrode, a significant improvement in writing reproducibility was observed using a gradual linear voltage transition. The write error rate decreases by a factor of 10 when increasing the write pulse fall-time from ∼3 ns to 70 ns. For comparison, a second CoFe/NiFe based electrode was also reversed by magnetic field assisted by STT. In this case, no difference between sharp and linear write pulse fall shape was observed. We attribute this observation to the higher thermal stability of the CoFe/NiFe electrode during cooling. In real-time measurements of the magnetization reversal, it was found that Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling in the SyF electrode vanishes for the highest pulse voltages that were used due to the high temperature reached during write. As a result, during the cooling phase, the final state is reached through a spin-flop transition of the SyF storage layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohapatra, P.K.
1991-01-01
This paper investigates the possibility of spin-(flavor) precession combined with short wavelength vacuum oscillation as a solution for the solar neutrino puzzle. A large frozen-in magnetic field inside the sun with a neutrino magnetic moment of the order of 10 -10 Bohr magneton can completely depolarize the ν eL resulting in a factor of half of the emitted number. With a short wavelength vacuum oscillation and maximal mixing, the number of ν eL 's reaching the earth is reduced by another factor of half; this explains the Homestake chlorine experiment. The difference between the Homestake and the Kamiokande-II experiments can be attributed to the contribution to the Cherenkov radiation in the latter through the neutral current and electromagnetic interactions of the components which are inert in the former
Wang, Jing; Wu, Shizhe; Ma, Ji; Xie, Lishan; Wang, Chuanshou; Malik, Iftikhar Ahmed; Zhang, Yuelin; Xia, Ke; Nan, Ce-Wen; Zhang, Jinxing
2018-02-01
Stripe-ordered domains with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been intensively investigated due to their potential applications in high-density magnetic data-storage devices. However, the conventional control methods (e.g., epitaxial strain, local heating, magnetic field, and magnetoelectric effect) of the stripe-ordered domain walls either cannot meet the demands for miniaturization and low power consumption of spintronic devices or require high strength of the electric field due to the small value of the magnetoelectric effect at room temperature. Here, a domain-wall resistive effect of 0.1% was clarified in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films between the configurations of current in the plane and perpendicular to the plane of walls. Furthermore, a reversible nanoscale control of the domain-wall re-orientation by vertical spin transfer torque across the probe/film interface was achieved, where a probe voltage of 0.1 V was applied on a manganite-based capacitor. We also demonstrated that the stripe-ordered magnetic domain-wall re-orientation strongly depends on the AC frequency of the scanning probe voltage which was applied on the capacitor.
Sasaki, Taro; Endoh, Tetsuo
2018-04-01
In this paper, from the viewpoint of cell size and sensing margin, the impact of a novel cross-point-type one transistor and one magnetic tunnel junction (1T–1MTJ) spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) cell with a multi-pillar vertical body channel (BC) MOSFET is shown for high density and wide sensing margin STT-MRAM, with a 10 ns writing period and 1.2 V V DD. For that purpose, all combinations of n/p-type MOSFETs and bottom/top-pin MTJs are compared, where the diameter of MTJ (D MTJ) is scaled down from 55 to 15 nm and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio is increased from 100 to 200%. The results show that, benefiting from the proposed STT-MRAM cell with no back bias effect, the MTJ with a high TMR ratio (200%) can be used in the design of smaller STT-MRAM cells (over 72.6% cell size reduction), which is a difficult task for conventional planar MOSFET based design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertas, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram
2010-01-01
The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the spin-2 Ising model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameter and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane.
Effects of spin on the dynamics of the 2D Dirac oscillator in the magnetic cosmic string background
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Fabiano M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Silva, Edilberto O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)
2014-12-01
In this work the dynamics of a 2D Dirac oscillator in the spacetime of a magnetic cosmic string is considered. It is shown that earlier approaches to this problem have neglected a δ function contribution to the full Hamiltonian, which comes from the Zeeman interaction. The inclusion of spin effects leads to results which confirm a modified dynamics. Based on the self-adjoint extension method, we determined the most relevant physical quantities, such as energy spectrum, wave functions and the self-adjoint extension parameter by applying boundary conditions allowed by the system. (orig.)
Charge and spin current oscillations in a tunnel junction induced by magnetic field pulses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dartora, C.A., E-mail: cadartora@eletrica.ufpr.br [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana (UFPR), C.P. 19011 Curitiba, 81.531-970 PR (Brazil); Nobrega, K.Z., E-mail: bzuza1@yahoo.com.br [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technolgy of Maranhão (IFMA), Av. Marechal Castelo Branco, 789, São Luís, 65.076-091 MA (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G., E-mail: cabrera@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas 13.083-970 SP (Brazil)
2016-08-15
Usually, charge and spin transport properties in tunnel junctions are studied in the DC bias regime and/or in the adiabatic regime of time-varying magnetic fields. In this letter, the temporal dynamics of charge and spin currents in a tunnel junction induced by pulsed magnetic fields is considered. At low bias voltages, energy and momentum of the conduction electrons are nearly conserved in the tunneling process, leading to the description of the junction as a spin-1/2 fermionic system coupled to time-varying magnetic fields. Under the influence of pulsed magnetic fields, charge and spin current can flow across the tunnel junction, displaying oscillatory behavior, even in the absence of DC bias voltage. A type of spin capacitance function, in close analogy to electric capacitance, is predicted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korkmaz, Tugba [Institute of Science, Bozok University, 66200 Yozgat (Turkey); Temizer, Uemuet, E-mail: umut.temizer@bozok.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Bozok University, 66200 Yozgat (Turkey)
2012-11-15
The dynamic behavior of a mixed spin-1 and spin-2 Ising system with a crystal-field interaction in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice is studied by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The lattice is formed by alternate layers of spins {sigma}=1 and S=2. The Hamiltonian model includes intersublattice, intrasublattice and crystal-field interactions. The set of mean-field dynamic equations is obtained by employing the Glauber transition rates. Firstly, we study time variations of the average sublattice magnetizations in order to find the phases in the system, and the thermal behavior of the average sublattice magnetizations in a period or the dynamic sublattice magnetizations to obtain the dynamic phase transition points as well as to characterize the nature (continuous and discontinuous) of transitions. Then, the behavior of the dynamic total magnetization as a function of the temperature is investigated to find the dynamic compensation points as well as determine the type of behavior. We also present the dynamic phase diagrams for both presence and absence of the dynamic compensation temperatures in the nine different planes. According to the values of Hamiltonian parameters, besides the paramagnetic (p), antiferromagnetic (af), ferrimagnetic (i) and non-magnetic (nm) fundamental phases, eight different mixed phases and the compensation temperature or L- and N-types behavior in the Neel classification nomenclature exist in the system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mixed spin (1, 2) Ising system is studied by using the Glauber dynamics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the dynamic equations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase diagrams are presented in the nine different planes. ? The system displays L- and N-types compensation temperatures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, A.S. de; Alberto, P.; Lisboa, R.; Malheiro, M.
2006-01-01
We solve the generalized relativistic harmonic oscillator in 1+1 dimensions, i.e., including a linear pseudoscalar potential and quadratic scalar and vector potentials which have equal or opposite signs. We consider positive and negative quadratic potentials and discuss in detail their bound-state solutions for fermions and antifermions. The main features of these bound states are the same as the ones of the generalized three-dimensional relativistic harmonic oscillator bound states. The solutions found for zero pseudoscalar potential are related to the spin and pseudospin symmetry of the Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We show how the charge conjugation and γ 5 chiral transformations relate the several spectra obtained and find that for massless particles the spin and pseudospin symmetry-related problems have the same spectrum but different spinor solutions. Finally, we establish a relation of the solutions found with single-particle states of nuclei described by relativistic mean-field theories with scalar, vector, and isoscalar tensor interactions and discuss the conditions in which one may have both nucleon and antinucleon bound states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torres-Guzman, Jose C [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Mochan, W Luis [Centro de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
2006-05-26
We develop a formalism for the calculation of the flow of angular momentum carried by the fluctuating electromagnetic field within a cavity bounded by two flat anisotropic materials. By generalizing a procedure employed recently for the calculation of the Casimir force between arbitrary materials, we obtain an expression for the torque between anisotropic plates in terms of their reflection amplitude matrices. We evaluate the torque in 1D for ideal and dispersive model materials.
40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.
2010-07-01
... manufacturer's instructions for linearizing your torque sensor's output. We recommend that you calibrate the... combinations for each applicable torque-measuring range, spacing the weight quantities about equally over the... range, spacing the force quantities about equally over the range. Oscillate or rotate the dynamometer...
Fluidic low-frequency oscillator with vortex spin-up time delay
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tesař, Václav; Smyk, E.
2015-01-01
Roč. 90, April (2015), s. 6-15 ISSN 0255-2701 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S; GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * oscillator * vortex chamber Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0255270115000252
Bonetti, Stefano; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Consolo, Giancarlo; Finocchio, Giovanni; Muduli, Pranaba; Mancoff, Fred; Slavin, Andrei; Åkerman, Johan
2010-11-01
Through detailed experimental studies of the angular dependence of spin wave excitations in nanocontact-based spin-torque oscillators, we demonstrate that two distinct spin wave modes can be excited, with different frequency, threshold currents, and frequency tunability. Using analytical theory and micromagnetic simulations we identify one mode as an exchange-dominated propagating spin wave, and the other as a self-localized nonlinear spin wave bullet. Wavelet-based analysis of the simulations indicates that the apparent simultaneous excitation of both modes results from rapid mode hopping induced by the Oersted field.
Poyli, M. Ameen; Hrtoň, M.; Nechaev, I. A.; Nikitin, A. Y.; Echenique, P. M.; Silkin, V. M.; Aizpurua, J.; Esteban, R.
2018-03-01
Thin topological insulator (TI) films support optical and acoustic plasmonic modes characterized by effective net charge or net spin density, respectively. We combine many-body and electromagnetic calculations to study how these modes can be selectively excited at films and nanodisks at infrared and THz frequencies. We first discuss the excitation of propagating plasmons in a thin film by a point dipolar source. We emphasize how changing the distance between the dipolar source and the film allows us to control the relative strength of the acoustic and optical plasmons and thus to excite net-spin or net-charge waves on demand. The acoustic and optical modes in a nanodisk structure can be efficiently tuned by changing the size of the disk or by applying electrostatic gating. Furthermore, these modes can be confined to regions of dimensions much smaller than the wavelength. The control of the excitation of acoustic and optical modes indicates that thin topological insulators are a promising system to manipulate the spin and charge properties of the plasmonic response, with potential applications in fast, compact, and electrically-controlled spintronic devices.
Terahertz-Frequency Spin Hall Auto-oscillator Based on a Canted Antiferromagnet
Sulymenko, O. R.; Prokopenko, O. V.; Tiberkevich, V. S.; Slavin, A. N.; Ivanov, B. A.; Khymyn, R. S.
2017-12-01
We propose a design of a terahertz-frequency signal generator based on a layered structure consisting of a current-driven platinum (Pt) layer and a layer of an antiferromagnet (AFM) with easy-plane anisotropy, where the magnetization vectors of the AFM sublattices are canted inside the easy plane by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). The dc electric current flowing in the Pt layer creates due to the spin Hall effect, a perpendicular spin current that, being injected in the AFM layer, tilts the DMI-canted AFM sublattices out of the easy plane, thus exposing them to the action of a strong internal exchange magnetic field of the AFM. The sublattice magnetizations, along with the small net magnetization vector mDMI of the canted AFM, start to rotate about the hard anisotropy axis of the AFM with the terahertz frequency proportional to the injected spin current and the AFM exchange field. The rotation of the small net magnetization mDMI results in the terahertz-frequency dipolar radiation that can be directly received by an adjacent (e.g., dielectric) resonator. We demonstrate theoretically that the radiation frequencies in the range f =0.05 - 2 THz are possible at the experimentally reachable magnitudes of the driving current density, and we evaluate the power of the signal radiated into different types of resonators. This power increases with the increase of frequency f , and it can exceed 1 μ W at f ˜0.5 THz for a typical dielectric resonator of the electric permittivity ɛ ˜10 and a quality factor Q ˜750 .
Designing magnetic droplet soliton nucleation employing spin polarizer
Mohseni, Morteza; Mohseni, Majid
2018-04-01
We show by means of micromagnetic simulations that spin polarizer in nano-contact (NC) spin torque oscillators as the representative of the fixed layer in an orthogonal pseudo-spin valve can be employed to design and to control magnetic droplet soliton nucleation and dynamics. We found that using a tilted spin polarizer layer decreases the droplet nucleation time which is more suitable for high speed applications. However, a tilted spin polarizer increases the nucleation current and decreases the frequency stability of the droplet. Additionally, by driving the magnetization inhomogenously at the NC region, it is found that a tilted spin polarizer reduces the precession angle of the droplet and through an interplay with the Oersted field of the DC current, it breaks the spatial symmetry of the droplet profile. Our findings explore fundamental insight into nano-scale magnetic droplet soliton dynamics with potential tunability parameters for future microwave electronics.
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Malomed, Boris A.
2017-10-01
We analyze the possibility of macroscopic quantum effects in the form of coupled structural oscillations and shuttle motion of bright two-component spin-orbit-coupled striped (one-dimensional, 1D) and semivortex (two-dimensional, 2D) matter-wave solitons, under the action of linear mixing (Rabi coupling) between the components. In 1D, the intrinsic oscillations manifest themselves as flippings between spatially even and odd components of striped solitons, while in 2D the system features periodic transitions between zero-vorticity and vortical components of semivortex solitons. The consideration is performed by means of a combination of analytical and numerical methods.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Peng; Feng, Jiafeng, E-mail: hxwei@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: jiafengfeng@iphy.ac.cn; Wei, Hongxiang, E-mail: hxwei@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: jiafengfeng@iphy.ac.cn; Han, Xiufeng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Fang, Bin; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ruoshui Road 398, Suzhou 215123 (China)
2015-01-05
We experimentally study the temperature dependence of the spin-transfer-torque-induced microwave oscillations in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer. We demonstrate that the oscillation frequency increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, which is mainly ascribed to the temperature dependence of both the saturation magnetization and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We also find that a strong temperature dependence of the output power while a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of spectral linewidth are maintained for a constant dc bias in measured temperature range. Possible mechanisms leading to the different dependences of oscillation frequency, output power, and linewidth are discussed.
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr
2008-06-15
We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertas, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered (d) and the ferromagnetic-2 (f{sub 2}) phases, and the f{sub 2}+d, f{sub 2}+fq, fq+d, f{sub 2}+f{sub 1}+fq and f{sub 2}+fq+d, where f{sub 1} are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters.
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertas, Mehmet; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa
2008-01-01
We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertas, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered (d) and the ferromagnetic-2 (f 2 ) phases, and the f 2 +d, f 2 +fq, fq+d, f 2 +f 1 +fq and f 2 +fq+d, where f 1 are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
Ertaş, Mehmet; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa
We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertaş, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered ( d) and the ferromagnetic-2 ( f2) phases, and the f2+ d, f2+ fq, fq+ d, f2+ f1+ fq and f2+ fq+ d, where f1 are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters.
Baryshevsky, V. G.; Gurinovich, A. A.
2005-01-01
It is shown that particle motion in a bent (straight) crystal is accompanied by particle spin rotation and oscillations that allows to measure the tensor electric and magnetic polarizabilities of nuclei and elementary particles. It is shown that channelling of particles in either straight or bent crystal with the polarized nuclei could be used both to analyze polarization of high energy particles and polarize them.
Magnon-mediated Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya torque in homogeneous ferromagnets
Manchon, Aurelien
2014-12-01
In thin magnetic layers with structural inversion asymmetry and spin-orbit coupling, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction arises at the interface. When a spin-wave current jm flows in a system with a homogeneous magnetization m, this interaction produces an effective fieldlike torque of the form TFLm×(z×jm) as well as a dampinglike torque, TDLm×[(z×jm)×m], the latter only in the presence of spin-wave relaxation (z is normal to the interface). These torques mediated by the magnon flow can reorient the time-averaged magnetization direction and display a number of similarities with the torques arising from the electron flow in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This magnon-mediated spin-orbit torque can be efficient in the case of magnons driven by a thermal gradient.
Glenn, R.; Baker, W. J.; Boehme, C.; Raikh, M. E.
2013-04-01
We report on the theoretical and experimental study of spin-dependent electronic transition rates which are controlled by a radiation-induced spin-Rabi oscillation of weakly spin-exchange and spin-dipolar coupled paramagnetic states (S=(1)/(2)). The oscillation components [the Fourier content, F(s)] of the net transition rates within spin-pair ensembles are derived for randomly distributed spin resonances, with an account of a possible correlation between the two distributions corresponding to individual pair partners. Our study shows that when electrically detected Rabi spectroscopy is conducted under an increasing driving field B1, the Rabi spectrum, F(s), evolves from a single peak at s=ΩR, where ΩR=γB1 is the Rabi frequency (γ is the gyromagnetic ratio), to three peaks at s=ΩR, s=2ΩR, and low s≪ΩR. The crossover between the two regimes takes place when ΩR exceeds the expectation value δ0 of the difference in the Zeeman energies within the pairs, which corresponds to the broadening of the magnetic resonance by disorder caused by a hyperfine field or distributions of Landé g factors. We capture this crossover by analytically calculating the shapes of all three peaks at an arbitrary relation between ΩR and δ0. When the peaks are well developed their widths are Δs˜δ02/ΩR. We find a good quantitative agreement between the theory and experiment.
Kakkar, Lebina S; Bennett, Oscar F; Siow, Bernard; Richardson, Simon; Ianuş, Andrada; Quick, Tom; Atkinson, David; Phillips, James B; Drobnjak, Ivana
2017-08-01
Mapping axon diameters within the central and peripheral nervous system could play an important role in our understanding of nerve pathways, and help diagnose and monitor an array of neurological disorders. Numerous diffusion MRI methods have been proposed for imaging axon diameters, most of which use conventional single diffusion encoding (SDE) spin echo sequences. However, a growing number of studies show that oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) sequences can provide additional advantages over conventional SDE sequences. Recent theoretical results suggest that this is especially the case in realistic scenarios, such as when fibres have unknown or dispersed orientation. In the present study, we adopt the ActiveAx approach to experimentally investigate the extent of these advantages by comparing the performances of SDE and trapezoidal OGSE in viable nerve tissue. We optimise SDE and OGSE ActiveAx protocols for a rat peripheral nerve tissue and test their performance using Monte Carlo simulations and a 800 mT/m gradient strength pre-clinical imaging experiment. The imaging experiment uses excised sciatic nerve from a rat's leg placed in a MRI compatible viable isolated tissue (VIT) maintenance chamber, which keeps the tissue in a viable physiological state that preserves the structural complexity of the nerve and enables lengthy scan times. We compare model estimates to histology, which we perform on the nerve post scanning. Optimisation produces a three-shell SDE and OGSE ActiveAx protocol, with the OGSE protocol consisting of one SDE sequence and two low-frequency oscillating gradient waveform sequences. Both simulation and imaging results show that the OGSE ActiveAx estimates of the axon diameter index have a higher accuracy and a higher precision compared to those from SDE. Histology estimates of the axon diameter index in our nerve tissue samples are 4-5.8 μm and these are excellently matched with the OGSE estimates 4.2-6.5 μm, while SDE overestimates at
Wang, Tao; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson; Sushkov, Alexander O.; Aybas, Deniz; Blanchard, John W.; Centers, Gary; Kelley, Sean R. O.'; Wickenbrock, Arne; Fang, Jiancheng; Budker, Dmitry
2018-03-01
The Cosmic Axion Spin Precession Experiment (CASPEr) seeks to measure oscillating torques on nuclear spins caused by axion or axion-like-particle (ALP) dark matter via nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. A sample spin-polarized along a leading magnetic field experiences a resonance when the Larmor frequency matches the axion/ALP Compton frequency, generating precessing transverse nuclear magnetization. Here we demonstrate a Spin-Exchange Relaxation-Free (SERF) magnetometer with sensitivity ≈ 1 fT /√{ Hz } and an effective sensing volume of 0.1 cm3 that may be useful for NMR detection in CASPEr. A potential drawback of SERF-magnetometer-based NMR detection is the SERF's limited dynamic range. Use of a magnetic flux transformer to suppress the leading magnetic field is considered as a potential method to expand the SERF's dynamic range in order to probe higher axion/ALP Compton frequencies.
High-Frequency Dynamics Modulated by Collective Magnetization Reversal in Artificial Spin Ice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Sklenar, Joseph; Ding, Junjia; Park, Jungsik; Pearson, John E.; Novosad, Valentine; Schiffer, Peter; Hoffmann, Axel
2017-12-01
Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance arises in heavy metal-ferromagnet heterostructures when an alternating charge current is passed through the bilayer stack. The methodology to detect the resonance is based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance, which is the change in the electrical resistance due to different orientations of the magnetization. In connected networks of ferromagnetic nanowires, known as artificial spin ice, the magnetoresistance is rather complex owing to the underlying collective behavior of the geometrically frustrated magnetic domain structure. Here, we demonstrate spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance investigations in a square artificial spin-ice system and correlate our observations to magneto-transport measurements. The experimental findings are described using a simulation approach that highlights the importance of the correlated dynamics response of the magnetic system. Our results open the possibility of designing reconfigurable microwave oscillators and magnetoresistive devices based on connected networks of nanomagnets.
Ertaş, Mehmet
2015-09-01
Keskin and Ertaş (2009) presented a study of the magnetic properties of a mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model within an oscillating magnetic field. They employed dynamic mean-field calculations to find the dynamic phase transition temperatures, the dynamic compensation points of the model and to present the dynamic phase diagrams. In this work, we extend the study and investigate the dynamic hysteresis behaviors for the two-dimensional (2D) mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model on a hexagonal lattice in an oscillating magnetic field within the framework of dynamic mean-field calculations. The dynamic hysteresis curves are obtained for both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions and the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic hysteresis behaviors are discussed in detail. The thermal behaviors of the coercivity and remanent magnetizations are also investigated. The results are compared with some theoretical and experimental works and a qualitatively good agreement is found. Finally, the dynamic phase diagrams depending on the frequency of an oscillating magnetic field in the plane of the reduced temperature versus magnetic field amplitude is examined and it is found that the dynamic phase diagrams display richer dynamic critical behavior for higher values of frequency than for lower values.
Xiong, Yuan
2016-06-24
Dynamical and electrical responses of a small coflow diffusion flame were investigated by applying a high-voltage alternating current (AC), to a fuel jet nozzle. High-speed imaging and electrical diagnostics were adopted to capture flame dynamics and electrical signals, such as voltage (V ), frequency (f ) and current (I ). In the V -f domain of 0-5kV and 0-5kHz, AC-driven instabilities, resulting in various flame modes such as an oscillation, pinch-off and spinning of flames were identified. Characteristic frequency of each mode was determined and a visualization of near-nozzle flow structures suggested a close causality of initial counter-rotating vortices (inner and outer toroidal vortices - ITV and OTV), to the other observed flame. An axisymmetric ITV shedding was identified within oscillating and pinch-off modes, while asymmetric ITV shedding was identified with the spinning mode. Integrated electric power over several AC periods correlated well with variation in the flame surface area for these instabilities, demonstrating that measured electric power is a potential indicator of combustion instabilities in electric-field-assisted combustion.
Bonds, Marta Anna
propagating reaction. The DTEM utilized two lasers, one to initiate a reaction in the foil by providing the heat stimulus and the second to cause photoemission of 2 billion electrons in a 15ns pulse. The pulse length determines the temporal resolution of the DTME, which in this case is a 15ns snap-shot of the reaction propagation. The spin-like propagation observed in time-resolved images and the variable microstructure which suggests oscillations were an unexpected finding in the Al:Ni system where the relatively large heat of mixing produces steady-state, fast propagation. The DTEM shows the reaction propagates in a transverse fashion, as in a spiral away from the laser ingestion source. While the original grain sizes were on the order of the bilayer size, the final grain sizes range from ˜50nm to 3 microns. The bands produced by the spiraling propagation show areas of fine and course grains in an alternating fashion along the band length. Additionally, although Al3Ni is a line compound, electron diffraction reveals the presence of two phases, Al3Ni and Al3Ni 2 with elemental Al. The heating and cooling rates are both significantly high and non-uniform to cause two phases and the large grain size distribution. The results give experimental credence to previous numerical modeling.
Coherent spin manipulation in molecular semiconductors: getting a handle on organic spintronics.
Lupton, John M; McCamey, Dane R; Boehme, Christoph
2010-10-04
Organic semiconductors offer expansive grounds to explore fundamental questions of spin physics in condensed matter systems. With the emergence of organic spintronics and renewed interest in magnetoresistive effects, which exploit the electron spin degree of freedom to encode and transmit information, there is much need to illuminate the underlying properties of spins in molecular electronic materials. For example, one may wish to identify over what length of time a spin maintains its orientation with respect to an external reference field. In addition, it is crucial to understand how adjacent spins arising, for example, in electrostatically coupled charge-carrier pairs, interact with each other. A periodic perturbation of the field may cause the spins to precess or oscillate, akin to a spinning top experiencing a torque. The quantum mechanical characteristic of the spin is then defined as the coherence time, the time over which an oscillating spin, or spin pair, maintains a fixed phase with respect to the driving field. Electron spins in organic semiconductors provide a remarkable route to performing "hands-on" quantum mechanics since permutation symmetries are controlled directly. Herein, we review some of the recent advances in organic spintronics and organic magnetoresistance, and offer an introductory description of the concept of pulsed, electrically detected magnetic resonance as a technique to manipulate and thus characterize the fundamental properties of electron spins. Spin-dependent dissociation and recombination allow the observation of coherent spin motion in a working device, such as an organic light-emitting diode. Remarkably, it is possible to distinguish between electron and hole spin resonances. The ubiquitous presence of hydrogen nuclei gives rise to strong hyperfine interactions, which appear to provide the basis for many of the magnetoresistive effects observed in these materials. Since hyperfine coupling causes quantum spin beating in electron
High torque DC motor fabrication and test program
Makus, P.
1976-01-01
The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.
Csire, Gábor; Deák, András; Nyári, Bendegúz; Ebert, Hubert; Annett, James F.; Újfalussy, Balázs
2018-01-01
The fully relativistic spin-polarized multiple-scattering theory is developed for inhomogeneous superconductors, including superconducting/normal-metal/ferromagnet heterostructures. The method allows the solution of the first-principles Dirac-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations combined with a semiphenomenological parametrization of the exchange-correlation functional. Simple conditions are derived for the case when the right-hand-side and left-hand-side solutions must be treated separately when setting up the corresponding Green's function. As an application of the theory, we calculate the order parameters of Nb/Fe and Nb/Au/Fe systems. We find Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov-like oscillations in the iron layers, but more interestingly an oscillatory behavior is observed in the gold layers as well. The band-structure calculations suggest that this is the consequence of an interplay between the quantum-well states and ferromagnetism.
Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport
Farle, Michael
2013-01-01
Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-03-15
The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation for the average magnetization is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and are of seven fundamental types. Phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic (P), ferromagnetic-2 (F{sub 2}) and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely the F{sub 2}+P, F{sub 1}+P and F{sub 2}+F{sub 1}+P, which strongly depend on the crystal-field interaction (D) parameter. The system also exhibits the dynamic tricritical behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase transitions are studied in spin-2 BC model using EFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams are found in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System exhibits dynamic tricritical behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kocakaplan, Yusuf [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2013-12-15
Dynamic phase diagrams are presented for the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume–Capel model under a time oscillating longitudinal field by use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The dynamic equation of the average magnetization is obtained for the square lattice by utilizing the Glauber-type stochastic process. Dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and the magnetic field amplitude plane. We also investigated the effect of longitudinal field frequency. Finally, the discussion and comparison of the phase diagrams are given. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors in the spin-3/2 Blume–Capel system is investigated by the effective-field theory based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. • The dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams are obtained. • The effects of the longitudinal field frequency on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system are investigated. • Dynamic phase diagrams exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and several critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Keskin, Mustafa
2013-01-01
Dynamic phase diagrams are presented for the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume–Capel model under a time oscillating longitudinal field by use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The dynamic equation of the average magnetization is obtained for the square lattice by utilizing the Glauber-type stochastic process. Dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and the magnetic field amplitude plane. We also investigated the effect of longitudinal field frequency. Finally, the discussion and comparison of the phase diagrams are given. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors in the spin-3/2 Blume–Capel system is investigated by the effective-field theory based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. • The dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams are obtained. • The effects of the longitudinal field frequency on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system are investigated. • Dynamic phase diagrams exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and several critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior
Ma, Yitao; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo
2017-04-01
A high-density nonvolatile associative memory (NV-AM) based on spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM), which achieves highly concurrent and ultralow-power nearest neighbor search with full adaptivity of the template data format, has been proposed and fabricated using the 90 nm CMOS/70 nm perpendicular-magnetic-tunnel-junction hybrid process. A truly compact current-mode circuitry is developed to realize flexibly controllable and high-parallel similarity evaluation, which makes the NV-AM adaptable to any dimensionality and component-bit of template data. A compact dual-stage time-domain minimum searching circuit is also developed, which can freely extend the system for more template data by connecting multiple NM-AM cores without additional circuits for integrated processing. Both the embedded STT-MRAM module and the computing circuit modules in this NV-AM chip are synchronously power-gated to completely eliminate standby power and maximally reduce operation power by only activating the currently accessed circuit blocks. The operations of a prototype chip at 40 MHz are demonstrated by measurement. The average operation power is only 130 µW, and the circuit density is less than 11 µm2/bit. Compared with the latest conventional works in both volatile and nonvolatile approaches, more than 31.3% circuit area reductions and 99.2% power improvements are achieved, respectively. Further power performance analyses are discussed, which verify the special superiority of the proposed NV-AM in low-power and large-memory-based VLSIs.
Resonant spin wave excitations in a magnonic crystal cavity
Kumar, N.; Prabhakar, A.
2018-03-01
Spin polarized electric current, injected into permalloy (Py) through a nano contact, exerts a torque on the magnetization. The spin waves (SWs) thus excited propagate radially outward. We propose an antidot magnonic crystal (MC) with a three-hole defect (L3) around the nano contact, designed so that the frequency of the excited SWs, lies in the band gap of the MC. L3 thus acts as a resonant SW cavity. The energy in this magnonic crystal cavity can be tapped by an adjacent MC waveguide (MCW). An analysis of the simulated micromagnetic power spectrum, at the output port of the MCW reveals stable SW oscillations. The quality factor of the device, calculated using the decay method, was estimated as Q > 105 for an injected spin current density of 7 ×1012 A/m2.
Torque ripple reduction in direct torque controlled five-phase ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The five-phase induction motor inherently has the minimal torque ripple. However, when it is controlled by direct torque control (DTC) technique, the torque ripple increases due to the presence of a hysteresis torque comparator. The classical five-level torque comparator is presented in the previous literatures to control the ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-08-15
Herein we study the dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model on a square lattice under a time-dependent magnetic field by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations based on Glauber dynamics. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and find that the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic tricitical behavior, multicritical and zero-temperature critical points as well as reentrant behavior. We also investigate the influence of frequency (ω) and observe that for small values of ω the mixed phase disappears, but for high values it appears and the system displays reentrant behavior as well as a critical end point. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin (1/2, 1) Ising system are studied. • We examined the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic behaviors. • The phase diagrams are obtained in (T-h) plane. • The dynamic phase diagrams exhibit the dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-01-01
Herein we study the dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model on a square lattice under a time-dependent magnetic field by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations based on Glauber dynamics. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and find that the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic tricitical behavior, multicritical and zero-temperature critical points as well as reentrant behavior. We also investigate the influence of frequency (ω) and observe that for small values of ω the mixed phase disappears, but for high values it appears and the system displays reentrant behavior as well as a critical end point. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin (1/2, 1) Ising system are studied. • We examined the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic behaviors. • The phase diagrams are obtained in (T-h) plane. • The dynamic phase diagrams exhibit the dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors
Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry
Manchon, Aurelien
2014-04-13
The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.
Kinetics of the spin-2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating external field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Ertas, M.
2007-01-01
Within a mean-field approach and using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics, we study the kinetics of the spin-2 Blume-Capel model in the presence of a time-varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field. We investigate the time dependence of the average order parameter and the behavior of the average order parameter in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameter, as a function of the reduced temperature. The nature (continuous and discontinuous) of the transition is characterized by the dynamic order parameter. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane. The phase diagrams exhibit one dynamic tricritical point; besides a disordered and an ordered phases, there are three phase coexistence regions that are strongly dependent on the interaction parameter
On the oscillations in Mercury's obliquity
Bois, E.; Rambaux, N.
2007-12-01
note that the dynamically driven spin precession, which occurs when the planetary interactions are included, is more complex than the purely kinematic case. Nevertheless, in such a N-body problem, we find that the 3:2 spin-orbit resonance is really combined to a synchronism where the spin and orbit poles on average precess at the same rate while the orbit inclination and the spin axis orientation on average decrease at the same rate. As a consequence and whether it would turn out that there exists an irreducible minimum of the oscillation amplitude, quasi-periodic oscillations found in Mercury's obliquity should be to geometrically understood as librations related to these synchronisms that both follow a Cassini state. Whatever the open question on the minimal amplitude in the obliquity's oscillations and in spite of the planetary interactions indirectly acting by the solar torque on Mercury's rotation, Mercury remains therefore in a stable equilibrium state that proceeds from a 2-body Cassini state.
Angular Acceleration without Torque?
Kaufman, Richard D.
2012-01-01
Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.
Spin physics in semiconductors
2017-01-01
This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2012-01-01
The dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system (σ=2 and S=5/2), with a crystal-field interaction in an oscillating field are studied, within the mean-field approach, by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior depending on interaction parameters. -- Highlights: ► Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. ► The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. ► The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-07-23
The dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system (σ=2 and S=5/2), with a crystal-field interaction in an oscillating field are studied, within the mean-field approach, by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior depending on interaction parameters. -- Highlights: ► Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. ► The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. ► The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Intrinsic nonadiabatic topological torque in magnetic skyrmions and vortices
Akosa, Collins Ashu
2017-03-01
We propose that topological spin currents flowing in topologically nontrivial magnetic textures, such as magnetic skyrmions and vortices, produce an intrinsic nonadiabatic torque of the form Tt∼[(∂xm×∂ym)·m]∂ym. We show that this torque, which is absent in one-dimensional domain walls and/or nontopological textures, is responsible for the enhanced nonadiabaticity parameter observed in magnetic vortices compared to one-dimensional textures. The impact of this torque on the motion of magnetic skyrmions is expected to be crucial, especially to determine their robustness against defects and pinning centers.
Spin Hall effects in metallic antiferromagnets – perspectives for future spin-orbitronics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph Sklenar
2016-05-01
Full Text Available We investigate angular dependent spin-orbit torques from the spin Hall effect in a metallic antiferromagnet using the spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance technique. The large spin Hall effect exists in PtMn, a prototypical CuAu-I-type metallic antiferromagnet. By applying epitaxial growth, we previously reported an appreciable difference in spin-orbit torques for c- and a-axis orientated samples, implying anisotropic effects in magnetically ordered materials. In this work we demonstrate through bipolar-magnetic-field experiments a small but noticeable asymmetric behavior in the spin-transfer-torque that appears as a hysteresis effect. We also suggest that metallic antiferromagnets may be good candidates for the investigation of various unidirectional effects related to novel spin-orbitronics phenomena.
GMAG Dissertation Award Talk: All Spin Logic -- Multimagnet Networks interacting via Spin currents
Srinivasan, Srikant
2012-02-01
Digital logic circuits have traditionally been based on storing information as charge on capacitors, and the stored information is transferred by controlling the flow of charge. However, electrons carry both charge and spin, the latter being responsible for magnetic phenomena. In the last few decades, there has been a significant improvement in our ability to control spins and their interaction with magnets. All Spin Logic (ASL) represents a new approach to information processing where spins and magnets now mirror the roles of charges and capacitors in conventional logic circuits. In this talk I first present a model [1] that couples non-collinear spin transport with magnet-dynamics to predict the switching behavior of the basic ASL device. This model is based on established physics and is benchmarked against available experimental data that demonstrate spin-torque switching in lateral structures. Next, the model is extended to simulate multi-magnet networks coupled with spin transport channels. The simulations suggest ASL devices have the essential characteristics for building logic circuits. In particular, (1) the example of an ASL ring oscillator [2, 3] is used to provide a clear signature of directed information transfer in cascaded ASL devices without the need for external control circuitry and (2) a simulated NAND [4] gate with fan-out of 2 suggests that ASL can implement universal logic and drive subsequent stages. Finally I will discuss how ASL based circuits could also have potential use in the design of neuromorphic circuits suitable for hybrid analog/digital information processing because of the natural mapping of ASL devices to neurons [4]. [4pt] [1] B. Behin-Aein, A. Sarkar, S. Srinivasan, and S. Datta, ``Switching Energy-Delay of All-Spin Logic devices,'' Appl. Phys. Lett., 98, 123510 (2011).[0pt] [2] S. Srinivasan, A. Sarkar, B. Behin-Aein, and S. Datta, ``All Spin Logic Device with Inbuilt Non-reciprocity,'' IEEE Trans. Magn., 47, 10 (2011).[0pt] [3
Optical torque on a magneto-dielectric Rayleigh absorptive sphere by a vector Bessel (vortex) beam
Li, Renxian; Yang, Ruiping; Ding, Chunying; Mitri, F. G.
2017-04-01
The optical torque exerted on an absorptive megneto-dielectric sphere by an axicon-generated vector Bessel (vortex) beam with selected polarizations is investigated in the framework of the dipole approximation. The total optical torque is expressed as the sum of orbital and spin torques. The axial orbital torque component is calculated from the z-component of the cross-product of the vector position r and the optical force exerted on the sphere F. Depending on the beam characteristics (such as the half-cone angle and polarization type) and the physical properties of the sphere, it is shown here that the axial orbital torque vanishes before reversing sign, indicating a counter-intuitive orbital motion in opposite handedness of the angular momentum carried by the incident waves. Moreover, analytical formulas for the spin torque, which is divided into spin torques induced by electric and magnetic dipoles, are derived. The corresponding components of both the optical spin and orbital torques are numerically calculated, and the effects of polarization, the order of the beam, and half-cone angle are discussed in detail. The left-handed (i.e., negative) optical torque is discussed, and the conditions for generating optical spin and orbital torque sign reversal are numerically investigated. The transverse optical spin torque has a vortex-like character, whose direction depends on the polarization, the half-cone angle, and the order of the beam. Numerical results also show that the vortex direction depends on the radial position of the particle in the transverse plane. This means that a sphere may rotate with different directions when it moves radially. Potential applications are in particle manipulation and rotation, single beam optical tweezers, and other emergent technologies using vector Bessel beams on a small magneto-dielectric (nano) particle.
Spin transfer and spin pumping in disordered normal metal-antiferromagnetic insulator systems
Gulbrandsen, Sverre A.; Brataas, Arne
2018-02-01
We consider an antiferromagnetic insulator that is in contact with a metal. Spin accumulation in the metal can induce spin-transfer torques on the staggered field and on the magnetization in the antiferromagnet. These torques relate to spin pumping: the emission of spin currents into the metal by a precessing antiferromagnet. We investigate how the various components of the spin-transfer torque are affected by spin-independent disorder and spin-flip scattering in the metal. Spin-conserving disorder reduces the coupling between the spins in the antiferromagnet and the itinerant spins in the metal in a manner similar to Ohm's law. Spin-flip scattering leads to spin-memory loss with a reduced spin-transfer torque. We discuss the concept of a staggered spin current and argue that it is not a conserved quantity. Away from the interface, the staggered spin current varies around a 0 mean in an irregular manner. A network model explains the rapid decay of the staggered spin current.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, K.H.
1985-01-01
Experimental results of spin glass studies are reviewed and related to existing theories. Investigations of spin glasses are concentrated on atomic structure, metallurgical treatment, and high-temperature susceptibility of alloys, on magnetic properties at low temperature and near the freezing temperature, on anisotropy behaviour measured by ESR, NMR and torque, on specific heat, Moessbauer effect, neutron scattering and muon-spin depolarization experiments, ultrasound and transport properties. Some new theories of spin glasses are discussed which have been developed since Part I appeared
Vector spin modeling for magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage dependent effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Young, Ian A.
2014-01-01
Integration and co-design of CMOS and spin transfer devices requires accurate vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. A physically realistic model of the MTJ should comprehend the spin torque dynamics of nanomagnet interacting with an injected vector spin current and the voltage dependent spin torque. Vector spin modeling allows for calculation of 3 component spin currents and potentials along with the charge currents/potentials in non-collinear magnetic systems. Here, we show 4-component vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction devices coupled with spin transfer torque in the nanomagnet. Nanomagnet dynamics, voltage dependent spin transport, and thermal noise are comprehended in a self-consistent fashion. We show comparison of the model with experimental magnetoresistance (MR) of MTJs and voltage degradation of MR with voltage. Proposed model enables MTJ circuit design that comprehends voltage dependent spin torque effects, switching error rates, spin degradation, and back hopping effects
Khan, Asif; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Ghani, Tahir; Young, Ian A.
2014-06-01
A spintronic device, called the "strain assisted spin transfer torque (STT) random access memory (RAM)," is proposed by combining the magnetostriction effect and the spin transfer torque effect which can result in a dramatic improvement in the energy dissipation relative to a conventional STT-RAM. Magnetization switching in the device which is a piezoelectric-ferromagnetic heterostructure via the combined magnetostriction and STT effect is simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation incorporating the influence of thermal noise. The simulations show that, in such a device, each of these two mechanisms (magnetostriction and spin transfer torque) provides in a 90° rotation of the magnetization leading a deterministic 180° switching with a critical current significantly smaller than that required for spin torque alone. Such a scheme is an attractive option for writing magnetic RAM cells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Asif; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Ghani, Tahir; Young, Ian A.
2014-01-01
A spintronic device, called the “strain assisted spin transfer torque (STT) random access memory (RAM),” is proposed by combining the magnetostriction effect and the spin transfer torque effect which can result in a dramatic improvement in the energy dissipation relative to a conventional STT-RAM. Magnetization switching in the device which is a piezoelectric-ferromagnetic heterostructure via the combined magnetostriction and STT effect is simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation incorporating the influence of thermal noise. The simulations show that, in such a device, each of these two mechanisms (magnetostriction and spin transfer torque) provides in a 90° rotation of the magnetization leading a deterministic 180° switching with a critical current significantly smaller than that required for spin torque alone. Such a scheme is an attractive option for writing magnetic RAM cells.
ESPINTRÓNICA, LA ELECTRONICA DEL ESPÍN SPINTRONICS, SPIN ELECTRONICS
Monteblanco, Elmer
2017-03-14
Current technology seeks to develop nanoscale devices capable of storing and processing information. These devices would be difficult to make in the area of electronics, which is based on the manipulation of electric charge. However, thanks to advances in experimental and theoretical physics in the field of condensed matter, these devices are already a reality, belonging to the field of what we now call spintronics, which bases its functionality on the control of the electron’s spin, a property that can only be conceived at the quantum level. In this article we review this new perspective, describing giant- and tunneling- magnetoresistance, the spin transfer torque, and their applications such as MRAM memories, nano-oscillators and lateral spin valves.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STORAGESEVER
2008-12-29
Dec 29, 2008 ... Optical traps are an important tool for research in the field of single molecule biophysics. Recent advances in optical trapping have extended their functionality from simple linear manipulation and measurement of forces, to now the ability to rotate objects and measure torques. This mini review summarizes ...
Large Torque Variations in Two Soft Gamma Repeaters
Woods, P.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Göğüş, E.; Finger, M.H.; Swank, J.; Markwardt, C.B.; Hurley, K.; van der Klis, M.
2002-01-01
We have monitored the pulse frequencies of the two soft gamma repeaters SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 through the beginning of year 2001 using primarily Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations. In both sources, we observe large changes in the spin-down torque up to a factor
Observation of the Spin Peltier Effect for Magnetic Insulators
Flipse, J.; Dejene, F.K.; Wagenaar, D.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Ben Youssef, J.; Van Wees, B.J.
2014-01-01
We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin
Butterfly valve torque prediction methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eldiwany, B.H.; Sharma, V.; Kalsi, M.S.; Wolfe, K.
1994-01-01
As part of the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored the development of methodologies for predicting thrust and torque requirements of gate, globe, and butterfly MOVs. This paper presents the methodology that will be used by utilities to calculate the dynamic torque requirements for butterfly valves. The total dynamic torque at any disc position is the sum of the hydrodynamic torque, bearing torque (which is induced by the hydrodynamic force), as well as other small torque components (such as packing torque). The hydrodynamic torque on the valve disc, caused by the fluid flow through the valve, depends on the disc angle, flow velocity, upstream flow disturbances, disc shape, and the disc aspect ratio. The butterfly valve model provides sets of nondimensional flow and torque coefficients that can be used to predict flow rate and hydrodynamic torque throughout the disc stroke and to calculate the required actuation torque and the maximum transmitted torque throughout the opening and closing stroke. The scope of the model includes symmetric and nonsymmetric discs of different shapes and aspects ratios in compressible and incompressible fluid applications under both choked and nonchoked flow conditions. The model features were validated against test data from a comprehensive flowloop and in situ test program. These tests were designed to systematically address the effect of the following parameters on the required torque: valve size, disc shapes and disc aspect ratios, upstream elbow orientation and its proximity, and flow conditions. The applicability of the nondimensional coefficients to valves of different sizes was validated by performing tests on 42-in. valve and a precisely scaled 6-in. model. The butterfly valve model torque predictions were found to bound test data from the flow-loop and in situ testing, as shown in the examples provided in this paper
Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves
Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.
2018-01-01
We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.
Tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Zhaoxian; Jiao Zhiyong
2004-01-01
In this Letter, we have studied tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic field. We find that the population transfers among spin-0 and spin-±1, spin-0 and spin-±2 exhibit the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field, respectively, but there do not exist step structure among spin-±1 and spin-±2. The tunneling current among spin-±1 and spin-±2 may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior, but among spin-0 and spin-±1, spin-0 and spin-±2, the tunneling currents exhibit irregular oscillation behavior
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mundt, Mark Osroe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Matthew Ronald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Varela, Jeanette Judith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gilmore, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Allie [Pantex Plant (PTX), Amarillo, TX (United States)
2018-01-11
At the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX, Production Technicians (PTs) build and disassemble nuclear weapon systems. The weapons are held in an integrated work stand for stability and to increase the safety environment for the workers and for the materials being processed. There are many occasions in which a knob must be turned to tighten an assembly part. This can help to secure or manipulate pieces of the system. As there are so many knobs to turn, the instructions given to the PTs are to twist the knob to a hand-tight setting, without the aid of a torque wrench. There are inherent risks in this procedure as the knobs can be tightened too loosely such that the apparatus falls apart or too tightly such that the force can crush or pinch components in the system that contain energetic materials. We want to study these operations at Pantex. Our goal is to collect torque data to assess the safety and reliability of humantooling interfaces.
Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark eJohnson
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.
Excitation and Transmitted Torque
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. B. H. Gubran
2000-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, stress analysis of fiber reinforced thin composite shafts subjected to unbalance excitation and steady torque, is carried out. Shafts of uniform as well as variable wall thickness are considered. The shaft is modeled as a simply supported Timoshenko beam in which shear deformation, rotary inertia and gyroscopic effects have been included. Modified equivalent modulus beam theory has been adopted. Rayleigh-Ritz displacements are used for deriving the solution equations. Shafts with a uniform wall thickness, and with variable wall thickness in which the thickness is varied along the axial length of the shaft for three different cases of fiber angles have been studied. Axial variation of stresses is studied in detail. Results obtained indicate that the stresses in the variable wall thickness are smaller than the one with uniform wall thickness, even for the same weight of the shaft.
Singh, Madhav K.; Jha, Pradeep K.; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.
2017-09-01
In this article, we study the spin and tunneling dynamics as a function of magnetic field in a one-dimensional GaAs double quantum dot with both the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. In particular, we consider different spatial widths for the spin-up and spin-down electronic states. We find that the spin dynamics is a superposition of slow as well as fast Rabi oscillations. It is found that the Rashba interaction strength as well as the external magnetic field strongly modifies the slow Rabi oscillations which is particularly useful for implementing solid state selective spin transport device.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temizer, Umuet; Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman
2009-01-01
The dynamic behavior of a two-sublattice spin-1 Ising model with a crystal-field interaction (D) in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice is studied by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The lattice is formed by alternate layers of spins σ=1 and S=1. For this spin arrangement, any spin at one lattice site has two nearest-neighbor spins on the same sublattice, and four on the other sublattice. The intersublattice interaction is antiferromagnetic. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. Firstly, we study time variations of the average magnetizations in order to find the phases in the system, and the temperature dependence of the average magnetizations in a period, which is also called the dynamic magnetizations, to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (continuous and discontinuous) of transitions. Then, the behavior of the total dynamic magnetization as a function of the temperature is investigated to find the types of the compensation behavior. Dynamic phase diagrams are calculated for both DPT points and dynamic compensation effect. Phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic (p) and antiferromagnetic (af) phases, the p+af and nm+p mixed phases, nm is the non-magnetic phase, and the compensation temperature or the L-type behavior that strongly depend on the interaction parameters. For D 0 >3.8275, H 0 is the magnetic field amplitude, the compensation effect does not appear in the system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Temizer, Umuet [Department of Physics, Bozok University, 66100 Yozgat (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2009-10-15
The dynamic behavior of a two-sublattice spin-1 Ising model with a crystal-field interaction (D) in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice is studied by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The lattice is formed by alternate layers of spins {sigma}=1 and S=1. For this spin arrangement, any spin at one lattice site has two nearest-neighbor spins on the same sublattice, and four on the other sublattice. The intersublattice interaction is antiferromagnetic. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. Firstly, we study time variations of the average magnetizations in order to find the phases in the system, and the temperature dependence of the average magnetizations in a period, which is also called the dynamic magnetizations, to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (continuous and discontinuous) of transitions. Then, the behavior of the total dynamic magnetization as a function of the temperature is investigated to find the types of the compensation behavior. Dynamic phase diagrams are calculated for both DPT points and dynamic compensation effect. Phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic (p) and antiferromagnetic (af) phases, the p+af and nm+p mixed phases, nm is the non-magnetic phase, and the compensation temperature or the L-type behavior that strongly depend on the interaction parameters. For D<2.835 and H{sub 0}>3.8275, H{sub 0} is the magnetic field amplitude, the compensation effect does not appear in the system.
Spin precession experiments for light axionic dark matter
Graham, Peter W.; Kaplan, David E.; Mardon, Jeremy; Rajendran, Surjeet; Terrano, William A.; Trahms, Lutz; Wilkason, Thomas
2018-03-01
Axionlike particles are promising candidates to make up the dark matter of the Universe, but it is challenging to design experiments that can detect them over their entire allowed mass range. Dark matter in general, and, in particular, axionlike particles and hidden photons, can be as light as roughly 10-22 eV (˜10-8 Hz ), with astrophysical anomalies providing motivation for the lightest masses ("fuzzy dark matter"). We propose experimental techniques for direct detection of axionlike dark matter in the mass range from roughly 10-13 eV (˜102 Hz ) down to the lowest possible masses. In this range, these axionlike particles act as a time-oscillating magnetic field coupling only to spin, inducing effects such as a time-oscillating torque and periodic variations in the spin-precession frequency with the frequency and direction of these effects set by the axion field. We describe how these signals can be measured using existing experimental technology, including torsion pendulums, atomic magnetometers, and atom interferometry. These experiments demonstrate a strong discovery capability, with future iterations of these experiments capable of pushing several orders of magnitude past current astrophysical bounds.
Hybrid synchronous motor electromagnetic torque research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suvorkova Elena E.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic field distribution models in reluctance and permanent magnet parts were made by means of Elcut. Dependences of electromagnetic torque on torque angle were obtained.
Electrical torques on the electrostatic gyro in the gyro relativity experiment
Eby, P.; Darbo, W.
1980-10-01
A comprehensive discussion and calculation of electrical torques on an electrostatic gyro as they relate to the gyroscope experiment to test general relativity is presented. Drift rates were computed for some typical state of the art rotors, including higher harmonics in the rotor shape. The effect of orbital averaging of gravity gradient forces, roll averaging of torques, and the effect of spin averaging on the effective shape of the rotor were considered. The electrical torques are reduced sufficiently in a low g environment to permit a measurement of the relativistic drifts predicted by general relativity.
Mcdougal, A. R.; Norman, R. M. (Inventor)
1976-01-01
A gear head wrench particularly suited for use in applying torque to bolts without transferring torsional stress to bolt-receiving structures is introduced. The wrench is characterized by a coupling including a socket, for connecting a bolt head with a torque multiplying gear train, provided within a housing having an annulus concentrically related to the socket and adapted to be coupled with a spacer interposed between the bolt head and the juxtaposed surface of the bolt-receiving structure for applying a balancing counter-torque to the spacer as torque is applied to the bolt head whereby the bolt-receiving structure is substantially isolated from torsional stress. As a result of the foregoing, the operator of the wrench is substantially isolated from any forces which may be imposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zolotukhin, I.V.; Balalaev, S.Yu.
1990-01-01
Relaxation properties of Y 19 Fe 81 spin glass (SG) were investigated by means of internal friction(IF). Relaxation process resulting from transition to SG state was determined at sound range frequencies in amorphous alloy. On the basis of the obtained results concerning IF and magnetic susceptibility it follows, that relaxation of certain part of cluster magnetic moments lies within 10 -5 -10 -3 s limits with 0.11±0.06 eV activation energy. IF technique is shown to be used for investigation into relaxation properties, in particular, for acquisition of data on temperature of transition to SG' state
Torque-Summing Brushless Motor
Vaidya, J. G.
1986-01-01
Torque channels function cooperatively but electrically independent for reliability. Brushless, electronically-commutated dc motor sums electromagnetic torques on four channels and applies them to single shaft. Motor operates with any combination of channels and continues if one or more of channels fail electrically. Motor employs single stator and rotor and mechanically simple; however, each of channels electrically isolated from other so that failure of one does not adversely affect others.
Spin Transport in Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Textures
Akosa, Collins A.
2016-12-07
In this dissertation, we provide an accurate description of spin transport in magnetic textures and in particular, we investigate in detail, the nature of spin torque and magnetic damping in such systems. Indeed, as will be further discussed in this thesis, the current-driven velocity of magnetic textures is related to the ratio between the so-called non-adiabatic torque and magnetic damping. Uncovering the physics underlying these phenomena can lead to the optimal design of magnetic systems with improved efficiency. We identified three interesting classes of systems which have attracted enormous research interest (i) Magnetic textures in systems with broken inversion symmetry: We investigate the nature of magnetic damping in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Based on phenomenological and microscopic derivations, we show that the magnetic damping becomes chiral, i.e. depends on the chirality of the magnetic texture. (ii) Ferromagnetic domain walls, skyrmions and vortices: We address the physics of spin transport in sharp disordered magnetic domain walls and vortex cores. We demonstrate that upon spin-independent scattering, the non-adiabatic torque can be significantly enhanced. Such an enhancement is large for vortex cores compared to transverse domain walls. We also show that the topological spin currents owing in these structures dramatically enhances the non-adiabaticity, an effect unique to non-trivial topological textures (iii) Antiferromagnetic skyrmions: We extend this study to antiferromagnetic skyrmions and show that such an enhanced topological torque also exist in these systems. Even more interestingly, while such a non-adiabatic torque inuences the undesirable transverse velocity of ferromagnetic skyrmions, in antiferromagnetic skyrmions, the topological non-adiabatic torque directly determines the longitudinal velocity. As a consequence, scaling down the antiferromagnetic skyrmion results in a much more efficient spin torque.
14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.
2010-01-01
... turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for maximum... compressor jamming). (b) For reciprocating engines, the limit torque may not be less than the mean torque for maximum continuous power multiplied by— (1) 1.33, for engines with five or more cylinders; and (2) Two...
Imaging Spin Dynamics on the Nanoscale using X-Ray Microscopy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hermann eStoll
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of emergent magnetic quasiparticles, such as vortices, domain walls, and bubbles are studied by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM, combining magnetic (XMCD contrast with about 25 nm lateral resolution as well as 70 ps time resolution. Essential progress in the understanding of magnetic vortex dynamics is achieved by vortex core reversal observed by sub-GHz excitation of the vortex gyromode, either by ac magnetic fields or spin transfer torque. The basic switching scheme for this vortex core reversal is the generation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Much faster vortex core reversal is obtained by exciting azimuthal spin wave modes with (multi-GHz rotating magnetic fields or orthogonal monopolar field pulses in x and y direction, down to 45 ps in duration. In that way unidirectional vortex core reversal to the vortex core 'down' or 'up' state only can be achieved with switching times well below 100 ps. Coupled modes of interacting vortices mimic crystal properties. The individual vortex oscillators determine the properties of the ensemble, where the gyrotropic mode represents the fundamental excitation. By self-organized state formation we investigate distinct vortex core polarization configurations and understand these eigenmodes in an extended Thiele model. Analogies with photonic crystals are drawn. Oersted fields and spin-polarized currents are used to excite the dynamics of domain walls and magnetic bubbles. From the measured phase and amplitude of the displacement of domain walls we deduce the size of the non-adiabatic spin-transfer torque. For sensing applications, the displacement of domain walls is studied and a direct correlation between domain wall velocity and spin structure is found. Finally the synchronous displacement of multiple domain walls using perpendicular field pulses is demonstrated as a possible paradigm shift for magnetic memory and logic applications.
Oscillation control system for electric motor drive
Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.
1988-08-30
A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.
An Air Bearing Balance with 1-DOF Spin Capability
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Magill, J. C; McManus, K. R; Malonson, M. R; Ziehler, J. A; Hinds, M. F
1998-01-01
.... Five load components are measured by sensing pressures in the air bearing film. The sixth component - rolling torque - is determined by sensing the current needed by the brushless spin motor to maintain a given rotation rate...
Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Haiming, E-mail: haiming.yu@buaa.edu.cn [Fert Beijing Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, BDBC, Beihang University (China); Brechet, Sylvain D. [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland); Ansermet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.ansermet@epfl.ch [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland)
2017-03-03
Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram
2012-01-01
Using an effective field theory with correlations, we study a kinetic spin-5/2 Blume–Capel model with bilinear exchange interaction and single-ion crystal field on a square lattice. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. First, the phases in the kinetic system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. Then, the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. Finally, we present the phase diagrams in two planes, namely (T/zJ, h 0 /zJ) and (T/zJ, D/zJ), where T absolute temperature, h 0 , the amplitude of the oscillating field, D, crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and z denotes the nearest-neighbor sites of the central site. The phase diagrams exhibit four fundamental phases and ten mixed phases which are composed of binary, ternary and tetrad combination of fundamental phases, depending on the crystal field interaction parameter. Moreover, the phase diagrams contain a dynamic tricritical point (T), a double critical end point (B), a multicritical point (A) and zero-temperature critical point (Z). - Highlights: ► The effective-field theory is used to study the kinetic spin-5/2 Ising Blume–Capel model. ► Time variations of average order parameter have been studied to find phases in the system. ► The dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation have been calculated. ► The dynamic phase boundaries of the system depend on D/zJ. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the (T/zJ, h 0 /zJ) and (D/zJ, T/zJ) planes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey)
2012-04-15
Using an effective field theory with correlations, we study a kinetic spin-5/2 Blume-Capel model with bilinear exchange interaction and single-ion crystal field on a square lattice. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. First, the phases in the kinetic system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. Then, the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. Finally, we present the phase diagrams in two planes, namely (T/zJ, h{sub 0}/zJ) and (T/zJ, D/zJ), where T absolute temperature, h{sub 0}, the amplitude of the oscillating field, D, crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and z denotes the nearest-neighbor sites of the central site. The phase diagrams exhibit four fundamental phases and ten mixed phases which are composed of binary, ternary and tetrad combination of fundamental phases, depending on the crystal field interaction parameter. Moreover, the phase diagrams contain a dynamic tricritical point (T), a double critical end point (B), a multicritical point (A) and zero-temperature critical point (Z). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effective-field theory is used to study the kinetic spin-5/2 Ising Blume-Capel model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time variations of average order parameter have been studied to find phases in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation have been calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic phase boundaries of the system depend on D/zJ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the (T/zJ, h{sub 0}/zJ) and (D/zJ, T/zJ) planes.
Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarıoğlu Esin
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.
Theory of high-resolution tunneling spin transport on a magnetic skyrmion
Palotás, Krisztián; Rózsa, Levente; Szunyogh, László
2018-01-01
Tunneling spin transport characteristics of a magnetic skyrmion are described theoretically in magnetic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The spin-polarized charge current in STM (SP-STM) and tunneling spin transport vector quantities, the longitudinal spin current and the spin transfer torque are calculated in high spatial resolution within the same theoretical framework. A connection between the conventional charge current SP-STM image contrasts and the magnitudes of the spin transport v...
Charge and Spin Transport in Spin-orbit Coupled and Topological Systems
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-10-31
In the search for low power operation of microelectronic devices, spin-based solutions have attracted undeniable increasing interest due to their intrinsic magnetic nonvolatility. The ability to electrically manipulate the magnetic order using spin-orbit interaction, associated with the recent emergence of topological spintronics with its promise of highly efficient charge-to-spin conversion in solid state, offer alluring opportunities in terms of system design. Although the related technology is still at its infancy, this thesis intends to contribute to this engaging field by investigating the nature of the charge and spin transport in spin-orbit coupled and topological systems using quantum transport methods. We identified three promising building blocks for next-generation technology, three classes of systems that possibly enhance the spin and charge transport efficiency: (i)- topological insulators, (ii)- spin-orbit coupled magnonic systems, (iii)- topological magnetic textures (skyrmions and 3Q magnetic state). Chapter 2 reviews the basics and essential concepts used throughout the thesis: the spin-orbit coupling, the mathematical notion of topology and its importance in condensed matter physics, then topological magnetism and a zest of magnonics. In Chapter 3, we study the spin-orbit torques at the magnetized interfaces of 3D topological insulators. We demonstrated that their peculiar form, compared to other spin-orbit torques, have important repercussions in terms of magnetization reversal, charge pumping and anisotropic damping. In Chapter 4, we showed that the interplay between magnon current jm and magnetization m in homogeneous ferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, produces a field-like torque as well as a damping-like torque. These DM torques mediated by spin wave can tilt the imeaveraged magnetization direction and are similar to Rashba torques for electronic systems. Moreover, the DM torque is more efficient when magnons are
Compensation of oscillation coupling induced by solenoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.
1988-01-01
Methods for construction of various schemes of oscillation coupling compensation, induced by solenoids in charged particle storage rings, are described. Peculiarities of magnetic structure, enabling to localize oscillation coupling in wide energy range are discussed. Results of calculation of compensation schemes for design of NR-2000 storage ring spin rotation are presented
Espinosa, Ismael; Gonzalez, Hortensia; Quiza, Jorge; Gonazalez, J. Jesus; Arroyo, Ruben; Lara, Ritaluz
1995-01-01
Oscillation of electrical activity has been found in many nervous systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates including man. There exists experimental evidence of very simple circuits with the capability of oscillation. Neurons with intrinsic oscillation have been found and also neural circuits where oscillation is a property of the network. These two types of oscillations coexist in many instances. It is nowadays hypothesized that behind synchronization and oscillation there is a system of coupled oscillators responsible for activities that range from locomotion and feature binding in vision to control of sleep and circadian rhythms. The huge knowledge that has been acquired on oscillators from the times of Lord Rayleigh has made the simulation of neural oscillators a very active endeavor. This has been enhanced with more recent physiological findings about small neural circuits by means of intracellular and extracellular recordings as well as imaging methods. The future of this interdisciplinary field looks very promising; some researchers are going into quantum mechanics with the idea of trying to provide a quantum description of the brain. In this work we describe some simulations using neuron models by means of which we form simple neural networks that have the capability of oscillation. We analyze the oscillatory activity with root locus method, cross-correlation histograms, and phase planes. In the more complicated neural network models there is the possibility of chaotic oscillatory activity and we study that by means of Lyapunov exponents. The companion paper shows an example of that kind.
Tunable spin-charge conversion through topological phase transitions in zigzag nanoribbons
Li, Hang
2016-06-29
We study spin-orbit torques and charge pumping in magnetic quasi-one-dimensional zigzag nanoribbons with a hexagonal lattice, in the presence of large intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Such a system experiences a topological phase transition from a trivial band insulator to a quantum spin Hall insulator by tuning of either the magnetization direction or the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-charge conversion efficiency (i.e., spin-orbit torque and charge pumping) is dramatically enhanced at the topological transition, displaying a substantial angular anisotropy.
Torque ripple reduction in direct torque controlled five-phase ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Yogesh Tatte
MS received 4 May 2016; revised 25 April 2017; accepted 3 June 2017; published online 7 February 2018. Abstract. ...... The data and parameters of the machine are depicted in table 3. Figures 6 and 7 summarize the performance of five- phase IM controlled by DTC method with the classical five- level torque comparator ...
Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents.
Demidov, Vladislav E; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O
2016-01-28
Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oeiras, R. Y.; Silva, E. Z. da
2014-01-01
Carbon linear atomic chains attached to graphene have experimentally been produced. Motivated by these results, we study the nature of the carbon bonds in these nanowires and how it affects their electrical properties. In the present study we investigate chains with different numbers of atoms and we observe that nanowires with odd number of atoms present a distinct behavior than the ones with even numbers. Using graphene nanoribbons as leads, we identify differences in the quantum transport of the chains with the consequence that even and odd numbered chains have low and high electrical conduction, respectively. We also noted a dependence of current with the wire size. We study this unexpected behavior using a combination of first principles calculations and simple models based on chemical bond theory. From our studies, the electrons of carbon nanowires present a quasi-free electron behavior and this explains qualitatively the high electrical conduction and the bond lengths with unexpected values for the case of odd nanowires. Our study also allows the understanding of the electric conduction dependence with the number of atoms and their parity in the chain. In the case of odd number chains a proposed π-bond (MpB) model describes unsaturated carbons that introduce a mobile π-bond that changes dramatically the structure and transport properties of these wires. Our results indicate that the nature of bonds plays the main role in the oscillation of quantum electrical conduction for chains with even and odd number of atoms and also that nanowires bonded to graphene nanoribbons behave as a quasi-free electron system, suggesting that this behavior is general and it could also remain if the chains are bonded to other materials
Superconductor-Magnet Bearings With Inherent Stability and Velocity-Independent Drag Torque
Lee, Eun-Jeong; Ma, Ki Bui; Wilson, Thomas L.; Chu, Wei-Kan
1999-01-01
A hybrid superconductor magnet bearing system has been developed based on passive magnetic levitation and the flux pinning effect of high-temperature superconductivity. The rationale lies in the unique capability of a high-temperature superconductor (HTS) to enhance system stability passively without power consumption. Characterization experiments have been conducted to understand its dynamic behavior and to estimate the required motor torque for its driving system design. These experiments show that the hybrid HTS-magnet bearing system has a periodic oscillation of drag torque due mainly to the nonuniform magnetic field density of permanent magnets. Furthermore, such a system also suffers from a small superimposed periodic oscillation introduced by the use of multiple HTS disks rather than a uniform annulus of HTS material. The magnitude of drag torque is velocity independent and very small. These results make this bearing system appealing for high-speed application. Finally, design guidelines for superconducting bearing systems are suggested based on these experimental results.
Friction torque in thrust ball bearings grease lubricated
Ianuş, G.; Dumitraşcu, A. C.; Cârlescu, V.; Olaru, D. N.
2016-08-01
The authors investigated experimentally and theoretically the friction torque in a modified thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls operating at low axial load and lubricated with NGLI-00 and NGLI-2 greases. The experiments were made by using spin-down methodology and the results were compared with the theoretical values based on Biboulet&Houpert's rolling friction equations. Also, the results were compared with the theoretical values obtained with SKF friction model adapted for 3 balls. A very good correlation between experiments and Biboulet_&_Houpert's predicted results was obtained for the two greases. Also was observed that the theoretical values for the friction torque calculated with SKF model adapted for a thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls are smaller that the experimental values.
Load Torque Compensator for Model Predictive Direct Current Control in High Power PMSM Drive Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Preindl, Matthias; Schaltz, Erik
2011-01-01
The widely used cascade speed and torque controllers have a limited control performance in most high power applications due to the low switching frequency of power electronic converters and the convenience to avoid speed overshoots and oscillations for lifetime considerations. Model Predictive...
Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Guichen
2018-01-01
In order to improve oscillation damping control performance as well as gear shift quality of electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system, a cloud-based shaft torque estimation scheme is proposed in this paper by using measurable motor and wheel speed signals transmitted by wireless network. It can help reduce computational burden of onboard controllers and also relief network bandwidth requirement of individual vehicle. Considering possible delays during signal wireless transmission, delay-dependent full-order observer design is proposed to estimate the shaft torque in cloud server. With these random delays modeled by using homogenous Markov chain, robust H∞ performance is adopted to minimize the effect of wireless network-induced delays, signal measurement noise as well as system modeling uncertainties on shaft torque estimation error. Observer parameters are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities, and simulation results using acceleration test and tip-in, tip-out test demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed shaft torque observer design.
Spin Interference in Rectangle Loop Based on Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia-Ting, Ni; Bin, Chen; Xiao-Wan, Liang; Koga, T.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate the amplitude and spin polarization of AAS oscillation changing with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and Dresselhaus SOI. The amplitude and spin polarization of AB oscillation changing with Rashba SOI and Dresselhaus SOI are demonstrated as well. The ideal quasi-one-dimensional square loop does not exist in reality, therefore to match the experiment better we should consider the shape of the rectangle loop in theory
Inhomogeneous Spin Diffusion in Traps with Cold Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heiselberg, Henning
2012-01-01
The spin diusion and damped oscillations are studied in the collision of two spin polarized clouds of cold atoms with resonant interactions. The strong density dependence of the diusion coecient leads to inhomogeneous spin diusion that changes from central to surface spin ow as the temperature...
Toroidal field coil torque structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaines, A.L.
1983-01-01
A torque structure is disclosed particularly suitable for utilization in a power reactor of the Tokamak-type, and operable therein for purposes of providing support for the toroidal field (TF) coils that comprise one of the major operating components of such a Tokamak power reactor. The subject torque structure takes the form of a frame structure that is operable to enable torque loads acting on the TF coils to be equilibrated as close to the area of force application as feasible. The aforesaid torque structure includes an intercoil structure composed of spacer wedges that are interposed between each adjacent pair of TF coils. The spacer wedges, in turn, consist of bearing plates positioned between the TF coils so as to be in contacting relation therewith and a number of cross plates that are cooperatively associated with the bearing plates so as to form therewith a rigid assembly. The intercoil structure is affixed to a segmented, membrane shell that surrounds, encloses and supports the TF coil frames. Access is had to the interior of the shell through an opening formed for this purpose in a reinforced portion of the shell. Eddy current losses are minimized by insulating the joints formed at the juncture of adjoining segments of the shell
Nonlocal torque operators in ab initio theory of the Gilbert damping in random ferromagnetic alloys
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav
2015-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 21 (2015), 214407-1-214407-11 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic damping * spin torque Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.
2010-01-01
... mean torque for maximum continuous power multiplied by 1.25; (2) The torque required by § 29.923; (3... for maximum continuous power multiplied by— (1) 1.33, for engines with five or more cylinders; and (2...
Universal Mechanism of Spin Relaxation in Solids
Chudnovsky, Eugene
2006-03-01
Conventional elastic theory ignores internal local twists and torques. Meantime, spin-lattice relaxation is inherently coupled with local elastic twists through conservation of the total angular momentum (spin + lattice). This coupling gives universal lower bound (free of fitting parameters) on the relaxation of the atomic or molecular spin in a solid [1] and on the relaxation of the electron spin in a quantum dot [2]. [1] E. M. Chudnovsky, D. A. Garanin, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. B 72, 094426 (2005). [2] C. Calero, E. M. Chudnovsky, and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166603 (2005).
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Neutrino Oscillations: New Windows to the Particle World. General Article Volume 21 Issue 10 ... Neutrino oscillation is a quantum mechanicalphenomenon whereby a neutrino created witha specific lepton flavour (electron, muon, or tau) can later bemeasured to have a different flavour. Historical developmentof the field in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The law of mass-action led chemists to the belief that reactions approach equilibrium steadily. So the discovery of chemical oscillations came as a surprise. Now chemists are very familiar with reactions that oscillate in time and/or space. Experimental and theoretical studies of such reac- tions showing temporal and spatial ...
Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.
2007-04-01
tunnel junctions were introduced as memory elements in new types of non-volatile magnetic memories (MRAM). A first 4Mbit product was launched by Freescale in July 2006. Future generations of memories are being developed by academic groups or companies. the combination of magnetic elements with CMOS components opens a whole new paradigm in hybrid electronic components which can change the common conception of the architecture of complex electronic components with a much tighter integration of logic and memory. the steady magnetic excitations stimulated by spin-transfer might be used in a variety of microwave components provided the output power can be increased. Intense research and development efforts are being aimed at increasing this power by the synchronization of oscillators. The articles compiled in this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, devoted to spin electronics, review these recent developments. All the contributors are greatly acknowledged.
Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors
Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.
1987-01-01
Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.
Calibration of the optical torque wrench
Pedaci, F.; Huang, Z.; Van Oene, M.; Dekker, N.H.
2012-01-01
The optical torque wrench is a laser trapping technique that expands the capability of standard optical tweezers to torque manipulation and measurement, using the laser linear polarization to orient tailored microscopic birefringent particles. The ability to measure torque of the order of kBT (?4 pN
Measuring the uncertainty of tapping torque
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo
An uncertainty budget is carried out for torque measurements performed at the Institut for Procesteknik for the evaluation of cutting fluids. Thirty test blanks were machined with one tool and one fluid, torque diagrams were recorded and the repeatability of single torque measurements was estimat...
Spin-resolved electron waiting times in a quantum-dot spin valve
Tang, Gaomin; Xu, Fuming; Mi, Shuo; Wang, Jian
2018-04-01
We study the electronic waiting-time distributions (WTDs) in a noninteracting quantum-dot spin valve by varying spin polarization and the noncollinear angle between the magnetizations of the leads using the scattering matrix approach. Since the quantum-dot spin valve involves two channels (spin up and down) in both the incoming and outgoing channels, we study three different kinds of WTDs, which are two-channel WTD, spin-resolved single-channel WTD, and cross-channel WTD. We analyze the behaviors of WTDs in short times, correlated with the current behaviors for different spin polarizations and noncollinear angles. Cross-channel WTD reflects the correlation between two spin channels and can be used to characterize the spin-transfer torque process. We study the influence of the earlier detection on the subsequent detection from the perspective of cross-channel WTD, and define the influence degree quantity as the cumulative absolute difference between cross-channel WTDs and first-passage time distributions to quantitatively characterize the spin-flip process. We observe that influence degree versus spin-transfer torque for different noncollinear angles as well as different polarizations collapse into a single curve showing universal behaviors. This demonstrates that cross-channel WTDs can be a pathway to characterize spin correlation in spintronics system.
Comparison of three-level torque hysteresis controllers for direct torque control
Beerten, Jef; Verveckken, Jan; Driesen, Johan
2009-01-01
In this paper, a comparison is made between different implementations of the three-level torque comparator for a Direct Torque Control (DTC) based induction motor drive. The DTC scheme controls stator flux and torque by means of hysteresis comparators, respectively a two-level control structure for the stator flux and a three-level comparator for the electromagnetic torque. The standard three-level hysteresis controller has a DC offset torque error. In this paper, an additive implementation i...
Influence of magnetic reluctances of magnetic elements on servo valve torque motors
Liu, Changhai; Jiang, Hongzhou
2016-01-01
The current research of electro-hydraulic servo valves mainly focuses on the vibration, pressure oscillating and source of noise. Unfortunately, literatures relating to the study of the influence of the magnetic reluctances of the magnetic elements are rarely available. This paper aims to analyze the influence of the magnetic reluctances of the magnetic elements on torque motor. Considering these magnetic reluctances ignored in previous literatures, a new mathematical model of servo valve torque motor is developed and proposed based on the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. By using this new mathematical model and the previous models, electromagnetic torque constant and magnetic spring stiffness are evaluated for a given set of torque motor parameters. A computer simulation by using AMESim software is also performed for the same set of torque motor parameters to verify the proposed model. The theoretical results of electromagnetic torque constant and magnetic spring stiffness evaluated by the proposed model render closer agreement with the simulation results than those evaluated by the previous models. In addition, an experimental measurement of the magnetic flux densities in the air-gaps is carried out by using SFL218 servo valve torque motor. Compared with the theoretical results of the magnetic flux densities in the air-gaps evaluated by the previous models, the theoretical results evaluated by the proposed model also show better agreement with the experimental data. The proposed model shows the influence of the magnetic reluctances of the magnetic elements on the servo valve torque motor, and offers modified and analytical expressions to electromagnetic torque constant and magnetic spring stiffness. These modified and analytical expressions could provide guidance more accurately for a linear control design approach and sensitivity analysis on electro-hydraulic servo valves than the previous expressions.
Spin and radiation in intense laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walser, M.W.; Urbach, D.J.; Hatsagortsyan, K.Z.; Hu, S.X.; Keitel, C.H.
2002-01-01
The spin dynamics and its reaction on the particle motion are investigated for free and bound electrons in intense linearly polarized laser fields. Employing both classical and quantum treatments we analytically evaluate the spin oscillation of free electrons in intense laser fields and indicate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the motion of the electron. In Mott scattering an estimation for the spin oscillation is derived. In intense laser ion dynamics spin signatures are studied in detail with emphasis on high-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime. First- and second-order calculations in the ratio of electron velocity and the speed of light show spin signatures in the radiation spectrum and spin-orbit effects in the electron polarization
Spin torques in ferromagnetic/normal-metal structures
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Xia, K.; Kelly, P. J.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Brataas, A.; Turek, Ilja
2002-01-01
Roč. 65, č. 22 (2002), s. 220401 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/0122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : tunneling * interface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002
Colossal spin transfer torque effect on skyrmion along the edge.
Iwasaki, Junichi; Koshibae, Wataru; Nagaosa, Naoto
2014-08-13
We study by the micromagnetic simulations the skyrmion motion along the edge driven by the current transverse to it. We found that (i) the velocity is enhanced by the factor of ∼ 1/α (α: the Gilbert damping) with the maximum value determined only by the confining force from the edge, (ii) the inertia appear due to the confining potential with the coordinate perpendicular to the edge playing the role of the kinetic momentum, and (iii) the collision between the two skyrmions is almost elastic without causing any internal distortions.
Spin transport in metal and oxide devices at the nanoscale
Parui, Subir; Rana, Kumari Gaurav; Banerjee, Tamalika
2012-01-01
Here we discuss a non-destructive technique that characterizes spin and charge transport at the nanometer scale, across buried layers and interfaces, in magnetic memory elements as used in spin transfer torque based Magnetic Random Access Memory (STT-MRAM). While probing in the
Olaru, D.; Balan, M. R.; Tufescu, A.
2016-08-01
The authors investigated analytically and experimentally the friction torque in a modified thrust ball bearing operating at very low axial load in dry conditions by using only three balls and a cage. The experiments were conducted by using spin-down methodology. The results evidenced the influence of the sliding friction between the cage and the balls on the total friction torque. It was concluded that at very low loads the friction between cage and balls in a thrust ball bearing has an important contribution on total friction torque.
Analytical Methods of Decoupling the Automotive Engine Torque Roll Axis
JEONG, TAESEOK; SINGH, RAJENDRA
2000-06-01
This paper analytically examines the multi-dimensional mounting schemes of an automotive engine-gearbox system when excited by oscillating torques. In particular, the issue of torque roll axis decoupling is analyzed in significant detail since it is poorly understood. New dynamic decoupling axioms are presented an d compared with the conventional elastic axis mounting and focalization methods. A linear time-invariant system assumption is made in addition to a proportionally damped system. Only rigid-body modes of the powertrain are considered and the chassis elements are assumed to be rigid. Several simplified physical systems are considered and new closed-form solutions for symmetric and asymmetric engine-mounting systems are developed. These clearly explain the design concepts for the 4-point mounting scheme. Our analytical solutions match with the existing design formulations that are only applicable to symmetric geometries. Spectra for all six rigid-body motions are predicted using the alternate decoupling methods and the closed-form solutions are verified. Also, our method is validated by comparing modal solutions with prior experimental and analytical studies. Parametric design studies are carried out to illustrate the methodology. Chief contributions of this research include the development of new or refined analytical models and closed-form solutions along with improved design strategies for the torque roll axis decoupling.
Digital Auto-Oscillator of a Dithering Ring Laser Gyro
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. N. Enin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a digital auto-oscillator for mechanically dithering Ring Laser Gyro (RLG and method for automatic control of angular oscillation parameters of inertial sensor. A drive signal pulse-width modulation of the auto-oscillator torque sensor excites angular oscillations.Digital auto-oscillator circuit features are as follows: excluding the analog angle sensors from RLG structure, dither signal remover at the RLG output is digital filter, angular rate positive feedback, pulse-width control of auto-oscillator torque sensor by digital signal which provides a preset mode of the dither with random noise.The paper presents a designed mathematical model of the RLG measurement channel together with the auto-oscillator. The mathematical model includes two nonlinearities. The computational experiment allowed us to conduct the following researches: transition process of establishing auto-oscillations since switching on, quasi-steady auto-oscillation mode with frequency and amplitude noise, parameters of auto-oscillations affected by severe operating conditions such as object maneuvers at high speeds and accelerations, high-frequency angular vibration of the RLG base near the resonance frequency of a dither remover. The paper shows efficiency of autooscillator with the specified parameters of a combined type dither with frequency fluctuations.
Limited Angle Torque Motors Having High Torque Density, Used in Accurate Drive Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Obreja
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A torque motor is a special electric motor that is able to develop the highest possible torque in a certain volume. A torque motor usually has a pancake configuration, and is directly jointed to a drive system (without a gear box. A limited angle torque motor is a torque motor that has no rotary electromagnetic field — in certain papers it is referred to as a linear electromagnet. The main intention of the authors for this paper is to present a means for analyzing and designing a limited angle torque motor only through the finite element method. Users nowadays require very high-performance limited angle torque motors with high density torque. It is therefore necessary to develop the highest possible torque in a relatively small volume. A way to design such motors is by using numerical methods based on the finite element method.
Tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields
Yu, Zhao-xian; Jiao, Zhi-yong
2003-01-01
In this paper, we have studied tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic field. We find that the population transfers among spin-0 and spin-$\\pm1$, spin-0 and spin-$\\pm2$ exhibit the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field respectively, but there do not exist step structure among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$. The tunneling current among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$ may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior, but among spin-0 and spin-$\\p...
Slonczewski, John
2013-03-01
Consider two nanoscopic monodomain magnets connected by a spacer that is composed of a non-magnetic metal or a tunnel barrier. Any externally applied electric current flowing through these three layers contributes tiny pseudo-torques to both magnetic moments (J . S . 1989). Such a weak spin-transfer torque (STT) may counteract and overcome a comparably small torque caused by viscous dissipation (L. Berger1996; J . S . 1996). Any initial motion (e. g. excited by ambient temperature) of one moment (or both), may grow in amplitude and culminate in steady precession or a transient switch to a new direction of static equilibrium. In a memory element, the STT effect writes 0 or 1 in a magnetic-tunnel junction. Indeed, world-wide developments of memory arrays and radio-frequency oscillators utilizing current-driven STT today enjoy a nine-digit dollar commitment. But the fact that transfer of each half-unit of spin momentum h/4 π through a barrier requires the transfer of at least one unit of electric charge limits its efficiency. Arguably, STT should also arise from the flow of external heat, in either direction, between an insulating magnet, of ferrite or garnet (e. g. YIG) composition, and a metallic spacer (J . S . 2010). Whenever s-d exchange annihilates a hot magnon at the insulator/metal-spacer interface, it transfers one unit h/2 π of spin momentum to the spacer. Conduction electrons within the spacer will transport this spin momentum to the second magnet without requiring an electric current. Such a thermagnonicmethod, modestly powered by a Joule-effect heater, can substantially increase the efficiency of STT. Support for this prediction comes from (1) an estimate of the sd-exchange coefficient from data on spin relaxation in magnetically dilute (Cu,Ag,Au):Mn alloys; (2) a DFT computation (J. Xiao et al 2010); and (3) most persuasively, data from spin pumping driven across a YIG/Au interface by ferromagnetic resonance (B. Heinrich et al 2011; C. Burrowes et al
Self-consistent treatment of spin and magnetization dynamic effect in spin transfer switching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Jie; Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Koh, Dax Enshan; Han, Guchang; Meng, Hao
2011-01-01
The effect of itinerant spin moment (m) dynamic in spin transfer switching has been ignored in most previous theoretical studies of the magnetization (M) dynamics. Thus in this paper, we proposed a more refined micromagnetic model of spin transfer switching that takes into account in a self-consistent manner of the coupled m and M dynamics. The numerical results obtained from this model further shed insight on the switching profiles of m and M, both of which show particular sensitivity to parameters such as the anisotropy field, the spin torque field, and the initial deviation between m and M.
Gate-Driven Pure Spin Current in Graphene
Lin, Xiaoyang; Su, Li; Si, Zhizhong; Zhang, Youguang; Bournel, Arnaud; Zhang, Yue; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Fert, Albert; Zhao, Weisheng
2017-09-01
The manipulation of spin current is a promising solution for low-power devices beyond CMOS. However, conventional methods, such as spin-transfer torque or spin-orbit torque for magnetic tunnel junctions, suffer from large power consumption due to frequent spin-charge conversions. An important challenge is, thus, to realize long-distance transport of pure spin current, together with efficient manipulation. Here, the mechanism of gate-driven pure spin current in graphene is presented. Such a mechanism relies on the electrical gating of carrier-density-dependent conductivity and spin-diffusion length in graphene. The gate-driven feature is adopted to realize the pure spin-current demultiplexing operation, which enables gate-controllable distribution of the pure spin current into graphene branches. Compared with the Elliott-Yafet spin-relaxation mechanism, the D'yakonov-Perel spin-relaxation mechanism results in more appreciable demultiplexing performance. The feature of the pure spin-current demultiplexing operation will allow a number of logic functions to be cascaded without spin-charge conversions and open a route for future ultra-low-power devices.
Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi
2012-01-01
In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.
Spin gating electrical current
Ciccarelli, C.; Zârbo, L. P.; Irvine, A. C.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Wunderlich, J.; Jungwirth, T.; Ferguson, A. J.
2012-09-01
The level of the chemical potential is a fundamental parameter of the electronic structure of a physical system, which consequently plays an important role in defining the properties of active electrical devices. We directly measure the chemical potential shift in the relativistic band structure of the ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As, controlled by changes in its magnetic order parameter. Our device comprises a non-magnetic aluminum single electron channel capacitively coupled to the (Ga,Mn)As gate electrode. The chemical potential shifts of the gate are directly read out from the shifts in the Coulomb blockade oscillations of the single electron transistor. The experiments introduce a concept of spin gating electrical current. In our spin transistor spin manipulation is completely removed from the electrical current carrying channel.
Impact of Disorder on Spin Dependent Transport Phenomena
Saidaoui, Hamed
2016-07-03
The impact of the spin degree of freedom on the transport properties of electrons traveling through magnetic materials has been known since the pioneer work of Mott [1]. Since then it has been demonstrated that the spin angular momentum plays a key role in the scattering process of electrons in magnetic multilayers. This role has been emphasized by the discovery of the Giant Magnetoresistance in 1988 by Fert and Grunberg [2, 3]. Among the numerous applications and effects that emerged in mesoscopic devices two mechanisms have attracted our attention during the course of this thesis: the spin transfer torque and the spin Hall effects. The former consists in the transfer of the spin angular momentum from itinerant carriers to local magnetic moments [4]. This mechanism results in the current-driven magnetization switching and excitations, which has potential application in terms of magnetic data storage and non-volatile memories. The latter, spin Hall effect, is considered as well to be one of the most fascinating mechanisms in condensed matter physics due to its ability of generating non-equilibrium spin currents without the need for any magnetic materials. In fact the spin Hall effect relies only on the presence of the spin-orbit interaction in order to create an imbalance between the majority and minority spins. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the impact of disorder on spin dependent transport phenomena. To do so, we identified three classes of systems on which such disorder may have a dramatic influence: (i) antiferromagnetic materials, (ii) impurity-driven spin-orbit coupled systems and (iii) two dimensional semiconducting electron gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Antiferromagnetic materials - We showed that in antiferromagnetic spin-valves, spin transfer torque is highly sensitive to disorder, which prevents its experimental observation. To solve this issue, we proposed to use either a tunnel barrier as a spacer or a local spin torque using
Improvements in remote equipment torquing and fastening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garin, J.
1978-01-01
Remote torquing and fastening is a requirement of generic interest for application in an environment not readily accessible to man. The developments over the last 30 years in torque-controlled equipment above 200 nm (150 ft/lb) have not been emphasized. The development of specialized subassemblies to torque and fasten equipment in a remotely controlled environment is an integral part of the Advanced Fuel Recycle Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Commercially available subassemblies have been adapted into a system that would provide remote torquing and fastening in the range of 200 to 750 nm (150 to 550 ft/lb). 9 figures
Nayfeh, Ali Hasan
1995-01-01
Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim
Harmonic oscillator and nuclear pseudospin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisboa, Ronai; Malheiro, Manuel; Castro, Antonio S. de; Alberto, Pedro; Fiolhais, Manuel
2004-01-01
A generalized relativistic harmonic oscillator for spin 1/2 particles is studied. The Dirac Hamiltonian contains a scalar S and a vector V quadratic potentials in the radial coordinate, as well as a tensor potential U, linear in r. Setting either Σ = S + V or Δ = V - S to zero, analytical solutions for bound states are found. The eingenenergies and their nonrelativistic limits are presented and particular cases are discussed, especially the case Σ = 0, for which pseudospin symmetry is exact
Electrical Spin Generation and Transport in Spin-Orbit Coupled Systems
Niu, Qian
2005-03-01
We consider spin generation and transport in bands with built-in spin-orbit coupling. A number of fundamental issues will be discussed: (1) the existence of spin-dipole and torque-dipole of wave packets which model the carriers; (2) source terms in the continuity equation (spin generation and relaxation); (3) the composition of the spin current (Berry phase and more); (4) spin Hall conductivity and its reciprocal; (5) the spin current responsible for spin accumulation. *References: *1 D. Culcer, J. Sinova, N. A. Sinitsyn, T. Jungwirth, A. H.MacDonald, Q. Niu, `Semiclassical theory of spin transport in spin-orbit coupled systems', Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 046602 (2004). *2 P. Zhang and Q. Niu, `Charge-Hall effect driven by spin force: reciprocal of the spin-Hall effect' Cond-mat/0406436. *3 D. Culcer, Y. G. Yao, A. H. MacDonald, and Q. Niu, `Electric generation of spin in crystals with reduced symmetry', Cond-mat/0408020.
Game programmer's guide to Torque under the hood of the Torque game engine
Maurina , Edward F
2006-01-01
game programmer working with the Torque game engine must have ""The Game Programmer's Guide To Torque"": it teaches everything needed to design your own game, using experiences of game makers and industry veterans well versed in Torque technology. A Torque Game engine demo is included on an accompanying cd while step-by-step examples tell how to use it. Its focus on all the basics makes for an exceptional coverage for all levels of game programmer. -Bookwatch, August 2006
Ensemble-averaged Rabi oscillations in a ferromagnetic CoFeB film.
Capua, Amir; Rettner, Charles; Yang, See-Hun; Phung, Timothy; Parkin, Stuart S P
2017-06-28
Rabi oscillations describe the process whereby electromagnetic radiation interacts coherently with spin states in a non-equilibrium interaction. To date, Rabi oscillations have not been studied in one of the most common spin ensembles in nature: spins in ferromagnets. Here, using a combination of femtosecond laser pulses and microwave excitations, we report the classical analogue of Rabi oscillations in ensemble-averaged spins of a ferromagnet. The microwave stimuli are shown to extend the coherence-time resulting in resonant spin amplification. The results we present in a dense magnetic system are qualitatively similar to those reported previously in semiconductors which have five orders of magnitude fewer spins and which require resonant optical excitations to spin-polarize the ensemble. Our study is a step towards connecting concepts used in quantum processing with spin-transport effects in ferromagnets. For example, coherent control may become possible without the complications of driving an electromagnetic field but rather by using spin-polarized currents.
Ensemble-averaged Rabi oscillations in a ferromagnetic CoFeB film
Capua, Amir; Rettner, Charles; Yang, See-Hun; Phung, Timothy; Parkin, Stuart S. P.
2017-06-01
Rabi oscillations describe the process whereby electromagnetic radiation interacts coherently with spin states in a non-equilibrium interaction. To date, Rabi oscillations have not been studied in one of the most common spin ensembles in nature: spins in ferromagnets. Here, using a combination of femtosecond laser pulses and microwave excitations, we report the classical analogue of Rabi oscillations in ensemble-averaged spins of a ferromagnet. The microwave stimuli are shown to extend the coherence-time resulting in resonant spin amplification. The results we present in a dense magnetic system are qualitatively similar to those reported previously in semiconductors which have five orders of magnitude fewer spins and which require resonant optical excitations to spin-polarize the ensemble. Our study is a step towards connecting concepts used in quantum processing with spin-transport effects in ferromagnets. For example, coherent control may become possible without the complications of driving an electromagnetic field but rather by using spin-polarized currents.
Load Torque Compensator for Model Predictive Direct Current Control in High Power PMSM Drive Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Preindl, Matthias; Schaltz, Erik
2010-01-01
the use of a current controller which takes into account the discrete states of the inverter, e.g. DTC or a more modern approach: Model Predictive Direct Current Control (MPDCC). Moreover overshoots and oscillations in the speed are not desired in many applications, since they lead to mechanical stress......In drive systems the most used control structure is the cascade control with an inner torque, i.e. current and an outer speed control loop. The fairly small converter switching frequency in high power applications, e.g. wind turbines lead to modest speed control performance. An improvement bring...... behaviour. It compensates the load torque influence on the speed control setting a feed forward torque value, i.e. current reference value. The benefits are twice. The speed controller reaches immediately the speed reference value avoiding offsets which must be compensated by the weak integrator. Moreover...
Damping torque analysis of VSC-based system utilizing power synchronization control
Fu, Q.; Du, W. J.; Zheng, K. Y.; Wang, H. F.
2017-05-01
Power synchronization control is a new control strategy of VSC-HVDC for connecting a weak power system. Different from the vector control method, this control method utilizes the internal synchronization mechanism in ac systems, in principle, similar to the operation of a synchronous machine. So that the parameters of controllers in power synchronization control will change the electromechanical oscillation modes and make an impact on the transient stability of power system. This paper present a mathematical model for small-signal stability analysis of VSC station used power synchronization control and analyse the impact of the dynamic interactions by calculating the contribution of the damping torque from the power synchronization control, besides, the parameters of controllers which correspond to damping torque and synchronous torque in the power synchronization control is defined respectively. At the end of the paper, an example power system is presented to demonstrate and validate the theoretical analysis and associated conclusions are made.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
behaviour of a few complex chemical systems. We observed that these chemical oscillators are basically .... Kutta fourth order integration method to solve the Lotka-. Volterra equation as per the Fortran program given in ... This is known as the phase plane represen- tation. We have obtained these plots using the software.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
relevant species is zero. So, oscillations can appear only if the inhibition step is somehow .... the value of such an experimental parameter can possi- bly move the system between the steady states. Per- ... states for different values of [X], obtained far from equilibrium. Figure 2. System showing. The concentrations [X] ...
Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic ﬁeld, vanishing completely at special points in the ...
Electrical and mechanical magnetization torques
Kovalev, A.A.
2006-01-01
Only charge degree of freedom is utilized in most electronic devices. The use of the spin degree of freedom is relatively recent. The discovery of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) effect initiated the development of magnetoelectronics - the field that studies effects on electron transport involving
Coherent collisional spin dynamics in optical lattices.
Widera, Artur; Gerbier, Fabrice; Fölling, Simon; Gericke, Tatjana; Mandel, Olaf; Bloch, Immanuel
2005-11-04
We report on the observation of coherent, purely collisionally driven spin dynamics of neutral atoms in an optical lattice. For high lattice depths, atom pairs confined to the same lattice site show weakly damped Rabi-type oscillations between two-particle Zeeman states of equal magnetization, induced by spin-changing collisions. Moreover, measurement of the oscillation frequency allows for precise determination of the spin-changing collisional coupling strengths, which are directly related to fundamental scattering lengths describing interatomic collisions at ultracold temperatures.
Radiation Forces and Torques without Stress (Tensors)
Bohren, Craig F.
2011-01-01
To understand radiation forces and torques or to calculate them does not require invoking photon or electromagnetic field momentum transfer or stress tensors. According to continuum electromagnetic theory, forces and torques exerted by radiation are a consequence of electric and magnetic fields acting on charges and currents that the fields induce…
The Venus-Earth-Jupiter spin-orbit coupling model
Wilson, I. R. G.
2013-12-01
A Venus-Earth-Jupiter spin-orbit coupling model is constructed from a combination of the Venus-Earth-Jupiter tidal-torquing model and the gear effect. The new model produces net tangential torques that act upon the outer convective layers of the Sun with periodicities that match many of the long-term cycles that are found in the 10Be and 14C proxy records of solar activity.
Montgomery, Raymond C.; Ghosh, Dave; Kenny, Sean
1991-01-01
This paper presents results of analytic and simulation studies to determine the effectiveness of torque-wheel actuators in suppressing the vibrations of two-link telerobotic arms with attached payloads. The simulations use a planar generic model of a two-link arm with a torque wheel at the free end. Parameters of the arm model are selected to be representative of a large space-based robotic arm of the same class as the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator, whereas parameters of the torque wheel are selected to be similar to those of the Mini-Mast facility at the Langley Research Center. Results show that this class of torque-wheel can produce an oscillation of 2.5 cm peak-to-peak in the end point of the arm and that the wheel produces significantly less overshoot when the arm is issued an abrupt stop command from the telerobotic input station.
A non-unity torque sharing function for torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Park, Kiwoo; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe
2013-01-01
This paper presents a new torque ripple minimization technique for a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG). Although the SRG has many advantageous characteristics as a generator, it has not been widely employed in the industry. One of the most notorious disadvantages of the SRG is its high torque...... ripple. In this paper, a non-unity Torque Sharing Function (TSF) is proposed to minimize the torque ripple over a wide speed range of operation. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed torque ripple minimization technique....
Longuski, J. M.
1982-01-01
During a spin-up or spin-down maneuver of a spinning spacecraft, it is usual to have not only a constant body-fixed torque about the desired spin axis, but also small undesired constant torques about the transverse axes. This causes the orientation of the angular momentum vector to change in inertial space. Since an analytic solution is available for the angular momentum vector as a function of time, this behavior can be studied for large variations of the dynamic parameters, such as the initial spin rate, the inertial properties and the torques. As an example, the spin-up and spin-down maneuvers of the Galileo spacecraft was studied and as a result, very simple heuristic solutions were discovered which provide very good approximations to the parametric behavior of the angular momentum vector orientation.
Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry
Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.
2013-01-01
There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.
Self-Sustaining Dynamical Nuclear Polarization Oscillations in Quantum Dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudner, Mark Spencer; Levitov, Leonid
2013-01-01
Early experiments on spin-blockaded double quantum dots revealed robust, large-amplitude current oscillations in the presence of a static (dc) source-drain bias. Despite experimental evidence implicating dynamical nuclear polarization, the mechanism has remained a mystery. Here we introduce......) and nuclear spin diffusion, which governs dynamics of the spatial profile of nuclear polarization. The proposed framework naturally explains the differences in phenomenology between vertical and lateral quantum dot structures as well as the extremely long oscillation periods....
Magnetic molecule on a microcantilever: quantum magnetomechanical oscillations.
Jaafar, Reem; Chudnovsky, E M
2009-06-05
We study the quantum dynamics of a system consisting of a magnetic molecule placed on a microcantilever. The amplitude and frequencies of the coupled magnetomechanical oscillations are computed. Parameter-free theory shows that the existing experimental techniques permit observation of the driven coupled oscillations of the spin and the cantilever, as well as of the splitting of the mechanical modes of the cantilever caused by spin tunneling.
Spin-Orbitronics at Transition Metal Interfaces
Manchon, Aurelien
2017-11-09
The presence of large spin–orbit interaction at transition metal interfaces enables the emergence of a variety of fascinating phenomena that have been at the forefront of spintronics research in the past 10 years. The objective of the present chapter is to offer a review of these various effects from a theoretical perspective, with a particular focus on spin transport, chiral magnetism, and their interplay. After a brief description of the orbital hybridization scheme at transition metal interfaces, we address the impact of spin–orbit coupling on the interfacial magnetic configuration, through the celebrated Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction. We then discuss the physics of spin transport and subsequent torques occurring at these interfaces. We particularly address the spin Hall, spin swapping, and inverse spin-galvanic effects. Finally, the interplay between flowing charges and chiral magnetic textures and their induced dynamics are presented. We conclude this chapter by proposing some perspectives on promising research directions.
An antidamping spin–orbit torque originating from the Berry curvature
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kurebayashi, H.; Sinova, Jairo; Fang, D.; Irvine, A.C.; Skinner, T.D.; Wunderlich, Joerg; Novák, Vít; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Vehsthedt, E.K.; Zarbo, Liviu; Výborný, Karel; Ferguson, A. J.; Jungwirth, Tomáš
2014-01-01
Roč. 9, č. 3 (2014), s. 211-217 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * spin torque * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 34.048, year: 2014
Design and analysis of an MR rotary brake for self-regulating braking torques.
Yun, Dongwon; Koo, Jeong-Hoi
2017-05-01
This paper presents a novel Magneto-rheological (MR) brake system that can self-regulate the output braking torques. The proposed MR brake can generate a braking torque at a critical rotation speed without an external power source, sensors, or controllers, making it a simple and cost-effective device. The brake system consists of a rotary disk, permanent magnets, springs, and MR fluid. The permanent magnets are attached to the rotary disk via the springs, and they move outward through grooves with two different gap distances along the radial direction of the stator due to the centrifugal force. Thus, the position of the magnets is dependent on the spin speed, and it can determine the magnetic fields applied to MR fluids. Proper design of the stator geometry gives the system unique torque characteristics. To show the performance of an MR brake system, the electromagnetic characteristics of the system are analyzed, and the torques generated by the brake are calculated using the result of the electromagnetic analysis. Using a baseline model, a parametric study is conducted to investigate how the design parameters (geometric shapes and material selection) affect the performance of the brake system. After the simulation study, a prototype brake system is constructed and its performance is experimentally evaluated. The experimental results show that the prototype produced the maximum torque of 1.2 N m at the rotational speed of 100 rpm. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed MR brake as a speed regulator in rotating systems.
Effects of spin-orbit coupling on the spin structure of deposited transition-metal clusters
Mankovsky, S.; Bornemann, S.; Minár, J.; Polesya, S.; Ebert, H.; Staunton, J. B.; Lichtenstein, A. I.
2009-07-01
The influence of the spin-orbit coupling on the magnetic structure of deposited transition-metal nanostructures has been studied by fully relativistic electronic-structure calculations. The interplay of exchange coupling and magnetic anisotropy was monitored by studying the corresponding magnetic torque calculated within ab initio and model approaches. We find that a spin-orbit-induced Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction has a profound effect on the spin structure of such complex magnetic systems and that in combination with magnetic anisotropies and isotropic exchange this can result in peculiar magnetic properties.
Forearm Torque and Lifting Strength: Normative Data.
Axelsson, Peter; Fredrikson, Per; Nilsson, Anders; Andersson, Jonny K; Kärrholm, Johan
2018-02-10
To establish reference values for new methods designed to quantitatively measure forearm torque and lifting strength and to compare these values with grip strength. A total of 499 volunteers, 262 males and 237 females, aged 15 to 85 (mean, 44) years, were tested for lifting strength and forearm torque with the Kern and Baseline dynamometers. These individuals were also tested for grip strength with a Jamar dynamometer. Standardized procedures were used and information about sex, height, weight, hand dominance, and whether their work involved high or low manual strain was collected. Men had approximately 70% higher forearm torque and lifting strength compared with females. Male subjects aged 26 to 35 years and female subjects aged 36 to 45 years showed highest strength values. In patients with dominant right side, 61% to 78% had a higher or equal strength on this side in the different tests performed. In patients with dominant left side, the corresponding proportions varied between 41% and 65%. There was a high correlation between grip strength and forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, body height, body weight, and age showed a significant correlation to the strength measurements. In a multiple regression model sex, age (entered as linear and squared) could explain 51% to 63% of the total variances of forearm torque strength and 30% to 36% of lifting strength. Reference values for lifting strength and forearm torque to be used in clinical practice were acquired. Grip strength has a high correlation to forearm torque and lifting strength. Sex, age, and height can be used to predict forearm torque and lifting strength. Prediction equations using these variables were generated. Normative data of forearm torque and lifting strength might improve the quality of assessment of wrist and forearm disorders as well as their treatments. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Design of an attitude control system for spin-axis control of a 3U CubeSat
Westfall, Alexander J.
This paper describes the design process of developing a spin-axis control system for a 3U CubeSat, a relatively small satellite. Design requires the CubeSat to de-spin after deployment and direct its antenna to track Earth nadir position. The one degree of freedom controller is developed for the TechEdSat, which is a CubeSat with a payload that allows for the assumption that rotation pitch and yaw rates are sufficiently close to zero. Satellite torqueing disturbances are modeled with reaction wheel noise for a more complete system analysis. Sensor noise is unmodeled. Frequency domain and time domain analyses are presented; the entire system bandwidth operates at 0.08 hertz with 43.2 decibels of gain and 67.7° of phase margin. During nominal operations, pointing accuracy with perfect state knowledge assumption maintains position with steady state error of 13.7 arc seconds and oscillates by 16.7 arc seconds at a rate of 0.7 mHertz. Artificial wheel noise is injected into the model causing the pointing accuracy to drop to +/- 15 arc seconds. Environmental disturbances are modeled extensively; the magnetic field torque is the worst disturbance, at 4.2e-7 Newton-meters. A 0.2 Amp˙m2 magnetorquer dumps the excess momentum every 7.75 hours and require 1.5 hours to complete. In the deployment simulation, a 1 rotation per minute spin is arrested with no angular offset in 60 seconds. Future plans include utilizing the model to build and fly a prototype reaction wheel on a future TechEdSat mission to verify modeled expectations.
Drag and Torque on Locked Screw Propeller
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Tabaczek
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Few data on drag and torque on locked propeller towed in water are available in literature. Those data refer to propellers of specific geometry (number of blades, blade area, pitch and skew of blades. The estimation of drag and torque of an arbitrary propeller considered in analysis of ship resistance or propulsion is laborious. The authors collected and reviewed test data available in the literature. Based on collected data there were developed the empirical formulae for estimation of hydrodynamic drag and torque acting on locked screw propeller. Supplementary CFD computations were carried out in order to prove the applicability of the formulae to modern moderately skewed screw propellers.
Power oscillation damping controller
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2012-01-01
A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...... signal in response to the oscillation indicating signal, by processing the oscillation damping control signal in a signal processing chain. The signal processing chain includes a filter configured for passing only signals within a predetermined frequency range....
Magnetoelectric control of spin currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gómez, J. E.; Vargas, J. M.; Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Instituto de Nanociencia y Nanotecnología (CNEA) and Conicet, 8400 Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina)
2016-06-13
The ability to control the spin current injection has been explored on a hybrid magnetoelectric system consisting of a (011)-cut ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) single crystal, a ferromagnetic FePt alloy, and a metallic Pt. With this PMNT/FePt/Pt structure we have been able to control the magnetic field position or the microwave excitation frequency at which the spin pumping phenomenon between FePt and Pt occurs. We demonstrate that the magnetoelectric heterostructure operating in the L-T (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized) mode couples the PMNT crystal to the magnetostrictive FePt/Pt bilayer, displaying a strong magnetoelectric coefficient of ∼140 Oe cm kV{sup −1}. Our results show that this mechanism can be effectively exploited as a tunable spin current intensity emitter and open the possibility to create an oscillating or a bistable switch to effectively manipulate spin currents.
Magnetoelectric control of spin currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gómez, J. E.; Vargas, J. M.; Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A.
2016-01-01
The ability to control the spin current injection has been explored on a hybrid magnetoelectric system consisting of a (011)-cut ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) single crystal, a ferromagnetic FePt alloy, and a metallic Pt. With this PMNT/FePt/Pt structure we have been able to control the magnetic field position or the microwave excitation frequency at which the spin pumping phenomenon between FePt and Pt occurs. We demonstrate that the magnetoelectric heterostructure operating in the L-T (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized) mode couples the PMNT crystal to the magnetostrictive FePt/Pt bilayer, displaying a strong magnetoelectric coefficient of ∼140 Oe cm kV −1 . Our results show that this mechanism can be effectively exploited as a tunable spin current intensity emitter and open the possibility to create an oscillating or a bistable switch to effectively manipulate spin currents.
High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...
Sensorless vector and direct torque control
Vas, Peter
1998-01-01
This is the first comprehensive book on sensorless high performance a.c. drives. It is essential reading for anyone interested in acquiring a solid background on sensorless torque-controlled drives. It presents a detailed and unified treatment of sensorless vector-controlled and direct-torque controlled drive systems. It also discusses the applications of artificial intelligence to drives. Where possible, space vector theory is used and emphasis is laid on detailed mathematical and physical analysis. Sensorless drive schemes for different types of permanent magnet synchronous motors, synchronous reluctance motors, and induction motors are also presented. These include more than twenty vector drives e.g. five types of MRAS-based vector drives, and eleven types of direct-torque-controlled (DTC) drives, e.g. the ABB DTC drive. However, torque-controlled switched reluctance motor drives are also discussed due to their emerging importance. The book also covers various drive applications using artificial intellige...
Improved computed torque control for industrial robots
Uebel, Mark; Minis, Ioannis; Cleary, Kevin
1992-01-01
The authors examine the computed torque control problem for a robot arm with flexible, geared, joint drive systems which are typical in many industrial robots. The standard computed torque algorithm is not directly applicable to this class of manipulators due to the dynamics introduced by the joint drive systems. The proposed approach overcomes this problem by combining a novel computed torque algorithm with simple torque controllers at each joint of the robot. The control scheme is applied to a seven degree-of-freedom industrial manipulator, and the system performance in standard tasks is evaluated using both dynamic simulation and actual experiments. The results show that the proposed controller leads to improved tracking performance over a conventional PD (proportional plus derivative) controller.
High-torque magnetorheological fluid clutch
Kavlicoglu, Barkan M.; Gordaninejad, Faramarz; Evrensel, Cahit A.; Cobanoglu, Nigar; Liu, Yanming; Fuchs, Alan; Korol, George
2002-06-01
This study focuses on the design and characterization of a radial double-plate magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) clutch. The clutch's torque output can be controlled by adjusting the applied magnetic field. Electromagnetic finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to design and optimize the clutch. The shear stress distribution in MRF between the plates is theoretically predicted using the magnetic flux density distribution evaluated from the FEA. The output torque of the clutch is derived by using the Bingham plastic constitutive model. The output torque values are recorded for different input velocities and applied magnetic fields, and they are compared with the theoretical results. It was demonstrated that the clutch is capable of producing high controllable torques.
14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.
2010-01-01
... takeoff power and propeller speed, multiplied by a factor accounting for propeller control system... compressor jamming). (2) A limit engine torque load imposed by the maximum acceleration of the engine. (c...
14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.
2010-01-01
... by a factor accounting for propeller control system malfunction, including quick feathering, acting... malfunction or structural failure (such as compressor jamming). (2) A limit engine torque load imposed by the...
Circuit Simulation of All-Spin Logic
Alawein, Meshal
2016-05-01
With the aggressive scaling of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) nearing an inevitable physical limit and its well-known power crisis, the quest for an alternative/augmenting technology that surpasses the current semiconductor electronics is needed for further technological progress. Spintronic devices emerge as prime candidates for Beyond CMOS era by utilizing the electron spin as an extra degree of freedom to decrease the power consumption and overcome the velocity limit connected with the charge. By using the nonvolatility nature of magnetization along with its direction to represent a bit of information and then manipulating it by spin-polarized currents, routes are opened for combined memory and logic. This would not have been possible without the recent discoveries in the physics of nanomagnetism such as spin-transfer torque (STT) whereby a spin-polarized current can excite magnetization dynamics through the transfer of spin angular momentum. STT have expanded the available means of switching the magnetization of magnetic layers beyond old classical techniques, promising to fulfill the need for a new generation of dense, fast, and nonvolatile logic and storage devices. All-spin logic (ASL) is among the most promising spintronic logic switches due to its low power consumption, logic-in-memory structure, and operation on pure spin currents. The device is based on a lateral nonlocal spin valve and STT switching. It utilizes two nanomagnets (whereby information is stored) that communicate with pure spin currents through a spin-coherent nonmagnetic channel. By using the well-known spin physics and the recently proposed four-component spin circuit formalism, ASL can be thoroughly studied and simulated. Previous attempts to model ASL in the linear and diffusive regime either neglect the dynamic characteristics of transport or do not provide a scalable and robust platform for full micromagnetic simulations and inclusion of other effects like spin Hall
Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi
2017-01-01
Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.
Knudsen torque on heated micro beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Qi; Liang, Tengfei; Ye, Wenjing [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clearwater Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)
2014-12-09
Thermally induced mechanical loading has been shown to have significant effects on micro/nano objects immersed in a gas with a non-uniform temperature field. While the majority of existing studies and related applications focus on forces, we investigate the torque, and thus the rotational motion, produced by such a mechanism. Using the asymptotic analysis in the near continuum regime, the Knudsen torque acting on an asymmetrically located uniformly heated microbeam in a cold enclosure is investigated. The existence of a non-zero net torque is demonstrated. In addition, it has been found that by manipulating the system configuration, the rotational direction of the torque can be changed. Two types of rotational motion of the microbeam have been identified: the pendulum motion of a rectangular beam, and the unidirectional rotation of a cylindrical beam. A rotational frequency of 4 rpm can be achieved for the cylindrical beam with a diameter of 3μm at Kn = 0.005. Illustrated by the simulations using the direct simulation of Monte Carlo, the Knudsen torque can be much increased in the transition regime, demonstrating the potential of Knudsen torque serving as a rotation engine for micro/nano objects.
Predicting charmonium and bottomonium spectra with a quark harmonic oscillator
Norbury, J. W.; Badavi, F. F.; Townsend, L. W.
1986-01-01
The nonrelativistic quark model is applied to heavy (nonrelativistic) meson (two-body) systems to obtain sufficiently accurate predictions of the spin-averaged mass levels of the charmonium and bottomonium spectra as an example of the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator. The present calculations do not include any spin dependence, but rather, mass values are averaged for different spins. Results for a charmed quark mass value of 1500 MeV/c-squared show that the simple harmonic oscillator model provides good agreement with experimental values for 3P states, and adequate agreement for the 3S1 states.
2003-08-01
applications, a ferromagnetic metal may be used as a source of spin-polarized electronics to be injected into a semiconductor, a superconductor or a...physical phenomena in II-VI and III-V semiconductors. In II-VI systems, the Mn2+ ions act to boost the electron spin precession up to terahertz ...conductors, proximity effect between ferromagnets and superconductors , and the effects of spin injection on the physical properties of the
Vozková, Markéta
2011-01-01
1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...
Heisenberg spin glass experiments and the chiral ordering scenario
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, Ian A.; Petit, Dorothee C.M.C.
2010-01-01
An overview is given of experimental data on Heisenberg spin glass materials so as to make detailed comparisons with numerical results on model Heisenberg spin glasses, with particular reference to the chiral driven ordering transition scenario due to Kawamura and collaborators. On weak anisotropy systems, experiments show critical exponents which are very similar to those estimated numerically for the model Heisenberg chiral ordering transition but which are quite different from those at Ising spin glass transitions. Again on weak anisotropy Heisenberg spin glasses, experimental torque data show well defined in-field transverse ordering transitions up to strong applied fields, in contrast to Ising spin glasses where fields destroy ordering. When samples with stronger anisotropies are studied, critical and in-field behavior tend progressively towards the Ising limit. It can be concluded that the essential physics of laboratory Heisenberg spin glasses mirrors that of model Heisenberg spin glasses, where chiral ordering has been demonstrated numerically. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhiezer, A.I.; Davydov, L.N.; Spol'nik, Z.A.
1976-01-01
Oscillations of a nonideal crystal are studied, in which macroscopic defects (pores) form a hyperlattice. It is shown that alongside with acoustic and optical phonons (relative to the hyperlattice), in such a crystal oscillations of the third type are possible which are a hydridization of sound oscillations of atoms and surface oscillations of a pore. Oscillation spectra of all three types were obtained
Spin-orbit torques from interfacial spin-orbit coupling for various interfaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kim, K.W.; Lee, K.J.; Sinova, Jairo; Lee, H. W.; Stiles, M.D.
2017-01-01
Roč. 96, č. 10 (2017), s. 1-23, č. článku 104438. ISSN 2469-9950 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 610115 - SC2 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : topological insulator * domain- walls * magnitude * transport * systems Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016
Extraneous torque and compensation control on the electric load simulator
Jiao, Zongxia; Li, Chenggong; Ren, Zhiting
2003-09-01
In this paper a novel motor-drive load simulator based on compensation control strategy is proposed and designed. Through analyzing the torque control system consisting of DC torque motor, PWM module and torque sensor, it is shown that performance of the motor-drive load simulator is possible to be as good as that of the electro-hydraulic load simulator in the range of small torque. In the course of loading, the rotation of the actuator would cause a strong disturbance torque through the motor back-EMF, which produces extraneous torque similar as in electro-hydraulic load simulator. This paper analyzes the cause of extraneous torque inside the torque motor in detail and presents an appropriate compensation control with which the extraneous torque can be compensated and the good performance of the torque control system can be obtained. The results of simulation indicate that the compensation is very effective and the track performance is according with the request.
Study on torque algorithm of switched reluctance motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoguang LI
2016-12-01
Full Text Available To solve the torque ripple problem of switched reluctance motor under the traditional control method, a direct torque control method for switched reluctance motor is proposed. Direct torque algorithm controls flux magnitude and direction by querying appropriate voltage vector in switch list. Taking torque as direct control variable can reduce the torque ripple of the motor, which broadens the application fields of switched reluctance motor. Starting with the theory of direct torque algorithm, based on MATLAB/Simulink platform, direct torque control and chopped current control system simulation model are designed. Under the condition that switched reluctance motor model and its load are consistent, it is compared with chopped current algorithm. At last, the feasibility of direct torque algorithm is verified through the platform of hardware experiments. It demonstrates that using direct torque algorithm can make the torque ripple be controlled effectively, which provides a wider application field for the switched reluctance motor.
Spin amplification by controlled symmetry breaking for spin-based logic
Kawakami, Roland K.
2015-09-01
Spin amplification is one of the most critical challenges for spintronics and spin-based logic in order to achieve spintronic circuits with fan-out. We propose a new concept for spin amplification that will allow a small spin current in a non-magnetic spin channel to control the magnetization of an attached ferromagnet. The key step is to bring the ferromagnet into an unstable symmetric state (USS), so that a small spin transfer torque from a small spin current can provide a magnetic bias to control the spontaneous symmetry breaking and select the final magnetization direction of the ferromagnet. Two proposed methods for achieving the USS configuration are voltage-controlled Curie temperature (VC-TC) and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VC-MA). We believe the development of new 2D magnetic materials with greater tunability of VC-TC and VC-MA will be needed for practical applications. A successful realization of spin amplification by controlled symmetry breaking will be important for the implementation of existing spin-logic proposals (e.g. ‘all spin logic’) and could inspire alternative ideas for spintronic circuits and devices.
Spin amplification by controlled symmetry breaking for spin-based logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawakami, Roland K
2015-01-01
Spin amplification is one of the most critical challenges for spintronics and spin-based logic in order to achieve spintronic circuits with fan-out. We propose a new concept for spin amplification that will allow a small spin current in a non-magnetic spin channel to control the magnetization of an attached ferromagnet. The key step is to bring the ferromagnet into an unstable symmetric state (USS), so that a small spin transfer torque from a small spin current can provide a magnetic bias to control the spontaneous symmetry breaking and select the final magnetization direction of the ferromagnet. Two proposed methods for achieving the USS configuration are voltage-controlled Curie temperature (VC-T C ) and voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy (VC-MA). We believe the development of new 2D magnetic materials with greater tunability of VC-T C and VC-MA will be needed for practical applications. A successful realization of spin amplification by controlled symmetry breaking will be important for the implementation of existing spin-logic proposals (e.g. ‘all spin logic’) and could inspire alternative ideas for spintronic circuits and devices. (paper)
Angular momentum from tidal torques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, J.; Efstathiou, G.; Cambridge Univ., England)
1987-01-01
The origin of the angular momentum of bound objects in large N-body simulations is studied using three sets of models. One model with white-noise initial conditions is analyzed as well as two in which the initial conditions have more power on large scales, as predicted in models with cold dark matter. The growth and distribution of angular momentum in individual objects is studied and it is found that the specific angular momentum distribution of bound clumps increases in a near linear fashion with radius while the orientation of the angular momentum in the inner high-density regions is often poorly correlated with that of the outer parts. It is also found that the dimensionless spin parameter is insensitive to the initial perturbation spectrum and has a median value of about 0.05. 61 references
Potentiation increases peak twitch torque by enhancing rates of torque development and relaxation.
Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando Gabe; Jensen, Jørgen; Noakes, Timothy David
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to measure the extent to which potentiation changes in response to an isometric maximal voluntary contraction. Eleven physically active subjects participated in two separate studies. Single stimulus of electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve was used to measure torque at rest in unpotentiated quadriceps muscles (study 1 and 2), and potentiated quadriceps muscles torque in a 10 min period after a 5 s isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps muscles (study 1). Additionally, potentiated quadriceps muscles torque was measured every min after a further 10 maximal voluntary contractions repeated every min (study 2). Electrical stimulation repeated several times without previous maximal voluntary contraction showed similar peak twitch torque. Peak twitch torque 4 s after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction increased by 45±13% (study 1) and by 56±10% (study 2), the rate of torque development by 53±13% and 82±29%, and the rate of relaxation by 50±17% and 59±22%, respectively, but potentiation was lost already two min after a 5 s maximal voluntary contraction. There was a tendency for peak twitch torque to increase for the first five repeated maximal voluntary contractions, suggesting increased potentiation with additional maximal voluntary contractions. Correlations for peak twitch torque vs the rate of torque development and for the rate of relaxation were r(2)= 0.94 and r(2)=0.97. The correlation between peak twitch torque, the rate of torque development and the rate of relaxation suggests that potentiation is due to instantaneous changes in skeletal muscle contractility and relaxation.
Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems
Garg, Anupam
2001-02-01
We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the space of magnetic fields, known as diabolical points. This phenomena is explained in terms of two approaches, one based on spin-coherent-state path integrals, and the other on a generalization of the phase integral (or WKB) method to difference equations. Explicit formulas for the diabolical points are obtained for a model Hamiltonian.
Temporelli, Robin; Micheau, Philippe
2017-04-01
A transmission belt deals with non-linear phenomena such as parametric excitations that can bring the belt in an instability region resulting in large transverse oscillations. These oscillations can cause belt life deflection, noise and unexpected vibration on its environment. The present study proposes a new strategy to control oscillations of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations. Indeed, for a transmission belt, periodic torque fluctuations cause periodic belt tension fluctuations which can be a source of excitation for the belt and resulting in belt oscillations under certain conditions. The presence of a clutch between the belt end-point and the source of torque fluctuations offers a means to clip torque fluctuations and thus to clip belt excitation. In keeping with this notion, belt oscillations can be controlled by an Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C) strategy. Through an example of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations, the E4C strategy is presented and a new analytical model of belt behavior with its E4C strategy is constructed. Free belt oscillations (E4C is not activated) and controlled belt oscillations (E4C is activated) are observed through an experimental setup and predicted owing to the new analytical model. Finally, the E4C strategy leads to frequency unlocking that successfully removes belt oscillations. This new analytical model furthermore provides an accurate prediction of belt behavior with its E4C strategy.
Electromagnetic deflection of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1992-01-01
It is shown that it is possible to obtain self-consistent and physically acceptable relativistic classical equations of motion for a point-like spin-half particle possessing an electric charge and magnetic dipole moment, directly from a manifestly covariant Lagrangian, if the classical degrees of freedom are appropriately chosen. The equations obtained encompass the well-tested Lorentz force and Thomas-Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi spin equations, as well as providing a definite specification of the classical magnetic dipole force, whose exact form has been the subject of recent debate. Radiation reaction - the force and torque on an accelerated particle due to its self-interaction - is neglected at this stage. 18 refs
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2008-01-01
1.1 This practice is to specify procedure for the calibration of elastic torque-measuring instruments. Note 1—Verification by deadweight and a lever arm is an acceptable method of verifying the torque indication of a torque testing machine. Tolerances for weights used are tabulated in Practice WK6364; methods for calibration of the weights are given in NIST Technical Note 577, Methods of Calibrating Weights for Piston Gages. 1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.3 This practice is intended for the calibration of static or quasi-static torque measuring instruments. The practice is not applicable for high speed torque calibrations or measurements. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any,...
Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets
Akosa, Collins Ashu
2015-03-12
Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.
Harmonic oscillator and nuclear pseudospin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisboa, Ronai; Malheiro, Manuel; Castro, Antonio S. de; Alberto, Pedro; Fiolhais, M.
2004-01-01
A generalized relativistic harmonic oscillator for spin 1/2 particles is studied. The Dirac Hamiltonians contains a scalar S and a vector V quadratic potentials in the radial coordinate, as well as a tensor potential U, linear in r. Setting either Σ=S+V or Δ=V - S to zero, analytical solutions for bound states are found. The eigenenergies and their nonrelativistic limits are present and particular cases are discussed, especially the case Σ=0, for which pseudospin symmetry is exact. (author)
Oscillators - a simple introduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindberg, Erik
2013-01-01
Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?......Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?...
Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung
2015-04-09
In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user's muscular effort is important to recognize the user's motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users' muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user's limb accurately from the measured torque. The user's limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user's muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions.
A Method to Accurately Estimate the Muscular Torques of Human Wearing Exoskeletons by Torque Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beomsoo Hwang
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user’s muscular effort is important to recognize the user’s motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users’ muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user’s limb accurately from the measured torque. The user’s limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user’s muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions.
Decoupled Speed and Torque Control of IPMSM Drives Using a Novel Load Torque Estimator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZAKY, M.
2017-08-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes decoupled speed and torque control of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM drives using a novel load torque estimator (LTE. The proposed LTE is applied for computing a load torque and yielding a feed-forward value in the speed controller to separate the torque control from the speed control. Indirect flux weakening using direct current component is obtained for high speed operation of the IPMSM drive, and its value for maximum torque per ampere (MTPA control in constant torque region is also used. LTE uses values of direct and quadrature currents to improve the behavior of the speed controller under the reference tracking and torque disturbances. The complete IPMSM drive by Matlab/Simulink is built. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme using an experimental setup of the complete drive system implemented on a DSP-DS1102 control board is confirmed. Extensive results over a wide speed range are verified. The efficacy of the proposed method is confirmed in comparison to a conventional PI controller under both the reference speed tracking and load torque disturbance.
A Method to Accurately Estimate the Muscular Torques of Human Wearing Exoskeletons by Torque Sensors
Hwang, Beomsoo; Jeon, Doyoung
2015-01-01
In exoskeletal robots, the quantification of the user’s muscular effort is important to recognize the user’s motion intentions and evaluate motor abilities. In this paper, we attempt to estimate users’ muscular efforts accurately using joint torque sensor which contains the measurements of dynamic effect of human body such as the inertial, Coriolis, and gravitational torques as well as torque by active muscular effort. It is important to extract the dynamic effects of the user’s limb accurately from the measured torque. The user’s limb dynamics are formulated and a convenient method of identifying user-specific parameters is suggested for estimating the user’s muscular torque in robotic exoskeletons. Experiments were carried out on a wheelchair-integrated lower limb exoskeleton, EXOwheel, which was equipped with torque sensors in the hip and knee joints. The proposed methods were evaluated by 10 healthy participants during body weight-supported gait training. The experimental results show that the torque sensors are to estimate the muscular torque accurately in cases of relaxed and activated muscle conditions. PMID:25860074
Bovier, Anton
2007-01-01
Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.
Oscillating Permanent Magnets.
Michaelis, M. M.; Haines, C. M.
1989-01-01
Describes several ways to partially levitate permanent magnets. Computes field line geometries and oscillation frequencies. Provides several diagrams illustrating the mechanism of the oscillation. (YP)
Pseudospin symmetry and the relativistic harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lisboa, R.; Malheiro, M.; Castro, A.S. de; Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, M.
2004-01-01
A generalized relativistic harmonic oscillator for spin 1/2 particles is studied. The Dirac Hamiltonian contains a scalar S and a vector V quadratic potentials in the radial coordinate, as well as a tensor potential U linear in r. Setting either or both combinations Σ=S+V and Δ=V-S to zero, analytical solutions for bound states of the corresponding Dirac equations are found. The eigenenergies and wave functions are presented and particular cases are discussed, devoting a special attention to the nonrelativistic limit and the case Σ=0, for which pseudospin symmetry is exact. We also show that the case U=Δ=0 is the most natural generalization of the nonrelativistic harmonic oscillator. The radial node structure of the Dirac spinor is studied for several combinations of harmonic-oscillator potentials, and that study allows us to explain why nuclear intruder levels cannot be described in the framework of the relativistic harmonic oscillator in the pseudospin limit
On the κ-Dirac oscillator revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, F.M., E-mail: fmandrade@uepg.br [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Silva, E.O., E-mail: edilbertoos@pq.cnpq.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Ferreira, M.M., E-mail: manojr.ufma@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Rodrigues, E.C., E-mail: ednilson.fisica@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil)
2014-04-04
This Letter is based on the κ-Dirac equation, derived from the κ-Poincaré–Hopf algebra. It is shown that the κ-Dirac equation preserves parity while breaks charge conjugation and time reversal symmetries. Introducing the Dirac oscillator prescription, p→p−imωβr, in the κ-Dirac equation, one obtains the κ-Dirac oscillator. Using a decomposition in terms of spin angular functions, one achieves the deformed radial equations, with the associated deformed energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. The deformation parameter breaks the infinite degeneracy of the Dirac oscillator. In the case where ε=0, one recovers the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Dirac oscillator.
Brownian motion and entropic torque driven motion of domain walls in antiferromagnets
Yan, Zhengren; Chen, Zhiyuan; Qin, Minghui; Lu, Xubing; Gao, Xingsen; Liu, Junming
2018-02-01
We study the spin dynamics in antiferromagnetic nanowire under an applied temperature gradient using micromagnetic simulations on a classical spin model with a uniaxial anisotropy. The entropic torque driven domain-wall motion and the Brownian motion are discussed in detail, and their competition determines the antiferromagnetic wall motion towards the hotter or colder region. Furthermore, the spin dynamics in an antiferromagnet can be well tuned by the anisotropy and the temperature gradient. Thus, this paper not only strengthens the main conclusions obtained in earlier works [Kim et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 020402(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.020402; Selzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 107201 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.107201], but more importantly gives the concrete conditions under which these conclusions apply, respectively. Our results may provide useful information on the antiferromagnetic spintronics for future experiments and storage device design.
Relaxing Oscillation of the Machine-Unit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bohumil Skala
2008-01-01
Full Text Available To understand the behavior of the Earth´s geomagnetic field, many theories have been created. One of the possible approaches is the Rikitake dynamo and chaotic theory. This paper describes the first step, i.e. how to verify the chaotic theory simulated result by a practical test. This first step is the oscillating machine unit. The asynchronous motor working point is moving from the stable part of its torque characteristic to the labile part due to the enormous loading. In the labile part the speed slows down and loading has to be decreased. Then the motor moves back to the stable part of characteristic.
Torque shudder protection device and method
King, R.D.; Doncker, R.W.A.A. De.; Szczesny, P.M.
1997-03-11
A torque shudder protection device for an induction machine includes a flux command generator for supplying a steady state flux command and a torque shudder detector for supplying a status including a negative status to indicate a lack of torque shudder and a positive status to indicate a presence of torque shudder. A flux adapter uses the steady state flux command and the status to supply a present flux command identical to the steady state flux command for a negative status and different from the steady state flux command for a positive status. A limiter can receive the present flux command, prevent the present flux command from exceeding a predetermined maximum flux command magnitude, and supply the present flux command to a field oriented controller. After determining a critical electrical excitation frequency at which a torque shudder occurs for the induction machine, a flux adjuster can monitor the electrical excitation frequency of the induction machine and adjust a flux command to prevent the monitored electrical excitation frequency from reaching the critical electrical excitation frequency. 5 figs.
Electrostatic sensor modeling for torque measurements
Mika, Michał; Dannert, Mirjam; Mett, Felix; Weber, Harry; Mathis, Wolfgang; Nackenhorst, Udo
2017-09-01
Torque load measurements play an important part in various engineering applications, as for automotive industry, in which the drive torque of a motor has to be determined. A widely used measuring method are strain gauges. A thin flexible foil, which supports a metallic pattern, is glued to the surface of the object the torque is being applied to. In case of a deformation due to the torque load, the change in the electrical resistance is measured. With the combination of constitutive equations the applied torque load is determined by the change of electrical resistance. The creep of the glue and the foil material, together with the temperature and humidity dependence, may become an obstacle for some applications Kapralov and Fesenko (1984). Thus, there have been optical and magnetical, as well as capacitive sensors introduced). This paper discusses the general idea behind an electrostatic capacitive sensor based on a simple draft of an exemplary measurement setup. For better understanding an own electrostatical, geometrical and mechanical model of this setup has been developed.
Electrostatic sensor modeling for torque measurements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Mika
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Torque load measurements play an important part in various engineering applications, as for automotive industry, in which the drive torque of a motor has to be determined. A widely used measuring method are strain gauges. A thin flexible foil, which supports a metallic pattern, is glued to the surface of the object the torque is being applied to. In case of a deformation due to the torque load, the change in the electrical resistance is measured. With the combination of constitutive equations the applied torque load is determined by the change of electrical resistance. The creep of the glue and the foil material, together with the temperature and humidity dependence, may become an obstacle for some applications Kapralov and Fesenko(1984. Thus, there have been optical and magnetical, as well as capacitive sensors introduced . This paper discusses the general idea behind an electrostatic capacitive sensor based on a simple draft of an exemplary measurement setup. For better understanding an own electrostatical, geometrical and mechanical model of this setup has been developed.
Diffusive Spin Dynamics in Ferromagnetic Thin Films with a Rashba Interaction
Wang, Xuhui
2012-03-13
In a ferromagnetic metal layer, the coupled charge and spin diffusion equations are obtained in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit interaction and magnetism. The misalignment between the magnetization and the nonequilibrium spin density induced by the Rashba field gives rise to Rashba spin torque acting on the ferromagnetic order parameter. In a general form, we find that the Rashba torque consists of both in-plane and out-of-plane components, i.e., T=T Sy×m+T Sm×(y×m). Numerical simulations on a two-dimensional nanowire consider the impact of diffusion on the Rashba torque and reveal a large enhancement to the ratio T/T S for thin wires. Our theory provides an explanation for the mechanism driving the magnetization switching in a single ferromagnet as observed in the recent experiments. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Magnonic charge pumping via spin-orbit coupling
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ciccarelli, C.; Hals, K.M.D.; Irvine, A.; Novák, Vít; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Kurebayashi, H.; Brataas, A.; Ferguson, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 1 (2015), 50-54 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * spin-orbit torque * GaMnAs Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 35.267, year: 2015
Light-induced spin polarizations in quantum rings
Joibari, F.K.; Blanter, Y.M.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2014-01-01
Nonresonant circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation can exert torques on magnetizations by the inverse Faraday effect (IFE). Here, we discuss the enhancement of IFE by spin-orbit interactions. We illustrate the principle by studying a simple generic model system, i.e., the
Fossil evidence for spin alignment of SDSS galaxies in filaments
Jones, Bernard J.T.; Weygaert, Rien van de; Arag´on-Calvo, Miguel A.
2010-01-01
We search for and find fossil evidence that the distribution of the spin axes of galaxies in cosmic web filaments relative to their host filaments are not randomly distributed. This would indicate that the action of large scale tidal torques effected the alignments of galaxies located in cosmic
Disentanglement of bulk and interfacial spin Hall effect in ferromagnet/normal metal interface
Zhou, X.; Tang, M.; Fan, X. L.; Qiu, X. P.; Zhou, S. M.
2016-10-01
Spin Hall effect in PdPt alloys in contact with ferromagnetic Ni80Fe20 alloys has been studied by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance technique. The spin torque spin Hall angle (ST-SHA) proves to be contributed by the interfacial and bulk SHAs. The bulk SHA is dominated by the skew scattering and reaches a maximal value for the largest randomization of Pt and Pd atoms at the intermediate alloy composition. In particular, the interfacial SHA becomes prominent for Pt-rich alloys. This phenomenon indicates the enhanced Rashba spin-orbit coupling at the interface, as Pt has a stronger spin-orbit coupling and larger z -potential gradient compared to Pd. The present work highlights the interfacial SHA and provides a pathway to improve the functionality and performance of the next generation spintronic devices.
Helicopter Anti-Torque System Using Strakes
Kelley, H. L.; Wilson, J. C.; Phelps, A. E. (Inventor)
1984-01-01
A helicopter is disclosed with a system for controlling main-rotor torque which reduces the power and size requirements of conventional anti-torque means. The torque countering forces are generated by disrupting the main rotor downwash flowing around the fuselage. The downwash flow is separated from the fuselage surface by a strake positioned at a specified location on the fuselage. This location is determined by the particular helicopter wash pattern and fuselage configuration, generally being located between 20 deg before top dead center (TDC) and 80 deg from TDC on the fuselage side to which the main rotor blade approaches during rotation. The strake extends along the fuselage from the cabin section to the aft end and can be continuous or separated for aerodynamic surfaces such as a horizontal stabilizer.
RFID Torque Sensing Tag System for Fasteners
Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
The present invention provides an RFID-based torque sensor that can be used to quickly monitor off the shelf fasteners including fasteners that are used in expensive satellites or other uses where fastener failure can be very costly. In one embodiment, an antenna, RFID ring and spring comprise a sensor tag that can be interrogated with an interrogation signal produced by an interrogator device. When sufficient torque is applied to the fastener, an RFID circuit is connected, and produces a radio frequency (RF) signal that can be read by the interrogator. In one embodiment, the RFID circuit does not transmit when the spring member is not compressed, thereby indicating insufficient tensioning of the fastener. The present invention offers the ability to remotely, quickly, and inexpensively verify that any number of fasteners are torqued properly upon initial installation. Where applicable, the present invention allows low cost monitoring over the life of the fastener.
Self-Induced Torque in Hyperbolic Metamaterials
Ginzburg, Pavel; Krasavin, Alexey V.; Poddubny, Alexander N.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zayats, Anatoly V.
2013-07-01
Optical forces constitute a fundamental phenomenon important in various fields of science, from astronomy to biology. Generally, intense external radiation sources are required to achieve measurable effects suitable for applications. Here we demonstrate that quantum emitters placed in a homogeneous anisotropic medium induce self-torques, aligning themselves in the well-defined direction determined by an anisotropy, in order to maximize their radiation efficiency. We develop a universal quantum-mechanical theory of self-induced torques acting on an emitter placed in a material environment. The theoretical framework is based on the radiation reaction approach utilizing the rigorous Langevin local quantization of electromagnetic excitations. We show more than 2 orders of magnitude enhancement of the self-torque by an anisotropic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion, having negative ratio of permittivity tensor components, in comparison with conventional anisotropic crystals with the highest naturally available anisotropy.
AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation
Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.
1990-01-01
The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.
Development of a magnetostrictive Torque sensor. Jiwaishiki torque sensor no kaihatsu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanizaki, K.; Aoki, H.; Maruyama, J.; Shimada, M. (Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))
1990-06-25
In the present report, new torque sensor, utilizing the magnetostrictive effect, was explained in structure of sensor, material problem of the shaft, playing a functionally important role therein, and examples, verifying the characteristics. The magnetic substance is constituted as a set substance of small regions, called magnetic sections, directionally constant in spontaneous magnetization. If stress acts on the magnetic substance, there occur dislocation of magnetic wall, which is border between those sections, and rotation of magnetization, which occurrence causes change in magnetization of all the magnetic substance, ie., magnetostrictive effect. The torque sensor constitutes plural concave/convex forms, directionally oblique to the main torsional stress, on the shaft surface, composed as magnetic substance, and which surface is installed confrontedly with a pair of coils. Result of using a torque sensor for the engine torque measurement could grasp, in each cylinder, both torque generation by combustion and torque decrease by flameout, good in respondency. Example for the transmission to be internally equipped with a sensor could also grasp a large and very quick change in torque with a high respondency. 8 refs., 14 figs.
Observation of the spin Peltier effect for magnetic insulators.
Flipse, J; Dejene, F K; Wagenaar, D; Bauer, G E W; Ben Youssef, J; van Wees, B J
2014-07-11
We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin current in the Pt into a magnon current in the YIG. Via magnon-phonon interactions the magnetic fluctuations modulate the phonon temperature that is detected by a thermopile close to the interface. By finite-element modeling we verify the reciprocity between the spin Peltier and spin Seebeck effect. The observed strong coupling between thermal magnons and phonons in YIG is attractive for nanoscale cooling techniques.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.
Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael
2004-01-01
This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, K.H.; Hertz, J.A.
1993-01-01
Spin glasses, simply defined by the authors as a collection of spins (i.e., magnetic moments) whose low-temperature state is a frozen disordered one, represent one of the fascinating new fields of study in condensed matter physics, and this book is the first to offer a comprehensive account of the subject. Included are discussions of the most important developments in theory, experimental work, and computer modeling of spin glasses, all of which have taken place essentially within the last two decades. The first part of the book gives a general introduction to the basic concepts and a discussion of mean field theory, while the second half concentrates on experimental results, scaling theory, and computer simulation of the structure of spin glasses
The role of interaction torque and muscle torque in the control of downward squatting
Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroto; Murakami, Kenichi; Kawakami, Shingo; Suzuki, Makoto
2016-01-01
[Purpose] The purposes of this study were first to analyze the multijoint dynamics of downward squatting, and to examine the contribution of interaction torque and muscle torque to net torque, and second, to examine mechanisms of movement control. [Subjects] The subjects were 31 healthy men with a mean age of 21.0 ? 1.2?years (range, 19?24?years). [Methods] Squatting tasks with the trunk in two positions, an erect and anterior tilt position, were performed by the subjects. Net, interaction, m...
Shinnaka, Shinji; Kishida, Hideo
This paper proposes a new torque-sensorless torque control method for permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). The proposed method can almost perfectly compensate the 6th harmonic torque ripple that is caused by the nonsinusoidal distributions of the back EMF and rotor magnetic flux of PMSMs. The torque control system is, in principle, constructed on the basis of the vector control, but has two new dedicated speed-varying devices—a harmonic torque observer and current controller. The speed-varying harmonic torque observer can estimate the harmonic component over a wide speed range, even in the case where the produced torque is constant, and generate a suitable compensating signal. The speed-varying current controller shows stable control performance over a wide speed range, it can fully track the compensated current command containing the dc and 6th harmonic components. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined and verified through extensive numerical experiments.
Torque limit of PM motors for field-weakening region operation
Royak, Semyon [Beachwood, OH; Harbaugh, Mark M [Richfield, OH
2012-02-14
The invention includes a motor controller and technique for controlling a permanent magnet motor. In accordance with one aspect of the present technique, a permanent magnet motor is controlled by receiving a torque command, determining a physical torque limit based on a stator frequency, determining a theoretical torque limit based on a maximum available voltage and motor inductance ratio, and limiting the torque command to the smaller of the physical torque limit and the theoretical torque limit. Receiving the torque command may include normalizing the torque command to obtain a normalized torque command, determining the physical torque limit may include determining a normalized physical torque limit, determining a theoretical torque limit may include determining a normalized theoretical torque limit, and limiting the torque command may include limiting the normalized torque command to the smaller of the normalized physical torque limit and the normalized theoretical torque limit.
Muscle response to pneumatic hand tool torque reaction forces.
Radwin, R G; VanBergeijk, E; Armstrong, T J
1989-06-01
Surface electromyography was used for studying the effects of torque reaction force acting against the hand, on forearm muscle activity and grip force for five subjects operating right angle, air shut-off nutrunners. Four tools having increasing spindle torque were operated using short and long torque reaction times. Nutrunner spindle torque ranged between 30 Nm and 100 Nm. Short torque reaction time was considered 0.5 s while long torque reaction time was 2 s. Peak horizontal force was the greatest component of the reaction force acting against the hand and accounted for more than 97% of the peak resultant hand force. Peak hand force increased from 89 N for the smallest tool to 202 N for the largest tool. Forearm muscle rms EMG, scaled for grip force, indicated average flexor activity during the Torque-reaction phase was more than four times greater than the Pre-start and Post Shut-off phases, and two times greater than the Run-down phase. Flexor EMG activity during the Torque-reaction phase increased for increasing tool peak spindle torque. Average flexor rms EMG activity, scaled for grip force, during the Torque-reaction phase increased from 372 N for the 30 Nm nutrunner to 449 N for the 100 Nm nutrunner. Flexor rms EMG activity averaged during the Torque-reaction phase and scaled for grip force was 390 N for long torque reaction times and increased to 440 N for short torque reaction times. Flexor rms EMG integrated over the torque reaction phase was 839 Ns for long torque reaction times and decreased to 312 Ns for short torque reaction times. The average latency between tool spindle torque onset and peak initial flexor rms EMG for long torque reaction times was 294 ms which decreased to 161 ms for short torque reaction times. The average latency between peak tool spindle torque, just prior to tool shut-off, and peak final rms EMG for long torque reaction times was 97 ms for flexors and 188 ms for extensors, which decreased for short torque reaction times to 47
Hoefer, Mark A.
This thesis examines nonlinear wave phenomena, in two physical systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and thin film ferromagnets where the magnetization dynamics are excited by the spin momentum transfer (SMT) effect. In the first system, shock waves generated by steep gradients in the BEC wavefunction are shown to be of the disperse type. Asymptotic and averaging methods are used to determine shock speeds and structure in one spatial dimension. These results are compared with multidimensional numerical simulations and experiment showing good, qualitative agreement. In the second system, a model of magnetization dynamics due to SMT is presented. Using this model, nonlinear oscillating modes---nano-oscillators---are found numerically and analytically using perturbative methods. These results compare well with experiment. A Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) is a quantum fluid that gives rise to interesting shock wave nonlinear dynamics. Experiments depict a BEC that exhibits behavior similar to that of a shock wave in a compressible gas, e.g. traveling fronts with steep gradients. However, the governing Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation that describes the mean field of a BEC admits no dissipation hence classical dissipative shock solutions do not explain the phenomena. Instead, wave dynamics with small dispersion is considered and it is shown that this provides a mechanism for the generation of a dispersive shock wave (DSW). Computations with the GP equation are compared to experiment with excellent agreement. A comparison between a canonical 1D dissipative and dispersive shock problem shows significant differences in shock structure and shock front speed. Numerical results associated with laboratory experiments show that three and two-dimensional approximations are in excellent agreement and one dimensional approximations are in qualitative agreement. The interaction of two DSWs is investigated analytically and numerically. Using one dimensional DSW theory it is argued
Measuring spin of black holes in the universe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Table of contents. Measuring spin of black holes in the universe · What is black hole? Accretion Disk and Jet · What is black hole's spin? Accretion Disk · Black Hole's Potential · Light Curves: Photon Count Rate Vs Time · Quasi-Periodic Oscillation · Slide 9 · Model · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Summary.
Lee, Kyung-Jin; Dieny, Bernard
2006-03-01
Using micromagnetic modeling, we tested a prediction of single-domain spin-torque theory which switching current density depends only weakly on magnetic cell size. The switching time and current density are strongly affected by the cell size for low spin polarization. Larger samples with a small length-to-width ratio and small spin polarization can exhibit a nonmonotonous dependence of switching time on current. Excitation of incoherent spin waves caused by the circular Oersted field due to the current is responsible for this nonmonotonous dependence. However, the magnetic dynamics recovers a single-domain-like behavior when the spin polarization is high and/or the cell size is small.
Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)
2017-03-01
Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.
Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandra Motta Streva
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. RESULTS: The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º. For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º. Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment.
Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David; Lega, Elena
2017-01-01
Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r s ), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.
Pittet, Jean-Noël; Šilha, Jiří; Schildknecht, Thomas
2018-02-01
The Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology is used to accurately determine the position of space objects equipped with so-called retro-reflectors or retro-reflector arrays (RRA). This type of measurement allows to measure the range to the spacecraft with high precision, which leads to determination of very accurate orbits for these targets. Non-active spacecraft, which are not attitude controlled any longer, tend to start to spin or tumble under influence of the external and internal torques and forces. If the return signal is measured for a non-spherical non-active rotating object, the signal in the range residuals with respect to the reference orbit is more complex. For rotating objects the return signal shows an oscillating pattern or patterns caused by the RRA moving around the satellite's centre of mass. This behaviour is projected onto the radial component measured by the SLR. In our work, we demonstrate how the SLR ranging technique from one sensor to a satellite equipped with a RRA can be used to precisely determine its spin motion during one passage. Multiple SLR measurements of one target over time allow to accurately monitor spin motion changes which can be further used for attitude predictions. We show our solutions of the spin motion determined for the non-active ESA satellite Envisat obtained from measurements acquired during years 2013-2015 by the Zimmerwald SLR station, Switzerland. All the necessary parameters are defined for our own so-called point-like model which describes the motion of a point in space around the satellite centre of mass.
Stabilization of Rigid Body Dynamics by Internal and External Torques
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Bloch, A. M; Krishnaprasad, P. S; Marsden, J. E; Sanchez de Alvarez, G
1990-01-01
...] with quadratic feedback torques for internal rotors. We show that with such torques, the equations for the rigid body with momentum wheels are Hamiltonian with respect to a Lie-Poisson bracket structure. Further...
Comparison of Stretch Reflex Torques in Ankle Dorsiflexors and Plantarflexors
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tung, J
2001-01-01
...) ankle muscles, Pulse, step, and a combination of random perturbation and step inputs were used to identify the reflex and intrinsic contributions to the measured torque, TA reflex torques were very...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Efroimsky, Michael; Makarov, Valeri V.
2013-01-01
Tidal torques play a key role in rotational dynamics of celestial bodies. They govern these bodies' tidal despinning and also participate in the subtle process of entrapment of these bodies into spin-orbit resonances. This makes tidal torques directly relevant to the studies of habitability of planets and their moons. Our work begins with an explanation of how friction and lagging should be built into the theory of bodily tides. Although much of this material can be found in various publications, a short but self-consistent summary on the topic has been lacking in the hitherto literature, and we are filling the gap. After these preparations, we address a popular concise formula for the tidal torque, which is often used in the literature, for planets or stars. We explain why the derivation of this expression, offered in the paper by Goldreich and in the books by Kaula (Equation (4.5.29)) and Murray and Dermott (Equation (4.159)), implicitly sets the time lag to be frequency independent. Accordingly, the ensuing expression for the torque can be applied only to bodies having a very special (and very hypothetical) rheology which makes the time lag frequency independent, i.e., the same for all Fourier modes in the spectrum of tide. This expression for the torque should not be used for bodies of other rheologies. Specifically, the expression cannot be combined with an extra assertion of the geometric lag being constant, because at finite eccentricities the said assumption is incompatible with the constant-time-lag condition.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Efroimsky, Michael; Makarov, Valeri V., E-mail: michael.efroimsky@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: vvm@usno.navy.mil [US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)
2013-02-10
Tidal torques play a key role in rotational dynamics of celestial bodies. They govern these bodies' tidal despinning and also participate in the subtle process of entrapment of these bodies into spin-orbit resonances. This makes tidal torques directly relevant to the studies of habitability of planets and their moons. Our work begins with an explanation of how friction and lagging should be built into the theory of bodily tides. Although much of this material can be found in various publications, a short but self-consistent summary on the topic has been lacking in the hitherto literature, and we are filling the gap. After these preparations, we address a popular concise formula for the tidal torque, which is often used in the literature, for planets or stars. We explain why the derivation of this expression, offered in the paper by Goldreich and in the books by Kaula (Equation (4.5.29)) and Murray and Dermott (Equation (4.159)), implicitly sets the time lag to be frequency independent. Accordingly, the ensuing expression for the torque can be applied only to bodies having a very special (and very hypothetical) rheology which makes the time lag frequency independent, i.e., the same for all Fourier modes in the spectrum of tide. This expression for the torque should not be used for bodies of other rheologies. Specifically, the expression cannot be combined with an extra assertion of the geometric lag being constant, because at finite eccentricities the said assumption is incompatible with the constant-time-lag condition.
Increasing Elbow Torque Output of Stroke Patients by EMG-Controlled External Torque
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lin, C
2001-01-01
.... The control signal to the manipulator is the difference between the weighted biceps and triceps EMG, so that the system moves with the forearm and provides assisting torque proportional to the voluntary effort...
Reduction of ballistic spin scattering in a spin-FET using stray electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemnes, G A; Manolescu, A; Gudmundsson, V
2012-01-01
The quasi-bound states which appear as a consequence of the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling, introduce a strongly irregular behavior of the spin-FET conductance at large Rashba parameter. Moreover, the presence of the bulk inversion asymmetry, i.e. the Dresselhaus SO coupling, may compromise the spin-valve effect even at small values of the Rashba parameter. However, by introducing stray electric fields in addition to the SO couplings, we show that the effect of the SO induced quasi-bound states can be tuned. The oscillations of the spin-resolved conductance become smoother and the control of the spin-FET characteristics becomes possible. For the calculations we employ a multi-channel scattering formalism, based on the R-matrix method extended to spin transport, in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus SO couplings.
Coupled spin and charge collective excitations in a spin polarized electron gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marinescu, D.C.; Quinn, J.J.; Yi, K.S.
1997-01-01
The charge and longitudinal spin responses induced in a spin polarized quantum well by a weak electromagnetic field are investigated within the framework of the linear response theory. The authors evaluate the excitation frequencies for the intra- and inter-subband transitions of the collective charge and longitudinal spin density oscillations including many-body corrections beyond the random phase approximation through the spin dependent local field factors, G σ ± (q,ω). An equation-of-motion method was used to obtain these corrections in the limit of long wavelengths, and the results are given in terms of the equilibrium pair correlation function. The finite degree of spin polarization is shown to introduce coupling between the charge and spin density modes, in contrast with the result for an unpolarized system
Coherent electron-spin-resonance manipulation of three individual spins in a triple quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noiri, A. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Yoneda, J.; Nakajima, T.; Otsuka, T.; Delbecq, M. R.; Takeda, K.; Tarucha, S. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Amaha, S.; Allison, G. [RIKEN, Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2016-04-11
Quantum dot arrays provide a promising platform for quantum information processing. For universal quantum simulation and computation, one central issue is to demonstrate the exhaustive controllability of quantum states. Here, we report the addressable manipulation of three single electron spins in a triple quantum dot using a technique combining electron-spin-resonance and a micro-magnet. The micro-magnet makes the local Zeeman field difference between neighboring spins much larger than the nuclear field fluctuation, which ensures the addressable driving of electron-spin-resonance by shifting the resonance condition for each spin. We observe distinct coherent Rabi oscillations for three spins in a semiconductor triple quantum dot with up to 25 MHz spin rotation frequencies. This individual manipulation over three spins enables us to arbitrarily change the magnetic spin quantum number of the three spin system, and thus to operate a triple-dot device as a three-qubit system in combination with the existing technique of exchange operations among three spins.
Direct Torque Control of Asynchronous Motor With Fuzzy Logic Swithching
KORKMAZ, Fatih; KORKMAZ, Yılmaz
2011-01-01
control method in asynchronous motors, are known as high speed and torque ripples. In this study, direct torque control with fuzzy logic based switching method have been studied in order to reduce the speed and torque ripples which occurs during the direct torque control of asynchronous motors. Hysteresis controllers and vector selector that used in conventional control were removed, and fuzzy logic based switching method was used instead of them. Conventional and fuzzy control methods were s...
Spin dynamics of large-spin fermions in a harmonic trap
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Junjun; Feng, Tongtong; Gu, Qiang, E-mail: qgu@ustb.edu.cn
2017-04-15
Understanding the collective dynamics in a many-body system has been a central task in condensed matter physics. To achieve this task, we develop a Hartree–Fock theory to study the collective oscillations of spinor Fermi system, motivated by recent experiment on spin-9/2 fermions. We observe an oscillation period shoulder for small rotation angles. Different from previous studies, where the shoulder is found connected to the resonance from periodic to running phase, here the system is always in a running phase in the two-body phase space. This shoulder survives even in the many-body oscillations, which could be tested in the experiments. We also show how these collective oscillations evolve from two- to many-body. Our theory provides an alternative way to understand the collective dynamics in large-spin Fermi systems.
Flicker Mitigation Strategy for a Doubly Fed Induction Generator by Torque Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Yunqian; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe
2014-01-01
Owing to the rotational sampling of turbulence, wind shear and tower shadow effects grid connected variable speed wind turbines could lead to the power fluctuations which may produce flicker during continuous operation. A model of an megawatt (MW)-level variable speed wind turbine with a doubly fed...... induction generator is presented to investigate the flicker mitigation. Taking advantage of the large inertia of the wind turbine rotor, a generator torque control (GTC) strategy is proposed, so that the power oscillation is stored as the kinetic energy of the wind turbine rotor, thus the flicker emission...... is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines during continuous operation....
Theory of Faraday rotation beatings in quantum wells with great value of spin splitting
Gridnev, V N
2001-01-01
The conductivity electrons spin dynamics in the semiconducting heterostructures when the spin splitting value exceeds the energy levels widening due to collisions is theoretically studied. It is shown that the spin density component normal to the quantum well planes may oscillate with time even by absence of the external magnetic field. These oscillations might be excited and registered through the method of the nonlinear two-pulse spectroscopy. In contrast to the small spin splitting the external cross-sectional magnetic field strongly effects the spin dynamics in this mode
Improved direct torque control of induction motor with dither injection
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
dither signal is injected of minute amplitude (5% of rated torque and 5% of reference flux as hysteresis band in torque control and flux control loops respectively) in the error block. The optimal value of dither frequency and magnitude is found out under free running condition. This technique gives minimum torque ripple, low ...
Calculation of Cogging Torque in Hybrid Stepping Motors | Agber ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
When the windings of a hybrid stepping motor are unexcited the permanent magnet's flux produces cogging torque. This torque has both desirable and undesirable features depending on the application that the motor is put into. This paper formulates an analytical method for predicting cogging torque using measured ...
Improved direct torque control of induction motor with dither injection
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In this paper, a three-level inverter-fed induction motor drive operating under Direct Torque Control (DTC) is presented. A triangular wave is used as dither signal of minute amplitude (for torque hysteresis band and flux hysteresis band respectively) in the error block. This method minimizes flux and torque ripple in ...
Spin-flip transitions in magneto-optics and magneto-transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zawadzki, W.
1978-01-01
Three-level model for InSb- and HgTe-type semiconductors is used to describe recent observations of spin-flip magnetophonon oscillations, spin-flip scattering in Shubnikov-de Haas effect, phonon- and impurity-assisted magnetooptical resonances, and resonant spin-optic-phonon interaction. (Auth.)
RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.
2011-03-28
The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.