Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Heinonen, Olle
2016-01-01
A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.
Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Steven S.-L., E-mail: ZhangShule@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Zhou, Yan, E-mail: yanzhou@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Dong, E-mail: geodesic.ld@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Heinonen, Olle, E-mail: heinonen@anl.gov [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Northwestern-Argonne Institute of Science and Technology, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Computation Institute, The Unversity of Chicago, 5735 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2016-09-15
A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.
Self-oscillation in spin torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi
2014-01-01
The effect of the field-like torque on the self-oscillation of the magnetization in spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer was studied theoretically. A stable self-oscillation at zero field is excited for negative β while the magnetization dynamics stops for β = 0 or β > 0, where β is the ratio between the spin torque and the field-like torque. The reason why only the negative β induces the self-oscillation was explained from the view point of the energy balance between the spin torque and the damping. The oscillation power and frequency for various β were also studied by numerical simulation
Spin Torque Oscillator for High Performance Magnetic Memory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rachid Sbiaa
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A study on spin transfer torque switching in a magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is presented. The switching current can be strongly reduced under a spin torque oscillator (STO, and its use in addition to the conventional transport in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ should be considered. The reduction of the switching current from the parallel state to the antiparallel state is greater than in the opposite direction, thus minimizing the asymmetry of the resistance versus current in the hysteresis loop. This reduction of both switching current and asymmetry under a spin torque oscillator occurs only during the writing process and does not affect the thermal stability of the free layer.
Synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators through dipolar interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Hao-Hsuan; Wu, Jong-Ching; Horng, Lance; Lee, Ching-Ming; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chang, Jui-Hang
2014-01-01
In an array of spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that combine a perpendicular polarized fixed layer with strong in-plane anisotropy in the free layers, magnetic dipolar interactions can effectively phase-lock the array, thus further enhancing the power of the output microwave signals. We perform a qualitative analysis of the synchronization of an array based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, with a spin-transfer torque that assumes strong in-plane anisotropy. Finally, we present the numerical results for four coupled STNOs to provide further evidence for the proposed theory
Synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators through dipolar interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Hao-Hsuan, E-mail: d95222014@ntu.edu.tw; Wu, Jong-Ching, E-mail: phjcwu@cc.ncue.edu.tw; Horng, Lance [Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Lee, Ching-Ming [Graduate School of Materials Science, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou, 64002, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ching-Ray, E-mail: crchang@phys.ntu.edu.tw; Chang, Jui-Hang [Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Sciences and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
2014-04-07
In an array of spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that combine a perpendicular polarized fixed layer with strong in-plane anisotropy in the free layers, magnetic dipolar interactions can effectively phase-lock the array, thus further enhancing the power of the output microwave signals. We perform a qualitative analysis of the synchronization of an array based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, with a spin-transfer torque that assumes strong in-plane anisotropy. Finally, we present the numerical results for four coupled STNOs to provide further evidence for the proposed theory.
Resonant Spin-Transfer-Torque Nano-Oscillators
Sharma, Abhishek; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A.; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran
2017-12-01
Spin-transfer-torque nano-oscillators are potential candidates for replacing the traditional inductor-based voltage-controlled oscillators in modern communication devices. Typical oscillator designs are based on trilayer magnetic tunnel junctions, which have the disadvantages of low power outputs and poor conversion efficiencies. We theoretically propose using resonant spin filtering in pentalayer magnetic tunnel junctions as a possible route to alleviate these issues and present viable device designs geared toward a high microwave output power and an efficient conversion of the dc input power. We attribute these robust qualities to the resulting nontrivial spin-current profiles and the ultrahigh tunnel magnetoresistance, both of which arise from resonant spin filtering. The device designs are based on the nonequilibrium Green's-function spin-transport formalism self-consistently coupled with the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation and Poisson's equation. We demonstrate that the proposed structures facilitate oscillator designs featuring a large enhancement in microwave power of around 1150% and an efficiency enhancement of over 1100% compared to typical trilayer designs. We rationalize the optimum operating regions via an analysis of the dynamic and static device resistances. We also demonstrate the robustness of our structures against device design fluctuations and elastic dephasing. This work sets the stage for pentalyer spin-transfer-torque nano-oscillator device designs that ameliorate major issues associated with typical trilayer designs.
Magnetization reversal driven by a spin torque oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sbiaa, R., E-mail: rachid@squ.edu.om [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123 Muscat (Oman)
2014-09-01
Magnetization reversal of a magnetic free layer under spin transfer torque (STT) effect from a magnetic hard layer with a fixed magnetization direction and an oscillating layer is investigated. By including STT from the oscillating layer with in-plane anisotropy and orthogonal polarizer, magnetization-time dependence of free layer is determined. The results show that the frequency and amplitude of oscillations can be varied by adjusting the current density and magnetic properties. For an optimal oscillation frequency (f{sub opt}), a reduction of the switching time (t{sub 0}) of the free layer is observed. Both f{sub opt} and t{sub 0} increase with the anisotropy field of the free layer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyein Lim
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.
High frequency spin torque oscillators with composite free layer spin valve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Natarajan, Kanimozhi; Arumugam, Brinda; Rajamani, Amuda
2016-01-01
We report the oscillations of magnetic spin components in a composite free layer spin valve. The associated Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert–Slonczewski (LLGS) equation is studied by stereographically projecting the spin on to a complex plane and the spin components were found. A fourth order Runge–Kutta numerical integration on LLGS equation also confirms the similar trajectories of the spin components. This study establishes the possibility of a Spin Torque Oscillator in a composite free layer spin valve, where the exchange coupling is ferromagnetic in nature. In-plane and out-of-plane precessional modes of magnetization oscillations were found in zero applied magnetic field and the frequencies of the oscillations were calculated from Fast Fourier Transform of the components of magnetization. Behavior of Power Spectral Density for a range of current density is studied. Finally our analysis shows the occurrence of highest frequency 150 GHz, which is in the second harmonics for the specific choice of system parameters.
High frequency spin torque oscillators with composite free layer spin valve
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Natarajan, Kanimozhi; Arumugam, Brinda; Rajamani, Amuda
2016-07-15
We report the oscillations of magnetic spin components in a composite free layer spin valve. The associated Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert–Slonczewski (LLGS) equation is studied by stereographically projecting the spin on to a complex plane and the spin components were found. A fourth order Runge–Kutta numerical integration on LLGS equation also confirms the similar trajectories of the spin components. This study establishes the possibility of a Spin Torque Oscillator in a composite free layer spin valve, where the exchange coupling is ferromagnetic in nature. In-plane and out-of-plane precessional modes of magnetization oscillations were found in zero applied magnetic field and the frequencies of the oscillations were calculated from Fast Fourier Transform of the components of magnetization. Behavior of Power Spectral Density for a range of current density is studied. Finally our analysis shows the occurrence of highest frequency 150 GHz, which is in the second harmonics for the specific choice of system parameters.
Spin torque oscillator for microwave assisted magnetization reversal
Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Kubota, Hitoshi
2018-05-01
A theoretical study is given for the self-oscillation excited in a spin torque oscillator (STO) consisting of an in-plane magnetized free layer and a perpendicularly magnetized pinned layer in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. This type of STO is a potential candidate for a microwave source of microwave assisted magnetization reversal (MAMR). It is, however, found that the self-oscillation applicable to MAMR disappears when the perpendicular field is larger than a critical value, which is much smaller than a demagnetization field. This result provides a condition that the reversal field of a magnetic recording bit by MAMR in nanopillar structure should be smaller than the critical value. The analytical formulas of currents determining the critical field are obtained, which indicate that a material with a small damping is not preferable to acheive a wide range of the self-oscillation applicable to MAMR, although such a material is preferable from the viewpoint of the reduction of the power consumption.
Domain wall oscillations induced by spin torque in magnetic nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sbiaa, R., E-mail: rachid@squ.edu.om [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Muscat (Oman); Chantrell, R. W. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)
2015-02-07
Using micromagnetic simulations, the effects of the non-adiabatic spin torque (β) and the geometry of nanowires on domain wall (DW) dynamics are investigated. For the case of in-plane anisotropy nanowire, it is observed that the type of DW and its dynamics depends on its dimension. For a fixed length, the critical switching current decreases almost exponentially with the width W, while the DW speed becomes faster for larger W. For the case of perpendicular anisotropy nanowire, it was observed that DW dynamics depends strongly on β. For small values of β, oscillations of DW around the center of nanowire were revealed even after the current is switched off. In addition to nanowire geometry and intrinsic material properties, β could provide a way to control DW dynamics.
Spin force and torque in non-relativistic Dirac oscillator on a sphere
Shikakhwa, M. S.
2018-03-01
The spin force operator on a non-relativistic Dirac oscillator (in the non-relativistic limit the Dirac oscillator is a spin one-half 3D harmonic oscillator with strong spin-orbit interaction) is derived using the Heisenberg equations of motion and is seen to be formally similar to the force by the electromagnetic field on a moving charged particle. When confined to a sphere of radius R, it is shown that the Hamiltonian of this non-relativistic oscillator can be expressed as a mere kinetic energy operator with an anomalous part. As a result, the power by the spin force and torque operators in this case are seen to vanish. The spin force operator on the sphere is calculated explicitly and its torque is shown to be equal to the rate of change of the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator, again with an anomalous part. This, along with the conservation of the total angular momentum, suggests that the spin force exerts a spin-dependent torque on the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator in order to conserve total angular momentum. The presence of an anomalous spin part in the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator gives rise to an oscillatory behavior similar to the Zitterbewegung. It is suggested that the underlying physics that gives rise to the spin force and the Zitterbewegung is one and the same in NRDO and in systems that manifest spin Hall effect.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Houbing; Zhao, Congpeng; Ma, Xingqiao
2017-01-01
We investigated stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin transfer torque oscillator by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase field microelasticity theory, by encapsulating the magnetic tunnel junction into multilayers structures. We proposed a novel method of using an external stress to control the magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator instead of an external magnetic field. The stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by externally applied uniaxial in-plane stress, with a tunable range 4.4–7.0 GHz under the stress of 10 MPa. By comparison, the out-of-plane stress imposes negligible influence on the precession frequency due to the large out-of-plane demagnetization field. The results offer new inspiration to the design of spin torque oscillator devices that simultaneously process high frequency, narrow output band, and tunable over a wide range of frequencies via external stress. - Highlights: • We proposed stress-modulated magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator. • The magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by in-plane stress. • The stress also can widen the magnetization frequency range 4.4–7.0 GHz. • The stress-modulated oscillation frequency can simplify STO devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Houbing, E-mail: hbhuang@ustb.edu.cn; Zhao, Congpeng; Ma, Xingqiao, E-mail: xqma@sas.ustb.edu.cn
2017-03-15
We investigated stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency in Heusler-based spin transfer torque oscillator by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase field microelasticity theory, by encapsulating the magnetic tunnel junction into multilayers structures. We proposed a novel method of using an external stress to control the magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator instead of an external magnetic field. The stress-modulated magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by externally applied uniaxial in-plane stress, with a tunable range 4.4–7.0 GHz under the stress of 10 MPa. By comparison, the out-of-plane stress imposes negligible influence on the precession frequency due to the large out-of-plane demagnetization field. The results offer new inspiration to the design of spin torque oscillator devices that simultaneously process high frequency, narrow output band, and tunable over a wide range of frequencies via external stress. - Highlights: • We proposed stress-modulated magnetization precession in spin torque oscillator. • The magnetization precession frequency can be linearly modulated by in-plane stress. • The stress also can widen the magnetization frequency range 4.4–7.0 GHz. • The stress-modulated oscillation frequency can simplify STO devices.
Mutual phase-locking of several spin-torque nano-oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokopenko, O.V.; Sulimenko, O.R.
2011-01-01
Criterions for evaluating the effectiveness of mutual phase-locking of several spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNO) are proposed. An application of one of the criterions to describe the process of mutual phase-locking of the three almost identical STNO's is considered
Role of phase breaking processes on resonant spin transfer torque nano-oscillators
Sharma, Abhishek; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A.; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran
2018-05-01
Spin transfer torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) based on magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects find potential applications in miniaturized wireless communication devices. Using the non-coherent non-equilibrium Green's function spin transport formalism self-consistently coupled with the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski's equation and the Poisson's equation, we elucidate the role of elastic phase breaking on the proposed STNO design featuring double barrier resonant tunneling. Demonstrating the immunity of our proposed design, we predict that despite the presence of elastic dephasing, the resonant tunneling magnetic tunnel junction structures facilitate oscillator designs featuring a large enhancement in microwave power up to 8μW delivered to a 50Ω load.
Spin-torque oscillation in large size nano-magnet with perpendicular magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Linqiang, E-mail: LL6UK@virginia.edu [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Kabir, Mehdi [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Dao, Nam; Kittiwatanakul, Salinporn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Cyberey, Michael [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Wolf, Stuart A. [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Institute of Defense Analyses, Alexandria, VA 22311 (United States); Stan, Mircea [Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Lu, Jiwei [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • 500 nm size nano-pillar device was fabricated by photolithography techniques. • A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved with perpendicular magnetic fields. • Spin torque switching and oscillation was demonstrated in the large sized device. • Micromagnetic simulations accurately reproduced the experimental results. • Simulations demonstrated the synchronization of magnetic inhomogeneities. - Abstract: DC current induced magnetization reversal and magnetization oscillation was observed in 500 nm large size Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}/Cu/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} pillars. A perpendicular external field enhanced the coercive field separation between the reference layer (Co{sub 90}Fe{sub 10}) and free layer (Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}) in the pseudo spin valve, allowing a large window of external magnetic field for exploring the free-layer reversal. A magnetic hybrid structure was achieved for the study of spin torque oscillation by applying a perpendicular field >3 kOe. The magnetization precession was manifested in terms of the multiple peaks on the differential resistance curves. Depending on the bias current and applied field, the regions of magnetic switching and magnetization precession on a dynamical stability diagram has been discussed in details. Micromagnetic simulations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results and provide insight for synchronization of inhomogeneities in large sized device. The ability to manipulate spin-dynamics on large size devices could be proved useful for increasing the output power of the spin-transfer nano-oscillators (STNOs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puliafito, V.; Consolo, G.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Azzerboni, B.
2014-01-01
This work tackles theoretical investigations on the synchronization of spin-wave modes generated by spin-transfer-torque in a double nano-contact geometry. The interaction mechanisms between the resulting oscillators are analyzed in the case of propagating modes which are excited via a normal-to-plane magnetic bias field. To characterize the underlying physical mechanisms, a multi-domain analysis is performed. It makes use of an equivalent electrical circuit, to deduce the output electrical power, and of micromagnetic simulations, through which information on the frequency spectra and on the spatial distribution of the wavefront of the emitted spin-waves is extracted. This study provides further and intriguing insights into the physical mechanisms giving rise to synchronization of spin-torque oscillators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mengwei Zhang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The state diagram of spin-torque oscillator (STO with perpendicular reference layer (REF and planar field generation layer (FGL was studied by a macrospin model and a micro-magnetic model. The state diagrams are calculated versus the current density, external field and external field angle. It was found that the oscillation in FGL could be controlled by current density combined with external field so as to achieve a wide frequency range. An optimized current and applied field region was given for microwave assisted magnetic recording (MAMR, considering both frequency and output field oscillation amplitude. The results of the macro-spin model were compared with those of the micro-magnetic model. The macro-spin model was qualitatively different from micro-magnetics and experimental results when the current density was large and the FGL was non-uniform.
Magnetic vortex excitation as spin torque oscillator and its unusual trajectories
Natarajan, Kanimozhi; Muthuraj, Ponsudana; Rajamani, Amuda; Arumugam, Brinda
2018-05-01
We report an interesting observation of unusual trajectories of vortex core oscillations in a spin valve pillar. Micromagnetic simulation in the composite free layer spin valve nano-pillar shows magnetic vortex excitation under critical current density. When current density is slightly increased and wave vector is properly tuned, for the first time we observe a star like and square gyration. Surprisingly this star like and square gyration also leads to steady, coherent and sustained oscillations. Moreover, the frequency of gyration is also very high for this unusual trajectories. The power spectral analysis reveals that there is a marked increase in output power and frequency with less distortions. Our investigation explores the possibility of these unusual trajectories to exhibit spin torque oscillations.
Non-linear frequency and amplitude modulation of a nano-contact spin torque oscillator
Muduli, P. K.; Pogoryelov, Ye.; Bonetti, S.; Consolo, G.; Mancoff, Fred; Åkerman, Johan
2009-01-01
We study the current controlled modulation of a nano-contact spin torque oscillator. Three principally different cases of frequency non-linearity ($d^{2}f/dI^{2}_{dc}$ being zero, positive, and negative) are investigated. Standard non-linear frequency modulation theory is able to accurately describe the frequency shifts during modulation. However, the power of the modulated sidebands only agrees with calculations based on a recent theory of combined non-linear frequency and amplitude modulation.
Wireless current sensing by near field induction from a spin transfer torque nano-oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramaswamy, B. [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Algarin, J. M.; Waks, E., E-mail: edowaks@umd.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics (IREAP), University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Weinberg, I. N. [Weinberg Medical Physics LLC, Bethesda, Maryland 20817 (United States); Chen, Y.-J.; Krivorotov, I. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Katine, J. A. [HGST Research Center, San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Shapiro, B. [Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Institute for Systems Research (ISR), University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2016-06-13
We demonstrate that spin transfer torque nano-oscillators (STNO) can act as wireless sensors for local current. The STNO acts as a transducer that converts weak direct currents into microwave field oscillations that we detect using an inductive coil. We detect direct currents in the range of 300–700 μA and report them wirelessly to a receiving induction coil at distances exceeding 6.5 mm. This current sensor could find application in chemical and biological sensing and industrial inspection.
Spin-wave interference patterns created by spin-torque nano-oscillators for memory and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macia, Ferran; Kent, Andrew D; Hoppensteadt, Frank C
2011-01-01
Magnetization dynamics in nanomagnets has attracted broad interest since it was predicted that a dc current flowing through a thin magnetic layer can create spin-wave excitations. These excitations are due to spin momentum transfer, a transfer of spin angular momentum between conduction electrons and the background magnetization, that enables new types of information processing. Here we show how arrays of spin-torque nano-oscillators can create propagating spin-wave interference patterns of use for memory and computation. Memristic transponders distributed on the thin film respond to threshold tunnel magnetoresistance values, thereby allowing spin-wave detection and creating new excitation patterns. We show how groups of transponders create resonant (reverberating) spin-wave interference patterns that may be used for polychronous wave computation and information storage.
Electric-field assisted spin torque nano-oscillator and binary frequency shift keying modulation
Zhang, Xiangli; Chen, Hao-Hsuan; Zhang, Zongzhi; Liu, Yaowen
2018-04-01
Electric-controlled magnetization precession introduces technologically relevant possibility for developing spin torque nano-oscillators (STNO) with potential applications in microwave emission. Using the perpendicularly magnetized magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), we show that the magnetization oscillation frequency can be tuned by the co-action of electric field and spin polarized current. The dynamical phase diagram of MTJ-based STNO is analytically predicted through coordinate transformation from the laboratory frame to the rotation frame, by which the nonstationary out-of-plane magnetization precession process is therefore transformed into the stationary process in the rotation frame. Furthermore, using this STNO as a microwave source, we numerically demonstrate that the bit signal can be transmitted by a binary frequency shift keying (BFSK) modulation technique. The BFSK scheme shows good modulation features with no transient state.
Nakamura, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Osawa, H.; Okamoto, Y.; Kanao, T.; Sato, R.
2018-05-01
In this article, we propose the detection method of the recorded data pattern by the envelope of the temporal magnetization dynamics of resonantly interacting spin-torque oscillator on the microwave assisted magnetic recording for three-dimensional magnetic recording. We simulate the envelope of the waveform from recorded dots with the staggered magnetization configuration, which are calculated by using a micromagnetic simulation. We study the data detection methods for the envelope and propose a soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA) for partial response (PR) system as a signal processing system for three dimensional magnetic recording.
Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi
2018-01-01
A mutual synchronization of spin-torque oscillators coupled through current injection is studied theoretically. Models of electrical coupling in parallel and series circuits are proposed. Solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, excitation of in-phase or antiphase synchronization, depending on the ways the oscillators are connected, is found. It is also found from both analytical and numerical calculations that the current-frequency relations for both parallel and series circuits are the same as that for a single spin-torque oscillator.
Bhoomeeswaran, H.; Vivek, T.; Sabareesan, P.
2018-04-01
In this article, we have theoretically devised a Spin Torque Nano Oscillator (STNO) with perpendicular polarizer using macro spin model. The devised spin valve structure is heterogeneous (i.e.) it is made of two different ferromagnetic materials [Co and its alloy CoFeB]. The dynamics of magnetization provoked by spin transfer torque is studied numerically by solving the famous Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski [LLGS] equation. The results are obtained for the perpendicular polarizer and for that particular out of plane orientation we vary the free layer angle from 10° to 90°. The obtained results are highly appealing, because frequency range is available in all the tilt angles of free layer and it is exceptionally tunable in all free layer tilt angles with zero applied field. Moreover, the utmost operating frequency of about 83.3 GHz and its corresponding power of 4.488 µW/mA2/GHz is acquired for the free layer tilt angle θ = 90° with the solid applied current density of 10 × 1010 A/m2. Also, our device emits high quality factor of about 396, which is remarkably desirable for making devices. These pioneering results provides a significant development for future spintronic based devices.
Synchronization of vortex-based spin torque nano-oscillators by magnetostatic coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaspel, C.E., E-mail: craig.zaspel@umwestern.edu
2015-12-15
Synchronization of two nanopillar oscillators driven by spin torque and coupled through the magnetic dipolar interaction. The dominant mode in each oscillator is gyrotropic motion of the vortex core in an elliptical orbit about the free layer disk center. The dynamic properties of this mode is investigated by solution the coupled Thiele equations with both nanopillar oscillators having identical dimensions, but with a current mismatch. It is noticed that there is a range in the current difference where the oscillators will be synchronized where the vortex gyrotropic motion will be frequency-locked with the radii of gyrotropic motion equal for both disks. There is, however, a phase shift between the gyrotropic motion with the smaller current disk lagging the higher current disk by a few degrees. - Highlights: • Vortex-based nanopillar oscillators re synchronized by the dipolar interaction. • There is a range of frequencies where both oscillators will frequency-locked. • There are upper and lower critical currents defining a locking range.
High-data-transfer-rate read heads composed of spin-torque oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizushima, K; Kudo, K; Nagasawa, T; Sato, R
2011-01-01
The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the high-data-transfer-rate read heads beyond 3 Gbits/s composed of spin-torque oscillators (STOs) are calculated under the thermal magnetization fluctuations by using the recent nonlinear theories. The STO head senses the media field as a modulation in the oscillation frequency, enabling high signal transfer rates beyond the limit of ferromagnetic relaxation. The output (digital) signal is obtained by FM (frequency modulation) detection, which is commonly used in communication technologies. As the problem of rapid phase diffusion in STOs caused by the thermal fluctuations is overcome by employing a delay detection method, the sufficiently large SNRs are obtained even in nonlinear STOs less than 30 x 30 nm 2 in size.
The magnetization dynamics of nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators
Keatley, Paul
The operation of nano-contact (NC) spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) is underpinned by vortex gyration in response to spin-torque delivered by high density current passing through the magnetic layers of a spin valve. Gyration directly beneath the NC yields radio frequency (RF) emission through the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect, which can be readily detected electronically. The magnetization dynamics that extend beyond the NC perimeter contribute little to the GMR signal, but are crucial for synchronization of multiple NC-STVOs that share the same spin valve film. In this work time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to directly image the extended dynamics of STVOs phase-locked to an injected RF current. In this talk the dynamics of single 250-nm diameter NCs, and a pair of 100-nm diameter NCs, will be presented. In general the Kerr images reveal well-defined localized and far-field dynamics, driven by spin-torque and RF current Oersted fields respectively. The RF frequency, RF Oersted field, direction of an in-plane magnetic field, and equilibrium magnetic state, all influenced the spatial character of the dynamics observed in single NCs. In the pair of NCs, two modes were observed in the RF emission. Kerr images revealed that a vortex was formed beneath each NC and that the mode with enhanced spectral amplitude and line quality appeared to be correlated with two localized regions oscillating with similar amplitude and phase, while a second weaker mode exhibited amplitude and phase differences. This suggests that the RF emission was generated by collective modes of vortex gyration dynamically coupled via magnetization dynamics and dipolar interactions of the shared magnetic layers. Within the constraints of injection locking, this work demonstrates that TRSKM can provide valuable insight into the spatial character and time-evolution of magnetization dynamics generated by NC-STVOs and the conditions that may favor their synchronization
Using a spin torque nano-oscillator to read memory based on the magnetic permeability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrie, J R; Wieland, K A; Fischer, G A; Edelstein, A S; Urazhdin, S
2014-01-01
We present an archival memory utilizing a spin torque nano-oscillator (STNO) to read bits of data with different magnetic permeability. Basing a magnetic memory on this intrinsic property rather than remanent magnetization reduces the risk of data corruption. The permeability of the bits is read as changes in an applied probe field near the media. These changes in the probe field are measured by detecting microwave frequency shifts in STNOs. The probe field can be tuned over hundreds of Oe to optimize the reading of the media. Using a 400 Oe probe field, we have measured 2% frequency shifts in a STNO near micrometre-sized bits of (1) lithographically-patterned permalloy lines and (2) laser-crystallized Metglas lines. Data from either media was not corrupted by exposure to fields of 6400 Oe and temperatures of 523 K. (paper)
Using a spin torque nano-oscillator to read memory based on the magnetic permeability
Petrie, J. R.; Urazhdin, S.; Wieland, K. A.; Fischer, G. A.; Edelstein, A. S.
2014-02-01
We present an archival memory utilizing a spin torque nano-oscillator (STNO) to read bits of data with different magnetic permeability. Basing a magnetic memory on this intrinsic property rather than remanent magnetization reduces the risk of data corruption. The permeability of the bits is read as changes in an applied probe field near the media. These changes in the probe field are measured by detecting microwave frequency shifts in STNOs. The probe field can be tuned over hundreds of Oe to optimize the reading of the media. Using a 400 Oe probe field, we have measured 2% frequency shifts in a STNO near micrometre-sized bits of (1) lithographically-patterned permalloy lines and (2) laser-crystallized Metglas lines. Data from either media was not corrupted by exposure to fields of 6400 Oe and temperatures of 523 K.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Raghav; Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Heinonen, O. G.; Åkerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.
2014-01-01
The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. We find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. These results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping, which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.
Intrinsic synchronization of an array of spin-torque oscillators driven by the spin-Hall effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siracusano, G., E-mail: giuliosiracusano@gmail.com; Puliafito, V.; Giordano, A.; Azzerboni, B.; Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Tomasello, R. [Department of Computer Science, Modelling, Electronics and System Science, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, I-87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); La Corte, A. [Department of Informatic Engineering and Telecommunications, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Carpentieri, M. [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy)
2015-05-07
This paper micromagnetically studies the magnetization dynamics driven by the spin-Hall effect in a Platinum/Permalloy bi-layer. For a certain field and current range, the excitation of a uniform mode, characterized by a power with a spatial distribution in the whole ferromagnetic cross section, is observed. We suggest to use the ferromagnet of the bi-layer as basis for the realization of an array of spin-torque oscillators (STOs): the Permalloy ferromagnet will act as shared free layer, whereas the spacers and the polarizers are built on top of it. Following this strategy, the frequency of the uniform mode will be the same for the whole device, creating an intrinsic synchronization. The synchronization of an array of parallely connected STOs will allow to increase the output power, as necessary for technological applications.
Intrinsic synchronization of an array of spin-torque oscillators driven by the spin-Hall effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siracusano, G.; Puliafito, V.; Giordano, A.; Azzerboni, B.; Finocchio, G.; Tomasello, R.; La Corte, A.; Carpentieri, M.
2015-01-01
This paper micromagnetically studies the magnetization dynamics driven by the spin-Hall effect in a Platinum/Permalloy bi-layer. For a certain field and current range, the excitation of a uniform mode, characterized by a power with a spatial distribution in the whole ferromagnetic cross section, is observed. We suggest to use the ferromagnet of the bi-layer as basis for the realization of an array of spin-torque oscillators (STOs): the Permalloy ferromagnet will act as shared free layer, whereas the spacers and the polarizers are built on top of it. Following this strategy, the frequency of the uniform mode will be the same for the whole device, creating an intrinsic synchronization. The synchronization of an array of parallely connected STOs will allow to increase the output power, as necessary for technological applications
Dependence of the colored frequency noise in spin torque oscillators on current and magnetic field
Eklund, Anders; Bonetti, Stefano; Sani, Sohrab R.; Majid Mohseni, S.; Persson, Johan; Chung, Sunjae; Amir Hossein Banuazizi, S.; Iacocca, Ezio; Östling, Mikael; Åkerman, Johan; Gunnar Malm, B.
2014-03-01
The nano-scale spin torque oscillator (STO) is a compelling device for on-chip, highly tunable microwave frequency signal generation. Currently, one of the most important challenges for the STO is to increase its longer-time frequency stability by decreasing the 1/f frequency noise, but its high level makes even its measurement impossible using the phase noise mode of spectrum analyzers. Here, we present a custom made time-domain measurement system with 150 MHz measurement bandwidth making possible the investigation of the variation of the 1/f as well as the white frequency noise in a STO over a large set of operating points covering 18-25 GHz. The 1/f level is found to be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude-frequency non-linearity and the vicinity of unexcited oscillation modes. These findings elucidate the need for a quantitative theoretical treatment of the low-frequency, colored frequency noise in STOs. Based on the results, we suggest that the 1/f frequency noise possibly can be decreased by improving the microstructural quality of the metallic thin films.
Dependence of the colored frequency noise in spin torque oscillators on current and magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eklund, Anders; Sani, Sohrab R.; Chung, Sunjae; Amir Hossein Banuazizi, S.; Östling, Mikael; Gunnar Malm, B.; Bonetti, Stefano; Majid Mohseni, S.; Persson, Johan; Iacocca, Ezio; Åkerman, Johan
2014-01-01
The nano-scale spin torque oscillator (STO) is a compelling device for on-chip, highly tunable microwave frequency signal generation. Currently, one of the most important challenges for the STO is to increase its longer-time frequency stability by decreasing the 1/f frequency noise, but its high level makes even its measurement impossible using the phase noise mode of spectrum analyzers. Here, we present a custom made time-domain measurement system with 150 MHz measurement bandwidth making possible the investigation of the variation of the 1/f as well as the white frequency noise in a STO over a large set of operating points covering 18–25 GHz. The 1/f level is found to be highly dependent on the oscillation amplitude-frequency non-linearity and the vicinity of unexcited oscillation modes. These findings elucidate the need for a quantitative theoretical treatment of the low-frequency, colored frequency noise in STOs. Based on the results, we suggest that the 1/f frequency noise possibly can be decreased by improving the microstructural quality of the metallic thin films
Vortex spin-torque oscillator stabilized by phase locked loop using integrated circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Martin Kreissig
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Spin-torque nano-oscillators (STO are candidates for the next technological implementation of spintronic devices in commercial electronic systems. For use in microwave applications, improving the noise figures by efficient control of their phase dynamics is a mandatory requirement. In order to achieve this, we developed a compact phase locked loop (PLL based on custom integrated circuits (ICs and demonstrate that it represents an efficient way to reduce the phase noise level of a vortex based STO. The advantage of our approach to phase stabilize STOs is that our compact system is highly reconfigurable e.g. in terms of the frequency divider ratio N, RF gain and loop gain. This makes it robust against device to device variations and at the same time compatible with a large range of STOs. Moreover, by taking advantage of the natural highly non-isochronous nature of the STO, the STO frequency can be easily controlled by e.g. changing the divider ratio N.
Magnetic droplets in nano-contact spin-torque oscillators with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy
Åkerman, Johan
2013-03-01
The theoretical prediction, by Ivanov and Kosevich, of ``magnon drop'' solitons in thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and zero damping, dates back to the 1970s. More recently, Hoefer, Silva and Keller, demonstrated analytically and numerically that related ``magnetic droplet'' solitons should be possible to excite in nano-contact spin-torque oscillators (NC-STOs) based on PMA materials, where spin transfer torque locally realizes the zero-damping condition required in. In my talk, I will present the first experimental demonstration of such magnetic droplets, realized using 50-100 nm diameter nano-contacts (NCs) fabricated on top of orthogonal GMR stacks of Co8/Cu/Co0.3[Ni0.8/Co0.4]x4 (thicknesses in nm). The nucleation of a magnetic droplet manifests itself as a dramatic 10 GHz drop in microwave signal frequency at a drive-current dependent critical perpendicular field of the order of 0.5 - 1 T. The drop in frequency is accompanied by a simultaneous sharp resistance increase of the device and a sign change of its magnetoresistance, directly indicating the existence of a reversed magnetization in a region of the [Co/Ni] free layer underneath the NC. As predicted by numerical simulations the droplet exhibits rich magnetodynamic properties, experimentally observed as auto-modulation at approximately 1 GHz and sometimes sidebands at 1/2 and 3/2 of the fundamental droplet frequency. The 1 GHz modulation can be shown numerically to be related to the drift instability of the droplet, albeit with enough restoring force to make the droplet perform a periodic motion instead of leaving the NC region. The sidebands at 1/2 and 3/2 the droplet frequency are related to eigenmodes of the droplet perimeter. Magnetic droplet nucleation is found to be robust and reproducible over a wide number of NC-STOs with different NC sizes, making this new nanomagnetic object as fundamental and potentially useful to nanomagnetism as e.g. domain walls and vortices. Support
Li, Yi; de Milly, Xavier; Klein, Olivier; Cros, Vincent; Grollier, Julie; de Loubens, Grégoire
2018-01-01
Manipulating operation states of coupled spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs), including their synchronization, is essential for applications such as complex oscillator networks. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate selective control of two coupled vortex STNOs through microwave-assisted switching of their vortex core polarities. First, the two oscillators are shown to synchronize due to the dipolar interaction in a broad frequency range tuned by an external biasing field. Coherent output is demonstrated along with strong linewidth reduction. Then, we show individual vortex polarity control of each oscillator, which leads to synchronization/desynchronization due to accompanied frequency shift. Our methods can be easily extended to multiple-element coupled oscillator networks.
Keatley, Paul Steven; Redjai Sani, Sohrab; Hrkac, Gino; Majid Mohseni, Seyed; Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Åkerman, Johan; Hicken, Robert James
2017-04-01
Nano-contact spin-torque vortex oscillators (STVOs) are anticipated to find application as nanoscale sources of microwave emission in future technological applications. Presently the output power and phase stability of individual STVOs are not competitive with existing oscillator technologies. Synchronisation of multiple nano-contact STVOs via magnetisation dynamics has been proposed to enhance the microwave emission. The control of device-to-device variations, such as mode splitting of the microwave emission, is essential if multiple STVOs are to be successfully synchronised. In this work a combination of electrical measurements and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM) was used to demonstrate how mode splitting in the microwave emission of STVOs was related to the magnetisation dynamics that are generated. The free-running STVO response to a DC current only was used to identify devices and bias magnetic field configurations for which single and multiple modes of microwave emission were observed. Stroboscopic Kerr images were acquired by injecting a small amplitude RF current to phase lock the free-running STVO response. The images showed that the magnetisation dynamics of a multimode device with moderate splitting could be controlled by the injected RF current so that they exhibit similar spatial character to that of a single mode. Significant splitting was found to result from a complicated equilibrium magnetic state that was observed in Kerr images as irregular spatial characteristics of the magnetisation dynamics. Such dynamics were observed far from the nano-contact and so their presence cannot be detected in electrical measurements. This work demonstrates that TRSKM is a powerful tool for the direct observation of the magnetisation dynamics generated by STVOs that exhibit complicated microwave emission. Characterisation of such dynamics outside the nano-contact perimeter permits a deeper insight into the requirements for optimal phase-locking of
Heat-driven spin torques in antiferromagnets
Białek, Marcin; Bréchet, Sylvain; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
2018-04-01
Heat-driven magnetization damping, which is a linear function of a temperature gradient, is predicted in antiferromagnets by considering the sublattice dynamics subjected to a heat-driven spin torque. This points to the possibility of achieving spin torque oscillator behavior. The model is based on the magnetic Seebeck effect acting on sublattices which are exchange coupled. The heat-driven spin torque is estimated and the feasibility of detecting this effect is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanid, C; Murugesh, S
2014-01-01
We propose a system of two coupled spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs), one driver and another response, and demonstrate using numerical studies the synchronization of the response system to the frequency of the driver system. To this end we use a high-speed operational amplifier in the form of a voltage follower, which essentially isolates the drive system from the response system. We find the occurrence of 1 : 1 as well as 2 : 1 synchronization in the system, wherein the oscillators show limit cycle dynamics. An increase in power output is noticed when the two oscillators are locked in 1 : 1 synchronization. Moreover in the crossover region between these two synchronization dynamics we show the existence of chaotic dynamics in the slave system. The coupled dynamics under periodic forcing, using a small ac input current in addition to that of the dc part, is also studied. The slave oscillator is seen to retain its qualitative identity in the parameter space in spite of being fed in, at times, a chaotic signal. Such electrically coupled STNOs will be highly useful in fabricating commercial spin-valve oscillators with high power output, when integrated with other spintronic devices. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Kudo, Kiwamu; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie
2014-01-01
Technology for detecting the magnetization direction of nanoscale magnetic material is crucial for realizing high-density magnetic recording devices. Conventionally, a magnetoresistive device is used that changes its resistivity in accordance with the direction of the stray field from an objective magnet. However, when several magnets are near such a device, the superposition of stray fields from all the magnets acts on the sensor, preventing selective recognition of their individual magnetization directions. Here we introduce a novel readout method for detecting the magnetization direction of a nanoscale magnet by use of a spin-torque oscillator (STO). The principles behind this method are dynamic dipolar coupling between an STO and a nanoscale magnet, and detection of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) of this coupled system from the STO signal. Because the STO couples with a specific magnet by tuning the STO oscillation frequency to match its FMR frequency, this readout method can selectively determine the magnetization direction of the magnet. (papers)
Diameter dependence of emission power in MgO-based nano-pillar spin-torque oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Bochong; Kubota, Hitoshi, E-mail: hit-kubota@aist.go.jp; Yakushiji, Kay; Tamaru, Shingo; Arai, Hiroko; Imamura, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji [Spintronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)
2016-06-20
The dependence on diameter of the emission power in MgO-based nano-pillar spin torque oscillators (STOs) was systematically investigated. A maximum emission power of over 2.5 μW was obtained around 300 nm in diameter, which is the largest reported to date among the out-of-plane precession STOs. By analyzing physical quantities, precession cone angle of the free-layer magnetization was evaluated. In the diameter range below 300 nm, the increase in power was mainly due to the increase of the injected current. The power decrease above 300 nm is possibly attributed to the decrease in the averaged precession cone angle, suggesting spatial phase difference of magnetization precession. This study provides the method for estimating the optimum STO diameter, which is of great importance in practical use.
Zhang, Changxin; Fang, Bin; Wang, Bochong; Zeng, Zhongming
2018-04-01
This paper presents a steady auto-oscillation in a spin-torque oscillator using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a perpendicular polarizer and a perpendicular free layer. As the injected d.c. current varied from 1.5 to 3.0 mA under a weak magnetic field of 290 Oe, the oscillation frequency decreased from 1.85 to 1.3 GHz, and the integrated power increased from 0.1 to 74 pW. A narrow linewidth down to 7 MHz corresponding to a high Q factor of 220 was achieved at 2.7 mA, which was ascribed to the spatial coherent procession of the free layer magnetization. Moreover, the oscillation frequency was quite sensitive to the applied field, about 3.07 MHz/Oe, indicating the potential applications as a weak magnetic field detector. These results suggested that the MgO-based MTJ with perpendicular magnetic easy axis could be helpful for developing spin-torque oscillators with narrow-linewidth and high sensitive.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hara, Takaaki; Senami, Masato; Tachibana, Akitomo
2012-01-01
The spin torque and zeta force, which govern spin dynamics, are studied by using monoatoms in their steady states. We find nonzero local spin torque in transition metal atoms, which is in balance with the counter torque, the zeta force. We show that d-orbital electrons have a crucial effect on these torques. Nonzero local chirality density in transition metal atoms is also found, though the electron mass has the effect to wash out nonzero chirality density. Distribution patterns of the chirality density are the same for Sc–Ni atoms, though the electron density distributions are different. -- Highlights: ► Nonzero local spin torque is found in the steady states of transition metal atoms. ► The spin steady state is realized by the existence of a counter torque, zeta force. ► D-orbital electrons have a crucial effect on the spin torque and zeta force. ► Nonzero local chiral density is found in spite of the washout by the electron mass. ► Chiral density distribution have the same pattern for Sc–Ni atoms.
Spin Transfer Torque in Graphene
Lin, Chia-Ching; Chen, Zhihong
2014-03-01
Graphene is an idea channel material for spin transport due to its long spin diffusion length. To develop graphene based spin logic, it is important to demonstrate spin transfer torque in graphene. Here, we report the experimental measurement of spin transfer torque in graphene nonlocal spin valve devices. Assisted by a small external in-plane magnetic field, the magnetization reversal of the receiving magnet is induced by pure spin diffusion currents from the injector magnet. The magnetization switching is reversible between parallel and antiparallel configurations by controlling the polarity of the applied charged currents. Current induced heating and Oersted field from the nonlocal charge flow have also been excluded in this study. Next, we further enhance the spin angular momentum absorption at the interface of the receiving magnet and graphene channel by removing the tunneling barrier in the receiving magnet. The device with a tunneling barrier only at the injector magnet shows a comparable nonlocal spin valve signal but lower electrical noise. Moreover, in the same preset condition, the critical charge current density for spin torque in the single tunneling barrier device shows a substantial reduction if compared to the double tunneling barrier device.
The Spin Torque Lego - from spin torque nano-devices to advanced computing architectures
Grollier, Julie
2013-03-01
Spin transfer torque (STT), predicted in 1996, and first observed around 2000, brought spintronic devices to the realm of active elements. A whole class of new devices, based on the combined effects of STT for writing and Giant Magneto-Resistance or Tunnel Magneto-Resistance for reading has emerged. The second generation of MRAMs, based on spin torque writing : the STT-RAM, is under industrial development and should be out on the market in three years. But spin torque devices are not limited to binary memories. We will rapidly present how the spin torque effect also allows to implement non-linear nano-oscillators, spin-wave emitters, controlled stochastic devices and microwave nano-detectors. What is extremely interesting is that all these functionalities can be obtained using the same materials, the exact same stack, simply by changing the device geometry and its bias conditions. So these different devices can be seen as Lego bricks, each brick with its own functionality. During this talk, I will show how spin torque can be engineered to build new bricks, such as the Spintronic Memristor, an artificial magnetic nano-synapse. I will then give hints on how to assemble these bricks in order to build novel types of computing architectures, with a special focus on neuromorphic circuits. Financial support by the European Research Council Starting Grant NanoBrain (ERC 2010 Stg 259068) is acknowledged.
Next generation spin torque memories
Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Anant Aravind; Prajapati, Sanjay
2017-01-01
This book offers detailed insights into spin transfer torque (STT) based devices, circuits and memories. Starting with the basic concepts and device physics, it then addresses advanced STT applications and discusses the outlook for this cutting-edge technology. It also describes the architectures, performance parameters, fabrication, and the prospects of STT based devices. Further, moving from the device to the system perspective it presents a non-volatile computing architecture composed of STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices and demonstrates that efficient STT based magneto-resistive and all-spin logic devices can turn the dream of instant on/off non-volatile computing into reality.
Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors
Li, Hang
2016-06-21
Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read\\' and `write\\' in memory devices can be significantly improved. Hence, the manipulation of electron spin in electronic devices becomes more and more appealing for the advancement of microelectronics. In spin-based devices, the manipulation of ferromagnetic order parameter using electrical currents is a very useful means for current-driven operation. Nowadays, most of magnetic memory devices are based on the so-called spin transfer torque, which stems from the spin angular momentum transfer between a spin-polarized current and the magnetic order parameter. Recently, a novel spin torque effect, exploiting spin-orbit coupling in non-centrosymmetric magnets, has attracted a massive amount of attention. This thesis addresses the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport and torques in non-centrosymmetric magnetic semiconductors. We start with the theoretical study of spin orbit torque in three dimensional ferromagnetic GaMnAs. Using the Kubo formula, we calculate both the current-driven field-like torque and anti-damping-like torque. We compare the numerical results with the analytical expressions in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described. Subsequently we study spin-orbit torques in two dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene and stanene. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. This thesis then addresses the influence of the quantum spin Hall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riegler, Andreas
2011-11-25
Since the discovery of spin torque in 1996, independently by Berger and Slonczewski, and given its potential impact on information storage and communication technologies, (e.g. through the possibility of switching the magnetic configuration of a bit by current instead of a magnetic field, or the realization of high frequency spin torque oscillators (STO)), this effect has been an important field of spintronics research. One aspect of this research focuses on ferromagnets with low damping. The lower the damping in a ferromagnet, the lower the critical current that is needed to induce switching of a spin valve or induce precession of its magnetization. In this thesis ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) studies of NiMnSb layers are presented along with experimental studies on various spin-torque (ST) devices using NiMnSb. NiMnSb, when crystallized in the half-Heusler structure, is a half-metal which is predicted to have 100% spin polarization, a consideration which further increases its potential as a candidate for memory devices based on the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect. The FMR measurements show an outstandingly low damping factor for NiMnSb, in low 10{sup -3} range. This is about a factor of two lower than permalloy and well comparable to lowest damping for iron grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). According to theory the 100% spin polarization properties of the bulk disappear at interfaces where the break in translational symmetry causes the gap in the minority spin band to collapse but can remain in other crystal symmetries such as (111). Consequently NiMnSb layers on (111)(In,Ga)As buffer are characterized in respect of anisotropies and damping. The FMR measurements on these samples indicates a higher damping that for the 001 samples, and a thickness dependent uniaxial in-plane anisotropy. Investigations of the material for device use is pursued by considering sub-micrometer sized elements of NiMnSb on 001 substrates, which were fabricated by electron
Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2012-08-09
Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin diffusion is considered theoretically. Combining ballistic tunneling across the barrier and diffusive transport in the electrodes, we solve the spin dynamics equation in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque, as well as a nonconventional thickness dependence of both spin torque components.
Spin transfer torque with spin diffusion in magnetic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien; Matsumoto, R.; Jaffres, H.; Grollier, J.
2012-01-01
in the metallic layers. We show that spin diffusion mixes the transverse spin current components and dramatically modifies the bias dependence of the effective spin transfer torque. This leads to a significant linear bias dependence of the out-of-plane torque
Efficient micromagnetic modelling of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque
Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Suess, Dieter
2018-05-01
While the spin-diffusion model is considered one of the most complete and accurate tools for the description of spin transport and spin torque, its solution in the context of dynamical micromagnetic simulations is numerically expensive. We propose a procedure to retrieve the free parameters of a simple macro-spin like spin-torque model through the spin-diffusion model. In case of spin-transfer torque the simplified model complies with the model of Slonczewski. A similar model can be established for the description of spin-orbit torque. In both cases the spin-diffusion model enables the retrieval of free model parameters from the geometry and the material parameters of the system. Since these parameters usually have to be determined phenomenologically through experiments, the proposed method combines the strength of the diffusion model to resolve material parameters and geometry with the high performance of simple torque models.
Spin current and spin transfer torque in ferromagnet/superconductor spin valves
Moen, Evan; Valls, Oriol T.
2018-05-01
Using fully self-consistent methods, we study spin transport in fabricable spin valve systems consisting of two magnetic layers, a superconducting layer, and a spacer normal layer between the ferromagnets. Our methods ensure that the proper relations between spin current gradients and spin transfer torques are satisfied. We present results as a function of geometrical parameters, interfacial barrier values, misalignment angle between the ferromagnets, and bias voltage. Our main results are for the spin current and spin accumulation as functions of position within the spin valve structure. We see precession of the spin current about the exchange fields within the ferromagnets, and penetration of the spin current into the superconductor for biases greater than the critical bias, defined in the text. The spin accumulation exhibits oscillating behavior in the normal metal, with a strong dependence on the physical parameters both as to the structure and formation of the peaks. We also study the bias dependence of the spatially averaged spin transfer torque and spin accumulation. We examine the critical-bias effect of these quantities, and their dependence on the physical parameters. Our results are predictive of the outcome of future experiments, as they take into account imperfect interfaces and a realistic geometry.
Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets
Manchon, Aurelien
2017-02-01
We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.
Spin diffusion and torques in disordered antiferromagnets
Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We have developed a drift-diffusion equation of spin transport in collinear bipartite metallic antiferromagnets. Starting from a model tight-binding Hamiltonian, we obtain the quantum kinetic equation within Keldysh formalism and expand it to the lowest order in spatial gradient using Wigner expansion method. In the diffusive limit, these equations track the spatio-temporal evolution of the spin accumulations and spin currents on each sublattice of the antiferromagnet. We use these equations to address the nature of the spin transfer torque in (i) a spin-valve composed of a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet, (ii) a metallic bilayer consisting of an antiferromagnet adjacent to a heavy metal possessing spin Hall effect, and in (iii) a single antiferromagnet possessing spin Hall effect. We show that the latter can experience a self-torque thanks to the non-vanishing spin Hall effect in the antiferromagnet.
Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets
Pauyac, C. O.
2017-12-08
A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.
Spin Hall and spin swapping torques in diffusive ferromagnets
Pauyac, C. O.; Chshiev, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Nikolaev, S. A.
2017-01-01
A complete set of the generalized drift-diffusion equations for a coupled charge and spin dynamics in ferromagnets in the presence of extrinsic spin-orbit coupling is derived from the quantum kinetic approach, covering major transport phenomena, such as the spin and anomalous Hall effects, spin swapping, spin precession and relaxation processes. We argue that the spin swapping effect in ferromagnets is enhanced due to spin polarization, while the overall spin texture induced by the interplay of spin-orbital and spin precessional effects displays a complex spatial dependence that can be exploited to generate torques and nucleate/propagate domain walls in centrosymmetric geometries without use of external polarizers, as opposed to the conventional understanding of spin-orbit mediated torques.
Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques
Lee, Ki-Seung
2015-04-06
In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.
Angular dependence of spin-orbit spin-transfer torques
Lee, Ki-Seung; Go, Dongwook; Manchon, Aurelien; Haney, Paul M.; Stiles, M. D.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2015-01-01
In ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayers, an in-plane current gives rise to spin-orbit spin-transfer torque, which is usually decomposed into fieldlike and dampinglike torques. For two-dimensional free-electron and tight-binding models with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the fieldlike torque acquires nontrivial dependence on the magnetization direction when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling becomes comparable to the exchange interaction. This nontrivial angular dependence of the fieldlike torque is related to the Fermi surface distortion, determined by the ratio of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling to the exchange interaction. On the other hand, the dampinglike torque acquires nontrivial angular dependence when the Rashba spin-orbit coupling is comparable to or stronger than the exchange interaction. It is related to the combined effects of the Fermi surface distortion and the Fermi sea contribution. The angular dependence is consistent with experimental observations and can be important to understand magnetization dynamics induced by spin-orbit spin-transfer torques.
Charge-induced spin torque in Weyl semimetals
Kurebayashi, Daichi; Nomura, Kentaro
In this work, we present phenomenological and microscopic derivations of spin torques in magnetically doped Weyl semimetals. As a result, we obtain the analytical expression of the spin torque generated, without a flowing current, when the chemical potential is modulated. We also find that this spin torque is a direct consequence of the chiral anomaly. Therefore, observing this spin torque in magnetic Weyl semimetals might be an experimental evidence of the chiral anomaly. This spin torque has also a great advantage in application. In contrast to conventional current-induced spin torques such as the spin-transfer torques, this spin torque does not accompany a constant current flow. Thus, devices using this operating principle is free from the Joule heating and possibly have higher efficiency than devices using conventional current-induced spin torques. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP15H05854 and JP26400308.
Shot noise of spin current and spin transfer torque
Yu, Yunjin; Zhan, Hongxin; Wan, Langhui; Wang, Bin; Wei, Yadong; Sun, Qingfeng; Wang, Jian
2013-04-01
We report the theoretical investigation of the shot noise of the spin current (Sσ) and the spin transfer torque (Sτ) for non-collinear spin polarized transport in a spin-valve device which consists of a normal scattering region connected by two ferromagnetic electrodes (MNM system). Our theory was developed using the non-equilibrium Green’s function method, and general nonlinear Sσ - V and Sτ - V relations were derived as a function of the angle θ between the magnetizations of two leads. We have applied our theory to a quantum dot system with a resonant level coupled with two ferromagnetic electrodes. It was found that, for the MNM system, the auto-correlation of the spin current is enough to characterize the fluctuation of the spin current. For a system with three ferromagnetic layers, however, both auto-correlation and cross-correlation of the spin current are needed to characterize the noise of the spin current. For a quantum dot with a resonant level, the derivative of spin torque with respect to bias voltage is proportional to sinθ when the system is far away from resonance. When the system is near resonance, the spin transfer torque becomes a non-sinusoidal function of θ. The derivative of the noise of the spin transfer torque with respect to the bias voltage Nτ behaves differently when the system is near or far away from resonance. Specifically, the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque Nτ is a concave function of θ near resonance while it becomes a convex function of θ far away from resonance. For certain bias voltages, the period Nτ(θ) becomes π instead of 2π. For small θ, it was found that the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque is very sensitive to the bias voltage and the other system parameters.
Shot noise of spin current and spin transfer torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Yunjin; Zhan Hongxin; Wan Langhui; Wang Bin; Wei Yadong; Sun Qingfeng; Wang Jian
2013-01-01
We report the theoretical investigation of the shot noise of the spin current (S σ ) and the spin transfer torque (S τ ) for non-collinear spin polarized transport in a spin-valve device which consists of a normal scattering region connected by two ferromagnetic electrodes (MNM system). Our theory was developed using the non-equilibrium Green’s function method, and general nonlinear S σ − V and S τ − V relations were derived as a function of the angle θ between the magnetizations of two leads. We have applied our theory to a quantum dot system with a resonant level coupled with two ferromagnetic electrodes. It was found that, for the MNM system, the auto-correlation of the spin current is enough to characterize the fluctuation of the spin current. For a system with three ferromagnetic layers, however, both auto-correlation and cross-correlation of the spin current are needed to characterize the noise of the spin current. For a quantum dot with a resonant level, the derivative of spin torque with respect to bias voltage is proportional to sinθ when the system is far away from resonance. When the system is near resonance, the spin transfer torque becomes a non-sinusoidal function of θ. The derivative of the noise of the spin transfer torque with respect to the bias voltage N τ behaves differently when the system is near or far away from resonance. Specifically, the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque N τ is a concave function of θ near resonance while it becomes a convex function of θ far away from resonance. For certain bias voltages, the period N τ (θ) becomes π instead of 2π. For small θ, it was found that the differential shot noise of the spin transfer torque is very sensitive to the bias voltage and the other system parameters. (paper)
Dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnet with spin-transfer torque
Li, Zai-Dong; He, Peng-Bin; Liu, Wu-Ming
2014-11-01
We review our recent works on dynamics of magnetization in ferromagnet with spin-transfer torque. Driven by constant spin-polarized current, the spin-transfer torque counteracts both the precession driven by the effective field and the Gilbert damping term different from the common understanding. When the spin current exceeds the critical value, the conjunctive action of Gilbert damping and spin-transfer torque leads naturally the novel screw-pitch effect characterized by the temporal oscillation of domain wall velocity and width. Driven by space- and time-dependent spin-polarized current and magnetic field, we expatiate the formation of domain wall velocity in ferromagnetic nanowire. We discuss the properties of dynamic magnetic soliton in uniaxial anisotropic ferromagnetic nanowire driven by spin-transfer torque, and analyze the modulation instability and dark soliton on the spin wave background, which shows the characteristic breather behavior of the soliton as it propagates along the ferromagnetic nanowire. With stronger breather character, we get the novel magnetic rogue wave and clarify its formation mechanism. The generation of magnetic rogue wave mainly arises from the accumulation of energy and magnons toward to its central part. We also observe that the spin-polarized current can control the exchange rate of magnons between the envelope soliton and the background, and the critical current condition is obtained analytically. At last, we have theoretically investigated the current-excited and frequency-adjusted ferromagnetic resonance in magnetic trilayers. A particular case of the perpendicular analyzer reveals that the ferromagnetic resonance curves, including the resonant location and the resonant linewidth, can be adjusted by changing the pinned magnetization direction and the direct current. Under the control of the current and external magnetic field, several magnetic states, such as quasi-parallel and quasi-antiparallel stable states, out
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shizhu Qiao
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Bloch–Bloembergen–Slonczewski (BBS equation is established by extending Bloch–Bloembergen equation, and it is used to study magnetization oscillation in the free magnetic layer of a magnetic tunneling junction. Since both short–wavelength magnon excitation and spin–transfer torque are taken into account in the BBS equation, it is distinguished from Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert–Slonczewski equation. The macro–spin BBS model predicts that the transverse relaxation time in free magnetic layer should be long enough, as compared with the longitudinal relaxation time, to achieve stable magnetization oscillation for spin–transfer torque oscillator application. Moreover, field–like torque favors the tolerance of fast transverse relaxation, which makes magnetic tunneling junction a better choice than spin valve for the spin–transfer torque oscillator application.
Manipulating the voltage dependence of tunneling spin torques
Manchon, Aurelien
2012-01-01
Voltage-driven spin transfer torques in magnetic tunnel junctions provide an outstanding tool to design advanced spin-based devices for memory and reprogrammable logic applications. The non-linear voltage dependence of the torque has a direct impact
Spin-torque generation in topological insulator based heterostructures
Fischer, Mark H.; Vaezi, Abolhassan; Manchon, Aurelien; Kim, Eun-Ah
2016-01-01
Heterostructures utilizing topological insulators exhibit a remarkable spin-torque efficiency. However, the exact origin of the strong torque, in particular whether it stems from the spin-momentum locking of the topological surface states or rather
Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures
Manchon, Aurelien; Lee, K.-J.
2011-01-01
Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-07-13
Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Spin-transfer torque in spin filter tunnel junctions
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian; Kalitsov, Alan; Manchon, Aurelien; Chshiev, Mairbek
2014-01-01
Spin-transfer torque in a class of magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations, referred to as spin filter tunnel junctions, is studied within the tight-binding model using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique within Keldysh formalism. These junctions consist of one ferromagnet (FM) adjacent to a magnetic insulator (MI) or two FM separated by a MI. We find that the presence of the magnetic insulator dramatically enhances the magnitude of the spin-torque components compared to conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The fieldlike torque is driven by the spin-dependent reflection at the MI/FM interface, which results in a small reduction of its amplitude when an insulating spacer (S) is inserted to decouple MI and FM layers. Meanwhile, the dampinglike torque is dominated by the tunneling electrons that experience the lowest barrier height. We propose a device of the form FM/(S)/MI/(S)/FM that takes advantage of these characteristics and allows for tuning the spin-torque magnitudes over a wide range just by rotation of the magnetization of the insulating layer.
Spin-transfer torque in spin filter tunnel junctions
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2014-12-08
Spin-transfer torque in a class of magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations, referred to as spin filter tunnel junctions, is studied within the tight-binding model using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function technique within Keldysh formalism. These junctions consist of one ferromagnet (FM) adjacent to a magnetic insulator (MI) or two FM separated by a MI. We find that the presence of the magnetic insulator dramatically enhances the magnitude of the spin-torque components compared to conventional magnetic tunnel junctions. The fieldlike torque is driven by the spin-dependent reflection at the MI/FM interface, which results in a small reduction of its amplitude when an insulating spacer (S) is inserted to decouple MI and FM layers. Meanwhile, the dampinglike torque is dominated by the tunneling electrons that experience the lowest barrier height. We propose a device of the form FM/(S)/MI/(S)/FM that takes advantage of these characteristics and allows for tuning the spin-torque magnitudes over a wide range just by rotation of the magnetization of the insulating layer.
Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2016-06-19
In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the ﬁeld of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin ﬁltering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin ﬁltering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall eﬀect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.
Spin Orbit Interaction Engineering for beyond Spin Transfer Torque memory
Wang, Kang L.
Spin transfer torque memory uses electron current to transfer the spin torque of electrons to switch a magnetic free layer. This talk will address an alternative approach to energy efficient non-volatile spintronics through engineering of spin orbit interaction (SOC) and the use of spin orbit torque (SOT) by the use of electric field to improve further the energy efficiency of switching. I will first discuss the engineering of interface SOC, which results in the electric field control of magnetic moment or magneto-electric (ME) effect. Magnetic memory bits based on this ME effect, referred to as magnetoelectric RAM (MeRAM), is shown to have orders of magnitude lower energy dissipation compared with spin transfer torque memory (STTRAM). Likewise, interests in spin Hall as a result of SOC have led to many advances. Recent demonstrations of magnetization switching induced by in-plane current in heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures have been shown to arise from the large SOC. The large SOC is also shown to give rise to the large SOT. Due to the presence of an intrinsic extraordinarily strong SOC and spin-momentum lock, topological insulators (TIs) are expected to be promising candidates for exploring spin-orbit torque (SOT)-related physics. In particular, we will show the magnetization switching in a chromium-doped magnetic TI bilayer heterostructure by charge current. A giant SOT of more than three orders of magnitude larger than those reported in heavy metals is also obtained. This large SOT is shown to come from the spin-momentum locked surface states of TI, which may further lead to innovative low power applications. I will also describe other related physics of SOC at the interface of anti-ferromagnetism/ferromagnetic structure and show the control exchange bias by electric field for high speed memory switching. The work was in part supported by ERFC-SHINES, NSF, ARO, TANMS, and FAME.
Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Doǧan, Fatih; Manchon, Aurelien
2013-01-01
We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.
Tailoring spin-orbit torque in diluted magnetic semiconductors
Li, Hang
2013-05-16
We study the spin orbit torque arising from an intrinsic linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in a single layer III-V diluted magnetic semiconductor. We investigate the transport properties and spin torque using the linear response theory, and we report here: (1) a strong correlation exists between the angular dependence of the torque and the anisotropy of the Fermi surface; (2) the spin orbit torque depends nonlinearly on the exchange coupling. Our findings suggest the possibility to tailor the spin orbit torque magnitude and angular dependence by structural design.
Effect of resistance feedback on spin torque-induced switching of nanomagnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garzon, Samir; Webb, Richard A.; Covington, Mark; Kaka, Shehzaad; Crawford, Thomas M.
2009-01-01
In large magnetoresistance devices spin torque-induced changes in resistance can produce GHz current and voltage oscillations which can affect magnetization reversal. In addition, capacitive shunting in large resistance devices can further reduce the current, adversely affecting spin torque switching. Here, we simultaneously solve the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation with spin torque and the transmission line telegrapher's equations to study the effects of resistance feedback and capacitance on magnetization reversal of both spin valves and magnetic tunnel junctions. While for spin valves parallel (P) to anti-parallel (AP) switching is adversely affected by the resistance feedback due to saturation of the spin torque, in low resistance magnetic tunnel junctions P-AP switching is enhanced. We study the effect of resistance feedback on the switching time of magnetic tunnel junctions, and show that magnetization switching is only affected by capacitive shunting in the pF range.
Spin-orbit torques in magnetic bilayers
Haney, Paul
2015-03-01
Spintronics aims to utilize the coupling between charge transport and magnetic dynamics to develop improved and novel memory and logic devices. Future progress in spintronics may be enabled by exploiting the spin-orbit coupling present at the interface between thin film ferromagnets and heavy metals. In these systems, applying an in-plane electrical current can induce magnetic dynamics in single domain ferromagnets, or can induce rapid motion of domain wall magnetic textures. There are multiple effects responsible for these dynamics. They include spin-orbit torques and a chiral exchange interaction (the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction) in the ferromagnet. Both effects arise from the combination of ferromagnetism and spin-orbit coupling present at the interface. There is additionally a torque from the spin current flux impinging on the ferromagnet, arising from the spin hall effect in the heavy metal. Using a combination of approaches, from drift-diffusion to Boltzmann transport to first principles methods, we explore the relative contributions to the dynamics from these different effects. We additionally propose that the transverse spin current is locally enhanced over its bulk value in the vicinity of an interface which is oriented normal to the charge current direction.
Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2016-01-01
ﬁltering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall eﬀect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic ﬁlms, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives
Robust spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Waintal, Xavier; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We theoretically study the current-induced spin torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions, composed of two semi-infinite antiferromagnetic layers separated by a tunnel barrier, in both clean and disordered regimes. We find that the torque
Spin-orbit torque opposing the Oersted torque in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skinner, T. D., E-mail: tds32@cam.ac.uk; Irvine, A. C.; Heiss, D.; Kurebayashi, H.; Ferguson, A. J., E-mail: ajf1006@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wang, M.; Hindmarch, A. T.; Rushforth, A. W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2014-02-10
Current-induced torques in ultrathin Co/Pt bilayers were investigated using an electrically driven ferromagnetic resonance technique. The angle dependence of the resonances, detected by a rectification effect as a voltage, was analysed to determine the symmetries and relative magnitudes of the spin-orbit torques. Both anti-damping (Slonczewski) and field-like torques were observed. As the ferromagnet thickness was reduced from 3 to 1 nm, the sign of the sum of the field-like torque and Oersted torque reversed. This observation is consistent with the emergence of a Rashba spin orbit torque in ultra-thin bilayers.
Dynamics of domain wall driven by spin-transfer torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chureemart, P.; Evans, R. F. L.; Chantrell, R. W.
2011-01-01
Spin-torque switching of magnetic devices offers new technological possibilities for data storage and integrated circuits. We have investigated domain-wall motion in a ferromagnetic thin film driven by a spin-polarized current using an atomistic spin model with a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation including the effect of the spin-transfer torque. The presence of the spin-transfer torque is shown to create an out-of-plane domain wall, in contrast to the external-field-driven case where an in-plane wall is found. We have investigated the effect of the spin torque on domain-wall displacement, domain-wall velocity, and domain-wall width, as well as the equilibration time in the presence of the spin-transfer torque. We have shown that the minimum spin-current density, regarded as the critical value for domain-wall motion, decreases with increasing temperature.
Current-induced Rashba spin orbit torque in silicene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Ji, E-mail: muze7777@hdu.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Peng, Yingzi [Department of Physics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Center for Integrated Spintronic Devices, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zhou, Jie [Department of Mathematics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • The spin dynamics of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to a silicene is investigated. • The Rashba spin orbit torque is obtained and the well-known LLG equation is modified. • The explicit forms of spin orbit torques in Domain Wall and vortex is also obtained. - Abstract: We study theoretically the spin torque of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to a silicene in the presence of the intrinsic Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC) effect. By using gauge field method, we find that under the applied current, the RSOC can induce an effective field which will result in the spin precession of conduction electron without applying any magnetic field. We also derive the spin torques due to the RSOC, which generalize the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The spin torques are related to the applied current, the carrier density and Rashba strength of the system.
Spin-torque generation in topological insulator based heterostructures
Fischer, Mark H.
2016-03-11
Heterostructures utilizing topological insulators exhibit a remarkable spin-torque efficiency. However, the exact origin of the strong torque, in particular whether it stems from the spin-momentum locking of the topological surface states or rather from spin-Hall physics of the topological-insulator bulk, remains unclear. Here, we explore a mechanism of spin-torque generation purely based on the topological surface states. We consider topological-insulator-based bilayers involving ferromagnetic metal (TI/FM) and magnetically doped topological insulators (TI/mdTI), respectively. By ascribing the key theoretical differences between the two setups to location and number of active surface states, we describe both setups within the same framework of spin diffusion of the nonequilibrium spin density of the topological surface states. For the TI/FM bilayer, we find large spin-torque efficiencies of roughly equal magnitude for both in-plane and out-of-plane spin torques. For the TI/mdTI bilayer, we elucidate the dominance of the spin-transfer-like torque. However, we cannot explain the orders of magnitude enhancement reported. Nevertheless, our model gives an intuitive picture of spin-torque generation in topological-insulator-based bilayers and provides theoretical constraints on spin-torque generation due to topological surface states.
Spin-transfer torque in tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic layer of finite thickness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilczynski, M.
2011-01-01
Two components of the spin torque exerted on a free ferromagnetic layer of finite thickness and a half-infinite ferromagnetic electrode in single tunnel junctions have been calculated in the spin-polarized free-electron-like one-band model. It has been found that the torque oscillates with the thickness of ferromagnetic layer and can be enhanced in the junction with the special layer thickness. The bias dependence of torque components also significantly changes with layer thickness. It is non-symmetric for the normal torque, in contrast to the symmetric junctions with two identical half-infinite ferromagnetic electrodes. The asymmetry of the bias dependence of the normal component of the torque can be also observed in the junctions with different spin splitting of the electron bands in the ferromagnetic electrodes. - Research highlights: → The torque oscillates with the thickness of ferromagnetic layer. → Bias dependence of the torque changes with the layer thickness. → Bias dependence of the normal torque can be asymmetric.
Spin transfer torque generated magnetic droplet solitons (invited)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, S.; Mohseni, S. M.; Sani, S. R.; Iacocca, E.; Dumas, R. K.; Pogoryelov, Ye.; Anh Nguyen, T. N.; Muduli, P. K.; Eklund, A.; Hoefer, M.; Åkerman, J.
2014-01-01
We present recent experimental and numerical advancements in the understanding of spin transfer torque generated magnetic droplet solitons. The experimental work focuses on nano-contact spin torque oscillators (NC-STOs) based on orthogonal (pseudo) spin valves where the Co fixed layer has an easy-plane anisotropy, and the [Co/Ni] free layer has a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The NC-STO resistance and microwave signal generation are measured simultaneously as a function of drive current and applied perpendicular magnetic field. Both exhibit dramatic transitions at a certain current dependent critical field value, where the microwave frequency drops 10 GHz, modulation sidebands appear, and the resistance exhibits a jump, while the magnetoresistance changes sign. We interpret these observations as the nucleation of a magnetic droplet soliton with a large fraction of its magnetization processing with an angle greater than 90°, i.e., around a direction opposite that of the applied field. This interpretation is corroborated by numerical simulations. When the field is further increased, we find that the droplet eventually collapses under the pressure from the Zeeman energy
Robust spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2017-04-18
We theoretically study the current-induced spin torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions, composed of two semi-infinite antiferromagnetic layers separated by a tunnel barrier, in both clean and disordered regimes. We find that the torque enabling electrical manipulation of the Néel antiferromagnetic order parameter is out of plane, ∼n×p, while the torque competing with the antiferromagnetic exchange is in plane, ∼n×(p×n). Here, p and n are the Néel order parameter direction of the reference and free layers, respectively. Their bias dependence shows behavior similar to that in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions, the in-plane torque being mostly linear in bias, while the out-of-plane torque is quadratic. Most importantly, we find that the spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic tunnel junctions is much more robust against disorder than that in antiferromagnetic metallic spin valves due to the tunneling nature of spin transport.
Spin-Hall nano-oscillator: A micromagnetic study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giordano, A.; Azzerboni, B.; Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy); Carpentieri, M. [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Laudani, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Roma Tre, via V. Volterra 62, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Gubbiotti, G. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM), Unità di Perugia c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy)
2014-07-28
This Letter studies the dynamical behavior of spin-Hall nanoscillators from a micromagnetic point of view. The model parameters have been identified by reproducing recent experimental data quantitatively. Our results indicate that a strongly localized mode is observed for in-plane bias fields such as in the experiments, while predict the excitation of an asymmetric propagating mode for large enough out-of plane bias field similarly to what observed in spin-torque nanocontact oscillators. Our findings show that spin-Hall nanoscillators can find application as spin-wave emitters for magnonic applications where spin waves are used for transmission and processing information on nanoscale.
Spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves: From clean to disordered regimes
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2014-05-28
Current-driven spin torques in metallic spin valves composed of antiferromagnets are theoretically studied using the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method implemented on a tight-binding model. We focus our attention on G-type and L-type antiferromagnets in both clean and disordered regimes. In such structures, spin torques can either rotate the magnetic order parameter coherently (coherent torque) or compete with the internal antiferromagnetic exchange (exchange torque). We show that, depending on the symmetry of the spin valve, the coherent and exchange torques can either be in the plane, ∝n×(q×n) or out of the plane ∝n×q, where q and n are the directions of the order parameter of the polarizer and the free antiferromagnetic layers, respectively. Although disorder conserves the symmetry of the torques, it strongly reduces the torque magnitude, pointing out the need for momentum conservation to ensure strong spin torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves.
Spin transfer torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves: From clean to disordered regimes
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Manchon, Aurelien; Waintal, Xavier
2014-01-01
Current-driven spin torques in metallic spin valves composed of antiferromagnets are theoretically studied using the nonequilibrium Green's function method implemented on a tight-binding model. We focus our attention on G-type and L-type antiferromagnets in both clean and disordered regimes. In such structures, spin torques can either rotate the magnetic order parameter coherently (coherent torque) or compete with the internal antiferromagnetic exchange (exchange torque). We show that, depending on the symmetry of the spin valve, the coherent and exchange torques can either be in the plane, ∝n×(q×n) or out of the plane ∝n×q, where q and n are the directions of the order parameter of the polarizer and the free antiferromagnetic layers, respectively. Although disorder conserves the symmetry of the torques, it strongly reduces the torque magnitude, pointing out the need for momentum conservation to ensure strong spin torque in antiferromagnetic spin valves.
Magnetization oscillations and waves driven by pure spin currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demidov, V.E. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2-4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Urazhdin, S. [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Loubens, G. de [SPEC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Demokritov, S.O., E-mail: demokrit@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2-4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of RAS, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation)
2017-02-23
Recent advances in the studies of pure spin currents–flows of angular momentum (spin) not accompanied by the electric currents–have opened new horizons for the emerging technologies based on the electron’s spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. The main advantage of pure spin current, as compared to the spin-polarized electric current, is the possibility to exert spin transfer torque on the magnetization in thin magnetic films without the electrical current flow through the material. In addition to minimizing Joule heating and electromigration effects, this enables the implementation of spin torque devices based on the low-loss insulating magnetic materials, and offers an unprecedented geometric flexibility. Here we review the recent experimental achievements in investigations of magnetization oscillations excited by pure spin currents in different nanomagnetic systems based on metallic and insulating magnetic materials. We discuss the spectral properties of spin-current nano-oscillators, and relate them to the spatial characteristics of the excited dynamic magnetic modes determined by the spatially-resolved measurements. We also show that these systems support locking of the oscillations to external microwave signals, as well as their mutual synchronization, and can be used as efficient nanoscale sources of propagating spin waves.
Manipulating the voltage dependence of tunneling spin torques
Manchon, Aurelien
2012-10-01
Voltage-driven spin transfer torques in magnetic tunnel junctions provide an outstanding tool to design advanced spin-based devices for memory and reprogrammable logic applications. The non-linear voltage dependence of the torque has a direct impact on current-driven magnetization dynamics and on devices performances. After a brief overview of the progress made to date in the theoretical description of the spin torque in tunnel junctions, I present different ways to alter and control the bias dependence of both components of the spin torque. Engineering the junction (barrier and electrodes) structural asymmetries or controlling the spin accumulation profile in the free layer offer promising tools to design effcient spin devices.
Spin Currents and Spin Orbit Torques in Ferromagnets and Antiferromagnets
Hung, Yu-Ming
This thesis focuses on the interactions of spin currents and materials with magnetic order, e.g., ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic thin films. The spin current is generated in two ways. First by spin-polarized conduction-electrons associated with the spin Hall effect in heavy metals (HMs) and, second, by exciting spin-waves in ferrimagnetic insulators using a microwave frequency magnetic field. A conduction-electron spin current can be generated by spin-orbit coupling in a heavy non-magnetic metal and transfer its spin angular momentum to a ferromagnet, providing a means of reversing the magnetization of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin films with currents that flow in the plane of the layers. The torques on the magnetization are known as spin-orbit torques (SOT). In the first part of my thesis project I investigated and contrasted the quasistatic (slowly swept current) and pulsed current-induced switching characteristics of micrometer scale Hall crosses consisting of very thin (magnetized CoFeB layers on beta-Ta. While complete magnetization reversal occurs at a threshold current density in the quasistatic case, pulses with short duration (≤10 ns) and larger amplitude (≃10 times the quasistatic threshold current) lead to only partial magnetization reversal and domain formation. The partial reversal is associated with the limited time for reversed domain expansion during the pulse. The second part of my thesis project studies and considers applications of SOT-driven domain wall (DW) motion in a perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin ferromagnet sandwiched between a heavy metal and an oxide. My experiment results demonstrate that the DW motion can be explained by a combination of the spin Hall effect, which generates a SOT, and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which stabilizes chiral Neel-type DW. Based on SOT-driven DW motion and magnetic coupling between electrically isolated ferromagnetic elements, I proposed a new type of spin logic devices. I then
Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling
Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien; Stiles, M. D.
2013-01-01
In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.
Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling
Haney, Paul M.
2013-12-19
In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.
Spin-Swapping Transport and Torques in Ultrathin Magnetic Bilayers
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed; Manchon, Aurelien
2016-01-01
Planar spin transport in disordered ultrathin magnetic bilayers comprising a ferromagnet and a normal metal (typically used for spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin-orbit torque experiments) is investigated theoretically. Using a tight-binding model that puts the extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin swapping on equal footing, we show that the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport dramatically depends on the ratio between the layer thickness d and the mean free path λ. While the spin Hall effect dominates in the diffusive limit (d≫λ), spin swapping dominates in the Knudsen regime (d≲λ). A remarkable consequence is that spin swapping induces a substantial fieldlike torque in the Knudsen regime.
Spin-Swapping Transport and Torques in Ultrathin Magnetic Bilayers
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2016-07-12
Planar spin transport in disordered ultrathin magnetic bilayers comprising a ferromagnet and a normal metal (typically used for spin pumping, spin Seebeck and spin-orbit torque experiments) is investigated theoretically. Using a tight-binding model that puts the extrinsic spin Hall effect and spin swapping on equal footing, we show that the nature of spin-orbit coupled transport dramatically depends on the ratio between the layer thickness d and the mean free path λ. While the spin Hall effect dominates in the diffusive limit (d≫λ), spin swapping dominates in the Knudsen regime (d≲λ). A remarkable consequence is that spin swapping induces a substantial fieldlike torque in the Knudsen regime.
Spin orbit torque based electronic neuron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sengupta, Abhronil, E-mail: asengup@purdue.edu; Choday, Sri Harsha; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2015-04-06
A device based on current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) that functions as an electronic neuron is proposed in this work. The SOT device implements an artificial neuron's thresholding (transfer) function. In the first step of a two-step switching scheme, a charge current places the magnetization of a nano-magnet along the hard-axis, i.e., an unstable point for the magnet. In the second step, the SOT device (neuron) receives a current (from the synapses) which moves the magnetization from the unstable point to one of the two stable states. The polarity of the synaptic current encodes the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the neuron input and determines the final orientation of the magnetization. A resistive crossbar array, functioning as synapses, generates a bipolar current that is a weighted sum of the inputs. The simulation of a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network based on the SOT electronic neuron shows that it consumes ∼3× lower power than a 45 nm digital CMOS implementation, while reaching ∼80% accuracy in the classification of 100 images of handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset.
Spin orbit torque based electronic neuron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sengupta, Abhronil; Choday, Sri Harsha; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik
2015-01-01
A device based on current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) that functions as an electronic neuron is proposed in this work. The SOT device implements an artificial neuron's thresholding (transfer) function. In the first step of a two-step switching scheme, a charge current places the magnetization of a nano-magnet along the hard-axis, i.e., an unstable point for the magnet. In the second step, the SOT device (neuron) receives a current (from the synapses) which moves the magnetization from the unstable point to one of the two stable states. The polarity of the synaptic current encodes the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the neuron input and determines the final orientation of the magnetization. A resistive crossbar array, functioning as synapses, generates a bipolar current that is a weighted sum of the inputs. The simulation of a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network based on the SOT electronic neuron shows that it consumes ∼3× lower power than a 45 nm digital CMOS implementation, while reaching ∼80% accuracy in the classification of 100 images of handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset
Spin-Stabilized Spacecrafts: Analytical Attitude Propagation Using Magnetic Torques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberta Veloso Garcia
2009-01-01
Full Text Available An analytical approach for spin-stabilized satellites attitude propagation is presented, considering the influence of the residual magnetic torque and eddy currents torque. It is assumed two approaches to examine the influence of external torques acting during the motion of the satellite, with the Earth's magnetic field described by the quadripole model. In the first approach is included only the residual magnetic torque in the motion equations, with the satellites in circular or elliptical orbit. In the second approach only the eddy currents torque is analyzed, with the satellite in circular orbit. The inclusion of these torques on the dynamic equations of spin stabilized satellites yields the conditions to derive an analytical solution. The solutions show that residual torque does not affect the spin velocity magnitude, contributing only for the precession and the drift of the spacecraft's spin axis and the eddy currents torque causes an exponential decay of the angular velocity magnitude. Numerical simulations performed with data of the Brazilian Satellites (SCD1 and SCD2 show the period that analytical solution can be used to the attitude propagation, within the dispersion range of the attitude determination system performance of Satellite Control Center of Brazil National Research Institute.
Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator
Mellnik, A. R.; Lee, Joonsue; Richardella, Anthony R.; Grab, J. L.; Mintun, P. J.; Fischer, Mark H.; Vaezi, Abolhassan; Manchon, Aurelien; Kim, Eunah; Samarth, Nitin S.; Ralph, Daniel C.
2014-01-01
permalloy (Ni81Fe19) thin film, with a direction consistent with that expected from the topological surface state. We find that the strength of the torque per unit charge current density in Bi 2Se3 is greater than for any source of spin-transfer torque
Assisted Writing in Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Tunnel Junctions
Ganguly, Samiran; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Datta, Supriyo; Marinero, Ernesto E.
2015-03-01
Spin transfer torque driven MRAM devices are now in an advanced state of development, and the importance of reducing the current requirement for writing information is well recognized. Different approaches to assist the writing process have been proposed such as spin orbit torque, spin Hall effect, voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy and thermal excitation. In this work,we report on our comparative study using the Spin-Circuit Approach regarding the total energy, the switching speed and energy-delay products for different assisted writing approaches in STT-MTJ devices using PMA magnets.
Spin transport and spin torque in antiferromagnetic devices
Železný, J.; Wadley, P.; Olejník, K.; Hoffmann, A.; Ohno, H.
2018-03-01
Ferromagnets are key materials for sensing and memory applications. In contrast, antiferromagnets, which represent the more common form of magnetically ordered materials, have found less practical application beyond their use for establishing reference magnetic orientations via exchange bias. This might change in the future due to the recent progress in materials research and discoveries of antiferromagnetic spintronic phenomena suitable for device applications. Experimental demonstration of the electrical switching and detection of the Néel order open a route towards memory devices based on antiferromagnets. Apart from the radiation and magnetic-field hardness, memory cells fabricated from antiferromagnets can be inherently multilevel, which could be used for neuromorphic computing. Switching speeds attainable in antiferromagnets far exceed those of ferromagnetic and semiconductor memory technologies. Here, we review the recent progress in electronic spin-transport and spin-torque phenomena in antiferromagnets that are dominantly of the relativistic quantum-mechanical origin. We discuss their utility in pure antiferromagnetic or hybrid ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic memory devices.
Spin-orbit-coupled transport and spin torque in a ferromagnetic heterostructure
Wang, Xuhui; Ortiz Pauyac, Christian; Manchon, Aurelien
2014-01-01
Ferromagnetic heterostructures provide an ideal platform to explore the nature of spin-orbit torques arising from the interplay mediated by itinerant electrons between a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. For such a prototypic system, we develop a set of coupled diffusion equations to describe the diffusive spin dynamics and spin-orbit torques. We characterize the spin torque and its two prominent—out-of-plane and in-plane—components for a wide range of relative strength between the Rashba coupling and ferromagnetic exchange. The symmetry and angular dependence of the spin torque emerging from our simple Rashba model is in an agreement with experiments. The spin diffusion equation can be generalized to incorporate dynamic effects such as spin pumping and magnetic damping.
Spin-orbit-coupled transport and spin torque in a ferromagnetic heterostructure
Wang, Xuhui
2014-02-07
Ferromagnetic heterostructures provide an ideal platform to explore the nature of spin-orbit torques arising from the interplay mediated by itinerant electrons between a Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling and a ferromagnetic exchange interaction. For such a prototypic system, we develop a set of coupled diffusion equations to describe the diffusive spin dynamics and spin-orbit torques. We characterize the spin torque and its two prominent—out-of-plane and in-plane—components for a wide range of relative strength between the Rashba coupling and ferromagnetic exchange. The symmetry and angular dependence of the spin torque emerging from our simple Rashba model is in an agreement with experiments. The spin diffusion equation can be generalized to incorporate dynamic effects such as spin pumping and magnetic damping.
Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets
Li, Hang; Gao, H.; Zâ rbo, Liviu P.; Vý borný , K.; Wang, Xuhui; Garate, Ion; Dogan, Fatih; Čejchan, A.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.; Manchon, Aurelien
2015-01-01
Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm×(uso×m). Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.
Spin-Orbit Torques in Co/Pd Multilayer Nanowires
Jamali, Mahdi; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Qiu, Xuepeng; Loong, Li Ming; Manchon, Aurelien; Yang, Hyunsoo
2013-01-01
Current induced spin-orbit torques have been studied in ferromagnetic nanowires made of 20 nm thick Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using Hall voltage and lock-in measurements, it is found that upon injection of an electric current both in-plane (Slonczewski-like) and perpendicular (fieldlike) torques build up in the nanowire. The torque efficiencies are found to be as large as 1.17 and 5 kOe at 108 A/cm2 for the in-plane and perpendicular components, respectively, which is surprisingly comparable to previous studies in ultrathin (∼1 nm) magnetic bilayers. We show that this result cannot be explained solely by spin Hall effect induced torque at the outer interfaces, indicating a probable contribution of the bulk of the Co/Pd multilayer.
Spin-Orbit Torques in Co/Pd Multilayer Nanowires
Jamali, Mahdi
2013-12-09
Current induced spin-orbit torques have been studied in ferromagnetic nanowires made of 20 nm thick Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Using Hall voltage and lock-in measurements, it is found that upon injection of an electric current both in-plane (Slonczewski-like) and perpendicular (fieldlike) torques build up in the nanowire. The torque efficiencies are found to be as large as 1.17 and 5 kOe at 108 A/cm2 for the in-plane and perpendicular components, respectively, which is surprisingly comparable to previous studies in ultrathin (∼1 nm) magnetic bilayers. We show that this result cannot be explained solely by spin Hall effect induced torque at the outer interfaces, indicating a probable contribution of the bulk of the Co/Pd multilayer.
Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in noncentrosymmetric ferromagnets
Li, Hang
2015-04-01
Intraband and interband contributions to the current-driven spin-orbit torque in magnetic materials lacking inversion symmetry are theoretically studied using the Kubo formula. In addition to the current-driven fieldlike torque TFL=τFLm×uso (uso being a unit vector determined by the symmetry of the spin-orbit coupling), we explore the intrinsic contribution arising from impurity-independent interband transitions and producing an anti-damping-like torque of the form TDL=τDLm×(uso×m). Analytical expressions are obtained in the model case of a magnetic Rashba two-dimensional electron gas, while numerical calculations have been performed on a dilute magnetic semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As modeled by the Kohn-Luttinger Hamiltonian exchange coupled to the Mn moments. Parametric dependencies of the different torque components and similarities to the analytical results of the Rashba two-dimensional electron gas in the weak disorder limit are described.
Spin Orbit Torque in Ferromagnetic Semiconductors
Li, Hang
2016-01-01
Electrons not only have charges but also have spin. By utilizing the electron spin, the energy consumption of electronic devices can be reduced, their size can be scaled down and the efficiency of `read' and `write' in memory devices can
Spin torque on the surface of graphene in the presence of spin orbit splitting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ji Chen
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We study theoretically the spin transfer torque of a ferromagnetic layer coupled to (deposited onto a graphene surface in the presence of the Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC. We show that the RSOC induces an effective magnetic field, which will result in the spin precession of conduction electrons. We derive correspondingly the generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG equation, which describes the precessional motion of local magnetization under the influence of the spin orbit effect. Our theoretical estimate indicates that the spin orbit spin torque may have significant effect on the magnetization dynamics of the ferromagnetic layer coupled to the graphene surface.
Skyrmionic spin Seebeck effect via dissipative thermomagnonic torques
Kovalev, Alexey A.
2014-06-01
We derive thermomagnonic torque and its "β-type" dissipative correction from the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The β-type dissipative correction describes viscous coupling between magnetic dynamics and magnonic current and it stems from spin mistracking of the magnetic order. We show that thermomagnonic torque is important for describing temperature gradient induced motion of skyrmions in helical magnets while dissipative correction plays an essential role in generating transverse Magnus force. We propose to detect such skyrmionic motion by employing the transverse spin Seebeck effect geometry.
Spin-transfer torque generated by a topological insulator
Mellnik, A. R.
2014-07-23
Magnetic devices are a leading contender for the implementation of memory and logic technologies that are non-volatile, that can scale to high density and high speed, and that do not wear out. However, widespread application of magnetic memory and logic devices will require the development of efficient mechanisms for reorienting their magnetization using the least possible current and power. There has been considerable recent progress in this effort; in particular, it has been discovered that spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal/ferromagnet bilayers can produce strong current-driven torques on the magnetic layer, via the spin Hall effect in the heavy metal or the Rashba-Edelstein effect in the ferromagnet. In the search for materials to provide even more efficient spin-orbit-induced torques, some proposals have suggested topological insulators, which possess a surface state in which the effects of spin-orbit coupling are maximal in the sense that an electron\\' s spin orientation is fixed relative to its propagation direction. Here we report experiments showing that charge current flowing in-plane in a thin film of the topological insulator bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) at room temperature can indeed exert a strong spin-transfer torque on an adjacent ferromagnetic permalloy (Ni81Fe19) thin film, with a direction consistent with that expected from the topological surface state. We find that the strength of the torque per unit charge current density in Bi 2Se3 is greater than for any source of spin-transfer torque measured so far, even for non-ideal topological insulator films in which the surface states coexist with bulk conduction. Our data suggest that topological insulators could enable very efficient electrical manipulation of magnetic materials at room temperature, for memory and logic applications. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys
Wen, Yan; Wu, Jun; Li, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuelei; Manchon, Aurelien; Xiao, John Q.; Zhang, Xixiang
2017-01-01
We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in Cu40Au60/Ni80Fe20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.
Temperature dependence of spin-orbit torques in Cu-Au alloys
Wen, Yan
2017-03-07
We investigated current driven spin-orbit torques in Cu40Au60/Ni80Fe20/Ti layered structures with in-plane magnetization. We have demonstrated a reliable and convenient method to separate dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque by using the second harmonic technique. It is found that the dampinglike torque and fieldlike torque depend on temperature very differently. Dampinglike torque increases with temperature, while fieldlike torque decreases with temperature, which are different from results obtained previously in other material systems. We observed a nearly linear dependence between the spin Hall angle and longitudinal resistivity, suggesting that skew scattering may be the dominant mechanism of spin-orbit torques.
Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems
Manchon, Aurelien
2018-01-29
Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.
Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems
Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, I. M.; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, J.; Zelezný , J.; Thiaville, A.; Garello, K.; Gambardella, P.
2018-01-01
Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.
Interfacial spin-orbit splitting and current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-05-17
Spin transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is investigated theoretically. Due to the presence of interfacial SOI, a current-driven spin torque can be generated at the second order in SOI, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. This torque possesses two components, one in plane and one perpendicular to the plane of rotation, that can induce either current-driven magnetization switching from an in-plane to out-of-plane configuration or magnetization precessions, similar to spin transfer torque in spin valves. Consequently, it appears that it is possible to control the magnetization steady state and dynamics by either varying the bias voltage or electrically modifying the SOI at the interface.
Controlling the spin-torque efficiency with ferroelectric barriers
Useinov, A.; Chshiev, M.; Manchon, Aurelien
2015-01-01
Nonequilibrium spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a ferroelectric barrier is theoretically investigated. The exact solutions of the free electron Schrödinger equation for electron tunneling in the presence of interfacial screening are obtained by combining Bessel and Airy functions. We demonstrate that the spin transfer torque efficiency, and more generally the bias dependence of tunneling magneto- and electroresistance, can be controlled by switching the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. In particular, the critical voltage at which the in-plane torque changes sign can be strongly enhanced or reduced depending on the direction of the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. This effect provides a supplementary way to electrically control the current-driven dynamic states of the magnetization and related magnetic noise in spin transfer devices.
Heterostructures for Realizing Magnon-Induced Spin Transfer Torque
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. B. Jayathilaka
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This work reports efforts fabricating heterostructures of different materials relevant for the realization of magnon-induced spin transfer torques. We find the growth of high-quality magnetite on MgO substrates to be straightforward, while using transition metal buffer layers of Fe, Cr, Mo, and Nb can alter the structural and magnetic properties of the magnetite. Additionally, we successfully fabricated and characterized Py/Cr/Fe3O4 and Fe3O4/Cr/Fe3O4 spin valve structures. For both, we observe a relatively small giant magnetoresistance and confirm an inverse dependence on spacer layer thickness. Thus, we have shown certain materials combinations that may form the heterostructures that are the building blocks necessary to achieve magnon-induced spin transfer torque devices.
Controlling the spin-torque efficiency with ferroelectric barriers
Useinov, A.
2015-02-11
Nonequilibrium spin-dependent transport in magnetic tunnel junctions comprising a ferroelectric barrier is theoretically investigated. The exact solutions of the free electron Schrödinger equation for electron tunneling in the presence of interfacial screening are obtained by combining Bessel and Airy functions. We demonstrate that the spin transfer torque efficiency, and more generally the bias dependence of tunneling magneto- and electroresistance, can be controlled by switching the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. In particular, the critical voltage at which the in-plane torque changes sign can be strongly enhanced or reduced depending on the direction of the ferroelectric polarization of the barrier. This effect provides a supplementary way to electrically control the current-driven dynamic states of the magnetization and related magnetic noise in spin transfer devices.
Torque for electron spin induced by electron permanent electric dipole moment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senami, Masato, E-mail: senami@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukuda, Masahiro, E-mail: senami@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ogiso, Yoji, E-mail: senami@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tachibana, Akitomo, E-mail: senami@me.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)
2014-10-06
The spin torque of the electron is studied in relation to the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron. The spin dynamics is known to be given by the spin torque and the zeta force in quantum field theory. The effect of the EDM on the torque of the spin brings a new term in the equation of motion of the spin. We study this effect for a solution of the Dirac equation with electromagnetic field.
Possible evidence for spin-transfer torque induced by spin-triplet supercurrent
Li, Lailai
2017-10-04
Cooper pairs in superconductors are normally spin singlet. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that spin-triplet Cooper pairs can be created at carefully engineered superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces. If Cooper pairs are spin-polarized they would transport not only charge but also a net spin component, but without dissipation, and therefore minimize the heating effects associated with spintronic devices. Although it is now established that triplet supercurrents exist, their most interesting property - spin - is only inferred indirectly from transport measurements. In conventional spintronics, it is well known that spin currents generate spin-transfer torques that alter magnetization dynamics and switch magnetic moments. The observation of similar effects due to spin-triplet supercurrents would not only confirm the net spin of triplet pairs but also pave the way for applications of superconducting spintronics. Here, we present a possible evidence for spin-transfer torques induced by triplet supercurrents in superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/F/S) Josephson junctions. Below the superconducting transition temperature T_c, the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) field at X-band (~ 9.0 GHz) shifts rapidly to a lower field with decreasing temperature due to the spin-transfer torques induced by triplet supercurrents. In contrast, this phenomenon is absent in ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) bilayers and superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor (S/I/F/S) multilayers where no supercurrents pass through the ferromagnetic layer. These experimental observations are discussed with theoretical predictions for ferromagnetic Josephson junctions with precessing magnetization.
Flexible spin-orbit torque devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, OukJae; You, Long; Jang, Jaewon; Subramanian, Vivek; Salahuddin, Sayeef
2015-01-01
We report on state-of-the-art spintronic devices synthesized and fabricated directly on a flexible organic substrate. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was achieved in ultrathin ferromagnetic heterostructures of Pt/Co/MgO sputtered on a non-rigid plastic substrate at room temperature. Subsequently, a full magnetic reversal of the Co was observed by exploiting the spin orbit coupling in Pt that leads to a spin accumulation at the Pt/Co interface when an in-plane current is applied. Quasi-static measurements show the potential for operating these devices at nano-second speeds. Importantly, the behavior of the devices remained unchanged under varying bending conditions (up to a bending radius of ≈ ±20–30 mm). Furthermore, the devices showed robust operation even after application of 10 6 successive pulses, which is likely sufficient for many flexible applications. Thus, this work demonstrates the potential for integrating high performance spintronic devices on flexible substrates, which could lead to many applications ranging from flexible non-volatile magnetic memory to local magnetic resonance imaging
Flexible spin-orbit torque devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, OukJae; You, Long; Jang, Jaewon; Subramanian, Vivek [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Salahuddin, Sayeef [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2015-12-21
We report on state-of-the-art spintronic devices synthesized and fabricated directly on a flexible organic substrate. Large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was achieved in ultrathin ferromagnetic heterostructures of Pt/Co/MgO sputtered on a non-rigid plastic substrate at room temperature. Subsequently, a full magnetic reversal of the Co was observed by exploiting the spin orbit coupling in Pt that leads to a spin accumulation at the Pt/Co interface when an in-plane current is applied. Quasi-static measurements show the potential for operating these devices at nano-second speeds. Importantly, the behavior of the devices remained unchanged under varying bending conditions (up to a bending radius of ≈ ±20–30 mm). Furthermore, the devices showed robust operation even after application of 10{sup 6} successive pulses, which is likely sufficient for many flexible applications. Thus, this work demonstrates the potential for integrating high performance spintronic devices on flexible substrates, which could lead to many applications ranging from flexible non-volatile magnetic memory to local magnetic resonance imaging.
Toward error-free scaled spin torque majority gates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vaysset, Adrien; Manfrini, Mauricio; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Radu, Iuliana P.; Thean, Aaron [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A. [Exploratory Integrated Circuits, Components Research, Intel Corp., Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)
2016-06-15
The functionality of a cross-shaped Spin Torque Majority Gate is explored by means of micromagnetic simulations. The different input combinations are simulated varying material parameters, current density and size. The main failure mode is identified: above a critical size, a domain wall can be pinned at the center of the cross, preventing further propagation of the information. By simulating several phase diagrams, the key parameters are obtained and the operating condition is deduced. A simple relation between the domain wall width and the size of the Spin Torque Majority Gate determines the working range. Finally, a correlation is found between the energy landscape and the main failure mode. We demonstrate that a macrospin behavior ensures a reliable majority gate operation.
Toward error-free scaled spin torque majority gates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrien Vaysset
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The functionality of a cross-shaped Spin Torque Majority Gate is explored by means of micromagnetic simulations. The different input combinations are simulated varying material parameters, current density and size. The main failure mode is identified: above a critical size, a domain wall can be pinned at the center of the cross, preventing further propagation of the information. By simulating several phase diagrams, the key parameters are obtained and the operating condition is deduced. A simple relation between the domain wall width and the size of the Spin Torque Majority Gate determines the working range. Finally, a correlation is found between the energy landscape and the main failure mode. We demonstrate that a macrospin behavior ensures a reliable majority gate operation.
Possible charge analogues of spin transfer torques in bulk superconductors
Garate, Ion
2014-03-01
Spin transfer torques (STT) occur when electric currents travel through inhomogeneously magnetized systems and are important for the motion of magnetic textures such as domain walls. Since superconductors are easy-plane ferromagnets in particle-hole (charge) space, it is natural to ask whether any charge duals of STT phenomena exist therein. We find that the superconducting analogue of the adiabatic STT vanishes in a bulk superconductor with a momentum-independent order parameter, while the superconducting counterpart of the nonadiabatic STT does not vanish. This nonvanishing superconducting torque is induced by heat (rather than charge) currents and acts on the charge (rather than spin) degree of freedom. It can become significant in the vicinity of the superconducting transition temperature, where it generates a net quasiparticle charge and alters the dispersion and linewidth of low-frequency collective modes. This work has been financially supported by Canada's NSERC.
Giant spin torque in systems with anisotropic exchange interaction
Korenev, Vladimir L.
2012-01-01
Control of magnetic domain wall movement by the spin-polarized current looks promising for creation of a new generation of magnetic memory devices. A necessary condition for this is the domain wall shift by a low-density current. Here I show that a strongly anisotropic exchange interaction between mobile heavy holes and localized magnetic moments enormously increases the current-induced torque on the domain wall as compared to systems with isotropic exchange. This enables one to control the d...
Analytic expression for the giant fieldlike spin torque in spin-filter magnetic tunnel junctions
Tang, Y.-H.; Huang, Z.-W.; Huang, B.-H.
2017-08-01
We propose analytic expressions for fieldlike, T⊥, and spin-transfer, T∥, spin torque components in the spin-filter-based magnetic tunnel junction (SFMTJ), by using the single-band tight-binding model with the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. In consideration of multireflection processes between noncollinear magnetization of the spin-filter (SF) barrier and the ferromagnetic (FM) electrode, the central spin-selective SF barrier plays an active role in the striking discovery T⊥≫T∥ , which can be further identified by the unusual barrier thickness dependence of giant T⊥. Our general expressions reveal the sinusoidal angular dependence of both spin torque components, even in the presence of the SF barrier.
Lagrangian approach in spin-oscillations problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.V. Pyshkin
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Lagrangian of electronic liquid in magneto-inhomogeneous micro-conductor has been constructed. A corresponding Euler-Lagrange equation has been solved. It was shown that the described system has eigenmodes of spin polarization and total electric current oscillations. The suggested approach permits to study the spin dynamics in an open-circuit which contains capacitance and/or inductivity.
Spin-orbit torques from interfacial spin-orbit coupling for various interfaces
Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Sinova, Jairo; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Stiles, M. D.
2017-09-01
We use a perturbative approach to study the effects of interfacial spin-orbit coupling in magnetic multilayers by treating the two-dimensional Rashba model in a fully three-dimensional description of electron transport near an interface. This formalism provides a compact analytic expression for current-induced spin-orbit torques in terms of unperturbed scattering coefficients, allowing computation of spin-orbit torques for various contexts, by simply substituting scattering coefficients into the formulas. It applies to calculations of spin-orbit torques for magnetic bilayers with bulk magnetism, those with interface magnetism, a normal-metal/ferromagnetic insulator junction, and a topological insulator/ferromagnet junction. It predicts a dampinglike component of spin-orbit torque that is distinct from any intrinsic contribution or those that arise from particular spin relaxation mechanisms. We discuss the effects of proximity-induced magnetism and insertion of an additional layer and provide formulas for in-plane current, which is induced by a perpendicular bias, anisotropic magnetoresistance, and spin memory loss in the same formalism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Zhengang; Su Gang; Jin Biao; Zheng Qingrong
2003-01-01
We have investigated the current-induced spin transfer torque of a ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet tunnel junction by taking the spin-flip scatterings into account. It is found that the spin-flip scattering can induce an additional spin torque, enhancing the maximum of the spin torque and giving rise to an angular shift compared to the case when the spin-flip scatterings are neglected. The effects of the molecular fields of the left and right ferromagnets on the spin torque are also studied. It is found that τ Rx /I e (τ Rx is the spin-transfer torque acting on the right ferromagnet and I e is the tunneling electrical current) does vary with the molecular fields. At two certain angles, τ Rx /I e is independent of the molecular field of the right ferromagnet, resulting in two crossing points in the curve of τ Rx /I e versus the relevant orientation for different molecular fields
Giant magneto-spin-Seebeck effect and magnon transfer torques in insulating spin valves
Cheng, Yihong; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Shufeng
2018-01-01
We theoretically study magnon transport in an insulating spin valve (ISV) made of an antiferromagnetic insulator sandwiched between two ferromagnetic insulator (FI) layers. In the conventional metal-based spin valve, the electron spins propagate between two metallic ferromagnetic layers, giving rise to giant magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque. Here, the incoherent magnons in the ISV serve as angular momentum carriers and are responsible for the angular momentum transport between two FI layers across the antiferromagnetic spacer. We predict two transport phenomena in the presence of the temperature gradient: a giant magneto-spin-Seebeck effect in which the output voltage signal is controlled by the relative orientation of the two FI layers and magnon transfer torque that can be used for switching the magnetization of the FI layers with a temperature gradient of the order of 0.1 Kelvin per nanometer.
Review of an emerging research field 'spin-orbit torques'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurebayashi, Hidekazu
2015-01-01
This Review will provide a landscape of the recent development of one of spintronics sub-fields, so-called 'spin orbit torques'. This new class of spin torques, arising from the relativistic spin-orbit interaction in solid states, has gained a great deal of academic interest from relevant scientists and technologists. (author)
Spin-transfer torque induced dynamics of magnetic vortices in nanopillars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sluka, Volker
2011-01-01
if the spin-polarization of the current is perfectly homogeneous. Subsequently so-called double vortex configurations are considered. These configurations involve states where each of the disks is in a vortex state. Methods for preparing such states are developed and the spin-transfer torque induced dynamics of these configurations is investigated. Rich dynamics is observed, and differences in mode frequencies can be identified as being caused by different combinations of vortex core polarities. The experiments show that double vortex systems are nonlinear oscillators which show the property of phase locking to an external periodic signal.
Exchange magnon induced resistance asymmetry in permalloy spin-Hall oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Langenfeld, S. [Microelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Walter Schottky Institut and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tshitoyan, V.; Fang, Z.; Ferguson, A. J., E-mail: ajf1006@cam.ac.uk [Microelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wells, A.; Moore, T. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2016-05-09
We investigate magnetization dynamics in a spin-Hall oscillator using a direct current measurement as well as conventional microwave spectrum analysis. When the current applies an anti-damping spin-transfer torque, we observe a change in resistance which we ascribe mainly to the excitation of incoherent exchange magnons. A simple model is developed based on the reduction of the effective saturation magnetization, quantitatively explaining the data. The observed phenomena highlight the importance of exchange magnons on the operation of spin-Hall oscillators.
Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geranton, Guillaume
2017-01-01
This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag_2Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag_2Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT-based magnetic
Intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit torques from first principles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geranton, Guillaume
2017-09-01
This thesis attempts to shed light on the microscopic mechanisms underlying the current-induced magnetic torques in ferromagnetic heterostructures. We have developed first principles methods aiming at the accurate and effcient calculation of the so-called spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in magnetic thin films. The emphasis of this work is on the impurity-driven extrinsic SOTs. The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a formalism for the calculation of the SOTs within the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method. The impurity-induced transitions rates are obtained from first principles and their effect on transport properties is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. The developed formalism provides a mean to compute the SOTs beyond the conventional constant relaxation time approximation. We first apply our formalism to the investigation of FePt/Pt and Co/Cu bilayers in the presence of defects and impurities. Our results hint at a crucial dependence of the torque on the type of disorder present in the films, which we explain by a complex interplay of several competing Fermi surface contributions to the SOT. Astonishingly, specific defect distributions or doping elements lead respectively to an increase or a sign change of the torque, which can not be explained on the basis of simple models. We also compute the intrinsic SOT induced by electrical and thermal currents within the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Motivated by recent experimental works, we then investigate the microscopic origin of the SOT in a Ag{sub 2}Bi-terminated Ag film grown on ferromagnetic Fe(110). We find that the torque in that system can not be explained solely by the spin-orbit coupling in the Ag{sub 2}Bi alloy, and instead results from the spin-orbit coupling in all regions of the film.Finally, we predict a large SOT in Fe/Ge bilayers and suggest that semiconductor substrates might be a promising alternative to heavy metals for the development of SOT
Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torque via Modulation of Spin Current Absorption
Qiu, Xuepeng
2016-11-18
The magnitude of spin-orbit torque (SOT), exerted to a ferromagnet (FM) from an adjacent heavy metal (HM), strongly depends on the amount of spin current absorbed in the FM. We exploit the large spin absorption at the Ru interface to manipulate the SOTs in HM/FM/Ru multilayers. While the FM thickness is smaller than its spin dephasing length of 1.2 nm, the top Ru layer largely boosts the absorption of spin currents into the FM layer and substantially enhances the strength of SOT acting on the FM. Spin-pumping experiments induced by ferromagnetic resonance support our conclusions that the observed increase in the SOT efficiency can be attributed to an enhancement of the spin-current absorption. A theoretical model that considers both reflected and transmitted mixing conductances at the two interfaces of FM is developed to explain the results.
Current-induced spin transfer torque in ferromagnet-marginal Fermi liquid double tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mu Haifeng; Zheng Qingrong; Jin Biao; Su Gang
2005-01-01
Current-induced spin transfer torque through a marginal Fermi liquid (MFL) which is connected to two noncollinearly aligned ferromagnets via tunnel junctions is discussed in terms of the nonequilibrium Green function method. It is found that in the absence of the spin-flip scattering, the magnitude of the torque increases with the polarization and the coupling constant λ of the MFL, whose maximum increases with λ linearly, showing that the interactions between electrons tend to enhance the spin torque. When the spin-flip scattering is included, an additional spin torque is induced. It is found that the spin-flip scattering enhances the spin torque and gives rise to a nonlinear angular shift
Interfacial spin-orbit splitting and current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunnel junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-01-01
be generated at the second order in SOI, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. This torque possesses two components, one in plane and one perpendicular to the plane of rotation, that can induce either current-driven magnetization switching from
Parameter dependence of resonant spin torque magnetization reversal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fricke, L.; Serrano-Guisan, S.; Schumacher, H.W.
2012-01-01
We numerically study ultra fast resonant spin torque (ST) magnetization reversal in magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJ) driven by current pulses having a direct current (DC) and a resonant alternating current (AC) component. The precessional ST dynamics of the single domain MTJ free layer cell are modeled in the macro spin approximation. The energy efficiency, reversal time, and reversal reliability are investigated under variation of pulse parameters like direct and AC current amplitude, AC frequency and AC phase. We find a range of AC and direct current amplitudes where robust resonant ST reversal is obtained with faster switching time and reduced energy consumption per pulse compared to purely direct current ST reversal. However, for a certain range of AC and direct current amplitudes a strong dependence of the reversal properties on AC frequency and phase is found. Such regions of unreliable reversal must be avoided for ST memory applications.
Parameter dependence of resonant spin torque magnetization reversal
Fricke, L.; Serrano-Guisan, S.; Schumacher, H. W.
2012-04-01
We numerically study ultra fast resonant spin torque (ST) magnetization reversal in magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJ) driven by current pulses having a direct current (DC) and a resonant alternating current (AC) component. The precessional ST dynamics of the single domain MTJ free layer cell are modeled in the macro spin approximation. The energy efficiency, reversal time, and reversal reliability are investigated under variation of pulse parameters like direct and AC current amplitude, AC frequency and AC phase. We find a range of AC and direct current amplitudes where robust resonant ST reversal is obtained with faster switching time and reduced energy consumption per pulse compared to purely direct current ST reversal. However, for a certain range of AC and direct current amplitudes a strong dependence of the reversal properties on AC frequency and phase is found. Such regions of unreliable reversal must be avoided for ST memory applications.
A critical comparison of electrical methods for measuring spin-orbit torques
Zhang, Xuanzi; Hung, Yu-Ming; Rehm, Laura; Kent, Andrew D.
Direct (DC) and alternating current (AC) transport measurements of spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in heavy metal-ferromagnet heterostructure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been proposed and demonstrated. A DC method measures the change of perpendicular magnetization component while an AC method probes the first and second harmonic magnetization oscillation in responses to an AC current (~1 kHz). Here we conduct both types of measurements on β-Ta/CoFeB/MgO in the form of patterned Hall bars (20 μm linewidth) and compare the results. Experiments results are qualitatively in agreement with a macro spin model including Slonzewski-like and a field-like SOTs. However, the effective field from the ac method is larger than that obtained from the DC method. We discuss the possible origins of the discrepancy and its implications for quantitatively determining SOTs. Research supported by the SRC-INDEX program, NSF-DMR-1309202 and NYU-DURF award.
Spin torque nanooscillators: new applications in information processing
Macia, Ferran; Kent, Andrew D.; Hoppensteadt, Frank C.
2013-03-01
Nanonometer scale electrical contacts to ferromagnetic thin films (STNOs) can provide sufficient current densities to excite magnetic-moment dynamics resulting in emission of short wave-length spin waves. We discuss several applications of spin-wave patterns created from STNOs and their interaction with background oscillations. We review how to encode information in STNOs signals -modulating their amplitude, frequency or phase - and stability against noise. We first model arrays of STNOs in extended ferromagnetic thin films and define conditions to control spin-waves emission directions. We also study arrays of oscillators in patterned ferromagnetic thin films and we put forward a method to build an STNO lookup tables or an STNO based network analyzer. Using spin waves complements digital semiconductor technologies and offers new possibilities for increased memory capacity and computation performance. This work was supported by Marie Curie IOF 253214 and by ARO MURI Grant No. W911NF-08-1-0317 and NSF Grant No. ECS 07- 25280.
Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling
Haney, Paul M.
2013-05-07
In bilayer nanowires consisting of a ferromagnetic layer and a nonmagnetic layer with strong spin-orbit coupling, currents create torques on the magnetization beyond those found in simple ferromagnetic nanowires. The resulting magnetic dynamics appear to require torques that can be separated into two terms, dampinglike and fieldlike. The dampinglike torque is typically derived from models describing the bulk spin Hall effect and the spin transfer torque, and the fieldlike torque is typically derived from a Rashba model describing interfacial spin-orbit coupling. We derive a model based on the Boltzmann equation that unifies these approaches. We also consider an approximation to the Boltzmann equation, the drift-diffusion model, that qualitatively reproduces the behavior, but quantitatively differs in some regimes. We show that the Boltzmann equation with physically reasonable parameters can match the torques for any particular sample, but in some cases, it fails to describe the experimentally observed thickness dependencies.
Spin-orbit torque in two-dimensional antiferromagnetic topological insulators
Ghosh, Sumit; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We investigate spin transport in two-dimensional ferromagnetic (FTI) and antiferromagnetic (AFTI) topological insulators. In the presence of an in-plane magnetization AFTI supports zero energy modes, which enables topologically protected edge conduction at low energy. We address the nature of current-driven spin torque in these structures and study the impact of spin-independent disorder. Interestingly, upon strong disorder the spin torque develops an antidamping component (i.e., even upon magnetization reversal) along the edges, which could enable current-driven manipulation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. This antidamping torque decreases when increasing the system size and when the system enters the trivial insulator regime.
Spin-orbit torque in two-dimensional antiferromagnetic topological insulators
Ghosh, Sumit
2017-01-24
We investigate spin transport in two-dimensional ferromagnetic (FTI) and antiferromagnetic (AFTI) topological insulators. In the presence of an in-plane magnetization AFTI supports zero energy modes, which enables topologically protected edge conduction at low energy. We address the nature of current-driven spin torque in these structures and study the impact of spin-independent disorder. Interestingly, upon strong disorder the spin torque develops an antidamping component (i.e., even upon magnetization reversal) along the edges, which could enable current-driven manipulation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. This antidamping torque decreases when increasing the system size and when the system enters the trivial insulator regime.
Angular dependence and symmetry of Rashba spin torque in ferromagnetic heterostructures
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian; Wang, Xuhui; Chshiev, Mairbek; Manchon, Aurelien
2013-01-01
In a ferromagnetic heterostructure, the interplay between Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange splitting gives rise to a current-driven spin torque. In a realistic device setup, we investigate the Rashba spin torque in the diffusive regime and report two major findings: (i) a nonvanishing torque exists at the edges of the device even when the magnetization and effective Rashba field are aligned; (ii) anisotropic spin relaxation rates driven by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling assign the spin torque a general expression T = T y (θ) m × (y × m) + T y (θ) y × m + T z (θ) m × (z × m) + T z (θ) z × m, where the coefficients T, y, z depend on the magnetization direction. Our results agree with recent experiments. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
Angular dependence and symmetry of Rashba spin torque in ferromagnetic heterostructures
Ortiz Pauyac, Christian
2013-06-26
In a ferromagnetic heterostructure, the interplay between Rashba spin-orbit coupling and exchange splitting gives rise to a current-driven spin torque. In a realistic device setup, we investigate the Rashba spin torque in the diffusive regime and report two major findings: (i) a nonvanishing torque exists at the edges of the device even when the magnetization and effective Rashba field are aligned; (ii) anisotropic spin relaxation rates driven by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling assign the spin torque a general expression T = T y (θ) m × (y × m) + T y (θ) y × m + T z (θ) m × (z × m) + T z (θ) z × m, where the coefficients T, y, z depend on the magnetization direction. Our results agree with recent experiments. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
Spin-Orbit Torque and Spin Pumping in YIG/Pt with Interfacial Insertion Layers (Postprint)
2018-05-03
modified by spin-orbit torque6,7 in thin- film YIG due to absorption of pure spin current,8–12 which is gen- erated from an electric current in the adjacent... films were grown on Gd3Ga5O12(111) substrates by pulsed laser deposition as reported in Ref. 3. The YIG films were transferred through an ambient... introduction into the deposition chamber, maintained at 250 C at 50 mTorr O2 for 30 min to remove water and organics on the surface. The metal overlayers
Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals
Li, Hang; Wang, Xuhui; Manchon, Aurelien
2016-01-01
We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.
Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals
Li, Hang
2016-01-11
We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.
Control of spin-orbit torques through crystal symmetry in WTe2/ferromagnet bilayers
MacNeill, D.; Stiehl, G. M.; Guimaraes, M. H. D.; Buhrman, R. A.; Park, J.; Ralph, D. C.
2017-03-01
Recent discoveries regarding current-induced spin-orbit torques produced by heavy-metal/ferromagnet and topological-insulator/ferromagnet bilayers provide the potential for dramatically improved efficiency in the manipulation of magnetic devices. However, in experiments performed to date, spin-orbit torques have an important limitation--the component of torque that can compensate magnetic damping is required by symmetry to lie within the device plane. This means that spin-orbit torques can drive the most current-efficient type of magnetic reversal (antidamping switching) only for magnetic devices with in-plane anisotropy, not the devices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy that are needed for high-density applications. Here we show experimentally that this state of affairs is not fundamental, but rather one can change the allowed symmetries of spin-orbit torques in spin-source/ferromagnet bilayer devices by using a spin-source material with low crystalline symmetry. We use WTe2, a transition-metal dichalcogenide whose surface crystal structure has only one mirror plane and no two-fold rotational invariance. Consistent with these symmetries, we generate an out-of-plane antidamping torque when current is applied along a low-symmetry axis of WTe2/Permalloy bilayers, but not when current is applied along a high-symmetry axis. Controlling spin-orbit torques by crystal symmetries in multilayer samples provides a new strategy for optimizing future magnetic technologies.
Torque balance, Taylor's constraint and torsional oscillations in a numerical model of the geodynamo
Dumberry, Mathieu; Bloxham, Jeremy
2003-11-01
Theoretical considerations and observations suggest that, to a first approximation, the Earth's dynamo is in a quasi-Taylor state, where the axial Lorentz torque on cylindrical surfaces co-axial with the rotation axis vanishes, except for the part involved in torsional oscillations. The latter are rigid azimuthal accelerations of cylindrical surfaces which oscillate with typical periods of decades. We present a solution of a numerical model of the geodynamo in which rigid accelerations of cylinder surfaces are observed. The underlying dynamic state in the model is not a Taylor state because the Reynolds stresses and viscous torque remain large and provide an effective way to balance a large Lorentz torque. This is a consequence of the limited parameter regime which can be attained numerically. Nevertheless, departures in the torque equilibrium are primarily counterbalanced by rigid accelerations of cylindrical surfaces, which, in turn, excite rigid azimuthal oscillations of the surfaces. We show that the azimuthal motion is indeed quasi-rigid, though the torsional oscillations that are produced in the model probably differ from those in the Earth's core because of the large influence of the Reynolds stresses on their dynamics. We also show that the continual excitation of rigid cylindrical accelerations is produced by the advection of the non-axisymmetric structure of the fields by a mean differential rotation of the cylindrical surfaces which produces disconnections and reconnections and continual fluctuations in the Lorentz torque and Reynolds stresses. We propose that the torque balance in Earth's core may evolve in a similar chaotic fashion, except that the influence of the Reynolds stresses is probably weaker. If this is the case, the Lorentz torque on a cylindrical surface is continually fluctuating, even though its time-averaged value vanishes and satisfies Taylor's constraint. Rigid accelerations of cylindrical surfaces are continually excited by the
Research Update: Spin transfer torques in permalloy on monolayer MoS2
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Zhang
2016-03-01
Full Text Available We observe current induced spin transfer torque resonance in permalloy (Py grown on monolayer MoS2. By passing rf current through the Py/MoS2 bilayer, field-like and damping-like torques are induced which excite the ferromagnetic resonance of Py. The signals are detected via a homodyne voltage from anisotropic magnetoresistance of Py. In comparison to other bilayer systems with strong spin-orbit torques, the monolayer MoS2 cannot provide bulk spin Hall effects and thus indicates the purely interfacial nature of the spin transfer torques. Therefore our results indicate the potential of two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide for the use of interfacial spin-orbitronics applications.
Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.
2015-09-01
Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated.
Modulation of spin transfer torque amplitude in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clément, P.-Y.; Baraduc, C.; Chshiev, M.; Diény, B.; Ducruet, C.; Vila, L.
2015-01-01
Magnetization switching induced by spin transfer torque is used to write magnetic memories (Magnetic Random Access Memory, MRAM) but can be detrimental to the reading process. It would be quite convenient therefore to modulate the efficiency of spin transfer torque. A solution is adding an extra degree of freedom by using double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with two spin-polarizers, with controllable relative magnetic alignment. We demonstrate, for these structures, that the amplitude of in-plane spin transfer torque on the middle free layer can be efficiently tuned via the magnetic configuration of the electrodes. Using the proposed design could thus pave the way towards more reliable read/write schemes for MRAM. Moreover, our results suggest an intriguing effect associated with the out-of-plane (field-like) spin transfer torque, which has to be further investigated
Local spin torque induced by electron electric dipole moment in the YbF molecule
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukuda, Masahiro; Senami, Masato; Ogiso, Yoji; Tachibana, Akitomo [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)
2014-10-06
In this study, we show the modification of the equation of motion of the electronic spin, which is derived by the quantum electron spin vorticity principle, by the effect of the electron electric dipole moment (EDM). To investigate the new contribution to spin torque by EDM, using first principle calculations, we visualize distributions of the local spin angular momentum density and local spin torque density of the YbF molecule on which the static electric field and magnetic field are applied at t = 0.
Analytical description of ballistic spin currents and torques in magnetic tunnel junctions
Chshiev, M.
2015-09-21
In this work we demonstrate explicit analytical expressions for both charge and spin currents which constitute the 2×2 spinor in magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations under applied voltage. The calculations have been performed within the free electron model in the framework of the Keldysh formalism and WKB approximation. We demonstrate that spin/charge currents and spin transfer torques are all explicitly expressed through only three irreducible quantities, without further approximations. The conditions and mechanisms of deviation from the conventional sine angular dependence of both spin currents and torques are shown and discussed. It is shown in the thick barrier approximation that all tunneling transport quantities can be expressed in an extremely simplified form via Slonczewski spin polarizations and our effective spin averaged interfacial transmission probabilities and effective out-of-plane polarizations at both interfaces. It is proven that the latter plays a key role in the emergence of perpendicular spin torque as well as in the angular dependence character of all spin and charge transport considered. It is demonstrated directly also that for any applied voltage, the parallel component of spin current at the FM/I interface is expressed via collinear longitudinal spin current components. Finally, spin transfer torque behavior is analyzed in a view of transverse characteristic length scales for spin transport.
Spin-orbit torque induced magnetic vortex polarity reversal utilizing spin-Hall effect
Li, Cheng; Cai, Li; Liu, Baojun; Yang, Xiaokuo; Cui, Huanqing; Wang, Sen; Wei, Bo
2018-05-01
We propose an effective magnetic vortex polarity reversal scheme that makes use of spin-orbit torque introduced by spin-Hall effect in heavy-metal/ferromagnet multilayers structure, which can result in subnanosecond polarity reversal without endangering the structural stability. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to investigate the spin-Hall effect driven dynamics evolution of magnetic vortex. The mechanism of magnetic vortex polarity reversal is uncovered by a quantitative analysis of exchange energy density, magnetostatic energy density, and their total energy density. The simulation results indicate that the magnetic vortex polarity is reversed through the nucleation-annihilation process of topological vortex-antivortex pair. This scheme is an attractive option for ultra-fast magnetic vortex polarity reversal, which can be used as the guidelines for the choice of polarity reversal scheme in vortex-based random access memory.
Magnetization switching and microwave oscillations in nanomagnets driven by spin-polarized currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertotti, G.; Magni, A.; Serpico, C.; d'Aquino, M.; Mayergoyz, I. D.; Bonin, R.
2005-01-01
Full text: Considerable interest has been generated in recent years by the discovery that a current of spin-polarized electrons can apply appreciable torques to a nanoscale ferromagnet. This mechanism was theoretically predicted and subsequently confirmed by a number of experiments which have shown that spin transfer can indeed induce switching or microwave oscillations of the magnetization. Significant efforts have been devoted to the explanation of these results, in view of the new physics involved and of the possible applications to new types of current-controlled memory cells or microwave sources and resonators . However, the precise nature of magnetization dynamics when spin-polarized currents and external magnetic fields are simultaneously present has not yet been fully understood. The spin-transfer-driven nanomagnet is a nonlinear open system that is forced far from equilibrium by the injection of the current. Thus, the appropriate framework for the study of the problem is nonlinear dynamical system theory and bifurcation theory. In this talk, it is shown that within this framework the complexity and subtlety of spin-torque effects are fully revealed and quantified, once it is recognized that both intrinsic damping and spin transfer can be treated as perturbations of the free precessional dynamics typical of ferromagnetic resonance. Complete stability diagrams are derived for the case where spin torques and external magnetic fields are simultaneously present. Quantitative predictions are made for the critical currents and fields inducing magnetization switching; for the amplitude and frequency of magnetization self-oscillations; for the conditions leading to hysteretic transitions between self-oscillations and stationary states
Krause, S; Herzog, G; Schlenhoff, A; Sonntag, A; Wiesendanger, R
2011-10-28
The influence of a high spin-polarized tunnel current onto the switching behavior of a superparamagnetic nanoisland on a nonmagnetic substrate is investigated by means of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. A detailed lifetime analysis allows for a quantification of the effective temperature rise of the nanoisland and the modification of the activation energy barrier for magnetization reversal, thereby using the nanoisland as a local thermometer and spin-transfer torque analyzer. Both the Joule heating and spin-transfer torque are found to scale linearly with the tunnel current. The results are compared to experiments performed on lithographically fabricated magneto-tunnel junctions, revealing a very high spin-transfer torque switching efficiency in our experiments.
Železný, J.
2017-01-10
One of the main obstacles that prevents practical applications of antiferromagnets is the difficulty of manipulating the magnetic order parameter. Recently, following the theoretical prediction [J. Železný, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 157201 (2014)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.157201, the electrical switching of magnetic moments in an antiferromagnet was demonstrated [P. Wadley, Science 351, 587 (2016)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aab1031. The switching is due to the so-called spin-orbit torque, which has been extensively studied in ferromagnets. In this phenomena a nonequilibrium spin-polarization exchange coupled to the ordered local moments is induced by current, hence exerting a torque on the order parameter. Here we give a general systematic analysis of the symmetry of the spin-orbit torque in locally and globally noncentrosymmetric crystals. We study when the symmetry allows for a nonzero torque, when is the torque effective, and its dependence on the applied current direction and orientation of magnetic moments. For comparison, we consider both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders. In two representative model crystals we perform microscopic calculations of the spin-orbit torque to illustrate its symmetry properties and to highlight conditions under which the spin-orbit torque can be efficient for manipulating antiferromagnetic moments.
Železný , J.; Gao, H.; Manchon, Aurelien; Freimuth, Frank; Mokrousov, Yuriy; Zemen, J.; Mašek, J.; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, T.
2017-01-01
One of the main obstacles that prevents practical applications of antiferromagnets is the difficulty of manipulating the magnetic order parameter. Recently, following the theoretical prediction [J. Železný, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 157201 (2014)]PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.157201, the electrical switching of magnetic moments in an antiferromagnet was demonstrated [P. Wadley, Science 351, 587 (2016)]SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.aab1031. The switching is due to the so-called spin-orbit torque, which has been extensively studied in ferromagnets. In this phenomena a nonequilibrium spin-polarization exchange coupled to the ordered local moments is induced by current, hence exerting a torque on the order parameter. Here we give a general systematic analysis of the symmetry of the spin-orbit torque in locally and globally noncentrosymmetric crystals. We study when the symmetry allows for a nonzero torque, when is the torque effective, and its dependence on the applied current direction and orientation of magnetic moments. For comparison, we consider both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic orders. In two representative model crystals we perform microscopic calculations of the spin-orbit torque to illustrate its symmetry properties and to highlight conditions under which the spin-orbit torque can be efficient for manipulating antiferromagnetic moments.
Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques
Baumgartner, Manuel; Garello, Kevin; Mendil, Johannes; Avci, Can O.; Grimaldi, Eva; Murer, Christoph; Feng, Junxiao; Gabureac, Mihai; Stamm, Christian; Acremann, Yves; Finizio, Simone; Wintz, Sebastian; Raabe, Jörg; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-01-01
Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) represent one of the most effective ways to manipulate the magnetization in spintronic devices. The orthogonal torque-magnetization geometry, the strong damping, and the large domain wall velocities inherent to materials with strong spin-orbit coupling make SOTs especially appealing for fast switching applications in nonvolatile memory and logic units. So far, however, the timescale and evolution of the magnetization during the switching process have ...
Spin-excited oscillations in two-component fermion condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Bertsch, George F.
2006-01-01
We investigate collective spin excitations in two-component fermion condensates with special consideration of unequal populations of the two components. The frequencies of monopole and dipole modes are calculated using Thomas-Fermi theory and the scaling approximation. As the fermion-fermion coupling is varied, the system shows various phases of the spin configuration. We demonstrate that spin oscillations have more sensitivity to the spin phase structures than the density oscillations
Stability analysis of perpendicular magnetic trilayers with a field-like spin torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Ri-Xing; Zhao, Jing-Li; He, Peng-Bin; Gu, Guan-Nan; Li, Zai-Dong; Pan, An-Lian; Liu, Quan-Hui
2013-01-01
We have analytically studied the magnetization dynamics in magnetic trilayers with perpendicular anisotropy for both free and pinned layers. By linear stability analysis, we obtain the phase diagram parameterized by the current, magnetic field and relative strength of the field-like spin torque to Slonczewski torque. Under the control of the current and external magnetic field, several magnetic states, such as quasi-parallel and quasi-antiparallel stable states, out-of-plane precession, and bistable states can be realized. The precession frequency can be expressed as a function of the current and external magnetic field. In addition, the presence of field-like spin torque can change the switching current and precession frequency. - Highlights: ► The phase diagram is obtained by linear stability analysis. ► The precession frequency can be controlled by the current and magnetic field. ► Field-like spin torque can change instability current and precession frequency.
Signatures of asymmetric and inelastic tunneling on the spin torque bias dependence
Manchon, Aurelien; Zhang, S.; Lee, K.-J.
2010-01-01
The influence of structural asymmetries (barrier height and exchange splitting), as well as inelastic scattering (magnons and phonons) on the bias dependence of the spin transfer torque in a magnetic tunnel junction is studied theoretically using the free-electron model. We show that they modify the “conventional” bias dependence of the spin transfer torque, together with the bias dependence of the conductance. In particular, both structural asymmetries and bulk (inelastic) scattering add antisymmetric terms to the perpendicular torque (∝V and ∝je|V|) while the interfacial inelastic scattering conserves the junction symmetry and only produces symmetric terms (∝|V|n, n∊N). The analysis of spin torque and conductance measurements displays a signature revealing the origin (asymmetry or inelastic scattering) of the discrepancy.
Signatures of asymmetric and inelastic tunneling on the spin torque bias dependence
Manchon, Aurelien
2010-11-15
The influence of structural asymmetries (barrier height and exchange splitting), as well as inelastic scattering (magnons and phonons) on the bias dependence of the spin transfer torque in a magnetic tunnel junction is studied theoretically using the free-electron model. We show that they modify the “conventional” bias dependence of the spin transfer torque, together with the bias dependence of the conductance. In particular, both structural asymmetries and bulk (inelastic) scattering add antisymmetric terms to the perpendicular torque (∝V and ∝je|V|) while the interfacial inelastic scattering conserves the junction symmetry and only produces symmetric terms (∝|V|n, n∊N). The analysis of spin torque and conductance measurements displays a signature revealing the origin (asymmetry or inelastic scattering) of the discrepancy.
Analytical Prediction of the Spin Stabilized Satellite's Attitude Using The Solar Radiation Torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motta, G B; Carvalho, M V; Zanardi, M C
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present an analytical solution for the spin motion equations of spin-stabilized satellite considering only the influence of solar radiation torque. The theory uses a cylindrical satellite on a circular orbit and considers that the satellite is always illuminated. The average components of this torque were determined over an orbital period. These components are substituted in the spin motion equations in order to get an analytical solution for the right ascension and declination of the satellite spin axis. The time evolution for the pointing deviation of the spin axis was also analyzed. These solutions were numerically implemented and compared with real data of the Brazilian Satellite of Data Collection – SCD1 an SCD2. The results show that the theory has consistency and can be applied to predict the spin motion of spin-stabilized artificial satellites
Nanoconstriction spin-Hall oscillator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy
Divinskiy, B.; Demidov, V. E.; Kozhanov, A.; Rinkevich, A. B.; Demokritov, S. O.; Urazhdin, S.
2017-07-01
We experimentally study spin-Hall nano-oscillators based on [Co/Ni] multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We show that these devices exhibit single-frequency auto-oscillations at current densities comparable to those for in-plane magnetized oscillators. The demonstrated oscillators exhibit large magnetization precession amplitudes, and their oscillation frequency is highly tunable by the electric current. These features make them promising for applications in high-speed integrated microwave circuits.
Exchange magnetic field torques in YIG/Pt bilayers observed by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance
Vlietstra, N.; Shan, J.; Castel, V.; Ben Youssef, J.; Bauer, G. E. W.; van Wees, B. J.
2013-01-01
The effective field torque of an yttrium-iron-garnet (YIG) film on the spin accumulation in an attached platinum (Pt) film is measured by the spin-Hall magnetoresistance (SMR). As a result, the magnetization direction of a ferromagnetic insulating layer can be measured electrically. Experimental
Out-of-plane spin-transfer torques: First-principles study
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Carva, K.; Turek, Ilja
2010-01-01
Roč. 322, 9-12 (2010), s. 1085-1087 ISSN 0304-8853. [Joint European Magnetic Symposia /4./. Dublin, 14.09.2008-19.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : spin-transfer torque * spin-mixing conductance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.689, year: 2010
Yuan, Z.; Kelly, Paul J.
2016-01-01
To study the effect of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) on spin-transfer torque in magnetic materials, we have implemented two theoretical formalisms that can accommodate SOC. Using the “charge-pumping” formalism, we find two contributions to the out-of-plane spin-transfer torque parameter β in ballistic
Voltage-driven versus current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunneling junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-01-01
Nonequilibrium spin transport in a magnetic tunnel junction comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is studied theoretically. The interfacial SOI generates a spin torque of the form T=T∥ M×(z× M)+T⊥ z× M, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. For thick and large tunnel barriers, the torque reduces to the perpendicular component T⊥, which can be electrically tuned by applying a voltage across the insulator. In the limit of thin and low tunnel barriers, the in-plane torque T∥ emerges, proportional to the tunneling current density. Experimental implications on magnetic devices are discussed. © 2011 IEEE.
Effect of rare earth metal on the spin-orbit torque in magnetic heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ueda, Kohei; Pai, Chi-Feng; Tan, Aik Jun; Mann, Maxwell; Beach, Geoffrey S. D., E-mail: gbeach@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)
2016-06-06
We report the effect of the rare earth metal Gd on current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Gd heterostructures, characterized using harmonic measurements and spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR). By varying the Gd metal layer thickness from 0 nm to 8 nm, harmonic measurements reveal a significant enhancement of the effective fields generated from the Slonczewski-like and field-like torques. ST-FMR measurements confirm an enhanced effective spin Hall angle and show a corresponding increase in the magnetic damping constant with increasing Gd thickness. These results suggest that Gd plays an active role in generating SOTs in these heterostructures. Our finding may lead to spin-orbitronics device application such as non-volatile magnetic random access memory, based on rare earth metals.
Voltage-driven versus current-driven spin torque in anisotropic tunneling junctions
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-10-01
Nonequilibrium spin transport in a magnetic tunnel junction comprising a single magnetic layer in the presence of interfacial spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is studied theoretically. The interfacial SOI generates a spin torque of the form T=T∥ M×(z× M)+T⊥ z× M, even in the absence of an external spin polarizer. For thick and large tunnel barriers, the torque reduces to the perpendicular component T⊥, which can be electrically tuned by applying a voltage across the insulator. In the limit of thin and low tunnel barriers, the in-plane torque T∥ emerges, proportional to the tunneling current density. Experimental implications on magnetic devices are discussed. © 2011 IEEE.
Theory of in-plane current induced spin torque in metal/ferromagnet bilayers
Sakanashi, Kohei; Sigrist, Manfred; Chen, Wei
2018-05-01
Using a semiclassical approach that simultaneously incorporates the spin Hall effect (SHE), spin diffusion, quantum well states, and interface spin–orbit coupling (SOC), we address the interplay of these mechanisms as the origin of the spin–orbit torque (SOT) induced by in-plane currents, as observed in the normal metal/ferromagnetic metal bilayer thin films. Focusing on the bilayers with a ferromagnet much thinner than its spin diffusion length, such as Pt/Co with ∼10 nm thickness, our approach addresses simultaneously the two contributions to the SOT, namely the spin-transfer torque (SHE-STT) due to SHE-induced spin injection, and the inverse spin Galvanic effect spin–orbit torque (ISGE-SOT) due to SOC-induced spin accumulation. The SOC produces an effective magnetic field at the interface, hence it modifies the angular momentum conservation expected for the SHE-STT. The SHE-induced spin voltage and the interface spin current are mutually dependent and, hence, are solved in a self-consistent manner. The result suggests that the SHE-STT and ISGE-SOT are of the same order of magnitude, and the spin transport mediated by the quantum well states may be an important mechanism for the experimentally observed rapid variation of the SOT with respect to the thickness of the ferromagnet.
Critical current density for spin transfer torque switching with composite free layer structure
You, Chun-Yeol
2009-01-01
Critical current density of composite free layer (CFL) in magnetic tunneling junction is investigated. CFL consists of two exchange coupled ferromagnetic layers, where the coupling is parallel or anti-parallel. Instability condition of the CFL under the spin transfer torque, which is related with critical current density, is obtained by analytic spin wave excitation model and confirmed by macro-spin Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. The critical current densities for the coupled two identical...
Dependence of the Spin Transfer Torque Switching Current Density on the Exchange Stiffness Constant
You, Chun-Yeol
2012-01-01
We investigate the dependence of the switching current density on the exchange stiffness constant in the spin transfer torque magnetic tunneling junction structure with micromagnetic simulations. Since the widely accepted analytic expression of the switching current density is based on the macro-spin model, there is no dependence of the exchange stiffness constant. When the switching is occurred, however, the spin configuration forms C-, S-type, or complicated domain structures. Since the spi...
Hybrid spin-nanomechanics with single spins in diamond mechanical oscillators
Barfuss, Arne
2017-01-01
Hybrid spin-oscillator systems, formed by single spins coupled to mechanical oscillators, have attracted ever-increasing attention over the past few years, triggered largely by the prospect of employing such devices as high-performance nanoscale sensors or transducers in multi-qubit networks. Provided the spin-oscillator coupling is strong and robust, such systems can even serve as test-beds for studying macroscopic objects in the quantum regime. In this thesis we present a novel hybrid sp...
Room-Temperature Spin-Orbit Torque Switching Induced by a Topological Insulator
Han, Jiahao; Richardella, A.; Siddiqui, Saima A.; Finley, Joseph; Samarth, N.; Liu, Luqiao
2017-08-01
The strongly spin-momentum coupled electronic states in topological insulators (TI) have been extensively pursued to realize efficient magnetic switching. However, previous studies show a large discrepancy of the charge-spin conversion efficiency. Moreover, current-induced magnetic switching with TI can only be observed at cryogenic temperatures. We report spin-orbit torque switching in a TI-ferrimagnet heterostructure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at room temperature. The obtained effective spin Hall angle of TI is substantially larger than the previously studied heavy metals. Our results demonstrate robust charge-spin conversion in TI and provide a direct avenue towards applicable TI-based spintronic devices.
Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-07-07
We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.
Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators
Ndiaye, Papa Birame; Akosa, Collins Ashu; Fischer, M. H.; Vaezi, A.; Kim, E.-A.; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.
Dirac spin-orbit torques and charge pumping at the surface of topological insulators
Ndiaye, Papa B.; Akosa, C. A.; Fischer, M. H.; Vaezi, A.; Kim, E.-A.; Manchon, A.
2017-07-01
We address the nature of spin-orbit torques at the magnetic surfaces of topological insulators using the linear-response theory. We find that the so-called Dirac torques in such systems possess a different symmetry compared to their Rashba counterpart, as well as a high anisotropy as a function of the magnetization direction. In particular, the damping torque vanishes when the magnetization lies in the plane of the topological-insulator surface. We also show that the Onsager reciprocal of the spin-orbit torque, the charge pumping, induces an enhanced anisotropic damping. Via a macrospin model, we numerically demonstrate that these features have important consequences in terms of magnetization switching.
Spin torque switching of 20 nm magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular anisotropy
Gajek, M.; Nowak, J. J.; Sun, J. Z.; Trouilloud, P. L.; O'Sullivan, E. J.; Abraham, D. W.; Gaidis, M. C.; Hu, G.; Brown, S.; Zhu, Y.; Robertazzi, R. P.; Gallagher, W. J.; Worledge, D. C.
2012-03-01
Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is one of the most promising emerging non-volatile memory technologies. MRAM has so far been demonstrated with a unique combination of density, speed, and non-volatility in a single chip, however, without the capability to replace any single mainstream memory. In this paper, we demonstrate the basic physics of spin torque switching in 20 nm diameter magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials. This deep scaling capability clearly indicates the STT MRAM device itself may be suitable for integration at much higher densities than previously proven.
Fractional Josephson vortices: oscillating macroscopic spins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaber, T.; Buckenmaier, K.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Goldobin, E. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II, Tuebingen (Germany)
2007-11-15
Fractional Josephson vortices carry a magnetic flux {phi}, which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. We consider a fractional vortex which spontaneously appears at a phase discontinuity. Its properties are very different from the properties of the usual integer fluxon. In particular, a fractional vortex is pinned and may have one of two possible polarities - just like a usual spin 1/2 particle. The fractional vortex may also oscillate around its equilibrium position with an eigenfrequency which is expected to be within the Josephson plasma gap. Using microwave spectroscopy, we investigate the dependence of the eigenfrequency of a fractional Josephson vortex on its magnetic flux {phi} and on the bias current. The experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Positive result of this experiment is a cornerstone for further investigation of more complex fractional vortex systems such as fractional vortex molecules and tunable bandgap materials. (orig.)
Minimal model of spin-transfer torque and spin pumping caused by the spin Hall Effect
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chen, W.; Sigrist, M.; Sinova, Jairo; Manske, D.
2016-01-01
Roč. 115, č. 21 (2016), 1-5, č. článku 217203. ISSN 0031-9007 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * spin Hall effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Fang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We experimentally studied spin-transfer-torque induced magnetization oscillations in an asymmetric MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction device consisting of an in-plane magnetized free layer and an out-of-plane magnetized polarizer. A steady auto-oscillation was achieved at zero magnetic field and room temperature, with an oscillation frequency that was strongly dependent on bias currents, with a large frequency tunability of 1.39 GHz/mA. Our results suggest that this new structure has a high potential for new microwave device designs.
Phase dynamics of oscillating magnetizations coupled via spin pumping
Taniguchi, Tomohiro
2018-05-01
A theoretical formalism is developed to simultaneously solve equation of motion of the magnetizations in two ferromagnets and the spin-pumping induced spin transport equation. Based on the formalism, a coupled motion of the magnetizations in a self-oscillation state is studied. The spin pumping is found to induce an in-phase synchronization of the magnetizations for the oscillation around the easy axis. For an out-of-plane self-oscillation around the hard axis, on the other hand, the spin pumping leads to an in-phase synchronization in a small current region, whereas an antiphase synchronization is excited in a large current region. An analytical theory based on the phase equation reveals that the phase difference between the magnetizations in a steady state depends on the oscillation direction, clockwise or counterclockwise, of the magnetizations.
Yasuda, K.; Tsukazaki, A.; Yoshimi, R.; Kondou, K.; Takahashi, K. S.; Otani, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.
2017-09-01
The current-nonlinear Hall effect or second harmonic Hall voltage is widely used as one of the methods for estimating charge-spin conversion efficiency, which is attributed to the magnetization oscillation by spin-orbit torque (SOT). Here, we argue the second harmonic Hall voltage under a large in-plane magnetic field with an in-plane magnetization configuration in magnetic-nonmagnetic topological insulator (TI) heterostructures, Crx (Bi1 -ySby )2 -xTe3 /(Bi1 -ySby )2Te3 , where it is clearly shown that the large second harmonic voltage is governed not by SOT but mainly by asymmetric magnon scattering without macroscopic magnetization oscillation. Thus, this method does not allow an accurate estimation of charge-spin conversion efficiency in TI. Instead, the SOT contribution is exemplified by current pulse induced nonvolatile magnetization switching, which is realized with a current density of 2.5 ×1010 A m-2 , showing its potential as a spintronic material.
Ultrafast spin exchange-coupling torque via photo-excited charge-transfer processes
Ma, X.; Fang, F.; Li, Q.; Zhu, J.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Y. Z.; Zhao, H. B.; Lüpke, G.
2015-10-01
Optical control of spin is of central importance in the research of ultrafast spintronic devices utilizing spin dynamics at short time scales. Recently developed optical approaches such as ultrafast demagnetization, spin-transfer and spin-orbit torques open new pathways to manipulate spin through its interaction with photon, orbit, charge or phonon. However, these processes are limited by either the long thermal recovery time or the low-temperature requirement. Here we experimentally demonstrate ultrafast coherent spin precession via optical charge-transfer processes in the exchange-coupled Fe/CoO system at room temperature. The efficiency of spin precession excitation is significantly higher and the recovery time of the exchange-coupling torque is much shorter than for the demagnetization procedure, which is desirable for fast switching. The exchange coupling is a key issue in spin valves and tunnelling junctions, and hence our findings will help promote the development of exchange-coupled device concepts for ultrafast coherent spin manipulation.
Influence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction on the spin-torque diode effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomasello, R., E-mail: tomasello@deis.unical.it [Department of Computer Science, Modelling, Electronics, and System Science, University of Calabria, Rende, CS (Italy); Carpentieri, M. [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy)
2014-05-07
This paper predicts the effect of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and spin Hall effect in the spin-torque diode response of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction built over a Tantalum strip. Our results indicate that, for a microwave current large enough, the DMI can change qualitatively the resonant response by splitting the ferromagnetic resonance peak. We also find out that the two modes have a non-uniform spatial distribution.
Influence of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction on the spin-torque diode effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomasello, R.; Carpentieri, M.; Finocchio, G.
2014-01-01
This paper predicts the effect of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and spin Hall effect in the spin-torque diode response of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction built over a Tantalum strip. Our results indicate that, for a microwave current large enough, the DMI can change qualitatively the resonant response by splitting the ferromagnetic resonance peak. We also find out that the two modes have a non-uniform spatial distribution
Spin-transfer torques in antiferromagnetic textures: efficiency and quantification method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Yamane, Y.; Ieda, J.; Sinova, Jairo
2016-01-01
Roč. 94, č. 5 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 054409. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin-transfer torques * antiferromagnets Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016
Scanning-SQUID investigation of spin-orbit torque acting on yttrium iron garnet devices
Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Jermain, Colin L.; Aradhya, Sriharsha V.; Brangham, Jack T.; Nowack, Katja C.; Kirtley, John R.; Yang, Fengyuan; Ralph, Daniel C.; Moler, Kathryn A.
Successful manipulation of electrically insulating magnets, such as yttrium iron garnet, by by current-driven spin-orbit torques could provide a highly efficient platform for spintronic memory. Compared to devices fabricated using magnetic metals, magnetic insulators have the advantage of the ultra-low magnetic damping and the elimination of shunting currents in the magnet that reduce the torque efficiency. Here, we apply current in the spin Hall metal β-Ta to manipulate the magnetic orientation of micron-sized, electrically-insulating yttrium iron garnet devices. We do not observe spin-torque switching even for applied currents well above the critical current expected in a macrospin switching model. This suggests either inefficient transfer of spin torque at our Ta/YIG interface or a breakdown of the macrospin approximation. This work is supported by FAME, one of six centers of STARnet sponsored by MARCO and DARPA. The SQUID microscope and sensors were developed with support from the NSF-sponsored Center NSF-NSEC 0830228, and from NSF IMR-MIP 0957616.
Motion of the hot spot and spin torque in accreting millisecond pulsars
Patruno, A.
2008-01-01
The primary concern of this contribution is that accreting millisecond pulsars (AMXPs) show a much larger amount of information than is commonly believed. The three questions to be addressed are: 1. Is the apparent spin torque observed in AMXPs real ? 2. Why do we see correlations and
Field-free deterministic ultrafast creation of magnetic skyrmions by spin-orbit torques
Büttner, Felix; Lemesh, Ivan; Schneider, Michael; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M.; Hessing, Piet; Geilhufe, Jan; Caretta, Lucas; Engel, Dieter; Krüger, Benjamin; Viefhaus, Jens; Eisebitt, Stefan; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.
2017-11-01
Magnetic skyrmions are stabilized by a combination of external magnetic fields, stray field energies, higher-order exchange interactions and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). The last favours homochiral skyrmions, whose motion is driven by spin-orbit torques and is deterministic, which makes systems with a large DMI relevant for applications. Asymmetric multilayers of non-magnetic heavy metals with strong spin-orbit interactions and transition-metal ferromagnetic layers provide a large and tunable DMI. Also, the non-magnetic heavy metal layer can inject a vertical spin current with transverse spin polarization into the ferromagnetic layer via the spin Hall effect. This leads to torques that can be used to switch the magnetization completely in out-of-plane magnetized ferromagnetic elements, but the switching is deterministic only in the presence of a symmetry-breaking in-plane field. Although spin-orbit torques led to domain nucleation in continuous films and to stochastic nucleation of skyrmions in magnetic tracks, no practical means to create individual skyrmions controllably in an integrated device design at a selected position has been reported yet. Here we demonstrate that sub-nanosecond spin-orbit torque pulses can generate single skyrmions at custom-defined positions in a magnetic racetrack deterministically using the same current path as used for the shifting operation. The effect of the DMI implies that no external in-plane magnetic fields are needed for this aim. This implementation exploits a defect, such as a constriction in the magnetic track, that can serve as a skyrmion generator. The concept is applicable to any track geometry, including three-dimensional designs.
Wu, Yang; Narayanapillai, Kulothungasagaran; Elyasi, Mehrdad; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo
2016-10-01
The efficient generation of pure spin currents and manipulation of the magnetization dynamics of magnetic structures is of central importance in the field of spintronics. The spin-orbit effect is one of the promising ways to generate spin currents, in which a charge current can be converted to a transverse spin current due to the spin-orbit interaction. We investigate the spin dynamics in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling materials such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3 oxide heterostructures. Angle dependent magnetoresistance measurements are employed to detect and understand the current-induced spin-orbit torques, and an effective field of 2.35 T is observed for a dc-current of 200 uA. In order to understand the interaction between light and spin currents, we use a femtosecond laser to excite an ultrafast transient spin current and subsequent terahertz (THz) emission in nonmagnet (NM)/ferromagnet (FM)/oxide heterostructures. The THz emission strongly relies on spin-orbit interaction, and is tailored by the magnitude and sign of the effective spin Hall angle of the NM. Our results can be utilized for ultrafast spintronic devices and tunable THz sources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichimura, M; Hamada, T; Imamura, H; Takahashi, S; Maekawa, S
2010-01-01
Based on a spin-polarized free-electron model, spin and charge transports are analyzed in magnetic tunnel junctions with synthetic ferrimagnetic layers in the ballistic regime, and the spin transfer torque is derived. We characterize the synthetic ferrimagnetic free layer by extending an arbitrary direction of magnetizations of the two free layers forming the synthetic ferrimagnetic free layer. The synthetic ferrimagnetic configuration exerts the approximately optimum torque for small magnetization angle of the first layer relative to that of the pinned layer. For approximately anti-parallel magnetization of the first layer to that of the pinned layer, the parallel magnetization of two magnetic layers is favorable for magnetization reversal rather than the synthetic ferrimagnetic configuration.
Enhanced spin transfer torque effect for transverse domain walls in cylindrical nanowires
Franchin, Matteo; Knittel, Andreas; Albert, Maximilian; Chernyshenko, Dmitri S.; Fischbacher, Thomas; Prabhakar, Anil; Fangohr, Hans
2011-09-01
Recent studies have predicted extraordinary properties for transverse domain walls in cylindrical nanowires: zero depinning current, the absence of the Walker breakdown, and applications as domain wall oscillators. In order to reliably control the domain wall motion, it is important to understand how they interact with pinning centers, which may be engineered, for example, through modulations in the nanowire geometry (such as notches or extrusions) or in the magnetic properties of the material. In this paper we study the motion and depinning of transverse domain walls through pinning centers in ferromagnetic cylindrical nanowires. We use (i) magnetic fields and (ii) spin-polarized currents to drive the domain walls along the wire. The pinning centers are modelled as a section of the nanowire which exhibits a uniaxial crystal anisotropy where the anisotropy easy axis and the wire axis enclose a variable angle θP. Using (i) magnetic fields, we find that the minimum and the maximum fields required to push the domain wall through the pinning center differ by 30%. On the contrary, using (ii) spin-polarized currents, we find variations of a factor 130 between the minimum value of the depinning current density (observed for θP=0∘, i.e., anisotropy axis pointing parallel to the wire axis) and the maximum value (for θP=90∘, i.e., anisotropy axis perpendicular to the wire axis). We study the depinning current density as a function of the height of the energy barrier of the pinning center using numerical and analytical methods. We find that for an industry standard energy barrier of 40kBT, a depinning current of about 5μA (corresponding to a current density of 6×1010A/m2 in a nanowire of 10nm diameter) is sufficient to depin the domain wall. We reveal and explain the mechanism that leads to these unusually low depinning currents. One requirement for this depinning mechanism is for the domain wall to be able to rotate around its own axis. With the right barrier design
Giant spin torque in hybrids with anisotropic p-d exchange interaction
Korenev, V. L.
2014-03-01
Control of magnetic domain wall movement by the spin-polarized current looks promising for creation of a new generation of magnetic memory devices. A necessary condition for this is the domain wall shift by a low-density current. Here, I show that a strongly anisotropic exchange interaction between mobile heavy holes and localized magnetic moments enormously increases the current-induced torque on the domain wall as compared to systems with isotropic exchange. This enables one to control the domain wall motion by current density 104 A/cm2 in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids. The experimental observation of the anisotropic torque will facilitate the integration of ferromagnetism into semiconductor electronics.
Hirayama, Shigeyuki; Mitani, Seiji; Otani, YoshiChika; Kasai, Shinya
2018-06-01
We examined the spin-Hall-induced spin torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) in platinum/permalloy bilayer thin films under bias direct current (DC). The bias DC modulated the symmetric components of the ST-FMR spectra, while no dominant modulation was found in the antisymmetric components. A detailed analysis in combination with simple model calculations clarified that the major origin of the modulation can be attributed to the DC resistance change under the precessional motion of magnetization. This effect is the second order contribution for the precession angle, even though the contribution can be comparable to the rectification voltage under some specific conditions.
Mechanical torques generated by optically pumped atomic spin relaxation at surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herman, R.M.
1982-01-01
It is argued that a valuable method of observing certain types of surface-atom interactions may lie in mechanical torques generated through the spin-orbit relaxation of valence electronic spins of optically pumped atoms at surfaces. The unusual feature of this phenomenon is that the less probable spin-orbit relaxation becomes highly visible as compared with the much more rapid paramagnetic relaxation, because of an enhancement, typically by as much as a factor 10 9 , in the torques delivered to mechanical structures, by virtue of a very large effective moment arm. Spin-orbit relaxation operates through an exchange of translational momentum which, in turn, can be identified with the delivery of a gigantic angular momentum (in units of h) relative to a distant axis about which mechanical motion is referred. The spin-orbit relaxation strongly depends upon the atomic number of the surface atoms and the strength of interaction with the optically pumped atoms. Being dominated by high-atomic-number surface atoms, spin-orbit relaxation rates may not be too strongly influenced by minor surface contamination of lighter-weight optically active atoms
Mechanical torques generated by optically pumped atomic spin relaxation at surfaces
Herman, R. M.
1982-03-01
It is argued that a valuable method of observing certain types of surface-atom interactions may lie in mechanical torques generated through the spin-orbit relaxation of valence electronic spins of optically pumped atoms at surfaces. The unusual feature of this phenomenon is that the less probable spin-orbit relaxation becomes highly visible as compared with the much more rapid paramagnetic relaxation, because of an enhancement, typically by as much as a factor 109, in the torques delivered to mechanical structures, by virtue of a very large effective moment arm. Spin-orbit relaxation operates through an exchange of translational momentum which, in turn, can be identified with the delivery of a gigantic angular momentum (in units of ℏ) relative to a distant axis about which mechanical motion is referred. The spin-orbit relaxation strongly depends upon the atomic number of the surface atoms and the strength of interaction with the optically pumped atoms. Being dominated by high-atomic-number surface atoms, spin-orbit-relaxation rates may not be too strongly influenced by minor surface contamination of lighter-weight optically active atoms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader
2016-01-01
We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching. - Highlights: • The quantum size effects are studied in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. • Spin torque (ST) components oscillate for increasing of middle spacer thicknesses. • Due to the resonant tunneling in the quantum well, oscillations have appeared. • By replacement a metal spacer with a semiconductor (ZnO) ST has increased. • The ST components vs. bias show gradually decreasing unlike spin valves or MTJs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daqiq, Reza; Ghobadi, Nader
2016-07-15
We study the quantum size effects of an MgO-based double barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nonmagnetic-metal (DBMTJ-NM) (semiconductor (DBMTJ-SC)) spacer on the charge current and the spin-transfer torque (STT) components using non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism. The results show oscillatory behavior due to the resonant tunneling effect depending on the structure parameters. We find that the charge current and the STT components in the DBMTJ-SC demonstrate the magnitude enhancement in comparison with the DBMTJ-NM. The bias dependence of the STT components in a DBMTJ-NM shows different behavior in comparison with spin valves and conventional MTJs. Therefore, by choosing a specific SC spacer with suitable thickness in a DBMTJ the charge current and the STT components significantly increase so that one can design a device with high STT and faster magnetization switching. - Highlights: • The quantum size effects are studied in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions. • Spin torque (ST) components oscillate for increasing of middle spacer thicknesses. • Due to the resonant tunneling in the quantum well, oscillations have appeared. • By replacement a metal spacer with a semiconductor (ZnO) ST has increased. • The ST components vs. bias show gradually decreasing unlike spin valves or MTJs.
Possible evidence for spin-transfer torque induced by spin-triplet supercurrent
Li, Lailai; Zhao, Yuelei; Zhang, Xixiang; Sun, Young
2017-01-01
Cooper pairs in superconductors are normally spin singlet. Nevertheless, recent studies suggest that spin-triplet Cooper pairs can be created at carefully engineered superconductor-ferromagnet interfaces. If Cooper pairs are spin
Experimental observation of the optical spin transfer torque
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Němec, P.; Rozkotová, E.; Tesařová, N.; Trojánek, F.; De Ranieri, E.; Olejník, Kamil; Zemen, Jan; Novák, Vít; Cukr, Miroslav; Malý, P.; Jungwirth, Tomáš
2012-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 411-415 ISSN 1745-2473 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/09/H041; GA MŠk LC510 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN; European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magneto-optics * magnetization dynamics * ferromagnetic semiconductors Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 19.352, year: 2012 http://arxiv.org/abs/1201.1436
Experimental observation of the optical spin-orbit torque
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tesařová, N.; Němec, P.; Rozkotová, E.; Zemen, Jan; Janda, T.; Butkovičová, D.; Trojánek, F.; Olejník, Kamil; Novák, Vít; Malý, P.; Jungwirth, Tomáš
2013-01-01
Roč. 7, Jun (2013), s. 493-499 ISSN 1749-4885 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GD202/09/H041 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN; European Commission(XE) 215368 - SemiSpinNet Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Keywords : ferromagnetic semiconductor * magneto-optical spectroscopy Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 29.958, year: 2013
Dynamics of chiral oscillations: a comparative analysis with spin flipping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernardini, A E
2006-01-01
Chiral oscillation as well as spin flipping effects correspond to quantum phenomena of fundamental importance in the context of particle physics and, in particular, of neutrino physics. From the point of view of first quantized theories, we are specifically interested in pointing out the differences between chirality and helicity by obtaining their dynamic equations for a fermionic Dirac-type particle (neutrino). We also identify both effects when the non-minimal coupling with an external (electro)magnetic field in the neutrino interacting Lagrangian is taken into account. We demonstrate that, however, there is no constraint between chiral oscillations, when it takes place in vacuum, and the process of spin flipping related to the helicity quantum number, which does not take place in vacuum. To conclude, we show that the origin of chiral oscillations (in vacuum) can be interpreted as projections of very rapid oscillations of position onto the longitudinal direction of momentum
Negative optical spin torque wrench of a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitri, F.G.
2016-01-01
An absorptive Rayleigh dielectric sphere in a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam experiences a spin torque. The axial and transverse radiation spin torque components are evaluated in the dipole approximation using the radiative correction of the electric field. Particular emphasis is given on the polarization as well as changing the topological charge α and the half-cone angle of the beam. When α is zero, the axial spin torque component vanishes. However, when α becomes a real positive number, the vortex beam induces left-handed (negative) axial spin torque as the sphere shifts off-axially from the center of the beam. The results show that a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam is capable of inducing a spin reversal of an absorptive Rayleigh sphere placed arbitrarily in its path. Potential applications are yet to be explored in particle manipulation, rotation in optical tweezers, optical tractor beams, and the design of optically-engineered metamaterials to name a few areas. - Highlights: • Optical nondiffracting nonparaxial fractional Bessel vortex beam is considered. • Negative spin torque on an absorptive dielectric Rayleigh sphere is predicted numerically. • Negative spin torque occurs as the sphere departs from the center of the beam.
Burst Oscillations: A New Spin on Neutron Stars
Strohmayer, Tod
2007-01-01
Observations with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) have shown that the X-ray flux during thermonuclear X-ray bursts fr-om accreting neutron stars is often strongly pulsed at frequencies as high as 620 Hz. We now know that these oscillations are produced by spin modulation of the thermonuclear flux from the neutron star surface. In addition to revealing the spin frequency, they provide new ways to probe the properties and physics of accreting neutron stars. I will briefly review our current observational and theoretical understanding of these oscillations and discuss what they are telling us about neutron stars.
Nonadiabatic Spin Torque Investigated Using Thermally Activated Magnetic Domain Wall Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eltschka, M.; Woetzel, Mathias; Rhensius, J.
2010-01-01
of the DW as a quasiparticle in a one-dimensional potential landscape. By injecting small currents, the potential is modified, allowing for the determination of the nonadiabatic spin torque: βt=0.010±0.004 for a transverse DW and βv=0.073±0.026 for a vortex DW. The larger value is attributed to the higher...
Spatially and time-resolved magnetization dynamics driven by spin-orbit torques
Baumgartner, Manuel; Garello, Kevin; Mendil, Johannes; Avci, Can Onur; Grimaldi, Eva; Murer, Christoph; Feng, Junxiao; Gabureac, Mihai; Stamm, Christian; Acremann, Yves; Finizio, Simone; Wintz, Sebastian; Raabe, Jörg; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-10-01
Current-induced spin-orbit torques are one of the most effective ways to manipulate the magnetization in spintronic devices, and hold promise for fast switching applications in non-volatile memory and logic units. Here, we report the direct observation of spin-orbit-torque-driven magnetization dynamics in Pt/Co/AlOx dots during current pulse injection. Time-resolved X-ray images with 25 nm spatial and 100 ps temporal resolution reveal that switching is achieved within the duration of a subnanosecond current pulse by the fast nucleation of an inverted domain at the edge of the dot and propagation of a tilted domain wall across the dot. The nucleation point is deterministic and alternates between the four dot quadrants depending on the sign of the magnetization, current and external field. Our measurements reveal how the magnetic symmetry is broken by the concerted action of the damping-like and field-like spin-orbit torques and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, and show that reproducible switching events can be obtained for over 1012 reversal cycles.
Multi-photon Rabi oscillations in high spin paramagnetic impurity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertaina, S; Groll, N; Chen, L; Chiorescu, I
2011-01-01
We report on multiple photon monochromatic quantum oscillations (Rabi oscillations) observed by pulsed EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) of Mn 2+ (S = 5/2) impurities in MgO. We find that when the microwave magnetic field is similar or large than the anisotropy splitting, the Rabi oscillations have a spectrum made of many frequencies not predicted by the S = l/2 Rabi model. We show that these new frequencies come from multiple photon coherent manipulation of the multi-level spin impurity. We develop a model based on the crystal field theory and the rotating frame approximation, describing the observed phenomenon with a very good agreement.
Scaling Projections on Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic Tunnel Junctions
Das, Debasis; Tulapurkar, Ashwin; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran
2018-02-01
We investigate scaling of technologically relevant magnetic tunnel junction devices in the trilayer and pentalayer configurations by varying the cross-sectional area along the transverse direction using the non-equilibrium Green's function spin transport formalism. We study the geometry dependence by considering square and circular cross-sections. As the transverse dimension in each case reduces, we demonstrate that the transverse mode energy profile plays a major role in the resistance-area product. Both types of devices show constant tunnel magnetoresistance at larger cross-sectional areas but achieve ultra-high magnetoresistance at small cross-sectional areas, while maintaining low resistance-area products. We notice that although the critical switching voltage for switching the magnetization of the free layer nanomagnet in the trilayer case remains constant at larger areas, it needs more energy to switch at smaller areas. In the pentalayer case, we observe an oscillatory behavior at smaller areas as a result of double barrier tunneling. We also describe how switching characteristics of both kinds of devices are affected by the scaling.
Ghosh, Abhijit; Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Gabureac, Mihai; Gambardella, Pietro
2017-01-01
Magnetic heterostructures that combine large spin-orbit torque efficiency, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and low resistivity are key to developing electrically controlled memory and logic devices. Here, we report on vector measurements of the current-induced spin-orbit torques and magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Pd /Co /AlOx layers as a function of Pd thickness. We find sizable dampinglike (DL) and fieldlike (FL) torques, on the order of 1 mT per 107 A /cm2 , which have different thicknesses and magnetization angle dependencies. The analysis of the DL torque efficiency per unit current density and the electric field using drift-diffusion theory leads to an effective spin Hall angle and spin-diffusion length of Pd larger than 0.03 and 7 nm, respectively. The FL spin-orbit torque includes a significant interface contribution, is larger than estimated using drift-diffusion parameters, and, furthermore, is strongly enhanced upon rotation of the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane direction. Finally, taking advantage of the large spin-orbit torques in this system, we demonstrate bipolar magnetization switching of Pd /Co /AlOx layers with a similar current density to that used for Pt /Co layers with a comparable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.
Rabi spin oscillations generated by ultrasound in solids.
Calero, C; Chudnovsky, E M
2007-07-27
It is shown that ultrasound in the gigahertz range can generate space-time Rabi oscillations between spin states of molecular magnets. We compute dynamics of the magnetization generated by surface acoustic waves and discuss conditions under which this novel quantum effect can be observed.
Action-angle variables for the harmonic oscillator : ambiguity spin x duplication spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, C.R. de; Malta, C.P.
1983-08-01
The difficulties of obtaining for the harmonic oscillator a well defined unitary transformation to action-angle variables were overcome by M. Moshinsky and T.H. Seligman through the introduction of a spinlike variable (ambiguity spin) from a classical point of view. The difficulty of defining a unitary phase operator for the harmonic oscillator was overcome by Roger G. Newton also through the introduction of a spinlike variable (named duplication spin by us) but within a quantum framework. The relation between the ambiguity spin and the duplication spin by introducing these two types of spins in the canonical transformation to action-angle variables is investigated. Doing this it is possible to obtain both well defined unitary transformation and phase operator. (Author) [pt
Steady motion of skyrmions and domains walls under diffusive spin torques
Elías, Ricardo Gabriel
2017-03-09
We explore the role of the spin diffusion of conducting electrons in two-dimensional magnetic textures (domain walls and skyrmions) with spatial variation of the order of the spin precession length λex. The effect of diffusion reflects in four additional torques that are third order in spatial derivatives of magnetization and bilinear in λex and in the nonadiabatic parameter β′. In order to study the dynamics of the solitons when these diffusive torques are present, we derive the Thiele equation in the limit of steady motion and we compare the results with the nondiffusive limit. When considering a homogenous current these torques increase the longitudinal velocity of transverse domain walls of width Δ by a factor (λex/Δ)2(α/3), α being the magnetic damping constant. In the case of single skyrmions with core radius r0 these new contributions tend to increase the Magnus effect in an amount proportional to (λex/r0)2(1+2αβ′).
Steady motion of skyrmions and domains walls under diffusive spin torques
Elí as, Ricardo Gabriel; Vidal-Silva, Nicolas; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We explore the role of the spin diffusion of conducting electrons in two-dimensional magnetic textures (domain walls and skyrmions) with spatial variation of the order of the spin precession length λex. The effect of diffusion reflects in four additional torques that are third order in spatial derivatives of magnetization and bilinear in λex and in the nonadiabatic parameter β′. In order to study the dynamics of the solitons when these diffusive torques are present, we derive the Thiele equation in the limit of steady motion and we compare the results with the nondiffusive limit. When considering a homogenous current these torques increase the longitudinal velocity of transverse domain walls of width Δ by a factor (λex/Δ)2(α/3), α being the magnetic damping constant. In the case of single skyrmions with core radius r0 these new contributions tend to increase the Magnus effect in an amount proportional to (λex/r0)2(1+2αβ′).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E., E-mail: demidov@uni-muenster.de [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Bessonov, V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Demokritov, S. O. [Institute for Applied Physics and Center for Nanotechnology, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Prieto, J. L. [Instituto de Sistemas Optoelectrónicos y Microtecnologa (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnétisme de Bretagne CNRS, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29285 Brest (France); Naletov, V. V. [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institute of Physics, Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Loubens, G. de [Service de Physique de l' État Condensé, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Klein, O. [INAC-SPINTEC, CEA/CNRS and Univ. Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France)
2016-04-25
We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evelt, M.; Demidov, V. E.; Bessonov, V.; Demokritov, S. O.; Prieto, J. L.; Muñoz, M.; Ben Youssef, J.; Naletov, V. V.; Loubens, G. de; Klein, O.; Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A.
2016-01-01
We study experimentally with submicrometer spatial resolution the propagation of spin waves in microscopic waveguides based on the nanometer-thick yttrium iron garnet and Pt layers. We demonstrate that by using the spin-orbit torque, the propagation length of the spin waves in such systems can be increased by nearly a factor of 10, which corresponds to the increase in the spin-wave intensity at the output of a 10 μm long transmission line by three orders of magnitude. We also show that, in the regime, where the magnetic damping is completely compensated by the spin-orbit torque, the spin-wave amplification is suppressed by the nonlinear scattering of the coherent spin waves from current-induced excitations.
Giant spin torque in hybrids with anisotropic p-d exchange interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, V. L.
2014-01-01
Control of magnetic domain wall movement by the spin-polarized current looks promising for creation of a new generation of magnetic memory devices. A necessary condition for this is the domain wall shift by a low-density current. Here, I show that a strongly anisotropic exchange interaction between mobile heavy holes and localized magnetic moments enormously increases the current-induced torque on the domain wall as compared to systems with isotropic exchange. This enables one to control the domain wall motion by current density 10 4 A/cm 2 in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids. The experimental observation of the anisotropic torque will facilitate the integration of ferromagnetism into semiconductor electronics
Giant spin torque in hybrids with anisotropic p-d exchange interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korenev, V. L., E-mail: korenev@orient.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia and Experimentelle Physik 2, Technische Universitat Dortmund, D-44227 Dortmund (Germany)
2014-03-03
Control of magnetic domain wall movement by the spin-polarized current looks promising for creation of a new generation of magnetic memory devices. A necessary condition for this is the domain wall shift by a low-density current. Here, I show that a strongly anisotropic exchange interaction between mobile heavy holes and localized magnetic moments enormously increases the current-induced torque on the domain wall as compared to systems with isotropic exchange. This enables one to control the domain wall motion by current density 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} in ferromagnet/semiconductor hybrids. The experimental observation of the anisotropic torque will facilitate the integration of ferromagnetism into semiconductor electronics.
Wang, X.-G.; Chotorlishvili, L.; Guo, G.-H.; Sukhov, A.; Dugaev, V.; Barnaś, J.; Berakdar, J.
2016-09-01
Thermally activated domain-wall (DW) motion in magnetic insulators has been considered theoretically, with a particular focus on the role of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and thermomagnonic torques. The thermally assisted DW motion is a consequence of the magnonic spin current due to the applied thermal bias. In addition to the exchange magnonic spin current and the exchange adiabatic and the entropic spin transfer torques, we also consider the DMI-induced magnonic spin current, thermomagnonic DMI fieldlike torque, and the DMI entropic torque. Analytical estimations are supported by numerical calculations. We found that the DMI has a substantial influence on the size and the geometry of DWs, and that the DWs become oriented parallel to the long axis of the nanostrip. Increasing the temperature smoothes the DWs. Moreover, the thermally induced magnonic current generates a torque on the DWs, which is responsible for their motion. From our analysis it follows that for a large enough DMI the influence of DMI-induced fieldlike torque is much stronger than that of the DMI and the exchange entropic torques. By manipulating the strength of the DMI constant, one can control the speed of the DW motion, and the direction of the DW motion can be switched, as well. We also found that DMI not only contributes to the total magnonic current, but also it modifies the exchange magnonic spin current, and this modification depends on the orientation of the steady-state magnetization. The observed phenomenon can be utilized in spin caloritronics devices, for example in the DMI based thermal diodes. By switching the magnetization direction, one can rectify the total magnonic spin current.
Back-Hopping in Spin-Transfer-Torque Devices: Possible Origin and Countermeasures
Abert, Claas; Sepehri-Amin, Hossein; Bruckner, Florian; Vogler, Christoph; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Suess, Dieter
2018-05-01
The effect of undesirable high-frequency free-layer switching in magnetic multilayer systems, referred to as back-hopping, is investigated by means of the spin-diffusion model. A possible origin of the back-hopping effect is found to be the destabilization of the pinned layer, which leads to the perpetual switching of both layers. While the presented mechanism is not claimed to be the only possible reason for back-hopping, we show that it is a fundamental effect that will occur in any spin-transfer-torque device when exceeding a critical current. The influence of different material parameters on the critical switching currents for the free and pinned layer is obtained by micromagnetic simulations. The spin-diffusion model enables an accurate description of the torque on both layers, depending on various material parameters. It is found that the choice of a free-layer material with low polarization β and saturation magnetization Ms and a pinned-layer material with high β and Ms leads to a low free-layer critical current and a high pinned-layer critical current and hence reduces the likelihood of back-hopping. While back-hopping has been observed in various types of devices, there are only a few experiments that exhibit this effect in perpendicularly magnetized systems. However, our simulations suggest that the described effect will also gain importance in perpendicular systems due to the loss of pinned-layer anisotropy for decreasing device sizes.
Li, J. X.; Yu, G. Q.; Tang, C.; Wang, K. L.; Shi, J.
Spin-orbit torque (SOT) has been demonstrated to be efficient to manipulate the magnetization in heavy-metal/ferromagnetic metal (HM/FMM) heterostructures. In HM/magnetic insulator (MI) heterostructures, charge currents do not flow in MI, but pure spin currents generated by the spin Hall effect in HM can enter the MI layer to cause magnetization dynamics. Here we report SOT-induced magnetization switching in Tm3Fe5O12/Pt heterostructures, where Tm3Fe5O12 (TmIG) is a MI grown by pulsed laser deposition with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The anomalous Hall signal in Pt is used as a probe to detect the magnetization switching. Effective magnetic fields due to the damping-like and field-like torques are extracted using a harmonic Hall detection method. The experiments are carried out in heterostructures with different TmIG film thicknesses. Both the switching and harmonic measurements indicate a more efficient SOT generation in HM/MI than in HM/FMM heterostructures. Our comprehensive experimental study and detailed analysis will be presented. This work was supported as part of the SHINES, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. SC0012670.
Materials and Physics Challenges for Spin Transfer Torque Magnetic Random Access Memories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinonen, O.
2014-10-05
Magnetic random access memories utilizing the spin transfer torque effect for writing information are a strong contender for non-volatile memories scalable to the 20 nm node, and perhaps beyond. I will here examine how these devices behave as the device size is scaled down from 70 nm size to 20 nm. As device sizes go below ~50 nm, the size becomes comparable to intrinsic magnetic length scales and the device behavior does not simply scale with size. This has implications for the device design and puts additional constraints on the materials in the device.
Tilted spin torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance in a perpendicular-analyzer magnetic trilayer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Rixing; He Pengbin; Liu Quanhui; Li Zaidong; Pan Anlian; Zou Bingsuo; Wang Yanguo
2010-01-01
A theoretical study is presented on the current-driven ferromagnetic resonance in the magnetic trilayers. On the basis of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation, we derive the output dc voltage for arbitrary anisotropy in the free and pinned layers by the linearization method. As an example, the resonance spectra of the tilted-polarizer and perpendicular-analyzer trilayer show that the equilibrium position, the resonant linewidth and the resonant location can be tuned by changing the magnitude and the direction of spin torque. The effective damping can be minimized through adjusting the current and the pinned-layer magnetization direction.
Ghosh, Sumit; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore, our model accounts for spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large damping torque reported recently is more likely attributed to interfacial magnetoelectric effect, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Ghosh, Sumit; Manchon, Aurelien
2018-01-01
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three-dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore our model accounts for the spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large dampinglike torque reported recently is more likely attributed to the Berry curvature of interfacial states, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Ghosh, Sumit
2017-11-29
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore, our model accounts for spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large damping torque reported recently is more likely attributed to interfacial magnetoelectric effect, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Ghosh, Sumit
2018-04-02
Current-driven spin-orbit torques are investigated in a heterostructure composed of a ferromagnet deposited on top of a three-dimensional topological insulator using the linear response formalism. We develop a tight-binding model of the heterostructure adopting a minimal interfacial hybridization scheme that promotes induced magnetic exchange on the topological surface states, as well as induced Rashba-like spin-orbit coupling in the ferromagnet. Therefore our model accounts for the spin Hall effect from bulk states together with inverse spin galvanic and magnetoelectric effects at the interface on equal footing. By varying the transport energy across the band structure, we uncover a crossover from surface-dominated to bulk-dominated transport regimes. We show that the spin density profile and the nature of the spin-orbit torques differ substantially in both regimes. Our results, which compare favorably with experimental observations, demonstrate that the large dampinglike torque reported recently is more likely attributed to the Berry curvature of interfacial states, while spin Hall torque remains small even in the bulk-dominated regime.
Synchrotron oscillation effects on an rf-solenoid spin resonance
Benati, P.; Chiladze, D.; Dietrich, J.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Guidoboni, G.; Hejny, V.; Kacharava, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kulessa, P.; Lehrach, A.; Lenisa, P.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Morse, W. M.; Öllers, D.; Pesce, A.; Polyanskiy, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Talman, R.; Valdau, Yu.; Weidemann, Ch.; Wüstner, P.
2012-12-01
New measurements are reported for the time dependence of the vertical polarization of a 0.97GeV/c deuteron beam circulating in a storage ring and perturbed by an rf solenoid. The storage ring is the cooler synchrotron (COSY) located at the Forschungszentrum Jülich. The beam polarization was measured continuously using a 1.5 cm thick carbon target located at the edge of the circulating deuteron beam and the scintillators of the EDDA detector. An rf solenoid mounted on the ring was used to generate fields at and near the frequency of the 1-Gγ spin resonance. Measurements were made of the vertical beam polarization as a function of time with the operation of the rf solenoid in either fixed or continuously variable frequency mode. Using rf-solenoid strengths as large as 2.66×10-5revolutions/turn, slow oscillations (˜1Hz) were observed in the vertical beam polarization. When the circulating beam was continuously electron cooled, these oscillations completely reversed the polarization and showed no sign of diminishing in amplitude. But for the uncooled beam, the oscillation amplitude was damped to nearly zero within a few seconds. A simple spin-tracking model without the details of the COSY ring lattice was successful in reproducing these oscillations and demonstrating the sensitivity of the damping to the magnitude of the synchrotron motion of the beam particles. The model demonstrates that the characteristic features of measurements made in the presence of large synchrotron oscillations are distinct from the features of such measurements when made off resonance. These data were collected in preparation for a study of the spin coherence time, a beam property that needs to become long to enable a search for an electric dipole moment using a storage ring.
Wu, Mingzhong
As an in-plane charge current flows in a heavy metal film with spin-orbit coupling, it produces a torque that can induce magnetization switching in a neighboring ferromagnetic metal film. Such spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced switching has been studied extensively in recent years and has shown higher efficiency than switching using conventional spin-transfer torque. This presentation reports the SOT-assisted switching in heavy metal/magnetic insulator systems.1 The experiments made use of Pt/BaFe12O19 bi-layered structures. Thanks to its strong spin-orbit coupling, Pt has been widely used to produce pure spin currents in previous studies. BaFe12O19 is an M-type barium hexagonal ferrite and is often referred as BaM. It is one of the few magnetic insulators with strong magneto-crystalline anisotropy and shows an effective uniaxial anisotropy field of about 17 kOe. It's found that the switching response in the BaM film strongly depends on the charge current applied to the Pt film. When a constant magnetic field is applied in the film plane, the charge current in the Pt film can switch the normal component of the magnetization (M⊥) in the BaM film between the up and down states. The current also dictates the up and down states of the remnant magnetization when the in-plane field is reduced to zero. When M⊥ is measured by sweeping an in-plane field, the response manifests itself as a hysteresis loop, which evolves in a completely opposite manner if the sign of the charge current is flipped. When the coercivity is measured by sweeping an out-of-plane field, its value can be reduced or increased by as much as about 500 Oe if an appropriate charge current is applied. 1. P. Li, T. Liu, H. Chang, A. Kalitsov, W. Zhang, G. Csaba, W. Li, D. Richardson, A. Demann, G. Rimal, H. Dey, J. S. Jiang, W. Porod, S. Field, J. Tang, M. C. Marconi, A. Hoffmann, O. Mryasov, and M. Wu, Nature Commun. 7:12688 doi: 10.1038/ncomms12688 (2016).
Spin-orbit torques for current parallel and perpendicular to a domain wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, Tomek; Lee, Kyujoon; Karnad, Gurucharan V. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Alejos, Oscar [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belen, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martinez, Eduardo; Moretti, Simone [Departamento Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caidos s/n, E-38008 Salamanca (Spain); Hals, Kjetil M. D. [Niels Bohr International Academy and the Center for Quantum Devices, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, Karin; Ravelosona, Dafiné [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, UMR CNRS 8622, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Vila, Laurent [Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Lo Conte, Roberto; Kläui, Mathias [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Graduate School of Excellence “Materials Science in Mainz” (MAINZ), Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Ocker, Berthold [Singulus Technologies AG, 63796 Kahl am Main (Germany); Brataas, Arne [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)
2015-09-21
We report field- and current-induced domain wall (DW) depinning experiments in Ta\\Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}\\MgO nanowires through a Hall cross geometry. While purely field-induced depinning shows no angular dependence on in-plane fields, the effect of the current depends crucially on the internal DW structure, which we manipulate by an external magnetic in-plane field. We show depinning measurements for a current sent parallel to the DW and compare its depinning efficiency with the conventional case of current flowing perpendicularly to the DW. We find that the maximum efficiency is similar for both current directions within the error bars, which is in line with a dominating damping-like spin-orbit torque (SOT) and indicates that no large additional torques arise for currents perpendicular to the DW. Finally, we find a varying dependence of the maximum depinning efficiency angle for different DWs and pinning levels. This emphasizes the importance of our full angular scans compared with previously used measurements for just two field directions (parallel and perpendicular to the DW) to determine the real torque strength and shows the sensitivity of the SOT to the precise DW structure and pinning sites.
Spin-orbit torques for current parallel and perpendicular to a domain wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, Tomek; Lee, Kyujoon; Karnad, Gurucharan V.; Alejos, Oscar; Martinez, Eduardo; Moretti, Simone; Hals, Kjetil M. D.; Garcia, Karin; Ravelosona, Dafiné; Vila, Laurent; Lo Conte, Roberto; Kläui, Mathias; Ocker, Berthold; Brataas, Arne
2015-01-01
We report field- and current-induced domain wall (DW) depinning experiments in Ta\\Co 20 Fe 60 B 20 \\MgO nanowires through a Hall cross geometry. While purely field-induced depinning shows no angular dependence on in-plane fields, the effect of the current depends crucially on the internal DW structure, which we manipulate by an external magnetic in-plane field. We show depinning measurements for a current sent parallel to the DW and compare its depinning efficiency with the conventional case of current flowing perpendicularly to the DW. We find that the maximum efficiency is similar for both current directions within the error bars, which is in line with a dominating damping-like spin-orbit torque (SOT) and indicates that no large additional torques arise for currents perpendicular to the DW. Finally, we find a varying dependence of the maximum depinning efficiency angle for different DWs and pinning levels. This emphasizes the importance of our full angular scans compared with previously used measurements for just two field directions (parallel and perpendicular to the DW) to determine the real torque strength and shows the sensitivity of the SOT to the precise DW structure and pinning sites
Breaking the current density threshold in spin-orbit-torque magnetic random access memory
Zhang, Yin; Yuan, H. Y.; Wang, X. S.; Wang, X. R.
2018-04-01
Spin-orbit-torque magnetic random access memory (SOT-MRAM) is a promising technology for the next generation of data storage devices. The main bottleneck of this technology is the high reversal current density threshold. This outstanding problem is now solved by a new strategy in which the magnitude of the driven current density is fixed while the current direction varies with time. The theoretical limit of minimal reversal current density is only a fraction (the Gilbert damping coefficient) of the threshold current density of the conventional strategy. The Euler-Lagrange equation for the fastest magnetization reversal path and the optimal current pulse is derived for an arbitrary magnetic cell and arbitrary spin-orbit torque. The theoretical limit of minimal reversal current density and current density for a GHz switching rate of the new reversal strategy for CoFeB/Ta SOT-MRAMs are, respectively, of the order of 105 A/cm 2 and 106 A/cm 2 far below 107 A/cm 2 and 108 A/cm 2 in the conventional strategy. Furthermore, no external magnetic field is needed for a deterministic reversal in the new strategy.
Ultra-fast three terminal perpendicular spin-orbit torque MRAM (Presentation Recording)
Boulle, Olivier; Cubukcu, Murat; Hamelin, Claire; Lamard, Nathalie; Buda-Prejbeanu, Liliana; Mikuszeit, Nikolai; Garello, Kevin; Gambardella, Pietro; Langer, Juergen; Ocker, Berthold; Miron, Mihai; Gaudin, Gilles
2015-09-01
The discovery that a current flowing in a heavy metal can exert a torque on a neighboring ferromagnet has opened a new way to manipulate the magnetization at the nanoscale. This "spin orbit torque" (SOT) has been demonstrated in ultrathin magnetic multilayers with structural inversion asymmetry (SIA) and high spin orbit coupling, such as Pt/Co/AlOx multilayers. We have shown that this torque can lead to the magnetization switching of a perpendicularly magnetized nanomagnet by an in-plane current injection. The manipulation of magnetization by SOT has led to a novel concept of magnetic RAM memory, the SOT-MRAM, which combines non volatility, high speed, reliability and large endurance. These features make the SOT-MRAM a good candidate to replace SRAM for non-volatile cache memory application. We will present the proof of concept of a perpendicular SOT-MRAM cell composed of a Ta/FeCoB/MgO/FeCoB magnetic tunnel junction and demonstrate ultra-fast (down to 300 ps) deterministic bipolar magnetization switching. Macrospin and micromagnetic simulations including SOT cannot reproduce the experimental results, which suggests that additional physical mechanisms are at stacks. Our results show that SOT-MRAM is fast, reliable and low power, which is promising for non-volatile cache memory application. We will also discuss recent experiments of magnetization reversal in ultrathin multilayers Pt/Co/AlOx by very short (<200 ps) current pulses. We will show that in this material, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moryia interaction plays a key role in the reversal process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Liu, Guang; Guo, Dan; Zhou, Guanghui
2016-01-01
We study theoretically the spin-dependent transport and the current-induced spin transfer torque (STT) for a zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR) with Anderson-type disorders between two ferromagnetic electrodes. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, it is predicted that the transport property and STT through the junction depend sensitively on the disorder, especially around the Dirac point. As a result, the conductance decreases and increases for two electrode in parallel and antiparallel configurations, respectively. Due to the disorder, the magnetoresistance (MR) decreases accordingly even within the energy regime for the perfect plateau without disorders. In addition, the conductance versus the relative angle of the magnetization shows a cosine-like behavior. The STT per unit of the bias voltage versus the angle of the magnetization exhibits a sine-like behavior, and versus the Fermi energy is antisymmetrical to the Dirac point and exhibits sharp peaks. Furthermore, the peaks of the STT are suppressed much as the disorder strength increases, especially around the Dirac point. The results obtained here may provide a valuable suggestion to experimentally design spin valve devices based on ZSiNR.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Benliang [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Manipulation (Ministry of Education), Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications of Hunan, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhou, Benhu [Department of Physics, Shaoyang University, Shaoyang 422001 (China); Liu, Guang; Guo, Dan [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Manipulation (Ministry of Education), Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications of Hunan, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhou, Guanghui, E-mail: ghzhou@hunnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Manipulation (Ministry of Education), Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications of Hunan, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)
2016-11-01
We study theoretically the spin-dependent transport and the current-induced spin transfer torque (STT) for a zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR) with Anderson-type disorders between two ferromagnetic electrodes. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, it is predicted that the transport property and STT through the junction depend sensitively on the disorder, especially around the Dirac point. As a result, the conductance decreases and increases for two electrode in parallel and antiparallel configurations, respectively. Due to the disorder, the magnetoresistance (MR) decreases accordingly even within the energy regime for the perfect plateau without disorders. In addition, the conductance versus the relative angle of the magnetization shows a cosine-like behavior. The STT per unit of the bias voltage versus the angle of the magnetization exhibits a sine-like behavior, and versus the Fermi energy is antisymmetrical to the Dirac point and exhibits sharp peaks. Furthermore, the peaks of the STT are suppressed much as the disorder strength increases, especially around the Dirac point. The results obtained here may provide a valuable suggestion to experimentally design spin valve devices based on ZSiNR.
Episodic Spin-up and Spin-down Torque on Earth
Slabinski, Victor J.; Mendonca, Antonio A.
2018-04-01
Variations in Earth rotation angle are traditionally expressed by the time difference (ΔT=TT-UT1) between Terrestrial Time (TT) as told by atomic clocks and Universal Time UT1, the time variable used by the Earth-rotation formula. A plot of ΔT versus TT over the past 160 years shows a continuous curve with approximate straight-line segments with different spans of order ~20 years. Removing the tidal and seasonal variations from the data gives these line segments which represent the “decadal variations” in Earth rotation.The slope of a straight-line segment is proportional to the departure of Earth rotation rate from a reference value at the time. The change in slope over the relatively short time between segments indicates an episodic spin-up or spin-down in Earth rotation. The daily combination of VLBI, SLR, and other modern data available since 1973 gives us accurate, daily values of ΔT and the corresponding LOD (Length Of Day) values during these episodes. These allow us to determine the rotational acceleration occurring then.The three largest spin-speed changes found during the VLBI era have the following characteristics:Episode _____________ Duration__ ΔLOD__LOD Rate1983 Dec 30-1984 Jan 28 ... 29 d ...-0.65 ms ..-8.3 ms/y ..........spin-up1989 Mar 15-1989 May 23 ...69 d ....0.68 .......+3.6 ..............spin-down1994 Jan 21-2001 Apr 01 ... 6.5 y ...-2.2 .........-0.36 ..extended spin-upFor the first two episodes listed, we find the acceleration grows from zero (or at least a relatively small value) to its extreme value in ~1 day, stays approximately constant at this value for 29 or 69 days, and then decays back to zero over ~1 day. The acceleration, while it occurs, gives an LOD rate much greater than the 0.02 ms/y rate from tidal friction.The third episode shows that occasionally a several-year-long episode occurs. The acceleration magnitude is smaller but can make a larger total change in LOD (and spin rate). Tidal friction requires >100 y to equal
Negative optical spin torque wrench of a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam
Mitri, F. G.
2016-10-01
An absorptive Rayleigh dielectric sphere in a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam experiences a spin torque. The axial and transverse radiation spin torque components are evaluated in the dipole approximation using the radiative correction of the electric field. Particular emphasis is given on the polarization as well as changing the topological charge α and the half-cone angle of the beam. When α is zero, the axial spin torque component vanishes. However, when α becomes a real positive number, the vortex beam induces left-handed (negative) axial spin torque as the sphere shifts off-axially from the center of the beam. The results show that a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam is capable of inducing a spin reversal of an absorptive Rayleigh sphere placed arbitrarily in its path. Potential applications are yet to be explored in particle manipulation, rotation in optical tweezers, optical tractor beams, and the design of optically-engineered metamaterials to name a few areas.
Ellis, Matthew O. A.; Stamenova, Maria; Sanvito, Stefano
2017-12-01
There exists a significant challenge in developing efficient magnetic tunnel junctions with low write currents for nonvolatile memory devices. With the aim of analyzing potential materials for efficient current-operated magnetic junctions, we have developed a multi-scale methodology combining ab initio calculations of spin-transfer torque with large-scale time-dependent simulations using atomistic spin dynamics. In this work we introduce our multiscale approach, including a discussion on a number of possible schemes for mapping the ab initio spin torques into the spin dynamics. We demonstrate this methodology on a prototype Co/MgO/Co/Cu tunnel junction showing that the spin torques are primarily acting at the interface between the Co free layer and MgO. Using spin dynamics we then calculate the reversal switching times for the free layer and the critical voltages and currents required for such switching. Our work provides an efficient, accurate, and versatile framework for designing novel current-operated magnetic devices, where all the materials details are taken into account.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ando, K.; Yuasa, S.; Fujita, S.; Ito, J.; Yoda, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Nakatani, Y.; Miyazaki, T.
2014-01-01
Most parts of present computer systems are made of volatile devices, and the power to supply them to avoid information loss causes huge energy losses. We can eliminate this meaningless energy loss by utilizing the non-volatile function of advanced spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) technology and create a new type of computer, i.e., normally off computers. Critical tasks to achieve normally off computers are implementations of STT-MRAM technologies in the main memory and low-level cache memories. STT-MRAM technology for applications to the main memory has been successfully developed by using perpendicular STT-MRAMs, and faster STT-MRAM technologies for applications to the cache memory are now being developed. The present status of STT-MRAMs and challenges that remain for normally off computers are discussed
A novel macro-model for spin-transfer-torque based magnetic-tunnel-junction elements
Lee, Seungyeon; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kim, Sojeong; Lee, Seungjun; Shin, Hyungsoon
2010-04-01
Spin-transfer-torque (STT) switching in magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) has important merits over the conventional field induced magnetic switching (FIMS) MRAM in avoiding half-select problem, and improving scalability and selectivity. Design of MRAM circuitry using STT-based MTJ elements requires an accurate circuit model which exactly emulates the characteristics of an MTJ in a circuit simulator such as HSPICE. This work presents a novel macro-model that fully emulates the important characteristics of STT-based MTJ. The macro-model is realized as a three terminal sub-circuit that reproduces asymmetric resistance versus current (R-I) characteristics and temperature dependence of R-I hysteresis of STT-based MTJ element.
Spin orbit torques and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in dual-interfaced Co-Ni multilayers
Yu, Jiawei; Qiu, Xuepeng; Wu, Yang; Yoon, Jungbum; Deorani, Praveen; Besbas, Jean Mourad; Manchon, Aurelien; Yang, Hyunsoo
2016-01-01
We study the spin orbit torque (SOT) and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in the dual-interfaced Co-Ni perpendicular multilayers. Through the combination of top and bottom layer materials (Pt, Ta, MgO and Cu), SOT and DMI are efficiently manipulated due to an enhancement or cancellation of the top and bottom contributions. However, SOT is found to originate mostly from the bulk of a heavy metal (HM), while DMI is more of interfacial origin. In addition, we find that the direction of the domain wall (DW) motion can be either along or against the electron flow depending on the DW tilting angle when there is a large DMI. Such an abnormal DW motion induces a large assist field required for hysteretic magnetization reversal. Our results provide insight into the role of DMI in SOT driven magnetization switching, and demonstrate the feasibility of achieving desirable SOT and DMI for spintronic devices.
Useinov, Arthur; Ye, Lin-Xiu; Useinov, Niazbeck; Wu, Te-Ho; Lai, Chih-Huang
2015-01-01
The tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with embedded nanoparticles (NPs) was calculated in range of the quantum-ballistic model. The simulation was performed for electron tunneling through the insulating layer with embedded magnetic and non-magnetic NPs within the approach of the double barrier subsystem connected in parallel to the single barrier one. This model can be applied for both MTJs with in-plane magnetization and perpendicular one. We also calculated the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque (STT) versus the applied voltage in MTJs with magnetic NPs and determined that its value can be much larger than in single barrier system (SBS) for the same tunneling thickness. The reported simulation reproduces experimental data of the TMR suppression and peak-like TMR anomalies at low voltages available in leterature. PMID:26681336
Wide operating window spin-torque majority gate towards large-scale integration of logic circuits
Vaysset, Adrien; Zografos, Odysseas; Manfrini, Mauricio; Mocuta, Dan; Radu, Iuliana P.
2018-05-01
Spin Torque Majority Gate (STMG) is a logic concept that inherits the non-volatility and the compact size of MRAM devices. In the original STMG design, the operating range was restricted to very small size and anisotropy, due to the exchange-driven character of domain expansion. Here, we propose an improved STMG concept where the domain wall is driven with current. Thus, input switching and domain wall propagation are decoupled, leading to higher energy efficiency and allowing greater technological optimization. To ensure majority operation, pinning sites are introduced. We observe through micromagnetic simulations that the new structure works for all input combinations, regardless of the initial state. Contrary to the original concept, the working condition is only given by threshold and depinning currents. Moreover, cascading is now possible over long distances and fan-out is demonstrated. Therefore, this improved STMG concept is ready to build complete Boolean circuits in absence of external magnetic fields.
Spin orbit torques and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in dual-interfaced Co-Ni multilayers
Yu, Jiawei
2016-09-07
We study the spin orbit torque (SOT) and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in the dual-interfaced Co-Ni perpendicular multilayers. Through the combination of top and bottom layer materials (Pt, Ta, MgO and Cu), SOT and DMI are efficiently manipulated due to an enhancement or cancellation of the top and bottom contributions. However, SOT is found to originate mostly from the bulk of a heavy metal (HM), while DMI is more of interfacial origin. In addition, we find that the direction of the domain wall (DW) motion can be either along or against the electron flow depending on the DW tilting angle when there is a large DMI. Such an abnormal DW motion induces a large assist field required for hysteretic magnetization reversal. Our results provide insight into the role of DMI in SOT driven magnetization switching, and demonstrate the feasibility of achieving desirable SOT and DMI for spintronic devices.
Spin-orbit torque-driven magnetization switching in 2D-topological insulator heterostructure
Soleimani, Maryam; Jalili, Seifollah; Mahfouzi, Farzad; Kioussis, Nicholas
2017-02-01
Charge pumping and spin-orbit torque (SOT) are two reciprocal phenomena widely studied in ferromagnet (FM)/topological insulator (TI) heterostructures. However, the SOT and its corresponding switching phase diagram for a FM island in proximity to a two-dimensional topological insulator (2DTI) has not been explored yet. We have addressed these features, using the recently developed adiabatic expansion of time-dependent nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) in the presence of both precessing magnetization and bias voltage. We have calculated the angular and spatial dependence of different components of the SOT on the FM island. We determined the switching phase diagram of the FM for different orientations of the easy axis. The results can be used as a guideline for the future experiments on such systems.
Cho, Soonha; Baek, Seung-heon Chris; Lee, Kyeong-Dong; Jo, Younghun; Park, Byong-Guk
2015-01-01
The phenomena based on spin-orbit interaction in heavy metal/ferromagnet/oxide structures have been investigated extensively due to their applicability to the manipulation of the magnetization direction via the in-plane current. This implies the existence of an inverse effect, in which the conductivity in such structures should depend on the magnetization orientation. In this work, we report a systematic study of the magnetoresistance (MR) of W/CoFeB/MgO structures and its correlation with the current-induced torque to the magnetization. We observe that the MR is independent of the angle between the magnetization and current direction but is determined by the relative magnetization orientation with respect to the spin direction accumulated by the spin Hall effect, for which the symmetry is identical to that of so-called the spin Hall magnetoresistance. The MR of ~1% in W/CoFeB/MgO samples is considerably larger than those in other structures of Ta/CoFeB/MgO or Pt/Co/AlOx, which indicates a larger spin Hall angle of W. Moreover, the similar W thickness dependence of the MR and the current-induced magnetization switching efficiency demonstrates that MR in a non-magnet/ferromagnet structure can be utilized to understand other closely correlated spin-orbit coupling effects such as the inverse spin Hall effect or the spin-orbit spin transfer torques. PMID:26423608
Phase measurement for driven spin oscillations in a storage ring
Hempelmann, N.; Hejny, V.; Pretz, J.; Soltner, H.; Augustyniak, W.; Bagdasarian, Z.; Bai, M.; Barion, L.; Berz, M.; Chekmenev, S.; Ciullo, G.; Dymov, S.; Eversmann, D.; Gaisser, M.; Gebel, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Grzonka, D.; Guidoboni, G.; Heberling, D.; Hetzel, J.; Hinder, F.; Kacharava, A.; Kamerdzhiev, V.; Keshelashvili, I.; Koop, I.; Kulikov, A.; Lehrach, A.; Lenisa, P.; Lomidze, N.; Lorentz, B.; Maanen, P.; Macharashvili, G.; Magiera, A.; Mchedlishvili, D.; Mey, S.; Müller, F.; Nass, A.; Nikolaev, N. N.; Nioradze, M.; Pesce, A.; Prasuhn, D.; Rathmann, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Saleev, A.; Schmidt, V.; Semertzidis, Y.; Senichev, Y.; Shmakova, V.; Silenko, A.; Slim, J.; Stahl, A.; Stassen, R.; Stephenson, E.; Stockhorst, H.; Ströher, H.; Tabidze, M.; Tagliente, G.; Talman, R.; Thörngren Engblom, P.; Trinkel, F.; Uzikov, Yu.; Valdau, Yu.; Valetov, E.; Vassiliev, A.; Weidemann, C.; Wrońska, A.; Wüstner, P.; Zuprański, P.; Żurek, M.; JEDI Collaboration
2018-04-01
This paper reports the first simultaneous measurement of the horizontal and vertical components of the polarization vector in a storage ring under the influence of a radio frequency (rf) solenoid. The experiments were performed at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY in Jülich using a vector polarized, bunched 0.97 GeV /c deuteron beam. Using the new spin feedback system, we set the initial phase difference between the solenoid field and the precession of the polarization vector to a predefined value. The feedback system was then switched off, allowing the phase difference to change over time, and the solenoid was switched on to rotate the polarization vector. We observed an oscillation of the vertical polarization component and the phase difference. The oscillations can be described using an analytical model. The results of this experiment also apply to other rf devices with horizontal magnetic fields, such as Wien filters. The precise manipulation of particle spins in storage rings is a prerequisite for measuring the electric dipole moment (EDM) of charged particles.
Magnetization switching driven by spin-transfer-torque in high-TMR magnetic tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aurelio, D.; Torres, L.; Finocchio, G.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a numerical study of magnetization switching driven by spin-polarized current in high-TMR magnetic tunnel junctions (TMR>100%). The current density distribution throughout the free-layer is computed dynamically, by modeling the ferromagnet/insulator/ferromagnet trilayer as a series of parallel resistances. The validity of the main hypothesis, which states that the current flows perpendicular to the sample plane, has been verified by numerically solving the Poisson equation. Our results show that the nonuniform current density distribution is a source of asymmetry to the switching process. Furthermore, we observe that the reversal mechanisms are characterized by well-defined localized pre-switching oscillation modes.
Cansever, H.; Narkowicz, R.; Lenz, K.; Fowley, C.; Ramasubramanian, L.; Yildirim, O.; Niesen, A.; Huebner, T.; Reiss, G.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A. M.
2018-06-01
Similar to electrical currents flowing through magnetic multilayers, thermal gradients applied across the barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction may induce pure spin-currents and generate ‘thermal’ spin-transfer torques large enough to induce magnetization dynamics in the free layer. In this study, we describe a novel experimental approach to observe spin-transfer torques induced by thermal gradients in magnetic multilayers by studying their ferromagnetic resonance response in microwave cavities. Utilizing this approach allows for measuring the magnetization dynamics on micron/nano-sized samples in open-circuit conditions, i.e. without the need of electrical contacts. We performed first experiments on magnetic tunnel junctions patterned into 6 × 9 µm2 ellipses from Co2FeAl/MgO/CoFeB stacks. We conducted microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) under focused laser illumination to induce thermal gradients in the layer stack and compared them to measurements in which the sample was globally heated from the backside of the substrate. Moreover, we carried out broadband FMR measurements under global heating conditions on the same extended films the microstructures were later on prepared from. The results clearly demonstrate the effect of thermal spin-torque on the FMR response and thus show that the microresonator approach is well suited to investigate thermal spin-transfer-driven processes for small temperatures gradients, far below the gradients required for magnetic switching.
SPICE modelling of magnetic tunnel junctions written by spin-transfer torque
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, W; Prenat, G; De Mestier, N; Baraduc, C; Dieny, B [SPINTEC, UMR(8191), INAC, CEA/CNRS/UJF, 17 Av. des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Javerliac, V; El Baraji, M, E-mail: guillaume.prenat@cea.f [CROCUS Technology, 5 Place Robert Schuman, 38025 Grenoble (France)
2010-06-02
Spintronics aims at extending the possibility of conventional electronics by using not only the charge of the electron but also its spin. The resulting spintronic devices, combining the front-end complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology of electronics with a magnetic back-end technology, employ magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) as core elements. With the intent of simulating a circuit without fabricating it first, a reliable MTJ electrical model which is applicable to the standard SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) simulator is required. Since such a model was lacking so far, we present a MTJ SPICE model whose magnetic state is written by using the spin-transfer torque effect. This model has been developed in the C language and validated on the Cadence Virtuoso Platform with a Spectre simulator. Its operation is similar to that of the standard BSIM (Berkeley Short-channel IGFET Model) SPICE model of the MOS transistor and fully compatible with the SPICE electrical simulator. The simulation results obtained using this model have been found in good accord with those theoretical macrospin calculations and results.
Lingos, P. C.; Wang, J.; Perakis, I. E.
2015-05-01
Femtosecond (fs) coherent control of collective order parameters is important for nonequilibrium phase dynamics in correlated materials. Here, we propose such control of ferromagnetic order based on using nonadiabatic optical manipulation of electron-hole (e -h ) photoexcitations to create fs carrier-spin pulses with controllable direction and time profile. These spin pulses are generated due to the time-reversal symmetry breaking arising from nonperturbative spin-orbit and magnetic exchange couplings of coherent photocarriers. By tuning the nonthermal populations of exchange-split, spin-orbit-coupled semiconductor band states, we can excite fs spin-orbit torques that control complex magnetization pathways between multiple magnetic memory states. We calculate the laser-induced fs magnetic anisotropy in the time domain by using density matrix equations of motion rather than the quasiequilibrium free energy. By comparing to pump-probe experiments, we identify a "sudden" out-of-plane magnetization canting displaying fs magnetic hysteresis, which agrees with switchings measured by the static Hall magnetoresistivity. This fs transverse spin-canting switches direction with magnetic state and laser frequency, which distinguishes it from the longitudinal nonlinear optical and demagnetization effects. We propose that sequences of clockwise or counterclockwise fs spin-orbit torques, photoexcited by shaping two-color laser-pulse sequences analogous to multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, can be used to timely suppress or enhance magnetic ringing and switching rotation in magnetic memories.
Ren, Y. J.; Deng, W. Y.; Geng, H.; Shen, R.; Shao, L. B.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.
2017-12-01
The spin-orbit torque provides an efficient method for switching the direction of a magnetization by using an electric field. Owing to the spin-orbit coupling, when an electric field is applied, a nonequilibrium spin density is generated, which exerts a torque on the local magnetization. Here, we investigate the spin-orbit torque in a thin film of topological insulator \\text{Bi}2\\text{Se}3 based upon a Boltzmann equation, with proper boundary conditions, which is applicable from the ballistic regime to the diffusive regime. It is shown that due to the spin-momentum interlocking of the electron surface states, the magnitude of the field-like torque is simply in linear proportion to the longitudinal electrical current. For a fixed electric field, the spin-orbit torque is proportional to the sample length in the ballistic limit, and saturates to a constant in the diffusive limit. The dependence of the torque on the magnetization direction and exchange coupling strength is also studied. Our theory may offer useful guidance for experimental investigations of the spin-orbit torque in finite-size systems.
High spin rotations of nuclei with the harmonic oscillator potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerkaski, M.; Szymanski, Z.
1978-01-01
Calculations of the nuclear properties at high angular momentum have been performed recently. They are based on the liquid drop model of a nucleus and/or on the assumption of the single particle shell structure of the nucleonic motion. The calculations are usually complicated and involve long computer codes. In this article we shall discuss general trends in fast rotating nuclei in the approximation of the harmonic oscillator potential. We shall see that using the Bohr Mottelson simplified version of the rigorous solution of Valatin one can perform a rather simple analysis of the rotational bands, structure of the yrast line, moments of inertia etc. in the rotating nucleus. While the precision fit to experimental data in actual nuclei is not the purpose of this paper, one can still hope to reach some general understanding within the model of the simple relations resulting in nuclei at high spin. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heinen, Jan; Boulle, Olivier; Rousseau, Kevin; Malinowski, Gregory; Klaeui, Mathias [Universitaet Konstanz, Fachbereich Physik, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Swagton, Henk J.; Koopmans, Bert [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, MB 5600 (Netherlands); Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo [CNRS, Phynano team, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, 91460 Marcoussis (France)
2010-07-01
We report on magnetotransport studies on perpendicularly magnetized nanowires with narrow domain wall (DW) structures. Using Co/Pt multilayer nanowires, we have previously shown that Joule heating is concealing most of the current induced domain wall effects, but using a constant sample temperature a large non-adiabacity factor {beta} has been deduced. Here, we carry out experiments for both applied field directions and current polarities, starting from different DW configurations within a Hall cross. We clearly show, using the different symmetries of spin torque and Oersted-field, that the much debated Oersted-field does not contribute to the DW depinning significantly. This allows us to extract the spin torque contribution and the non-adiabacity factor {beta}, which turns out to be in line with previous measurements.
Spin-torque diode with tunable sensitivity and bandwidth by out-of-plane magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, X.; Zheng, C.; Pong, Philip W. T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zhou, Y., E-mail: yanzhou@hku.hk [School of Electronics Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kubota, H.; Yuasa, S. [Spintronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)
2016-06-06
Spin-torque diodes based on nanosized magnetic tunnel junctions are novel microwave detectors with high sensitivity and wide frequency bandwidth. While previous reports mainly focus on improving the sensitivity, the approaches to extend the bandwidth are limited. This work experimentally demonstrates that through optimizing the orientation of the external magnetic field, wide bandwidth can be achieved while maintaining high sensitivity. The mechanism of the frequency- and sensitivity-tuning is investigated through analyzing the dependence of resonant frequency and DC voltage on the magnitude and the tilt angle of hard-plane magnetic field. The frequency dependence is qualitatively explicated by Kittel's ferromagnetic resonance model. The asymmetric resonant frequency at positive and negative magnetic field is verified by the numerical simulation considering the in-plane anisotropy. The DC voltage dependence is interpreted through evaluating the misalignment angle between the magnetization of the free layer and the reference layer. The tunability of the detector performance by the magnetic field angle is evaluated through characterizing the sensitivity and bandwidth under 3D magnetic field. The frequency bandwidth up to 9.8 GHz or maximum sensitivity up to 154 mV/mW (after impedance mismatch correction) can be achieved by tuning the angle of the applied magnetic field. The results show that the bandwidth and sensitivity can be controlled and adjusted through optimizing the orientation of the magnetic field for various applications and requirements.
Yu, Guoqiang; Akyol, Mustafa; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Li, Xiang; He, Congli; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Alzate, Juan G.; Lang, Murong; Wong, Kin L.; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.
2016-01-01
Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in structurally asymmetric multilayers have been used to efficiently manipulate magnetization. In a structure with vertical symmetry breaking, a damping-like SOT can deterministically switch a perpendicular magnet, provided an in-plane magnetic field is applied. Recently, it has been further demonstrated that the in-plane magnetic field can be eliminated by introducing a new type of perpendicular field-like SOT via incorporating a lateral structural a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lavanant, M. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Petit-Watelot, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Kent, A.D. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Mangin, S., E-mail: stephane.mangin@univ-lorraine.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 – Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France)
2017-04-15
The state diagram of a magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicularly magnetized electrodes in the presence of spin-transfer torques is computed in a macrospin approximation using a power dissipation model. Starting from the macrospin's energy we determine the stability of energy extremum in terms of power received and dissipated, allowing the consideration of non-conservative torques associated with spin transfer and damping. The results are shown to be in agreement with those obtained by direct integration of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation. However, the power dissipation model approach is faster and shows the reason certain magnetic states are stable, such as states that are energy maxima but are stabilized by spin transfer torque. Breaking the axial system, such as by a tilted applied field or tilted anisotropy, is shown to dramatically affect the state diagrams. Finally, the influence of a higher order uniaxial anisotropy that can stabilize a canted magnetization state is considered and the results are compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • Methods to compute state Diagram (Voltage Versus Field) for perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions. • Comparison between the conventional LLG model and a model based on Power dissipation to study magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou Yan; Bonetti, S; Zha, C L; Akerman, Johan [Department of Microelectronics and Applied Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: zhouyan@kth.se
2009-10-15
Using nonlinear system theory and numerical simulations, we map out the static and dynamic phase diagrams in the zero applied field of a spin torque nano device with a tilted polarizer (TP). We find that for sufficiently large currents, even very small tilt angles ({beta}>1 deg.) will lead to steady free layer precession in zero field. Within a rather large range of tilt angles, 1 deg. <{beta}<19 deg., we find coexisting static states and hysteretic switching between these using only current. In a more narrow window (1 deg. <{beta}<5 deg.) one of the static states turns into a limit cycle (precession). The coexistence of current-driven static and dynamic states in the zero magnetic field is unique to the TP device and leads to large hysteresis in the upper and lower threshold currents for its operation. The nano device with TP can facilitate the generation of large amplitude mode of spin torque signals without the need for cumbersome magnetic field sources and thus should be very important for future telecommunication applications based on spin transfer torque effects.
Sun, J. Z.; Trouilloud, P. L.; Gajek, M. J.; Nowak, J.; Robertazzi, R. P.; Hu, G.; Abraham, D. W.; Gaidis, M. C.; Brown, S. L.; O'Sullivan, E. J.; Gallagher, W. J.; Worledge, D. C.
2012-04-01
CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are used as a model system for studies of size dependence in spin-torque-induced magnetic switching. For integrated solid-state memory applications, it is important to understand the magnetic and electrical characteristics of these magnetic tunnel junctions as they scale with tunnel junction size. Size-dependent magnetic anisotropy energy, switching voltage, apparent damping, and anisotropy field are systematically compared for devices with different materials and fabrication treatments. Results reveal the presence of sub-volume thermal fluctuation and reversal, with a characteristic length-scale of the order of approximately 40 nm, depending on the strength of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and exchange stiffness. To have the best spin-torque switching efficiency and best stability against thermal activation, it is desirable to optimize the perpendicular anisotropy strength with the junction size for intended use. It also is important to ensure strong exchange-stiffness across the magnetic thin film. These combine to give an exchange length that is comparable or larger than the lateral device size for efficient spin-torque switching.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zamani, Vajiheh Alijani
2012-03-07
This work is divided into two parts: part 1 is focused on the prediction of half-metallicity in quaternary Heusler compounds and their potential for spintronic applications and part 2 on the structural properties of Mn{sub 2}-based Heusler alloys and tuning the magnetism of them from soft to hard-magnetic for spin-transfer torque applications. In part 1, three different series of quaternary Heusler compounds are investigated, XX'MnGa (X=Cu, Ni and X'=Fe,Co), CoFeMnZ (Z=Al,Ga,Si,Ge), and Co{sub 2-x}Rh{sub x}MnZ (Z=Ga,Sn,Sb). All of these quaternary compounds except CuCoMnGa are predicted to be half-metallic ferromagnets by ab-initio electronic structure calculations. In the XX'MnGa class of compounds, NiFeMnGa has a low Curie temperature for technological applications but NiCoMnGa with a high spin polarization, magnetic moment, and Curie temperature is an interesting new material for spintronics applications. All CoFeMnZ compounds exhibit a cubic Heusler structur and their magnetic moments are in fair agreement with the Slater-Pauling rule indicating the halfmetallicity and high spin polarization required for spintronics applications. Their high Curie temperatures make them suitable for utilization at room temperature and above. The structural investigation revealed that the crystal structure of all Co{sub 2-x}Rh{sub x}MnZ compounds aside from CoRhMnSn exhibit different types of anti-site disorder. The magnetic moments of the disordered compounds deviate from the Slater-Pauling rule indicating that 100% spin polarization are not realized in CoRhMnGa, CoRhMnSb, and Co{sub 0.5}Rh{sub 1.5}MnSb. Exchange of one Co in Co{sub 2}MnSn by Rh results in the stable, well-ordered compound CoRhMnSn. This exchange of one of the magnetic Co atoms by a non-magnetic Rh atom keeps the magnetic properties and half-metallicity intact. In part 2, two series of Mn{sub 2}-based Heusler alloys are investigated, Mn{sub 3-x}Co{sub x}Ga and Mn{sub 2-x}Rh{sub 1+x}Sn. It has been
Mohseni, S. Morteza; Yazdi, H. F.; Hamdi, M.; Brächer, T.; Mohseni, S. Majid
2018-03-01
Current induced spin wave excitations in spin transfer torque nano-contacts are known as a promising way to generate exchange-dominated spin waves at the nano-scale. It has been shown that when these systems are magnetized in the film plane, broken spatial symmetry of the field around the nano-contact induced by the Oersted field opens the possibility for spin wave mode co-existence including a non-linear self-localized spin-wave bullet and a propagating mode. By means of micromagnetic simulations, here we show that in systems with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the free layer, two propagating spin wave modes with different frequency and spatial distribution can be excited simultaneously. Our results indicate that in-plane magnetized spin transfer nano-contacts in PMA materials do not host a solitonic self-localized spin-wave bullet, which is different from previous studies for systems with in plane magnetic anisotropy. This feature renders them interesting for nano-scale magnonic waveguides and crystals since magnon transport can be configured by tuning the applied current.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. H. Berman
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Resonant behavior involving spin-orbit entangled states occurs for spin transport along a narrow channel defined in a two-dimensional electron gas, including an apparent rapid relaxation of the spin polarization for special values of the channel width and applied magnetic field (so-called ballistic spin resonance. A fully quantum-mechanical theory for transport using multiple subbands of the one-dimensional system provides the dependence of the spin density on the applied magnetic field and channel width and position along the channel. We show how the spatially nonoscillating part of the spin density vanishes when the Zeeman energy matches the subband energy splittings. The resonance phenomenon persists in the presence of disorder.
Analysis of self-heating of thermally assisted spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Austin Deschenes
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Thermal assistance has been shown to significantly reduce the required operation power for spin torque transfer magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM. Proposed heating methods include modified material stack compositions that result in increased self-heating or external heat sources. In this work we analyze the self-heating process of a standard perpendicular magnetic anisotropy STT-MRAM device through numerical simulations in order to understand the relative contributions of Joule, thermoelectric Peltier and Thomson, and tunneling junction heating. A 2D rotationally symmetric numerical model is used to solve the coupled electro-thermal equations including thermoelectric effects and heat absorbed or released at the tunneling junction. We compare self-heating for different common passivation materials, positive and negative electrical current polarity, and different device thermal anchoring and boundaries resistance configurations. The variations considered are found to result in significant differences in maximum temperatures reached. Average increases of 3 K, 10 K, and 100 K for different passivation materials, positive and negative polarity, and different thermal anchoring configurations, respectively, are observed. The highest temperatures, up to 424 K, are obtained for silicon dioxide as the passivation material, positive polarity, and low thermal anchoring with thermal boundary resistance configurations. Interestingly it is also found that due to the tunneling heat, Peltier effect, device geometry, and numerous interfacial layers around the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ, most of the heat is dissipated on the lower potential side of the magnetic junction. This asymmetry in heating, which has also been observed experimentally, is important as thermally assisted switching requires heating of the free layer specifically and this will be significantly different for the two polarity operations, set and reset.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sethi, P.; Krishnia, S.; Li, S.H.; Lew, W.S., E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg
2017-03-15
We investigate and quantify spin-orbit torque (SOT) strength by current induced effective in-plane magnetic fields and spin Hall angle (SHA) using AC harmonic Hall voltage measurements techniques on Ta/Pt/Co/Pt/Co/Ta thin film structures. The proposed Co/Pt thin film double stack gives property enhancement on thermal stability and perpendicular magnetization anisotropy strength over the single stack Pt/Co/Ta. In the proposed Co/Pt double stack we observed that increasing the Ta capping thickness to three times enhances the SHA in similar order, consistent with larger spin injection efficiency. Doubling the Pt spacer layer thickness reduces the SHA by nearly 1.4 times, due to partial cancellation of SOT by bottom layer Pt, negating the increase from the top Co/Pt interface. The in-plane current threshold for magnetization switching is lower with the increase of the SHA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomaz, M.T.; Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de
1994-01-01
We show that the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (alias Gaussian) approximation of the initial condition problem of the Fermionic Anharmonic Oscillator i equivalent to a bosonic Hamiltonian system of two classical spin. (author)
First-principles spin-transfer torque in CuMnAs |GaP |CuMnAs junctions
Stamenova, Maria; Mohebbi, Razie; Seyed-Yazdi, Jamileh; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano
2017-02-01
We demonstrate that an all-antiferromagnetic tunnel junction with current perpendicular to the plane geometry can be used as an efficient spintronic device with potential high-frequency operation. By using state-of-the-art density functional theory combined with quantum transport, we show that the Néel vector of the electrodes can be manipulated by spin-transfer torque. This is staggered over the two different magnetic sublattices and can generate dynamics and switching. At the same time the different magnetization states of the junction can be read by standard tunneling magnetoresistance. Calculations are performed for CuMnAs |GaP |CuMnAs junctions with different surface terminations between the antiferromagnetic CuMnAs electrodes and the insulating GaP spacer. We find that the torque remains staggered regardless of the termination, while the magnetoresistance depends on the microscopic details of the interface.
Bodnar, S Yu; Šmejkal, L; Turek, I; Jungwirth, T; Gomonay, O; Sinova, J; Sapozhnik, A A; Elmers, H-J; Kläui, M; Jourdan, M
2018-01-24
Using antiferromagnets as active elements in spintronics requires the ability to manipulate and read-out the Néel vector orientation. Here we demonstrate for Mn 2 Au, a good conductor with a high ordering temperature suitable for applications, reproducible switching using current pulse generated bulk spin-orbit torques and read-out by magnetoresistance measurements. Reversible and consistent changes of the longitudinal resistance and planar Hall voltage of star-patterned epitaxial Mn 2 Au(001) thin films were generated by pulse current densities of ≃10 7 A/cm 2 . The symmetry of the torques agrees with theoretical predictions and a large read-out magnetoresistance effect of more than ≃6% is reproduced by ab initio transport calculations.
Current induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling: Semiclassical modeling
Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien; Stiles, M. D.
2013-01-01
, that qualitatively reproduces the behavior, but quantitatively differs in some regimes. We show that the Boltzmann equation with physically reasonable parameters can match the torques for any particular sample, but in some cases, it fails to describe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Di; Yu, Guoqiang; Shao, Qiming; Li, Xiang; Wong, Kin L.; Wang, Kang L.; Wu, Hao; Han, Xiufeng; Zhang, Zongzhi; Khalili Amiri, Pedram
2016-01-01
We study spin-orbit-torque (SOT)-driven magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Ta/Mo/Co_4_0Fe_4_0B_2_0 (CoFeB)/MgO films. The thermal tolerance of the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is enhanced, and the films sustain the PMA at annealing temperatures of up to 430 °C, due to the ultra-thin Mo layer inserted between the Ta and CoFeB layers. More importantly, the Mo insertion layer also allows for the transmission of the spin current generated in the Ta layer due to spin Hall effect, which generates a damping-like SOT and is able to switch the perpendicular magnetization. When the Ta layer is replaced by a Pt layer, i.e., in a Pt/Mo/CoFeB/MgO multilayer, the direction of the SOT-induced damping-like effective field becomes opposite because of the opposite sign of spin Hall angle in Pt, which indicates that the SOT-driven switching is dominated by the spin current generated in the Ta or Pt layer rather than the Mo layer. Quantitative characterization through harmonic measurements reveals that the large SOT effective field is preserved for high annealing temperatures. This work provides a route to applying SOT in devices requiring high temperature processing steps during the back-end-of-line processes.
Akhtar, Waseem; Sekiguchi, Takeharu; Itahashi, Tatsumasa; Filidou, Vasileia; Morton, John J. L.; Vlasenko, Leonid; Itoh, Kohei M.
2012-09-01
We report on a pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of the photoexcited triplet state (S=1) of oxygen-vacancy centers in silicon. Rabi oscillations between the triplet sublevels are observed using coherent manipulation with a resonant microwave pulse. The Hahn echo and stimulated echo decay profiles are superimposed with strong modulations known as electron-spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM). The ESEEM spectra reveal a weak but anisotropic hyperfine coupling between the triplet electron spin and a 29Si nuclear spin (I=1/2) residing at a nearby lattice site, that cannot be resolved in conventional field-swept EPR spectra.
Bekele, Zelalem Abebe; Meng, Kangkang; Zhao, Bing; Wu, Yong; Miao, Jun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yong
2017-08-01
Symmetry breaking provides new insight into the physics of spin-orbit torque (SOT) and the switching without a magnetic field could lead to significant impact. In this work, we demonstrate the robust zero-field SOT switching of a perpendicular ferromagnet (FM) layer where the symmetry is broken by a bilayer of heavy metals (HMs) with the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We observed the change of coercivity value by 31% after inserting Co2FeAl in the multilayer structure. These two HM layers (Ta and Pt) are used to strengthen the SOC by linear combination. With different angles between the magnetization and the current (i.e. parallel and anti-parallel), the structures show different switching behaviors such as clockwise or counterclockwise.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Skinner, T.D.; Olejník, Kamil; Cunningham, L.K.; Kurebayashi, H.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Ferguson, A.J.
2015-01-01
Roč. 6, Mar (2015), s. 6730 ISSN 2041-1723 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * current induced torques Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 11.329, year: 2015
Bang, Do; Yu, Jiawei; Qiu, Xuepeng; Wang, Yi; Awano, Hiroyuki; Manchon, Aurelien; Yang, Hyunsoo
2016-01-01
We investigate the current-induced domain wall motion in perpendicular magnetized Tb/Co wires with structure inversion asymmetry and different layered structures. We find that the critical current density to drive domain wall motion strongly depends on the layered structure. The lowest critical current density ∼15MA/cm2 and the highest slope of domain wall velocity curve are obtained for the wire having thin Co sublayers and more inner Tb/Co interfaces, while the largest critical current density ∼26MA/cm2 required to drive domain walls is observed in the Tb-Co alloy magnetic wire. It is found that the Co/Tb interface contributes negligibly to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, while the effective spin-orbit torque strongly depends on the number of Tb/Co inner interfaces (n). An enhancement of the antidamping torques by extrinsic spin Hall effect due to Tb rare-earth impurity-induced skew scattering is suggested to explain the high efficiency of current-induced domain wall motion.
Esmaeili, A. M.; Useinov, A. N.; Useinov, N. Kh.
2018-01-01
Dependences of the tunnel magnetoresistance and in-plane component of the spin transfer torque on the applied voltage in a magnetic tunnel junction have been calculated in the approximation of ballistic transport of conduction electrons through an insulating layer with embedded magnetic or nonmagnetic nanoparticles. A single-barrier magnetic tunnel junction with a nanoparticle embedded in an insulator forms a double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction. It has been shown that the in-plane component of the spin transfer torque in the double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction can be higher than that in the single-barrier one at the same thickness of the insulating layer. The calculations show that nanoparticles embedded in the tunnel junction increase the probability of tunneling of electrons, create resonance conditions, and ensure the quantization of the conductance in contrast to the tunnel junction without nanoparticles. The calculated dependences of the tunnel magnetoresistance correspond to experimental data demonstrating peak anomalies and suppression of the maximum magnetoresistances at low voltages.
Bang, Do
2016-05-23
We investigate the current-induced domain wall motion in perpendicular magnetized Tb/Co wires with structure inversion asymmetry and different layered structures. We find that the critical current density to drive domain wall motion strongly depends on the layered structure. The lowest critical current density ∼15MA/cm2 and the highest slope of domain wall velocity curve are obtained for the wire having thin Co sublayers and more inner Tb/Co interfaces, while the largest critical current density ∼26MA/cm2 required to drive domain walls is observed in the Tb-Co alloy magnetic wire. It is found that the Co/Tb interface contributes negligibly to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, while the effective spin-orbit torque strongly depends on the number of Tb/Co inner interfaces (n). An enhancement of the antidamping torques by extrinsic spin Hall effect due to Tb rare-earth impurity-induced skew scattering is suggested to explain the high efficiency of current-induced domain wall motion.
Analysis of synchronized regimes for injection-locked spin-transfer nano-oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Aquino, M., E-mail: daquino@uniparthenope.it [Department of Technology, University of Napoli ' Parthenope' , 80143 Napoli (Italy); Serpico, C. [Department of Engineering, University of Napoli Federico II, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Bonin, R. [Politecnico di Torino - Sede di Verres, 11029 Verres (Aosta) (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, 10135 Torino (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [ECE Dept. and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2012-05-01
The large-angle magnetization dynamics of an injection-locked spin-transfer nano-oscillator (STNO) is studied. The magnetic system is subject to the action of time-varying spin-polarized currents and external magnetic fields. The uniform mode theory is developed and describes the hysteretic synchronization mechanism in terms of bifurcations of equilibria and limit cycles of appropriate dynamical systems. Analytical predictions of control parameters for the synchronization between the magnetization self-oscillation and the external microwave excitations (current, field) are provided. The effect of temperature on the locking band and the hysteretic character of the oscillation response is analyzed. An analytical approach is developed to determine the thermally induced sidebands in the power spectral density of phase-locked oscillations as a function of control parameters. The analytical predictions are in good agreement with the results of numerical simulations.
Shi, Shengjie; Ou, Yongxi; Aradhya, S. V.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.
2018-01-01
Future applications of spin-orbit torque will require new mechanisms to improve the efficiency of switching nanoscale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), while also controlling the magnetic dynamics to achieve fast nanosecond-scale performance with low-write-error rates. Here, we demonstrate a strategy to simultaneously enhance the interfacial magnetic anisotropy energy and suppress interfacial spin-memory loss by introducing subatomic and monatomic layers of Hf at the top and bottom interfaces of the ferromagnetic free layer of an in-plane magnetized three-terminal MTJ device. When combined with a β -W spin Hall channel that generates spin-orbit torque, the cumulative effect is a switching current density of 5.4 ×106 A /cm2 .
Intraband and interband spin-orbit torques in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Li, H.; Gao, L.; Zarbo, Liviu; Výborný, Karel; Wang, X.; Garate, I.; Dogan, F.; Čejchan, Antonín; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Manchon, A.
2015-01-01
Roč. 91, č. 13 (2015), , "134402-1"-"134402-9" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * current induced torque s Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Room-temperature spin-orbit torque in NiMnSb
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ciccarelli, C.; Anderson, L.; Tshitoyan, V.; Ferguson, A.J.; Gerhard, F.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Gayles, J.; Železný, Jakub; Šmejkal, Libor; Yuan, Z.; Sinova, Jairo; Freimuth, F.; Jungwirth, Tomáš
2016-01-01
Roč. 12, č. 9 (2016), s. 855-861 ISSN 1745-2473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : relativistic spintronics * current induced torque s Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 22.806, year: 2016
Oh, Se Chung; Park, Seung Young; Manchon, Aurelien; Chshiev, Mairbek; Han, Jae Ho; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Jang Eun; Nam, Kyung Tae; Jo, Younghun; Kong, Yo Chan; Dieny, Bernard; Lee, Kyung Jin
2009-01-01
Spin-transfer torque (STT) allows the electrical control of magnetic states in nanostructures. The STT in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is of particular importance owing to its potential for device applications. It has been demonstrated that the MTJ has a sizable perpendicular STT (, field-like torque), which substantially affects STT-driven magnetization dynamics. In contrast to symmetric MTJs where the bias dependence of is quadratic, it is theoretically predicted that the symmetry breaking of the system causes an extra linear bias dependence. Here, we report experimental results that are consistent with the predicted linear bias dependence in asymmetric MTJs. The linear contribution is quite significant and its sign changes from positive to negative as the asymmetry is modified. This result opens a way to design the bias dependence of the field-like term, which is useful for device applications by allowing, in particular, the suppression of the abnormal switching-back phenomena. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Oh, Se Chung
2009-10-25
Spin-transfer torque (STT) allows the electrical control of magnetic states in nanostructures. The STT in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is of particular importance owing to its potential for device applications. It has been demonstrated that the MTJ has a sizable perpendicular STT (, field-like torque), which substantially affects STT-driven magnetization dynamics. In contrast to symmetric MTJs where the bias dependence of is quadratic, it is theoretically predicted that the symmetry breaking of the system causes an extra linear bias dependence. Here, we report experimental results that are consistent with the predicted linear bias dependence in asymmetric MTJs. The linear contribution is quite significant and its sign changes from positive to negative as the asymmetry is modified. This result opens a way to design the bias dependence of the field-like term, which is useful for device applications by allowing, in particular, the suppression of the abnormal switching-back phenomena. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Tsunegi, Sumito; Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Yakushiji, Kay; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji; Kubota, Hitoshi
2018-05-01
We investigated the spin-torque diode effect in a magnetic tunnel junction with FeB free layer. Vortex-core expulsion was observed near the boundary between vortex and uniform states. A high diode voltage of 24 mV was obtained with alternative input power of 0.3 µW, corresponding to huge diode sensitivity of 80,000 mV/mW. In the expulsion region, a broad peak in the high frequency region was observed, which is attributed to the weak excitation of uniform magnetization by thermal noise. The high diode sensitivity is of great importance for device applications such as telecommunications, radar detectors, and high-speed magnetic-field sensors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bang, Do; Awano, Hiroyuki
2015-01-01
We investigated current-induced DW motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires for various thicknesses of magnetic and Pt-capping layers. It is found that the driving mechanism for the DW motion changes from interfacial to bulk effects at much thick magnetic layer (up to 19.8 nm). In thin wires, linearly depinning field dependence of critical current density and in-plane field dependence of DW velocity suggest that the extrinsic pinning governs field-induced DW motion and injecting current can be regarded as an effective field. It is expected that the high efficiency of spin-orbit torques in thick magnetic multilayers would have important implication for future spintronic devices based on in-plane current induced-DW motion or switching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bang, Do, E-mail: bang@spin.mp.es.osaka-u.ac.jp [Toyota Technological Institute, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Institute of Materials Science, VAST, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Awano, Hiroyuki [Toyota Technological Institute, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan)
2015-05-07
We investigated current-induced DW motion in asymmetric interfacial multilayered Tb/Co wires for various thicknesses of magnetic and Pt-capping layers. It is found that the driving mechanism for the DW motion changes from interfacial to bulk effects at much thick magnetic layer (up to 19.8 nm). In thin wires, linearly depinning field dependence of critical current density and in-plane field dependence of DW velocity suggest that the extrinsic pinning governs field-induced DW motion and injecting current can be regarded as an effective field. It is expected that the high efficiency of spin-orbit torques in thick magnetic multilayers would have important implication for future spintronic devices based on in-plane current induced-DW motion or switching.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Feilong [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Goolaup, Sarjoosing; Li, Sihua; Lim, Gerard Joseph; Tan, Funan; Engel, Christian; Zhang, Senfu; Ma, Fusheng; Lew, Wen Siang, E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg [School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 21 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhou, Tiejun [Data Storage Institute, A*STAR Agency for Science, Technology and Research, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)
2016-08-28
In this work, we present an efficient method for characterizing the spin orbit torque field-like term in an in-plane magnetized system using the harmonic measurement technique. This method does not require a priori knowledge of the planar and anomalous hall resistances and is insensitive to non-uniformity in magnetization, as opposed to the conventional harmonic technique. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that the field-like term in the Ta/Co/Pt film stack with in-plane magnetic anisotropy can be obtained by an in-plane transverse field sweep as expected, and magnetization non-uniformity is prevented by the application of fixed magnetic field. The experimental results are in agreement with the analytical calculations.
Analytical description of ballistic spin currents and torques in magnetic tunnel junctions
Chshiev, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Kalitsov, A.; Ryzhanova, N.; Vedyayev, A.; Strelkov, N.; Butler, W. H.; Dieny, B.
2015-01-01
In this work we demonstrate explicit analytical expressions for both charge and spin currents which constitute the 2×2 spinor in magnetic tunnel junctions with noncollinear magnetizations under applied voltage. The calculations have been performed
Role of motive forces for the spin torque transfer for nano-structures
Barnes, Stewart
2009-03-01
Despite an announced imminent commercial realization of spin transfer random access memory (SPRAM) the current theory evolved from that of Slonczewski [1,2] does not conserve energy. Barnes and Maekawa [3] have shown, in order correct this defect, forces which originate from the spin rather than the charge of an electron must be accounted for, this leading to the concept of spin-motive-forces (smf) which must appear in Faraday's law and which significantly modifies the theory for spin-valves and domain wall devices [4]. A multi-channel theory in which these smf's redirect the spin currents will be described. In nano-structures it is now well known that the Kondo effect is reflected by conductance peaks. In essence, the spin degrees of freedom are used to enhance conduction. In a system with nano-magnets and a Coulomb blockade [5] the similar spin channels can be the only means of effective conduction. This results in a smf which lasts for minutes and an enormous magneto-resistance [5]. This implies the possibility of ``single electron memory'' in which the magnetic state is switched by a single electron. [4pt] [1] J. C. Slonczewski, Current-Driven Excitation of Magnetic Multilayers J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 159, L1 (1996). [0pt] [2] Y. Tserkovnyak, A. Brataas, G. E. W. Bauer, and B. I. Halperin, Nonlocal magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic heterostructures, Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 1375 (2005). [0pt] [3] S. E. Barnes and S. Maekawa, Generalization of Faraday's Law to Include Nonconservative Spin Forces Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 246601 (2007); S. E. Barnes and S. Maekawa, Currents induced by domain wall motion in thin ferromagnetic wires. arXiv:cond-mat/ 0410021v1 (2004). [0pt] [4] S. E., Barnes, Spin motive forces, measurement, and spin-valves. J. Magn. Magn. Mat. 310, 2035-2037 (2007); S. E. Barnes, J. Ieda. J and S. Maekawa, Magnetic memory and current amplification devices using moving domain walls. Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 122507 (2006). [0pt] [5] Pham-Nam Hai, Byung-Ho Yu
Quantum dot spin-V(E)CSELs: polarization switching and periodic oscillations
Li, Nianqiang; Alexandropoulos, Dimitris; Susanto, Hadi; Henning, Ian; Adams, Michael
2017-09-01
Spin-polarized vertical (external) cavity surface-emitting lasers [Spin-V(E)CSELs] using quantum dot (QD) material for the active region, can display polarization switching between the right- and left-circularly polarized fields via control of the pump polarization. In particular, our previous experimental results have shown that the output polarization ellipticity of the spin-V(E)CSEL emission can exhibit either the same handedness as that of the pump polarization or the opposite, depending on the experimental operating conditions. In this contribution, we use a modified version of the spin-flip model in conjunction with combined time-independent stability analysis and direct time integration. With two representative sets of parameters our simulation results show good agreement with experimental observations. In addition periodic oscillations provide further insight into the dynamic properties of spin-V(E)CSELs.
De Raedt, Hans; Barbara, Bernard; Miyashita, Seiji; Michielsen, Kristel; Bertaina, Sylvain; Gambarelli, Serge
2012-01-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance experiments show that the decay of Rabi oscillations of ensembles of spin qubits depends noticeably on the microwave power, and more precisely on the Rabi frequency, an effect recently called "driven decoherence." By direct numerical solution of the time-dependent
Proposal for a Domain Wall Nano-Oscillator driven by Non-uniform Spin Currents
Sharma, Sanchar; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran; Tulapurkar, Ashwin
2015-09-01
We propose a new mechanism and a related device concept for a robust, magnetic field tunable radio-frequency (rf) oscillator using the self oscillation of a magnetic domain wall subject to a uniform static magnetic field and a spatially non-uniform vertical dc spin current. The self oscillation of the domain wall is created as it translates periodically between two unstable positions, one being in the region where both the dc spin current and the magnetic field are present, and the other, being where only the magnetic field is present. The vertical dc spin current pushes it away from one unstable position while the magnetic field pushes it away from the other. We show that such oscillations are stable under noise and can exhibit a quality factor of over 1000. A domain wall under dynamic translation, not only being a source for rich physics, is also a promising candidate for advancements in nanoelectronics with the actively researched racetrack memory architecture, digital and analog switching paradigms as candidate examples. Devising a stable rf oscillator using a domain wall is hence another step towards the realization of an all domain wall logic scheme.
Buhl, M.; Erbe, A.; Grebing, J.; Wintz, S.; Raabe, J.; Fassbender, J.
2013-10-01
Changing and detecting the orientation of nanomagnetic structures, which can be used for durable information storage, needs to be developed towards true nanoscale dimensions for keeping up the miniaturization speed of modern nanoelectronic components. Therefore, new concepts for controlling the state of nanomagnets are currently in the focus of research in the field of nanoelectronics. Here, we demonstrate reproducible switching of a purely metallic nanopillar placed on a lead that conducts a spin-polarized current at room temperature. Spin diffusion across the metal-metal (Cu to CoFe) interface between the pillar and the lead causes spin accumulation in the pillar, which may then be used to set the magnetic orientation of the pillar. In our experiments, the detection of the magnetic state of the nanopillar is performed by direct imaging via scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM).
Spin-Transfer-Torque Nano-Oscillators: Fabrication, Characterization and Dynamics
Costa, Jose Diogo Teixeira Barbosa
Este trabalho aborda algumas propriedades magneticas e estruturais de nanoparticulas de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro crescidos em matrizes hibridas orgânicas-inorgânicas. As matrizes hibridas, denominadas di-ureasils e obtidas pelo processo sol-gel, sao compostas por uma rede siliciosa ligada covalentemente por pontes ureia a cadeias orgânicas de diferente peso molecular. A estrutura local dos di-ureasils nao dopados esta modelada como grupos de dominios siliciosos com dimensoes nanometricas, estruturalmente correlacionados no seio de uma matriz rica em polimero. Neste trabalho mostra-se que os di-ureasils permitem o crescimento controlado de oxidos e oxidos-hidroxidos de ferro, incluindo a magnetite, maguemite, oxihidroxinitrato de ferro e ferrihidrite. O crescimento das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite da-se em condicoes acidas a superficie dos dominios siliciosos, junto aos grupos carbonilo, que funcionam como pontos de nucleacao. Desse modo da-se uma nucleacao heterogenea, onde o tamanho das nanoparticulas depende da concentracao de ferro (entre 1 e 6% em massa), sendo a concentracao de particulas constante. As propriedades magneticas das nanoparticulas de ferrihidrite revelam a existencia de interaccoes antiferromagneticas e de momentos descompensados. A contribuicao destas duas componentes nas curvas de magnetizacao em funcao do campo magnetico pode ser separada usando um metodo aqui proposto, o que permite um adequado estudo da evolucao do momento magnetico com a temperatura. O estudo das propriedades magneticas dinâmicas das particulas de ferrihidrite, atraves de susceptibilidade ac, medidas de relaxacao e medidas de efeito Mossbauer, permitiu estudar a evolucao das interaccoes dipolares em funcao da concentracao de ferro, bem como determinar a distribuicao de barreiras de energia de anisotropia no caso em que essas interaccoes sao desprezaveis. E apresentado um novo metodo para comparacao desta distribuicao com a distribuicao de tamanhos, que permitiu concluir que os momentos magneticos descompensados estao aleatoriamente distribuidos em volume. Usando baixas concentracoes de agua, foi possivel crescer fases de oxihidroxinitrato de ferro com diferentes graus de cristalinidade, sendo algumas precursoras da ferrihidrite (como observado noutros trabalhos) e sendo outras novas fases. O crescimento de nanoparticulas de maguemite e magnetite acontece apos incorporacao de ioes de Fe2+ e Fe3+ seguidos de tratamento basico e termico. Estes sistemas apresentam propriedades magneticas tipicas de nanoparticulas superparamagneticas sem interaccoes dipolares. As propriedades magneticas dependem criticamente da existencia de grupos isocianato livres, que actuarao como pontos de nucleacao. None
Analysis of thermally induced magnetization dynamics in spin-transfer nano-oscillators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Aquino, M., E-mail: daquino@uniparthenope.it [Department of Technology, University of Naples ' Parthenope' , 80143 Naples (Italy); Serpico, C. [Department of Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica 10135 Torino (Italy); Bonin, R. [Politecnico di Torino - Sede di Verres, 11029 Verres (Aosta) (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2012-05-01
The thermally induced magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin-polarized currents injected into a spin-valve-like structure used as microwave spin-transfer nano-oscillator (STNO) is considered. Magnetization dynamics is described by the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Slonczewski (LLS) equation. First, it is shown that, in the presence of thermal fluctuations, the spectrum of the output signal of the STNO exhibits multiple peaks at low and high frequencies. This circumstance is associated with the occurrence of thermally induced transitions between stationary states and magnetization self-oscillations. Then, a theoretical approach based on the separation of time-scales is developed to obtain a stochastic dynamics only in the slow state variable, namely the energy. The stationary distribution of the energy and the aforementioned transition rates are analytically computed and compared with the results of direct integration of the LLS dynamics, showing very good agreement.
Effect of thermal fluctuations in spin-torque driven magnetization dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonin, R.; Bertotti, G.; Serpico, C.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; D'Aquino, M.
2007-01-01
Nanomagnets with uniaxial symmetry driven by an external field and spin-polarized currents are considered. Anisotropy, applied field, and spin polarization are all aligned along the symmetry axis. Thermal fluctuations are described by adding a Gaussian white noise stochastic term to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the deterministic dynamics. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is derived. It is shown that deterministic dynamics, thermal relaxation, and transition rate between stable states are governed by an effective potential including the effect of current injection
Effect of thermal fluctuations in spin-torque driven magnetization dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonin, R. [INRiM, I-10135 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: bonin@inrim.it; Bertotti, G. [INRiM, I-10135 Turin (Italy); Serpico, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' I-80125 Naples (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); D' Aquino, M. [Dipartimento per le Tecnologie, Universita di Napoli ' Parthenope' , I-80133 Naples (Italy)
2007-09-15
Nanomagnets with uniaxial symmetry driven by an external field and spin-polarized currents are considered. Anisotropy, applied field, and spin polarization are all aligned along the symmetry axis. Thermal fluctuations are described by adding a Gaussian white noise stochastic term to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the deterministic dynamics. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is derived. It is shown that deterministic dynamics, thermal relaxation, and transition rate between stable states are governed by an effective potential including the effect of current injection.
Hao, Qiang; Xiao, Gang
2015-03-01
We obtain robust perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in a β -W /Co40Fe40B20/MgO structure without the need of any insertion layer between W and Co40Fe40B20 . This is achieved within a broad range of W thicknesses (3.0-9.0 nm), using a simple fabrication technique. We determine the spin Hall angle (0.40) and spin-diffusion length for the bulk β form of tungsten with a large spin-orbit coupling. As a result of the giant spin Hall effect in β -W and careful magnetic annealing, we significantly reduce the critical current density for the spin-transfer-torque-induced magnetic switching in Co40Fe40B20 . The elemental β -W is a superior candidate for magnetic memory and spin-logic applications.
Asymmetric angular dependence of spin-transfer torques in CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe magnetic tunnel junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang, Ling, E-mail: lingtang@zjut.edu.cn; Xu, Zhi-Jun, E-mail: xzj@zjut.edu.cn; Zuo, Xian-Jun; Yang, Ze-Jin, E-mail: zejinyang@zjut.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, College of Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310023 (China); Gao, Qing-He [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004, China, Information Engineering College, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang 110847 (China); Linghu, Rong-Feng, E-mail: linghu@gznu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Electronics Sciences, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China); Guo, Yun-Dong, E-mail: g308yd@126.com [College of Engineering and Technology, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang 641112 (China)
2016-04-28
Using a first-principles noncollinear wave-function-matching method, we studied the spin-transfer torques (STTs) in CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe(001) magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), where three different types of B-doped MgO in the spacer are considered, including B atoms replacing Mg atoms (Mg{sub 3}BO{sub 4}), B atoms replacing O atoms (Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 3}), and B atoms occupying interstitial positions (Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 4}) in MgO. A strong asymmetric angular dependence of STT can be obtained both in ballistic CoFe/Mg{sub 3}BO{sub 4} and CoFe/Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 4} based MTJs, whereas a nearly symmetric STT curve is observed in the junctions based on CoFe/Mg{sub 4}BO{sub 3}. Furthermore, the asymmetry of the angular dependence of STT can be suppressed significantly by the disorder of B distribution. Such skewness of STTs in the CoFe/Mg-B-O/CoFe MTJs could be attributed to the interfacial resonance states induced by the B diffusion into MgO spacer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Ayan K.; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha
2013-01-01
We show that the energy dissipated to write bits in spin-transfer-torque random access memory can be reduced by an order of magnitude if a surface acoustic wave (SAW) is launched underneath the magneto-tunneling junctions (MTJs) storing the bits. The SAW-generated strain rotates the magnetization of every MTJs' soft magnet from the easy towards the hard axis, whereupon passage of a small spin-polarized current through a target MTJ selectively switches it to the desired state with > 99.99% probability at room temperature, thereby writing the bit. The other MTJs return to their original states at the completion of the SAW cycle
Ramsey, Christopher; Del Barco, Enrique; Hill, Stephen; Shah, Sonali; Beedle, Christopher; Hendrickson, David
2008-03-01
The synthetic flexibility of molecular magnets allows one to systematically produce samples with desirable properties such as those with entangled spin states for implementation in quantum logic gates. Here we report direct evidence of quantum oscillations of the total spin length of a dimeric molecular nanomagnet through the observation of quantum interference associated with tunneling trajectories between states having different spin quantum numbers. As we outline, this is a consequence of the unique characteristics of a molecular Mn12 wheel which behaves as a (weak) ferromagnetic exchange-coupled molecular dimer: each half of the molecule acts as a single-molecule magnet (SMM), while the weak coupling between the two halves gives rise to an additional internal spin degree of freedom within the molecule, namely that its total spin may fluctuate. This extra degree of freedom accounts for several magnetization tunneling resonances that cannot be explained within the usual giant spin approximation. More importantly, the observation of quantum interference provides unambiguous evidence for the quantum mechanical superposition involving entangled states of both halves of the wheel.
Coherent Dynamics of a Hybrid Quantum Spin-Mechanical Oscillator System
Lee, Kenneth William, III
A fully functional quantum computer must contain at least two important components: a quantum memory for storing and manipulating quantum information and a quantum data bus to securely transfer information between quantum memories. Typically, a quantum memory is composed of a matter system, such as an atom or an electron spin, due to their prolonged quantum coherence. Alternatively, a quantum data bus is typically composed of some propagating degree of freedom, such as a photon, which can retain quantum information over long distances. Therefore, a quantum computer will likely be a hybrid quantum device, consisting of two or more disparate quantum systems. However, there must be a reliable and controllable quantum interface between the memory and bus in order to faithfully interconvert quantum information. The current engineering challenge for quantum computers is scaling the device to large numbers of controllable quantum systems, which will ultimately depend on the choice of the quantum elements and interfaces utilized in the device. In this thesis, we present and characterize a hybrid quantum device comprised of single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers embedded in a high quality factor diamond mechanical oscillator. The electron spin of the NV center is a leading candidate for the realization of a quantum memory due to its exceptional quantum coherence times. On the other hand, mechanical oscillators are highly sensitive to a wide variety of external forces, and have the potential to serve as a long-range quantum bus between quantum systems of disparate energy scales. These two elements are interfaced through crystal strain generated by vibrations of the mechanical oscillator. Importantly, a strain interface allows for a scalable architecture, and furthermore, opens the door to integration into a larger quantum network through coupling to an optical interface. There are a few important engineering challenges associated with this device. First, there have been no
Kosevich, Yuriy A; Gann, Vladimir V
2013-06-19
We study the localization of magnon states in finite defect-free Heisenberg spin-1/2 ferromagnetic chains placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field with a constant spatial gradient. Continuous transformation from the extended magnon states to the localized Wannier-Zeeman states in a finite spin chain placed in an inhomogeneous field is described both analytically and numerically. We describe for the first time the non-monotonic dependence of the energy levels of magnons, both long and short wavelength, on the magnetic field gradient, which is a consequence of magnon localization in a finite spin chain. We show that, in contrast to the destruction of the magnon band and the establishment of the Wannier-Stark ladder in a vanishingly small field gradient in an infinite chain, the localization of magnon states at the chain ends preserves the memory of the magnon band. Essentially, the localization at the lower- or higher-field chain end resembles the localization of the positive- or negative-effective-mass band quasiparticles. We also show how the beat dynamics of coherent superposition of extended spin waves in a finite chain in a homogeneous or weakly inhomogeneous field transforms into magnon Bloch oscillations of the superposition of localized Wannier-Zeeman states in a strongly inhomogeneous field. We provide a semiclassical description of the magnon Bloch oscillations and show that the correspondence between the quantum and semiclassical descriptions is most accurate for Bloch oscillations of the magnon coherent states, which are built from a coherent superposition of a large number of the nearest-neighbour Wannier-Zeeman states.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosevich, Yuriy A; Gann, Vladimir V
2013-01-01
We study the localization of magnon states in finite defect-free Heisenberg spin-1/2 ferromagnetic chains placed in an inhomogeneous magnetic field with a constant spatial gradient. Continuous transformation from the extended magnon states to the localized Wannier–Zeeman states in a finite spin chain placed in an inhomogeneous field is described both analytically and numerically. We describe for the first time the non-monotonic dependence of the energy levels of magnons, both long and short wavelength, on the magnetic field gradient, which is a consequence of magnon localization in a finite spin chain. We show that, in contrast to the destruction of the magnon band and the establishment of the Wannier–Stark ladder in a vanishingly small field gradient in an infinite chain, the localization of magnon states at the chain ends preserves the memory of the magnon band. Essentially, the localization at the lower- or higher-field chain end resembles the localization of the positive- or negative-effective-mass band quasiparticles. We also show how the beat dynamics of coherent superposition of extended spin waves in a finite chain in a homogeneous or weakly inhomogeneous field transforms into magnon Bloch oscillations of the superposition of localized Wannier–Zeeman states in a strongly inhomogeneous field. We provide a semiclassical description of the magnon Bloch oscillations and show that the correspondence between the quantum and semiclassical descriptions is most accurate for Bloch oscillations of the magnon coherent states, which are built from a coherent superposition of a large number of the nearest-neighbour Wannier–Zeeman states. (paper)
Spin dynamics under local gauge fields in chiral spin-orbit coupling systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Fujita, T.; Liu, X.J.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We derive a modified LLG equation in magnetic systems with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). → Our results are applied to magnetic multilayers, and DMS and magnetic Rashba systems. → SOC mediated magnetization switching is predicted in rare earth metals (large SOC). → The magnetization trajectory and frequency can be modulated by applied voltage. → This facilitates potential application as tunable microwave oscillators. - Abstract: We present a theoretical description of local spin dynamics in magnetic systems with a chiral spin texture and finite spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Spin precession about the relativistic effective magnetic field in a SOC system gives rise to a non-Abelian SU(2) gauge field reminiscent of the Yang-Mills field. In addition, the adiabatic relaxation of electron spin along the local spin yields an U(1) x U(1) topological gauge (Berry) field. We derive the corresponding equation of motion i.e. modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation, for the local spin under the influence of these effects. Focusing on the SU(2) gauge, we obtain the spin torque magnitude, and the amplitude and frequency of spin oscillations in this system. Our theoretical estimates indicate significant spin torque and oscillations in systems with large spin-orbit coupling, which may be utilized in technological applications such as current-induced magnetization-switching and tunable microwave oscillators.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomczak, Y., E-mail: Yoann.Tomczak@imec.be [IMEC Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Swerts, J.; Mertens, S.; Lin, T.; Couet, S.; Sankaran, K.; Pourtois, G.; Kim, W.; Souriau, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kar, G.; Furnemont, A. [IMEC Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Liu, E. [Department of Chemistry, KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2016-01-25
Spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) is considered as a replacement for next generation embedded and stand-alone memory applications. One of the main challenges in the STT-MRAM stack development is the compatibility of the stack with CMOS process flows in which thermal budgets up to 400 °C are applied. In this letter, we report on a perpendicularly magnetized MgO-based tunnel junction (p-MTJ) on a thin Co/Ni perpendicular synthetic antiferromagnetic layer with high annealing tolerance. Tunnel magneto resistance (TMR) loss after annealing occurs when the reference layer loses its perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to reduction of the CoFeB/MgO interfacial anisotropy. A stable Co/Ni based p-MTJ stack with TMR values of 130% at resistance-area products of 9 Ω μm{sup 2} after 400 °C anneal is achieved via moment control of the Co/Ta/CoFeB reference layer. Thinning of the CoFeB polarizing layer down to 0.8 nm is the key enabler to achieve 400 °C compatibility with limited TMR loss. Thinning the Co below 0.6 nm leads to a loss of the antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling strength through Ru. Insight into the thickness and moment engineering of the reference layer is displayed to obtain the best magnetic properties and high thermal stability for thin Co/Ni SAF-based STT-MRAM stacks.
Self-sustained spin-polarized current oscillations in multiquantum well structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escobedo, Ramon [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Ciencias de la Computacion, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Carretero, Manuel; Bonilla, Luis L [G. Millan Institute, Fluid Dynamics, Nanoscience and Industrial Mathematics, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Platero, Gloria [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Cantoblanco (Spain)], E-mail: escobedo@unican.es, E-mail: manuel.carretero@uc3m.es, E-mail: bonilla@ing.uc3m.es, E-mail: gplatero@icmm.csic.es
2009-01-15
Nonlinear transport through diluted magnetic semiconductor nanostructures is investigated. We have considered a II-VI multiquantum well nanostructure whose wells are selectively doped with Mn. The response to a dc voltage bias may be either a stationary or an oscillatory current. We have studied the transition from stationary to time-dependent current as a function of the doping density and the number of quantum wells. Analysis and numerical solution of a nonlinear spin transport model shows that the current in a structure without magnetic impurities is stationary, whereas current oscillations may appear if at least one well contains magnetic impurities. For long structures having two wells with magnetic impurities, a detailed analysis of nucleation of charge dipole domains shows that self-sustained current oscillations are caused by repeated triggering of dipole domains at the magnetic wells and motion towards the collector. Depending on the location of the magnetic wells and the voltage, dipole domains may be triggered at both wells or at only one. In the latter case, the well closer to the collector may inhibit domain motion between the first and the second well inside the structure. Our study could allow design of oscillatory spin-polarized current injectors.
Useinov, Arthur; Lin, Hsiu-Hau; Lai, Chih-Huang
2017-08-21
The problem of the ballistic electron tunneling is considered in magnetic tunnel junction with embedded non-magnetic nanoparticles (NP-MTJ), which creates additional conducting middle layer. The strong temperature impact was found in the system with averaged NP diameter d av tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) voltage behaviors. The low temperature approach also predicts step-like TMR and quantized in-plane spin transfer torque (STT) effects. The robust asymmetric STT respond is found due to voltage sign inversion in NP-MTJs with barrier asymmetry. Furthermore, it is shown how size distribution of NPs as well as quantization rules modify the spin-current filtering properties of the nanoparticles in ballistic regime. Different quantization rules for the transverse component of the wave vector are considered to overpass the dimensional threshold (d av ≈ 1.8 nm) between quantum well and bulk-assisted states of the middle layer.
Thermomagnetic torque in hydrogen isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cramer, J.A.
1975-01-01
The thermomagnetic torque has been measured in parahydrogen and ortho and normal deuterium for pressures from 0.10 to 2.0 torr and temperatures from 100 to 370 K. Since the torque depends on the precession of the molecular rotational magnetic moment around the field direction, coupling of the molecular nuclear spin to the rotational moment can affect the torque. Evidence of spin coupling effects is found for the torque in both deuterium modifications. In para hydrogen the torque at all temperatures and pressures exhibits behavior expected of a gas of zero nuclear spin molecules. Additionally, earlier data for hydrogen deuteride and for normal hydrogen from 105 to 374 K are evaluated and discussed. The high pressure limiting values of torque peak heights and positions for all these gases are compared with theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vatansever, Erol [Dokuz Eylül University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, TR-35160 Izmir (Turkey); Polat, Hamza, E-mail: hamza.polat@deu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Dokuz Eylül University, TR-35160 Izmir (Turkey)
2015-10-15
Nonequilibrium phase transition properties of a mixed Ising ferrimagnetic model consisting of spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 on a square lattice under the existence of a time dependent oscillating magnetic field have been investigated by making use of Monte Carlo simulations with a single-spin flip Metropolis algorithm. A complete picture of dynamic phase boundary and magnetization profiles have been illustrated and the conditions of a dynamic compensation behavior have been discussed in detail. According to our simulation results, the considered system does not point out a dynamic compensation behavior, when it only includes the nearest-neighbor interaction, single-ion anisotropy and an oscillating magnetic field source. As the next-nearest-neighbor interaction between the spins-1/2 takes into account and exceeds a characteristic value which sensitively depends upon values of single-ion anisotropy and only of amplitude of external magnetic field, a dynamic compensation behavior occurs in the system. Finally, it is reported that it has not been found any evidence of dynamically first-order phase transition between dynamically ordered and disordered phases, which conflicts with the recently published molecular field investigation, for a wide range of selected system parameters. - Highlights: • Spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic model is examined. • The system is exposed to time-dependent magnetic field. • Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation technique is used. • Any evidence of first-order phase transition has not been found.
Fabrication of Spin-Transfer Nano-Oscillator by Colloidal Lithography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Fang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We fabricate nanoscale spin-transfer oscillators (STOs by utilizing colloidal nanoparticles as a lithographic mask. By this approach, high quality STO devices can be fabricated, and as an example the fabricated STO devices using MgO magnetic tunnel junction as the basic cell exhibit current-induced microwave emission with a large frequency tunability of 0.22 GHz/mA. Compared to the conventional approaches that involve a step of defining nanoscale elements by means of electron beam lithography, which is not readily available for many groups, our strategy for STO fabrication does not require the sophisticated equipment (~ million dollars per unit and expensive lithography resist, while being cost-effective and easy to use in laboratory level. This will accelerate efforts to implement STO into on-chip integrated high-radio frequency applications.
Tunneling conductance oscillations in spin-orbit coupled metal-insulator-superconductor junctions
Kapri, Priyadarshini; Basu, Saurabh
2018-01-01
The tunneling conductance for a device consisting of a metal-insulator-superconductor (MIS) junction is studied in presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) via an extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. We find that the tunneling conductance as a function of an effective barrier potential that defines the insulating layer and lies intermediate to the metallic and superconducting electrodes, displays an oscillatory behavior. The tunneling conductance shows high sensitivity to the RSOC for certain ranges of this potential, while it is insensitive to the RSOC for others. Additionally, when the period of oscillations is an odd multiple of a certain value of the effective potential, the conductance spectrum as a function of the biasing energy demonstrates a contrasting trend with RSOC, compared to when it is not an odd multiple. The explanations for the observation can be found in terms of a competition between the normal and Andreev reflections. Similar oscillatory behavior of the conductance spectrum is also seen for other superconducting pairing symmetries, thereby emphasizing that the insulating layer plays a decisive role in the conductance oscillations of a MIS junction. For a tunable Rashba coupling, the current flowing through the junction can be controlled with precision.
Engel, Christian; Goolaup, Sarjoosing; Luo, Feilong; Lew, Wen Siang
2017-08-01
Substantial understanding of spin-orbit interactions in heavy-metal (HM)/ferromagnet (FM) heterostructures is crucial in developing spin-orbit torque (SOT) spintronics devices utilizing spin Hall and Rashba effects. Though the study of SOT effective field dependence on the out-of-plane magnetization angle has been relatively extensive, the understanding of in-plane magnetization angle dependence remains unknown. Here, we analytically propose a method to compute the SOT effective fields as a function of the in-plane magnetization angle using the harmonic Hall technique in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) structures. Two different samples with PMA, a Pt /Co /Pt /Co /Ta /BaTi O3 (BTO) test sample and a Pt/Co/Pt/Co/Ta reference sample, are studied using the derived formula. Our measurements reveal that only the dampinglike field of the test sample with a BTO capping layer exhibits an in-plane magnetization angle dependence, while no angular dependence is found in the reference sample. The presence of the BTO layer in the test sample, which gives rise to a Rashba effect at the interface, is ascribed as the source of the angular dependence of the dampinglike field.
Takaya, Satoshi; Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Noguchi, Hiroki; Ikegami, Kazutaka; Abe, Keiko; Fujita, Shinobu
2017-04-01
Among the diverse applications of spintronics, security for internet-of-things (IoT) devices is one of the most important. A physically unclonable function (PUF) with a spin device (spin transfer torque magnetoresistive random access memory, STT-MRAM) is presented. Oxide tunnel barrier breakdown is used to realize long-term stability for PUFs. A secure PUF has been confirmed by evaluating the Hamming distance of a 32-bit STT-MRAM-PUF fabricated using 65 nm CMOS technology.
Kozlov, I. V.; Kolesnichenko, Yu. A.
2017-07-01
We present a theoretical study of the spatial distribution of the local density of states (LDOS) and the local magnetization density (LMD) in the vicinity of a magnetic point-defect in a degenerate two-dimensional electron gas with a mixed Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling interaction (SOI). The dependence of the Friedel oscillations, which arise under these conditions, on the ratio of the SOI constants is investigated. We obtain asymptotic expressions for the oscillatory parts of the LDOS and the LMD, that are accurate for large distances from the defect. It is shown, that the Friedel oscillations are significantly anisotropic and contain several harmonics for certain ratios of the SOI constants. Period of the oscillations for directions along the symmetry axes of the Fermi contours are determined. Finally, we introduce a method for determining the values of the two SOI constants by measuring the period of the Friedel oscillations of the LDOS and the LMD for different harmonics.
Sojeong Kim,; Seungjun Lee,; Hyungsoon Shin,
2010-04-01
In spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ), the switching depends on the current pulse-width as well as the magnitude of the switching current. We present an advanced macro-model of an STT-MTJ for a circuit simulator such as HSPICE. The macro-model can simulate the dependence of switching behavior on current pulse-width in an STT-MTJ. An imaginary resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit is adopted to emulate complex timing behavior which cannot be described nicely by existing functions in HSPICE. Simulation results show the resistance-current (R-I) curve and timing behavior is in good agreement with the experimental data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kantar, Ersin [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2010-09-15
We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, Mustafa; Kantar, Ersin
2010-01-01
We study the existence of dynamic compensation temperatures in the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic system Hamiltonian with bilinear and crystal-field interactions in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating external magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice. We employ the Glauber transitions rates to construct the mean-field dynamic equations. We investigate the time dependence of an average sublattice magnetizations, the thermal behavior of the dynamic sublattice magnetizations and the total magnetization. From these studies, we find the phases in the system, and characterize the nature (continuous or discontinuous) of transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points and the dynamic compensation temperatures. We also present dynamic phase diagrams, including the compensation temperatures, in the five different planes. A comparison is made with the results of the available mixed spin Ising systems.
Size Distribution Imaging by Non-Uniform Oscillating-Gradient Spin Echo (NOGSE MRI.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Noam Shemesh
Full Text Available Objects making up complex porous systems in Nature usually span a range of sizes. These size distributions play fundamental roles in defining the physicochemical, biophysical and physiological properties of a wide variety of systems - ranging from advanced catalytic materials to Central Nervous System diseases. Accurate and noninvasive measurements of size distributions in opaque, three-dimensional objects, have thus remained long-standing and important challenges. Herein we describe how a recently introduced diffusion-based magnetic resonance methodology, Non-Uniform-Oscillating-Gradient-Spin-Echo (NOGSE, can determine such distributions noninvasively. The method relies on its ability to probe confining lengths with a (length6 parametric sensitivity, in a constant-time, constant-number-of-gradients fashion; combined, these attributes provide sufficient sensitivity for characterizing the underlying distributions in μm-scaled cellular systems. Theoretical derivations and simulations are presented to verify NOGSE's ability to faithfully reconstruct size distributions through suitable modeling of their distribution parameters. Experiments in yeast cell suspensions - where the ground truth can be determined from ancillary microscopy - corroborate these trends experimentally. Finally, by appending to the NOGSE protocol an imaging acquisition, novel MRI maps of cellular size distributions were collected from a mouse brain. The ensuing micro-architectural contrasts successfully delineated distinctive hallmark anatomical sub-structures, in both white matter and gray matter tissues, in a non-invasive manner. Such findings highlight NOGSE's potential for characterizing aberrations in cellular size distributions upon disease, or during normal processes such as development.
Dynamical properties of three terminal magnetic tunnel junctions: Spintronics meets spin-orbitronics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomasello, R. [Department of Computer Science, Modeling, Electronics and System Science, University of Calabria, Rende (CS) (Italy); Carpentieri, M., E-mail: m.carpentieri@poliba.it [Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Politecnico of Bari, via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Finocchio, G. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering, University of Messina, C.da di Dio, I-98166 Messina (Italy)
2013-12-16
This Letter introduces a micromagnetic model able to characterize the magnetization dynamics in three terminal magnetic tunnel junctions, where the effects of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque are taken into account. Our results predict that the possibility to separate electrically those two torque sources is very promising from a technological point of view for both next generation of nanoscale spintronic oscillators and microwave detectors. A scalable synchronization scheme based on the parallel connection of those three terminal devices is also proposed.
Dynamical properties of three terminal magnetic tunnel junctions: Spintronics meets spin-orbitronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomasello, R.; Carpentieri, M.; Finocchio, G.
2013-01-01
This Letter introduces a micromagnetic model able to characterize the magnetization dynamics in three terminal magnetic tunnel junctions, where the effects of spin-transfer torque and spin-orbit torque are taken into account. Our results predict that the possibility to separate electrically those two torque sources is very promising from a technological point of view for both next generation of nanoscale spintronic oscillators and microwave detectors. A scalable synchronization scheme based on the parallel connection of those three terminal devices is also proposed
2011-08-09
Elena Bankowski (Research Engineer) & Mr. Steven Zielinski (Engineer). •Oakland University Research Team: Dr. Andrei Slavin (Chair, Physics...Dr. Grace Bochenek, the Chief Scientist Dr. Dave Gorsich and GVSS Associate Director Mr. Steve Knott for their support of this innovative research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez-Fuentes, C.; Gallardo, R. A., E-mail: rodolfo.gallardo@usm.cl; Landeros, P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, 2390123 Valparaíso (Chile)
2015-10-05
An analytical model for studying the stability of a single domain ferromagnetic layer under the influence of a spin-polarized current is presented. The theory is applied to bias-field-free nano-oscillators with perpendicular anisotropy, which allows to obtain a polarizer-angle vs. current phase diagram that describes the stability of magnetic states. Explicit formulae for the critical current densities unveil the influence of the relative orientation between free and polarizer layers, allowing the emergence of precessional steady-states, and also the possibility to reduce the magnitude of the threshold current density to produce microwave oscillations. It is shown that oscillating steady-states arise in a broad angular region, and the dependence of their boundaries is fully specified by the model. The reliability of the analytical results has been corroborated by comparison to numerical calculations. Such structures are currently under intense research because of remarkable properties offering new prospects for microwave applications in communication technologies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Gueldal, S.
2009-01-01
We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, M., E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, O. [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Gueldal, S. [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2009-12-14
We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.
Strain cupling of a nitrogen-vacancy center spin to a diamond mechanical oscillator
Teissier, J.; Barfuss, A.; Appel, P.; Neu, E.; Maletinsky, P.
2014-01-01
We report on single electronic spins coupled to the motion of mechanical resonators by a novel mechanism based on crystal strain. Our device consists of single-crystal diamond cantilevers with embedded nitrogen-vacancy center spins. Using optically detected electron spin resonance, we determine the unknown spin-strain coupling constants and demonstrate that our system resides well within the resolved sideband regime. We realize coupling strengths exceeding 10 MHz under mechanical driving and ...
Resolved sidebands in a strain-coupled hybrid spin-oscillator system
Teissier, Jean; Barfuss, Arne; Appel, Patrick; Neu, Elke; Maletinsky, P.
2014-01-01
We report on single electronic spins coupled to the motion of mechanical resonators by a novel mechanism based on crystal strain. Our device consists of single-crystalline diamond cantilevers with embedded Nitrogen-Vacancy center spins. Using optically detected electron spin resonance, we determine the unknown spin-strain coupling constants and demonstrate that our system resides well within the resolved sideband regime. We realize coupling strengths exceeding ten MHz under mechanical driving...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, Mustafa; Polat, Yasin
2009-01-01
The phase diagrams of the nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on square lattice under a time-dependent external magnetic field are presented by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins σ=3/2 and S=2, and we take only nearest-neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at absolute temperature T abs and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip of the Glauber dynamics. First, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters to find the phases in the system and then the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) phase transitions. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p), ferrimagnetic (i 1 , i 2 , i 3 ) phases, and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely i 1 +p, i 2 +p and i 3 +p mixed phases that strongly depend on interaction parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Polat, Yasin [Institutes of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2009-12-15
The phase diagrams of the nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on square lattice under a time-dependent external magnetic field are presented by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins {sigma}=3/2 and S=2, and we take only nearest-neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at absolute temperature T{sub abs} and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip of the Glauber dynamics. First, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters to find the phases in the system and then the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) phase transitions. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p), ferrimagnetic (i{sub 1}, i{sub 2}, i{sub 3}) phases, and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely i{sub 1}+p, i{sub 2}+p and i{sub 3}+p mixed phases that strongly depend on interaction parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chavent, A.; Ducruet, C.; Portemont, C.; Creuzet, C.; Alvarez-Hérault, J.; Vila, L.; Sousa, R. C.; Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B.
2015-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of a controlled cooling rate on magnetic field reversal assisted by spin transfer torque (STT) in thermally assisted magnetic random access memory. By using a gradual linear decrease of the voltage at the end of the write pulse, the STT decays more slowly or at least at the same rate as the temperature. This condition is necessary to make sure that the storage layer magnetization remains in the desired written direction during cooling of the cell. The influence of the write current pulse decay rate was investigated on two exchange biased synthetic ferrimagnet (SyF) electrodes. For a NiFe based electrode, a significant improvement in writing reproducibility was observed using a gradual linear voltage transition. The write error rate decreases by a factor of 10 when increasing the write pulse fall-time from ∼3 ns to 70 ns. For comparison, a second CoFe/NiFe based electrode was also reversed by magnetic field assisted by STT. In this case, no difference between sharp and linear write pulse fall shape was observed. We attribute this observation to the higher thermal stability of the CoFe/NiFe electrode during cooling. In real-time measurements of the magnetization reversal, it was found that Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling in the SyF electrode vanishes for the highest pulse voltages that were used due to the high temperature reached during write. As a result, during the cooling phase, the final state is reached through a spin-flop transition of the SyF storage layer
Wang, Jing; Wu, Shizhe; Ma, Ji; Xie, Lishan; Wang, Chuanshou; Malik, Iftikhar Ahmed; Zhang, Yuelin; Xia, Ke; Nan, Ce-Wen; Zhang, Jinxing
2018-02-01
Stripe-ordered domains with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy have been intensively investigated due to their potential applications in high-density magnetic data-storage devices. However, the conventional control methods (e.g., epitaxial strain, local heating, magnetic field, and magnetoelectric effect) of the stripe-ordered domain walls either cannot meet the demands for miniaturization and low power consumption of spintronic devices or require high strength of the electric field due to the small value of the magnetoelectric effect at room temperature. Here, a domain-wall resistive effect of 0.1% was clarified in La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 thin films between the configurations of current in the plane and perpendicular to the plane of walls. Furthermore, a reversible nanoscale control of the domain-wall re-orientation by vertical spin transfer torque across the probe/film interface was achieved, where a probe voltage of 0.1 V was applied on a manganite-based capacitor. We also demonstrated that the stripe-ordered magnetic domain-wall re-orientation strongly depends on the AC frequency of the scanning probe voltage which was applied on the capacitor.
Sasaki, Taro; Endoh, Tetsuo
2018-04-01
In this paper, from the viewpoint of cell size and sensing margin, the impact of a novel cross-point-type one transistor and one magnetic tunnel junction (1T–1MTJ) spin-transfer-torque magnetoresistive random access memory (STT-MRAM) cell with a multi-pillar vertical body channel (BC) MOSFET is shown for high density and wide sensing margin STT-MRAM, with a 10 ns writing period and 1.2 V V DD. For that purpose, all combinations of n/p-type MOSFETs and bottom/top-pin MTJs are compared, where the diameter of MTJ (D MTJ) is scaled down from 55 to 15 nm and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio is increased from 100 to 200%. The results show that, benefiting from the proposed STT-MRAM cell with no back bias effect, the MTJ with a high TMR ratio (200%) can be used in the design of smaller STT-MRAM cells (over 72.6% cell size reduction), which is a difficult task for conventional planar MOSFET based design.
Avci, Can Onur; Rosenberg, Ethan; Baumgartner, Manuel; Beran, Lukáš; Quindeau, Andy; Gambardella, Pietro; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.
2017-08-01
We report fast and efficient current-induced switching of a perpendicular anisotropy magnetic insulator thulium iron garnet by using spin-orbit torques (SOT) from the Pt overlayer. We first show that, with quasi-DC (10 ms) current pulses, SOT-induced switching can be achieved with an external field as low as 2 Oe, making TmIG an outstanding candidate to realize efficient switching in heterostructures that produce moderate stray fields without requiring an external field. We then demonstrate deterministic switching with fast current pulses (≤20 ns) with an amplitude of ˜1012 A/m2, similar to all-metallic structures. We reveal that, in the presence of an initially nucleated domain, the critical switching current is reduced by up to a factor of five with respect to the fully saturated initial state, implying efficient current-driven domain wall motion in this system. Based on measurements with 2 ns-long pulses, we estimate the domain wall velocity of the order of ˜400 m/s per j = 1012 A/m2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertas, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram
2010-01-01
The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the spin-2 Ising model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameter and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane.
Charge and spin current oscillations in a tunnel junction induced by magnetic field pulses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dartora, C.A., E-mail: cadartora@eletrica.ufpr.br [Electrical Engineering Department, Federal University of Parana (UFPR), C.P. 19011 Curitiba, 81.531-970 PR (Brazil); Nobrega, K.Z., E-mail: bzuza1@yahoo.com.br [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technolgy of Maranhão (IFMA), Av. Marechal Castelo Branco, 789, São Luís, 65.076-091 MA (Brazil); Cabrera, G.G., E-mail: cabrera@ifi.unicamp.br [Instituto de Física ‘Gleb Wataghin’, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), C.P. 6165, Campinas 13.083-970 SP (Brazil)
2016-08-15
Usually, charge and spin transport properties in tunnel junctions are studied in the DC bias regime and/or in the adiabatic regime of time-varying magnetic fields. In this letter, the temporal dynamics of charge and spin currents in a tunnel junction induced by pulsed magnetic fields is considered. At low bias voltages, energy and momentum of the conduction electrons are nearly conserved in the tunneling process, leading to the description of the junction as a spin-1/2 fermionic system coupled to time-varying magnetic fields. Under the influence of pulsed magnetic fields, charge and spin current can flow across the tunnel junction, displaying oscillatory behavior, even in the absence of DC bias voltage. A type of spin capacitance function, in close analogy to electric capacitance, is predicted.
Fgeppert, E.
1984-09-01
Mechanical means for sensing turning torque generated by the load forces in a rotary drive system is described. The sensing means is designed to operate with minimal effect on normal operation of the drive system. The invention can be employed in various drive systems, e.g., automotive engine-transmission power plants, electric motor-operated tools, and metal cutting machines. In such drive systems, the torque-sensing feature may be useful for actuation of various control devices, such as electric switches, mechanical clutches, brake actuators, fluid control valves, or audible alarms. The torque-sensing function can be used for safety overload relief, motor de-energization, engine fuel control transmission clutch actuation, remote alarm signal, tool breakage signal, etc.
Bunyaev, S. A.; Golub, V. O.; Salyuk, O. Yu.; Tartakovskaya, E. V.; Santos, N. M.; Timopheev, A. A.; Sobolev, N. A.; Serga, A. A.; Chumak, A. V.; Hillebrands, B.; Kakazei, G. N.
2015-01-01
The spin wave dynamics in patterned magnetic nanostructures is under intensive study during the last two decades. On the one hand, this interest is generated by new physics that can be explored in such structures. On the other hand, with the development of nanolithography, patterned nanoelements and their arrays can be used in many practical applications (magnetic recording systems both as media and read-write heads, magnetic random access memory, and spin-torque oscillators just to name a fe...
Fluidic low-frequency oscillator with vortex spin-up time delay
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tesař, Václav; Smyk, E.
2015-01-01
Roč. 90, April (2015), s. 6-15 ISSN 0255-2701 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S; GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * oscillator * vortex chamber Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0255270115000252
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loong, Li Ming; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo
2015-01-01
Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) have the potential to revolutionize magnetization switching technology. Here, we investigate SOT in a heavy metal (HM)/Co 2 FeAl 0.5 Si 0.5 (CFAS)/MgO thin film structure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), where the HM is either Pt or Ta. Our results suggest that both the spin Hall effect and the Rashba effect contribute significantly to the effective fields in the Pt underlayer samples. Moreover, after taking the PMA energies into account, current-induced SOT-based switching studies of both the Pt and Ta underlayer samples suggest that the two HM underlayers yield comparable switching efficiency in the HM/CFAS/MgO material system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loong, Li Ming; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2015-07-13
Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) have the potential to revolutionize magnetization switching technology. Here, we investigate SOT in a heavy metal (HM)/Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} (CFAS)/MgO thin film structure with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), where the HM is either Pt or Ta. Our results suggest that both the spin Hall effect and the Rashba effect contribute significantly to the effective fields in the Pt underlayer samples. Moreover, after taking the PMA energies into account, current-induced SOT-based switching studies of both the Pt and Ta underlayer samples suggest that the two HM underlayers yield comparable switching efficiency in the HM/CFAS/MgO material system.
Terahertz-Frequency Spin Hall Auto-oscillator Based on a Canted Antiferromagnet
Sulymenko, O. R.; Prokopenko, O. V.; Tiberkevich, V. S.; Slavin, A. N.; Ivanov, B. A.; Khymyn, R. S.
2017-12-01
We propose a design of a terahertz-frequency signal generator based on a layered structure consisting of a current-driven platinum (Pt) layer and a layer of an antiferromagnet (AFM) with easy-plane anisotropy, where the magnetization vectors of the AFM sublattices are canted inside the easy plane by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). The dc electric current flowing in the Pt layer creates due to the spin Hall effect, a perpendicular spin current that, being injected in the AFM layer, tilts the DMI-canted AFM sublattices out of the easy plane, thus exposing them to the action of a strong internal exchange magnetic field of the AFM. The sublattice magnetizations, along with the small net magnetization vector mDMI of the canted AFM, start to rotate about the hard anisotropy axis of the AFM with the terahertz frequency proportional to the injected spin current and the AFM exchange field. The rotation of the small net magnetization mDMI results in the terahertz-frequency dipolar radiation that can be directly received by an adjacent (e.g., dielectric) resonator. We demonstrate theoretically that the radiation frequencies in the range f =0.05 - 2 THz are possible at the experimentally reachable magnitudes of the driving current density, and we evaluate the power of the signal radiated into different types of resonators. This power increases with the increase of frequency f , and it can exceed 1 μ W at f ˜0.5 THz for a typical dielectric resonator of the electric permittivity ɛ ˜10 and a quality factor Q ˜750 .
Magnon-mediated Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya torque in homogeneous ferromagnets
Manchon, Aurelien; Ndiaye, Papa Birame; Moon, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2014-01-01
the time-averaged magnetization direction and display a number of similarities with the torques arising from the electron flow in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This magnon-mediated spin-orbit torque can
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Malomed, Boris A.
2017-10-01
We analyze the possibility of macroscopic quantum effects in the form of coupled structural oscillations and shuttle motion of bright two-component spin-orbit-coupled striped (one-dimensional, 1D) and semivortex (two-dimensional, 2D) matter-wave solitons, under the action of linear mixing (Rabi coupling) between the components. In 1D, the intrinsic oscillations manifest themselves as flippings between spatially even and odd components of striped solitons, while in 2D the system features periodic transitions between zero-vorticity and vortical components of semivortex solitons. The consideration is performed by means of a combination of analytical and numerical methods.
Magnon-mediated Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya torque in homogeneous ferromagnets
Manchon, Aurelien
2014-12-01
In thin magnetic layers with structural inversion asymmetry and spin-orbit coupling, the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction arises at the interface. When a spin-wave current jm flows in a system with a homogeneous magnetization m, this interaction produces an effective fieldlike torque of the form TFLm×(z×jm) as well as a dampinglike torque, TDLm×[(z×jm)×m], the latter only in the presence of spin-wave relaxation (z is normal to the interface). These torques mediated by the magnon flow can reorient the time-averaged magnetization direction and display a number of similarities with the torques arising from the electron flow in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This magnon-mediated spin-orbit torque can be efficient in the case of magnons driven by a thermal gradient.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Peng; Feng, Jiafeng; Wei, Hongxiang; Han, Xiufeng; Fang, Bin; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming
2015-01-01
We experimentally study the temperature dependence of the spin-transfer-torque-induced microwave oscillations in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer. We demonstrate that the oscillation frequency increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, which is mainly ascribed to the temperature dependence of both the saturation magnetization and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We also find that a strong temperature dependence of the output power while a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of spectral linewidth are maintained for a constant dc bias in measured temperature range. Possible mechanisms leading to the different dependences of oscillation frequency, output power, and linewidth are discussed
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr
2008-06-15
We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertas, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered (d) and the ferromagnetic-2 (f{sub 2}) phases, and the f{sub 2}+d, f{sub 2}+fq, fq+d, f{sub 2}+f{sub 1}+fq and f{sub 2}+fq+d, where f{sub 1} are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters.
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertas, Mehmet; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa
2008-01-01
We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertas, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered (d) and the ferromagnetic-2 (f 2 ) phases, and the f 2 +d, f 2 +fq, fq+d, f 2 +f 1 +fq and f 2 +fq+d, where f 1 are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters
Dynamic phase transition in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in an oscillating field
Ertaş, Mehmet; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa
We extend our recent paper [M. Keskin, O. Canko, M. Ertaş, J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (Sov. Phys. JETP) 105 (2007) 1190.] to present a study, within a mean-field approach, the stationary states of the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model in the presence of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field by using the Glauber-type of stochastic dynamics. We found 20 fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams where exhibit more complex and richer phase diagrams than our recent paper. Especially, the obtained dynamic phase diagrams show the dynamic triple, quadruple and dynamic double critical end points besides dynamic tricritical points that depending on interaction parameters. The phase diagrams also exhibit a disordered ( d) and the ferromagnetic-2 ( f2) phases, and the f2+ d, f2+ fq, fq+ d, f2+ f1+ fq and f2+ fq+ d, where f1 are fq the ferromagnetic-1 and ferroquadrupolar or simply quadrupolar phases respectively, coexistence phase regions that strongly depend on interaction parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aegerter, C.M.; Hofer, J.; Savic, I.M.; Keller, H.; Lee, S.L.; Ager, C.; Lloyd, S.H.; Forgan, E.M.
1998-01-01
Using the techniques of muon spin rotation and torque magnetometry, we investigate the crossover field B cr in Bi 2.15 Sr 1.85 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+δ at which the vortex lattice becomes disordered along the field direction. It is found that B cr scales as the projection of the applied field along the perpendicular to the superconducting planes. This has the implication that a field large enough to give a disordered lattice when applied perpendicular to the planes, can give a well-ordered vortex-line lattice for angles of the field to the c axis greater than a critical value. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Khymyn, Roman S.; Tang, Hong X.; Slavin, Andrei N.
2014-01-01
For auto-oscillators of different nature (e.g. active cells in a human heart under the action of a pacemaker, neurons in brain, spin-torque nano-oscillators, micro and nano-mechanical oscillators, or generating Josephson junctions) a critically important property is their ability to synchronize with each other. The synchronization properties of an auto oscillator are directly related to its sensitivity to external signals. Here we demonstrate that a non-isochronous (having generation frequency dependent on the amplitude) auto-oscillator with delayed feedback can have an extremely high sensitivity to external signals and unusually large width of the phase-locking band near the boundary of the stable auto-oscillation regime. This property could be used for the development of synchronized arrays of non-isochronous auto-oscillators in physics and engineering, and, for instance, might bring a better fundamental understanding of ways to control a heart arrythmia in medicine.
Glenn, R.; Baker, W. J.; Boehme, C.; Raikh, M. E.
2013-04-01
We report on the theoretical and experimental study of spin-dependent electronic transition rates which are controlled by a radiation-induced spin-Rabi oscillation of weakly spin-exchange and spin-dipolar coupled paramagnetic states (S=(1)/(2)). The oscillation components [the Fourier content, F(s)] of the net transition rates within spin-pair ensembles are derived for randomly distributed spin resonances, with an account of a possible correlation between the two distributions corresponding to individual pair partners. Our study shows that when electrically detected Rabi spectroscopy is conducted under an increasing driving field B1, the Rabi spectrum, F(s), evolves from a single peak at s=ΩR, where ΩR=γB1 is the Rabi frequency (γ is the gyromagnetic ratio), to three peaks at s=ΩR, s=2ΩR, and low s≪ΩR. The crossover between the two regimes takes place when ΩR exceeds the expectation value δ0 of the difference in the Zeeman energies within the pairs, which corresponds to the broadening of the magnetic resonance by disorder caused by a hyperfine field or distributions of Landé g factors. We capture this crossover by analytically calculating the shapes of all three peaks at an arbitrary relation between ΩR and δ0. When the peaks are well developed their widths are Δs˜δ02/ΩR. We find a good quantitative agreement between the theory and experiment.
High-Frequency Dynamics Modulated by Collective Magnetization Reversal in Artificial Spin Ice
Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Sklenar, Joseph; Ding, Junjia; Park, Jungsik; Pearson, John E.; Novosad, Valentine; Schiffer, Peter; Hoffmann, Axel
2017-12-01
Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance arises in heavy metal-ferromagnet heterostructures when an alternating charge current is passed through the bilayer stack. The methodology to detect the resonance is based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance, which is the change in the electrical resistance due to different orientations of the magnetization. In connected networks of ferromagnetic nanowires, known as artificial spin ice, the magnetoresistance is rather complex owing to the underlying collective behavior of the geometrically frustrated magnetic domain structure. Here, we demonstrate spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance investigations in a square artificial spin-ice system and correlate our observations to magnetotransport measurements. The experimental findings are described using a simulation approach that highlights the importance of the correlated dynamics response of the magnetic system. Our results open the possibility of designing reconfigurable microwave oscillators and magnetoresistive devices based on connected networks of nanomagnets.
Spin transfer driven resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex core for efficient rf detector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Menshawy
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Spin transfer magnetization dynamics have led to considerable advances in Spintronics, including opportunities for new nanoscale radiofrequency devices. Among the new functionalities is the radiofrequency (rf detection using the spin diode rectification effect in spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs. In this study, we focus on a new phenomenon, the resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex in STNOs. This effect is observed when the excitation vortex radius, due to spin torques associated to rf currents, becomes larger than the actual radius of the STNO. This vortex expulsion is leading to a sharp variation of the voltage at the resonant frequency. Here we show that the detected frequency can be tuned by different parameters; furthermore, a simultaneous detection of different rf signals can be achieved by real time measurements with several STNOs having different diameters. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle towards the development of a new kind of nanoscale rf threshold detector.
High-Frequency Dynamics Modulated by Collective Magnetization Reversal in Artificial Spin Ice
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Sklenar, Joseph; Ding, Junjia; Park, Jungsik; Pearson, John E.; Novosad, Valentine; Schiffer, Peter; Hoffmann, Axel
2017-12-01
Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance arises in heavy metal-ferromagnet heterostructures when an alternating charge current is passed through the bilayer stack. The methodology to detect the resonance is based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance, which is the change in the electrical resistance due to different orientations of the magnetization. In connected networks of ferromagnetic nanowires, known as artificial spin ice, the magnetoresistance is rather complex owing to the underlying collective behavior of the geometrically frustrated magnetic domain structure. Here, we demonstrate spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance investigations in a square artificial spin-ice system and correlate our observations to magneto-transport measurements. The experimental findings are described using a simulation approach that highlights the importance of the correlated dynamics response of the magnetic system. Our results open the possibility of designing reconfigurable microwave oscillators and magnetoresistive devices based on connected networks of nanomagnets.
Ertaş, Mehmet
2015-09-01
Keskin and Ertaş (2009) presented a study of the magnetic properties of a mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model within an oscillating magnetic field. They employed dynamic mean-field calculations to find the dynamic phase transition temperatures, the dynamic compensation points of the model and to present the dynamic phase diagrams. In this work, we extend the study and investigate the dynamic hysteresis behaviors for the two-dimensional (2D) mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model on a hexagonal lattice in an oscillating magnetic field within the framework of dynamic mean-field calculations. The dynamic hysteresis curves are obtained for both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions and the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic hysteresis behaviors are discussed in detail. The thermal behaviors of the coercivity and remanent magnetizations are also investigated. The results are compared with some theoretical and experimental works and a qualitatively good agreement is found. Finally, the dynamic phase diagrams depending on the frequency of an oscillating magnetic field in the plane of the reduced temperature versus magnetic field amplitude is examined and it is found that the dynamic phase diagrams display richer dynamic critical behavior for higher values of frequency than for lower values.
Harrison, Neil; Shekhter, Arkady
2015-03-01
We investigate the origin of the small residual nodal bilayer-splitting in the underdoped high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O6+x using the results of recently published angle-resolved quantum oscillation data [Sebastian et al., Nature 511, 61 (2014)]. A crucial clue to the origin of the residual bilayer-splitting is found to be provided by the anomalously small Zeeman-splitting of some of the observed cyclotron orbits. We show that such an anomalously Zeeman-splitting (or small effective g-factor) for a subset of orbits can be explained by spin-orbit interactions, which become significant in the nodal regions as a result of the vanishing bilayer coupling. The primary effect of spin-orbit interactions is to cause quasiparticles traversing the nodal region of the Brillouin zone to undergo a spin flip. We suggest that the Rashba-like spin-orbit interactions, naturally present in bilayer systems, have the right symmetry and magnitude to give rise to a network of coupled orbits consistent with experimental observations in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x. This work is supported by the DOEm BES proposal LANLF100, while the magnet lab is supported by the NSF and Florida State.
Excitable particles in an optical torque wrench
Pedaci, Francesco; Huang, Zhuangxiong; van Oene, Maarten; Barland, Stephane; Dekker, Nynke H.
2011-03-01
The optical torque wrench is a laser trapping technique capable of applying and directly measuring torque on microscopic birefringent particles using spin momentum transfer, and has found application in the measurement of static torsional properties of biological molecules such as single DNAs. Motivated by the potential of the optical torque wrench to access the fast rotational dynamics of biological systems, a result of its all-optical manipulation and detection, we focus on the angular dynamics of the trapped birefringent particle, demonstrating its excitability in the vicinity of a critical point. This links the optical torque wrench to nonlinear dynamical systems such as neuronal and cardiovascular tissues, nonlinear optics and chemical reactions, all of which display an excitable binary (`all-or-none') response to input perturbations. On the basis of this dynamical feature, we devise and implement a conceptually new sensing technique capable of detecting single perturbation events with high signal-to-noise ratio and continuously adjustable sensitivity.
Xiong, Yuan; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Min
2016-01-01
Dynamical and electrical responses of a small coflow diffusion flame were investigated by applying a high-voltage alternating current (AC), to a fuel jet nozzle. High-speed imaging and electrical diagnostics were adopted to capture flame dynamics and electrical signals, such as voltage (V ), frequency (f ) and current (I ). In the V -f domain of 0-5kV and 0-5kHz, AC-driven instabilities, resulting in various flame modes such as an oscillation, pinch-off and spinning of flames were identified. Characteristic frequency of each mode was determined and a visualization of near-nozzle flow structures suggested a close causality of initial counter-rotating vortices (inner and outer toroidal vortices - ITV and OTV), to the other observed flame. An axisymmetric ITV shedding was identified within oscillating and pinch-off modes, while asymmetric ITV shedding was identified with the spinning mode. Integrated electric power over several AC periods correlated well with variation in the flame surface area for these instabilities, demonstrating that measured electric power is a potential indicator of combustion instabilities in electric-field-assisted combustion.
Xiong, Yuan
2016-06-24
Dynamical and electrical responses of a small coflow diffusion flame were investigated by applying a high-voltage alternating current (AC), to a fuel jet nozzle. High-speed imaging and electrical diagnostics were adopted to capture flame dynamics and electrical signals, such as voltage (V ), frequency (f ) and current (I ). In the V -f domain of 0-5kV and 0-5kHz, AC-driven instabilities, resulting in various flame modes such as an oscillation, pinch-off and spinning of flames were identified. Characteristic frequency of each mode was determined and a visualization of near-nozzle flow structures suggested a close causality of initial counter-rotating vortices (inner and outer toroidal vortices - ITV and OTV), to the other observed flame. An axisymmetric ITV shedding was identified within oscillating and pinch-off modes, while asymmetric ITV shedding was identified with the spinning mode. Integrated electric power over several AC periods correlated well with variation in the flame surface area for these instabilities, demonstrating that measured electric power is a potential indicator of combustion instabilities in electric-field-assisted combustion.
Evaluation Method for Fieldlike-Torque Efficiency by Modulation of the Resonance Field
Kim, Changsoo; Kim, Dongseuk; Chun, Byong Sun; Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Hwang, Chanyong
2018-05-01
The spin Hall effect has attracted a lot of interest in spintronics because it offers the possibility of a faster switching route with an electric current than with a spin-transfer-torque device. Recently, fieldlike spin-orbit torque has been shown to play an important role in the magnetization switching mechanism. However, there is no simple method for observing the fieldlike spin-orbit torque efficiency. We suggest a method for measuring fieldlike spin-orbit torque using a linear change in the resonance field in spectra of direct-current (dc)-tuned spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance. The fieldlike spin-orbit torque efficiency can be obtained in both a macrospin simulation and in experiments by simply subtracting the Oersted field from the shifted amount of resonance field. This method analyzes the effect of fieldlike torque using dc in a normal metal; therefore, only the dc resistivity and the dimensions of each layer are considered in estimating the fieldlike spin-torque efficiency. The evaluation of fieldlike-torque efficiency of a newly emerging material by modulation of the resonance field provides a shortcut in the development of an alternative magnetization switching device.
High torque DC motor fabrication and test program
Makus, P.
1976-01-01
The testing of a standard iron and standard alnico permanent magnet two-phase, brushless dc spin motor for potential application to the space telescope has been concluded. The purpose of this study was to determine spin motor power losses, magnetic drag, efficiency and torque speed characteristics of a high torque dc motor. The motor was designed and built to fit an existing reaction wheel as a test vehicle and to use existing brass-board commutation and torque command electronics. The results of the tests are included in this report.
Magnetic Nanostructures Spin Dynamics and Spin Transport
Farle, Michael
2013-01-01
Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-03-15
The dynamic phase transitions are studied in the kinetic spin-2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effective-field dynamic equation for the average magnetization is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates and the phases in the system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. The nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic phase transition is characterized by investigating the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the dynamic phase transition temperatures are obtained. The dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and are of seven fundamental types. Phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic (P), ferromagnetic-2 (F{sub 2}) and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely the F{sub 2}+P, F{sub 1}+P and F{sub 2}+F{sub 1}+P, which strongly depend on the crystal-field interaction (D) parameter. The system also exhibits the dynamic tricritical behavior. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase transitions are studied in spin-2 BC model using EFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic phase diagrams are constructed in (T/zJ, h/zJ) plane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven fundamental types of dynamic phase diagrams are found in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System exhibits dynamic tricritical behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Kocakaplan, Yusuf [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2013-12-15
Dynamic phase diagrams are presented for the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume–Capel model under a time oscillating longitudinal field by use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The dynamic equation of the average magnetization is obtained for the square lattice by utilizing the Glauber-type stochastic process. Dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and the magnetic field amplitude plane. We also investigated the effect of longitudinal field frequency. Finally, the discussion and comparison of the phase diagrams are given. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors in the spin-3/2 Blume–Capel system is investigated by the effective-field theory based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. • The dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams are obtained. • The effects of the longitudinal field frequency on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system are investigated. • Dynamic phase diagrams exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and several critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Keskin, Mustafa
2013-01-01
Dynamic phase diagrams are presented for the kinetic spin-3/2 Blume–Capel model under a time oscillating longitudinal field by use of the effective-field theory with correlations. The dynamic equation of the average magnetization is obtained for the square lattice by utilizing the Glauber-type stochastic process. Dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and the magnetic field amplitude plane. We also investigated the effect of longitudinal field frequency. Finally, the discussion and comparison of the phase diagrams are given. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors in the spin-3/2 Blume–Capel system is investigated by the effective-field theory based on the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. • The dynamic phase transitions and dynamic phase diagrams are obtained. • The effects of the longitudinal field frequency on the dynamic phase diagrams of the system are investigated. • Dynamic phase diagrams exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and several critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior
Propagator for a spin-Bose system with the Bose field coupled to a reservoir of harmonic oscillators
Banerjee, S
2003-01-01
We consider the general problem of a single two-level atom interacting with a multimode radiation field (without the rotating-wave approximation), and additionally take the field to be coupled to a thermal reservoir. Using the method of bosonization of the spin operators in the Hamiltonian, and working in the Bargmann representation for all the boson operators, we obtain the propagator for the composite system using the techniques of functional integration, under a reasonable approximation scheme. The propagator is explicitly evaluated for a simplified version of the system with one spin and a dynamically coupled single-mode field. The results are also checked on the known problem of quantum Brownian motion.
Resonant spin wave excitations in a magnonic crystal cavity
Kumar, N.; Prabhakar, A.
2018-03-01
Spin polarized electric current, injected into permalloy (Py) through a nano contact, exerts a torque on the magnetization. The spin waves (SWs) thus excited propagate radially outward. We propose an antidot magnonic crystal (MC) with a three-hole defect (L3) around the nano contact, designed so that the frequency of the excited SWs, lies in the band gap of the MC. L3 thus acts as a resonant SW cavity. The energy in this magnonic crystal cavity can be tapped by an adjacent MC waveguide (MCW). An analysis of the simulated micromagnetic power spectrum, at the output port of the MCW reveals stable SW oscillations. The quality factor of the device, calculated using the decay method, was estimated as Q > 105 for an injected spin current density of 7 ×1012 A/m2.
CONDITIONS OF PASSAGE AND ENTRAPMENT OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS IN SPIN-ORBIT RESONANCES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makarov, Valeri V.
2012-01-01
The dynamical evolution of terrestrial planets resembling Mercury in the vicinity of spin-orbit resonances is investigated using comprehensive harmonic expansions of the tidal torque taking into account the frequency-dependent quality factors and Love numbers. The torque equations are integrated numerically with a small step in time, including the oscillating triaxial torque components but neglecting the layered structure of the planet and assuming a zero obliquity. We find that a Mercury-like planet with a current value of orbital eccentricity (0.2056) is always captured in 3:2 resonance. The probability of capture in the higher 2:1 resonance is approximately 0.23. These results are confirmed by a semi-analytical estimation of capture probabilities as functions of eccentricity for both prograde and retrograde evolutions of spin rate. As follows from analysis of equilibrium torques, entrapment in 3:2 resonance is inevitable at eccentricities between 0.2 and 0.41. Considering the phase space parameters at the times of periastron, the range of spin rates and phase angles for which an immediate resonance passage is triggered is very narrow, and yet a planet like Mercury rarely fails to align itself into this state of unstable equilibrium before it traverses 2:1 resonance.
Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry
Manchon, Aurelien
2014-01-01
The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.
Spin-orbitronics: A new moment for Berry
Manchon, Aurelien
2014-04-13
The standard description of spin-orbit torques neglects geometric phase effects. But recent experiments suggest that the Berry curvature gives rise to an anti-damping torque in systems with broken inversion symmetry.
Angular Acceleration without Torque?
Kaufman, Richard D.
2012-01-01
Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet, E-mail: mehmetertas@erciyes.edu.tr; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-08-15
Herein we study the dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model on a square lattice under a time-dependent magnetic field by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations based on Glauber dynamics. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and find that the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic tricitical behavior, multicritical and zero-temperature critical points as well as reentrant behavior. We also investigate the influence of frequency (ω) and observe that for small values of ω the mixed phase disappears, but for high values it appears and the system displays reentrant behavior as well as a critical end point. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin (1/2, 1) Ising system are studied. • We examined the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic behaviors. • The phase diagrams are obtained in (T-h) plane. • The dynamic phase diagrams exhibit the dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2015-01-01
Herein we study the dynamic phase transition properties for the mixed spin-(1/2, 1) Ising model on a square lattice under a time-dependent magnetic field by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations based on Glauber dynamics. We present the dynamic phase diagrams in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane and find that the phase diagrams exhibit dynamic tricitical behavior, multicritical and zero-temperature critical points as well as reentrant behavior. We also investigate the influence of frequency (ω) and observe that for small values of ω the mixed phase disappears, but for high values it appears and the system displays reentrant behavior as well as a critical end point. - Highlights: • Dynamic behaviors of a ferrimagnetic mixed spin (1/2, 1) Ising system are studied. • We examined the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic behaviors. • The phase diagrams are obtained in (T-h) plane. • The dynamic phase diagrams exhibit the dynamic tricritical and reentrant behaviors
Spin physics in semiconductors
2017-01-01
This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.
Kinetics of the spin-2 Blume-Capel model under a time-dependent oscillating external field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Ertas, M.
2007-01-01
Within a mean-field approach and using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics, we study the kinetics of the spin-2 Blume-Capel model in the presence of a time-varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field. We investigate the time dependence of the average order parameter and the behavior of the average order parameter in a period, which is also called the dynamic order parameter, as a function of the reduced temperature. The nature (continuous and discontinuous) of the transition is characterized by the dynamic order parameter. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in the reduced magnetic field amplitude and reduced temperature plane. The phase diagrams exhibit one dynamic tricritical point; besides a disordered and an ordered phases, there are three phase coexistence regions that are strongly dependent on the interaction parameter
Intrinsic nonadiabatic topological torque in magnetic skyrmions and vortices
Akosa, Collins Ashu; Ndiaye, Papa Birame; Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We propose that topological spin currents flowing in topologically nontrivial magnetic textures, such as magnetic skyrmions and vortices, produce an intrinsic nonadiabatic torque of the form Tt∼[(∂xm×∂ym)·m]∂ym. We show that this torque, which is absent in one-dimensional domain walls and/or nontopological textures, is responsible for the enhanced nonadiabaticity parameter observed in magnetic vortices compared to one-dimensional textures. The impact of this torque on the motion of magnetic skyrmions is expected to be crucial, especially to determine their robustness against defects and pinning centers.
Intrinsic nonadiabatic topological torque in magnetic skyrmions and vortices
Akosa, Collins Ashu
2017-03-01
We propose that topological spin currents flowing in topologically nontrivial magnetic textures, such as magnetic skyrmions and vortices, produce an intrinsic nonadiabatic torque of the form Tt∼[(∂xm×∂ym)·m]∂ym. We show that this torque, which is absent in one-dimensional domain walls and/or nontopological textures, is responsible for the enhanced nonadiabaticity parameter observed in magnetic vortices compared to one-dimensional textures. The impact of this torque on the motion of magnetic skyrmions is expected to be crucial, especially to determine their robustness against defects and pinning centers.
Gravitational torque frequency analysis for the Einstein elevator experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ashenberg, Joshua [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lorenzini, Enrico C [University of Padova, Padua (Italy)
2007-09-07
Testing the principle of equivalence with a differential acceleration detector that spins while free falling requires a reliable extraction of a very small violation signal from the noise in the output signal frequency spectrum. The experiment is designed such that the violation signal is modulated by the spin of the test bodies. The possible violation signal is mixed with the intrinsic white noise of the detector and the colored noise associated with the modulation of gravitational perturbations, through the spin, and inertial-motion-related noise. In order to avoid false alarms the frequencies of the gravitational disturbances and the violation signal must be separate. This paper presents a model for the perturbative gravitational torque that affects the measurement. The torque is expanded in an asymptotic series to the fourth order and then expressed as a frequency spectrum. A spectral analysis shows the design conditions for frequency separation between the perturbing torque and the violation signal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa
2012-01-01
The dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system (σ=2 and S=5/2), with a crystal-field interaction in an oscillating field are studied, within the mean-field approach, by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior depending on interaction parameters. -- Highlights: ► Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. ► The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. ► The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertaş, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2012-07-23
The dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system (σ=2 and S=5/2), with a crystal-field interaction in an oscillating field are studied, within the mean-field approach, by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics for both ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic interactions. The time variations of average magnetizations and the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior depending on interaction parameters. -- Highlights: ► Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed Ising bilayer system is investigated within the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. ► The time variations of average magnetizations are studied to find the phases. ► The temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetizations is investigated to obtain the dynamic phase transition points. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented and they exhibit several ordered phases, coexistence phase regions and critical points as well as a re-entrant behavior.
Accuracy of dental torque wrenches.
Wood, James S; Marlow, Nicole M; Cayouette, Monica J
2015-01-01
The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the actual torque of 2 manual wrench systems to their stated (target) torque. New spring- (Nobel Biocare USA, LLC) and friction-style (Zimmer Dental, Inc.) manual dental torque wrenches, as well as spring torque wrenches that had undergone sterilization and clinical use, were tested. A calibrated torque gauge was used to compare actual torque to target torque values of 15 and 35 N/cm. Data were statistically analyzed via mixed-effects regression model with Bonferroni correction. At a target torque of 15 N/cm, the mean torque of new spring wrenches (13.97 N/cm; SE, 0.07 N/cm) was significantly different from that of used spring wrenches (14.94 N/cm; SE, 0.06 N/cm; P torques of new spring and new friction wrenches (14.10 N/cm; SE, 0.07 N/cm; P = 0.21) were not significantly different. For torque measurements calibrated at 35 N/cm, the mean torque of new spring wrenches (35.29 N/cm; SE, 0.10 N/cm) was significantly different (P torque could impact the clinical success of screw-retained dental implants. It is recommended that torque wrenches be checked regularly to ensure that they are performing to target values.
Spin motive forces, 'measurements', and spin-valves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, S.E.
2007-01-01
Discussed is the spin motive force (smf) produced by a spin valve, this reflecting its dynamics. Relaxation implies an implicit measurement of the magnetization of the free layer of a valve. It is shown this has implications for the angular dependence of the torque transfer. Some discussion of recent experiments is included
Vector spin modeling for magnetic tunnel junctions with voltage dependent effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Young, Ian A.
2014-01-01
Integration and co-design of CMOS and spin transfer devices requires accurate vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) devices. A physically realistic model of the MTJ should comprehend the spin torque dynamics of nanomagnet interacting with an injected vector spin current and the voltage dependent spin torque. Vector spin modeling allows for calculation of 3 component spin currents and potentials along with the charge currents/potentials in non-collinear magnetic systems. Here, we show 4-component vector spin conduction modeling of magnetic tunnel junction devices coupled with spin transfer torque in the nanomagnet. Nanomagnet dynamics, voltage dependent spin transport, and thermal noise are comprehended in a self-consistent fashion. We show comparison of the model with experimental magnetoresistance (MR) of MTJs and voltage degradation of MR with voltage. Proposed model enables MTJ circuit design that comprehends voltage dependent spin torque effects, switching error rates, spin degradation, and back hopping effects
Khan, Asif; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Ghani, Tahir; Young, Ian A.
2014-06-01
A spintronic device, called the "strain assisted spin transfer torque (STT) random access memory (RAM)," is proposed by combining the magnetostriction effect and the spin transfer torque effect which can result in a dramatic improvement in the energy dissipation relative to a conventional STT-RAM. Magnetization switching in the device which is a piezoelectric-ferromagnetic heterostructure via the combined magnetostriction and STT effect is simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation incorporating the influence of thermal noise. The simulations show that, in such a device, each of these two mechanisms (magnetostriction and spin transfer torque) provides in a 90° rotation of the magnetization leading a deterministic 180° switching with a critical current significantly smaller than that required for spin torque alone. Such a scheme is an attractive option for writing magnetic RAM cells.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, Asif; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Ghani, Tahir; Young, Ian A.
2014-01-01
A spintronic device, called the “strain assisted spin transfer torque (STT) random access memory (RAM),” is proposed by combining the magnetostriction effect and the spin transfer torque effect which can result in a dramatic improvement in the energy dissipation relative to a conventional STT-RAM. Magnetization switching in the device which is a piezoelectric-ferromagnetic heterostructure via the combined magnetostriction and STT effect is simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation incorporating the influence of thermal noise. The simulations show that, in such a device, each of these two mechanisms (magnetostriction and spin transfer torque) provides in a 90° rotation of the magnetization leading a deterministic 180° switching with a critical current significantly smaller than that required for spin torque alone. Such a scheme is an attractive option for writing magnetic RAM cells.
ESPINTRÓNICA, LA ELECTRONICA DEL ESPÍN SPINTRONICS, SPIN ELECTRONICS
Monteblanco, Elmer; Ortiz Pauyac, Christian; Savero, Williams; RojasSanchez, J. Carlos; Schuhl, A.
2017-01-01
Current technology seeks to develop nanoscale devices capable of storing and processing information. These devices would be difficult to make in the area of electronics, which is based on the manipulation of electric charge. However, thanks to advances in experimental and theoretical physics in the field of condensed matter, these devices are already a reality, belonging to the field of what we now call spintronics, which bases its functionality on the control of the electron’s spin, a property that can only be conceived at the quantum level. In this article we review this new perspective, describing giant- and tunneling- magnetoresistance, the spin transfer torque, and their applications such as MRAM memories, nano-oscillators and lateral spin valves.
ESPINTRÓNICA, LA ELECTRONICA DEL ESPÍN SPINTRONICS, SPIN ELECTRONICS
Monteblanco, Elmer
2017-03-14
Current technology seeks to develop nanoscale devices capable of storing and processing information. These devices would be difficult to make in the area of electronics, which is based on the manipulation of electric charge. However, thanks to advances in experimental and theoretical physics in the field of condensed matter, these devices are already a reality, belonging to the field of what we now call spintronics, which bases its functionality on the control of the electron’s spin, a property that can only be conceived at the quantum level. In this article we review this new perspective, describing giant- and tunneling- magnetoresistance, the spin transfer torque, and their applications such as MRAM memories, nano-oscillators and lateral spin valves.
The zero-moment half metal: How could it change spin electronics?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betto, Davide; Rode, Karsten; Thiyagarajah, Naganivetha; Lau, Yong-Chang; Borisov, Kiril; Atcheson, Gwenael; Stamenov, Plamen; Coey, J. M. D.; Žic, Mario; Archer, Thomas
2016-01-01
The Heusler compound Mn_2Ru_xGa (MRG) may well be the first compensated half metal. Here, the structural, magnetic and transport properties of thin films of MRG are discussed. There is evidence of half-metallicity up to x = 0.7, and compensation of the two Mn sublattice moments is observed at specific compositions and temperatures, leading to a zero-moment half metal. There are potential benefits for using such films with perpendicular anisotropy for spin-torque magnetic tunnel junctions and oscillators, such as low critical current, high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio, insensitivity to external fields and resonance frequency in the THz range.
Large Torque Variations in Two Soft Gamma Repeaters
Woods, P.M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Göğüş, E.; Finger, M.H.; Swank, J.; Markwardt, C.B.; Hurley, K.; van der Klis, M.
2002-01-01
We have monitored the pulse frequencies of the two soft gamma repeaters SGR 1806-20 and SGR 1900+14 through the beginning of year 2001 using primarily Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array observations. In both sources, we observe large changes in the spin-down torque up to a factor
Load Torque Compensator for Model Predictive Direct Current Control in High Power PMSM Drive Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Preindl, Matthias; Schaltz, Erik
2011-01-01
The widely used cascade speed and torque controllers have a limited control performance in most high power applications due to the low switching frequency of power electronic converters and the convenience to avoid speed overshoots and oscillations for lifetime considerations. Model Predictive...... Direct Current Control (MPDCC) leads to an increase of torque control performance taking into account the discrete nature of inverters but temporary offsets and poor responses to load torque variations are still issues in speed control. A load torque estimator is proposed in this paper in order...
Spin rotation after a spin-independent scattering. Spin properties of an electron gas in a solid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zayets, V.
2014-01-01
It is shown that spin direction of an electron may not be conserved after a spin-independent scattering. The spin rotations occur due to a quantum-mechanical fact that when a quantum state is occupied by two electrons of opposite spins, the total spin of the state is zero and the spin direction of each electron cannot be determined. It is shown that it is possible to divide all conduction electrons into two group distinguished by their time-reversal symmetry. In the first group the electron spins are all directed in one direction. In the second group there are electrons of all spin directions. The number of electrons in each group is conserved after a spin-independent scattering. This makes it convenient to use these groups for the description of the magnetic properties of conduction electrons. The energy distribution of spins, the Pauli paramagnetism and the spin distribution in the ferromagnetic metals are described within the presented model. The effects of spin torque and spin-torque current are described. The origin of spin-transfer torque is explained within the presented model
Butterfly valve torque prediction methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eldiwany, B.H.; Sharma, V.; Kalsi, M.S.; Wolfe, K.
1994-01-01
As part of the Motor-Operated Valve (MOV) Performance Prediction Program, the Electric Power Research Institute has sponsored the development of methodologies for predicting thrust and torque requirements of gate, globe, and butterfly MOVs. This paper presents the methodology that will be used by utilities to calculate the dynamic torque requirements for butterfly valves. The total dynamic torque at any disc position is the sum of the hydrodynamic torque, bearing torque (which is induced by the hydrodynamic force), as well as other small torque components (such as packing torque). The hydrodynamic torque on the valve disc, caused by the fluid flow through the valve, depends on the disc angle, flow velocity, upstream flow disturbances, disc shape, and the disc aspect ratio. The butterfly valve model provides sets of nondimensional flow and torque coefficients that can be used to predict flow rate and hydrodynamic torque throughout the disc stroke and to calculate the required actuation torque and the maximum transmitted torque throughout the opening and closing stroke. The scope of the model includes symmetric and nonsymmetric discs of different shapes and aspects ratios in compressible and incompressible fluid applications under both choked and nonchoked flow conditions. The model features were validated against test data from a comprehensive flowloop and in situ test program. These tests were designed to systematically address the effect of the following parameters on the required torque: valve size, disc shapes and disc aspect ratios, upstream elbow orientation and its proximity, and flow conditions. The applicability of the nondimensional coefficients to valves of different sizes was validated by performing tests on 42-in. valve and a precisely scaled 6-in. model. The butterfly valve model torque predictions were found to bound test data from the flow-loop and in situ testing, as shown in the examples provided in this paper
Observation of the Spin Peltier Effect for Magnetic Insulators
Flipse, J.; Dejene, F.K.; Wagenaar, D.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Ben Youssef, J.; Van Wees, B.J.
2014-01-01
We report the observation of the spin Peltier effect (SPE) in the ferrimagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG), i.e., a heat current generated by a spin current flowing through a platinum (Pt)|YIG interface. The effect can be explained by the spin transfer torque that transforms the spin
Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves
Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.
2018-01-01
We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.
Torres del Castillo, G.F; Méndez Garrido, A
2006-01-01
Making use of the fact that a 2l-pole can be represented by means of l vectors of the same magnitude, the torque on a quadrupole in an inhomogeneous external field is expressed in terms of the vectors that represent the quadrupole and the gradient of the external field. The conditions for rotational equilibrium are also expressed in terms of these vectors. Haciendo uso de que un multipolo de orden 2l puede representarse mediante l vectores de la misma magnitud, la torca sobre un cuadripolo...
Momentum confinement at low torque
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); De Grassie, J S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Budny, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J E [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Kramer, G J [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luce, T C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Mikkelsen, D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nazikian, R [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Petty, C C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Politzer, P A [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Scott, S D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Zeeland, M A Van [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Zarnstorff, M C [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)
2007-12-15
Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized beta {beta}{sub N}, by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q{sub min} show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. GLF23 modeling suggests that the role of E x B shearing is quite different between the two plasmas, which may help to explain the different dependence of the momentum confinement on torque.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mundt, Mark Osroe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Matthew Ronald [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Varela, Jeanette Judith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gilmore, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Allie [Pantex Plant (PTX), Amarillo, TX (United States)
2018-01-11
At the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX, Production Technicians (PTs) build and disassemble nuclear weapon systems. The weapons are held in an integrated work stand for stability and to increase the safety environment for the workers and for the materials being processed. There are many occasions in which a knob must be turned to tighten an assembly part. This can help to secure or manipulate pieces of the system. As there are so many knobs to turn, the instructions given to the PTs are to twist the knob to a hand-tight setting, without the aid of a torque wrench. There are inherent risks in this procedure as the knobs can be tightened too loosely such that the apparatus falls apart or too tightly such that the force can crush or pinch components in the system that contain energetic materials. We want to study these operations at Pantex. Our goal is to collect torque data to assess the safety and reliability of humantooling interfaces.
ESTIMATION OF GRASPING TORQUE USING ROBUST REACTION TORQUE OBSERVER FOR ROBOTIC FORCEPS
塚本, 祐介
2015-01-01
Abstract— In this paper, the estimation of the grasping torque of robotic forceps without the use of a force/torque sensor is discussed. To estimate the grasping torque when the robotic forceps driven by a rotary motor with a reduction gear grasps an object, a novel robust reaction torque observer is proposed. In the case where a conventional reaction force/torque observer is applied, the estimated torque includes not only the grasping torque, namely the reaction torque, but also t...
Tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Zhaoxian; Jiao Zhiyong
2004-01-01
In this Letter, we have studied tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic field. We find that the population transfers among spin-0 and spin-±1, spin-0 and spin-±2 exhibit the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field, respectively, but there do not exist step structure among spin-±1 and spin-±2. The tunneling current among spin-±1 and spin-±2 may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior, but among spin-0 and spin-±1, spin-0 and spin-±2, the tunneling currents exhibit irregular oscillation behavior
Magnetic Field and Torque Output of Packaged Hydraulic Torque Motor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Yan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic torque motors are one key component in electro-hydraulic servo valves that convert the electrical signal into mechanical motions. The systematic characteristics analysis of the hydraulic torque motor has not been found in the previous research, including the distribution of the electromagnetic field and torque output, and particularly the relationship between them. In addition, conventional studies of hydraulic torque motors generally assume an evenly distributed magnetic flux field and ignore the influence of special mechanical geometry in the air gaps, which may compromise the accuracy of analyzing the result and the high-precision motion control performance. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of the distribution of the magnetic field and torque output; the influence of limiting holes in the air gaps is considered to improve the accuracy of both numerical computation and analytical modeling. The structure and working principle of the torque motor are presented first. The magnetic field distribution in the air gaps and the magnetic saturation in the iron blocks are analyzed by using a numerical approach. Subsequently, the torque generation with respect to the current input and assembly errors is analyzed in detail. This shows that the influence of limiting holes on the magnetic field is consistent with that on torque generation. Following this, a novel modified equivalent magnetic circuit is proposed to formulate the torque output of the hydraulic torque motor analytically. The comparison among the modified equivalent magnetic circuit, the conventional modeling approach and the numerical computation is conducted, and it is found that the proposed method helps to improve the modeling accuracy by taking into account the effect of special geometry inside the air gaps.
Torque control for electric motors
Bernard, C. A.
1980-01-01
Method for adjusting electric-motor torque output to accomodate various loads utilizes phase-lock loop to control relay connected to starting circuit. As load is imposed, motor slows down, and phase lock is lost. Phase-lock signal triggers relay to power starting coil and generate additional torque. Once phase lock is recoverd, relay restores starting circuit to its normal operating mode.
Momentum Confinement at Low Torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solomon, W.M.; Burrell, K.H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Budny, R.; Groebner, R.J.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Kinsey, J.E.; Kramer, G.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Mikkelsen, D.; Nazikian, R.; Petty, C.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Scott, S.D.; Van Zeeland, M.A.; Zarnstorff, M.C.
2007-01-01
Momentum confinement was investigated on DIII-D as a function of applied neutral beam torque at constant normalized β N , by varying the mix of co (parallel to the plasma current) and counter neutral beams. Under balanced neutral beam injection (i.e. zero total torque to the plasma), the plasma maintains a significant rotation in the co-direction. This 'intrinsic' rotation can be modeled as being due to an offset in the applied torque (i.e. an 'anomalous torque'). This anomalous torque appears to have a magnitude comparable to one co-neutral beam source. The presence of such an anomalous torque source must be taken into account to obtain meaningful quantities describing momentum transport, such as the global momentum confinement time and local diffusivities. Studies of the mechanical angular momentum in ELMing H-mode plasmas with elevated q min show that the momentum confinement time improves as the torque is reduced. In hybrid plasmas, the opposite effect is observed, namely that momentum confinement improves at high torque/rotation. The relative importance of E x B shearing between the two is modeled using GLF23 and may suggest a possible explanation.
Voltage-Driven Magnetization Switching and Spin Pumping in Weyl Semimetals
Kurebayashi, Daichi; Nomura, Kentaro
2016-10-01
We demonstrate electrical magnetization switching and spin pumping in magnetically doped Weyl semimetals. The Weyl semimetal is a three-dimensional gapless topological material, known to have nontrivial coupling between the charge and the magnetization due to the chiral anomaly. By solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for a multilayer structure of a Weyl semimetal, an insulator and a metal while taking the charge-magnetization coupling into account, magnetization dynamics is analyzed. It is shown that the magnetization dynamics can be driven by the electric voltage. Consequently, switching of the magnetization with a pulsed electric voltage can be achieved, as well as precession motion with an applied oscillating electric voltage. The effect requires only a short voltage pulse and may therefore be energetically favorable for us in spintronics devices compared to conventional spin-transfer torque switching.
Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark eJohnson
2015-08-01
Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.
Hybrid synchronous motor electromagnetic torque research
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suvorkova Elena E.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic field distribution models in reluctance and permanent magnet parts were made by means of Elcut. Dependences of electromagnetic torque on torque angle were obtained.
Singh, Madhav K.; Jha, Pradeep K.; Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.
2017-09-01
In this article, we study the spin and tunneling dynamics as a function of magnetic field in a one-dimensional GaAs double quantum dot with both the Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit coupling. In particular, we consider different spatial widths for the spin-up and spin-down electronic states. We find that the spin dynamics is a superposition of slow as well as fast Rabi oscillations. It is found that the Rashba interaction strength as well as the external magnetic field strongly modifies the slow Rabi oscillations which is particularly useful for implementing solid state selective spin transport device.
Spin precession experiments for light axionic dark matter
Graham, Peter W.; Kaplan, David E.; Mardon, Jeremy; Rajendran, Surjeet; Terrano, William A.; Trahms, Lutz; Wilkason, Thomas
2018-03-01
Axionlike particles are promising candidates to make up the dark matter of the Universe, but it is challenging to design experiments that can detect them over their entire allowed mass range. Dark matter in general, and, in particular, axionlike particles and hidden photons, can be as light as roughly 10-22 eV (˜10-8 Hz ), with astrophysical anomalies providing motivation for the lightest masses ("fuzzy dark matter"). We propose experimental techniques for direct detection of axionlike dark matter in the mass range from roughly 10-13 eV (˜102 Hz ) down to the lowest possible masses. In this range, these axionlike particles act as a time-oscillating magnetic field coupling only to spin, inducing effects such as a time-oscillating torque and periodic variations in the spin-precession frequency with the frequency and direction of these effects set by the axion field. We describe how these signals can be measured using existing experimental technology, including torsion pendulums, atomic magnetometers, and atom interferometry. These experiments demonstrate a strong discovery capability, with future iterations of these experiments capable of pushing several orders of magnitude past current astrophysical bounds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temizer, Umuet; Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman
2009-01-01
The dynamic behavior of a two-sublattice spin-1 Ising model with a crystal-field interaction (D) in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice is studied by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The lattice is formed by alternate layers of spins σ=1 and S=1. For this spin arrangement, any spin at one lattice site has two nearest-neighbor spins on the same sublattice, and four on the other sublattice. The intersublattice interaction is antiferromagnetic. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. Firstly, we study time variations of the average magnetizations in order to find the phases in the system, and the temperature dependence of the average magnetizations in a period, which is also called the dynamic magnetizations, to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (continuous and discontinuous) of transitions. Then, the behavior of the total dynamic magnetization as a function of the temperature is investigated to find the types of the compensation behavior. Dynamic phase diagrams are calculated for both DPT points and dynamic compensation effect. Phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic (p) and antiferromagnetic (af) phases, the p+af and nm+p mixed phases, nm is the non-magnetic phase, and the compensation temperature or the L-type behavior that strongly depend on the interaction parameters. For D 0 >3.8275, H 0 is the magnetic field amplitude, the compensation effect does not appear in the system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Temizer, Umuet [Department of Physics, Bozok University, 66100 Yozgat (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2009-10-15
The dynamic behavior of a two-sublattice spin-1 Ising model with a crystal-field interaction (D) in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field on a hexagonal lattice is studied by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The lattice is formed by alternate layers of spins {sigma}=1 and S=1. For this spin arrangement, any spin at one lattice site has two nearest-neighbor spins on the same sublattice, and four on the other sublattice. The intersublattice interaction is antiferromagnetic. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. Firstly, we study time variations of the average magnetizations in order to find the phases in the system, and the temperature dependence of the average magnetizations in a period, which is also called the dynamic magnetizations, to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (continuous and discontinuous) of transitions. Then, the behavior of the total dynamic magnetization as a function of the temperature is investigated to find the types of the compensation behavior. Dynamic phase diagrams are calculated for both DPT points and dynamic compensation effect. Phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic (p) and antiferromagnetic (af) phases, the p+af and nm+p mixed phases, nm is the non-magnetic phase, and the compensation temperature or the L-type behavior that strongly depend on the interaction parameters. For D<2.835 and H{sub 0}>3.8275, H{sub 0} is the magnetic field amplitude, the compensation effect does not appear in the system.
Zero Secular Torque on Asteroids from Impinging Solar Photons in the YORP Effect: A Simple Proof
Rubincam, David Perry; Paddack, Stephen J.
2010-01-01
YORP torques, where "YORP" stands for "Yarokovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack." arise mainly from sun light reflected off a Solar System object and the infrared radiation emi tted by it. We show here, through the most elementary demonstration that we Can devise, that secular torques from impinging solar photons are generally negligible and thus cause little secular evolution of an asteroid's obliquity or spin rate.
Radiation effects in polyolefins below the gel point as measured by torque rheometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markovic, V.; Babic, D.; Silverman, J.
1981-01-01
Torque rheometry is used to obtain information about radiation effects on polymers (crosslinking, degradation) below the gel point. It is shown that rheometric melt viscosity measurements at different shear rates are related changes in the relaxation spectrum. In particular there is a significant radiation effect on low shear rate viscosities but a negligible effect on high shear rate viscosities. The fact that the shear rate in the torque rheometer oscillates about a mean value is utilized to relate torque amplitude measurements to entanglements at zero dose and to crosslink density at absorbed doses below or close to the gel point. (author)
Nonambipolarity, orthogonal conductivity, poloidal flow, and torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hulbert, G.W.; Perkins, F.W.
1989-02-01
Nonambipolar processes, such as neutral injection onto trapped orbits or ripple-diffusion loss of α-particles, act to charge a plasma. A current j/sub r/ across magnetic surfaces must arise in the bulk plasma to maintain charge neutrality. An axisymmetric, neoclassical model of the bulk plasma shows that these currents are carried by the ions and exert a j/sub r/B/sub θ/R/c torque in the toroidal direction. A driven poloidal flow V/sub θ/ = E/sub r/'c/B must also develop. The average current density is related to the radial electric field E/sub r/' = E/sub r/ + v/sub /phi//B/sub θ//c in a frame moving with the plasma via the orthogonal conductivity = σ/sub /perpendicular//E/sub r/', which has the value σ/sub /perpendicular// = (1.65ε/sup 1/2/)(ne 2 ν/sub ii//MΩ/sub θ/ 2 ) in the banana regime. If an ignited plasma loses an appreciable fraction Δ of its thermonuclear α-particles by banana ripple diffusion, then the torque will spin the plasma to sonic rotation in a time /tau//sub s/ ∼ 2/tau//sub E//Δ, /tau//sub E/ being the energy confinement time. 10 refs., 1 fig
Luft, Peter A [El Cerrito, CA
2009-05-12
A coupling for mechanically connecting modular tubular struts of a positioning apparatus or space frame, comprising a pair of toothed rings (10, 12) attached to separate strut members (16), the teeth (18, 20) of the primary rings (10, 12) mechanically interlocking in both an axial and circumferential manner, and a third part comprising a sliding, toothed collar (14) the teeth (22) of which interlock the teeth (18, 20) of the primary rings (10, 12), preventing them from disengaging, and completely locking the assembly together. A secondary mechanism provides a nesting force for the collar, and/or retains it. The coupling is self-contained and requires no external tools for installation, and can be assembled with gloved hands in demanding environments. No gauging or measured torque is required for assembly. The assembly can easily be visually inspected to determine a "go" or "no-go" status. The coupling is compact and relatively light-weight. Because of it's triply interlocking teeth, the connection is rigid. The connection does not primarily rely on clamps, springs or friction based fasteners, and is therefore reliable in fail-safe applications.
Thermomagnetic torques in polyatomic gases
Hildebrandt, A. F.; Wood, C. T.
1972-01-01
The application of the Scott effect to the dynamics of galactic and stellar rotation is investigated. Efforts were also made to improve the sensitivity and stability of torque measurements and understand the microscopic mechanism that causes the Scott effect.
Thermal spin current generation and spin transport in Pt/magnetic-insulator/Py heterostructures
Chen, Ching-Tzu; Safranski, Christopher; Krivorotov, Ilya; Sun, Jonathan
Magnetic insulators can transmit spin current via magnon propagation while blocking charge current. Furthermore, under Joule heating, magnon flow as a result of the spin Seeback effect can generate additional spin current. Incorporating magnetic insulators in a spin-orbit torque magnetoresistive memory device can potentially yield high switching efficiencies. Here we report the DC magneto-transport studies of these two effects in Pt/magnetic-insulator/Py heterostructures, using ferrimagnetic CoFexOy (CFO) and antiferromagnet NiO as the model magnetic insulators. We observe the presence and absence of the inverse spin-Hall signals from the thermal spin current in Pt/CFO/Py and Pt/NiO/Py structures. These results are consistent with our spin-torque FMR linewidths in comparison. We will also report investigations into the magnetic field-angle dependence of these observations.
14 CFR 27.361 - Engine torque.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 27.361 Section 27.361... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 27.361 Engine torque. (a) For turbine engines, the limit torque may not be less than the highest of— (1) The mean torque for maximum...
40 CFR 1065.310 - Torque calibration.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Torque calibration. 1065.310 Section... Conditions § 1065.310 Torque calibration. (a) Scope and frequency. Calibrate all torque-measurement systems including dynamometer torque measurement transducers and systems upon initial installation and after major...
Adaptive Engine Torque Compensation with Driveline Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Park Jinrak
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Engine net torque is the total torque generated by the engine side, and includes the fuel combustion torque, the friction torque, and additionally the starter motor torque in case of hybrid vehicles. The engine net torque is utilized to control powertrain items such as the engine itself, the transmission clutch, also the engine clutch, and it must be accurate for the precise powertrain control. However, this net torque can vary with the engine operating conditions like the engine wear, the changes of the atmospheric pressure and the friction torque. Thus, this paper proposes the adaptive engine net torque compensator using driveline model which can cope with the net torque change according to engine operating conditions. The adaptive compensator was applied on the parallel hybrid vehicle and investigated via MATLAB Simcape Driveline simulation.
Spin Transport in Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Textures
Akosa, Collins A.
2016-12-07
In this dissertation, we provide an accurate description of spin transport in magnetic textures and in particular, we investigate in detail, the nature of spin torque and magnetic damping in such systems. Indeed, as will be further discussed in this thesis, the current-driven velocity of magnetic textures is related to the ratio between the so-called non-adiabatic torque and magnetic damping. Uncovering the physics underlying these phenomena can lead to the optimal design of magnetic systems with improved efficiency. We identified three interesting classes of systems which have attracted enormous research interest (i) Magnetic textures in systems with broken inversion symmetry: We investigate the nature of magnetic damping in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Based on phenomenological and microscopic derivations, we show that the magnetic damping becomes chiral, i.e. depends on the chirality of the magnetic texture. (ii) Ferromagnetic domain walls, skyrmions and vortices: We address the physics of spin transport in sharp disordered magnetic domain walls and vortex cores. We demonstrate that upon spin-independent scattering, the non-adiabatic torque can be significantly enhanced. Such an enhancement is large for vortex cores compared to transverse domain walls. We also show that the topological spin currents owing in these structures dramatically enhances the non-adiabaticity, an effect unique to non-trivial topological textures (iii) Antiferromagnetic skyrmions: We extend this study to antiferromagnetic skyrmions and show that such an enhanced topological torque also exist in these systems. Even more interestingly, while such a non-adiabatic torque inuences the undesirable transverse velocity of ferromagnetic skyrmions, in antiferromagnetic skyrmions, the topological non-adiabatic torque directly determines the longitudinal velocity. As a consequence, scaling down the antiferromagnetic skyrmion results in a much more efficient spin torque.
Resistive wall tearing mode generated finite net electromagnetic torque in a static plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao, G. Z.; Wang, A. K.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M.; Liu, Y. Q.
2014-01-01
The MARS-F code [Y. Q. Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 3681 (2000)] is applied to numerically investigate the effect of the plasma pressure on the tearing mode stability as well as the tearing mode-induced electromagnetic torque, in the presence of a resistive wall. The tearing mode with a complex eigenvalue, resulted from the favorable averaged curvature effect [A. H. Glasser et al., Phys. Fluids 18, 875 (1975)], leads to a re-distribution of the electromagnetic torque with multiple peaking in the immediate vicinity of the resistive layer. The multiple peaking is often caused by the sound wave resonances. In the presence of a resistive wall surrounding the plasma, a rotating tearing mode can generate a finite net electromagnetic torque acting on the static plasma column. Meanwhile, an equal but opposite torque is generated in the resistive wall, thus conserving the total momentum of the whole plasma-wall system. The direction of the net torque on the plasma is always opposite to the real frequency of the mode, agreeing with the analytic result by Pustovitov [Nucl. Fusion 47, 1583 (2007)]. When the wall time is close to the oscillating time of the tearing mode, the finite net torque reaches its maximum. Without wall or with an ideal wall, no net torque on the static plasma is generated by the tearing mode. However, re-distribution of the torque density in the resistive layer still occurs
Sinova, Jairo; Valenzuela, Sergio O.; Wunderlich, J.; Back, C. H.; Jungwirth, T.
2015-10-01
Spin Hall effects are a collection of relativistic spin-orbit coupling phenomena in which electrical currents can generate transverse spin currents and vice versa. Despite being observed only a decade ago, these effects are already ubiquitous within spintronics, as standard spin-current generators and detectors. Here the theoretical and experimental results that have established this subfield of spintronics are reviewed. The focus is on the results that have converged to give us the current understanding of the phenomena, which has evolved from a qualitative to a more quantitative measurement of spin currents and their associated spin accumulation. Within the experimental framework, optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based measurements are reviewed and linked to both phenomenological and microscopic theories of the effect. Within the theoretical framework, the basic mechanisms in both the extrinsic and intrinsic regimes are reviewed, which are linked to the mechanisms present in their closely related phenomenon in ferromagnets, the anomalous Hall effect. Also reviewed is the connection to the phenomenological treatment based on spin-diffusion equations applicable to certain regimes, as well as the spin-pumping theory of spin generation used in many measurements of the spin Hall angle. A further connection to the spin-current-generating spin Hall effect to the inverse spin galvanic effect is given, in which an electrical current induces a nonequilibrium spin polarization. This effect often accompanies the spin Hall effect since they share common microscopic origins. Both can exhibit the same symmetries when present in structures comprising ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers through their induced current-driven spin torques or induced voltages. Although a short chronological overview of the evolution of the spin Hall effect field and the resolution of some early controversies is given, the main body of this review is structured from a pedagogical
Imaging Spin Dynamics on the Nanoscale using X-Ray Microscopy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hermann eStoll
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of emergent magnetic quasiparticles, such as vortices, domain walls, and bubbles are studied by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM, combining magnetic (XMCD contrast with about 25 nm lateral resolution as well as 70 ps time resolution. Essential progress in the understanding of magnetic vortex dynamics is achieved by vortex core reversal observed by sub-GHz excitation of the vortex gyromode, either by ac magnetic fields or spin transfer torque. The basic switching scheme for this vortex core reversal is the generation of a vortex-antivortex pair. Much faster vortex core reversal is obtained by exciting azimuthal spin wave modes with (multi-GHz rotating magnetic fields or orthogonal monopolar field pulses in x and y direction, down to 45 ps in duration. In that way unidirectional vortex core reversal to the vortex core 'down' or 'up' state only can be achieved with switching times well below 100 ps. Coupled modes of interacting vortices mimic crystal properties. The individual vortex oscillators determine the properties of the ensemble, where the gyrotropic mode represents the fundamental excitation. By self-organized state formation we investigate distinct vortex core polarization configurations and understand these eigenmodes in an extended Thiele model. Analogies with photonic crystals are drawn. Oersted fields and spin-polarized currents are used to excite the dynamics of domain walls and magnetic bubbles. From the measured phase and amplitude of the displacement of domain walls we deduce the size of the non-adiabatic spin-transfer torque. For sensing applications, the displacement of domain walls is studied and a direct correlation between domain wall velocity and spin structure is found. Finally the synchronous displacement of multiple domain walls using perpendicular field pulses is demonstrated as a possible paradigm shift for magnetic memory and logic applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zolotukhin, I.V.; Balalaev, S.Yu.
1990-01-01
Relaxation properties of Y 19 Fe 81 spin glass (SG) were investigated by means of internal friction(IF). Relaxation process resulting from transition to SG state was determined at sound range frequencies in amorphous alloy. On the basis of the obtained results concerning IF and magnetic susceptibility it follows, that relaxation of certain part of cluster magnetic moments lies within 10 -5 -10 -3 s limits with 0.11±0.06 eV activation energy. IF technique is shown to be used for investigation into relaxation properties, in particular, for acquisition of data on temperature of transition to SG' state
Oscillation control system for electric motor drive
Slicker, J.M.; Sereshteh, A.
1988-08-30
A feedback system for controlling mechanical oscillations in the torsionally complaint drive train of an electric or other vehicle. Motor speed is converted in a processor to estimate state signals in which a plant model which are used to electronically modify the torque commands applied to the motor. 5 figs.
The Mysterious Southern Torque
McDowell, M. S.
2004-05-01
Something weird happened to twist the southern hemisphere out of alignment with the northern, as evidenced by the positions of the mountain ranges of North and South America, the Atlantic MAR, and the closure of West Africa to North America - all smooth were the torque reversed. What happened, and when, and why? We identify a number of global "cracks" of almost exactly the same length and direction, with some, even more peculiarly, turning the same angle, and proceeding an equal distance in the new direction. The Emperor-Hawaiian chain, the Louisville chain and the west coast of North America, as examples, are essentially parallel. Their northerly legs follow the angle of the axis of orbital ellipse. But then they all make equal 45 degree easterly bends, to 17.5 NW, and continue on, still parallel, for very similar distances. It is the same at the north coast of South America, and the mid-section of the MAR from 46W to 12W. It is the distance from the Cameroons to Kenya, from the south end of the Red Sea to the SE Indian Ridge at the Nema Fracture zone, from west to east of the Nazca plate.What is all this? Coincidence? Seeing things? Researchers have attributed plate motion or hot spot motion or both or absolutely none, to all of the above. Geophysicists have dated the surfaces from Archean to Pleistocene by all possible scientific means, certainly no possible correlation can be made. Yet we postulate the physical reality can be demonstrated. It is so global a phenomenon that it is well beyond what a hot spot or a plate could do. Even a really tremendous impact would have trouble making such precise geometric arrangements. So what is it - perhaps the angle of rotation, or the inertia of northern hemisphere mass above the geoid? And if so, then, what changed it? It would seem that some huge imbalance occurred. Suppose the whole bottom blew out of the southern hemisphere, and the center of mass drastically altered. Suppose some unknown universal force changed our
Integral torque balance in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustovitov, V.D.
2011-01-01
The study is aimed at clarifying the balance between the sinks and sources in the problem of intrinsic plasma rotation in tokamaks reviewed recently by deGrassie (2009 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51 124047). The integral torque on the toroidal plasma is calculated analytically using the most general magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma model taking account of plasma anisotropy and viscosity. The contributions due to several mechanisms are separated and compared. It is shown that some of them, though, possibly, important in establishing the rotation velocity profile in the plasma, may give small input into the integral torque, but an important contribution can come from the magnetic field breaking the axial symmetry of the configuration. In tokamaks, this can be the error field, the toroidal field ripple or the magnetic perturbation created by the correction coils in the dedicated experiments. The estimates for the error-field-induced electromagnetic torque show that the amplitude of this torque is comparable to the typical values of torques introduced into the plasma by neutral beam injection. The obtained relations allow us to quantify the effect that can be produced by the existing correction coils in tokamaks on the plasma rotation, which can be used in experiments to study the origin and physics of intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Several problems are proposed for theoretical studies and experimental tests.
Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarıoğlu Esin
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.
Dumas, Randy
2014-03-01
The emerging field of magnonics relies on the systematic generation, manipulation, and detection of spin waves (SWs). Nanocontact spin torque oscillators (NC-STOs) provide an ideal platform to study spin transfer torque induced SW emission. In analogy to two species competing for the same food supply it has been argued that only one SW mode can survive in the steady state. However, as evidenced in many experiments clear signatures of mode-hopping are often observed. Here, we present a third possibility, namely that under the correct experimental conditions, mode coexistencecan be realized in NC-STOs. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that the SW modes are spatially separated under the NC. Mode coexistence is facilitated by the local field asymmetries induced by the spatially inhomogeneous Oersted field in the vicinity of the NC and further promoted by SW localization. Finally, both simulation and experiment reveal a weak low frequency signal exactly at the difference of the mode frequencies, consistent with inter-modulation of two coexistent modes. The Swedish Research Council, The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation are acknowledged. ANL is a US DOE Science Laboratory operated under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357 by UChicago Argonne, LLC.
Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Haiming; Brechet, Sylvain D.; Ansermet, Jean-Philippe
2017-01-01
Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal
Spin caloritronics, origin and outlook
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Haiming, E-mail: haiming.yu@buaa.edu.cn [Fert Beijing Institute, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, BDBC, Beihang University (China); Brechet, Sylvain D. [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland); Ansermet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.ansermet@epfl.ch [Institute of Physics, station 3, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne-EPFL (Switzerland)
2017-03-03
Spin caloritronics refers to research efforts in spintronics when a heat current plays a role. In this review, we start out by reviewing the predictions that can be drawn from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. This serves as a conceptual framework in which to analyze the interplay of charge, spin and heat transport. This formalism predicts tensorial relations between vectorial quantities such as currents and gradients of chemical potentials or of temperature. Transverse effects such as the Nernst or Hall effects are predicted on the basis that these tensors can include an anti-symmetric contribution, which can be written with a vectorial cross-product. The local symmetry of the system may determine the direction of the vector defining such transverse effects, such as the surface of an isotropic medium. By including magnetization as state field in the thermodynamic description, spin currents appear naturally from the continuity equation for the magnetization, and dissipative spin torques are derived, which are charge-driven or heat-driven. Thermodynamics does not give the strength of these effects, but may provide relationships between them. Based on this framework, the review proceeds by showing how these effects have been observed in various systems. Spintronics has become a vast field of research, and the experiments highlighted in this review pertain only to heat effects on transport and magnetization dynamics, such as magneto-thermoelectric power, or the spin-dependence of the Seebeck effect, the spin-dependence of the Peltier effect, the spin Seebeck effect, the magnetic Seebeck effect, or the Nernst effect. The review concludes by pointing out predicted effects that are yet to be verified experimentally, and in what novel materials the standard thermal spin effects could be investigated. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic description of transport: three-current model. • Magneto-thermoelectric power and spin-dependent Peltier effects. • Thermal
Charge and Spin Transport in Spin-orbit Coupled and Topological Systems
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-10-31
In the search for low power operation of microelectronic devices, spin-based solutions have attracted undeniable increasing interest due to their intrinsic magnetic nonvolatility. The ability to electrically manipulate the magnetic order using spin-orbit interaction, associated with the recent emergence of topological spintronics with its promise of highly efficient charge-to-spin conversion in solid state, offer alluring opportunities in terms of system design. Although the related technology is still at its infancy, this thesis intends to contribute to this engaging field by investigating the nature of the charge and spin transport in spin-orbit coupled and topological systems using quantum transport methods. We identified three promising building blocks for next-generation technology, three classes of systems that possibly enhance the spin and charge transport efficiency: (i)- topological insulators, (ii)- spin-orbit coupled magnonic systems, (iii)- topological magnetic textures (skyrmions and 3Q magnetic state). Chapter 2 reviews the basics and essential concepts used throughout the thesis: the spin-orbit coupling, the mathematical notion of topology and its importance in condensed matter physics, then topological magnetism and a zest of magnonics. In Chapter 3, we study the spin-orbit torques at the magnetized interfaces of 3D topological insulators. We demonstrated that their peculiar form, compared to other spin-orbit torques, have important repercussions in terms of magnetization reversal, charge pumping and anisotropic damping. In Chapter 4, we showed that the interplay between magnon current jm and magnetization m in homogeneous ferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction, produces a field-like torque as well as a damping-like torque. These DM torques mediated by spin wave can tilt the imeaveraged magnetization direction and are similar to Rashba torques for electronic systems. Moreover, the DM torque is more efficient when magnons are
Theory of high-resolution tunneling spin transport on a magnetic skyrmion
Palotás, Krisztián; Rózsa, Levente; Szunyogh, László
2018-01-01
Tunneling spin transport characteristics of a magnetic skyrmion are described theoretically in magnetic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The spin-polarized charge current in STM (SP-STM) and tunneling spin transport vector quantities, the longitudinal spin current and the spin transfer torque are calculated in high spatial resolution within the same theoretical framework. A connection between the conventional charge current SP-STM image contrasts and the magnitudes of the spin transport v...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ertaş, Mehmet; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram
2012-01-01
Using an effective field theory with correlations, we study a kinetic spin-5/2 Blume–Capel model with bilinear exchange interaction and single-ion crystal field on a square lattice. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. First, the phases in the kinetic system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. Then, the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. Finally, we present the phase diagrams in two planes, namely (T/zJ, h 0 /zJ) and (T/zJ, D/zJ), where T absolute temperature, h 0 , the amplitude of the oscillating field, D, crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and z denotes the nearest-neighbor sites of the central site. The phase diagrams exhibit four fundamental phases and ten mixed phases which are composed of binary, ternary and tetrad combination of fundamental phases, depending on the crystal field interaction parameter. Moreover, the phase diagrams contain a dynamic tricritical point (T), a double critical end point (B), a multicritical point (A) and zero-temperature critical point (Z). - Highlights: ► The effective-field theory is used to study the kinetic spin-5/2 Ising Blume–Capel model. ► Time variations of average order parameter have been studied to find phases in the system. ► The dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation have been calculated. ► The dynamic phase boundaries of the system depend on D/zJ. ► The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the (T/zJ, h 0 /zJ) and (D/zJ, T/zJ) planes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ertas, Mehmet [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa, E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey)
2012-04-15
Using an effective field theory with correlations, we study a kinetic spin-5/2 Blume-Capel model with bilinear exchange interaction and single-ion crystal field on a square lattice. The effective-field dynamic equation is derived by employing the Glauber transition rates. First, the phases in the kinetic system are obtained by solving this dynamic equation. Then, the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetization, the hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated in order to characterize the nature of the dynamic transitions and to obtain dynamic phase transition temperatures. Finally, we present the phase diagrams in two planes, namely (T/zJ, h{sub 0}/zJ) and (T/zJ, D/zJ), where T absolute temperature, h{sub 0}, the amplitude of the oscillating field, D, crystal field interaction or single-ion anisotropy constant and z denotes the nearest-neighbor sites of the central site. The phase diagrams exhibit four fundamental phases and ten mixed phases which are composed of binary, ternary and tetrad combination of fundamental phases, depending on the crystal field interaction parameter. Moreover, the phase diagrams contain a dynamic tricritical point (T), a double critical end point (B), a multicritical point (A) and zero-temperature critical point (Z). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effective-field theory is used to study the kinetic spin-5/2 Ising Blume-Capel model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Time variations of average order parameter have been studied to find phases in the system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation have been calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic phase boundaries of the system depend on D/zJ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the (T/zJ, h{sub 0}/zJ) and (D/zJ, T/zJ) planes.
Diffusion of torqued active particles
Sandoval, Mario; Lauga, Eric
2012-11-01
Motivated by swimming microorganisms whose trajectories are affected by the presence of an external torque, we calculate the diffusivity of an active particle subject to an external torque and in a fluctuating environment. The analytical results are compared with Brownian dynamics simulations showing excellent agreement between theory and numerical experiments. This work was funded in part by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia of Mexico (Conacyt postdoctoral fellowship to M. S.) and the US National Science Foundation (Grant CBET-0746285 to E.L.).
Meng, Feng; Zhang, Zhimin; Lin, Jing
The paper describes the reference torque standard machine with high accuracy and multifunction, developed by our institute, and introduces the structure and working principle of this machine. It has three main functions. The first function is the hydraulic torque wrench calibration function. The second function is torque multiply calibration function. The third function is reference torque standard machine function. We can calibrate the torque multipliers, hydraulic wrenches and transducers by this machine. A comparison experiment has been done between this machine and a deadweight torque standard machine. The consistency between the 30 kNm reference torque machine and the 2000 Nm dead-weight torque standard machine under the claimed uncertainties was verified.
Tunable spin-charge conversion through topological phase transitions in zigzag nanoribbons
Li, Hang
2016-06-29
We study spin-orbit torques and charge pumping in magnetic quasi-one-dimensional zigzag nanoribbons with a hexagonal lattice, in the presence of large intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Such a system experiences a topological phase transition from a trivial band insulator to a quantum spin Hall insulator by tuning of either the magnetization direction or the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-charge conversion efficiency (i.e., spin-orbit torque and charge pumping) is dramatically enhanced at the topological transition, displaying a substantial angular anisotropy.
Tunable spin-charge conversion through topological phase transitions in zigzag nanoribbons
Li, Hang; Manchon, Aurelien
2016-01-01
We study spin-orbit torques and charge pumping in magnetic quasi-one-dimensional zigzag nanoribbons with a hexagonal lattice, in the presence of large intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. Such a system experiences a topological phase transition from a trivial band insulator to a quantum spin Hall insulator by tuning of either the magnetization direction or the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin-charge conversion efficiency (i.e., spin-orbit torque and charge pumping) is dramatically enhanced at the topological transition, displaying a substantial angular anisotropy.
Zhu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Guichen
2018-01-01
In order to improve oscillation damping control performance as well as gear shift quality of electric vehicle equipped with integrated motor-transmission system, a cloud-based shaft torque estimation scheme is proposed in this paper by using measurable motor and wheel speed signals transmitted by wireless network. It can help reduce computational burden of onboard controllers and also relief network bandwidth requirement of individual vehicle. Considering possible delays during signal wireless transmission, delay-dependent full-order observer design is proposed to estimate the shaft torque in cloud server. With these random delays modeled by using homogenous Markov chain, robust H∞ performance is adopted to minimize the effect of wireless network-induced delays, signal measurement noise as well as system modeling uncertainties on shaft torque estimation error. Observer parameters are derived by solving linear matrix inequalities, and simulation results using acceleration test and tip-in, tip-out test demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed shaft torque observer design.
Friction torque in thrust ball bearings grease lubricated
Ianuş, G.; Dumitraşcu, A. C.; Cârlescu, V.; Olaru, D. N.
2016-08-01
The authors investigated experimentally and theoretically the friction torque in a modified thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls operating at low axial load and lubricated with NGLI-00 and NGLI-2 greases. The experiments were made by using spin-down methodology and the results were compared with the theoretical values based on Biboulet&Houpert's rolling friction equations. Also, the results were compared with the theoretical values obtained with SKF friction model adapted for 3 balls. A very good correlation between experiments and Biboulet_&_Houpert's predicted results was obtained for the two greases. Also was observed that the theoretical values for the friction torque calculated with SKF model adapted for a thrust ball bearing having only 3 balls are smaller that the experimental values.
Korenev, V. L.
2005-01-01
It is shown that spin Hall effect creates uniform spin polarization of electrons in semiconductor with a linear in the momentum spin splitting of conduction band. In turn, the profile of the non-uniform spin polarization accumulated at the edge of the sample oscillates in space even in the absence of an external magnetic field.
Magnetic moment of inertia within the torque-torque correlation model.
Thonig, Danny; Eriksson, Olle; Pereiro, Manuel
2017-04-19
An essential property of magnetic devices is the relaxation rate in magnetic switching which strongly depends on the energy dissipation. This is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the well known damping parameter, which has been shown to be reproduced from quantum mechanical calculations. Recently the importance of inertia phenomena have been discussed for magnetisation dynamics. This magnetic counterpart to the well-known inertia of Newtonian mechanics, represents a research field that so far has received only limited attention. We present and elaborate here on a theoretical model for calculating the magnetic moment of inertia based on the torque-torque correlation model. Particularly, the method has been applied to bulk itinerant magnets and we show that numerical values are comparable with recent experimental measurements. The theoretical analysis shows that even though the moment of inertia and damping are produced by the spin-orbit coupling, and the expression for them have common features, they are caused by very different electronic structure mechanisms. We propose ways to utilise this in order to tune the inertia experimentally, and to find materials with significant inertia dynamics.
Installation Torque Tables for Noncritical Applications
Rivera-Rosario, Hazel T.; Powell, Joseph S.
2017-01-01
The objective of this project is to define torque values for bolts and screws when loading is not a concern. Fasteners require a certain torque to fulfill its function and prevent failure. NASA Glenn Research Center did not have a set of fastener torque tables for non-critical applications without loads, usually referring to hand-tight or wrench-tight torqueing. The project is based on two formulas, torque and pullout load. Torque values are calculated giving way to preliminary data tables. Testing is done to various bolts and metal plates, torqueing them until the point of failure. Around 640 torque tables were developed for UNC, UNF, and M fasteners. Different lengths of thread engagement were analyzed for the 5 most common materials used at GRC. The tables were put together in an Excel spreadsheet and then formatted into a Word document. The plan is to later convert this to an official technical publication or memorandum.
Nonlocal torque operators in ab initio theory of the Gilbert damping in random ferromagnetic alloys
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav
2015-01-01
Roč. 92, č. 21 (2015), 214407-1-214407-11 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic damping * spin torque Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Compensation of oscillation coupling induced by solenoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Shcherbakov, A.A.
1988-01-01
Methods for construction of various schemes of oscillation coupling compensation, induced by solenoids in charged particle storage rings, are described. Peculiarities of magnetic structure, enabling to localize oscillation coupling in wide energy range are discussed. Results of calculation of compensation schemes for design of NR-2000 storage ring spin rotation are presented
Excitation of coherent propagating spin waves by pure spin currents.
Demidov, Vladislav E; Urazhdin, Sergei; Liu, Ronghua; Divinskiy, Boris; Telegin, Andrey; Demokritov, Sergej O
2016-01-28
Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oeiras, R. Y.; Silva, E. Z. da
2014-01-01
Carbon linear atomic chains attached to graphene have experimentally been produced. Motivated by these results, we study the nature of the carbon bonds in these nanowires and how it affects their electrical properties. In the present study we investigate chains with different numbers of atoms and we observe that nanowires with odd number of atoms present a distinct behavior than the ones with even numbers. Using graphene nanoribbons as leads, we identify differences in the quantum transport of the chains with the consequence that even and odd numbered chains have low and high electrical conduction, respectively. We also noted a dependence of current with the wire size. We study this unexpected behavior using a combination of first principles calculations and simple models based on chemical bond theory. From our studies, the electrons of carbon nanowires present a quasi-free electron behavior and this explains qualitatively the high electrical conduction and the bond lengths with unexpected values for the case of odd nanowires. Our study also allows the understanding of the electric conduction dependence with the number of atoms and their parity in the chain. In the case of odd number chains a proposed π-bond (MpB) model describes unsaturated carbons that introduce a mobile π-bond that changes dramatically the structure and transport properties of these wires. Our results indicate that the nature of bonds plays the main role in the oscillation of quantum electrical conduction for chains with even and odd number of atoms and also that nanowires bonded to graphene nanoribbons behave as a quasi-free electron system, suggesting that this behavior is general and it could also remain if the chains are bonded to other materials
14 CFR 23.361 - Engine torque.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 23.361 Section 23.361... Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque corresponding to takeoff power and propeller speed acting simultaneously with...
14 CFR 29.361 - Engine torque.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 29.361 Section 29.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Flight Loads § 29.361 Engine torque. The limit engine torque may not be less than the following: (a) For turbine engines, the highest of— (1) The...
14 CFR 25.361 - Engine torque.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine torque. 25.361 Section 25.361... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Supplementary Conditions § 25.361 Engine torque. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for the effects of— (1) A limit engine torque...
Measuring the uncertainty of tapping torque
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo
An uncertainty budget is carried out for torque measurements performed at the Institut for Procesteknik for the evaluation of cutting fluids. Thirty test blanks were machined with one tool and one fluid, torque diagrams were recorded and the repeatability of single torque measurements was estimat...
Computerized Torque Control for Large dc Motors
Willett, Richard M.; Carroll, Michael J.; Geiger, Ronald V.
1987-01-01
Speed and torque ranges in generator mode extended. System of shunt resistors, electronic switches, and pulse-width modulation controls torque exerted by large, three-phase, electronically commutated dc motor. Particularly useful for motor operating in generator mode because it extends operating range to low torque and high speed.
Thermal spin pumping mediated by magnons in the semiclassical regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, Kouki
2012-01-01
We microscopically analyze thermal spin pumping mediated by magnons, at the interface between a ferromagnetic insulator and a non-magnetic metal, in the semiclassical regime. The generation of a spin current is discussed by calculating the thermal spin transfer torque, which breaks the spin conservation law for conduction electrons and operates the coherent magnon state. Inhomogeneous thermal fluctuations between conduction electrons and magnons induce a net spin current, which is pumped into the adjacent non-magnetic metal. The pumped spin current is proportional to the temperature difference. When the effective temperature of magnons is lower than that of conduction electrons, localized spins lose spin angular momentum by emitting magnons and conduction electrons flip from down to up by absorbing all the emitted momentum, and vice versa. Magnons at the zero mode cannot contribute to thermal spin pumping because they are eliminated by the spin-flip condition. Consequently thermal spin pumping does not cost any kind of applied magnetic fields
Spin Interference in Rectangle Loop Based on Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia-Ting, Ni; Bin, Chen; Xiao-Wan, Liang; Koga, T.
2009-01-01
We demonstrate the amplitude and spin polarization of AAS oscillation changing with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and Dresselhaus SOI. The amplitude and spin polarization of AB oscillation changing with Rashba SOI and Dresselhaus SOI are demonstrated as well. The ideal quasi-one-dimensional square loop does not exist in reality, therefore to match the experiment better we should consider the shape of the rectangle loop in theory
Universal Mechanism of Spin Relaxation in Solids
Chudnovsky, Eugene
2006-03-01
Conventional elastic theory ignores internal local twists and torques. Meantime, spin-lattice relaxation is inherently coupled with local elastic twists through conservation of the total angular momentum (spin + lattice). This coupling gives universal lower bound (free of fitting parameters) on the relaxation of the atomic or molecular spin in a solid [1] and on the relaxation of the electron spin in a quantum dot [2]. [1] E. M. Chudnovsky, D. A. Garanin, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. B 72, 094426 (2005). [2] C. Calero, E. M. Chudnovsky, and D. A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166603 (2005).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNeill, G.A.
1981-01-01
Present high-speed data acquisition systems in nuclear diagnostics use high-frequency oscillators to provide timing references for signals recorded on fast, traveling-wave oscilloscopes. An oscillator's sinusoidal wave shape is superimposed on the recorded signal with each cycle representing a fixed time increment. During data analysis the sinusoid is stripped from the signal, leaving a clean signal shape with known timing. Since all signal/time relationships are totally dependant upon working oscillators, these critical devices must have remote verification of proper operation. This manual presents the newly-developed oscillator monitor which will provide the required verification
Scalable Spin-Qubit Circuits with Quantum Dots
2006-12-31
Anisotropic Heisenberg Spin Rings” cond-mat/0608642. 13. Karyn Le Hur (Yale), Pascal Simon, and Daniel Loss, “Transport through a quantum dot with SU(4...Daniel Loss, “Nuclear spin state narrowing via gate--controlled Rabi oscillations in a double quantum dot” Phys. Rev. B 73, 205302 (2006). 27. Jörg...single spin read out (Delft), sqrt-of-swap (Harvard) and single spin Rabi oscillations. At the end of this program and based on our theoretical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Ayan K; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha
2015-01-01
In artificial neural networks, neurons are usually implemented with highly dissipative CMOS-based operational amplifiers. A more energy-efficient implementation is a ‘spin-neuron’ realized with a magneto-tunneling junction (MTJ) that is switched with a spin-polarized current (representing weighted sum of input currents) that either delivers a spin transfer torque or induces domain wall motion in the soft layer of the MTJ to mimic neuron firing. Here, we propose and analyze a different type of spin-neuron in which the soft layer of the MTJ is switched with mechanical strain generated by a voltage (representing weighted sum of input voltages) and term it straintronic spin-neuron. It dissipates orders of magnitude less energy in threshold operations than the traditional current-driven spin neuron at 0 K temperature and may even be faster. We have also studied the room-temperature firing behaviors of both types of spin neurons and find that thermal noise degrades the performance of both types, but the current-driven type is degraded much more than the straintronic type if both are optimized for maximum energy-efficiency. On the other hand, if both are designed to have the same level of thermal degradation, then the current-driven version will dissipate orders of magnitude more energy than the straintronic version. Thus, the straintronic spin-neuron is superior to current-driven spin neurons. (paper)
Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 (Singapore)
2014-10-13
The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.
Determination of intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yi; Deorani, Praveen; Qiu, Xuepeng; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Yang, Hyunsoo
2014-01-01
The spin Hall angle in Pt is evaluated in Pt/NiFe bilayers by spin torque ferromagnetic resonance measurements and is found to increase with increasing the NiFe thickness. To extract the intrinsic spin Hall angle in Pt by estimating the total spin current injected into NiFe from Pt, the NiFe thickness dependent measurements are performed and the spin diffusion in the NiFe layer is taken into account. The intrinsic spin Hall angle of Pt is determined to be 0.068 at room temperature and is found to be almost constant in the temperature range of 13–300 K.
Spin-resolved electron waiting times in a quantum-dot spin valve
Tang, Gaomin; Xu, Fuming; Mi, Shuo; Wang, Jian
2018-04-01
We study the electronic waiting-time distributions (WTDs) in a noninteracting quantum-dot spin valve by varying spin polarization and the noncollinear angle between the magnetizations of the leads using the scattering matrix approach. Since the quantum-dot spin valve involves two channels (spin up and down) in both the incoming and outgoing channels, we study three different kinds of WTDs, which are two-channel WTD, spin-resolved single-channel WTD, and cross-channel WTD. We analyze the behaviors of WTDs in short times, correlated with the current behaviors for different spin polarizations and noncollinear angles. Cross-channel WTD reflects the correlation between two spin channels and can be used to characterize the spin-transfer torque process. We study the influence of the earlier detection on the subsequent detection from the perspective of cross-channel WTD, and define the influence degree quantity as the cumulative absolute difference between cross-channel WTDs and first-passage time distributions to quantitatively characterize the spin-flip process. We observe that influence degree versus spin-transfer torque for different noncollinear angles as well as different polarizations collapse into a single curve showing universal behaviors. This demonstrates that cross-channel WTDs can be a pathway to characterize spin correlation in spintronics system.
Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.
2007-04-01
tunnel junctions were introduced as memory elements in new types of non-volatile magnetic memories (MRAM). A first 4Mbit product was launched by Freescale in July 2006. Future generations of memories are being developed by academic groups or companies. the combination of magnetic elements with CMOS components opens a whole new paradigm in hybrid electronic components which can change the common conception of the architecture of complex electronic components with a much tighter integration of logic and memory. the steady magnetic excitations stimulated by spin-transfer might be used in a variety of microwave components provided the output power can be increased. Intense research and development efforts are being aimed at increasing this power by the synchronization of oscillators. The articles compiled in this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, devoted to spin electronics, review these recent developments. All the contributors are greatly acknowledged.
Lites, B.W.; Rutten, R.J.; Thomas, J.H.
1995-01-01
We show results from SO/Sacramento Peak data to discuss three issues: (i)--the spatial occurrence of chromospheric 3--min oscillations; (ii)--the validity of Ca II H&K line-center Doppler Shift measurements; (iii)--the signi ?cance of oscillation power and phase at frequencies above 10 mHz.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuce, C [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kilic, A [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Coruh, A [Physics Department, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)
2006-07-15
The inverted harmonic oscillator problem is investigated quantum mechanically. The exact wavefunction for the confined inverted oscillator is obtained and it is shown that the associated energy eigenvalues are discrete, and the energy is given as a linear function of the quantum number n.
Starquake-induced Magnetic Field and Torque Evolution in Neutron Stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Link, B.; Franco, L.M.; Epstein, R.I.
1998-01-01
The persistent increases in spin-down rate (offsets) seen to accompany glitches in the Crab and other pulsars suggest increases in the spin-down torque. We interpret these offsets as due to starquakes occurring as the star spins down and the rigid crust becomes less oblate. We study the evolution of strain in the crust, the initiation of starquakes, and possible consequences for magnetic field and torque evolution. Crust cracking occurs as equatorial material shears under the compressive forces arising from the star's decreasing circumference and as matter moves to higher latitudes along a fault inclined to the equator. A starquake is most likely to originate near one of the two points on the rotational equator farthest from the magnetic poles. The material breaks along a fault approximately aligned with the magnetic poles. We suggest that the observed offsets come about when a starquake perturbs the star's mass distribution, producing a misalignment of the angular momentum and spin axes. Subsequently, damped precession to a new rotational state increases the angle α between the rotation and magnetic axes. The resulting increase in external torque appears as a permanent increase in the spin-down rate. Repeated starquakes would continue to increase α, making the pulsar more of an orthogonal rotator. copyright copyright 1998. The American Astronomical Society
Lattime, Scott B.; Borowski, Richard
2009-01-01
The EcoTurn Class K production prototypes have passed all AAR qualification tests and received conditional approval. The accelerated life test on the second set of seals is in progress. Due to the performance of the first set, no problems are expected.The seal has demonstrated superior performance over the HDL seal in the test lab with virtually zero torque and excellent contamination exclusion and grease retention.
Torque application technique and apparatus
Pineault, Raymond P.
1993-11-01
A tool which produces a measured torque is coupled to a bolt head or nut, located in a relatively inaccessible area, by apparatus which includes a wrench member affixed to an adaptor. The wrench member is sized and shaped to engage the fastener to be operated upon and the adaptor has a tubular construction with a tool engaging socket at one end. The adaptor is provided with an elongated slot which accommodates any wires which may pass through the fastener.
Electromagnetic torques in the core and resonant excitation of decadal polar motion
Mound, Jon E.
2005-02-01
Motion of the rotation axis of the Earth contains decadal variations with amplitudes on the order of 10 mas. The origin of these decadal polar motions is unknown. A class of rotational normal modes of the core-mantle system termed torsional oscillations are known to affect the length of day (LOD) at decadal periods and have also been suggested as a possible excitation source for the observed decadal polar motion. Torsional oscillations involve relative motion between the outer core and the surrounding solid bodies, producing electromagnetic torques at the inner-core boundary (ICB) and core-mantle boundary (CMB). It has been proposed that the ICB torque can explain the excitation of the approximately 30-yr-period polar motion termed the Markowitz wobble. This paper uses the results of a torsional oscillation model to calculate the torques generated at Markowitz and other decadal periods and finds, in contrast to previous results, that electromagnetic torques at the ICB can not explain the observed polar motion.
Space Suit Joint Torque Testing
Valish, Dana J.
2011-01-01
In 2009 and early 2010, a test was performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design meets the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future space suits. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis and a variance in torque values for some of the tested joints was apparent. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and re-testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate these variables. The results of the retest will be used to determine if further testing and modification is necessary before the method can be validated.
Spin torques in ferromagnetic/normal-metal structures
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Xia, K.; Kelly, P. J.; Bauer, G. E. W.; Brataas, A.; Turek, Ilja
2002-01-01
Roč. 65, č. 22 (2002), s. 220401 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/0122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : tunneling * interface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002
Limited Angle Torque Motors Having High Torque Density, Used in Accurate Drive Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Obreja
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A torque motor is a special electric motor that is able to develop the highest possible torque in a certain volume. A torque motor usually has a pancake configuration, and is directly jointed to a drive system (without a gear box. A limited angle torque motor is a torque motor that has no rotary electromagnetic field — in certain papers it is referred to as a linear electromagnet. The main intention of the authors for this paper is to present a means for analyzing and designing a limited angle torque motor only through the finite element method. Users nowadays require very high-performance limited angle torque motors with high density torque. It is therefore necessary to develop the highest possible torque in a relatively small volume. A way to design such motors is by using numerical methods based on the finite element method.
Spin and radiation in intense laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walser, M.W.; Urbach, D.J.; Hatsagortsyan, K.Z.; Hu, S.X.; Keitel, C.H.
2002-01-01
The spin dynamics and its reaction on the particle motion are investigated for free and bound electrons in intense linearly polarized laser fields. Employing both classical and quantum treatments we analytically evaluate the spin oscillation of free electrons in intense laser fields and indicate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the motion of the electron. In Mott scattering an estimation for the spin oscillation is derived. In intense laser ion dynamics spin signatures are studied in detail with emphasis on high-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime. First- and second-order calculations in the ratio of electron velocity and the speed of light show spin signatures in the radiation spectrum and spin-orbit effects in the electron polarization
Loreto, R. P.; Moura-Melo, W. A.; Pereira, A. R.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, Y.; Ezawa, M.; de Araujo, C. I. L.
2018-06-01
With the recent proposition of skyrmion utilization in racetrack memories at room temperature, skyrmionics has become a very attractive field. However, for the stability of skyrmions, it is essential to incorporate the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) and the out-of-plane magnetic field into the system. In this work, we explore a system without these interactions. First, we propose a controlled way for the creation of magnetic skyrmions and skyrmioniums imprinted on a ferromagnetic nanotrack via a nanopatterned nanodisk with the magnetic vortex state. Then we investigate the detachment of the imprinted spin textures from the underneath of the nanodisk, as well as its transport by the spin-transfer torque imposed by spin-polarized current pulses applied in the nanotrack. A prominent feature of the moving imprinted spin texture is that its topological number Q is oscillating around the averaged value of Q = 0 as if it is a resonant state between the skyrmions with Q = ± 1 and the bubble with Q = 0 . We may call it a resonant magnetic soliton (RMS). A RMS moves along a straight line since it is free from the skyrmion Hall effect. In our studied device, the same electrodes are employed to realize the imprinted spin texture detachment and its transport. In addition, we have investigated the interaction between the RMS and a magnetic tunnel junction sensor, where the passing of the RMS in the nanotrack can be well detected. Our results would be useful for the development of novel spintronic devices based on moveable spin textures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurosawa, M; Fujikawa, T; Yoshida, K; Kobayahi, M [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1997-10-01
Nissan has successfully developed a new belt CVT (Continuously Variable Transmission) with torque converter and has installed it 2L-class vehicle for the first time in the world. This paper describes about the technology of high torque transmission, the need of torque converter, the importance of electronic control and the introduce of driving mode. As the result the CVT has improved driving performance and fuel economy for current CVT and 4 speed automatic transmission. 13 figs., 2 tabs.
Control of electron spin decoherence in nuclear spin baths
Liu, Ren-Bao
2011-03-01
Nuclear spin baths are a main mechanism of decoherence of spin qubits in solid-state systems, such as quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers of diamond. The decoherence results from entanglement between the electron and nuclear spins, established by quantum evolution of the bath conditioned on the electron spin state. When the electron spin is flipped, the conditional bath evolution is manipulated. Such manipulation of bath through control of the electron spin not only leads to preservation of the center spin coherence but also demonstrates quantum nature of the bath. In an NV center system, the electron spin effectively interacts with hundreds of 13 C nuclear spins. Under repeated flip control (dynamical decoupling), the electron spin coherence can be preserved for a long time (> 1 ms) . Thereforesomecharacteristicoscillations , duetocouplingtoabonded 13 C nuclear spin pair (a dimer), are imprinted on the electron spin coherence profile, which are very sensitive to the position and orientation of the dimer. With such finger-print oscillations, a dimer can be uniquely identified. Thus, we propose magnetometry with single-nucleus sensitivity and atomic resolution, using NV center spin coherence to identify single molecules. Through the center spin coherence, we could also explore the many-body physics in an interacting spin bath. The information of elementary excitations and many-body correlations can be extracted from the center spin coherence under many-pulse dynamical decoupling control. Another application of the preserved spin coherence is identifying quantumness of a spin bath through the back-action of the electron spin to the bath. We show that the multiple transition of an NV center in a nuclear spin bath can have longer coherence time than the single transition does, when the classical noises due to inhomogeneous broadening is removed by spin echo. This counter-intuitive result unambiguously demonstrates the quantumness of the nuclear spin bath
Self-consistent treatment of spin and magnetization dynamic effect in spin transfer switching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Jie; Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Koh, Dax Enshan; Han, Guchang; Meng, Hao
2011-01-01
The effect of itinerant spin moment (m) dynamic in spin transfer switching has been ignored in most previous theoretical studies of the magnetization (M) dynamics. Thus in this paper, we proposed a more refined micromagnetic model of spin transfer switching that takes into account in a self-consistent manner of the coupled m and M dynamics. The numerical results obtained from this model further shed insight on the switching profiles of m and M, both of which show particular sensitivity to parameters such as the anisotropy field, the spin torque field, and the initial deviation between m and M.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the law of mass-action that every simple reaction approaches ... from thermodynamic equilibrium. Such oscillating systems cor- respond to thermodynamically open systems. .... experimentally observable, and the third is always unstable.
Gate-Driven Pure Spin Current in Graphene
Lin, Xiaoyang; Su, Li; Si, Zhizhong; Zhang, Youguang; Bournel, Arnaud; Zhang, Yue; Klein, Jacques-Olivier; Fert, Albert; Zhao, Weisheng
2017-09-01
The manipulation of spin current is a promising solution for low-power devices beyond CMOS. However, conventional methods, such as spin-transfer torque or spin-orbit torque for magnetic tunnel junctions, suffer from large power consumption due to frequent spin-charge conversions. An important challenge is, thus, to realize long-distance transport of pure spin current, together with efficient manipulation. Here, the mechanism of gate-driven pure spin current in graphene is presented. Such a mechanism relies on the electrical gating of carrier-density-dependent conductivity and spin-diffusion length in graphene. The gate-driven feature is adopted to realize the pure spin-current demultiplexing operation, which enables gate-controllable distribution of the pure spin current into graphene branches. Compared with the Elliott-Yafet spin-relaxation mechanism, the D'yakonov-Perel spin-relaxation mechanism results in more appreciable demultiplexing performance. The feature of the pure spin-current demultiplexing operation will allow a number of logic functions to be cascaded without spin-charge conversions and open a route for future ultra-low-power devices.
Development of a Portable Torque Wrench Tester
Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Gou, C.; Su, D.
2018-03-01
A portable torque wrench tester (PTWT) with calibration range from 0.5 Nm to 60 Nm has been developed and evaluated for periodic or on-site calibration of setting type torque wrenches, indicating type torque wrenches and hand torque screwdrivers. The PTWT is easy to carry with weight about 10 kg, simple and efficient operation and energy saving with an automatic loading and calibrating system. The relative expanded uncertainty of torque realized by the PTWT was estimated to be 0.8%, with the coverage factor k=2. A comparison experiment has been done between the PTWT and a reference torque standard at our laboratory. The consistency between these two devices under the claimed uncertainties was verified.
Tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic fields
Yu, Zhao-xian; Jiao, Zhi-yong
2003-01-01
In this paper, we have studied tunneling effect of the spin-2 Bose condensate driven by external magnetic field. We find that the population transfers among spin-0 and spin-$\\pm1$, spin-0 and spin-$\\pm2$ exhibit the step structure under the external cosinusoidal magnetic field respectively, but there do not exist step structure among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$. The tunneling current among spin-$\\pm1$ and spin-$\\pm2$ may exhibit periodically oscillation behavior, but among spin-0 and spin-$\\p...
TORQUE MEASUREMENT IN WORM AGLOMERATION MACHINE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marian DUDZIAK
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the operating characteristics of the worm agglomeration machine. The paper indicates the need for continuous monitoring of the value of the torque due to the efficiency of the machine. An original structure of torque meter which is built in the standard drive system of briquetting machine was presented. A number of benefits arising from the application of the proposed solution were presented. Exemplary measurement results obtained by means of this torque meter were presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishino, Atsuhiro; Ueda, Kazunaga; Fujii, Kenichi
2017-01-01
To allow the application of torque standards in various industries, we have been developing torque standard machines based on a lever deadweight system, i.e. a torque generation method using gravity. However, this method is not suitable for expanding the low end of the torque range, because of the limitations to the sizes of the weights and moment arms. In this study, the working principle of the torque generation method using an electromagnetic force was investigated by referring to watt balance experiments used for the redefinition of the kilogram. Applying this principle to a rotating coordinate system, an electromagnetic force type torque standard machine was designed and prototyped. It was experimentally demonstrated that SI-traceable torque could be generated by converting electrical power to mechanical power. Thus, for the first time, SI-traceable torque was successfully realized using a method other than that based on the force of gravity. (paper)
Improvements in remote equipment torquing and fastening
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garin, J.
1978-01-01
Remote torquing and fastening is a requirement of generic interest for application in an environment not readily accessible to man. The developments over the last 30 years in torque-controlled equipment above 200 nm (150 ft/lb) have not been emphasized. The development of specialized subassemblies to torque and fasten equipment in a remotely controlled environment is an integral part of the Advanced Fuel Recycle Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Commercially available subassemblies have been adapted into a system that would provide remote torquing and fastening in the range of 200 to 750 nm (150 to 550 ft/lb). 9 figures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazaliy, Y. B.; Jones, B. A.
2002-01-01
''Spin-transfer'' torque is created when electric current is passed through metallic ferromagnets and may have interesting applications in spintronics. So far it was experimentally studied in ''collinear'' geometries, where it is difficult to predict whether magnetization will coherently rotate or spin-waves will be generated. Here we propose an easy modification of existing experiment in which the spin-polarization of incoming current will no longer be collinear with magnetization and recalculate the switching behavior of the device. We expect that a better agreement with the magnetization rotation theory will be achieved. That can be an important step in reconciling alternative points of view on the effect of spin-transfer torque
Game programmer's guide to Torque under the hood of the Torque game engine
Maurina , Edward F
2006-01-01
game programmer working with the Torque game engine must have ""The Game Programmer's Guide To Torque"": it teaches everything needed to design your own game, using experiences of game makers and industry veterans well versed in Torque technology. A Torque Game engine demo is included on an accompanying cd while step-by-step examples tell how to use it. Its focus on all the basics makes for an exceptional coverage for all levels of game programmer. -Bookwatch, August 2006
Impact of Disorder on Spin Dependent Transport Phenomena
Saidaoui, Hamed
2016-07-03
The impact of the spin degree of freedom on the transport properties of electrons traveling through magnetic materials has been known since the pioneer work of Mott [1]. Since then it has been demonstrated that the spin angular momentum plays a key role in the scattering process of electrons in magnetic multilayers. This role has been emphasized by the discovery of the Giant Magnetoresistance in 1988 by Fert and Grunberg [2, 3]. Among the numerous applications and effects that emerged in mesoscopic devices two mechanisms have attracted our attention during the course of this thesis: the spin transfer torque and the spin Hall effects. The former consists in the transfer of the spin angular momentum from itinerant carriers to local magnetic moments [4]. This mechanism results in the current-driven magnetization switching and excitations, which has potential application in terms of magnetic data storage and non-volatile memories. The latter, spin Hall effect, is considered as well to be one of the most fascinating mechanisms in condensed matter physics due to its ability of generating non-equilibrium spin currents without the need for any magnetic materials. In fact the spin Hall effect relies only on the presence of the spin-orbit interaction in order to create an imbalance between the majority and minority spins. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the impact of disorder on spin dependent transport phenomena. To do so, we identified three classes of systems on which such disorder may have a dramatic influence: (i) antiferromagnetic materials, (ii) impurity-driven spin-orbit coupled systems and (iii) two dimensional semiconducting electron gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Antiferromagnetic materials - We showed that in antiferromagnetic spin-valves, spin transfer torque is highly sensitive to disorder, which prevents its experimental observation. To solve this issue, we proposed to use either a tunnel barrier as a spacer or a local spin torque using
Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi
2012-01-01
In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.
Antiferromagnetic resonance excited by oscillating electric currents
Sluka, Volker
2017-12-01
In antiferromagnetic materials the order parameter exhibits resonant modes at frequencies that can be in the terahertz range, making them interesting components for spintronic devices. Here, it is shown that antiferromagnetic resonance can be excited using the inverse spin-Hall effect in a system consisting of an antiferromagnetic insulator coupled to a normal-metal waveguide. The time-dependent interplay between spin torque, ac spin accumulation, and magnetic degrees of freedom is studied. It is found that the dynamics of the antiferromagnet affects the frequency-dependent conductivity of the normal metal. Further, a comparison is made between spin-current-induced and Oersted-field-induced excitation under the condition of constant power injection.