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Sample records for spillover dalian china

  1. FDI and Spillovers in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Taotao, Chen; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    Using a fixed effect variance decomposition model we estimate SUR models to analyse FDI spillovers from contagion and spillovers from competition on local firms in China. While the former type of spillover mainly depends on the degree of foreign presence, the latter kind is related to how foreign...... and local firms interact. The main conclusion is that FDI has been beneficial for the Chinese economy but that spillovers are not evenly distributed across firms and industries. Spillovers from contagion tend to exhibit an inverse U-shaped pattern with respect to the degree of foreign presence...

  2. Implementing China's circular economy concept at the regional level: a review of progress in Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yong; Zhu, Qinghua; Doberstein, Brent; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    2009-02-01

    The circular economy (CE) concept was introduced in China to address environmental degradation and resource scarcity associated with rapid economic development. Chosen as a demonstration city, Dalian has implemented the CE strategy as a means of conserving water, materials, energy and land. This paper outlines some of the regional CE initiatives that have been successful to date in Dalian, including those focusing on conserving energy and water resources and others focusing on reduced industrial emissions. The paper details the approach used in implementing the CE concept in Dalian, tracing the foci and goals of the program, and the sectoral approach used to implement a CE. Although Dalian municipality has achieved many successes in implementing a CE, our paper identifies several challenges that, until recently, have held back complete implementation. These include: the lack of incentives for older industries to 'green' their operations, the lack of financial support to expand the CE concept, and a broad-based need for heightened public awareness and participation in CE initiatives. Our paper then identifies several responses by Dalian municipality to overcome these challenges, including pricing and tax reforms that serve as conservation incentives, the provision of financial support for CE promotion through budget reorganization, and the organization of CE training programs. Our paper concludes that, although CE initiatives have been successful in Dalian, more is possible and more is needed before Dalian can be designated a true 'eco-city'. The approach used by Dalian can provide guidance for other Chinese cities, although it is recognized that each city must tailor its own approach for differing contexts and conditions.

  3. Atmospheric PCDD/F and PCB levels implicated by pine (Cedrus deodara) needles at Dalian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingwen; Zhao Huimin; Gao Lina; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2006-01-01

    Dalian is a seaside city situated in the northeastern monsoon area of China. For the first time, levels of PCDD/F and PCB congeners in pine (Cedrus deodara) needles of Dalian urban areas were investigated. Two sampling campaigns with 17 sampling points were performed in 2002. The summation of tetra- to octachlorinated PCDD/Fs and summation of 209 PCB congeners in Dalian pine needles averaged 127 ± 40 ng/kg (dry) and 4389 ± 1575 ng/kg (dry), respectively. Average toxic equivalence (TEQ) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs are 2.1 and 0.4 ng/kg (dry), respectively. The pine needles can differentiate spatial variation of the pollutants. The PCDD/F and PCB levels in Dalian pine needles are low or comparable with other international regions that were not impacted by evident point sources. The data can serve as a base for long-term spatial and temporal studies of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in China. - Levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in pine needles sampled from Dalian, China, were investigated for the first time

  4. A governance network perspective on environmental conflicts in China: findings from the Dalian paraxylene conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y. (Yi); Y. Li (Yanwei); Xi, B. (Bao); J.F.M. Koppenjan (Joop)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT: Employing the Governance Network framework, this article presents an in-depth case study of the conflict that evolved from 2003 onwards over the construction and operation of a paraxylene plant in Dalian, China. The study explores the usefulness of this framework as an

  5. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Someya, Masayuki; Kayama, Fujio; Jin Yihe; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    The present study determined the concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk collected from primiparae in Dalian and Shenyang, northeastern China during 2002. In addition, dioxins and related compounds in pooled samples of human breast milk from Dalian and Shenyang were also analyzed. OCs were detected in all the human breast milk samples analyzed in this study. The predominant contaminants in human breast milk were HCHs, DDTs and HCB, and the levels were relatively higher than those in other countries. On the other hand, concentrations of dioxins and related compounds, PCBs, and CHLs were relatively low. Concentrations of OCs in human breast milk from Dalian, which is located along the coast of Bo Hai Strait, were significantly higher than those from Shenyang, implying that the residents in Dalian might be mainly exposed to these contaminants from seafood. When the relationship between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of primiparae was examined, no significant correlation was observed. This might be caused by the limited sample numbers and narrow range of mother's age and/or recent ban of DDT and HCH production and use. Significant correlation between concentrations of TCPMe and DDTs in human breast milk suggested that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in the Chinese population. When daily intakes of DDTs and HCHs to infants through human breast milk were estimated, human breast milk from Dalian showed significantly higher contribution than Shenyang, implying that infants in Dalian might be at higher risk by these contaminants

  6. Creating new path for Old Industrial Areas: A Case Study on Dalian city, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimei Yin and Zhigao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of new industries has recently been widely studied, but little research attention has been paid to the formation of new industries in old industrial districts, especially in transitional countries such as China. Based on fieldwork and rereading historical archives, this paper uses an example of Dalian tourism cluster to contribute to understanding the emergence of new economy in old industrial areas in a transitional country. The Section 2 of this paper will provide the theoretical framework from evolutionary economics for my empirical study. In Section 3, this paper will discuss the main characteristics of the decline of old industrial areas in Northeast China and the significances of developing new economy to revitalizing old industry areas. Section 4 will introduce the transitional history of Dalian economy from a high industrial region to a new economy city and also provides descriptive information about the development process of Dalian tourism industry. In Section 5, this paper will probe into the dynamics of the Dalian tourism cluster, from viewpoints of co-evolution and co-adaptation of firm, technology and institutions. Finally, we will give some policy suggestions of how to foster and promote new industries in old industrial areas, especially for transitional countries.

  7. Foreign Direct Investment and its Spillover Efficiency in China

    OpenAIRE

    劉, 黄金

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we review the development process and its characteristics of inward foreign direct investment (FDI) in China. Using the latest data of Jiangsu province, we test the spillover efficiency of FDI. We find that FDI has spillover efficiency in Jiangsu's economy, but the smaller the technology gap between domestic and foreign enterprises, the larger the spillovers.

  8. Quantifying the Impact of Floods on Bacillary Dysentery in Dalian City, China, From 2004 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhidong; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2017-04-01

    Studies quantifying relationships between floods and diarrheal diseases have mainly been conducted in low-latitude regions. It's therefore increasingly important to examine these relationships in midlatitude regions, where they may have significant public health implications. This study aimed to examine the association between floods and bacillary dysentery in the city of Dalian, China. A generalized additive mixed model was applied to examine the association between floods and bacillary dysentery. The relative risk (RR) of flood impact on bacillary dysentery was estimated. A total of 18,976 cases of bacillary dysentery were reported in Dalian during the study period. Two weeks' lagged effect was detected from the impact of floods on bacillary dysentery. The RR of flood impact on bacillary dysentery was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03-1.33). Floods have significantly increased the risk of bacillary dysentery in Dalian. More studies should focus on the association between floods and infectious diseases in different regions. Our findings have significant implications for managing the negative health impact of floods in the midlatitude region of China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:190-195).

  9. Estimating environmental value losses from earth materials excavation and infilling for large-scale airport construction: a case of Dalian Offshore Airport, Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Wu, Nuan; Song, Nan-Qi; Zhu, Dao-Li

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale airport construction removes large quantities of earth materials, resulting in serious environmental pollution and ecosystem damage. However, studies of environmental concerns caused by the materials used in airport construction are still preliminary, and those case studies on the impacts of large-scale offshore airport development are very limited. China's Dalian Offshore Airport is considered here to study the environmental value loss from 240 million m 3 of materials excavations and 21 km 2 of artificial island infillings. The findings show that the calculated annual environmental value loss for the development of the Dalian Offshore Airport is approximately US$7.75 million, including US$1.81 million and US$1.47 million of direct economic loss of timber resources and marine biology resources, respectively, and US$1.53 million and US$2.79 million value losses of forest and marine ecosystem services damaged caused by materials excavation and infilling, respectively. The conclusions of this study provide an important foundation to quantitatively analyse the environmental impact of the Dalian Offshore Airport's development and can be used as a reference for similar engineering and environment impact assessment programs.

  10. Application of positive matrix factorization to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil of Dalian, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Degao; Tian Fulin; Yang Meng; Liu Chenlin; Li Yifan

    2009-01-01

    Soil derived sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the region of Dalian, China were investigated using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Three factors were separated based on PMF for the statistical investigation of the datasets both in summer and winter. These factors were dominated by the pattern of single sources or groups of similar sources, showing seasonal and regional variations. The main sources of PAHs in Dalian soil in summer were the emissions from coal combustion average (46%), diesel engine (30%), and gasoline engine (24%). In winter, the main sources were the emissions from coal-fired boiler (72%), traffic average (20%), and gasoline engine (8%). These factors with strong seasonality indicated that coal combustion in winter and traffic exhaust in summer dominated the sources of PAHs in soil. These results suggested that PMF model was a proper approach to identify the sources of PAHs in soil. - PMF model is a proper approach to identify potential sources of PAHs in soil based on the PAH profiles measured in the field and those published in the literature.

  11. Are there productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment in China?

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Hale; Cheryl Long

    2007-01-01

    We review previous literature on productivity spillovers of foreign direct investment (FDI) in China and conduct our own analysis using a firm-level data set from a World Bank survey. We find that the evidence of FDI spillovers on the productivity of Chinese domestic firms is mixed, with many positive results largely due to aggregation bias or failure to control for endogeneity of FDI. Attempting over 2500 specifications which take into account forward and backward linkages, we fail to find e...

  12. [Levels and distribution of short chain chlorinated paraffins in seafood from Dalian, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun-Chao; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Ya-Wei; Meng, Mei; Chen, Ru; Jiang, Gui-Bin

    2014-05-01

    Seafood samples were collected from Dalian, China to study the accumulation and distribution characteristics of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) by GC/ECNI-LRMS. Sum of SCCPs (dry weight) were in the range of 77-8 250 ng.g-1, with the lowest value in Scapharca subcrenata and highest concentration in Neptunea cumingi. The concentrations of sum of SCCPs (dry weight) in fish, shrimp/crab and shellfish were in the ranges of 100-3 510, 394-5 440, and 77-8 250 ng.g-1 , respectively. Overall, the C10 and C11 homologues were the most predominant carbon groups of SCCPs in seafood from this area,and a relatively higher proportion of C12-13 was observed in seafood with higher concentrations of sum of SCCPs . With regard to chlorine content, Cl1,, CI8 and CI6 were the major groups. Significant correlations were found among concentrations of different SCCP homologues (except C1, vs. Cl10 ) , which indicated that they might share the same sources and/or have similar accumulation, migration and transformation processes.

  13. Valuing Urban Landscape Using Subjective Well-Being Data: Empirical Evidence from Dalian, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erda Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well recognized that the urban landscape ecosystem is able to make a great contribution to the quality of life for people who live in the city and beyond, thus it can potentially accrue a significant economic value to the human well-being. However, due to its public good nature, it is difficult to monetizing its values in a systematic manner. In this paper, we attempt to assess the economic value of the urban landscape through people’s life satisfaction approach utilizing a large sample of dataset complied from the general public survey in Dalian City which is one of the well-known tourism cities in China. The results indicate that most of the urban landscape attributes impose significant effects on people’s life satisfaction, thus accruing a considerable amount of value to the local residents. Taking a 10-point ranking scale for the urban landscape quality as an example, the household willingness to pay on average reaches ¥24,579 per annum for one point of ranking level increase. Relative to the low level of household income, those high-income households are much keener to the changes of the landscape quality. If the urban landscape quality is disaggregated into five levels, household’s marginal willingness-to-pay diminishes as the urban landscape’s rank level is improved.

  14. Feasibility improvement project of a district heat supply system in Dalian, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on energy saving possibilities at two medium-sized heat and power supplying plants in the city of Dalian in China. The project will improve the operation methods of the heat and power plants so that the energy cost can be minimized, and attempt to improve the boiler heat efficiency and save the energy by means of heat recovery and utilization. The draft modification plan for energy conservation has planned operation optimization for energy conservation, control of boiler operation under variable pressure, modification of the external boiler heat converter, use of inverters for the large capacity motors for boilers, and recovery of heat from the boiler blow-down water. In the analysis, models were structured from the operation data, and the effects of applying the energy saving measures were derived from simulation. As a result, the energy saving effect was found to be about 13,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 7,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually (converted to oil). The reduction in greenhouse gas emission was found to be about 40,000 tons at the Chunhai plant and about 20,000 tons at the Pulandian plant annually. The number of years for investment payback is about 4.1 years at the Chunhai plant, and about 4.9 years at the Pulandian plant, wherein good profitability can be estimated. (NEDO)

  15. Occurrence, removal, and risk assessment of antibiotics in 12 wastewater treatment plants from Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Hongxia; Du, Juan; Qu, Yixuan; Shen, Chen; Tan, Feng; Chen, Jingwen; Quan, Xie

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 31 antibiotics, including 11 sulfonamides (SAs), five fluoroquinolones (FQs), four macrolides (MLs), four tetracyclines (TCs), three chloramphenicols (CAPs), and four other antibiotics (Others), were investigated in 12 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Dalian, China. A total of 29 antibiotics were detected in wastewater samples with the concentration ranging from 63.6 to 5404.6 ng/L. FQs and SAs were the most abundant antibiotic classes in most wastewater samples, accounting for 42.2 and 23.9% of total antibiotic concentrations, respectively, followed by TCs (16.0%) and MLs (14.8%). Sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin were the most frequently detected antibiotics; of these, the concentration of ofloxacin was the highest in most of influent (average concentration = 609.8 ng/L) and effluent (average concentration = 253.4 ng/L) samples. The removal efficiencies varied among WWTPs in the range of -189.9% (clarithromycin) to 100% (enoxacin, doxycycline, etc), and more than 50% of antibiotics could not be efficiently removed with the removal efficiency less than 65%. An environmental risk assessment was also performed in the WWTP effluents by calculating the risk quotient (RQ), and high RQ values (>1) indicated erythromycin and clarithromycin might cause the ecological risk on organisms in surrounding water near discharge point of WWTPs in this area, which warrants further attention.

  16. A Tale of Two Chinese Transit Metropolises and the Implementation of Their Policies: Shenyang and Dalian (Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Mu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To promote sustainable urbanization and combat the economic, environmental, energy and safety issues that go with rapid motorization, the Ministry of Transport in China has introduced the “Transit Metropolis” program with a substantive amount of funds devoted to the implementation of the program in local governments. This represents the largest ever central government-led effort addressing transit metropolis development in the world. How has the program been implemented locally? Have the selected demonstration cities followed the same principle or taken comparable measures to implement their version of the transit metropolis? What is their performance? These questions remain unknown in the current literature. This article answers the above questions through a literature review, interviews and comparative case studies in Shenyang and Dalian, two large cities in Liaoning Province. It shows that both cities have successfully achieved the target levels for building a transit metropolis. Similarities between the two cities can be found their absence of any policies on automobile restriction and the presence of enormous efforts in transit network expansion and optimization. Differences lie in the fact that Shenyang has been more conventional in developing the transit metropolis, while Dalian has been more innovative and flexible in policy implementation. When comparing our empirical findings with the experience of creating transit metropolis elsewhere in China and in foreign countries, we find that policies and regulations restricting car use and calming traffic are not necessary conditions for successful transit metropolises; however, the attractiveness of transit infrastructure, combined with aesthetic and well-decorated street network is essential for a modal shift for transit. We also find that the perception on the transit metropolis in China more emphasizes transit service improvement, while the concept in Western countries more focuses on

  17. Actual measurement, hygrothermal response experiment and growth prediction analysis of microbial contamination of central air conditioning system in Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yang; Hu, Guangyao; Wang, Chunyang; Yuan, Wenjie; Wei, Shanshan; Gao, Jiaoqi; Wang, Boyuan; Song, Fangchao

    2017-04-03

    The microbial contamination of central air conditioning system is one of the important factors that affect the indoor air quality. Actual measurement and analysis were carried out on microbial contamination in central air conditioning system at a venue in Dalian, China. Illumina miseq method was used and three fungal samples of two units were analysed by high throughput sequencing. Results showed that the predominant fungus in air conditioning unit A and B were Candida spp. and Cladosporium spp., and two fungus were further used in the hygrothermal response experiment. Based on the data of Cladosporium in hygrothermal response experiment, this paper used the logistic equation and the Gompertz equation to fit the growth predictive model of Cladosporium genera in different temperature and relative humidity conditions, and the square root model was fitted based on the two environmental factors. In addition, the models were carried on the analysis to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the established model equation.

  18. Numerical modeling of seawater intrusion in Zhoushuizi district of Dalian City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Lin, J.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    A three-dimensional heterogeneous density-dependent numerical model was constructed to simulate the seawater intrusion process in coastal aquifers in Zhoushuizi Region, Dalian City. Model calibration was achieved through a prediction-correction method by adjusting the zonation and values of hydrogeologic parameters until the calculated heads and concentrations matched the observed values. Model validation results also showed that it was reasonable under current data conditions. Then the calibrated and validated model was applied to predict the dynamics and trend of seawater intrusion according to the current groundwater abstraction conditions in this study area 30 years after 2010. Prediction results showed that overall seawater intrusion in the future would be even more severe. Actually, with the growing of the population and development of the economy, the demand for ground water will be increasing continuously so that the problem of seawater intrusion may be more serious than that predicted by the modelin this study. Better strategies for reasonably governing exploitation of groundwater in the study area can be further developed by using this three-dimensional seawater intrusion model.

  19. Effect of different enrichment strategies on microbial community structure in petroleum-contaminated marine sediment in Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Liu, Qiu; Liu, Changjian; Yu, Jicheng

    2017-04-15

    An oil spill occurred at Xingang Port, Dalian, China in 2010. Four years after this spill, oil contamination was still detected in samples collected nearby. In this study, the strains that evolved in the sediment were screened by high-throughput sequencing technology. Most of these strains were genera reported to have functions associated with crude oil biodegradation. The diversities and numbers of microbes were monitored through enrichment culturing; the dominant strains propagated at first, but the enrichment could not be continued, which indicated that the prolonged culture was not effective in the enrichment of the micro-consortium. Oxygen was also observed to affect the propagation of the dominant microbes. The results showed the role of culture strategies and oxygen in the enrichment of the petroleum-degrading microbes. Therefore, dominant strains could be screened by optimizing both the enrichment time and oxygen concentration used for culturing to facilitate oil biodegradation in the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecosystem service value assessment in temporal and spatial scales in Dalian, China: implications for urban development policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Z.; Chen, X.; Fu, G.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Landscapes differ in their capacities to provide ecosystem good and services, which are the benefits humans obtain from nature. Valuation of ecosystem services is recognized as one effective way for improving the recognition and implementation for disposition of land resource and ecosystem protection. In this content, this study aims to reveal the changes in provision of ecosystem services induced by land use changes in both temporal and spatial scales in Dalian, China. Land use changes were firstly characterized based on Landsat TM images from 1984 to 2013. Results showed a severe increase in urban area, with an average increasing rate of 39.5%. Dry land occupied the largest portion of the total area which is mainly developed on the expenses of forest loss; meanwhile, policies of water-saving irrigation has promoted a conversion of paddy fields to dry land. Other categories including water, wetland, brush grass and salting were found to have relative small contrition to the total area. Assigning ecosystem service value (ESV) coefficient to each land use category, changes in ESV of the study area were assessed. Results indicated that the total ESV decreased by 21 billion from 1984 to 2013. Forest, dry land and water are the primary contributors. As for ecosystem functions, the regulation service is the most prominent which contributed to 60% of the total ESV, followed by support, supply and culture services. In addition, ESV changes were found to have a spatial variability, which shows a maximum decreasing rate in the central city, and a highest net value in the surrounding islands. The changes and distributions in land use pattern and ESV were further linked with the local city landscape planning, which has provided implications on city landscape policy making for sustaining the provision of ecosystem services and achieving sustainable development goals.

  1. International and intranational technological spillovers and productivity growth in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Xiaolan; Gong, Yundan

    2009-01-01

    Technological spillovers from foreign direct investment (FDI) have been regarded as a major source of technical progress and productivity growth. This paper explores the role of international and intranational technological spillovers from FDI in technical change, efficiency improvement, and total factor productivity growth in Chinese manufacturing firms using a recent Chinese manufacturing firm-level panel data set over the 2001–05 period. International industry-specific research and develop...

  2. Using a Negative Binomial Regression Model for Early Warning at the Start of a Hand Foot Mouth Disease Epidemic in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qingyu; Wu, Jun; Fan, Xuesong; Pan, Liyang; Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a human syndrome caused by intestinal viruses like that coxsackie A virus 16, enterovirus 71 and easily developed into outbreak in kindergarten and school. Scientifically and accurately early detection of the start time of HFMD epidemic is a key principle in planning of control measures and minimizing the impact of HFMD. The objective of this study was to establish a reliable early detection model for start timing of hand foot mouth disease epidemic in Dalian and to evaluate the performance of model by analyzing the sensitivity in detectability. The negative binomial regression model was used to estimate the weekly baseline case number of HFMD and identified the optimal alerting threshold between tested difference threshold values during the epidemic and non-epidemic year. Circular distribution method was used to calculate the gold standard of start timing of HFMD epidemic. From 2009 to 2014, a total of 62022 HFMD cases were reported (36879 males and 25143 females) in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China, including 15 fatal cases. The median age of the patients was 3 years. The incidence rate of epidemic year ranged from 137.54 per 100,000 population to 231.44 per 100,000population, the incidence rate of non-epidemic year was lower than 112 per 100,000 population. The negative binomial regression model with AIC value 147.28 was finally selected to construct the baseline level. The threshold value was 100 for the epidemic year and 50 for the non- epidemic year had the highest sensitivity(100%) both in retrospective and prospective early warning and the detection time-consuming was 2 weeks before the actual starting of HFMD epidemic. The negative binomial regression model could early warning the start of a HFMD epidemic with good sensitivity and appropriate detection time in Dalian.

  3. Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in Japanese scallops Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857) from Dalian along the northern coast of the Yellow Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongwei; Lu, Xin; Liang, Yubo

    2012-04-01

    The protozoan parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) was identified in Japanese scallops Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857) from Dalian along the northern coast of the Yellow Sea, China by histopathologic examination, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, and in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. H. nelsoni plasmodia-like structures were identified in the digestive glands of scallops by histologic examination, but no parasite spores were observed. PCR using the Hap-F2, R2 primer pair produced a sequence with 100% homology with the corresponding small subunit rDNA region of H. nelsoni. An ISH assay using the oligonucleotide probe MSX1347 produced a positive reaction with the Japanese scallop parasite. This is the first report of H. nelsoni in P. yessoensis in China.

  4. Basic survey for Joint Implementation on West Pacific Petrochemical Co., Ltd., Dalian, China. Energy conservation project for West Pacific Oil Refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions, a potential survey was conducted of energy conservation at West Pacific Oil Refinery, Dalian, China. In the survey, studies were made of energy conservation by introducing the hydrogen recovery equipment and the gas turbine generation system using exhaust gas as fuel, and of potentiality of reducing greenhouse effect gas emissions. As a result of the survey, a gas turbine generator of about 29MW using the surplus gas as fuel can be installed. By this, approximately 71% of the power used in refinery is to be supplied as against 25% of the power presently used. The technology was proposed on the hydrogen recovery equipment and the gas turbine generation system to discuss the revision plan with the Chinese partner. When this project is realized, the reduction amount of CO2 will be 136,000 ton/y. The Chinese side highly estimated not only the remarkable reduction in CO2, but the reduction in purchased power from outside which is to be brought by realization of this project. (NEDO)

  5. Pollution level and distribution of PCDD/PCDF congeners between vapor phase and particulate phase in winter air of Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Songtao; Song, Yu; Xu, Qian; Ni, Yuwen; Chen, Jiping; Zhang, Xueping; Mu, Jim; Zhu, Xiuhua

    2011-06-01

    In December 2009, ambient air was sampled with active high-volume air samplers at two sites: on the roof of the No. l building of Dalian Jiaotong University and on the roof of the building of Dalian Meteorological Observatory. The concentrations and the congeners between vapor phase and particulate phase of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the air were measured. Sample analysis results showed that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in particulate phase was higher than that in gaseous phase. The ratio of PCDD to PCDF in gaseous phase and particulate phase was lower than 0.4 in all samples. The total I-TEQ value in gaseous phase and particulate phase was 5.5 and 453.8 fg/m(3) at Dalian Jiaotong University, 16.6 and 462.1 fg/m(3) at Dalian Meteorological Observatory, respectively. The I-TEQ value of Dalian atmosphere was 5.5-462.1 fg/m(3) which was lower than international standard, the atmospheric quality in Dalian is better. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Do External or Internal Technology Spillovers Have a Stronger Influence on Innovation Efficiency in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionghe Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we bridge an important gap in the literature by comparing the extent to which external technology spillovers, as indicated by foreign direct investment (FDI, and internal technology spillovers, as indicated by university-institute-industry cooperation (UIC, influence innovation efficiency in China. We divide the innovation process into two sequential stages, namely the knowledge creation and technology commercialization stages, and employ a network data envelopment analysis approach to measure innovation efficiency at each stage. The spatial analysis of the distribution of knowledge creation efficiency and technology commercialization efficiency reveals the heterogeneity of innovation efficiency at the provincial level. Then, a panel data regression is used to analyze the effect of FDI and UIC on innovation efficiency at each stage, using data from 2009 to 2015 for 30 provinces in China. By comparing FDI with UIC, we find that FDI has a higher coefficient and stronger significance level at the knowledge creation stage, while only industry-institute linkages exhibit a stronger association with innovation efficiency at the technology commercialization stage.

  7. Spillover of Newcastle disease viruses from poultry to wild birds in Guangdong province, southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bin; Han, Lujie; Gao, Pei; You, Renrong; Wang, Fumin; Xiao, Jiajie; Liao, Ming; Kang, Yinfeng; Ren, Tao

    2017-11-01

    Despite intensive vaccination programs in many countries, including China, Newcastle disease has been reported sporadically and is still a significant threat to the poultry industry in China. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is infectious for at least 250 bird species, but the role of wild birds in virus epidemiology remains largely unknown. Fourteen NDV isolates were obtained from 2040 samples collected from wild birds or the environment in Guangdong province, southern China, from 2013 to 2015. The isolation rate was the highest in the period of wintering and lowest during the periods of spring migration, nesting, and postnesting. A maximum clade credibility phylogenetic analysis revealed that at least four genotypes circulate in southern China: three class II genotypes (II, VI, and IX) and one class I (1b). We also demonstrated that most isolates from wild birds were highly similar to isolates from poultry, and two isolates were linked to viruses from wild birds in northern China. These data suggested that wild birds could disseminate NDV and poultry-derived viruses may spillover to wild birds. Accordingly, vaccine development and poultry management strategies should be considered to prevent future NDV outbreaks, particularly given the strength of the poultry industry in developing countries, such as China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Tale of Two Chinese Transit Metropolises and the Implementation of Their Policies: Shenyang and Dalian (Liaoning Province, China)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, R.; de Jong, W.M.

    2018-01-01

    To promote sustainable urbanization and combat the economic, environmental, energy and safety issues that go with rapid motorization, the Ministry of Transport in China has introduced the “Transit Metropolis” program with a substantive amount of funds devoted to the implementation of the program in

  9. Evaluation of cleaner production audit in pharmaceutical production industry: case study of the pharmaceutical plant in Dalian, P. R. China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhi-dong [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Zhang, Shu-shen; Zhang, Yun [Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE), School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China); Zhang, Yong; Wei, Li [Dalian Cleaner Production Centre, Dalian, Liaoning (China); Dalian Municipal Design and Research Institute of Environmental Science, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2011-02-15

    The pharmaceutical industry in China makes an important contribution to the national economy. However, the associated pollution problems cause gradual deterioration of the environment and impact adversely on the local community. Cleaner production (CP) technology, an effective way to reduce waste emission and save resources, has been widely employed in the pharmaceutical industry in the developed countries. Such technologies have been applied in a number of factories in China, although there is no integrated assessment and implementation procedure for implementing CP technologies in pharmaceutical plants. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed here. CP is a powerful tool for decreasing waste production, limiting environmental pollution and natural resource depletion. Moreover, the return on investment in CP is quick, so it would seem that CP activities should be very much in demand by enterprises. Reality is less optimistic: frequently only limited interest is expressed, even after an explanation; business people hesitate to become actively involved. The processes in the pharmaceutical production industry produce a vast amount of waste, including wastewater with high concentrations of organic substances (the principal component), solid waste, and organic off-gas. To solve such problems, a series of CP options are proposed and assessed in this study. Having consideration to environmental impacts and economic efficiency, four groups of medium/high cost CP options were screened in an integrated assessment. To verify the proposed options, a case study was conducted in Degussa Luyuan, Northeast China. The characteristics of resource consumption and waste emission during the production process were identified. The proposed options were evaluated according to different aspects. An integrated CP system based on the proposed options was designed and then implemented in the factory. In three years of practical use, the productivity and

  10. Modelling and Testing Volatility Spillovers in Oil and Financial Markets for USA, UK and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); J. Tian (Jiarong)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe primary purpose of the paper is to analyze the conditional correlations, conditional covariances, and co-volatility spillovers between international crude oil and associated financial markets. The paper investigates co-volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns

  11. Associated factors of self-reported psychopathology and health related quality of life among men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV/AIDS in Dalian, China: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidru, Tesfaldet Habtemariam; Wang, Feng; Lolokote, Sainyugu; Jia, Yong; Chen, Min; Tong, Wei; Li, Xiao-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Despite the availability of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART), the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HIVMSM) in China remains poor. This study aimed to explore the relationship between self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL among HIVMSM in Dalian, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 112 HIVMSM. Symptom check list 90 (SCL 90): a measure of psychopathology and World Health Organization quality of life in HIV infection (WHOQOL-HIV-Bref): a measure of HRQoL were used. Correlation and multiple regression analysis were employed to explore the association between self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in HIVMSM. Out of the total 112 HIVMSM cases, 9 (8 %) cases were homosexuals and 103 (92 %) ones were bisexuals. The participants who had low family income (P = 0.001), perceived discrimination (P = 0.001) and lack of regular attendance in medical follow-ups (P = 0.014) reported poorer HRQoL than their counterparts. Somatization, obsession, depression, phobia and overall SCL 90 scores in self-reported psycholpathology had a negative impact on the domains of HRQoL among HIVMSM. Total quality of life was predicted by family income, perceived discrimination, and medical follow-up attendance. Self-reported psychopathology was negatively correlated with HRQoL in HIVMSM. The Strategies that target MSM focusing on linking and engaging HIV-positive patients in medical care is the key step to improve their HRQoL. More emphasis is needed on the newly diagnosed HIVMSM in Dalian in order to develop a more targeted intervention to prevent perceived discrimination and lack of proper medical follow-up services. The trial registration number does not require for this manuscript. The study is cross-sectional design that do not involve intervention at all, it is not a clinical trial.

  12. Network features of sector indexes spillover effects in China: A multi-scale view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sida; Huang, Shupei; Qi, Yabin; Liu, Xueyong; Sun, Qingru; Wen, Shaobo

    2018-04-01

    The spillover effects among sectors are of concern for distinct market participants, who are in distinct investment horizons and concerned with the information in different time scales. In order to uncover the hidden spillover information in multi-time scales in the rapidly changing stock market and thereby offer guidance to different investors concerning distinct time scales from a system perspective, this paper constructed directional spillover effect networks for the economic sectors in distinct time scales. The results are as follows: (1) The "2-4 days" scale is the most risky scale, and the "8-16 days" scale is the least risky one. (2) The most influential and sensitive sectors are distinct in different time scales. (3) Although two sectors in the same community may not have direct spillover relations, the volatility of one sector will have a relatively strong influence on the other through indirect relations.

  13. Modelling and testing volatility spillovers in oil and financial markets for USA, UK and China

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Tian, Jiarong

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe primary purpose of the paper is to analyze the conditional correlations, conditional covariances, and co-volatility spillovers between international crude oil and associated financial markets. The paper investigates co-volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one physical or financial asset on the subsequent volatility or co-volatility in another physical or financial asset) between the oil and financial markets. The oil industry has four major r...

  14. Export spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choquette, Eliane; Meinen, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of export spillovers in a firm's decision to enter specific export markets and extends the current state of the literature by assessing different mechanisms through which they may occur, namely (i) labour movement, (ii) intra-industry spillovers and (iii) inter......-industry linkages. We do so by exploiting a unique data set covering the universe of manufacturing firms in Denmark for the period 1995–2006 which combines transaction-level export data, firm accounting data, employer–employee linked data and information from yearly input–output tables. We corroborate...... the literature on export spillovers by presenting robust evidence of destination-specific export spillovers. The results suggest that labour mobility as well as intra- and inter-industry linkages (backward linkages) are important channels for export spillovers, while presenting heterogeneous effects across firms...

  15. The Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Can; Bao, Xinhe

    2012-05-01

    The Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences conducts fundamental and applied research towards chemistry and chemical engineering, with strong competence in the development of new technologies. The research in this special issue, containing 19 papers, features some of the DICP's best work on sustainable energy, use of environmental resources, and advanced materials within the framework of the Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy (DNL). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Spatial spillover effects of environmental pollution in China's Central Plains Urban Agglomeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Lichun; de Jong, W.M.; Wang, Fengting; Cheng, Baodong; Yu, Chang

    2018-01-01

    Promoting the rise of Central China is one of the most important national strategies regarding the promotion of China's economic development. However, the environmental issues in the central regions have become remarkably severe. It is therefore worthwhile exploring how economic development and

  17. Government Resource Subsidy and its Spillover Effects: Evidence from the Excessive Oil Consumption in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaphon Wuthisatian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at analyzing the consecutive consequences of government resource subsidies in a particular industry, which can lead to the excessive oil consumption by other sectors and end users. To fully illustrate the investigation, we use the subsidies in Chinese steel production as a case study and a beginning point to develop theoretical and empirical models to examine the spillover effects, going from steel industry to a rapidly increase of overall country’s oil consumption. The theoretical model applies the market equilibrium concept to demonstrate a relationship among three economic sectors; steel industry, automobile, and households. Particularly, the government subsidies in Chinese steel production will enable the steel firms to obtain resource inputs at the lower price, making the output price of steels cheaper than the market price. As steel is a required input in automobile industry, this cheaper price of steels will induce the automotive firms to increase their production capacity, producing more cars and selling them at the cheaper price, which eventually results in the excessive usage of oil and gasoline by individuals. Using the data during the period of 1980-2012, the empirical analysis involves OLS regression and cointegration test to approve the validity of the theoretical model, which emphasizes on the strong relationship between Chinese oil consumption and steel production.

  18. Ongoing spillover of Hantaan and Gou hantaviruses from rodents is associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Longquan City, Zhejiang province, China, has been seriously affected by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS since the first cases were registered in 1974. To understand the epidemiology and emergence of HFRS in Longquan, which may be indicative of large parts of rural China, we studied long-term incidence patterns and performed a molecular epidemiological investigation of the causative hantaviruses in human and rodent populations. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During 1974-2011, 1866 cases of HFRS were recorded in Longquan, including 20 deaths. In 2011, the incidence of HFRS remained high, with 19.61 cases/100,000 population, despite the onset of vaccination in 1997. During 1974-1998, HFRS cases in Longquan occurred mainly in winter, while in the past decade the peak of HFRS has shifted to the spring. Notably, the concurrent prevalence of rodent-borne hantaviruses in the region was also high. Phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences recovered from rodents in Longquan revealed the presence of novel genetic variants of Gou virus (GOUV in Rattus sp. rats and Hantaan virus (HTNV in the stripe field mice, respectively. Strikingly, viral sequences sampled from infected humans were very closely related to those from rodents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HFRS represents an important public health problem in Longquan even after years of preventive measures. Our data suggest that continual spillover of the novel genetic variant of GOUV and the new genetic lineage of HTNV are responsible for the high prevalence of HFRS in humans. In addition, this is the first report of GOUV associated with human HFRS cases, and our data suggest that GOUV is now the major cause of HFRS in this region.

  19. Living in a changing Chinese urban landscape: The Dalian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalian is the second–most important city in the southern part of Liaoning Province in northeast China. The city can trace its history back to the Qingniwa settlement. This settlement was occupied from 1858 until 1950 in succession by the British, Japanese and Russian Empires, with each imposing its own building styles on the city. However, from 1950, when the city was finally returned to China by the Russians, who had captured it from the Japanese during the Second World War, most of the imperial buildings and sites were lost to redevelopment within the city. The most dramatic changes have taken place since 1984, when the city was declared a Special Economic Zone, and particularly during the 1990s, when Bo Xilai became the mayor and introduced parks, extensive motorways and many traffic circles. At present, having lost most of its traditional built environment, Dalian is a modern city marked by dramatic housing developments and dominated by multi-family high-rise buildings to accommodate its population of 5.72 million. In 2011, a survey was conducted among 400 inhabitants of the city to ascertain their perceptions concerning life in Dalian and the Dalian Development Zone, their living conditions and their level of satisfaction with their housing. From the survey, it was clear that the majority of the interviewees were uncertain about the variables concerning the structural quality of their housing units and the nature, quality and accessibility of the services provided. However, most of them indicated that public transport, open spaces, parks and recreational facilities were within easy reach of their housing units.

  20. Main nutritional contents of 30 Dalian coastal microalgae species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiurong; Liu, Huihui; Chen, Kwan Paul

    2004-12-01

    This paper reports results of study on the contents of proteins, amino acids, polysaccharose and uronic acids in 30 species of macroalgae from Shicao, Heishijiao, Shimiao, and Xiaofujiazhuang in the vicinity of Dalian City, N.E.China. The results showed that the protein contents of the 30 algae from highest (112.55 μ g/ml) to the lowest (0.24 μg/ml) was in the descending order of Dictyopteris ndalata, Gelidium vagum, Gymnogongrus japonican, Ectocarpus confervoides, Tinocladia crassa, Sargassum thunberii. In general, the protein content in red algae was higher than that in brown algae. The content of free amino acids showed no significent differences from 7.44 μg/ml4.96 μg/ml in all these algae, in the descending order of Gymnogongrus japonican, Sargassum confusum, Undoria pinnatifida, Laminaria japonica and Ectocarpus confervoides. The content of polysaccharose varied from 168.2 μ/ml-22.15 μg/ml in the descending order of Symphocladia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Desmarestia viridis., Tinocladia crassa, Gracilaria asiatica and Porphyra yezoensis. The content of uronic acids is from 196.24μg/ml-20.77 μg/ml in the descending order of Ulva lactuca, Symphyoclaldia latiuscula, Scytosiphon lomentarius, Ceramimum kodoi, Gracilaria vemucosa and Porphyra yezoensis. The fatty acids in 30 species of algae belong to Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta. Most phaeophytes have many (4 12) types of fatty acids.

  1. The Interrelationship between Family Violence, Adolescent Violence, and Adolescent Violent Victimization: An Application and Extension of the Cultural Spillover Theory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yiwei; Li, Spencer D; Liu, Tzu-Hsuan

    2018-02-21

    The current study is the first study to emphasize family systems, violent norms, and violent peer association as three domains of the social environment that influence both adolescent violent offending and victimization among Chinese adolescents using a longitudinal sample. Under the framework of cultural spillover theory, the purpose of the current study was to explore how these three factors influenced adolescent violent offending and victimization. A total of 1192 middle and high school students were randomly selected from one of the largest cities in Southwest China. Structural equation model analysis was applied to investigate the direct and indirect effect of violence in the family system on violent offending and victimization. The results indicated that violent offending and victimization overlapped among Chinese adolescents. Violent peer association and acceptance of the violence norm fully mediated the effect of violence in the family system on violent offending, and partially mediated the effect of violence in the family system on violent victimization. In conclusion, adolescents who had experienced violence in their family system were more likely to be exposed to violent peer influences and to accept violent norms, which increased the likelihood of violence perpetration and victimization later in their life.

  2. Knowledge Spillovers and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); H.R. Nieuwenhuijsen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of knowledge spillovers for achieving innovation and economic growth is widely recognized. It is not straightforward which type of spillovers is most effective: intra-sectoral spillovers or inter-sectoral spillovers. We investigate this controversy using a model of

  3. Spillovers among regional and international stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huen, Tan Bee; Arsad, Zainudin; Chun, Ooi Po

    2014-07-01

    Realizing the greater risk by the increase in the level of financial market integration, this study investigates the dynamic of international and regional stock markets co-movement among Asian countries with the world leading market, the US. The data utilized in this study comprises of weekly closing prices for four stock indices, that consists of two developing markets (Malaysia and China) and two developed markets (Japan and the US), and encompasses the period from January 1996 to December 2012. Multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) model with the BEKK parameterization is employed to investigate the mean and volatility spillover effects among the selected stock indices. The results show significant mean spillover not only from the larger developed markets to smaller developing markets but also from the smaller developing markets to larger developed markets. Volatility spillover between the developed markets is found to be smaller than that between the developing markets. Conditional correlations among the stock markets are found to increase over the sample period. The findings of significant mean and volatility spillovers are considered as bad news for international investors as it reduces the benefit from portfolio diversification but act as useful information for investors to be more aware in diversifying their investment or stock selection.

  4. Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Sinani, Evis

    2005-01-01

    The extensive empirical literature analyzing productivity spillovers from foreign direct investment to local firms provides inconclusive results. Some studies find that foreign presence has a positive impact on the productivity of domestic firms, while others find no evidence or a negative effect...... for industrialized countries in the 1990s. Transition economies may experience spillovers, but these have been declining in recent years. Keywords: developing countries, transition economies, spillovers, foreign direct investment, technology transfer, meta-analysis...

  5. Intensity of Price and Volatility Spillover Effects in Asia-Pacific Basin Equity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazali Abidin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the intensity of price and volatility spillover effects in five major stock markets within the Asia Pacific basin region with a particular emphasis in the spillover effects between Australia and China. VAR(5 model is used for measuring the return spillover while AR/VAR model with exogenous variables is employed for measuring the effects of same day returns on return spillover. .In modelling the volatility spillover, we employ AR/GARCH model which also incorporates the same day effects. Results of both return and volatility spillover provide evidence that there are significant spillover effects across different markets in the Asia-Pacific region and as well as between Australia and China. This study also provides support to the view that a market is most affected by other markets that opens/closes just before it. The main contribution of this paper is the confirmation of spillover effects between markets in the region, in particular, the interdependence between Australia and China which may have evolved only recently and thus have received relatively little research attention to date.

  6. Impacts of FDI Renewable Energy Technology Spillover on China’s Energy Industry Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental friendly renewable energy plays an indispensable role in energy industry development. Foreign direct investment (FDI in advanced renewable energy technology spillover is promising to improve technological capability and promote China’s energy industry performance growth. In this paper, the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance are analyzed based on theoretical and empirical studies. Firstly, three hypotheses are proposed to illustrate the relationships between FDI renewable energy technology spillover and three energy industry performances including economic, environmental, and innovative performances. To verify the hypotheses, techniques including factor analysis and data envelopment analysis (DEA are employed to quantify the FDI renewable energy technology spillover and the energy industry performance of China, respectively. Furthermore, a panel data regression model is proposed to measure the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance. Finally, energy industries of 30 different provinces in China based on the yearbook data from 2005 to 2011 are comparatively analyzed for evaluating the impacts through the empirical research. The results demonstrate that FDI renewable energy technology spillover has positive impacts on China’s energy industry performance. It can also be found that the technology spillover effects are more obvious in economic and technological developed regions. Finally, four suggestions are provided to enhance energy industry performance and promote renewable energy technology spillover in China.

  7. FEL polarization control studies on Dalian coherent light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tong; Deng Haixiao; Wang Dong; Zhao Zhentang; Zhang Weiqing; Wu Guorong; Dai Dongxu; Yang Xueming

    2013-01-01

    The polarization switch of a free-electron laser (FEL) is of great importance to the user scientific community. In this paper, we investigate the generation of controllable polarization FEL from two well-known approaches for Dalian coherent light source, i.e., crossed planar undulator and elliptical permanent undulator. In order to perform a fair comparative study, a one-dimensional time-dependent FEL code has been developed, in which the imperfection effects of an elliptical permanent undulator are taken into account. Comprehensive simulation results indicate that the residual beam energy chirp and the intrinsic FEL gain may contribute to the degradation of the polarization performance for the crossed planar undulator. The elliptical permanent undulator is not very sensitive to the undulator errors and beam imperfections. Meanwhile, with proper configurations of the main planar undulators and additional elliptical permanent undulator section, circular polarized FEL with pulse energy exceeding 100 μJ could be achieved at Dalian coherent light source. (authors)

  8. Productivity spillovers of organization capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wen; Inklaar, Robert

    Investments in organization capital increase productivity of not just the investing firm but could also spillover to other firms-similar to investments in research and development. Recent evidence at the industry and economy level suggests such spillovers could be important. In this paper, we fail

  9. Price and Volatility Spillovers across North American, European and Asian Stock Markets: With Special Focus on Indian Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Singh; Brajesh Kumar; Pandey, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates interdependence of fifteen world indices including an Indian market index in terms of return and volatility spillover effect. Interdependence of Indian stock market with other fourteen world markets in terms of long run integration, short run dependence (return spillover) and volatility spillover are investigated. These markets are that of are Canada, China, France, Germany, Hong-Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Singapore, Taiwan, United Kingdom and U...

  10. On-line spectral diagnostic system for Dalian Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoyang; Wei, Shen; Du, Xuewei [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Du, Liangliang [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science & Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230029 (China); Wang, Qiuping, E-mail: qiuping@ustc.edu.cn [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhang, Weiqing; Wu, Guorong; Dai, Dongxu [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Yang, Xueming, E-mail: xmyang@dicp.ac.cn [Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2015-05-21

    The Dalian Coherent Light Source (DCLS) is a Free electron laser (FEL) user facility currently under construction in the northeast of China. It is designed to work on high gain high harmonic principle with the capability of wavelength continuously tunable in the EUV regime of 50–150 nm. The light source has unique features such as the turntable radiation frequency, wide spectral range, high brightness and peak power, very short pulse time structure, etc. A key diagnostic task in DCLS is the on-line source spectral characteristic recording during the source development, and for the definition of the experimental conditions. For this purpose, an online grazing incidence spectrometer with a toroidal mirror and a variable-line-spacing plane grating is designed and presented in this paper to monitor each single FEL pulse. A circular stage is chosen to fit the focal curve and to realize the wavelength scanning. This scanning mechanics is simpler and stable. Resolving power (λ/Δλ) of this spectrometer is better than 12,000 in the whole wavelength range.

  11. On-line spectral diagnostic system for Dalian Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chaoyang; Wei, Shen; Du, Xuewei; Du, Liangliang; Wang, Qiuping; Zhang, Weiqing; Wu, Guorong; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming

    2015-01-01

    The Dalian Coherent Light Source (DCLS) is a Free electron laser (FEL) user facility currently under construction in the northeast of China. It is designed to work on high gain high harmonic principle with the capability of wavelength continuously tunable in the EUV regime of 50–150 nm. The light source has unique features such as the turntable radiation frequency, wide spectral range, high brightness and peak power, very short pulse time structure, etc. A key diagnostic task in DCLS is the on-line source spectral characteristic recording during the source development, and for the definition of the experimental conditions. For this purpose, an online grazing incidence spectrometer with a toroidal mirror and a variable-line-spacing plane grating is designed and presented in this paper to monitor each single FEL pulse. A circular stage is chosen to fit the focal curve and to realize the wavelength scanning. This scanning mechanics is simpler and stable. Resolving power (λ/Δλ) of this spectrometer is better than 12,000 in the whole wavelength range

  12. Public perception and attitude towards chemical industry park in Dalian, Bohai Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Chen, Chunci; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2018-04-01

    Recent decade has witnessed accelerating expansion of chemical industry and increasing conflicts between the local citizens, governmental authorities and project developers, especially in some coastal and port cities in China. Development and transformation of chemical industrial parks has been adopted as a national initiative recently. However, there is a paucity of research examining public perspectives on chemical industrial parks and their risks. Aiming to understand public perception, attitude, and response and the factors underlying the support/acceptance of chemical industry park, this paper investigated 418 residents neighboring to two chemical industrial parks, Dalian in Bohai Rim through face-to-face questionnaire survey. The results showed the knowledge of the respondents on the chemical industrial parks development was very limited. The respondents had complex perceptions on the environmental impacts, risks control, social-economic benefits, and problem awareness. The current levels of information disclosure and public participation were very low. The central governmental official (44.3%) was the most trustworthy group by the respondents. Only 5.5% and 23.2% of the respondents supported the construction of a new CIP nearby and far away their homes, whilst 13% thought new CIP project as acceptable. The spearman correlation analysis results showed a strong NIMBY effect (Not In My Backyard). Factor analysis results demonstrated five latent factors: knowledge, benefit, information, trust, and participation. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated how socio-demographic differences and five latent factors might impact on the support/acceptance of the chemical industrial parks. Education level, trust, information, and participation were significant predictors of public support/acceptance level. This study contributes to our limited knowledge and understanding of public sentiments to the chemical industry parks in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Basic Characteristics and Spatial Patterns of Pseudo-Settlements--Taking Dalian as An Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiaji; Zhang, Yingjia; Li, Xueming

    2016-01-20

    A person's living behavior patterns are closely related to three types of settlements: real-life settlements, imagined settlements, and pseudo-settlements. The term "pseudo-settlement" (PS) refers to the places that are selectively recorded and represented after the mass media chose and restructure the residence information. As the mass media rapidly develops and people's way of obtaining information gradually change, PS has already become one of the main ways for people to recognize and understand real-life settlements, as well as describe their impressions of imagined settlements. PS also has a profound impact on tourism, employment, investment, migration, real estate development, etc. Thus, the study of PSs has important theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes to put forward residential quarters where the mass media is displayed as the object of study and establishes the pseudo-settlement index system of Dalian in and elaborate analysis of the concept of PSs. From three aspects, including pseudo-buildings, pseudo-districts and pseudo-culture, this paper uses the ArcGIS 10.0 kernel density (spacial analyst) to analyze and interpret the basic characteristics and spatial patterns of 14 elements of the PS in Dalian. Through systemic clustering analysis, it identifies eight major types of PSs in Dalian. Then it systematically elaborates current situations and characteristics of the spatial pattern of PSs in Dalian, namely: regionally concentrated, widely scattered and blank spaces without pseudo-settlements. Finally, this paper discusses the mechanism of formation of PSs in Dalian.

  14. 基于Copula-ASV-EVT-CoVaR模型的中小板与创业板风险溢出度量研究%Study on the risk spillover effect between the small and medium-sized board market and the second board market in China based on Copula-ASV-EVT-CoVaR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周孝华; 陈九生

    2016-01-01

    本文以条件在险价值(CoVaR)法为基础,结合Copula-ASV-EVT模型分析了我国中小板与创业板市场之间的风险溢出效应.结果表明,中小板与创业板市场之间存在双向风险溢出效应,且中小板市场对创业板市场的风险溢出效应强于创业板市场对中小板市场的风险溢出效应.此外,文章还分析了波动冲击对中小板与创业板的影响.最后,本文为风险监管以及投资者在中小板与创业板之间进行资产配置提供了建议.%This paper analyzes the risk spillover effect between the small and medium-sized board market and the second board market in China based on CoVaR method combined with Copula-ASV-EVT model.The results show that there are bidirectional risk spillover effect between the small and medium-sized board market and the growth enterprise market in China,the degree of risk spillover effect from the small and medium-sized board market to the growth enterprise market is stronger than that of from the second board market to the small and medium-sized board market.In addition,this paper also analyzes the influence of volatility impulse on the small and medium-sized board market and the second board market in China.Finally,the paper provides some suggestions for investors and supervisory authorities.

  15. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T [Ann Arbor, MI; Li, Yingwel [Ann Arbor, MI; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  16. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329 ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.662, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  17. Basic Characteristics and Spatial Patterns of Pseudo-Settlements—Taking Dalian as An Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiaji; Zhang, Yingjia; Li, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    A person’s living behavior patterns are closely related to three types of settlements: real-life settlements, imagined settlements, and pseudo-settlements. The term “pseudo-settlement” (PS) refers to the places that are selectively recorded and represented after the mass media chose and restructure the residence information. As the mass media rapidly develops and people’s way of obtaining information gradually change, PS has already become one of the main ways for people to recognize and understand real-life settlements, as well as describe their impressions of imagined settlements. PS also has a profound impact on tourism, employment, investment, migration, real estate development, etc. Thus, the study of PSs has important theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes to put forward residential quarters where the mass media is displayed as the object of study and establishes the pseudo-settlement index system of Dalian in and elaborate analysis of the concept of PSs. From three aspects, including pseudo-buildings, pseudo-districts and pseudo-culture, this paper uses the ArcGIS 10.0 kernel density (spacial analyst) to analyze and interpret the basic characteristics and spatial patterns of 14 elements of the PS in Dalian. Through systemic clustering analysis, it identifies eight major types of PSs in Dalian. Then it systematically elaborates current situations and characteristics of the spatial pattern of PSs in Dalian, namely: regionally concentrated, widely scattered and blank spaces without pseudo-settlements. Finally, this paper discusses the mechanism of formation of PSs in Dalian. PMID:26805859

  18. Basic Characteristics and Spatial Patterns of Pseudo-Settlements—Taking Dalian as An Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaji Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A person’s living behavior patterns are closely related to three types of settlements: real-life settlements, imagined settlements, and pseudo-settlements. The term “pseudo-settlement” (PS refers to the places that are selectively recorded and represented after the mass media chose and restructure the residence information. As the mass media rapidly develops and people’s way of obtaining information gradually change, PS has already become one of the main ways for people to recognize and understand real-life settlements, as well as describe their impressions of imagined settlements. PS also has a profound impact on tourism, employment, investment, migration, real estate development, etc. Thus, the study of PSs has important theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes to put forward residential quarters where the mass media is displayed as the object of study and establishes the pseudo-settlement index system of Dalian in and elaborate analysis of the concept of PSs. From three aspects, including pseudo-buildings, pseudo-districts and pseudo-culture, this paper uses the ArcGIS 10.0 kernel density (spacial analyst to analyze and interpret the basic characteristics and spatial patterns of 14 elements of the PS in Dalian. Through systemic clustering analysis, it identifies eight major types of PSs in Dalian. Then it systematically elaborates current situations and characteristics of the spatial pattern of PSs in Dalian, namely: regionally concentrated, widely scattered and blank spaces without pseudo-settlements. Finally, this paper discusses the mechanism of formation of PSs in Dalian.

  19. Volatility Spillover Effects in European Equity Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baele, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper quantifies the magnitude and time-varying nature of volatility spillovers from the aggregate European (EU) and US market to 13 local European equity markets.I develop a shock spillover model that decomposes local unexpected returns into a country speciffic shock, a regional European

  20. Financial stress spillovers in advanced economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolakis, G.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Financial stress co-movements are positively associated with crisis periods. Dynamic conditional correlations increase during periods of high uncertainty. The US is the dominant transmitter of financial stress spillovers. The total stress spillover index explains 19.9% of the forecast error

  1. Volatility Spillover in Chinese Steel Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines volatility spillover in Chinese steel markets by comparing spillover effects before and after steel futures market established and finds some interesting change. Volatility spillover method based on multi-GARCH model are proposed. The results show that there is significant proof for spillover effects from B2B electronic market to spot market, and two-way effects between futures and spot market. Market policy planners and practitioners could make decisions according to the master of spillovers. We also find that B2B e-market and futures market can both provide efficient protection against steel price volatility risk, B2B e-market offer a broad-based platform for trading steel commodities over time and space since e-market role in information flow process is dominant.

  2. Spillover effects in epidemiology: parameters, study designs and methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Arnold, Benjamin F; Berger, David; Luby, Stephen P; Miguel, Edward; Colford Jr, John M; Hubbard, Alan E

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Many public health interventions provide benefits that extend beyond their direct recipients and impact people in close physical or social proximity who did not directly receive the intervention themselves. A classic example of this phenomenon is the herd protection provided by many vaccines. If these ‘spillover effects’ (i.e. ‘herd effects’) are present in the same direction as the effects on the intended recipients, studies that only estimate direct effects on recipients will likely underestimate the full public health benefits of the intervention. Causal inference assumptions for spillover parameters have been articulated in the vaccine literature, but many studies measuring spillovers of other types of public health interventions have not drawn upon that literature. In conjunction with a systematic review we conducted of spillovers of public health interventions delivered in low- and middle-income countries, we classified the most widely used spillover parameters reported in the empirical literature into a standard notation. General classes of spillover parameters include: cluster-level spillovers; spillovers conditional on treatment or outcome density, distance or the number of treated social network links; and vaccine efficacy parameters related to spillovers. We draw on high quality empirical examples to illustrate each of these parameters. We describe study designs to estimate spillovers and assumptions required to make causal inferences about spillovers. We aim to advance and encourage methods for spillover estimation and reporting by standardizing spillover parameter nomenclature and articulating the causal inference assumptions required to estimate spillovers. PMID:29106568

  3. Networks of volatility spillovers among stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumöhl, Eduard; Kočenda, Evžen; Lyócsa, Štefan; Výrost, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    In our network analysis of 40 developed, emerging and frontier stock markets during the 2006-2014 period, we describe and model volatility spillovers during both the global financial crisis and tranquil periods. The resulting market interconnectedness is depicted by fitting a spatial model incorporating several exogenous characteristics. We document the presence of significant temporal proximity effects between markets and somewhat weaker temporal effects with regard to the US equity market - volatility spillovers decrease when markets are characterized by greater temporal proximity. Volatility spillovers also present a high degree of interconnectedness, which is measured by high spatial autocorrelation. This finding is confirmed by spatial regression models showing that indirect effects are much stronger than direct effects; i.e., market-related changes in 'neighboring' markets (within a network) affect volatility spillovers more than changes in the given market alone, suggesting that spatial effects simply cannot be ignored when modeling stock market relationships. Our results also link spillovers of escalating magnitude with increasing market size, market liquidity and economic openness.

  4. Investigation and comprehensive evaluation of the litter pollution on the Heishijiao beach in Dalian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengdi; Zhao, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Yan; Sui, Chuanguo

    2018-02-01

    From November 2015 to August 2016, this paper conducted an investigation into the classification of the litter on the Heishijiao beach in Dalian, and made a comprehensive evaluation of the litter pollution on the beach in different seasons. According to the results, the litter on the Heishijiao beach in Dalian mainly come from human’s offshore activities and other wastes, and spring is the season which witnesses the largest quantity of litter resulting from the activities. Most of the fragmental wastes are glass, plastic and paper, while there is a little metal, rubber and wooden products. On the Heishijiao beach, most of the fragmental litter are small, followed by medium and large ones; outsized wastes are rare. The quantitative density of litter is highest in winter (9.0items/m2), with the average quantitative density of 4.6 items/m2; the qualitative density of litter is highest in spring (8 g/m2), with the average qualitative density of 6.0 g/m2. The results of the comprehensive evaluation show that the litter pollution on the Heishijiao beach stays between “Average” and “Unsatisfactory”.

  5. Study on GIS Visualization in Evaluation of the Human Living Environment in Shenyang-Dalian Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of human living environmental quality of Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations has important theoretical and practical significance in rapid development region. A lot of investigations have been carried for Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomerations, including 38 counties. Based on the carrying capacity of resources, natural and socioeconomic environmental factors and regional changes of human living environmental evaluation are analyzed with the application of geographic information systems (GIS software. By using principal component analysis (PCA model and natural breaks classification (NBC method, the evaluation results are divided into five categories. The results show that the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE indexes of Dalian, Shenyang, and Liaoyang are higher than other counties. Among these counties, the human living environmental evaluation (HLEE indexes of coastal counties are significantly higher than inland counties. The range of the human living environmental evaluation index in most of the study area is at III, IV, and V levels, accounting for 80.01%. Based on these results, it could illustrate the human living environment is in relatively suitable condition in Shenyang-Dalian urban agglomeration.

  6. Catalyst support effects on hydrogen spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Waiz; Spreafico, Clelia; Kleibert, Armin; Gobrecht, Jens; Vandevondele, Joost; Ekinci, Yasin; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen spillover is the surface migration of activated hydrogen atoms from a metal catalyst particle, on which they are generated, onto the catalyst support. The phenomenon has been much studied and its occurrence on reducible supports such as titanium oxide is established, yet questions remain about whether hydrogen spillover can take place on nonreducible supports such as aluminium oxide. Here we use the enhanced precision of top-down nanofabrication to prepare controlled and precisely tunable model systems that allow us to quantify the efficiency and spatial extent of hydrogen spillover on both reducible and nonreducible supports. We place multiple pairs of iron oxide and platinum nanoparticles on titanium oxide and aluminium oxide supports, varying the distance between the pairs from zero to 45 nanometres with a precision of one nanometre. We then observe the extent of the reduction of the iron oxide particles by hydrogen atoms generated on the platinum using single-particle in situ X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy applied simultaneously to all particle pairs. The data, in conjunction with density functional theory calculations, reveal fast hydrogen spillover on titanium oxide that reduces remote iron oxide nanoparticles via coupled proton-electron transfer. In contrast, spillover on aluminium oxide is mediated by three-coordinated aluminium centres that also interact with water and that give rise to hydrogen mobility competing with hydrogen desorption; this results in hydrogen spillover about ten orders of magnitude slower than on titanium oxide and restricted to very short distances from the platinum particle. We anticipate that these observations will improve our understanding of hydrogen storage and catalytic reactions involving hydrogen, and that our approach to creating and probing model catalyst systems will provide opportunities for studying the origin of synergistic effects in supported catalysts that combine multiple functionalities.

  7. Vertically Integrated Multinationals and Productivity Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico; Bergmann, Friedrich

    are not automatic. In this paper, we study how these externalities are affected by the strategy of vertical integration of foreign multinationals. Our analysis, based on firm-level data of European manufacturing companies, shows that local firms perceive weaker backward spillovers if client foreign affiliates...... are vertically integrated in their industry. The spillovers that arise from the activity of companies that do not invest in the domestic firms’ industry are 2.6 to 5 times stronger than the ones than come from affiliates of multinationals that invest in the industry of local firms....

  8. Wage inequality, minimum wage effects and spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates possible spillover effects of the UK minimum wage. The halt in the growth in inequality in the lower half of the wage distribution (as measured by the 50:10 percentile ratio) since the mid-1990s, in contrast to the continued inequality growth in the upper half of the distribution, suggests the possibility of a minimum wage effect and spillover effects on wages above the minimum. This paper analyses individual wage changes, using both a difference-in-differences estimat...

  9. Contests with rank-order spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Baye (Michael); D. Kovenock (Dan); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a unified framework for characterizing symmetric equilibrium in simultaneous move, two-player, rank-order contests with complete information, in which each player's strategy generates direct or indirect affine "spillover" effects that depend on the rank-order of her

  10. Managing spillovers: an endogenous sunk cost approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Senyuta, Olena; Žigić, Krešimir

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 35, June (2016), s. 45-64 ISSN 0167-6245 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0961 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : endogenous sunk costs * innovations * knowledge spillovers Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2016

  11. Knowledge spillovers through FDI and trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Muhammad; Cantner, Uwe; Roy, Ipsita

    2016-01-01

    considering quality-adjusted human capital, countries with better human capital are found to benefit not only from direct productivity effects, but also from absorption and transmission of international knowledge spillovers through imports and inward FDI. Finally, technological distance with the frontier does...

  12. Behavioral spillovers from freeriding in multilevel interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thommes, K; Vyrastekova, J.; Akkerman, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study multilevel interactions using experimental methods. Does the efficiency of a production team suffer from the freeriding behavior of some team members at the firm level? Can we identify behavioral spillovers affecting teams? We isolate common tasks that teams must complete - coordination and

  13. Analysis the Impact of Technology Spillovers on Total Factor Productivity of Agricultural Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Baniasadi

    2016-09-01

    Group of Eight developed countries (D8 plus China. Technology spillover indexes are thus decomposed into two components: Imports of capital goods and foreign direct investment (FDI. Index of capital goods imports measures imports of capital goods from major commercial partners of Iran (D8 countries and china. Foreign direct investment (FDI represents the share of foreign capital in agricultural sectors. Therefore, the empirical analysis of the technology spillover on the productivity of agricultural sectors is based on theatrical framework and ARDL model. Results and Discussion: According to the results of the ARDL model, technological spillover effect on the TFP of agricultural sector, in long-term shows that technology spillover has a positive and significant effect on agricultural productivity from both channels of capital goods import and foreign direct investment (FDI. But in short-term spillover variable from a capital goods import channel is not significant. This indicates that absorption of the technology from imports of capital goods channel do not perform very well and probably low-tech and without affecting on TFP of agriculture sector is imported. But in long-term technology spillover from imports channels also had a positive impact on total factor productivity of the agricultural sector. In fact, high technologies in long-term can be absorbed through the imports and influenced on TFP. According to thesis study results, the estimated coefficient of error correction term is equal to 0.53.This means that in each period, 53 percent of imbalances of agricultural TFP will be resolved. The average speed of upward of adjustment reflects the fact that in Iran economy, deviations and imbalances have arisen in the agricultural sector TFP caused by technology spillovers shocks, move very fast towards long-run equilibrium. Conclusions: The purpose of this paper is to advance the knowledge for a key question with evident implications for economic policy: What is the

  14. Modeling the Dynamics and Spillovers of the Health Labor Market: Evidence from China’s Provincial Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Health workforce misdistribution is a major challenge faced by almost all countries. A more profound understanding of the dynamics of the health labor market provides evidence for policy makers to balance health workforce distribution with solid evidence. However, one major deficit of existing theoretical and empirical studies is that they often ignore the intra-regional spillovers of the health labor market. This study builds a theoretical “supply–demand–spillover” model that considers both intra-regional supply and demand-side factors, and inter-regional spillovers, hence providing a theoretical reference point for further in-depth studies. Using spatial econometric panel models, the effect of all determinants and spillovers were empirically measured based on a Chinese panel data set, shedding light on health workforce policies in China.

  15. Networks of volatility spillovers among stock markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baumöhl, E.; Kočenda, Evžen; Lyócsa, S.; Výrost, T.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 490, č. 1 (2018), s. 1555-1574 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Shock transmission * Stock markets * Granger causality network * Financial crisis * Spatial regression Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/kocenda-0487923.pdf

  16. Multinational Companies, Technology Spillovers, and Plant Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Görg; Eric Strobl

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the presence of multinational companies on plant survival in the host country. We postulate that multinational companies can impact positively on plant survival through technology spillovers. We study the nature of the effect of multinationals using a Cox proportional hazard model which we estimate using plant level data for Irish manufacturing industries. Our results show that the presence of multinationals has a life enhancing effect only on indigenous plan...

  17. FDI technology spillover and threshold effect of the technology gap: regional differences in the Chinese industrial sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Huifang; Cao, Zhiyong; Wang, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new perspective that there is a double-threshold effect in terms of the technology gap existing in the foreign direct investment (FDI) technology spillover process in different regional Chinese industrial sectors. In this paper, a double-threshold regression model was established to examine the relation between the threshold effect of the technology gap and technology spillover. Based on the provincial panel data of Chinese industrial sectors from 2000 to 2011, the empirical results reveal that there are two threshold values, which are 1.254 and 2.163, in terms of the technology gap in the industrial sector in eastern China. There are also two threshold values in both the central and western industrial sector, which are 1.516, 2.694 and 1.635, 2.714, respectively. The technology spillover is a decreasing function of the technology gap in both the eastern and western industrial sectors, but a concave curve function of the technology gap is in the central industrial sectors. Furthermore, the FDI technology spillover has increased gradually in recent years. Based on the empirical results, suggestions were proposed to elucidate the introduction of the FDI and the improvement in the industrial added value in different regions of China.

  18. Do Time-Varying Covariances, Volatility Comovement and Spillover Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Balasubramanyan

    2005-01-01

    Financial markets and their respective assets are so intertwined; analyzing any single market in isolation ignores important information. We investigate whether time varying volatility comovement and spillover impact the true variance-covariance matrix under a time-varying correlation set up. Statistically significant volatility spillover and comovement between US, UK and Japan is found. To demonstrate the importance of modelling volatility comovement and spillover, we look at a simple portfo...

  19. Multinationals’ mode of entry with presence of vertical spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    Balsvik, Ragnhild

    2004-01-01

    Multinationals’ mode of foreign expansion may depend on whether or not they expect technological externalities or spillovers to generate new competition. Existing models where ex-post spillovers affect the ex-ante entry choice usually study the choice between exporting and FDI with horizontal spillovers. I consider a monopoly firm with a vertical production structure that has four possible modes of entry, one of which includes outsourcing of intermediate input production to a h...

  20. On spatial spillover in feedforward and feedback noise control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Antai; Bernstein, Dennis

    2017-03-01

    Active feedback noise control for rejecting broadband disturbances must contend with the Bode integral constraint, which implies that suppression over some frequency range gives rise to amplification over another range at the performance microphone. This is called spectral spillover. The present paper deals with spatial spillover, which refers to the amplification of noise at locations where no microphone is located. A spatial spillover function is defined, which is valid for both feedforward and feedback control with scalar and vector control inputs. This function is numerically analyzed and measured experimentally. Obstructions are introduced in the acoustic space to investigate their effect on spatial spillover.

  1. Jump spillover between oil prices and exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Chun-Yang; Wu, Chong-Feng

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the jump spillover effects between oil prices and exchange rates. To identify the latent historical jumps for exchange rates and oil prices, we use a Bayesian MCMC approach to estimate the stochastic volatility model with correlated jumps in both returns and volatilities for each. We examine the simultaneous jump intensities and the conditional jump spillover probabilities between oil prices and exchange rates, finding strong evidence of jump spillover effects. Further analysis shows that the jump spillovers are mainly due to exogenous events such as financial crises and geopolitical events. Thus, the findings have important implications for financial risk management.

  2. Self Confidence Spillovers and Motivated Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Villeval, Marie Claire

    that success when competing in a task increases the performers’ self-confidence and competitiveness in the subsequent task. We also find that such spillovers affect the self-confidence of low-status individuals more than that of high-status individuals. Receiving good news under Affirmative Action, however......Is success in a task used strategically by individuals to motivate their beliefs prior to taking action in a subsequent, unrelated, task? Also, is the distortion of beliefs reinforced for individuals who have lower status in society? Conducting an artefactual field experiment in India, we show...

  3. Predictors of Negative Spillover from Family to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Jennie E. Long

    2004-01-01

    Prior research has inconsistently documented the gendered nature of negative spillover between the domains of home and work. Little is known about predictors of negative spillover for employed mothers and fathers. Using the 1997 wave of the National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study's purpose was twofold: to determine if a difference…

  4. Spillover Effects of Marketing in Mutual Fund Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.C.M. Verbeek (Marno); J.J. Huij (Joop)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the presence of spillover effects of marketing in mutual fund families. We find that funds with high marketing expenses generate spillovers, and enhance cash inflows to family members with low marketing expenses. In particular, low-marketing funds that are

  5. Spatiotemporal Fluctuations and Triggers of Ebola Virus Spillover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, John Paul; Park, Andrew W; Kramer, Andrew M; Han, Barbara A; Alexander, Laura W; Drake, John M

    2017-03-01

    Because the natural reservoir of Ebola virus remains unclear and disease outbreaks in humans have occurred only sporadically over a large region, forecasting when and where Ebola spillovers are most likely to occur constitutes a continuing and urgent public health challenge. We developed a statistical modeling approach that associates 37 human or great ape Ebola spillovers since 1982 with spatiotemporally dynamic covariates including vegetative cover, human population size, and absolute and relative rainfall over 3 decades across sub-Saharan Africa. Our model (area under the curve 0.80 on test data) shows that spillover intensity is highest during transitions between wet and dry seasons; overall, high seasonal intensity occurs over much of tropical Africa; and spillover intensity is greatest at high (>1,000/km 2 ) and very low (Ebola spillover from wild reservoirs and indicate particular times and regions for targeted surveillance.

  6. Spillover effects in energy futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.X.; Tamvakis, M.N.

    2001-01-01

    Price discovery in crude oil and refined oil products has been extensively undertaken in organised futures markets for over a decade now. There are two dominant such markets today: the first one in the New York Mercantile Exchange; and the second in London's International Petroleum Exchange. With the demise of OPEC as the leading price setter for crude and products, NYMEX light sweet crude and Brent crude have usurped the role of benchmark grades for price setting. To date considerable work has been done to scrutinise the degree to which these two markets price efficiently, but little with regard to the way the two markets interact. Participants in these markets move with relative ease from one market to the other and usually take positions in both of them. It is of interest, therefore, to investigate the information transmission mechanism by looking at spillover effects and, perhaps, identify which market is the true price leader. This paper is a first attempt to look at such a problem in the energy market, although similar studies have been done on stock market indices. It is found that substantial spillover effects do exist when both markets are trading simultaneously, although IPE morning prices seem to be considerably affected by the close of the previous day on NYMEX

  7. Initial Study on Triaxiality of Human Settlements—In the Case of 10 Districts (Counties of Dalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzhen Tian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the traditional pattern of urban-rural human settlements has been shaped in reference to the existence of the urban-rural dual structure. In this paper, we put forward the notion of triaxiality of human settlements, and used the standards conversion entropy weight method to measure and calculate degrees of livability of human settlements, so as to prove the existence of triaxiality of human settlements within the same unit at the micro-scale level, and conduct an empirical study on the spatial-temporal evolution, system attributes and formation mechanisms of the triaxiality of human settlements in 10 districts (counties of Dalian (Years 2002–2011. Results showed that: (1 Spatial evolution of human settlements presents triaxiality. Administrative divisions do not play a full and predominant role in the unit division of human settlements. The number of distribution districts (counties within different units of human settlements tends to be balanced, there is spatial variation of tertiary units in the human settlements of Dalian, and the transition area of human settlements occupies the leading position in the unit division of human settlements; (2 Human settlements also exhibit triaxiality at different development stages during the period of evolution. The fluctuation changes of degrees of livability of the human settlements of Dalian within the past 10 years have been relatively stable, with a trend of small scale decline and obvious manifestations of stage differences; (3 The system attributive characters of human settlements presents triaxiality. There also exists differentiations of system and area in human settlements within the same unit; (4 Industrialization and urbanization have led to the collapse of part of the urban-rural dual structure, while the differentiation of ternary structure of the economic and social structure, and living environment and life style leads to the triaxiality of human settlements.

  8. Work-family spillover among Japanese dual-earner couples: a large community-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimada, K.; Shimazu, A.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Kawakami, N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the effects of multiple types of work-family spillover (work-to-family negative spillover, WFNS; family-to-work negative spillover, FWNS; and work-family positive spillover, WFPS) on psychological distress among Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children. Methods:

  9. FDI spillovers, absorptive capacities and human capital development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narula, Rajneesh; Marin, Anabel

    2003-01-01

    spillovers accrue from MNE activity, and provide apreliminary understanding of why MNE spillovers remain somewhat ambiguous,particularly in developing countries, paying particular attention to human capitaldevelopment. Our analysis is supported by data from the Innovation Survey in Argentina.On the whole......It is nowadays generally accepted that inward foreign direct investment (FDI) is crucialas a source of technological spillovers. One of the objectives of this paper is to review theevidence on the quantity and quality of human capital employed by domestic and foreignfirms. We examine whether...

  10. Spillover processes in the development of a sustainable consumption pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1998-01-01

    Hypotheses about possible mechanisms for spillover processes between pro-environmental behaviours are developed and tested by means of structural equation modelling. Data were collected by means of telephone interviews with a representative sample Danish adults. Personal norms concerning recycling...... and packaging waste prevention are found to be rooted in the same more general, internalised values. Further, a predicted positive spillover effect from recycling to packaging waste prevention is confirmed. However, whereas a positive spillover effect from re-cycling to personal norms concerning packaging waste...

  11. Spillover processes in the development of a sustainable consumption pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1999-01-01

    recycling and packaging waste prevention are found to be rooted in the same more general, internalised values. Further, a predicted positive spillover effect from recycling to packaging waste prevention is confirmed. However, whereas a positive spillover effect from re-cycling to personal norms concerning......Hypotheses about possible mechanisms for spillover processes between pro-environmental behaviours are developed and tested by means of structural equation modelling. Data were collected by means of telephone interviews with a representative sample of Danish adults. Personal norms concerning...

  12. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Chengyuan Qu1 Yang Cao2. School of Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian 116600, China; School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China ...

  13. Local Fiscal Multipliers, Negative Spillovers and the Macroeconomy

    OpenAIRE

    Dupor, William D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of within-state military spending and national military spending on a state's employment. I estimate that, while within-state spending increases that state's employment (i.e., a positive local effect), an increase in national military spending ceteris paribus decreases employment in the state (i.e., a negative spillover effect). The combined local and spillover effects imply an aggregate employment effect that is close to zero. The estimates are consistent with ...

  14. Understanding Work-Family Spillover in Hotel Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Crouter, Ann C.; O’Neill, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the experience of work-family spillover among 586 hotel managers (HMs) working in 50 full-service hotels throughout the U.S. Work-family spillover occurs when behaviors, moods, stresses, and emotions from work spill over into family. We first investigated which hotel managers were more likely to experience spillover and stressful work conditions based on their life circumstances (gender, parental status, age, decision-making latitude at work). Second, we investigated which work conditions (hours worked per week, organizational time expectations, emotional labor, and permeable boundaries) predicted more work-family spillover. Women, employees without children at home, and younger adults experienced the highest levels of negative work-family spillover. Work conditions, particularly organizational time expectations, put HMs at risk for experiencing more negative and less positive work-family spillover. The results provide evidence that modifying certain work conditions in the hotel industry may be helpful in improving the quality of HMs’ jobs and retention. PMID:23888092

  15. Understanding Work-Family Spillover in Hotel Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; Crouter, Ann C; O'Neill, John W

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the experience of work-family spillover among 586 hotel managers (HMs) working in 50 full-service hotels throughout the U.S. Work-family spillover occurs when behaviors, moods, stresses, and emotions from work spill over into family. We first investigated which hotel managers were more likely to experience spillover and stressful work conditions based on their life circumstances (gender, parental status, age, decision-making latitude at work). Second, we investigated which work conditions (hours worked per week, organizational time expectations, emotional labor, and permeable boundaries) predicted more work-family spillover. Women, employees without children at home, and younger adults experienced the highest levels of negative work-family spillover. Work conditions, particularly organizational time expectations, put HMs at risk for experiencing more negative and less positive work-family spillover. The results provide evidence that modifying certain work conditions in the hotel industry may be helpful in improving the quality of HMs' jobs and retention.

  16. Technology spillovers of FDI in ASEAN sourcing from local and abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonghong Tu; Xiao Tan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose-This paper aims to empirically analyze the role of FDI technology spillover effects in the development patterns of ASEAN.Design/methodology/approach-The paper is based on the analytical framework of Borensztein by utilizing time-series data between 1990 and 2008 in ASEAN countries.Models (1)-(3) estimate parameters by adopting OLS,and Model (4) uses dummy saturation methods in PC Give,Oxmetrics 6 to determine significant dummy variables automatically.By judging the overall significance of each variable and the model,Model (4) has a substantial improvement,and is finally selected to judge the education threshold of each country.Findings-The empirical results render support to the existence of technology spillovers in ASEAN.The regression results also suggest that it is necessary to combine FDI technology spillovers with domestic human capital,that is,in the process of promoting economic development.China's FDI in ASEAN requires lower education threshold,and also has positive effect on economy growth in six countries of ASEAN.Research limitations/implications-As this paper investigates data from many countries,there are some unavoidable differences in the statistical sources and the calibre of data.It is inevitable to have some inaccuracies.This paper tries to process the data into similar calibres and units.Practical implications-The paper examined whether total FDI,intra-ASEAN FDI and FDI from China have played exactly the same role in ASEAN countries.Accordingly,the paper put forward suggestions after combining the characteristics of FDI from China with different local situations of ASEAN host countries.Originality/value-The paper,respectively,takes data of total FDI,intra-ASEAN FDI,FDI from China into the FDI variable in the model,and get three sets of results for each country.The year dummy variable is newly added to the original framework of Borensztein in order to test whether the dependent variable can be affected to a large extent by potential great

  17. Spillover Effects of the Russian Economy: Regional Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Fedorova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate the strength and direction of the distribution of the foreign direct investments (FDI in regional economy. The subject matter of the research is FDI to the regions of Russia. The subject of the study is relevant as it makes possible to estimate the long-term consequences from the restrictions of the West countries (in connection with sanctions against the inflow of the foreign capital to the regions of the Russian Federation. The study is based on the following hypotheses: 1. Russian regional economy has horizontal (distribution of effects from FDI within an industry and vertical spillover effects (distribution according to a technological chain, from product suppliers to product consumers. Vertical effects are more important and have greater amplitude than horizontal effects. An industry competition is one of the causes of negative horizontal spillover effect, and the scale of the company is the reason of positive horizontal spillover effect. 2. FDI generates the positive regional spillover effects on the productivity of domestic firms in the Russian economy. 3. Regional industry specificity influences the sign and magnitude of spillovers from FDI. 4. Time sensitivity is revealed for horizontal spillovers, so the regional effects may change the direction. As an empirical basis of the study, the statements of 23567 Russian companies with FDI and 25354 Russian enterprises without FDI for the 5 years were used. The methodology of the research is the calculation of spillover effects, Cobb-Douglas production function and panel data regression. The study has found, that the direct vertical spillover effects are almost absent. That means that industrial consumers do not notice the effect of inward FDI. At the same time, the converse effect related to the product suppliers is positive, but as the direct effect, it is not more important in any group of regions then the horizontal effect. The Russian economy has a

  18. Team-level flexibility, work-home spillover, and health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Fan, Wen; Kelly, Erin L

    2013-05-01

    Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in 2006, this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative (ROWE--results only work environment) on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large U.S. corporation. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct baseline spillover constellations: employees with high negative spillover, high positive spillover, and low overall spillover. Within-team spillover measures were highly intercorrelated, suggesting that work teams as well as individuals have identifiable patterns of spillover. Multilevel analyses showed ROWE reduced individual- and team-level negative work-home spillover but not positive work-home spillover or spillover from home-to-work. ROWE also promoted employees' health behaviors: increasing the odds of quitting smoking, decreasing smoking frequency, and promoting perceptions of adequate time for healthy meals. Trends suggest that ROWE also decreased the odds of excessive drinking and improved sleep adequacy and exercise frequency. Some health behavior effects were mediated via reduced individual-level negative work-home spillover (exercise frequency, adequate time for sleep) and reduced team-level negative work-home spillover (smoking frequency, exercise frequency, and adequate time for sleep). While we found no moderating effects of gender, ROWE especially improved the exercise frequency of singles and reduced the smoking frequency of employees with low overall spillover at baseline. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Team-level flexibility, work–home spillover, and health behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Fan, Wen; Kelly, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on two waves of survey data conducted six months apart in 2006, this study examined the impacts of a team-level flexibility initiative (ROWE – Results Only Work Environment) on changes in the work-home spillover and health behavior of employees at the Midwest headquarters of a large US corporation. Using cluster analysis, we identified three distinct baseline spillover constellations: employees with high negative spillover, high positive spillover, and low overall spillover. Within-team spillover measures were highly intercorrelated, suggesting that work teams as well as individuals have identifiable patterns of spillover. Multilevel analyses showed ROWE reduced individual- and team-level negative work-home spillover but not positive work-home spillover or spillover from home-to-work. ROWE also promoted employees’ health behaviors: increasing the odds of quitting smoking, decreasing smoking frequency, and promoting perceptions of adequate time for healthy meals. Trends suggest that ROWE also decreased the odds of excessive drinking and improved sleep adequacy and exercise frequency. Some health behavior effects were mediated via reduced individual-level negative work-home spillover (exercise frequency, adequate time for sleep) and reduced team-level negative work-home spillover (smoking frequency, exercise frequency, and adequate time for sleep). While we found no moderating effects of gender, ROWE especially improved the exercise frequency of singles and reduced the smoking frequency of employees with low overall spillover at baseline. PMID:23517706

  20. Trade, Foreign Direct Investment and R&D Spillovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehwa Lee

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the evidence of R & D spillovers through trade and foreign direct investment at the industrial sectoral level. Specifically, it focuses on the appropriate measure of foreign R&D stocks embodied in imports, and proposes an alternative measure to the traditional measure. With a new measure of foreign technology, this paper then empirically distinguishes between R&D spillovers from import volume and from import variety. Panel estimations with fixed effects use a data set comprised of eight sectors in the manufacturing industry of thirteen OECD countries from 1981 to 1999. This empirical work at disaggregated level has shown the evidence to generally support the role of manufacturing imports in the international diffusion of technology. In particular, the results imply that the impact of import variety proves stronger and more significant in investigating trade-related R&D spillovers. The evidence indicates the variety effect dominates the volume effect, and hence import variety proves more important in explaining trade-related technological diffusion. This paper also investigates R&D spillovers occurring simultaneously through trade and non-trade (i.e., FDI channels, Empirical results provide no strong evidence on R&D spillovers through FDI, although FDI is often considered as an important channel for technological diffusion. The evidence implies that the effect of trade channel dominates that of the FDI channel and finds that FDI only weakly affects domestic productivity.

  1. Volatility Spillovers in Capesize Forward Freight Agreement Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Gong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to investigate spillovers in the Capesize forward freight agreements (FFAs markets before and after the global financial crisis. The paper chooses four Capesize voyage routes FFAs (C3, C4, C5, and C7, two time-charter routes FFAs (BCIT/C average, BPI T/C average, and spot rates as research subjects, covering the periods 3 January 2006 to 24 December 2015. This paper applies Volatility Spillover Multivariate Stochastic Volatility (VS-MSV model to analyze volatility spillover effects and estimates the parameters via software of Bayesian inference using Gibbs Sampling (BUGS, the deviance information criterion (DIC used for goodness-of-fit model. The results suggest that there are volatility spillover effects in certain Capesize FFAs routes, and the effects from spot rates to FFAs take place before crisis, yet they are bilateral after crisis. With the development of shipping markets, the correlations between FFAs and spot rate are enhanced, and it seems that the effects depend on market information and traders’ behavior. So practitioners could make decisions according to the spillovers.

  2. What turns knowledge into innovative products? The role of entrepreneurship and knowledge spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, Joern H.; Thurik, Roy; Zhou, Haibo

    The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship seeks to explain the fundamentals and consequences of entrepreneurship with respect to economic performance. This paper uses the knowledge spillover theory to explain different innovation outcomes. We hypothesize that a high rate of entrepreneurship

  3. Knowledge Creation and Regional Spillovers: Empirical Evidence from Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhvlediani Tinatin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the effects of intra- and inter-regional knowledge spillovers on innovative activities in German states using the augmented Griliches-Jaffe knowledge production function. The “Harris market potential” type index is calculated to proxy for inter-regional knowledge transfers of two types: industrial knowledge transfers generated from the business enterprise sector and academic spillovers generated from universities across all German states. The model also includes the concentration of high-tech enterprises, in order to capture the agglomeration effect in the local economy. The estimation results reveal that not only do local private and university research efforts have a positive and significant effect on local innovative activities, but there are also important interregional knowledge spillovers across the German regions.

  4. Road infrastructure, spatial spillover and county economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Luo, Shuang

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial spillover effect of road infrastructure on the economic growth of poverty-stricken counties, based on the spatial Durbin model, by using the panel data of 37 poor counties in Hunan province from 2006 to 2015. The results showed that there is a significant spatial dependence of economic growth in Poor Counties. Road infrastructure has a positive impact on economic growth, and the results will be overestimated without considering spatial factors. Considering the spatial factors, the road infrastructure will promote the economic growth of the surrounding areas through the spillover effect, but the spillover effect is restricted by the distance factor. Capital investment is the biggest factor of economic growth in poor counties, followed by urbanization, labor force and regional openness.

  5. Spillover-mediated feedforward-inhibition functionally segregates interneuron activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddington, Luke T.; Rudolph, Stephanie; Lune, Patrick Vande; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda; Wadiche, Jacques I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neurotransmitter spillover represents a form of neural transmission not restricted to morphologically defined synaptic connections. Communication between climbing fibers (CFs) and molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) in the cerebellum is mediated exclusively by glutamate spillover. Here, we show how CF stimulation functionally segregates MLIs based on their location relative to glutamate release. Excitation of MLIs that reside within the domain of spillover diffusion coordinates inhibition of MLIs outside the diffusion limit. CF excitation of MLIs is dependent on extrasynaptic NMDA receptors that enhance the spatial and temporal spread of CF signaling. Activity mediated by functionally segregated MLIs converges onto neighboring Purkinje cells (PCs) to generate a long-lasting biphasic change in inhibition. These data demonstrate how glutamate release from single CFs modulates excitability of neighboring PCs, thus expanding the influence of CFs on cerebellar cortical activity in a manner not predicted by anatomical connectivity. PMID:23707614

  6. The spillover effect of disclosure rules and materiality thresholds: Evidence from profit warnings issued in Hong Kong market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rencheng Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dual-listed firms simultaneously follow the relevant rules in their home country and in their cross-listed country. In contrast, other firms only listed in the cross-listed country are only subject to the local regulations. Previous literature has found evidence that cross-listing can improve firms’ information transparency because of more stringent listing rules in the cross-listed country. The existing research, however, has not paid enough attention to the potential influence of dual-listed firms and their home country institutional factors (e.g. unique disclosure policies on other firms only listed in the cross-listed country (i.e. spillover effect. In the Hong Kong market, Chinese dual-listed firms are under the mandatory profit warning regulation of mainland China, but other firms listed only in Hong Kong only need to follow the voluntary disclosure rule of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. Such a setting provides us with the opportunity to investigate a spillover effect, i.e. whether these Chinese dual-listed firms influence their peers only listed in Hong Kong to release profit warnings. We find that firms only listed in Hong Kong are more likely to issue profit warnings if their Chinese dual-listed peers have also issued warnings. We further find that this spillover effect increases with the market capitalization of Chinese dual-listed firms and increases with the market share of these firms before they dominate the industry. Lastly, due to an underlying duty to disclose material information in Hong Kong, the spillover effect is weaker for firms with large earnings surprises.

  7. Intended R&D Knowledge Spillover - Strategy for Innovation Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harryson, Sigvald; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2009-01-01

    , inhibit companies striving for innovation leadership. In our enquiry into R&D knowledge spillover effects on innovation, we develop case studies from Fastcar and Bigpack. The resulting theoretical framework, built on selected networking and knowledge creation theories, is illustrated through the two case...... studies and useful for further analysis of positive R&D knowledge spillover effects. By proactively facilitating knowledge sharing with relevant parts of the surrounding environment, the company enables itself to feed knowledge into its surrounding environment - thereby developing the innovation potential...

  8. Technology transfers, foreign investment and productivity spillovers: evidence from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Talbot, Theodore Purdendu

    FDI through vertical linkages along the supply chain. Our results suggest that domestic firms experience more productivity spillovers through forward linkages from foreign-input suppliers to domestic input users than through backward linkages from foreign customers to domestic producers of inputs......This paper provides new evidence on the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI) and the productivity of domestic firms. Using a specially designed survey on a sample of over 7,500 manufacturing firms in Vietnam we uncover some of the mechanisms that explain productivity spillovers from...

  9. Study on The Volatility Spillover Effect Between The Second Board Market And The Small and Medium -sized Board Market in China%我国创业板市场与中小板市场间的波动溢出效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿庆峰

    2013-01-01

    基于MVGARCH-BEKK模型对创业板市场与中小板市场间的波动溢出效应进行研究,研究结果表明:创业板市场存在波动的集聚性和持久性,中小板市场不存在波动的集聚性,但存在波动的持久性;创业板市场与中小板市场间存在波动溢出效应,但创业板市场对中小板市场的波动持久性影响显著,中小板市场对创业板市场的波动集聚性影响显著;创业板市场与中小板市场间的波动溢出效应程度均不大,但中小板市场对创业板市场的波动溢出效应程度要大于创业板市场对中小板市场的波动溢出效应程度,表明老市场向新兴市场的信息流动量较大。%Based on the MVGARCH-BEKK model ,this paper empirically analyzes the volatility spillover effect between growth enterprise market and small and medium -sized market.The evidence shows that there are volatili-ty clustering and persistence in growth enterprise market , whille, only volatility persistence has been found in small and medium-sized market.The volatility spillover effect between gorwth enterprise market and small and medium-sized market has been found ,but the volatility persistence from growth enterprise market to small and medium -sized market is significant , while, the volatility clustering from small and medium -sized market to growth enter-prise market is significant.The volatility spillover effect between growth enterprise market and small and medium -sized market is small , and the degree of the volatility spillover effect from small and medium -sized market to growth enterprise market is smaller ,whant means that there are much more information flow from old capital market to emerging market .

  10. Work-Life Spillover and Job Satisfaction of Married/partnered Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Amelink, Catherine T.

    Two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to analyze questionnaire data gathered from married or partnered, tenured and tenure-track faculty at a research university to identify personal, institutional, and nonwork factors that explain perceptions about work-life spillover and, secondly, the relationship of spillover, personal, institutional, and nonwork factors to overall job satisfaction. A combination of personal and environmental climate variables explained 48% of the variance in work-life spillover and 60% of the variance in job satisfaction. A direct, positive relationship was found between work-life spillover and job satisfaction. Findings challenge conceptions of work-life spillover as a negative dimension of faculty life.

  11. Modelling Volatility Spillovers for Bio-ethanol, Sugarcane and Corn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y-A. Wang (Yu-Ann)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe recent and rapidly growing interest in biofuel as a green energy source has raised concerns about its impact on the prices, returns and volatility of related agricultural commodities. Analyzing the spillover effects on agricultural commodities and biofuel helps commodity suppliers

  12. Spillover Effects of Early-Life Medical Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breining, Sanni Nørgaard; Daysal, N. Meltem; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    substantial positive spillovers on all our measures of academic achievement. Our estimates suggest that siblings of focal children who were slightly below the VLBW cutoff have higher 9th grade language and math test scores, as well as higher probability of enrolling in a high school by age 19. Our results...

  13. Volatility Spillovers from the Chinese Stock Market to Economic Neighbours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Amram (Ron)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines whether there is evidence of spillovers of volatility from the Chinese stock market to its neighbours and trading partners, including Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Japan and USA. China’s increasing integration into the global market may have important

  14. Oil prices and financial stress: A volatility spillover analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban; Soytas, Ugur; Gupta, Rangan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether there is a volatility transmission between oil prices and financial stress by means of the volatility spillover test. We employ WTI crude oil prices and Cleveland financial stress index for the period 1991–2014 and divide the sample into pre-crisis, in-crisis, and post-crisis periods due to the downward trend in oil price in 2008. The volatility model estimations indicate that oil prices and financial stress index are dominated by long-run volatility. The volatility spillover causality test supports evidence on risk transfer from oil prices to financial stress before the crisis and from financial stress to oil prices after the crisis. The impulse response analysis shows that the volatility transmission pattern has similar dynamics before and after the crisis and is characterized by higher and long-lived effects during the crisis. Our results have implications for both policy makers and investors, and for future work. -- Highlights: •Volatility spillover between oil prices and financial stress index is examined. •Analysis is conducted for sub-periods: pre-crisis, in-crisis, and post-crisis •Oil prices spill on financial stress before the crisis, but spillover reversed after the crisis. •Volatility transmission pattern has similar dynamics before and after the crisis. •Implications for investors and policy makers are discussed

  15. Toward a Multidimensional Assessment of Work Spillover into Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Stephen A.; Riley, Dave

    1990-01-01

    Findings from 130 male executives and their spouses provided strong support for construct validity and internal consistency of global measure of work spillover. Data did not support hypothesis that work stress spills over into some role contexts more than others. Identified at least 3 distinct processes by which work can spill over and affect…

  16. Bank/sovereign Risk Spillovers in the European Debt Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruyckere, V.; Gerhardt, M.; Schepens, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper investigates contagion between bank risk and sovereign risk in Europe over the period 2006-2011. Since this period covers various stages of the banking and sovereign crisis, it offers a fertile ground to analyze bank/sovereign risk spillovers. We define contagion as excess

  17. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. A framework for including family health spillovers in economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Al-Janabi (Hareth); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); J. Coast (Joanna)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHealth care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these health spillovers? should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health

  19. Persistence of monopoly, innovation, and R&D spillovers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kováč, E.; Žigić, Krešimir

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2016), s. 714-734 ISSN 1090-9443 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-24642S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : dynamic duopoly * R&D spillovers * persistence of monopoly Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  20. The Spillover Effects on Employees’ Life of Construction Enterprises’ Safety Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Organizational safety climate will produce spillover effects and thus affect the individuals’ performance in their family life. As a mainstay industry in many countries, the construction industry has a considerable number of employees and the research on the spillover effects from the safety climate of construction enterprises has important theoretical and practical significance to improve the safety behavior of construction employees in their family life. In this study, we thoroughly reviewed the literature to identify the dimensions of the safety climate spillover, obtain empirical data of the construction employees through a questionnaire survey, and use the data analysis method to study the spillover effects of the safety climate of the construction enterprises from the perspective of work–family integration, and reveal its influence mechanism. This study developed a questionnaire to measure the safety climate spillover of the construction enterprises including two dimensions, namely values and behaviors, with nine measured items. Management commitment and safety attitude in the safety climate were positively related to the spillover, and management commitment had the greatest impact on the spillover, while the other components were not significantly related to the spillover. The two forms of spillover, values and behaviors, were mutually influential, and the safety climate had a more significant impact on the values. This paper contributes to the current safety research by developing a factor structure of spillover effects of the safety climate on the lives of construction employees, thus providing a more profound interpretation of this crucial construct in the safety research domain. The spillover effects of the safety climate’s measurement questionnaire serve as an important tool for spillover among construction enterprises. Findings can facilitate improvement in both theories and practices related to the spillover effects of the

  1. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  2. Spatial Spillover Effects of Environmental Pollution in China’s Central Plains Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Xiong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the rise of Central China is one of the most important national strategies regarding the promotion of China’s economic development. However, the environmental issues in the central regions have become remarkably severe. It is therefore worthwhile exploring how economic development and environmental protection can be coordinated. Focusing on the 29 prefecture-level cities in the Central Plains Urban Agglomeration, the authors empirically analyze the relationship between the economy and the environment from 2004 to 2014. The combined methods of the spatial autocorrelation model, the environmental Kuznets curve, and the global spatial correlation test are systematically employed. The results show that: (1 a strong spatial correlation exists between industrial wastewater discharge, industrial sulfur dioxide, and dust emissions in the Central Plains Urban Agglomeration; (2 the relationship between the economy and the environment of this urban agglomeration reveals an inverted “U” curve, which confirms the classical environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Industrial dust emissions have surpassed the inflection point of the Kuznets curve, but its spatial spillover effect still remains strong. This is caused by an accumulation effect and a lag effect; (3 the proportion of the secondary industry and population has a strong positive effect on pollution discharge; investments in science and technology have a certain inhibitory effect on industrial sulfur dioxide emission. Moreover, an increase in the number of industrial enterprises has a negative effect on industrial wastewater emission. At the end, the authors put forward policy recommendations regarding the establishment of a joint supervisory department and unified environmental standards at the regional level to deal with the spillover effects of pollution.

  3. Behavioural Spillover in the Environmental Domain: An Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanzini, Pietro; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    This study tests hypotheses about behavioural spillover in the environmental domain as well as the impacts of monetary inducements and verbal praise on behavioural spillover by means of a field experiment. A sample of 194 students from a large university in Denmark were randomly allocated...... to a control group or to one of two experimental conditions where they were encouraged to purchase "green" products by means of either financial compensation and incentives or verbal encouragement and praise. Participants answered a baseline survey containing questions concerning a wide range...... of environmentally relevant behaviours and after a six weeks intervention period where they were requested to keep track of their purchases by means of a shopping diary they answered a second survey with the same content as the first. This allowed us to analyse the change in self-reported pro- environmental...

  4. Empirical Research on Spatial Diffusion Process of Knowledge Spillovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xuehui

    2018-02-01

    Firstly, this paper gave a brief review of the core issues of previous studies on spatial distribution of knowledge spillovers. That laid the theoretical foundation for further research. Secondly, this paper roughly described the diffusion process of solar patents in Bejing-Tianjin-Hebei and the Pearl River Delta regions by means of correlation analysis based on patent information of the application date and address of patentee. After that, this paper introduced the variables of spatial distance, knowledge absorptive capacity, knowledge gap and pollution control and built the empirical model of patent, and then collecting data to test them. The results showed that knowledge absorptive capacity was the most significant factor than the other three, followed by the knowledge gap. The influence of spatial distance on knowledge spillovers was limited and the most weak influence factor was pollution control.

  5. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    how characteristics of the economic and political milieu within each region influence the ratio of firm births. We find that knowledge spillovers from universities and firm-based R&D strongly affect the start-up rates for both high-tech firms and knowledge-intensive services firms. Further, the start......This chapter investigates how regional start-up rates in the knowledge-intensive services and high-tech industries are influenced by knowledge spillovers from both universities and firm-based R&D activities. Integrating insights from economic geography and organizational ecology into the literature......-up rate of knowledge-intensive service firms is tied more strongly to the supply of university educated individuals and the political regulatory regime within the municipality than start-ups in high-tech industries. This suggests that knowledge-intensive service-start-ups are more susceptible to both...

  6. Norepinephrine spillover from skeletal muscle during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savard, G K; Richter, Erik; Strange, S

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of increasing muscle mass involvement in dynamic exercise on both sympathetic nervous activation and local hemodynamic variables of individual active and inactive skeletal muscle groups. Six male subjects performed 15-min bouts of one...... legs, with a steeper rise occurring approximately 70% VO2max. These increases were not associated with any significant changes in leg blood flow or leg vascular conductance at the exercise intensities examined. These results suggest that, as the total active muscle mass increases, the rise...... in both legs. Arterial and venous plasma concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine were analyzed, and the calculated NE spillover was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity to the limb. NE spillover increased gradually both in the resting, and to a larger extent in the exercising...

  7. Electronic Immunization Alerts and Spillover Effects on Other Preventive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Julia M; Rivera, Maria; Persing, Nichole; Bundy, David G; Psoter, Kevin J; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Miller, Marlene R; Solomon, Barry S

    2017-08-01

    The impact of electronic health record (EHR) immunization clinical alert systems on the delivery of other preventive services remains unknown. We assessed for spillover effects of an EHR immunization alert on delivery of 6 other preventive services, in children 18 to 30 months of age needing immunizations. We conducted a secondary data analysis, with additional primary data collection, of a randomized, historically controlled trial to improve immunization rates with EHR alerts, in an urban, primary care clinic. No significant differences were found in screening for anemia, lead, development, nutrition, and injury prevention counseling in children prompting EHR immunization alerts (n = 129), compared with controls (n = 135). Significant increases in oral health screening in patients prompting EHR alerts (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.8-13.0) were likely due to practice changes over time. An EHR clinical alert system targeting immunizations did not have a spillover effect on the delivery of other preventive services.

  8. The Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship and Foreign Direct Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltan J. Acs; David J. Brooksbank; Colm O'Gorman; David G. Pickernell; Siri Terjesen

    2007-01-01

    We explore if the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship, applied to FDI, provides at least a partial explanation for the greater emergence of recent knowledge-based entrepreneurship in Ireland compared with Wales. In order to examine how FDI and entrepreneurship policy in these two regions might have influenced the levels of knowledge-based entrepreneurship, we outline FDI and entrepreneurship policies for Wales and Ireland and key measures of knowledge creation, and evaluate the ext...

  9. Spillovers between Food and Energy Prices and Structural Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Alanoud Al-Maadid; Guglielmo Maria Caporale; Fabio Spagnolo; Nicola Spagnolo

    2015-01-01

    This paper estimates a bivariate VAR-GARCH(1,1) model to examine linkages between food and energy prices. The adopted framework is suitable to analyse both mean and volatility spillovers, and also allows for possible parameter shifts resulting from four recent events, namely: 1) the 2006 food crisis, 2) the Brent oil bubble, 3) the introduction of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) policy, and 4) the 2008 global financial crisis. The empirical findings suggest that there are significant linkag...

  10. Predator transitory spillover induces trophic cascades in ecological sinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Blenckner, Thorsten; Möllmann, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of cross-system fluxes is fundamental in ecosystem ecology and biological conservation. Source-sink dynamics and spillover processes may link adjacent ecosystems by movement of organisms across system boundaries. However, effects of temporal variability in these cross-sy...... in structuring natural systems. The integration of regional and local processes is central to predict species and ecosystem responses to future climate changes and ongoing anthropogenic disturbances......Understanding the effects of cross-system fluxes is fundamental in ecosystem ecology and biological conservation. Source-sink dynamics and spillover processes may link adjacent ecosystems by movement of organisms across system boundaries. However, effects of temporal variability in these cross......-system fluxes on a whole marine ecosystem structure have not yet been presented. Here we show, using 35 y of multitrophic data series from the Baltic Sea, that transitory spillover of the top-predator cod from its main distribution area produces cascading effects in the whole food web of an adjacent and semi...

  11. Downside Business Confidence Spillovers in Europe: Evidence from Causality-in-Risk Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Atukeren, Erdal; Cevik, Emrah Ismail; Korkmaz, Turhan

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs Hong et al.’s (2009) extreme risk spillovers test to investigate the bilateral business confidence spillovers between Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, and Germany. After controlling for domestic economic developments in each country and common international factors, downside risk spillovers are detected as a causal feedback between Spain and Portugal and unilaterally from Spain to Italy. Extremely low business sentiments in France, Germany, and Greece are mostly due ...

  12. Spillover Volatilitas Pasar Saham Indonesia dan Singapura Periode 2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestano Lestano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an Autoregressive model combined with a univariate Exponential GARCH model for constructing a volatility spillover model, we investigate asymmetric effect and volatility persistence effect in Indonesia and Singapore stock market, and the effect of volatility spillover from Singapore stock market considered as one of Asian financial activity center to Indonesia stock market during the post Asian financial crisis period. The study reveals that the degree of volatility persistence slightly increases as we include the spillover effect from Singapura as one extra variable in the variance equation. We also find that strong evidence of volatility spillover effect from Singapore to Indonesia stock market. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Autoregressive model yang dikombinasikan dengan univariate Exponential GARCH model digunakan untuk mengkonstruksi model spillover volatilitas, tulisan ini mengkaji asymmetric effect dan efek persistensi volatilitas pasar saham di Indonesia dan Singapura, dan efek spillover volatilitas dari pasar saham Singapura, yang dipertimbangkan sebagai salah satu pusat kegiatan keuangan Asia, ke pasar saham Indonesia selama periode setelah krisis keuangan Asia. Studi ini mengungkapkan bahwa tingkat persistensi volatilitas meningkat saat spillover effect dari Singapura dimasukan sebagai variabel tambahan ke dalam persamaan variance. Temuan empiris lain adalah terdapat fakta kuat keberadaan efek spillover volatilitas dari pasar saham Singapura ke Indonesia.   Kata kunci: Spillover volatilitas, asymmetric effect, leverage effect, exponential GARCH, pasar saham, Indonesia, Singapura

  13. Features of spillover networks in international financial markets: Evidence from the G20 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyong; An, Haizhong; Li, Huajiao; Chen, Zhihua; Feng, Sida; Wen, Shaobo

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate volatility spillover transmission systematically in stock markets across the G20 countries. To achieve this objective, we combined GARCH-BEKK model with complex network theory using the linkages of spillovers. GARCH-BEKK model was used to capture volatility spillover between stock markets. Then, an information spillover network was built. The data encompass the main stock indexes from 19 individual countries in the G20. To consider the dynamic spillover, the full data set was divided into several sub-periods. The main contribution of this paper is considering the volatility spillover relationships as the edges of a complex network, which can capture the propagation path of volatility spillovers. The results indicate that the volatility spillovers among the stock markets of the G20 countries constitute a holistic associated network, another finding is that Korea acts a role of largest sender in long-term, while Brazil is the largest long-term recipient in the G20 spillover network.

  14. Work-to-family spillover and fruit and vegetable consumption among construction laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Stoddard, Anne M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Naishadham, Deepa; Sorensen, Glorian

    2007-01-01

    Spillover is the effect of one role on another as working adults attempt to integrate demands from work and family. We conducted a survey to understand how worker, job, and family characteristics were related to negative work-to-family spillover and how spillover was related to fruit and vegetable consumption to inform intervention design. A combined mail and telephone survey. A national random sample in the United States. 1108 (44% response) unionized construction laborers. Personal characteristics, job factors, family factors, work-to-family spillover, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Multivariable logistic and least-squares regression. A range of 20% to 50% of respondents reported negative work-to-family spillover, agreeing that work demands, time, fatigue, and stress interfered with family meals or food choices. Higher spillover was associated with job factors, being of white race/ethnicity, and having children at home. Lower fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with higher work-to-family spillover (p = .002), being of white race or ethnicity (p working the graveyard or day shift (p = .02). Negative experience of work-to-family spillover may link employment to fruit and vegetable consumption and thus to worker health. Understanding the contribution of spillover to fruit and vegetable consumption aids understanding of how work experience affects health.

  15. Productivity Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: What If Productivity is No Longer a Black Box?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Thang Tran

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While the positive productivity spillover from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI to domestic owned firms in host countries is unequivocally emphasized in theory, the empirical evidence is contradictory. This paper, based on firm level data in Vietnam (enterprise census, 2000-2005, provides more inside on that. Using time-varying stochastic frontier approach, the study decomposed the change of productivity into technical change, technical efficiency change and scale efficiency change. The evidence from estimating the spillovers in each corresponding components suggest that horizontal FDI bring negative spillovers, mainly to technical change but positive spillovers to technical efficiency. Vertical FDI also have mixed impacts to domestic owned firm’s productivity.

  16. Study on Return and Volatility Spillover Effects among Stock, CDS, and Foreign Exchange Markets in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taly I

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The key objective of this study is to investigate the return and volatility spillover effects among stock market, credit default swap (CDS market and foreign exchange market for three countries: Korea, the US and Japan. Using the trivariate VAR BEKK GARCH (1,1 model, the study finds that there are significant return and volatility spillover effects between the Korean CDS market and the Korean stock market. In addition, the return spillover effects from foreign exchange markets and the US stock market to the Korean stock market, and the volatility spillover effect from the Japanese stock market to the Korean stock market are both significant.

  17. The prevalence of speeding and drunk driving in two cities in China: a mid project evaluation of ongoing road safety interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Kavi; Li, Qingfeng; Duan, Leilen; Wang, Yuan; Bishai, David; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    Road traffic crashes in China kill in excess of 250,000 people annually, more than any other country in the world. They are the fourth leading cause of premature death in the country and are responsible for 2.4% of the burden of non-fatal health loss in the country. Interventions to curb speeding and drunk driving are being implemented in the cities of Suzhou and Dalian since late 2010. We evaluated the ongoing effect of these activities through five roadside surveys, seven rounds of observational studies, and analysis of crash statistics in the two cities. We find that thus far, the prevalence of speeding has not reduced in either city with the notable exception of one site in Dalian, where the percentage of speeding vehicles declined from nearly 70% to below 10% after an interval-based speed enforcement system was installed. The broader deployment of such speed control technologies across China and other countries should be explored. Roadside alcohol testing suggests that prevalence of drunk driving (i.e. BAC >20 mg%) declined from 6.4% to 0.5% in Suzhou and from 1.7% to 0.7% in Dalian during the monitored time period. However, the measured prevalence rates are very low and should be validated against estimates based on hospital studies. Roadside interviews suggest that the population of both cities is already highly sensitized to the risks associated with drunk driving and speeding. Crash statistics from the two cities do not show appreciable declines in injuries and fatalities as yet. However, the possibility of substantial underreporting in crash statistics sourced from traffic police poses a severe threat to monitoring progress towards road safety in Suzhou, Dalian and across China. There is an urgent need for China to invest in a reliable road traffic injury surveillance system that can provide information for describing key risk factors, evaluating the impact of safety policies, and benchmarking achievements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Spillover effects on health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Abedin, Jaynal; Berger, David; Clark, Ashley; Jimenez, Veronica; Konagaya, Eugene; Tran, Diana; Arnold, Benjamin F; Hubbard, Alan E; Luby, Stephen P; Miguel, Edward; Colford, John M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Many interventions delivered to improve health may benefit not only direct recipients but also people in close physical or social proximity. Our objective was to review all published literature about the spillover effects of interventions on health outcomes in low-middle income countries and to identify methods used in estimating these effects. Methods We searched 19 electronic databases for articles published before 2014 and hand-searched titles from 2010 to 2013 in five relevant journals. We adapted the Cochrane Collaboration’s quality grading tool for spillover estimation and rated the quality of evidence. Results A total of 54 studies met inclusion criteria. We found a wide range of terminology used to describe spillovers, a lack of standardization among spillover methods and poor reporting of spillovers in many studies. We identified three primary mechanisms of spillovers: reduced disease transmission, social proximity and substitution of resources within households. We found the strongest evidence for spillovers through reduced disease transmission, particularly vaccines and mass drug administration. In general, the proportion of a population receiving an intervention was associated with improved health. Most studies were of moderate or low quality. We found evidence of publication bias for certain spillover estimates but not for total or direct effects. To facilitate improved reporting and standardization in future studies, we developed a reporting checklist adapted from the CONSORT framework specific to reporting spillover effects. Conclusions We found the strongest evidence for spillovers from vaccines and mass drug administration to control infectious disease. There was little high quality evidence of spillovers for other interventions. PMID:28449030

  19. FDI spillovers at different levels of industrial and spatial aggregation: Evidence from the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Bo, Chiara F.

    2013-01-01

    The European electricity sector has undergone significant reforms in recent years, in the direction of market opening, integration and privatization. National and regional markets are now characterized by the presence of domestic and foreign firms, both privately and publicly owned. Did foreign entry induce positive productivity spillovers to domestic firms in the electricity sector, both at the aggregate and disaggregated level, while also controlling for domestic firms' ownership? This paper examines this issue by focusing on regional foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers in the aggregated electricity sector and in the disaggregated sub-sectors of generation and distribution. The results show the importance of industry aggregation in determining the existence and sign of regional FDI spillovers for domestic firms. FDI spillovers are then calculated based on a purely geographic scale, by considering the distance between each firm's city of location and firms in neighboring cities. The importance and sign of FDI spillovers is different with respect to the analysis based on regional administrative boundaries, suggesting that spatial aggregation, along with industrial aggregation, is relevant in accounting for productivity spillover effects of foreign presence in the EU electricity sector. - Highlights: • Has the post-reform entry of foreign firms in the EU electricity sector induced spillover effects? • Spatial and industrial disaggregation are important when evaluating foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers. • Positive horizontal spillovers are found only in the distribution segment of the industry. • Vertical spillovers in generation are negative; positive in distribution. • Spillover intensity in distribution decreasing with distance; regional dimension relevant in generation

  20. Stimulate economic growth by improving transport infrastructure – a lesson from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong WANG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Feder model to test impacts of transport infrastructure on economic growth. With China provincial data from 1990-2010 the empirical models, including Basic model, Time-Lag model and Spatial model, demonstrate that transport infrastructure does have a positive Spillover Effect on economic growth. However, Direct Effect on economic growth is negative possibly due to Crowding-Out Effect and productivity difference between sectors. The research also proves the Spillover Effects are becoming weaker as time passed. Finally, Spatial Spillover Effect or Network Effects are confirmed.

  1. Analysis on How does the Culture Conflicts Influence Business Negotiation and Foreign Investment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔颖

    2007-01-01

    Culture is a distinguishing feature of a nation. Usually we divide culture into eastern and western categories. As the representative of eastern and western culture, China and America have a lot of incongruities in terms of cultural values which have deep influences on international business negotiation. This thesis aims to analyze the main cultural differences of the target countries on five processes of cross-cultural business negotiation. After a general view of these theories Ⅰ suggest some negotiating strategies and tactics to solve Sino-US cultural conflict appearing on the negotiating table. And with a real business invest case happened between US company of Intel and Dalian of China.

  2. Theoretical analysis of hydrogen spillover mechanism on carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba eJuarez Mosqueda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The spillover mechanism of molecular hydrogen on carbon nanotubes in the presence of catalytically active platinum clusters was critically and systematically investigated by using density-functional theory. Our simulation model includes a Pt4 cluster for the catalyst nanoparticle and curved and planar circumcoronene for two exemplary single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT, the (10,10 CNT and one of large diameter, respectively. Our results show that the H2 molecule dissociates spontaneously on the Pt4 cluster. However, the dissociated H atoms have to overcome a barrier of more than 2 eV to migrate from the catalyst to the CNT, even if the Pt4 cluster is at full saturation with six adsorbed and dissociated hydrogen molecules. Previous investigations have shown that the mobility of hydrogen atoms on the CNT surface is hindered by a barrier. We find that instead the Pt4 catalyst may move along the outer surface of the CNT with activation energy of only 0.16 eV, and that this effect offers the possibility of full hydrogenation of the CNT. Thus, although we have not found a low-energy pathway to spillover onto the CNT, we suggest, based on our calculations and calculated data reported in the literature, that in the hydrogen-spillover process the observed saturation of the CNT at hydrogen background pressure occurs through mobile Pt nanoclusters, which move on the substrate more easily than the substrate-chemisorbed hydrogens, and deposit or reattach hydrogens in the process. Initial hydrogenation of the carbon substrate, however, is thermodynamically unfavoured, suggesting that defects should play a significant role.

  3. Simple and Painless? The Limitations of Spillover in Environmental Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Crompton, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The comfortable perception that global environmental challenges can be met through marginal lifestyle changes no longer bears scrutiny. The cumulative impact of large numbers of individuals making marginal improvements in their environmental impact will be a marginal collective improvement in env...... in environmental impact. Yet, we live at a time when we need urgent and ambitious changes. An appeal to environmental imperatives is more likely to lead to spillover into other pro-environmental behaviours than an appeal to financial self-interest or social status....

  4. GDP Growth and the Interdependency of Volatility Spillovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin O’Brien

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamics of cross-country GDP volatility transmission and their conditional correlations. We use quarterly data (1961-2008 for Australia, Canada, the UK and the US to construct and estimate a multivariate generalised autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (MGARCH model. According to the results from the mean growth equations, we identified significant cross-country GDP growth spillover among these countries. Furthermore, the growth volatility between the US and Canada indicates the highest conditional correlation. As expected, we also found that the shock influences are mainly exerted by the larger economies onto the smaller economies.

  5. EU Defence Industry Integration between Spillover and High Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich

    on an intergovernmental base. In the past 10 years, however, the defence industries of the major EU powers have instigated a move from cross national collaboration to cross national consolidation. Cross border mergers and acquisitions has been carried out and pressures for regulatory mainstreaming is mounting....... This raises the question: are we witnessing an incursion of spillover mechanisms into the ‘High Politics' domain of the defence industry? What are the drivers eroding the ‘High Politics' character of defence industry integration? Are market forces at play? Does it reflect pressures for institutional...

  6. Productivity gains, technology spillovers and trade: Indonesian manufacturing, 1980-96

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacob, J.; Meister, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of R&D spillovers for productivity growth has been well documented in the literature. While studies in the developed country context have focused extensively on sectoral linkages, research on North-South spillovers has largely been confined to the aggregate level. This paper assesses

  7. The Job Costs of Family Demands: Gender Differences in Negative Family-to-Work Spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Jennifer Reid; Reynolds, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article uses the 1992 National Study of the Changing Workforce to examine family and workplace factors contributing to gender differences in negative family-to-work spillover. We focus on spillover as manifested when family demands negatively affect job performance. Among married workers, women were twice as likely as men to report that…

  8. Barriers to knowledge spillovers and regional convergence in an evolutionary model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, M.C.J.; Verspagen, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will present a multi-region/multi-country model in which inter-regional knowledge spillovers determine the growth of regions. Key parameters in the model are the learning capability of a region and the rate of knowledge generation (R&D). The intensity of spillovers depends on geographical

  9. Trade policy in markets with collusion : The case of North-South R&D spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Žigić, K.

    It is well known that unilateral R&D spillovers hamper domestic firms׳ incentives to invest in innovations and thus have likely adverse effects for domestic welfare. However, when tacit collusion between foreign and domestic firms is likely, R&D spillovers may encourage monopoly pricing and

  10. Daily Life Mechanisms of Stress Spillover among Early Adolescents Experiencing Academic Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Reda; Johnson, Elizabeth I.; Swendsen, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Research has suggested that academic stress may "spillover" into other life domains and have negative psychological or social consequences for children and adolescents outside of school settings, but relatively few investigations have examined mediators and moderators of spillover. The current study explored the mediating role of state…

  11. Work-Family Conflict: Does Educational Attainment Influence the Amount of Negative Spillover?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erarslan, Ayse Burcin

    2009-01-01

    Using a data from a purposive sample of 216 women and 218 men in Turkey, the relationship between educational attainment and the amount of negative spillover from job-to-home and home-to-job was examined. It was hypothesized that men and women with higher levels of education have less amount of negative spillover in both directions. Certain work…

  12. What Turns Knowledge into Innovative Products? The Role of Entrepreneurship and Knowledge Spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Block (Jörn); A.R. Thurik (Roy); H. Zhou (Haibo)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship seeks to explain the fundamentals and consequences of entrepreneurship with respect to economic performance. This paper uses the knowledge spillover theory to explain different innovation outcomes. We hypothesize that a high rate of

  13. What turns knowledge into innovative products? The role of entrepreneurship and knowledge spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H. Block (Jörn); A.R. Thurik (Roy); H. Zhou (Hui)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship seeks to explain the fundamentals and consequences of entrepreneurship with respect to economic performance. This paper uses the knowledge spillover theory to explain different innovation outcomes. We hypothesize that a high rate of

  14. Demand spillovers of smash-hit papers: evidence from the 'Male Organ Incident'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kässi, Otto; Westling, Tatu

    2013-12-01

    This study explores the short-run spillover effects of popular research papers. We consider the publicity of 'Male Organ and Economic Growth: Does Size Matter?' as an exogenous shock to economics discussion paper demand, a natural experiment of a sort. In particular, we analyze how the very substantial visibility influenced the downloads of Helsinki Center of Economic Research discussion papers. Difference in differences and regression discontinuity analysis are conducted to elicit the spillover patterns. This study finds that the spillover effect to average economics paper demand is positive and statistically significant. It seems that hit papers increase the exposure of previously less downloaded papers. We find that part of the spillover effect could be attributable to Internet search engines' influence on browsing behavior. Conforming to expected patterns, papers residing on the same web page as the hit paper evidence very significant increases in downloads which also supports the spillover thesis. A11, C21. 97K80.

  15. A global network topology of stock markets: Transmitters and receivers of spillover effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain; Hernandez, Jose Areola; Rehman, Mobeen Ur; Al-Yahyaee, Khamis Hamed; Zakaria, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    This paper applies a bivariate cross-quantilogram approach to examine the spillover network structure in the stock markets of 58 countries according to bearish, normal and bullish market scenarios. Our aim is to identify the strongest interdependencies, the directionality of the spillover risk effects, and to detect those equity markets with the potential to cause global systemic risk. The results highlight the role of the US and Canadian equity markets as major spillover transmitters, while the stock markets of Romania, Taiwan and Mexico act mainly as spillover receivers. Particularly strong spillovers are observed from the Canadian and US equity markets towards the Irish market, and from the Brazilian equity market towards the Kenyan equivalent. The equity market networks suggest that only the US equity market can trigger systemic risk on a global scale. Implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Work-family spillover and metabolic syndrome indicators: Findings from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, H Shellae; Tan, Mingxuan

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the link between negative work-family spillover and metabolic risk factors over a 9-year period. Data from two waves of the Midlife in the United States Survey were used to explore relationships between negative work-family spillover and four indicators of metabolic syndrome-blood pressure, triglycerides, body mass index, and glucose levels. In a sample of full-time working men and women ( N = 630), increased negative spillover at baseline significantly predicted higher body mass index nearly a decade later, with a marginally significant effect for triglyceride levels. Increases in spillover also body mass index and glucose levels at follow-up. This study extends research tying work-life spillover to health and suggests that further investigation is needed to fully understand the long-term effects of work stress.

  17. Productivity Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: What If Productivity is No Longer a Black Box?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Thang Tran

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While the positive productivity spillover from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI to domestic owned firms in host countries is unequivocally emphasized in theory, the empirical evidence is contradictory. This paper, based on firm level data in Vietnam (enterprise census, 2000-2005, provides more inside on that. Using time-varying stochastic frontier approach, the study decomposed the change of productivity into technical change, technical efficiency change and scale efficiency change. The evidence from estimating the spillovers in each corresponding components suggest that horizontal FDI bring negative spillovers, mainly to technical change but positive spillovers to technical efficiency. Vertical FDI also have mixed impacts to domestic owned firm’s productivity.Keywords: Stochastic frontier model, foreign direct investment, productivity spillover, panel data

  18. Work-family spillover among Japanese dual-earner couples: a large community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kyoko; Shimazu, Akihito; Bakker, Arnold B; Demerouti, Evangelia; Kawakami, Norito

    2010-01-01

    To examine the effects of multiple types of work-family spillover (work-to-family negative spillover, WFNS; family-to-work negative spillover, FWNS; and work-family positive spillover, WFPS) on psychological distress among Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children. 2,346 parents completed questionnaires measuring work-family spillover, work- and family-specific variables (i.e., job demands and resources, family demands and resources), and psychological distress. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was conducted by entering demographic characteristics (gender, age, age of the youngest child, and job contract) in step 1, job demands and resources in step 2, family demands and resources in step 3, work-family spillover in step 4, and three two-way interactions between types of work-family spillover and gender in the final step. Both WFNS and FWNS were positively related to psychological distress after controlling for demographic characteristics and domain specific variables (i.e. job and family demands/resources), and FWNS (β=0.26) had a stronger relation with psychological distress than WFNS (β=0.16). Although WFPS was significantly and negatively related to psychological distress, the relationship was weak (β=-0.05). In addition, two-way interactions of WFNS and FWNS with gender were found; the impact of both WFNS and FWNS on psychological distress is stronger for females than for males. No significant interaction effect was observed between WFPS and gender. In this study of Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children, work-family negative spillover had a stronger relationship with psychological distress than positive spillover. Gender had a moderating effect on the relationship between negative spillover and psychological distress.

  19. HIGHER EDUCATION SPILLOVER – THE HIGHWAY TO REGIONAL SUCCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Štimac

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to answer how regional sector influences higher education. These regional differences generate interest in the study of economic growth and regional development. The crucial role in spillover process is played by higher education institutions as they are the promoters of research and knowledge that stems from it. Higher education institutions should be involved in the innovation system at regional level in order to create a stimulating and competitive environment for the future growth and development. Additionally, the paper presents, compares and analyses contemporary phenomena related to the regional dimension of innovation and the role of higher education institutions in Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia. Besides teaching and research, higher education institutions must develop and emerge a “third mission” through research and technology commercialization, joint research projects, spin-off formation, mobility of researchers/teachers/students to industry and vice versa, and involvement in local and regional development projects as well. However, this is not only about knowledge spillover in some delimitated sectors, but transforming and reinvigorating the whole society on regional level.

  20. Spillovers of health education at school on parents' physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berniell, Lucila; de la Mata, Dolores; Valdés, Nieves

    2013-09-01

    This paper exploits state health education (HED) reforms as quasi-natural experiments to estimate the causal impact of HED received by children on their parents' physical activity. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for the period 1999-2005 merged with data on state HED reforms from the National Association of State Boards of Education Health Policy Database and the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. To identify the spillover effects of HED requirements on parents' behavior, we use several methodologies (triple differences, changes in changes, and difference in differences) in which we allow for different types of treatments. We find a positive effect of HED reforms at the elementary school on the probability of parents doing light physical activity. Introducing major changes in HED increases the probability of fathers engaging in physical activity by between 6.3 and 13.7 percentage points, whereas on average, this probability for mothers does not seem to be affected. We analyze several heterogeneous impacts of the HED reforms to unveil the mechanisms behind these spillovers. We find evidence consistent with hypotheses such as gender specialization of parents in childcare activities or information sharing between children and parents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Estimation of the contribution of exports to the provincial economy: an analysis based on China's multi-regional input-output tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sanmang; Li, Shantong; Lei, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    This paper developed an estimation model for the contribution of exports to a country's regional economy based on the Chenery-Moses model and conducted an empirical analysis using China's multi-regional input-output tables for 1997, 2002, and 2007. The results indicated that China's national exports make significantly different contributions to the provincial economy in various regions, with the greatest contribution being observed in the eastern region and the smallest in the central region. The provinces are also subjected to significantly different export spillover effects. The boosting effect for the eastern provinces is primarily generated from local exports, whereas the western provinces primarily benefit from the export spillover effect from the eastern provinces. The eastern provinces, such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai, are the primary sources of export spillover effects, and Guangdong is the largest source of export spillover effects for almost all of the provinces in China.

  2. Volatility spillovers in China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haixia, Wu; Shiping, Li

    2013-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers among China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets are analyzed based on weekly price data from September 5, 2003 to August 31, 2012, employing the univariate EGARCH model and the BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008. In the overall sample period, the results simultaneously provide strong evidence that there exist unidirectional spillover effects from the crude oil market to the corn and fuel ethanol markets, and double-directional spillovers between the corn market and the fuel ethanol market. However, the spillover effects from the corn and fuel ethanol markets to the crude oil market are not significant. -- Highlights: •Employing univariate EGARCH model and BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. Unidirectional spillover effects from crude oil market to corn and fuel ethanol markets. •Double-directional spillovers between corn market and fuel ethanol market. •The spillover effects from corn and fuel ethanol markets to crude oil market are not significant. •The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008

  3. Climate Induced Spillover and Implications for U.S. Security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naugle, Asmeret Bier [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lott, Kathryn Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kobos, Peter H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Developing nations incur a greater risk to climate change than the developed world due to poorly managed human/natural resources, unreliable infrastructure and brittle governing/economic institutions. These vulnerabilities often give rise to a climate induced “domino effect” of reduced natural resource production-leading to economic hardship, social unrest, and humanitarian crises. Integral to this cascading set of events is increased human migration, leading to the “spillover” of impacts to adjoining areas with even broader impact on global markets and security. Given the complexity of factors influencing human migration and the resultant spill-over effect, quantitative tools are needed to aid policy analysis. Toward this need, a series of migration models were developed along with a system dynamics model of the spillover effect. The migration decision models were structured according to two interacting paths, one that captured long-term “chronic” impacts related to protracted deteriorating quality of life and a second focused on short-term “acute” impacts of disaster and/or conflict. Chronic migration dynamics were modeled for two different cases; one that looked only at emigration but at a national level for the entire world; and a second that looked at both emigration and immigration but focused on a single nation. Model parameterization for each of the migration models was accomplished through regression analysis using decadal data spanning the period 1960-2010. A similar approach was taken with acute migration dynamics except regression analysis utilized annual data sets limited to a shorter time horizon (2001-2013). The system dynamics spillover model was organized around two broad modules, one simulating the decision dynamics of migration and a second module that treats the changing environmental conditions that influence the migration decision. The environmental module informs the migration decision, endogenously simulating interactions

  4. On Advertising Games and Spillover in Service Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the industry cases, we model the advertising competition between the dominant service provider and small service providers in one service market, where the dominant service provider has a major market share and the other small service providers share the remainder of market equally. Based on this setting, we discuss three advertising game models, that is, cooperative game, Boxed Pig game, and Prisoner’s game, derive the conditions for different advertising games, and characterize their equilibria. To be specific, it is found that the advertising spillover and the number of the small service providers directly determines the advertising game equilibria, while other market parameters, to some extent, can affect the results of the advertising game equilibria. According to our theoretical findings, some management insights and suggestions are given from both the academic and practical perspectives.

  5. Liquidity spillover in international stock markets through distinct time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Marcelo Brutti; Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies liquidity spillovers through different time scales based on a wavelet multiscaling method. We decompose daily data from U.S., British, Brazilian and Hong Kong stock markets indices in order to calculate the scale correlation between their illiquidities. The sample is divided in order to consider non-crisis, sub-prime crisis and Eurozone crisis. We find that there are changes in correlations of distinct scales and different periods. Association in finest scales is smaller than in coarse scales. There is a rise on associations in periods of crisis. In frequencies, there is predominance for significant distinctions involving the coarsest scale, while for crises periods there is predominance for distinctions on the finest scale.

  6. Spillover effects of Medicare fee reductions: evidence from ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jean M; Hadley, Jack; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2002-09-01

    Relatively little research has examined physicians' supply responses to Medicare fee cuts especially whether fee reductions for specific procedures have "spillover" effects that cause physicians to increase the supply of other services they provide. In this study we investigate whether ophthalmologist changed their provision of non-cataract services to Medicare patients over the time period 1992-1994, when the Medicare Fee Schedule (MFS) resulted in a 17.4% reduction in the average fee paid for a cataract extraction. Following the McGuire-Pauly model of physician behavior (McGuire and Pauly, 1991), we estimated a supply function for non-cataract procedures that included three price variables (own-price, a Medicare cross-price and a private cross-price) and an income effect. The Medicare cross-price and income variables capture spillover effects. Consistent with the model's predictions, we found that the Medicare cross-price is significant and negative, implying that a 10% reduction in the fee for a cataract extraction will cause ophthalmologists to supply about 5% more non-cataract services. Second, the income variable is highly significant, but its impact on the supply of non-cataract services is trivial. The suggests that physicians behave more like profit maximizing firms than target income seekers. We also found that the own-price and the private cross-price variables are highly significant and have the expected positive and negative effects on the volume of non-cataract services respectively. Our results demonstrate the importance of evaluating volume responses to fee changes for the array of services the physician performs, not just the procedure whose fee has been reduced. Focusing only on the procedure whose fee has been cut will yield an incomplete picture of how fee reductions for specific procedures affect physician supply decisions.

  7. Pareto Distribution of Firm Size and Knowledge Spillover Process as a Network

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiko Konno

    2013-01-01

    The firm size distribution is considered as Pareto distribution. In the present paper, we show that the Pareto distribution of firm size results from the spillover network model which was introduced in Konno (2010).

  8. Integrated environmental zoning - An innovative Dutch approach to measuring and managing environmental spillovers in urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, D.; de Roo, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Dutch development of Integrated Environmental Zoning is an advanced effort to account cumulatively for several environmental spillovers from manufacturing, and to manage their impacts on surrounding residential areas. This national policy initiative involves mapping the spatial patterns of

  9. When does fdi have positive spillovers? Evidence from 17 emerging market economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, D.

    -, č. 58 (2007), s. 1-53 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * spillovers * transition economies * efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/57179

  10. When does FDI have positive spillovers? Evidence from 17 emerging market economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, D.

    -, č. 74 (2007), s. 1-23 ISSN N Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment * spillovers * transition * efficiency Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/61183

  11. Types of work-family interface: well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Ulla; Feldt, Taru; Geurts, Sabine; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the structure of the work-family interface measure, which was intended to take into account both the positive and negative spillover between work and family demands in both directions. In addition, the links among the types of work-family spillover and the subjects' general and domain-specific well-being were examined. The sample (n = 202) consisted of Finnish employees, aged 42, who had a spouse/partner. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a four-factor model, including negative work-to-family spillover, negative family-to-work spillover, positive work-to-family spillover, and positive family-to-work spillover, was superior compared to the other factor models examined. Path analysis showed, as hypothesized, that the negative work-to-family spillover was most strongly related to low well-being at work (job exhaustion) and next strongly to low general well-being (psychological distress), whereas the negative family-to-work spillover was associated with low well-being in the domain of family (marital dissatisfaction). Positive work-to-family spillover was positively related both to well-being at work and general well-being. Inconsistent with our expectations, positive family-to-work spillover was not directly related to any of the well-being indicators examined.

  12. ESTIMATION OF THE KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVER EFFECTS BETWEEN FIRMS IN BIO-RELATED INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hanho; Kim, Jae-Kyung

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge spillover is a kind of externality originating from imperfect appropriation of R&D performances, which implies that the knowledge created by one agent could be transmitted to other related agents by affecting their R&D or other economic performances. For the estimation of knowledge spillover effects based on firm-level patent data between firms in bio-related industries, patents production function, as a proxy of knowledge production function, is formulated and estimated. Knowledge ...

  13. Synaptic glutamate spillover increases NMDA receptor reliability at the cerebellar glomerulus

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Cassie S.; Lee, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate spillover in the mossy fiber to granule cell cerebellar glomeruli has been hypothesized to increase neurotransmission reliability. In this study, we evaluate this hypothesis using an experimentally-based quantitative model of glutamate spillover on the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) at the cerebellar glomerulus. The transient and steady-state responses of NMDA-Rs were examined over a physiological range of firing rates. Examined cases included direct glutamate release acti...

  14. Stock Market Integration and Volatility Spillover:India and its Major Asian Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Dr. Kedar nath; Mishra, Dr. R. K.

    2008-01-01

    Return and volatility spillover among Indian stock market with that of 12 other developed and emerging Asian countries over a period from November 1997 to April 2008 is studied. Daily opening and closing prices of all major equity indices from the sample countries are examined by applying the GARCH model [Engle (1982) and Bollerslev (1986)] to explore the possibility of stock market integration and volatility spillover among India and its major Asian counterparties. Apart from different degre...

  15. COMMUNITY DETERMINANTS OF IMMIGRANT SELF-EMPLOYMENT: HUMAN CAPITAL SPILLOVERS AND ETHNIC ENCLAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Sousa

    2013-01-01

    I find evidence that human capital spillovers have positive effects on the proclivity of low human capital immigrants to self-employ. Human capital spillovers within an ethnic community can increase the self-employment propensity of its members by decreasing the costs associated with starting and running a business (especially, transaction costs and information costs). Immigrants who do not speak English and those with little formal education are more likely to be self-employed if they reside...

  16. Return spillovers between white precious metal ETFs: The role of oil, gold, and global equity

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Marco Chi Keung; Vigne, Samuel A.; Wang, Shixuan; Yarovaya, Larisa

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between white precious metals and gold, oil and global equity by means of spillovers and volatility transmission. Relying on the recently introduced ETFs, this study is the first to analyse return spillovers derived from an E-GARCH model and to take into account frequency dynamics to understand changes in connectedness across periods of time. Results uncover numerous channels of return transmission across the selected ETF markets over the last 10 years...

  17. Does pathogen spillover from commercially reared bumble bees threaten wild pollinators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C Otterstatter

    Full Text Available The conservation of insect pollinators is drawing attention because of reported declines in bee species and the 'ecosystem services' they provide. This issue has been brought to a head by recent devastating losses of honey bees throughout North America (so called, 'Colony Collapse Disorder'; yet, we still have little understanding of the cause(s of bee declines. Wild bumble bees (Bombus spp. have also suffered serious declines and circumstantial evidence suggests that pathogen 'spillover' from commercially reared bumble bees, which are used extensively to pollinate greenhouse crops, is a possible cause. We constructed a spatially explicit model of pathogen spillover in bumble bees and, using laboratory experiments and the literature, estimated parameter values for the spillover of Crithidia bombi, a destructive pathogen commonly found in commercial Bombus. We also monitored wild bumble bee populations near greenhouses for evidence of pathogen spillover, and compared the fit of our model to patterns of C. bombi infection observed in the field. Our model predicts that, during the first three months of spillover, transmission from commercial hives would infect up to 20% of wild bumble bees within 2 km of the greenhouse. However, a travelling wave of disease is predicted to form suddenly, infecting up to 35-100% of wild Bombus, and spread away from the greenhouse at a rate of 2 km/wk. In the field, although we did not observe a large epizootic wave of infection, the prevalences of C. bombi near greenhouses were consistent with our model. Indeed, we found that spillover has allowed C. bombi to invade several wild bumble bee species near greenhouses. Given the available evidence, it is likely that pathogen spillover from commercial bees is contributing to the ongoing decline of wild Bombus in North America. Improved management of domestic bees, for example by reducing their parasite loads and their overlap with wild congeners, could diminish or even

  18. Spillover Effects of TV Advertising: The Case of Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xun; Lopez, Rigoberto A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the spillover effects of television brand advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a nested logit model and household purchase and advertising data from nine U.S. cities over a three year period. Spillover effects are modeled using the conventional linear advertising production function with brand and company advertising, which assumes perfect substitution and constant returns to scale, and the results are compared to those attained via a constant el...

  19. 我国期货市场期货价格收益及条件波动方差的周日历效应研究%The Analysis of Weekly Calendar Effects of Fluctuation Variance of Future Price Earnings and the Condition of China Future Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华仁海

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the day of the week effect on China futures markets returns and conditionalvariance(volatility)using the GARCH model. Results obtained indicate that both futures price returns andvolatility of copper, aluminum, rubber in Shanghai Futures Exchange and soybean in ZhengzhouCommodity Exchange have no day of the week effect, but futures price returns and volatility of wheat inDalian Commodity Exchange have no day of the week effect.

  20. Technology Spillover from Foreign Direct Investment in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Karahan

    2016-12-01

    quarterly data for the period of 2002 and 2015 in Turkey. Thus we try to examine whether technological diffusion generated by FDI inflows to Turkey enhances the innovative capability of the country or not. Design/methodology/approach – The variables Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and Gross Domestic Product (GDP are sourced from Electronic Data Delivery System (EDDS in Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. FDI series consist of values called "Net Incurrence of Liabilities" in Balance of Payments Analytical Presentation while GDP series gather from the expenditure based GDP data in EDDS. Both Johansen Cointegration Test and Granger Causality Test are applied to examine between Foreign Direct Investment flows and economic growth in Turkey. Findings – Results reveal that there is not any significant link among the FDI and economic growth during the studied time period in Turkey. It seems that FDI inflows to Turkey is not complementary to economic growth, which shows that positive spillover effect sourced from FDI inflows to Turkey does not exist. Research limitations/implications – Policymakers should recognize that technology spillover effects of FDI do not occur without greater absorptive capacity. Attracting FDI is only one part of the story and thus not yield the desired benefits itself. Positive effects of FDI depends on the overall incentive and capacity structure of the host country. Then the key policy implication here is that policymakers should give same weight of policies aimed at attracting FDI versus those that seek to improve local economic conditions. Originality/value – This study insight the spillover effects of FDI based on Turkish experience that benefits from FDI do not occur automatically and effortlessly in developing countries.

  1. Volatility Spillovers between Energy and Agricultural Markets: A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy and agricultural commodities and markets have been examined extensively, albeit separately, for a number of years. In the energy literature, the returns, volatility and volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one asset on the subsequent volatility or covolatility in another asset, among alternative energy commodities, such as oil, gasoline and ethanol across different markets, have been analysed using a variety of univariate and multivariate models, estimation techniques, data sets, and time frequencies. A similar comment applies to the separate theoretical and empirical analysis of a wide range of agricultural commodities and markets. Given the recent interest and emphasis in bio-fuels and green energy, especially bio-ethanol, which is derived from a range of agricultural products, it is not surprising that there is a topical and developing literature on the spillovers between energy and agricultural markets. Modelling and testing spillovers between the energy and agricultural markets has typically been based on estimating multivariate conditional volatility models, specifically the Baba, Engle, Kraft, and Kroner (BEKK and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC models. A serious technical deficiency is that the Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimates (QMLE of a Full BEKK matrix, which is typically estimated in examining volatility spillover effects, has no asymptotic properties, except by assumption, so that no valid statistical test of volatility spillovers is possible. Some papers in the literature have used the DCC model to test for volatility spillovers. However, it is well known in the financial econometrics literature that the DCC model has no regularity conditions, and that the QMLE of the parameters of DCC has no asymptotic properties, so that there is no valid statistical testing of volatility spillovers. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the theory and practice in testing for volatility spillovers

  2. R&D Cooperation and Knowledge Spillover Effects for Sustainable Business Innovation in the Chemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Hájek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of research and development (R&D cooperation on the creation of spillover effects for sustainable firms in the chemical industry. We explore the evidence for the origin of knowledge spillovers derived from cooperation amongst firms and universities and R&D organizations as well as to test the influence of internal/external financial support on these effects. The results confirm that when firms acquire knowledge from internal sources, this leads to increased innovation and sustainable performance. We have proved that internal expenditure results in increased internal knowledge spillovers. These findings may be specific for Central and Eastern (CEE transition countries, indicating their efforts to build path-dependent structures based on knowledge institutions and businesses as well as knowledge networks. However, this study also provides a more “global” contribution to the knowledge spillover effect theory. It shows that a firm’s cooperation both with universities and with other firms promotes different types of knowledge spillovers and can affect diverse modes of sustainable activities in innovation.

  3. Research on the margin of futures markets and the policy spillover effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Difang Wan; Yang Yang; Dong Fang; Guang Yang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the change of margin in Chinese futures markets has policy spillover effects.Design/methodology/approach-The paper constructs a model based on Harzmark and on Chng,taking Chinese futures markets status quo as a single species and restrictions on foreign investment into consideration,introduces the assumptions of spillover effect of speculators,then obtains investor's demand function.Subsequently,the effects of Shanghai Futures Exchange's 11 instances of margin changing are analyzed.Findings-The paper finds that in the Chinese futures market,margin changing has impact on the open interest (OI) and the speculator spillover effect is validated.Research limitations/implications-The irrational behavior of investors in markets is not taken into account in the model and data about spillover speculators were not directly available.Originality/value-The paper usefully analyzes the effects of the Shanghai Futures Exchange's 11 instances of margin changing from 2000 to 2007 and examines the actual effects of margin-changing policy,in the views of OI,trading volume and the externality,the results showing that margin changing has impact on investor structure and validates the existence of the assumed speculator spillover effect.

  4. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C

    2009-07-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model revealed that a less flexible work environment and greater work pressure predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and further, that these associations were mediated by perceptions of negative work-family spillover. Additionally, results from a two-group mediation model suggested that work pressure predicted greater perceptions of spillover only for mothers employed full-time. Findings suggest the need for policies that reduce levels of work stress and help mothers manage their work and family responsibilities.

  5. Types of work-family interface: well-being correlates of negative and positive spillover between work and family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinnunen, U.; Feldt, T.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Pulkkinen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the structure of the work-family interface measure, which was intended to take into account both the positive and negative spillover between work and family demands in both directions. In addition, the links among the types of work-family spillover and the

  6. EL EFECTO SPILLOVER: IMPACTO SOCIAL DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN Y DESARROLLO UNIVERSITARIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA DELGADO

    Full Text Available La función de la universidad pública en términos de investigación y desarrollo gira en torno a procesos de consolidación y socialización del conocimiento. La Universidad no apropia todos los beneficios resultantes de sus procesos investigativos, sino que estos se trasladan a terceros en forma de externalidades positivas, fenómeno denominado Spillover. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar si el efecto spillover se produce al interior de una universidad pública, utilizando un enfoque metodológico mixto, integrando elementos de la investigación modo 1, fuentes documentales, para establecer las variables y la Modelación lógica del sistema I&D de la universidad y la elaboración de perfiles de efecto Spillover; y del modo 2, panel de expertos, para la construcción de la matriz del efecto spillover de la I&D universitaria. Los resultados indican que: i en la universidad se presentan las tres categorias de efecto spillovers(conocimiento, red, mercado y se presenta el efecto combinado a través de la propiedad intelectual; ii los articulos y libros de investigación publicados en bases de datos como Scienti podrían ser importantes mecanismos de transmisión de externalidades positivas. iii Los productos de investigacion que producen docentes durante su formación postgradual son un importante canal de difusión de Spillovers de conocimiento.

  7. Finding a pareto-optimal solution for multi-region models subject to capital trade and spillover externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbach, Marian [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany); Eisenack, Klaus [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics and Statistics

    2008-11-15

    In this paper we present an algorithm that deals with trade interactions within a multi-region model. In contrast to traditional approaches this algorithm is able to handle spillover externalities. Technological spillovers are expected to foster the diffusion of new technologies, which helps to lower the cost of climate change mitigation. We focus on technological spillovers which are due to capital trade. The algorithm of finding a pareto-optimal solution in an intertemporal framework is embedded in a decomposed optimization process. The paper analyzes convergence and equilibrium properties of this algorithm. In the final part of the paper, we apply the algorithm to investigate possible impacts of technological spillovers. While benefits of technological spillovers are significant for the capital-importing region, benefits for the capital-exporting region depend on the type of regional disparities and the resulting specialization and terms-of-trade effects. (orig.)

  8. Sequencing R&D Decisions in a Two-Period Duopoly with Spillovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Madjid; Amir, Rabah; Jin, Jim

    2000-01-01

    We compare simultaneous versus sequential moves in R&D decisions within an asymmetric R&D/Cournot model with linear demand (for differentiated products), general R&D costs, and spillovers. Simultaneous play and sequential play (with and without a specified leader) can emerge as appropriate...... formulations, depending on the ratios of spillover rate over demand cross-slope, but not on R&D efficiency. When at least one ratio is above 1/2, a sequential solution mitigates competition and leads to higher profits for each firm, and to higher social welfare. When uniquely specified, the stronger firm...

  9. The spillover effects of affirmative action on competitiveness and unethical behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Banerjee, Ritwik; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2018-01-01

    We conduct an artefactual field experiment to examine various spillover effects of Affirmative Action policies in the context of castes in India. We test a) if individuals who enter tournaments in the presence of an Affirmative Action policy remain competitive after the policy has been removed...... find no spillover effect on confidence and competitiveness once Affirmative Action is withdrawn. Furthermore, the discrimination by the dominant category against the backward category is not significantly aggravated by Affirmative Action, except when individuals learn that they have lost the previous...

  10. The Spillover Effects of Affirmative Action on Competitiveness and Unethical Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Villeval, Marie Claire

    We conduct an artefactual field experiment to examine various spillover effects of Affirmative Action policies in the context of castes in India. We test a) if individuals who compete in the presence of Affirmative Action policies remain competitive in the same proportion after the policy has been...... frequently a tournament payment scheme. However, we find no spillover effect on confidence and competitiveness once Affirmative Action is withdrawn: any lower caste’s gain in competitiveness due to the policy is then entirely wiped out. Furthermore, the strong existing bias of the dominant caste against...... the lower caste is not significantly aggravated by Affirmative Action....

  11. Noradrenaline spillover during exercise in active versus resting skeletal muscle in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savard, G; Strange, S; Kiens, Bente

    1987-01-01

    Increases in plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration occur during moderate to heavy exercise in man. This study was undertaken to examine the spillover of NA from both resting and contracting skeletal muscle during exercise. Six male subjects performed one-legged knee-extension so that all...... in the exercising leg than in the resting leg both during 50% and 100% leg exercise. These results suggest that contracting skeletal muscle may contribute to a larger extent than resting skeletal muscle to increasing the level of plasma NA during exercise. Contractile activity may influence the NA spillover from...

  12. Simplified analysis of PRISM RVACS [Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System] performance without liner spill-over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Simplified analysis of the performance of the PRISM RVACS decay heat removal system under off-normal conditions, i.e., without the liner spill-over, is described. Without the spilling of hot-pool sodium over the liner and the resultant down-flow along the inside of the reactor vessel wall, the RVACS system performance becomes dominated by the radial heat condition and radiation. Simple estimates of the resulting heat conduction and radiation processes support GE's contention that the RVACS performance is not severely impacted by the absence of spillover, and can improve significantly if sodium has leaked into the region between the reactor and containment vessels. 7 refs

  13. The Effect of Corporate Strategy and Organizational Design on the Spillover Effects of FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L. Casey, Jr.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An important debate in the economics literature focuses on the role of foreign direct investment (FDI in supporting the growth and development of the lesser developed countries (LDCs globally. The ability of LDCs to capture the positive spillovers of FDI inflows depends in part on the organizational structures and corporate strategies of investing multinational enterprises (MNEs relating to the establishment of operating subsidiaries in host countries. Investment promotion policies and practices in LDCs should be formulated with the objective of capturing the positive spillovers arising from the organizational characteristics of MNEs.

  14. Do socio-cultural factors influence college students' self-rated health status and health-promoting lifestyles? A cross-sectional multicenter study in Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolokote, Sainyugu; Hidru, Tesfaldet Habtemariam; Li, Xiaofeng

    2017-05-19

    An unhealthy lifestyle of college students is an important public health concern, but few studies have been undertaken to examine the role of socio-cultural differences. For this cross-sectional comparative study, data on college students' health-promoting lifestyles (HPL), as measured using the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) scale, and self-rated health status (SRH) as measured by Sub-Optimal Health Measurement Scale (SHMS V1.0) were collected from 829 college students. The sample of 829 college students included 504 (60.8%) Chinese and 325 (39.2%) international students. Chinese students had higher scores in overall health-promoting lifestyle (HPL) (P difference in psychological health subscale (P = 0.156, eta squared = 0.002). HPL was predicted by financial status among the Chinese group and by student's major, age and level of education in the international group. Body mass index (BMI) and financial status emerged as predictors of the three subscales of SHMS V1.0 in the Chinese group and also of physiological and psychological subscales in the international group. Gender was associated with psychological health in both groups. Smoking status was a predictor of psychological health in both groups and also of social health in the international group. The level of education emerged as a predictor of social health in the international group. Regression analyses revealed a significant association between health status and healthy lifestyle (P cultural factors as key determinants of the HPL and SRH of college students.

  15. Economic analysis of pesticide use and environmental spillovers under a dynamic production environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment. In an era of an increasing public awareness on pesticides’ environmental spillovers, the EU is trying to update its pesticide policy by

  16. Sectoral Productivity Growth and R&D Spillovers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.; Tang, P.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper assesses empirically whether R&D spillovers are important and whether they originate from domestic or foreign activities. Data for eleven sectors are used to explain the impact on total factor productivity of R&D by the sector itself, by other Dutch sectors and by foreign sectors. We find

  17. Spillover between Marital Quality and Job Satisfaction: Long-Term Patterns and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stacy J.; May Dee C.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated process of spillover between marital quality and job satisfaction among married individuals. Results indicated increases in marital satisfaction were significantly related to increases in job satisfaction, and increases in marital discord were significantly related to declines in job satisfaction. These processes operate similarly for…

  18. Sleep problems for children with autism and caregiver spillover effects : Implications for cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Tilford (John Mick); N. Payakachat (Nalin); K.A. Kuhlthau (Karen); J.M. Pyne (Jeffrey); E. Kovacs (Erica); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner); R.E. Frye (Richard)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractSleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are under-recognized and under-treated. Identifying treatment value accounting for health effects on family members (spillovers) could improve the perceived cost-effectiveness of interventions to improve child sleep

  19. Competitive investments in cost reducing process improvement : The role of managerial incentives and spillover learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Jasper; Gaalman, Gerard J.c.

    2015-01-01

    We study the rivalry between two firms and consider the effect of spillovers when the firms' operations and technology managers are given bonuses for cost reduction. We model a game in which the firm owners independently offer their manager a bonus to stimulate cost reducing process improvement

  20. The influence of volatility spill-overs and market beta on portfolio construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Heymans

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adds to Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT by providing an additional measure to market beta in constructing a more efficient investment portfolio. The additional measure analyses the volatility spill-over effects among stocks within the same portfolio. Using intraday stock returns from five top-40 listed stocks on the JSE between July 2008 and April 2010, volatility spill-over effects were estimated with a residual- based test (aggregate shock [AS] model framework. It is shown that when a particular stock attracted fewer volatility spill-over effects from the other stocks in the portfolio, the overall portfolio volatility decreased as well. In most cases market beta showcased similar results. Therefore, in order to construct a more efficient risk- adjusted portfolio, one requires both a portfolio that has a unit correlation with the market (beta-based, and stocks that showcase the least amount of volatility spill-over effects amongst one another. These results might assist portfolio managers to construct lower mean variance portfolios.

  1. Chemical bridges for enhancing hydrogen storage by spillover and methods for forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwei; Qi, Gongshin; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2012-12-25

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a source of hydrogen atoms, a receptor, and a chemical bridge formed between the source and the receptor. The chemical bridge is formed from a precursor material. The receptor is adapted to receive hydrogen spillover from the source.

  2. The Costs of Today's Jobs: Job Characteristics and Organizational Supports as Antecedents of Negative Spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotto, Angela R.; Lyness, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined job characteristics and organizational supports as antecedents of negative work-to-nonwork spillover for 1178 U.S. employees. Based on hierarchical regression analyses of 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce data and O*NET data, job demands (requirements to work at home beyond scheduled hours, job complexity, time and…

  3. What Turns Knowledge into Innovative Products? The Role of Entrepreneurship and Knowledge Spillovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Haibo; Block, Joern; Thurik, A. Roy

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship seeks to explain the sources of entrepreneurship and its consequences with regard to economic performance. This paper extends the theory and links it to innovation performance. We propose that a high rate of entrepreneurship facilitates the process

  4. Longitudinal Associations between Maternal Work Stress, Negative Work-Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined associations over an 18-month period between maternal work stressors, negative work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 employed mothers with young children living in six predominantly nonmetropolitan counties in the Eastern United States. Results from a one-group mediation model showed that a…

  5. Decision and coordination of low-carbon supply chain considering technological spillover and environmental awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lang; Wang, Chuanxu; Li, Hui

    2017-06-08

    We focus on the impacts of technological spillovers and environmental awareness in a two-echelon supply chain with one-single supplier and one-single manufacturer to reduce carbon emission. In this supply chain, carbon abatement investment becomes one of key factors of cutting costs and improving profits, which is reducing production costs in the components and products-the investment from players in supply chain. On the basis of optimality theory, the centralized and decentralized models are respectively established to investigate the optimal decisions and profits. Further, setting the players' profits of the decentralized scenario as the disagreement points, we propose a bargaining-coordination contract through revenue-cost sharing to enhance the performance. Finally, by theoretical comparison and numerical analysis, the results show that: (i) The optimal profits of players and supply chain improve as technological spillovers and environmental awareness increase, and the profits of them in the bargaining-coordination contract are higher than that in the decentralized scenario; (ii) Technological spillovers between the players amplify the impact of "free-ride" behavior, in which the supplier always incentives the manufacturer to improve carbon emission intensity, but the cooperation will achieves and the profits will improve only when technological spillovers and environmental awareness are great; (iii) The contract can effectively achieve coordinated supply chain, and improve carbon abatement investment.

  6. Is Small Beautiful? Size Effects of Volatility Spillovers for Firm Performance and Exchange Rates in Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the size effects of volatility spillovers for firm performance and exchange rates with asymmetry in the Taiwan tourism industry. The analysis is based on two conditional multivariate models, BEKK-AGARCH and VARMA-AGARCH, in the volatility specification. Daily data

  7. Is Small Beautiful? Size Effects of Volatility Spillovers for Firm Performance and Exchange Rates in Tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); H-K. Hsu (Hui-Kuang); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the size effects of volatility spillovers for firm performance and exchange rates with asymmetry in the Taiwan tourism industry. The analysis is based on two conditional multivariate models, BEKK-AGARCH and VARMA-AGARCH, in the volatility specification. Daily data

  8. Inter-regional spillovers of seaports: the case of North-West Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merk, O.M.; Manshanden, W.J.J.; Dröes, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the inter-regional spillover of seaports by assessing four large ports in Northwest Europe: Rotterdam, Antwerp, Hamburg and Le Havre. The authors disaggregate national input/output-tables to the level of the functional port area and calculate the relevant Leontief multipliers

  9. Spillover but no spillback of two invasive parasitic copepods from invasive Pacific oysters (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Schuster, A.-K.; Buschbaum, C.; Gergs, R.; Jung, A.; Luttikhuizen, P.C.; Van der Meer, J.; Troost, K.; Wegner, K.M.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species can cause indirect effects on native biota by modifying parasite-host interactions and disease occurrence in native species. This study investigated the role of the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in potential spillover (co-introduced parasites infect native hosts) and

  10. The Great Recession and Job Loss Spillovers : Impact of Tradable Employment Shocks on Supporting Services

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Ha; Rezaei, Shawheen

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the spillover effects of job losses via input linkages during the Great Recession. Exploiting exogenous variation in tradable employment shocks across U.S. counties, the paper finds that job losses in the tradable sectors cause further job losses in local supporting services. The result is not due to reverse causation, construction job losses, or credit shortages. In ad...

  11. Balancing the Trade-off Between Learning Prospects and Spillover Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates local vertical linkages of foreign subsidiaries and the dual role of such linkages as conduits for learning as well as potential channels for spillovers to competitors. On the basis of data from 97 subsidiaries, we analyze the quality of such linkages under varying levels ...... find a curvilinear relationship between the extent of competitive pressure and the quality of local linkages confirming our argument of a trade-off between learning prospects and spillover risks. Furthermore, the level of subsidiary capabilities moderates this relationship.......This paper investigates local vertical linkages of foreign subsidiaries and the dual role of such linkages as conduits for learning as well as potential channels for spillovers to competitors. On the basis of data from 97 subsidiaries, we analyze the quality of such linkages under varying levels...... of competition and subsidiary capabilities. Our theoretical development and the results from the analysis document a far more complex and dynamic relationship between levels of competition and MNCs’ local participation in knowledge intensive activities, i.e. learning and spillovers, than previous studies do. We...

  12. Trade spillovers of fiscal policy in the european union: A panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the international spillovers from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP with

  13. Trade spillovers of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We explore the international spillovers from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP with

  14. Trade spill-overs of fiscal policy in the European Union: a panel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.; Giuliodori, M.; Klaassen, F.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the international spill-overs from fiscal policy shocks via trade in Europe. A fiscal expansion stimulates domestic activity, which leads to more foreign exports and, hence, higher foreign output. To quantify this, we combine a panel VAR model in government spending, net taxes and GDP

  15. Treatment for Sleep Problems in Children with Autism and Caregiver Spillover Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J. Mick; Payakachat, Nalin; Kuhlthau, Karen A.; Pyne, Jeffrey M.; Kovacs, Erica; Bellando, Jayne; Williams, D. Keith; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Frye, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are under-recognized and under-treated. Identifying treatment value accounting for health effects on family members (spillovers) could improve the perceived cost-effectiveness of interventions to improve child sleep habits. A prospective cohort study (N = 224) was conducted with…

  16. Volatility Spillovers for Spot, Futures, and ETF Prices in Energy and Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-P. Liu (Chia-Ping); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe agricultural and energy industries are closely related, both biologically and financially. The paper discusses the relationship and the interactions on price and volatility, with special focus on the covolatility spillover effects for these two industries. The interaction and

  17. The impact of negative family-work spillover on diurnal cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Imami, Ledina; Slatcher, Richard B

    2016-10-01

    Both dimensions of the work-family interface, work-to-family and family-to-work spillover, have important implications for health and well-being. Despite the importance of these associations, very little is known about the physiological mechanisms through which the interplay between family and work experiences are translated into long-lasting consequences for health. This study investigated both positive and negative aspects of each spillover dimension on diurnal cortisol secretion patterns in a large panel study of working adults between the ages of 33 and 80. Greater negative family-to-work (NFW) spillover predicted lower wake-up cortisol values and a flatter (less "healthy") diurnal cortisol slope. This effect was evident even after controlling for the effects of the other spillover dimensions. These findings indicate that not all aspects of the work-family interface might impact stress physiology to the same extent and suggest that diurnal cortisol may be an important pathway through which negative aspects of the work-family interface leave their mark on health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Energetic driving force of H spillover between rhodium and titania surfaces : a DFT view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradie, J.; Gracia, J.; Niemantsverdriet, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen spillover from a rhodium particle, over the most stable (111) surface, to a TiO2 rutile support occurs at low hydrogen coverage because the adsorption energy of H atoms at low hydrogen coverage on rutile is larger than that on rhodium. H diffuses over the support with an activation barrier

  19. Spill or leak? Carbon leakage with international technology spillovers : A CGE analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.; Kuik, O.

    This paper studies the effect of endogenous technical change and international technology spillovers on carbon leakage. It is well known that a unilateral CO2 abatement policy in one region may cause CO2 emissions to increase in non-abating regions because of the relocation of CO2-intensive firms

  20. A plant-level analysis of the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Machiel; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    In order to analyse international effects of national energy policies, we investigate the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende on the Dutch power market, which is closely connected to the German market. We estimate the impact of the German supply of wind and solar electricity on the Dutch

  1. Positive and negative spillover from work to home : The role of organizational culture and supportive arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sok, J.; Blomme, R.J.; Tromp, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    For today's managers, striking a sound work-home balance is an important matter. In this paper we investigate the relationship between organizational culture and work-to-home spillover. Two types of organizational culture, supportive and innovative, were compared with regard to work-to-home

  2. SPILLOVER EFFECTS OF THE SUB-PRIME MORTGAGE CRISIS TO THE ASIAN STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esta Lestari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper aims to analyze the effects of the sub-prime mortgage crisis on several Asian stock markets. An Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (EGARCH model is employed to provide an empirical evidence of the direct spillover. The indirect effect is measured through the spillover effects from the increased volatility in the U.S. stock markets to the Asian stock markets. The results showed that the market integration occurs within Asian stock markets. Meanwhile the asymmetric effects are evident for all the Asian countries stock markets, indicating that financial markets in Asia are suffered more from negative news (shocks lead to more volatilities compared to positive news. Keywords: Stock market, sub-prime mortgage crisis, volatility, spillover effectJEL classification numbers: C22, F36, G15AbstrakPaper ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh krisis sub-prime mortgage pada beberapa pasar saham Asia. Model Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (EGARCH digunakan untuk mendapatkan bukti empiris dari kenaikan volatilitas dalam pasar saham Amerika pada pasar-pasar saham Asia. Hasil analisis memperlihatkan bahwa integrasi pasar terjadi di dalam pasar saham Asia. Sementara itu, pengaruh asimetris terbukti terjadi di pasar-pasar saham Asia, mengindikasikan bahwa pasar-pasar keuangan di Asia menderita lebih parah sebagai akibat dari kejutan negatif dibandingkan dengan dampak dari kejutan positif.Kata kunci: Pasar saham, krisis sub-prime mortgage, volatilitas, pengaruh spillover JEL classification numbers: C22, F36, G15

  3. Trade policy in markets with collusion: the case of North–South R&D spillovers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boone, J.; Žigić, Krešimir

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2015), s. 224-237 ISSN 1090-9443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0961 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : R&D spillovers * tariff protection * supergames Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  4. When does FDI have positive spillovers? Evidence from 17 emerging market economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 6546 (2007), s. 1-53 ISSN 0265-8003 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment s * efficiency of domestic firms * FDI spillovers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cepr.org/pubs/new-dps/dplist.asp?dpno=6546.asp

  5. International R&D Spillovers and Marginal Social Returns on R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, Elmer; Ogawa, Kazuo; Tokutsu, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the impact of international R&D spillovers on recipient countries in terms of social and private returns. We divide the aggregate R&D stock by the business, government and education sectors and examine the impact on Total Factor Productivity. We endogenize the accrual of the R&D stocks by

  6. Agricultural intensification exacerbates spillover effects on soil biogeochemistry in adjacent forest remnants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael K Didham

    Full Text Available Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could 'spare' further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables, and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone

  7. Growth of Railway Network in China (1988-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Tarkhov

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available 20. 000 km of new railways were built in China in1988-2002. The railway network has increased its topologicalcomplexity from 75 to 112 circuits and the new 3nt topologicallayer appeared in 1993 and the 4'h will emerge in 2004 after the opening of the rail ferry Dalian - Yan-tai. The main features ofthe recent Chinese rail network are: 1 the predominance ofmeridional-ity, 2 the spatial disproportion between the easterncoastal area (with dense network and the empty western part,3 the low level of electrification (20% and the low share ofdouble-track sections (30%, 4 the land-lock orientation ofthe whole network and a small number of lines along the seacoasts. These disproportions are the main obstacles for a harmonicspatial devel-opment of the economic structure.

  8. Domestic Migration, Benefit Spillovers, and Local Education Spending: Evidence from China 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The idea that educational externalities affect local governments' incentive to provide such service was proposed over a century ago. Several studies have tested the relationship in the US, with mixed results. However, the theory has rarely been tested systematically outside of the US context. Paradoxically the unique household registration system…

  9. Spatial differentiation of China's summer tourist destinations based on climatic suitability using the Universal Thermal Climate Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Xueming; Xi, Jianchao; Feng, Zhangxian

    2017-11-01

    As a result of global warming and the gradual exacerbation of the urban heat island effect, vacationing in the summer to escape the heat has become a compelling tourism demand. This study examines the spatial differentiation of China's summer tourist destinations based on meteorological observations and tourism resources data from 1960 to 2014. The Universal Thermal Climate Index and analytic hierarchy process model were used to analyze climatic suitability. The findings are as follows. First, the spatial distribution of China's summer tourism resources exhibits a double-peak characteristic, with concentrations in the mid- and high-latitude and high-altitude regions. Second, the most influential destinations in China based on the composite index were Guiyang, Qingdao, Harbin, and Dalian. These findings can helpful for people who are planning their summer vacations, as well as tourism managers who benefit from such increases in the number of tourists.

  10. Phenomena and significance of intermediate spillover in electrocatalysis of oxygen and hydrogen electrode reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Jelena M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altervalent hypo-d-oxides of transition metal series impose spontaneous dissociative adsorption of water molecules and pronounced membrane spillover transferring properties instantaneously resulting with corresponding bronze type (Pt/HxWO3 under cathodic, and/or its hydrated state (Pt/W(OH6 responsible for the primary oxide (Pt-OH effusion, under anodic polarization, this way establishing instantaneous reversibly revertible alterpolar bronze features (Pt/H0.35WO3 Pt/W(OH6, and substantially advanced electrocatalytic properties of these composite interactive electrocatalysts. As the consequence, the new striking and unpredictable prospects both in law and medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuell cell (L&MT PEMFC and water electrolysis (WE have been opened by the interactive supported individual (Pt, Pd, Ni or prevailing hyper-d-electronic nanostructured intermetallic phase clusters (WPt3, NbPt3, HfPd3, ZrNi3, grafted upon and within high altervalent capacity hypo-d-oxides (WO3, Nb2O5, Ta2O5, TiO2 and their proper mixed valence compounds, to create a novel type of alterpolar interchangeable composite electrocatalysts for hydrogen and oxygen electrode reactions. Whereas in aqueous media Pt (Pt/C features either chemisorbed catalytic surface properties of H-adatoms (Pt-H, or surface oxide (Pt=O, missing any effusion of other interacting species, new generation and selection of composite and interactive strong metal-support interaction (SMSI electrocatalysts in condensed wet state primarily characterizes interchangeable extremely fast reversible spillover of either H-adatoms, or the primary oxides (Pt-OH, Au-OH, or the invertible bronze type behavior of these significant interactive electrocatalytic ingredients. Such nanostructured type electrocatalysts, even of mixed hypo-d-oxide structure (Pt/H0.35WO3/TiO2/C, Pt/HxNbO3/TiO2/C, have for the first time been synthesized by the sol-gel methods and shown rather high stability, electron

  11. Spillover Phenomena and Its Striking Impacts in Electrocatalysis for Hydrogen and Oxygen Electrode Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios D. Papakonstantinou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The core subject of the present paper represents the interrelated spillover (effusion phenomena both of the primary oxide and the H-adatoms, their theory and practice, causes, appearances and consequences, and evidences of existence, their specific properties, and their alterpolar equilibria and kinetic behavior, structural, and resulting catalytic, and double layer charging features. The aim is to introduce electron conductive and d-d interactive individual and composite (mixed valence hypo-d-oxide compounds, of increased altervalent capacity, or their suboxides (Magnéli phases, as the interactive catalytic supports and therefrom provide (i the strong metal-support interaction (SMSI catalytic effect and (ii dynamic spillover interactive transfer of primary oxides (M-OH and free effusional H-adatoms for further electrode reactions and thereby advance the overall electrocatalytic activity. Since hypo-d-oxides feature the exchange membrane properties, the higher the altervalent capacity, the higher the spillover effect. In fact, altervalent hypo-d-oxides impose spontaneous dissociative adsorption of water molecules and then spontaneously pronounced membrane spillover transferring properties instantaneously resulting with corresponding bronze type (Pt/HxWO3 under cathodic and/or its hydrated state (Pt/W(OH6, responsible for Pt-OH effusion, under anodic polarization, this way establishing instantaneous reversibly revertible alterpolar bronze features (Pt/H0.35WO3⇔ Pt/W(OH6 and substantially advanced electrocatalytic properties of these composite interactive electrocatalysts. Such nanostructured-type electrocatalysts, even of mixed-valence hypo-d-oxide structures (Pt/H0.35WO3/TiO2/C, Pt/HxNbO3/TiO2/C, have for the first time been synthesized by the sol-gel methods and shown rather high stability, electron conductivity, and nonexchanged initial pure monobronze spillover and catalytic properties. Such a unique electrocatalytic system, as the

  12. International energy R and D spillovers and the economics of greenhouse gas atmospheric stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosetti, Valentina; Carraro, Carlo; Massetti, Emanuele; Tavoni, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that technological change will play a substantial role in reducing GHG emissions without compromising economic growth; hence, any better understanding of the process of technological innovation is likely to increase our knowledge of mitigation possibilities and costs. This paper explores how international knowledge flows affect the dynamics of the domestic R and D sector and the main economic and environmental variables. The analysis is performed using WITCH, a dynamic regional model of the world economy, in which energy-related technological change is endogenous. The focus is on disembodied energy R and D international spillovers. The knowledge pool from which regions draw foreign ideas differs between High Income and Low Income countries. Absorption capacity is also endogenous in the model. The basic questions are as follows. Do knowledge spillovers enhance energy-related technological innovation in different regions of the world? Does the speed of innovation increase? Or do free-riding incentives prevail and international spillovers crowd out domestic R and D efforts? What is the role of domestic absorption capacity and of policies designed to enhance it? Do greenhouse gas stabilization costs drop in the presence of international technological spillovers? The new specification of the WITCH model presented in this paper enables us to answer these questions. Our analysis shows that international knowledge spillovers tend to increase free-riding incentives and decrease the investments in energy R and D. The strongest cuts in energy R and D investments are recorded among High Income countries, where international knowledge flows crowd out domestic R and D efforts. The overall domestic pool of knowledge, and thus total net GHG stabilization costs, remain largely unaffected. International spillovers, however, are also an important policy channel. We therefore analyze the implication of a policy-mix in which climate policy is combined with a

  13. Leisure-time physical activity moderates the longitudinal associations between work-family spillover and physical health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bora; Lawson, Katie M.; Chang, Po-Ju; Neuendorf, Claudia; Dmitrieva, Natalia O.; Almeida, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented cross-sectional associations between negative and positive work-family spillover and physical health. Using an effort-recovery model, the study tested the hypothesis that engagement in greater leisure-time physical activity would facilitate recovery processes that buffer the negative health effects of increasing work-family spillover. Employed adults (N = 1,354) completed two waves of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS). Results indicated that an increase in negative work-family spillover across nine years was associated with decreased physical health and increased number of chronic conditions at Time 2. Moreover, more time spent on moderate leisure-time physical activity buffered many of the associations between increasing negative spillover and declining health. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:25999602

  14. Stock markets volatility spillovers during financial crises: A DCC-MGARCH with skewed-t density approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dahiru A. Bala; Taro Takimoto

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates stock returns volatility spillovers in emerging and developed markets (DMs) using multivariate-GARCH (MGARCH) models and their variants. In addition, we analyse the impacts of global financial crisis (2007–2009) on stock market volatility interactions and modify the BEKK-MGARCH-type models by including financial crisis dummies to assess their impact on volatilities and spillovers. Major findings reveal that correlations among emerging markets (EMs) are lower compared w...

  15. Discontentment and knowledge spillovers in an emerging high-tech industry: a study of the emergence of the RFID industry

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is an inductive study of how entrepreneurs and their collaborators use or encourage knowledge spillovers to fuel technological innovations during the emergence of a knowledge intensive industry. Drawing on theories of the entrepreneurial process, innovation during industry emergence, and knowledge spillovers, this thesis seeks to explain the process by which entrepreneurs, facing market, organizational and technological uncertainty, use their existing knowledge to procure, share a...

  16. Spillover and work-family conflict in probation practice: Managing the boundary between work and home life

    OpenAIRE

    Westaby, Chalen; Phillips, Jake; Fowler, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Based on the close relationship between social work and probation practice this article uses and develops Greenhaus and Beutell's (1985) work-family conflict model to understand the spillover from probation work to practitioners’ family lives. We examine the ways spillover affects practitioners' family lives and show that these conflicts stem from desensitisation and the work being community based. They also arise in more imagined ways which we describe as altruistic imaginings and darker ima...

  17. Lapatinib for the treatment of breast cancer in the People’s Republic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang HJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hongjiang Wang Department of Breast Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Lapatinib is an oral, small-molecule, reversible inhibitor of both epidermal growth factor receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor–2 (HER2 tyrosine kinases. In March 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration approved lapatinib for use in combination with capecitabine for the treatment of women with HER2-overexpressing, advanced or metastatic breast cancer. This review discusses the available information of lapatinib in Chinese breast cancer patients, focusing on its effectiveness and clinical application against advanced or metastatic breast cancer. In pivotal phase III trials, a combination of lapatinib and capecitabine significantly decreased the risk of disease progression compared to capecitabine alone in women with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic breast cancer. Other trials were used to evaluate lapatinib in combination with hormone therapy, in combination with trastuzumab, and as an adjunct to adjuvant therapy for early-stage disease. Preclinical data have revealed that lapatinib is active in trastuzumab-resistant cell lines as well as synergistic with trastuzumab. In clinical trials, lapatinib has not been associated with serious or symptomatic cardiotoxicity. Further, it can cross the blood–brain barrier and may therefore have a role in preventing cancer progression in the central nervous system. Thus, lapatinib warrants further evaluation in HER2-positive metastatic and early-stage breast cancer patients. Keywords: lapatinib, HER2 positive, breast cancer, molecular targeting therapy

  18. COEXISTENCE OF PRIVATE FIRMS AND OPEN SOURCE FIRMS UNDER SPILLOVERS AND CONSUMER BIAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat YILMAZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Open source technologies have been an important divergence from the private produc- tion, and some markets have accommodated both open source firms and private firms. We explore the conditions under which such a coexistence of both type of firms can be seen. Through a simple and tractable game theoretical model, with spillovers on the open source production and positive consumer bias for the privately produced good, we analyze the conditions for which, in the equilibrium, a private firm and an open source firm share the market. We find that for large enough consumer bias, the two types cannot coexist, however when the consumer bias is relatively low and the spillover effect is not too strong, then we get a coexistence result.

  19. The dynamic spillover of satisfaction between work and marriage: the role of time and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Daniel; Watson, David

    2005-11-01

    Previous research has indicated important linkages between work and family domains and roles. However, the nature of the dynamic spillover between job and marital satisfaction remains poorly understood. The current study tests both the concurrent and lagged associations between job and marital satisfaction at a within-individual level of analysis using a diary study of 76 fully employed, married adults. The authors further examine the mediating role of mood in this spillover process. Consistent with their hypotheses, findings indicate both a concurrent and a lagged (job to marital and marital to job) job satisfaction-marital satisfaction association at the within-subject level of analysis and lend some support for the mediating role of mood (most notably positive affect) in these associations. The authors hope these findings stimulate new research that uses more complex designs and comprehensive theoretical models to investigate work-family links. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Walking ATMs and the immigration spillover effect: The link between Latino immigration and robbery victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Raymond E; Shihadeh, Edward S

    2015-07-01

    Media reports and prior research suggest that undocumented Latino migrants are disproportionately robbed because they rely on a cash-only economy and they are reluctant to report crimes to law-enforcement (the Walking ATM phenomenon). From this we generate two specific research questions. First, we probe for an immigration spillover effect - defined as increased native and documented Latino robbery victimization due to offenders' inability to distinguish between the statuses of potential victims. Second, we examine the oft-repeated claim that Blacks robbers disproportionately target Latino victims. Using National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data from 282 counties, results show (1) support for an immigration spillover effect but, (2) no support for the claim that Latinos are disproportionately singled out by Black robbers. We discuss the implications of our findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alpha/beta(gamma ray) discrimination and spillover quantification with a BaF2 scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A simple pulse shape discrimination technique was used to separate alpha and beta(gamma ray) interactions in a BaF 2 scintillator. The separation was not ideal, resulting in a 5.1% spillover of alpha interactions into the beta(gamma ray) channel and 11.9% spillover of beta(gamma ray) interactions into the alpha channel for a set pulse shape discriminator. The misclassification of events was reduced by post-processing the data using either a simple analytical technique or a more complex linear least squares technique. Both techniques typically reduced the difference between the expected and calculated interaction rates to <10% when the ratio of beta(gamma ray) to alpha count rate was less than 100 : 1. ((orig.))

  2. VOLATILITY SPILLOVER EFFECTS IN THE EXTRA VIRGIN OLIVE OIL MARKETS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Panagiotou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the existence and magnitude of volatility spillovers between the extra virgin olive oil markets of Italy, Spain and Greece. These three Mediterranean countries are responsible for 95% of olive oil production within the European Union and they account for more than 50% of olive oil exports worldwide. In order to measure the degree of volatility transmission between these countries we estimate a vector error correction model along with the BEKK parameterization of a Multivariate Generalized Conditional Autoregressive Heteroskedasticity (M-GARCH model. The empirical results reveal the presence of ARCH and GARCH effects suggesting this way the existence of volatility spillovers between the extra virgin olive oil markets of Italy, Greece and Spain. ARCH effects are the biggest in magnitude for the market between Spain and Italy. GARCH effects are the biggest in magnitude for the market between Greece and Italy.

  3. Workload and Marital Satisfaction over Time: Testing Lagged Spillover and Crossover Effects during the Newlywed Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Clark, Malissa A

    2017-08-01

    Although many studies have found that higher workloads covary with lower levels of marital satisfaction, the question of whether workloads may also predict changes in marital satisfaction over time has been overlooked. To address this question, we investigated the lagged association between own and partner workload and marital satisfaction using eight waves of data collected every 6 months over the first four years of marriage from 172 heterosexual couples. Significant crossover, but not spillover, effects were found, indicating that partners of individuals with higher workloads at one time point experience greater declines in marital satisfaction by the following time point compared to the partners of individuals with lower workloads. These effects were not moderated by gender or parental status. These findings suggest that higher partner workloads can prove deleterious for relationship functioning over time and call for increased attention to the long-term effects of spillover and crossover from work to marital functioning.

  4. Local variability in long-term care services: local autonomy, exogenous influences and policy spillovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, José-Luis; Forder, Julien

    2015-03-01

    In many countries, public responsibility over the funding and provision of long-term care services is held at the local level. In such systems, long-term care provision is often characterised by significant local variability. Using a panel dataset of local authorities over the period 2002-2012, the paper investigates the underlying causes of variation in gross social care expenditure for older people in England. The analysis distinguishes between factors outside the direct control of policy makers, local preferences and local policy spillovers. The results indicate that local demand and supply factors, and to a much lesser extent local political preferences and spatial policy spillovers, explain a large majority of the observed variation in expenditure. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Inequity in work and intimate relationships: a Spillover-Crossover model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Petrou, Paraskevas; Tsaousis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    This study among 267 Greek teachers and their partners tested and expanded the recently proposed Spillover-Crossover model (SCM) of well-being. Accordingly, experiences built up at work spill over to the home domain, and then influence the partner. The authors integrated equity theory in the model by formulating hypotheses about exchange in interpersonal relationships. Structural equation modeling analyses supported the spillover hypothesis that teachers who lose their work engagement as a result of an inequitable relationship with their students invest less in the relationship with their partner. In addition, the results supported the crossover hypothesis that teachers' relationship investments, in turn, show a negative relationship with inequity in the intimate relationship as perceived by the partner; and inequity in the intimate relationship contributed to partner depression. The findings are discussed in light of the SCM of well-being.

  6. The environmental actions of firms: examining the role of spillovers, networks and absorptive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz, Facundo; Cole, Matthew A; Elliott, Robert J R; Ercolani, Marco G

    2014-12-15

    In the light of climate uncertainty and growing concern for the natural environment, an increasingly important aspect of global business is the environmental behaviour of firms. In this paper we consider the factors that influence firms' environmental actions (EAs). Our study of Argentinean firms concentrates on measures of environmental spillovers, informal and formal networks and absorptive capacity by testing four related hypotheses. We find that foreign-owned firms, large firms and those with a greater capacity to assimilate new environmental technologies are more likely to adopt EAs. We also show that formal and informal networks aid the adoption of EAs in the presence of traditional firm-level spillovers. Finally, we show that foreign-owned firms have different motives to domestic firms for undertaking EAs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Response Asymmetry in Spillover Volatility: an Empirical Study in the Indonesia and Singapore Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Saadah

    2013-01-01

    Following the blueprint of the ASEAN integration 2015, the integration of the financial markets in this region will increase. This study investigates the existence of a volatility spillover from the Singaporean stock market into Indonesia, including its transmission pattern. Singapore, as an advanced country in the ASEAN region, has played an important role as the information leader in the market of this region, so that it is very possible that the shocks in the Singapore’s stock mark...

  8. Spillover between Marital Quality and Parent-child Relationship Quality: Parental Depressive Symptoms as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study examined concurrent and time-lagged relations between marital and parent-child relationship qualities, providing a test of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses. Additionally, this study tested both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms as moderators of these daily linkages. Participants were 203 families, in which mothers and fathers completed daily diaries for 15 days. At the end of each reporting day, parents independently rated the emotional quality of their relationship with their spouse and with their child that day. Controlling for global levels of marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and parenting, a positive association was found between mothers’ and fathers’ daily ratings of marital quality and their ratings of parent-child relationship quality, supporting the spillover hypothesis. When considering time-lagged relations, support was found for the compensatory hypothesis for mothers: lower levels of marital quality were related to increases in mother-child relationship quality from one day to the next. Further, both maternal and paternal depressive symptoms moderated the link between marital quality and the other parent’s relationship quality with their child. Whereas maternal depressive symptoms strengthened spillover relations for fathers on the next day, paternal depression was related to less spillover for mothers on the same day. Alternative models did not find evidence for parent-child relationship quality as a predictor of changes in marital quality on the next day. The findings underscore the importance of the quality of the marital relationship for predicting the quality of other family relationships. PMID:24821519

  9. Multinational ownership and R&D intensity: The role of external knowledge sources and spillovers

    OpenAIRE

    De Beule, Filip; Van Beveren, Ilke

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the drivers of multinational affiliates' R&D intensity, using a unique dataset based on the fourth Community Innovation Survey for Belgium. Specifically, we investigate the role of foreign affiliates' local (host country) embeddedness and of host country spillovers on foreign affiliates' research efforts. Our findings show that foreign affiliates who are able to tap into local knowledge sources demonstrate a higher research intensity, compared to firms lacking such access....

  10. Firm expansion, size spillovers and market dominance in retail chain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Blevins, JR; Khwaja, Ahmed Wali; Yang, N

    2017-01-01

    We develop and estimate a dynamic game of strategic firm expansion and contraction decisions to study the role of firm size on future profitability and market dominance. Modeling firm size is important because retail chain dynamics are more richly driven by expansion and contraction than de novo entry or permanent exit. Additionally, anticipated size spillovers may influence the strategies of forward looking firms making it difficult to analyze the effects of size without explicitly accountin...

  11. "Forecasting Volatility and Spillovers in Crude Oil Spot, Forward and Futures Markets"

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Roengchai Tansuchat

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at- Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia- Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover effects across and within the four mar...

  12. Stock Markets Volatility Spillovers during Financial Crises : A DCC-MGARCH with Skew-t Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bala, Dahiru A.; Takimoto, Taro

    2016-01-01

    We investigate stock markets volatility spillovers in selected emerging and major developed markets using multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) models [namely; DVECH, CCC-MGARCH, CCC-VARMA-(A)MGARCH, VAR-EGARCH, BEKK-(A)MGARCH, DCC-MGARCH (with Gaussian and t distributions) and DCC-with-skew-t density]. The paper analyses the impacts of recent global financial crisis (2007{2009) on stock market volatility and examines their dynamic interactions using several MGARCH model variants. Structural break dete...

  13. The Welsh Single-Use Carrier Bag Charge and behavioural spillover

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Gregory O.; Poortinga, Wouter; Sautkina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A Single-Use Carrier Bag Charge (SUCBC) requires bags to be sold for a small fee, instead of free of charge. SUCBCs may produce ‘spillover’ effects, where other pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours could increase or decrease. We investigate the 2011 Welsh SUCBC, and whether spillover occurs in other behaviours and attitudes. Using the Understanding Society Survey (n = 17,636), results show that use of own shopping bags increased in Wales, compared to England and Scotland. Increased use ...

  14. Simultaneous Volatility Transmissions and Spillover Effects: US and Hong Kong Stock and Futures Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Gannon

    2004-01-01

    Contemporaneous transmission effects across volatilities of the Hong Kong Stock and Index futures markets and futures volume of trade are tested by employing a structural systems approach. Competing measures of volatility spillover, constructed from the overnight U.S. S&P500 index futures, are tested and found to impact on the Hong Kong asset return volatility and volume of trade patterns. The examples utilize intra-day 15 minute sampled data from this medium sized Asia Pacific equity and der...

  15. Knowledge spillovers and absorptive capacity - institutional evidence from the 'German Mittelstand'

    OpenAIRE

    Proeger, Till

    2017-01-01

    Recent extensions to the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE) show that the successful commercialization of new knowledge by incumbents depends on their absorptive capacities. For policy-makers focusing on increasing incumbents' innovative performance, the systematic reduction of knowledge filter through improved absorptive capacities thus becomes a crucial goal. While the general working mechanisms of knowledge filter have been analyzed within the KSTE framework, few institu...

  16. Daily Positive Spillover and Crossover from Mothers’ Work to Youth Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior research shows that employees’ work experiences can “spill over” into their family lives and “cross over” to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the...

  17. The spillover of money market turbulence to FX swap and cross-currency swap markets

    OpenAIRE

    Naohiko Baba; Frank Packer; Teppei Nagano

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the spillover of the turmoil in money markets in the second half of 2007 to FX swap and long-term cross-currency basis swap markets. We find that the use of swap markets to overcome US dollar funding shortages by non-US financial institutions resulted in marked deviations from covered interest parity conditions and the impairment of liquidity in these markets.

  18. Default, Framing and Spillover Effects: The Case of Lifecycle Funds in 401(k) Plans

    OpenAIRE

    Olivia S. Mitchell; Gary R. Mottola; Stephen P. Utkus; Takeshi Yamaguchi

    2009-01-01

    Important behavioral factors such as default and framing effects are increasingly being employed to optimize decision-making in a variety of settings, including individually-directed retirement plans. Yet such approaches may have unintended "spillover" effects, as we show with regard to the introduction of lifecycle funds in U.S. 401(k) plans. As anticipated, lifecycle funds do reshape individual portfolio choices through large default and framing effects. But unexpectedly, they also create a...

  19. The Location of Japanese MNC Affiliates: Agglomeration, Spillovers and Firm Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiko Inui; Toshiyuki Matsuura; Sandra Poncet

    2008-01-01

    We examine the location choices of the foreign affiliates of Japanese manufacturing firms, using a new data set that matches parents to the affiliates they created over the 1995-2003 period. The analysis is based on new economic geography theory, and thus focuses on the effect of market and supplier access, as well as production and trade costs. Our aim is twofold. First, we investigate the importance of agglomeration and spillover effects on firms’ decisions via variables showing the presenc...

  20. How has sovereign bond market liquidity changed? : an illiquidity spillover analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Michael; Lillo, Fabrizio; Pelizzon, Loriana

    2016-01-01

    Amid increasing regulation, structural changes of the market and Quantitative Easing as well as extremely low yields, concerns about the market liquidity of the Eurozone sovereign debt markets have been raised. We aim to quantify illiquidity risks, especially such related to liquidity dry-ups, and illiquidity spillover across maturities by examining the reaction to illiquidity shocks at high frequencies in two ways: a) the regular response to shocks using a variance decomposition and, b) the ...

  1. Spillover between interparental conflict and parent-child conflict within and across days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Rachel Baden; Lochman, John E; DeCoster, Jamie; Stromeyer, Sara L

    2017-10-01

    The present study used a daily reporting design to examine the bidirectional spillover in conflict and conflict strategies between the interparental relationship and the parent-child relationship. Participants were 60 parents with a preadolescent child at risk for aggressive behavior. Parents reported on their experience of interparental and parent-child conflict and their use of constructive and destructive conflict strategies through daily telephone interviews over 7 days. Each day was divided into 3 equal time periods roughly corresponding to early morning, daytime, and evening. Time-lagged analyses investigated the spillover in conflict within and across days. Results revealed that the presence of interparental conflict significantly predicted the presence of parent-child conflict 1 time period later and 1 full day later. Likewise, the presence of parent-child conflict significantly predicted the presence of interparental conflict 1 full day later. In terms of conflict strategy use, results revealed that parents who engaged in constructive patterns of interparental conflict were more likely to engage in constructive patterns of parent-child conflict 1 time period later and 1 full day later. Reciprocal effects for constructive parent-child conflict predicting subsequent interparental conflict were significant across all 3 time lags assessed. There were no significant, bidirectional effects for the spillover in destructive conflict. Findings have important clinical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Does FDI promote regional development? Evidence from local and regional productivity spillovers in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis MONASTIRIOTIS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the productivity spillovers of FDI have concentrated on the nationalsectoral level. As a result, little is known about the impact of FDI on absolute and relative regional economic performance. In this paper we examine this issue by relying on a unique dataset of over 20,000 Greek firms for the period 2002-2006 covering all sectors of economic activity. We examine the spatial distribution of foreign-owned firms in the country and analyse the effect that their presence – at the local, regional and national levels – has on the productivity of domestic firms. We find strong evidence suggesting that foreignowned firms self-select into regions and sectors of high productivity. Net of this selection effect, the impact of foreign presence on domestic productivity is negative – although at the very local level some positive spillover effects are identifiable. The bulk of the effects concentrate in non-manufacturing activities, high-tech sectors, and medium-sized high-productivity firms. Importantly, this effect is not constant across space however. Productivity spillovers tend to be negative in the regions hosting the main urban areas in the country but positive in smaller and more peripheral regions. In this way, despite the tendency of FDI to concentrate in a limited number of areas within the country – those of the highest level of development – the externalities that FDI activity generates to the local economies appear to be of a rather equilibrating character.

  3. Longitudinal spillover effects of conflict resolution styles between adolescent-parent relationships and adolescent friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Vandervalk, Inge E; De Goede, Irene H A; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-02-01

    This study longitudinally investigated spillover effects of conflict resolution styles in adolescent-parent relationships and adolescent friendships. Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles with parents and best friends were completed by adolescents from two age cohorts: 559 early adolescents (mean age 13.4) and 327 middle adolescents (mean age 17.7). Path analyses on two waves, with a three-year interval, indicated that in the early-to-middle adolescent group positive problem solving and conflict engagement spilled over from adolescent-parent relationships to adolescent friendships and not from adolescent friendships to adolescent-parent relationships. In the middle-to-late adolescent group, we found bidirectional spillover effects for these two conflict resolution styles. For withdrawal, we found bidirectional spillover effects in both cohorts. This study showed that both parents and friends set the stage for exercising and learning conflict resolution styles and thereby shape adolescents' future conflict behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Daily spillover from family to work: A test of the work-home resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Danyang; Derks, Daantje; Bakker, Arnold B

    2018-04-01

    The present study examines a mediated moderation model of the day-level effects of family hassles and family-work spillover (affect and cognition) on the relationship between job resources and employees' flourishing at work. Based on the work-home resources model, the authors hypothesized that demands from one domain (family) induce repetitive thoughts or negative feelings about those problems, so that individuals are not able to function optimally and to make full use of contextual resources in the other domain (work). Multilevel analyses of 108 Chinese working parents' 366 daily surveys revealed that the relationship between morning job resources and afternoon flourishing was significantly positive when previous day family hassles were low; the relationship became nonsignificant when previous day family hassles were high. In addition, as predicted, daily rumination also attenuated the relationship between morning job resources and afternoon flourishing, whereas daily affect did not. Finally, the moderating effect of previous day family hassles was mediated by daily rumination. The findings contribute to spillover theories by revealing the roles of affective and cognitive spillover from family to work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into nonwork: A daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Corts, Inés; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Boz, Marina

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(3) of Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (see record 2015-15847-001). There was a misspelling in the figures. The legends for Figure 1 and Figure 2 should read "High Daily Resilience".] This study among a heterogeneous sample of employees expands the Job-Demands (JD-R) theory by examining how interpersonal conflicts at work-task and relationship conflict-spillover into the nonwork domain on a daily basis. We hypothesized that daily personal resources can buffer the daily negative spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into the nonwork domain. A total of 113 employees (n = 565 occasions) filled in a daily diary questionnaire in the evening before bedtime over 5 consecutive working days. Results of multilevel analysis showed that the presence of daily personal resources is essential to buffer the spillover of interpersonal conflict at work to the nonwork domain. Specifically, on days that employees were not very optimistic or resilient, interpersonal conflicts resulted in higher strain-based work-life conflict experiences. These findings contribute to the JD-R theory and show how the unfavorable effects of daily interpersonal conflicts in the work domain may be avoided in the nonwork domain through enhancing personal resources. We discuss the implications for theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Study on spillover effect of copper futures between LME and SHFE using wavelet multiresolution analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Research on information spillover effects between financial markets remains active in the economic community. A Granger-type model has recently been used to investigate the spillover between London Metal Exchange (LME) and Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE), however, possible correlation between the future price and return on different time scales have been ignored. In this paper, wavelet multiresolution decomposition is used to investigate the spillover effects of copper future returns between the two markets. The daily return time series are decomposed on 2n (n=1, ..., 6) frequency bands through wavelet multiresolution analysis. The correlation between the two markets is studied with decomposed data. It is shown that high frequency detail components represent much more energy than low-frequency smooth components. The relation between copper future daily returns in LME and that in SHFE are different on different time scales. The fluctuations of the copper future daily returns in LME have large effect on that in SHFE in 32-day scale, but small effect in high frequency scales. It also has evidence that strong effects exist between LME and SHFE for monthly responses of the copper futures but not for daily responses.

  7. China’s inter-regional spillover of carbon emissions and domestic supply chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Bo; Xue, Jinjun; Feng, Kuishuang; Guan, Dabo; Fu, Xue

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we apply the inter-regional input–output model to explain the relationship between China’s inter-regional spillover of CO 2 emissions and domestic supply chains for 2002 and 2007. Based on this model, we propose alternative indicators such as the trade in CO 2 emissions, CO 2 emissions in trade and the regional trade balances of CO 2 emissions. Our results do not only reveal the nature and significance of inter-regional environmental spillover within China’s domestic regions but also demonstrate how CO 2 emissions are created and distributed across regions via domestic and global production networks. Results show that a region’s CO 2 emissions depend on its intra-regional production technology, energy use efficiency, as well as its position and participation degree in domestic and global supply chains. - Highlights: • An IO model is used to measure China’s inter-regional spillover of CO 2 emissions. • We focus on the relationship between CO 2 emissions and domestic supply chains. • New indexes for identifying the consumer–producer responsibility are proposed. • A region’s emission depends on its position and participation level in supply chains

  8. A Method of Signal Timing Optimization for Spillover Dissipation in Urban Street Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The precise identification and quick dissipation of spillovers are critically important in a traffic control system, especially when heavy congestion occurs. This paper first presents a calculation method for the occupancy per cycle under different traffic conditions and identifies the threshold of occupancy that characterizes the formation of spillovers. Then, capacity adjustments are determined for the incoming and outgoing streams of bottleneck links, with the aim of dissipating the queue to a permissible length within a given period of time, and optimization schemes are defined to calculate splits for the upstream and downstream intersections. Finally, taking average vehicular delay, outputs per cycle, and maximum queue length on the bottleneck link as the evaluation indices, the method of dissipating spillovers proposed in this paper is evaluated using a VISSIM simulation. The results show that the maximum queue length on the bottleneck link and the average vehicular delay at the upstream and downstream intersections decrease significantly under the new signal control plan; meanwhile, the new control schemes have little influence on the outputs of the two intersections per cycle.

  9. R&D Spillovers with Endogenous Absorptive Capacity: Lessons for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chankwon Bae

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of absorptive capacity in R&D spillovers through strategic R&D investments in a game-theoretic framework. In the model, a firm's effective R&D is composed of idiosyncratic R&D, which produces its own innovations, and identical R&D, which improves absorptive capacity. The model shows that in the presence of absorptive capacity firms have a tendency to underinvest (overinvest in idiosyncratic (identical R&D relative to the social optimum. As the spillover becomes larger, firms decrease their own R&D while they become more inclined towards strategic exploitation of rivals' efforts. Since the former effect overpowers the latter, the total amount of R&D decreases as the spillover increases. This is socially undesirable, providing a potential justification for a governmental subsidy for idiosyncratic R&D and a tax on identical R&D. The findings may have important implications for newly industrialized or emerging countries that consider a redirection of national R&D policy and intellectual property rights (IPR regime.

  10. The effect of employing knowledge workers from technologically advanced countries: The knowledge spillover caused by the mobility of knowledge workers in electronic industries in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Fujiwara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented in 2017 6th International Conference on Industrial Technology and Management (ICITM [53]. This research focuses on the mobilization of human resources in the Asian electrical industry and analyzes the impact of engineers’ international mobility on the innovation of enterprises in the host countries. I examine the characteristics of engineers who moved from Japan to China and South Korea to explore which types of engineers successful firms in China and South Korea select from rival companies in Japan. In addition, this study focuses on the role of the inventors’ networks to investigate the significance of researcher mobility and knowledge spillover as mechanisms that facilitate the flow of tacit knowledge. This study reveals that during the process of innovation, informal networks play an important role in the mobility of engineers. The findings suggest that successful firms require people with analytical skills and problem-solving capacity, not “star inventors.”

  11. 2006-2009年辽宁省大连市学龄儿童智商监测分析%Analysis of intelligence quotient of school children surveyed in Dalian city of Liaoning province during 2006 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟; 张斌; 邵世亮; 梅丹; 陈凤义

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解实施全民食盐加碘后学龄儿童智商变化情况,为碘缺乏病防治工作提供科学依据.方法 2006-2009年选择辽宁省大连市11所小学校1580名儿童,采用中国联合型瑞文测验第二次修订版(CRT-C2)测验智商.智商分度及标准:非常优秀(≥130)、优秀(120~129)、中上(110~119)、中等(90~109)、中下(80~89)、边缘(70~79)、智力落后(≤69).采集儿童随意1次尿样(2006年未开展尿碘监测),用砷铈催化分光光度法检测尿碘.按监测年份及儿童出生年份分析全民食盐加碘前后儿童智商增长特点.结果 2006-2009年8~10岁儿童智商值分别为110.4 4-14.0、112.5±12.4、117.2 ±11.4、116.2±12.6,呈逐年增长趋势:2007-2009年与2006年比较年均增长值分别为2.1、3.4、1.9个智商点.2007-2009年8~10岁儿童尿碘中位数分别为224.7、266.7、222.1μg/L,均在200~300μg/L,人群碘营养处于超足量水平.1994-2000年出生的儿童智商值分别为106.7±13.0、108.1 ±13.9、108.5±134、111.3±14.3、113.6±12.5、115.3±12.3、119.8±11.2;1995-2000年与1994年比较年均增长值分别为1.4、0.9、1.5、1.7、1.7、2.2个智商点;智力落后和边缘智力的比例各年度均<2%;优秀和非常优秀的检出率呈逐年上升趋势,中等和中下的检出率呈逐年下降趋势(x2值分别为52.471、34.329、66.483、11.148,P均<0.01).结论 全民食盐加碘可快速提高学龄儿童智商水平.在碘缺乏病防治工作中,应加强智商指标的监测和应用.%Objective To obtain scientific data for control of iodine deficiency disorders(IDD) by reviewing the surveillance information of school children intelligence quotient(IQ) after the implementation of universal salt iodization. Methods One thousand five hundred and eighty children were selected from 11 primary school in Dalian city of Liaoning province during 2006 to 2009. IQ was measured by Combined Raven Test-C2(CRT-C2) in China. Groups of IQ

  12. Stock markets volatility spillovers during financial crises: A DCC-MGARCH with skewed-t density approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahiru A. Bala

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates stock returns volatility spillovers in emerging and developed markets (DMs using multivariate-GARCH (MGARCH models and their variants. In addition, we analyse the impacts of global financial crisis (2007–2009 on stock market volatility interactions and modify the BEKK-MGARCH-type models by including financial crisis dummies to assess their impact on volatilities and spillovers. Major findings reveal that correlations among emerging markets (EMs are lower compared with correlations among DMs and increase during financial crises. Furthermore, we detect evidence of volatility spillovers and observe that own-volatility spillovers are higher than cross-volatility spillovers for EMs suggesting that shocks have not been substantially transmitted among EMs compared to DMs. We also find significant asymmetric behaviour in DMs while weak evidence is detected for EMs. Finally, the DCC-with-skewed-t density model provided improved diagnostics compared to other models partly due to its taking into account fat tails and skewed features often present in financial returns.

  13. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Sheng Zhang1 2 Hong-Qing Zhang2. Department of Mathematics, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121013, People's Republic of China; School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, People's Republic of China ...

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    De Tian1 Lin Guo1. Orthopedics Department, Hospital of Dalian University, Dalian 116 001, China; School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China; The Nursing Department, Affiliated Zhongshan ...

  15. Hydrogen storage in hybrid of layered double hydroxides/reduced graphene oxide using spillover mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Jafari-Asl, Mehdi; Nabiyan, Afshin; Rezaei, Behzad; Dinari, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    New efficient hydrogen storage hybrids were fabricated based on hydrogen spillover mechanism, including chemisorptions and dissociation of H_2 on the surface of LDH (layered double hydroxides) and diffusion of H to rGO (reduced graphene oxide). The structures and compositions of all of the hybrids (LDHs/rGO) have been verified using different methods including transmission electron microscopy, X ray diffraction spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. Then, the abilities of the LDHs/rGOs, as hydrogen spillover, were investigated by electrochemical methods. In addition, the LDHs/rGOs were decorated with palladium, using redox replacement process, and their hydrogen spillover properties were studied. The results showed that the hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics, hydrogen storage capacities and stabilities of Pd"#LDH/rGOs are better than Pd/rGO. Finally presence of different polymers (synthesis with monomers, 4–aminophenol, 4–aminothiophenol, o-phenylenediamine and p-phenylenediamine) at the surface of the Pd#LDH/rGOs on hydrogen storage were studied. The results showed that presence of o-phenylenediamine and p-phenylenediamine improves the kinetics of the hydrogen adsorption/desorption and increase the capacity of the hydrogen storage. - Highlights: • Efficient hydrogen storage sorbents are introduced. • The sorbents are synthesized based on hybrids of layered double hydroxide. • The compositions of all of the hybrids are verified using different methods. • Pd nanoparticles modified nanohybrids are investigated for hydrogen storage. • Presence of different polymers beside the hydrogen sorbents are investigated.

  16. A plant-level analysis of the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, Machiel; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We estimate the effects of German renewable energy on the Dutch power market. • Using hourly plant-level data, we estimate effects on prices, dispatch and fuel efficiency. • The price elasticity of German wind on Dutch prices is −0.04. • The spill-over effects are restricted by constraints on cross-border capacity. • The dramatic performance of the Dutch plants is mainly related to relative fuel prices. - Abstract: In order to analyse international effects of national energy policies, we investigate the spill-over effects of the German Energiewende on the Dutch power market, which is closely connected to the German market. We estimate the impact of the German supply of wind and solar electricity on the Dutch day-ahead price of electricity and the utilisation of the conventional power plants. We take cross-border capacity constraints into account and use hourly plant-level data over 2006–2014. We find that the price elasticity of German wind on Dutch day-ahead prices is −0.03. However, this effect vanishes when the cross-border capacity is fully utilised. We find a modest negative impact on the utilisation of the Dutch power plants. As such, we conclude that the German Energiewende has had modest spill-over effects to the Dutch market. The recent dramatic performance of the Dutch gas-fired plants can be attributed to the changes in the relative prices of coal versus natural gas. We conclude that national energy policies in one country do not necessarily strongly affect neighbouring markets in case of constrained cross-border capacities.

  17. Climate, Energy, Water, Land and the Spill-Over Effect (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Backus, G.; Bier, A.; Brune, N.; Brown, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Developing nations incur a greater risk to climate stress than the developed world due to poorly managed natural resources, unreliable infrastructure and brittle governing/economic institutions. When fragile states are stressed these vulnerabilities are often manifest in a 'domino effect' of reduced natural resource production-leading to economic hardship-followed by desperate emigration, social unrest, and humanitarian crises. The impact is not limited to a single nation or region but 'spills over' to adjoining areas with even broader impact on global markets and security. Toward this problem we are developing a model of climate aggravated spill-over that couples social, economic, infrastructure and resource dynamics and constraints. The model integrates system dynamics and agent based simulation to identify regions vulnerable to the spill-over effect and to explore potential mitigating and/or adaptive measures. At the heart of the analysis is human migration which is modeled by combining aspects of the Protection Motivation Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior within the mechanistic framework of Fick's first law of diffusion. Agents in the current model are distinguished at the country level by country of residence, country of origin, gender, education/skill, age, and rural/urban roots. The model of the environment in which the agents operate endogenously simulates economy, labor, population, disease, violence, energy, water, and food sectors. Various climate scenarios distinguished by differences in temperature, precipitation and extreme events, are simulated over a 50 year time horizon. Results allow exploration of the nexus between climate change, resource provisioning, especially energy, water and land, and the resultant adaptive response of the impacted population. Current modeling efforts are focused on the developing nations of West Africa. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly

  18. Scale dependency in effectiveness, isolation, and social-ecological spillover of protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Judith M; Cumming, Graeme S

    2016-08-01

    Protected areas are considered vital for the conservation of biodiversity. Given their central role in many conservation strategies, it is important to know whether they adequately protect biodiversity within their boundaries; whether they are becoming more isolated from other natural areas over time; and whether they play a role in facilitating or reducing land-cover change in their surroundings. We used matching methods and national and local analyses of land-cover change to evaluate the combined effectiveness (i.e., avoided natural-cover loss), isolation (i.e., changes in adjacent areas), and spillover effects (i.e., impacts on adjacent areas) of 19 national parks in South Africa from 2000 to 2009. All parks had either similar or lower rates of natural-cover loss than matched control samples. On a national level, mean net loss of natural cover and mean net gain of cultivation cover decreased with distance from park boundary, but there was considerable variation in trends around individual parks, providing evidence for both increased isolation and buffering of protected areas. Fourteen parks had significant positive spillover and reduced natural-cover loss in their surroundings, whereas five parks experienced elevated levels of natural-cover loss. Conclusions about social-ecological spillover effects from protected areas depended heavily on the measures of land-cover change used and the scale at which the results were aggregated. Our findings emphasize the need for high-resolution data when assessing spatially explicit phenomena such as land-cover change and challenge the usefulness of large-scale (coarse grain, broad extent) studies for understanding social-ecological dynamics around protected areas. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Dynamics of host-reservoir transmission of Ebola with spillover potential to humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Tsanou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is a zoonotic borne disease (i.e. disease that is spread from animals to people. Therefore human beings can be infected through direct contact with an infected animal (fruit-eating bat or great ape. It has been demonstrated that fruit-eating bats of pteropodidae family are potential reservoir of EVD. Moreover, it has been biologically shown that fruit-eating bats do not die due to EVD and bear the Ebola viruses lifelong. We develop in this paper, a mathematical model to assess the impact of the reservoir on the dynamics of EVD. Our model couples a bat-to-bat model with a human-to-human model and the indirect environmental contamination through a spillover process (i.e. process by which a zoonotic pathogen moves (regardless of transmission mode from an animal host (or environmental reservoir to a human host from bats to humans. The sub-models and the coupled models exhibit each a threshold behavior with the corresponding basic reproduction numbers being the bifurcation parameters. Existence of equilibria, their global stability are established by combining monotone operator theory, Lyapunov-LaSalle techniques and graph theory. Control strategies are assessed by using the target reproduction numbers. The efforts required to control EVD are assessed as well through S-control. The spillover event is shown to be highly detrimental to EVD by allowing the disease to switch from bats to humans even though the disease was not initially endemic in the human population. Precisely, we show that the spillover phenomenon contributes to speed up the disease outbreak. This suggests that the manipulation and consumption of fruit-bats play an important role in sustaining EVD in a given environment.

  20. Estimating the Impact and Spillover Effect of Climate Change on Crop Yield in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botchway, E.

    2016-12-01

    In tropical regions of the world human-induced climate change is likely to impact negatively on crop yields. To investigate the impact of climate change and its spillover effect on mean and variance of crop yields in northern Ghana, the Just and Pope stochastic production function and the Spatial Durbin model were adopted. Surprisingly, the results suggest that both precipitation and average temperature have positive effects on mean crop yield during the wet season. Wet season average temperature has a significant spillover effect in the region, whereas precipitation during the wet season has only one significant spillover effect on maize yield. Wet season precipitation does not have a strong significant effect on crop yield despite the rainfed nature of agriculture in the region. Thus, even if there are losers and winners as a result of future climate change at the regional level, future crop yield would largely depend on future technological development in agriculture, which may improve yields over time despite the changing climate. We argue, therefore, that technical improvement in farm management such as improved seeds and fertilizers, conservation tillage and better pest control, may have a more significant role in increasing observed crop productivity levels over time. So investigating the relative importance of non-climatic factors on crop yield may shed more light on where appropriate interventions can help in improving crop yields. Climate change, also, needs to be urgently assessed at the level of the household, so that poor and vulnerable people dependent on agriculture can be appropriately targeted in research and development activities whose object is poverty alleviation.

  1. The impact of energy, transport, and trade on air pollution in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, J.P.H.; Casas, I.; He, C.F. [SUNY Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Geology

    2006-09-15

    A team of U.S.- and China-based geographers examines the relationship between China's economic development and its environment by modeling the effects of energy, transport, and trade on local air pollution emissions (sulfur dioxide and soot particulates) using the Environmental Kuznets model. Specifically, the latter model is investigated using spatial econometrics that take into account potential regional spillover effects from high-polluting neighbors. The analysis finds an inverted-U relationship for sulfur dioxide but a U-shaped curve for soot particulates. This suggests that soot particulates such as black carbon may pose a more serious environmental problem in China than sulfur dioxide.

  2. Hydrogen spillover on DV (555-777) graphene – vanadium cluster system: First principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, E. Mathan, E-mail: ranjit.t@res.srmuniv.ac.in, E-mail: mathanranjitha@gmail.com; Thapa, Ranjit, E-mail: ranjit.t@res.srmuniv.ac.in, E-mail: mathanranjitha@gmail.com [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu - 603203 (India); P, Sabarikirishwaran [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu - 603203 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Using dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT+D), the interaction of Vanadium adatom and cluster with divacancy (555-777) defective graphene sheet has been studied elaborately. We explore the prospect of hydrogen storage on V{sub 4} cluster adsorbed divacancy graphene system. It has been observed that V{sub 4} cluster (acting as a catalyst) can dissociate the H{sub 2} molecule into H atoms with very low barrier energy. We introduce the spillover of the atomic hydrogen throughout the surface via external mediator gallane (GaH{sub 3}) to form a hydrogenated system.

  3. Oil-Price Volatility and Macroeconomic Spillovers in Central and Eastern Europe: Evidence from a Multivariate GARCH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegerty Scott W.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent commodity price declines have added to worldwide macroeconomic risk, which has had serious effects on both commodity exporters and manufacturers that use oil and raw materials. These effects have been keenly felt in Central and Eastern Europe—particularly in Russia, but also in European Union member states. This study tests for spillovers among commodity-price and macroeconomic volatility by applying a VAR(1-MGARCH model to monthly time series for eight CEE countries. Overall, we find that oil prices do indeed have effects throughout the region, as do spillovers among exchange rates, inflation, interest rates, and output, but that they differ from country to country—particularly when different degrees of transition and integration are considered. While oil prices have a limited impact on the currencies of Russia and Ukraine, they do make a much larger contribution to the two countries’ macroeconomic volatility than do spillovers among the other macroeconomic variables.

  4. Analyzing and forecasting volatility spillovers, asymmetries and hedging in major oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Tansuchat, Roengchai

    2010-01-01

    Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia-Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover and asymmetric effects across and within the four markets, using three multivariate GARCH models, namely the constant conditional correlation (CCC), vector ARMA-GARCH (VARMA-GARCH) and vector ARMA-asymmetric GARCH (VARMA-AGARCH) models. A rolling window approach is used to forecast the 1-day ahead conditional correlations. The paper presents evidence of volatility spillovers and asymmetric effects on the conditional variances for most pairs of series. In addition, the forecast conditional correlations between pairs of crude oil returns have both positive and negative trends. Moreover, the optimal hedge ratios and optimal portfolio weights of crude oil across different assets and market portfolios are evaluated in order to provide important policy implications for risk management in crude oil markets. (author)

  5. Patterns of Spillover Between Marital Adjustment and Parent-Child Conflict During Pediatric Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Gurtovenko, Kyrill; Keim, Madelaine; Kawamura, Joy; King, Kevin M; Friedman, Debra L; Compas, Bruce E; Breiger, David; Lengua, Liliana J; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2018-03-17

     When a child is diagnosed with cancer, problems may arise in family relationships and negatively affect child adjustment. The current study examined patterns of spillover between marital and parent-child relationships to identify targets for intervention aimed at ameliorating family conflict.  Families (N = 117) were recruited from two US children's hospitals within 2-week postdiagnosis to participate in a short-term prospective longitudinal study. Children with cancer were 2-10 years old (M = 5.42 years, SD = 2.59). Primary caregivers provided reports of marital and parent-child conflict at 1-, 6-, and 12-month postdiagnosis.  Results indicated that a unidirectional model of spillover from the marital to the parent-child relationship best explained the data. In terms of specific temporal patterns, lower marital adjustment soon after diagnosis was associated with an increase in parent-child conflict 6 months later, though this pattern was not repeated in the latter 6 months of treatment.  Targeting problems in marital relationships soon after diagnosis may prevent conflict from developing in the parent-child relationship.

  6. Recognizing "me" benefits "we": Investigating the positive spillover effects of formal individual recognition in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Zheng, Xiaoming; Harris, T Brad; Liu, Xin; Kirkman, Bradley L

    2016-07-01

    Many organizations use formal recognition programs (e.g., "employee of the month") as a way to publically acknowledge an individual employee's outstanding performance and motivate continued high performance. However, it remains unclear whether emphasizing individual achievement in a team context is beneficial or detrimental for recipients' teammates and, by extension, the team as a whole. Drawing on a social influence perspective, we examine potential spillover effects of individual formal recognition programs in teams. We hypothesize that a single team member's recognition will produce positive spillover effects on other team members' performance, as well as overall team performance, via social influence processes, especially when the award recipient is located in a central position in a team. Findings from 2 lab experiments of 24 teams and 40 teams (Study 1 and Study 2, respectively) and a field experiment of 52 manufacturing teams (Study 3) reveal that formally recognizing a team member leads to positive changes in her/his teammates' individual and collective performance. Thus, formal social recognition programs can potentially provide a motivational effect beyond individual recipients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. International spillover and rebound effects from increased energy efficiency in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesler, Simon; Swales, Kim; Turner, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The pollution/energy leakage literature raises the concern that policies implemented in one country, such as a carbon tax or tight energy restrictions, might simply result in the reallocation of energy use to other countries. This paper addresses these concerns in the context of policies to increase energy efficiency, rather than direct action to reduce energy use. Using a global CGE simulation model, we extend the analyses of ‘economy-wide’ rebound from the national focus of previous studies to incorporate international spill-over effects from trade in goods and services. Our focus is to investigate whether these effects have the potential to increase or reduce the overall (global) rebound of local energy efficiency improvements. In the case we consider, increased energy efficiency in German production generates changes in comparative advantage that produce negative leakage effects, thereby actually rendering global rebound less than national rebound. - Highlights: • Offers first CGE analysis of full global spill-over effects of energy efficiency • Derives rebound definitions at sector, all industry, economy-wide and global levels • Extends understanding of how rebound extends from industry to global economy levels • Shows that changes in comparative advantage may constrain global rebound effects

  8. Rural hospital ownership: medical service provision, market mix, and spillover effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin

    2011-10-01

    To test whether nonprofit, for-profit, or government hospital ownership affects medical service provision in rural hospital markets, either directly or through the spillover effects of ownership mix. Data are from the American Hospital Association, U.S. Census, CMS Healthcare Cost Report Information System and Prospective Payment System Minimum Data File, and primary data collection for geographic coordinates. The sample includes all nonfederal, general medical, and surgical hospitals located outside of metropolitan statistical areas and within the continental United States from 1988 to 2005. We estimate multivariate regression models to examine the effects of (1) hospital ownership and (2) hospital ownership mix within rural hospital markets on profitable versus unprofitable medical service offerings. Rural nonprofit hospitals are more likely than for-profit hospitals to offer unprofitable services, many of which are underprovided services. Nonprofits respond less than for-profits to changes in service profitability. Nonprofits with more for-profit competitors offer more profitable services and fewer unprofitable services than those with fewer for-profit competitors. Rural hospital ownership affects medical service provision at the hospital and market levels. Nonprofit hospital regulation should reflect both the direct and spillover effects of ownership. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Maternal depression in association with fathers' involvement with their infants: spillover or compensation/buffering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Lusby, Cara M; Thompson, Katina; Newport, D Jeffrey; Stowe, Zachary N

    2014-01-01

    Both concurrent and prospective associations between maternal depression and father involvement were tested to evaluate support for the spillover model (higher depressive symptom levels associated with lower father involvement) and the compensatory/buffering model (higher depressive symptom levels associated with higher father involvement). Participants in this longitudinal study were women at risk for perinatal depression in association with their histories of mood or anxiety disorders, their husbands/partners, and their infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured with depression rating scales at multiple times over the infants' first year. Paternal involvement was measured with a questionnaire (relative perceived responsibility) and a time diary (accessibility and engagement) inquiring about a recent weekday and a recent weekend, completed in a telephone interview, at infant ages 3, 6, and 12 months. Findings consistently supported the compensatory/buffering model for depression in the first 6 months' postpartum, along with an indication of spillover regarding maternal depressive symptoms that persist into the second half of the infants' first year. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for clinical practice and policy as well as suggestions for future research. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  10. Analyzing and forecasting volatility spillovers, asymmetries and hedging in major oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Lin [Department of Applied Economics National Chung Hsing University Taichung, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, National Chung Hsing University Taichung 402 (China); McAleer, Michael [Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tinbergen Institute (Netherlands); Tansuchat, Roengchai [Faculty of Economics, Maejo University (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at-Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia-Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover and asymmetric effects across and within the four markets, using three multivariate GARCH models, namely the constant conditional correlation (CCC), vector ARMA-GARCH (VARMA-GARCH) and vector ARMA-asymmetric GARCH (VARMA-AGARCH) models. A rolling window approach is used to forecast the 1-day ahead conditional correlations. The paper presents evidence of volatility spillovers and asymmetric effects on the conditional variances for most pairs of series. In addition, the forecast conditional correlations between pairs of crude oil returns have both positive and negative trends. Moreover, the optimal hedge ratios and optimal portfolio weights of crude oil across different assets and market portfolios are evaluated in order to provide important policy implications for risk management in crude oil markets. (author)

  11. First reported outbreak of severe spirorchiidiasis in Emys orbicularis, probably resulting from a parasite spillover event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Raúl; García-Estévez, José M; Ayres, César; Acuña, Antonio; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo

    2015-02-10

    The importance of disease-mediated invasions and the role of parasite spillover as a substantial threat to the conservation of global biodiversity are now well known. Although competition between invasive sliders Trachemys scripta elegans and indigenous European turtles has been extensively studied, the impact of this invasive species on diseases affecting native populations is poorly known. During winter 2012-2013 an unusual event was detected in a population of Emys orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) inhabiting a pond system in Galicia (NW Spain). Most turtles were lethargic and some had lost mobility of limbs and tail. Necropsies were performed on 11 turtles that were found dead or dying at this site. Blood flukes belonging to the species Spirorchis elegans were found inhabiting the vascular system of 3 turtles, while numerous fluke eggs were trapped in the vascular system, brain, lung, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and/or gastrointestinal tissues of all necropsied animals. Characteristic lesions included miliary egg granulomas, which were mostly found on serosal surfaces, particularly of the small intestine, as well as endocarditis, arteritis, and thrombosis. The most probable cause of death in the 3 turtle specimens which were also examined histologically was a necrotic enteritis with secondary bacterial infection associated with a massive egg embolism. The North American origin of S. elegans, the absence of prior recorded epizootics in the outbreak area, and the habitual presence of its type host, the highly invasive red-eared slider, in this area suggest a new case of parasite spillover resulting in a severe emerging disease.

  12. Decomposing Fees paid to Audit Firms-Assessing Knowledge Spillovers and Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    We extend prior studies (e.g., Whisenant et al., 2003; Krishnan and Yu, 2011; Chan et al., 2012) by explicitly utilizing a stringent decomposition of total fee paid for audit services and other services in a sample of listed non-financial Danish companies. When controlling for the joint determina......We extend prior studies (e.g., Whisenant et al., 2003; Krishnan and Yu, 2011; Chan et al., 2012) by explicitly utilizing a stringent decomposition of total fee paid for audit services and other services in a sample of listed non-financial Danish companies. When controlling for the joint...... determination of fees pertaining to the statutory audit and non-audit services, we find support for the existence of positive knowledge spillover from non-audit to audit and the possible independence problems related to this economic bonding. In terms of the non-audit components, the knowledge spillover...... argument holds for tax services provided and other services provided, but not for the provision of audit-related services. We also consider the implication of new regulation of the provision of non-audit services in EU countries. From the perspective of maintaining independence, there will be no apparent...

  13. Mesozoic monazite in Neoproterozoic metasediments. Evidence for low-grade metamorphism of Sinian sediments during Triassic continental collision, Liaodong Peninsula, NE China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yusheng; Song Tianrui; Liu Dunyi; Yang Tiannan; Yin Xiaoyan; Zhang Qiaoda; Chen Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    Sericite phyllite from the Sinian Shisanlitai Formation, Dalian area, Liaodong Peninsula, NE China, contains an assemblage of newly-formed lower-greenschist facies minerals (sericite, chlorite, Fe minerals and Ti minerals) plus aggregates of fine-grained monazite. The texture of the monazite, its mineral inclusions, and its close association with Fe oxide minerals show that it is not detrital or diagenetic, but a product of the low-grade metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Th-Pb dating of the monazite at 217±15 Ma shows that the metamorphism, and associated regional deformation and fluid flow, occurred in the Late Triassic, coeval with the waning stages of the Dabie-Sulu orogeny. The Dabie-Sulu tectonothermal event has produced both deformation and metamorphism in rocks of the eastern North China Block at least up to ∼200 km north of the main continent-continent collision zone. (author)

  14. Global implications of China's healthcare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Tang, Shenglan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing healthcare reform in China has a powerful spillover effect beyond the health sector and the borders of China. A successful completion of the Chinese reform will offer a new model for social justice development, shift the global economy toward sustainability and create a new hub for science and technology in medical and health science. However, reforming the healthcare system in the most populated country is a daunting task. China will not live up to its promise, and all the potentials may end with hype not hope if coherent national strategies are not constructed and state-of-the-art navigation is not achieved with staggering domestic and global challenges. The cost of failure will be immensely high, socioeconomic costs for Chinese and an opportunity cost for the world as a whole. A full appreciation of the global implications of China's healthcare reform is crucial in keeping China receptive toward good practices evidence-approved elsewhere and open minded to fulfill its international obligations. More critically, the appreciation yields constructive engagements from global community toward a joint development and global prosperity. The current report provides a multiple disciplinary assessment on the global implications of the healthcare reform in China. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Examining the "Neglected Side of the Work-Family Interface": Antecedents of Positive and Negative Family-to-Work Spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Daphne Pedersen; Minnotte, Krista Lynn; Mannon, Susan E.; Kiger, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This study extends previous research by Dilworth by examining antecedents of both positive and negative family-to-work spillover--a long-neglected area of research. It also uses an extended definition of domestic labor that includes emotion work and status enhancement. Using data from a random sample of dual-earner couples, the study found gender…

  16. "Spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into nonwork: a daily diary study": correction to Martinez-Corts et al.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Corts, I.; Demerouti, E.; Bakker, A.B.; Boz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Reports an error in "Spillover of Interpersonal Conflicts From Work into Nonwork: A Daily Diary Study" by Inés Martinez-Corts, Evangelia Demerouti, Arnold B. Bakker and Marina Boz (Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Jan 19, 2015, np). There was a misspelling in

  17. Producer firms, technology diffusion and spillovers to local suppliers : Examining the effects of Foreign Direct Investment and the technology gap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordaan, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a detailed examination of the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and the technology gap on local technology dissemination and spillovers. Using unique firm level data from surveys among FDI firms and domestic producer firms and a random sample of their suppliers in

  18. Spillover Censorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Kaargaard; Krogh, Mads

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses how current practices of corporate self-censorship within the US record industry, originating in a local legal and political context and moral climate, spill over into foreign markets as a side effect of the global operations of dominant multinational entertainment and media...

  19. Mediation and spillover effects in group-randomized trials: a case study of the 4Rs educational intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Hong, Guanglei; Jones, Stephanie M.; Brown, Joshua L.

    2013-01-01

    Peer influence and social interactions can give rise to spillover effects in which the exposure of one individual may affect outcomes of other individuals. Even if the intervention under study occurs at the group or cluster level as in group-randomized trials, spillover effects can occur when the mediator of interest is measured at a lower level than the treatment. Evaluators who choose groups rather than individuals as experimental units in a randomized trial often anticipate that the desirable changes in targeted social behaviors will be reinforced through interference among individuals in a group exposed to the same treatment. In an empirical evaluation of the effect of a school-wide intervention on reducing individual students’ depressive symptoms, schools in matched pairs were randomly assigned to the 4Rs intervention or the control condition. Class quality was hypothesized as an important mediator assessed at the classroom level. We reason that the quality of one classroom may affect outcomes of children in another classroom because children interact not simply with their classmates but also with those from other classes in the hallways or on the playground. In investigating the role of class quality as a mediator, failure to account for such spillover effects of one classroom on the outcomes of children in other classrooms can potentially result in bias and problems with interpretation. Using a counterfactual conceptualization of direct, indirect and spillover effects, we provide a framework that can accommodate issues of mediation and spillover effects in group randomized trials. We show that the total effect can be decomposed into a natural direct effect, a within-classroom mediated effect and a spillover mediated effect. We give identification conditions for each of the causal effects of interest and provide results on the consequences of ignoring “interference” or “spillover effects” when they are in fact present. Our modeling approach

  20. The evolution of spillover effects between oil and stock markets across multi-scales using a wavelet-based GARCH-BEKK model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueyong; An, Haizhong; Huang, Shupei; Wen, Shaobo

    2017-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the evolution of mean and volatility spillovers between oil and stock markets in the time and frequency dimensions, we employed WTI crude oil prices, the S&P 500 (USA) index and the MICEX index (Russia) for the period Jan. 2003-Dec. 2014 as sample data. We first applied a wavelet-based GARCH-BEKK method to examine the spillover features in frequency dimension. To consider the evolution of spillover effects in time dimension at multiple-scales, we then divided the full sample period into three sub-periods, pre-crisis period, crisis period, and post-crisis period. The results indicate that spillover effects vary across wavelet scales in terms of strength and direction. By analysis the time-varying linkage, we found the different evolution features of spillover effects between the Oil-US stock market and Oil-Russia stock market. The spillover relationship between oil and US stock market is shifting to short-term while the spillover relationship between oil and Russia stock market is changing to all time scales. That result implies that the linkage between oil and US stock market is weakening in the long-term, and the linkage between oil and Russia stock market is getting close in all time scales. This may explain the phenomenon that the US stock index and the Russia stock index showed the opposite trend with the falling of oil price in the post-crisis period.

  1. Dog ownership, abundance and potential for bat-borne rabies spillover in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, F; Escobar, L E; Poo-Muñoz, D A; Medina-Vogel, G

    2015-03-01

    Rabies is a viral infectious disease that affects all mammals, including humans. Factors associated with the incidence of rabies include the presence and density of susceptible hosts and potential reservoirs. Currently, Chile is declared free of canine-related rabies, but there is an overpopulation of dogs within the country and an emergence of rabies in bats. Our objectives are to determine potential areas for bat-borne rabies spillover into dog populations expressed as a risk map, and to explore some key features of dog ownership, abundance, and management in Chile. For the risk map, our variables included a dog density surface (dog/km(2)) and a distribution model of bat-borne rabies presence. From literature review, we obtained dog data from 112 municipalities, which represent 33% of the total municipalities (339). At country level, based on previous studies the median human per dog ratio was 4.8, with 64% of houses containing at least one dog, and a median of 0.9 dog per house. We estimate a national median of 5.3 dog/km(2), and a median of 3680 dogs by municipality, from which we estimate a total population of 3.5×10(6) owned dogs. The antirabies vaccination presented a median of 21% of dogs by municipality, and 29% are unrestricted to some degree. Human per dog ratio have a significant (but weak) negative association with human density. Unrestricted dogs have a negative association with human density and income, and a positive association with the number of dogs per house. Considering dog density by municipality, and areas of potential bat-borne rabies occurrence, we found that 163 (∼48%) of Chilean municipalities are at risk of rabies spillover from bats to dogs. Risk areas are concentrated in urban settlements, including Santiago, Chile's capital. To validate the risk map, we included cases of rabies in dogs from the last 27 years; all fell within high-risk areas of our map, confirming the assertive risk prediction. Our results suggest that the use of

  2. The double burden of and negative spillover between paid and domestic work: associations with health among men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Kevin, May V; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether the double burden of and negative spillover between domestic and full-time paid work are associated with an increase in health problems. Survey responses were linked with sickness absence records in a cross-sectional study of 6442 full-time municipal employees. Women and men experiencing severe work-family spillover had a 1.5-1.6 (95% confidence intervals 1.1 to 2.0) times higher rate of sickness absence than those with no such experience. The corresponding odds ratios for psychological distress and suboptimal self-assessed health varied between 3.6 and 6.5 (2.3 to 11.0). Among the women, severe family-work spillover increased the risk of psychological distress and suboptimal health [odds ratios 2.0 (1.4 to 2.9) and 1.6 (1.1 to 2.3), respectively], and accumulated sole responsibilities were associated with a 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) times higher odds ratio for psychological distress. Long domestic work hours (>50/week) were associated with a 1.5 (1.1 to 2.0) times higher rate of sickness absence among the men, but there was no such increase among the women. We conclude that negative work-family spillover especially is associated with health problems among both women and men, and negative family-work spillover is related to a poorer health status among women.

  3. Spillover Effects of Drug Safety Warnings on Preventive Health Care Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Orsini, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We examine how new medical information on drug safety impacts preventive health care use. We exploit the release of the findings of the Women’s Health Initiative Study (WHIS) – the largest randomized controlled trial of women’s health – which demonstrated in 2002 the health risks associated...... with the long-term use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). We first show that, after the release of the WHIS findings, HRT use dropped sharply among post-menopausal women. We then estimate the spillover effects of the WHIS findings on preventive care by means of a difference-in-differences methodology...... comparing changes in preventive care use among 60 to 69 year-old women (who have high rates of HRT use) with the change among women aged 75 and above (who have much lower rates of HRT use). Using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for the period 1998–2007, we find that women aged 60...

  4. The Role of Technology Spillovers in the Process of Water Pollution Abatement for Large International Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Aldieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the effects of technology externalities stemming from different technological sectors for international firms engaged both in water pollution abatement and in dirty activities. We present a theoretical framework and an empirical analysis based upon a dataset composed of worldwide R&D-intensive firms. In order to identify the technological proximity between the firms, we construct an original Mahalanobis environmental industry weight matrix, based on the construction of technological vectors for each firm, with European ecological patents distributed across more technology classes. Opportune econometric techniques that deal with the firms’ unobserved heterogeneity and the weak exogeneity of the explanatory variables are implemented. The findings show significant spillover effects on the productivity and environmental performance of the firms.

  5. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Hospital ownership and medical services: market mix, spillover effects, and nonprofit objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin

    2009-09-01

    Hospitals operate in markets with varied demographic, competitive, and ownership characteristics, yet research on ownership tends to examine hospitals in isolation. Here we examine three hospital ownership types -- nonprofit, for-profit, and government -- and their spillover effects. We estimate the effects of for-profit market share in two ways, on the provision of medical services and on operating margins at the three types of hospitals. We find that nonprofit hospitals' medical service provision systematically varies by market mix. We find no significant effect of market mix on the operating margins of nonprofit hospitals, but find that for-profit hospitals have higher margins in markets with more for-profits. These results fit best with theories in which hospitals maximize their own output.

  7. The effects of nanoscale geometry and spillover on room temperature storage of hydrogen on silica nanosprings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, Giancarlo; Zhan, Yingqian; Wang, Lidong; Hare, Brian; Cantrell, Timothy; II, Miles Beaux; Prakash, Tej; Ytreberg, F Marty; McIlroy, David N; Miller, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Silica nanosprings (NSs) consisting of multiple nanowires intertwined were demonstrated to reversibly store 0.85 wt% hydrogen at 20 bar and room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates a mixed 3 + –4 + ionization state of the silicon atoms and partially explains the enhanced surface adsorption of H 2 relative to other forms of silica. Theoretical modeling and simulation using a Lennard-Jones potential demonstrated that interstitial sites between the silica nanowires forming the NS are energetically more favorable adsorption sites relative to single nanowires. The addition of Pd nanoparticles to the surface of the silica NSs was demonstrated to increase the hydrogen storage capacity to ≈3.5 wt% at 66 bar and room temperature. Palladium-nanoparticle-induced hydrogen spillover is attributed to the enhanced storage capacity relative to bare silica NSs. (paper)

  8. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaodong; Yu, Cindy L.; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  9. Spatial Spillover Effects of Transport Infrastructure in Chinese New Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the inner-effect mechanism of transport infrastructure and regional economic growth, this paper builds a specialized spatial weight matrix by utilizing the panel data from 31 provinces in New Silk Road Economic Belt (NSREB and other areas from 2005 to 2014, and combines with the spatial panel model to analyze the spatial spillover effects of transport infrastructure. According to the analysis, the transport infrastructure plays an obvious lead role in regional economy growth alongside the NSREB, and the economic growth invigorates common development in surrounding regions. In addition, differences were observed among the different transport infrastructure with regard to their influences on regional economic development, as the highway transport affects regional economic growth to a larger degree than railway transport.

  10. Cancer mortality rates and spillover effects among different areas: A case study in Campania (southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agovino, Massimiliano; Aprile, Maria Carmela; Garofalo, Antonio; Mariani, Angela

    2018-05-01

    The present study analyses the spatial distribution of cancer mortality rates in Campania (an Italian region with the highest population density), in which residents in several areas are exposed to major environmental health hazards. The paper has the methodological aims of verifying the existence, or otherwise, of a spatial correlation between mortality from different types of cancer and the occurrence of some specific area characteristics, using both Bayesian statistics and spatial econometrics. We show that the use of the Spatial Empirical Bayes Smoothed Rate, instead of the more commonly used Raw Rate, allows a more comprehensive analysis of the mortality rate, highlighting the existence of different cluster sizes throughout the region, according to the type of cancer mortality rate analysed. By using a Spatial Durbin model we verify that cancer mortality rates are related to the environmental characteristics of specific areas with spatial spillover effects. Our results validate the hypothesis that living along the coast by Mt Vesuvius and, to a lesser extent, along the Domitio-Flegreo coast NW of Naples and in more urbanised municipalities, increases the risk of dying of cancer. By contrast, living in less urbanised municipalities, with the presence of natural and historical attractions, has a positive effect on the residents' health, reducing their risk of disease. In both cases significant spillover effects (negative and positive) are found in municipalities close to the areas in question. Despite a number of reasonable limitations, our findings may provide useful information support for policy makers to foster knowledge, awareness and informed participation of citizens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Trade-facilitated technology spillovers in energy productivity convergence processes across EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Jun; Baylis, Kathy; Mulder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This empirical paper tests for trade-facilitated spillovers in the convergence of energy productivity across 16 European Union (EU) countries from 1995 to 2005. One might anticipate that by inducing specialization, trade limits the potential for convergence in energy productivity. Conversely, by inducing competition and knowledge diffusion, trade may spur sectors to greater energy productivity. Unlike most previous work on convergence, we explain productivity dynamics from cross-country interactions at a detailed sector level and apply a spatial panel data approach to explicitly account for trade-flow related spatial effects in the convergence analysis. Our study confirms the existence of convergence in manufacturing energy productivity, caused by efficiency improvements in lagging countries, while undermined by increasing international differences in sector structure. Further, we find that trade flows explain 30 to 40% of the unobserved variation in energy productivity. Trade continues to explain the unobserved variation in energy productivity even after accounting for geographic proximity. Last, we find that those countries and sectors with higher dependence on trade both have higher energy productivity growth and a higher rate of convergence, further implying that trade can enhance energy productivity. Thus, unlike concerns that trade may spur a ‘race to the bottom’, we find that promoting trade may help stimulate energy efficiency improvements across countries. - Highlights: • We test for trade-facilitated spillovers in cross-country energy productivity convergence. • We use a spatial panel-data approach and data for 16 European Union countries. • Efficiency improvements in lagging countries cause energy productivity convergence. • Trade flows explain 30 to 40% of unobserved variation in energy productivity. • Higher dependence on trade means higher rates of energy productivity growth

  12. Romantic Relationship Satisfaction and Ambulatory Blood Pressure During Social Interactions: Specificity or Spillover Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Talea; Birk, Jeffrey L; Edmondson, Donald; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2018-05-08

    People in high-quality romantic relationships tend to have lower blood pressure (BP). People may experience lower BP specifically when interacting with romantic partners. This study parsed the effects of different types of social interactions on ambulatory BP (ABP) and tested whether romantic relationship satisfaction moderated these effects during interactions with partners in particular (specificity) or with others (spillover; e.g., friends, co-workers). Partnered participants (N = 594) were drawn from a larger study on BP and cardiovascular health (age = 46.5 ± 9.3; 57.4% female). Participants reported on romantic relationship satisfaction and completed 24-hr ABP monitoring. At each reading, participants reported whether they had a social interaction and with whom. Multilevel models accounted for nesting of data over time. Romantic relationship satisfaction significantly modified the effects of some social interactions on systolic and diastolic BP (SBP, DBP). Participants with high (+1 SD) relationship satisfaction had significantly lower SBP (-0.77 mmHg, p = .02) during partner interactions compared with no social interaction; low-satisfaction (-1 SD) participants had a nonsignificant 0.59 mmHg increase (p = .14). A similar pattern emerged for DBP. Relationship satisfaction also modified SBP response during friend interactions (elevated SBP for low-satisfaction participants) and DBP response during "other" interactions (elevated DBP for high-satisfaction participants). Participants with high levels of romantic relationship satisfaction experienced significantly lower BP during social interactions with their partner compared with situations without social interaction. Although there was some evidence for spillover to other types of relationships, effects were largely restricted to partner interactions.

  13. A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Garry, Robert F; Grant, Donald S; Leach, Melissa; Moses, Lina M; Nichols, Gordon; Schieffelin, John S; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Webb, Colleen T; Wood, James L N

    2016-09-01

    A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission. We developed a transparent, theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Poisson processes with memory of past human infections, that unifies these stages. Once we have quantified pathogen dynamics in the reservoir, with some knowledge of the mechanism of contact, the approach provides a tool to estimate the likelihood of spillover events. Comparisons with independent agent-based models demonstrates the ability of the framework to correctly estimate the relative contributions of human-to-human vs animal transmission. As an illustrative example, we applied our model to Lassa fever, a rodent-borne, viral haemorrhagic disease common in West Africa, for which data on human outbreaks were available. The approach developed here is general and applicable to a range of zoonoses. This kind of methodology is of crucial importance for the scientific, medical and public health communities working at the interface between animal and human diseases to assess the risk associated with the disease and to plan intervention and appropriate control measures. The Lassa case study revealed important knowledge gaps, and opportunities, arising from limited knowledge of the temporal patterns in reporting, abundance of and infection prevalence in, the host reservoir.

  14. A Unified Framework for the Infection Dynamics of Zoonotic Spillover and Spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lo Iacono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A considerable amount of disease is transmitted from animals to humans and many of these zoonoses are neglected tropical diseases. As outbreaks of SARS, avian influenza and Ebola have demonstrated, however, zoonotic diseases are serious threats to global public health and are not just problems confined to remote regions. There are two fundamental, and poorly studied, stages of zoonotic disease emergence: 'spillover', i.e. transmission of pathogens from animals to humans, and 'stuttering transmission', i.e. when limited human-to-human infections occur, leading to self-limiting chains of transmission. We developed a transparent, theoretical framework, based on a generalization of Poisson processes with memory of past human infections, that unifies these stages. Once we have quantified pathogen dynamics in the reservoir, with some knowledge of the mechanism of contact, the approach provides a tool to estimate the likelihood of spillover events. Comparisons with independent agent-based models demonstrates the ability of the framework to correctly estimate the relative contributions of human-to-human vs animal transmission. As an illustrative example, we applied our model to Lassa fever, a rodent-borne, viral haemorrhagic disease common in West Africa, for which data on human outbreaks were available. The approach developed here is general and applicable to a range of zoonoses. This kind of methodology is of crucial importance for the scientific, medical and public health communities working at the interface between animal and human diseases to assess the risk associated with the disease and to plan intervention and appropriate control measures. The Lassa case study revealed important knowledge gaps, and opportunities, arising from limited knowledge of the temporal patterns in reporting, abundance of and infection prevalence in, the host reservoir.

  15. Monetary or environmental appeals for saving electricity? –Potentials for spillover on low carbon policy acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhorst, Julia; Matthies, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    The acceptability of low carbon policies is an important precondition for energy system transitions, such as the German Energiewende. This long-term experimental study examines the potential for behavioural spillover on the acceptability of low carbon policies, caused by a framed intervention to promote electricity saving behaviour. Clients of a German energy provider were randomly assigned to continuously receive electricity saving tips with either monetary framing (saving potential in €) or environmental framing (saving potential in CO_2). The control group did not receive any information. In two follow-up surveys, four (N=333) and nine months (N=258) later, participants rated the acceptability of several low carbon policies. A pre-survey assessed the personal ecological norm for saving electricity. Participants with strong personal ecological norms reported generally higher policy acceptability. After environmental framing they also indicated higher acceptability compared to the monetary framing or control group. These results indicate that information campaigns should be designed carefully in order to promote positive spillover effects. Environmental framing of private-sphere behaviour can increase the disposition for further pro-environmental behaviour in the public sphere, e.g. policy acceptability. When appealing to monetary benefits in pro-environmental behaviour, there is a risk of inhibiting positive spillover effects. - Highlights: •Policy acceptability may be influenced by type of framing and individual factors. •We examined long-term spillover effects in association with type of framing. •Framing (environmental vs. monetary) interacts with personal ecological norms. •For strong personal ecological norms, environmental framing increases acceptability. •Also, strong personal ecological norms increase low carbon policy acceptability.

  16. Sandwiching it in: spillover of work onto food choices and family roles in low- and moderate-income urban households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Connors, Margaret M; Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A

    2003-02-01

    Lower status jobs, high workloads and lack of control at work have been associated with less healthful diets, but the ways through which work is connected to food choices are not well understood. This analysis was an examination of workers' experience of the relationship of their jobs to their food choices. Fifty-one multi-ethnic, urban, low- and moderate-income adults living in Upstate New York in 1995 participated in a qualitative interview study of fruit and vegetable choices and discussed employment and food choices. The workers who participated in this study described a dynamic relationship between work and food choices that they experienced in the context of their other roles and values. These workers presented a relationship that was characterized by positive and negative spillover between their jobs and their ability to fulfill family roles and promote personal health, linked by a spectrum of food choice strategies. Participants' narratives fit into three different domains: characterizations of work and their resources for food choice, strategies used to manage food choices within the constraints of work, and affect related to the negative and positive spillover of these strategies on family roles and on personal food choices. Characterizations of work as demanding and limiting or demanding and manageable differentiated participants who experienced their food choice strategies as a source of guilt and dissatisfaction (negative spillover) from those who experienced food choices as a source of pride and satisfaction (positive spillover). Ideals and values related to food choice and health were balanced against other values for family closeness and nurturing and personal achievement. Some participants found work unproblematic. These findings direct attention to a broad conceptualization of the relationship of work to food choices in which the demands and resources of the work role are viewed as they spill over into the social and temporal context of other

  17. WHAT CONNECTIONS BETWEEN MARITAL CONFLICT AND PARENTING QUALITY? EVIDENCE FROM PARENT’S GENDER IN SPILLOVER EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Benedetto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The spillover hypothesis posits that negative emotions and behavioral patterns in marital conflicts influence parenting quality and children’s adjustment, through increasing of harsh and incoherent discipline and diminished involvement and affection. Moreover conflicts focused on childrearing issues are particularly distressing for children with often show emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to explore gender differences in the links between marital conflicts (destructive and constructive tactics, childrearing disagreement and parent-child relationships, in order to verify if there are different pathways for fathers and mothers in spillover effects.   Method. 110 parents (children aged 6-12 years completed the Styles of Conflict Scale (marital conflict style, the Parent Problem Checklist (disagreements about childrearing, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (parenting practices, and the Parenting Stress Index. Results. The links between conflict tactics and parenting practices change in function of parent’s gender. Mothers refer more frequent childrearing disagreements and increasing in punishment; furthermore - in line with the spillover hypothesis - attack and violence tactics are associated negatively with positive parenting (involvement and warmth. For fathers compromise, avoidance and attack correlate positively with effective parenting (more involvement, affection and consistency disciplinary. Conclusions. A spillover effect, that is, an extension of marital tensions in the relationship with their children with reduced quality of parenting, seems to manifest only for women. These findings, if confirmed by other studies, would be relevant from an clinical point of view to understand how paternal and maternal parenting mediate the effects of the marital disharmony on children’s adjustment.

  18. WHAT CONNECTIONS BETWEEN MARITAL CONFLICT AND PARENTING QUALITY? EVIDENCE FROM PARENT’S GENDER IN SPILLOVER EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Benedetto; Massimo Ingrassia

    2015-01-01

    The spillover hypothesis posits that negative emotions and behavioral patterns in marital conflicts influence parenting quality and children’s adjustment, through increasing of harsh and incoherent discipline and diminished involvement and affection. Moreover conflicts focused on childrearing issues are particularly distressing for children with often show emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to explore gender differences in the links between marital conflicts (des...

  19. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work–Family Spillover in Working Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Ju Chang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics.

  20. Supplementing an emissions tax by a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity to address learning spillovers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the presence of learning spillovers related to renewable energy technologies, an optimal strategy to mitigate climate change should complement an emissions tax by a subsidy for renewables. This article addresses the question how such subsidy should be designed. It is shown that the widely-used approach of a revenue-neutral fixed feed-in tariff can yield an optimal outcome under restrictive conditions only. It has to be adapted continuously as the electricity price changes. Moreover, funding the tariff by a surcharge on the electricity price has important implications for the design of the emission tax. The optimal tax rate has to be below the Pigovian level, differentiated across fossil fuels and adapted over time as the patterns of technological development change. These requirements may pose a formidable challenge for practical decision-making. However, it is important to point out that the eventual choices made with respect to the design and funding of a feed-in tariff have to be based on a careful and more comprehensive policy assessment, including, inter alia, economic effects beyond the electricity sector and existing institutional constraints. - Highlights: • Learning spillovers may warrant a combination of emissions and technology policies. • A revenue-neutral feed-in tariff can correct learning spillovers efficiently. • Optimal implementation of this approach is tedious in practice though. • Tariff and emissions tax have to be differentiated and adapted continuously. • Eventual policy decision depends on institutional constraints and economy-wide effects

  1. Does a regional greenhouse gas policy make sense? A case study of carbon leakage and emissions spillover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yihsu

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) is a state-level effort by ten northeast states in the U.S. to control CO 2 emissions from the electric sector. The approach adopted by RGGI is a regional cap-and-trade program, which sets a maximal annual amount of regional CO 2 emissions that can be emitted from the electric sector. However, incoherence of the geographic scope of the regional electricity market is expected to produce two undesirable consequences: CO 2 leakage and NO x and SO 2 emissions spillover. This paper addresses these two issues using transmission-constrained electricity market models. The results show that although larger CO 2 leakage is associated with higher allowance prices, it is negatively related to CO 2 prices if measured in percentage terms. On the other hand, SO 2 and NO x emissions spillover increase in commensurate with CO 2 allowance prices. Demand elasticity attenuates the effect of emissions trading on leakage and emissions spillover. This highlights the difficulties of designing a regional or local climate policy. (author)

  2. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work–Family Spillover in Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Bae, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics. PMID:28696388

  3. Measuring spill-over effects of foreign markets on the JSE before, during and after international financial crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Heymans

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a large body of research that proves the co-movement of international stock markets over time. This co-movement manifests through various instruments ranging from stocks and bonds, to soft commodities and can be visualised as returns and volatility spill-over effects. During the most recent financial crisis, it was once again highlighted that no market is immune to spill-over effects from other international markets. By employing an aggregate-shock (AS model, returns and volatility spill-over effects of the Hang Seng, London, Paris, Frankfurt and New York stock markets to the JSE are confirmed. The findings also confirm the JSE All share index is directly affected through contagion by the returns of the economic area where the crisis originates. However, the results further confirm that South Africa has progressed in shielding its stock market against financial crises in recent times. These findings hold important implications for stock portfolio managers in South Africa.

  4. Positive Emotional Effects of Leisure in Green Spaces in Alleviating Work-Family Spillover in Working Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Ju; Bae, So Young

    2017-07-11

    Studies have shown that family and work spillover affects well-being and that leisure activities can alleviate the negative effects of work-related stress on health. However, few studies have focused on investigating the effects of specific leisure activities among specific populations. To examine whether leisure activities in green spaces can promote individual recovery processes and alleviate the effects of work and family spillover on positive emotions, this study applied the effort-recovery model to a population of working mothers. Through online and paper questionnaires, sample data were collected from 221 working mothers in Taiwan. Structural equation modeling was used to test the experimental hypothesis, and mediation analysis was used to determine whether leisure in green spaces is a mediating factor. The results indicated that leisure in green spaces is a mediator of the relationship of negative work and family spillover with positive emotions. In addition, strolls and park visits were found to provide greater psychological benefits to working mothers, compared with picnics.

  5. Ambient fine particulate matter in China: Its negative impacts and possible countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zihan; Chen, Tingjia; Chen, Jiang; Qi, Xiaofei

    2018-03-01

    In recent decades, China has experienced rapid economic development accompanied by increasing concentrations of ambient PM 2.5 , particulate matter of less than 2.5 μm in diameter. PM 2.5 is now believed to be a carcinogen, causing higher lung cancer risks and generating losses to the economy and society. This meta-analysis evaluates the losses generated by ambient PM 2.5 in Suzhou from 2014 to 2016 and predicts losses at different concentrations. Estimations of total losses in Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Dalian, and Xiamen are also presented, with a total national loss in 2015. The authors then demonstrate that lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations would be a realistic way for China to reduce the evaluated social losses in the short term. Possible legal measures are listed for lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations. The present findings quantify the economic effects of ambient PM 2.5 due to the increased incidence rate and mortality rate of lung cancer. Lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations would be the most realistic way for China to reduce tghe evaluated social losses in the short term. Possible legal measures for lowering ambient PM 2.5 concentrations to reduce the total losses are identified.

  6. Foreign direct investment and technology spillovers in Mexico: 20 years of NAFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Armas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the development of technology capabilities in the manufacturing sector of Mexico during the last two decades. It has been argued that the inclusion of Mexico in the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA in 1994 would be enough to catch up with Canada and the United States. In this regard, trade liberalisation and foreign direct investment (FDI would have been two strategic tools to close the technology gap between Mexico and its commercial partners in North America. Yet, after twenty years of NAFTA, it has been demonstrated that many indigenous firms in Mexico must develop an absorptive capacity to benefit from FDI. This paper suggests that the debate on the Asian miracle in the 1990s could be an adequate theoretical framework to discuss technology development and industrialisation in the case of emerging economies. In fact, this debate reveals two alternative approaches to explain the development of technology capabilities: (i the accumulation view of growth, and (ii the assimilation view of growth. Therefore, the Asian miracle exemplifies how entrepreneurship, learning and a supporting innovation policy could be an adequate strategy to benefit from FDI and technology spillovers in the case of emerging economies.

  7. Workplace surface acting and marital partner discontent: Anxiety and exhaustion spillover mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krannitz, Morgan A; Grandey, Alicia A; Liu, Songqi; Almeida, David A

    2015-07-01

    Surface acting (i.e., faking and suppressing emotions at work) is repeatedly linked to employee negative moods and emotional exhaustion, but the consequences may also go beyond work boundaries. We provide a unique theoretical integration of these 2 emotional labor consequences with 2 work-to-family conflict mechanisms, mood spillover and resource drain, to explain why surface acting is likely to create marital partner discontent (i.e., partner's perceived work-to-family conflict and desire for the employee to quit). A survey of 197 hotel managers and their marital partners supported that managers' surface acting was directly related to their partner wanting them to quit, and indirectly to partner's perception of work-to-family conflict via exhaustion consistent with the resource drain mechanism. Anxiety from surface acting had an indirect mediating effect on marital partner discontent through exhaustion. Importantly, controlling for dispositional negativity and job demands did not weaken these effects. Implications for theory and future research integrating work-family and emotional labor are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Renewable generation across Italian regions: Spillover effects and effectiveness of European Regional Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carfora, Alfonso; Romano, Antonio A.; Ronghi, Monica; Scandurra, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates on the determinant factors that drive the Italian regions toward a sustainable development path and evaluates the effectiveness of European Regional Development incentives in promoting investments in renewable energy sources (RES). Starting from the consideration that there are spillover effects between similar regions, first we identify the factors that capture these similarities, then we use them to evaluate their relevance in determining the success of the investments in RES. An econometric analysis, based on the use of spatial panel specification model, is implemented to support the hypotheses. Two important results emerge from the study. The first is the identification of regional determinants of RES production, that are driven by the similarities between regions, and that can be interpreted as guidelines in the policy choices in support of investments. The second is the lack of effectiveness of the incentives in support of RES. Results indicate that the capacity of some regional governments to direct the funds allocated by the central government or European Commission towards efficient production of renewable energy is likely limited, and these incentives have been undone. - Highlights: • Investments in renewable energies makes a remarkable contribution to reduce unemployment. • In Italy there is a lack of effectiveness of the incentives in support of renewable energies. • To attract energy investments regions must reduce the burden of taxation. • Highly deprived areas incentivize more than the developed ones renewable energies. • Production of renewable energies is directly influenced by the production in similar regions.

  9. Daily positive spillover and crossover from mothers' work to youth health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Hammer, Leslie B; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-12-01

    Prior research shows that employees' work experiences can "spill over" into their family lives and "cross over" to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the same 8 consecutive evenings. On each workday, mothers reported whether they had a positive experience at work, youth reported on their mothers' positive and negative mood after work, and youth rated their own mental (positive and negative affect) and physical health (physical health symptoms, sleep quality, sleep duration). Results of 2-level models showed that mothers' positive mood after work, on average, was directly related to youth reports of more positive affect, better sleep quality, and longer sleep duration. In addition, mothers with more positive work experiences, on average, displayed less negative mood after work, and in turn, adolescents reported less negative affect and fewer physical health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of daily family system dynamics.

  10. Chemical grafting of Co9S8 onto C60 for hydrogen spillover and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Qin, Wei; Zhou, Jia; Jian, Jiahuang; Lu, Songtao; Wu, Xiaohong; Fan, Guohua; Gao, Peng; Liu, Boyu

    2017-04-20

    Metal modified C 60 is considered to be a potential hydrogen storage medium due to its high theoretical capacity. Research interest is growing in various hybrid inorganic compounds-C 60 . While the design and synthesis of a novel hybrid inorganic compound-C 60 is difficult to attain, it has been theorized that the atomic hydrogen could transfer from the inorganic compound to the adjacent C 60 surfaces via spillover and surface diffusion. Here, as a proof of concept experiment, we graft Co 9 S 8 onto C 60 via a facile high energy ball milling process. The Raman, XPS, XRD, TEM, HTEM and EELS measurements have been conducted to evaluate the composition and structure of the pizza-like hybrid material. In addition, the electrochemical measurements and calculated results demonstrate that the chemical "bridges" (C-S bonds) between these two materials enhance the binding strength and, hence, facilitate the hydriding reaction of C 60 during the hydrogen storage process. As a result, an increased hydrogen storage capacity of 4.03 wt% is achieved, along with a favorable cycling stability of ∼80% after 50 cycles. Excluding the direct hydrogen storage contribution from Co 9 S 8 in the hybrid paper, the hydrogen storage ability of C 60 was enhanced by 5.9× through the hydriding reaction caused by the Co 9 S 8 modifier. Based on these experimental measurements and theoretical calculations, the unique chemical structure reported here could potentially inspire other C 60 -based advanced hybrids.

  11. Response Asymmetry in Spillover Volatility: An Empirical Study in the Indonesia and Singapore Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Saadah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Following the blueprint of the ASEAN integration 2015, the integration of the financial markets in this region will increase. This study investigates the existence of a volatility spillover from the Singaporean stock market into Indonesia, including its transmission pattern. Singapore, as an advanced country in the ASEAN region, has played an important role as the information leader in the market of this region, so that it is very possible that the shocks in the Singapore’s stock market will be transmitted to another stock market in this region. Using TGARCH (1,1 model specification regarding the data of the daily return of the Indonesia market index (IHSG for the period of January 2008 – August 2012, it is observed that the shock that took place in the Singapore stock market is immediately transmitted to the Indonesia stock market with two important asymmetric patterns. The transmission of the shock from the Singapore stock exchange becomes stronger when this market (1 experiences a negative return, and (2 is in the bearish phase.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Reverse spillover of avian viral vaccine strains from domesticated poultry to wild birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohaim, M A; El Naggar, R F; Helal, A M; Hussein, H A; Munir, Muhammad

    2017-06-16

    Transmission of viruses from the commercial poultry to wild birds is an emerging paradigm of livestock-wildlife interface. Here, we report the identification and isolation of vaccine strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV1) and avian coronaviruses (ACoV) from different wild bird species across eight Egyptian governorates between January 2014 and December 2015. Surveillance of avian respiratory viruses in free-ranging wild birds (n=297) identified three species that harboured or excreted APMV1 and ACoVs. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of recovered viruses revealed a close association with the most widely utilized vaccine strains in the country. These results highlight the potential spillover of vaccine-viruses probably due to extensive use of live-attenuated vaccines in the commercial poultry, and close interaction between domesticated and wild bird populations. Further exploring the full spectrum of vaccine-derived viral vaccine strains in wild birds might help to assess the emergence of future wild-birds origin viruses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  13. Daily Positive Spillover and Crossover from Mothers’ Work to Youth Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Hammer, Leslie B.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research shows that employees’ work experiences can “spill over” into their family lives and “cross over” to affect family members. Expanding on studies that emphasize negative implications of work for family life, this study examined positive work-to-family spillover and positive and negative crossover between mothers and their children. Participants were 174 mothers in the extended care (nursing home) industry and their children (ages 9-17), both of whom completed daily diaries on the same, eight, consecutive evenings. On each workday, mothers reported whether they had a positive experience at work, youth reported on their mothers’ positive and negative mood after work, and youth rated their own mental (positive and negative affect) and physical health (physical health symptoms, sleep quality, sleep duration). Results of two-level models showed that mothers’ positive mood after work, on average, was directly related to youth reports of more positive affect, better sleep quality, and longer sleep duration. In addition, mothers with more positive work experiences, on average, displayed less negative mood after work, and in turn, adolescents reported less negative affect and fewer physical health symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of daily family system dynamics. PMID:25243577

  14. Estimating spillover benefits of large R and D projects: Application of real options modelling approach to the case of thermonuclear fusion R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednyagin, Denis; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the analysis of spillover benefits of the ongoing R and D programme on thermonuclear fusion technology. The spillover effects are understood here as positive externalities of publicly funded R and D, demonstration and deployment (RDDD) activities that may be revealed at the companies' level in the form of newly created knowledge stock; development of innovative products/processes with broader market applications; strengthening of R and D, manufacturing and marketing capabilities; etc. An integrated compound real options model is proposed that allows to estimate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme taking into account the different types of spillover benefits along with the hidden real options value arising due to uncertainty and managerial flexibility. It was found that the value of spillover effects, modelled as “expansion option”, could represent a significant proportion of the overall socio-economic value of fusion RDDD programme (nearly 20%). This paper clearly demonstrates that, besides a high-level mission to assure sustainable energy supply, fusion RDDD programme may yield substantial net socio-economic benefits that may be at least two times higher compared to the expected RD and D costs, and hence the pursuit of even more ambitious programme is economically justified. - Highlights: ► Evaluate the strategic net social present value of fusion RDDD programme. ► Consider different types of spillover effects. ► Economic value of spillovers is estimated with a compound real options model. ► Spillover benefits could represent up to 20% of the value of fusion RDDD programme.

  15. The effects of religion, superstition, and perceived gender inequality on the degree of suicide intent: a study of serious attempters in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Huilan

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have tried to account for the uniqueness of gender ratios in Chinese suicide through physiological and psychological differences between men and women, and the means employed in the fatal act. From the point of view of the socio-psychological traits, this study examines the effects of religion (religiosity), superstition, and perceived gender inequality among Chinese women on the degree of their suicide intent. A four-page structured interviews were performed to the consecutively sampled serious attempters of suicide hospitalized to emergency rooms immediately after the suicidal act in Dalian areas, China. Both univariate analyses and the multiple regression model have found that the higher the degree the religiosity and superstition on metempsychosis, the stronger the suicide intent Chinese women had. The perceived gender inequality is positively correlated with suicide intent, and it is especially true for Chinese women. The socio-psychological traits and traditional culture values and norms have important impacts on suicide patterns in Chinese societies.

  16. The difficulty of being a professional, a parent, and a spouse on the same day: Daily spillover of workplace interactions on parenting, and the role of spousal support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Kaisa; Rönkä, Anna; Sevón, Eija; Schoebi, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Designing parenting interventions and preventions requires knowledge on the factors and processes that shape parenting behaviors. Using data collected over 10 days, during the last hour of work and before going to bed, this study examined the spillover of interpersonal work stresses into positive and negative parenting behaviors. Data were collected among 103 couples who had at least one child between the age of one and eight years. Of particular interest was the role of received emotional spousal support as a moderator of stress spillover. Dyadic variants of multilevel models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that on days on which mothers or fathers reported stressful interpersonal interactions in the workplace, they also reported less positive parenting behaviors. In addition, mothers reported more negative parenting behaviors on days characterized by these kinds of work experiences. Mothers and fathers were found to report more positive parenting behaviors, and mothers less negative parenting behaviors, on the days on which they received more spousal support. Received spousal support also moderated spillover of work stress into parenting behaviors and this finding was found to be gender-specific: for mothers, support enhanced spillover into positive behaviors, and for fathers, it enhanced spillover into negative parenting behaviors.

  17. Spillovers between energy and FX markets: The importance of asymmetry, uncertainty and business cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Ahmed; Caporin, Massimiliano; Hammoudeh, Shawkat

    2015-01-01

    This study constructs a theoretical volatility transmission model for petroleum and FX markets, taking into account major stylized facts and uncertainty measures and the interactions between them under stages of the business cycle. It examines the impacts of those different specifications and economic factors on the spillovers between those considered markets. The results show that the impacts of the “own” shocks (petroleum on petroleum and currency on currency) are statistically significant and positive in almost all cases as expected for the models of natural gas and WTI oil, irrespectively of the currency considered. The asymmetry effect is stronger in the oil than in the natural gas markets. There is stronger and significant evidence that uncertainty affects volatility much more the mean. For the WTI oil, almost all policy and other uncertainty measures lead to an increase in the conditional variance. For currencies, coefficients are commonly significant independent of the presence of petroleum commodities in the bivariate model. The striking result for natural gas is the limited statistical relevance of the economic policy and other uncertainty measures due to the long contracts that characterize this market. Finally, common macroeconomic forces associated with the business cycle can drive these petroleum and currency markets and may cause jumps and co-jumps in the volatility of these markets. The conclusion provides policy implications of the paper’s results. - Highlights: • Examine the impacts of uncertainty measures on energy and currency interaction. • Examine the impacts of asymmetry on energy and currency interactions. • There is stronger asymmetry in oil compared to natural gas. • Uncertainty measures have an impact on volatility dynamics for oil and currencies. • Uncertainty measures do not have an impact on natural gas.

  18. Microbes in the Anthropocene: spillover of agriculturally selected bacteria and their impact on natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2016-12-14

    Soil microbial communities are enormously diverse, with at least millions of species and trillions of genes unknown to science or poorly described. Soil microbial communities are key components of agriculture, for example, in provisioning nitrogen and protecting crops from pathogens, providing overall ecosystem services in excess of $1000bn per year. It is important to know how humans are affecting this hidden diversity. Much is known about the negative consequences of agricultural intensification on higher organisms, but almost nothing is known about how alterations to landscapes affect microbial diversity, distributions and processes. We review what is known about spatial flows of microbes and their response to land-use change, and outline nine hypotheses to advance research of microbiomes across landscapes. We hypothesize that intensified agriculture selects for certain taxa and genes, which then 'spill over' into adjacent unmodified areas and generate a halo of genetic differentiation around agricultural fields. Consequently, the spatial configuration and management intensity of different habitats combines with the dispersal ability of individual taxa to determine the extent of spillover, which can impact the functioning of adjacent unmodified habitats. When landscapes are heterogeneous and dispersal rates are high, this will select for large genomes that allow exploitation of multiple habitats, a process that may be accelerated through horizontal gene transfer. Continued expansion of agriculture will increase genotypic similarity, making microbial community functioning increasingly variable in human-dominated landscapes, potentially also impacting the consistent provisioning of ecosystem services. While the resulting economic costs have not been calculated, it is clear that dispersal dynamics of microbes should be taken into consideration to ensure that ecosystem functioning and services are maintained in agri-ecosystem mosaics. © 2016 The Authors.

  19. Spillover Effects of Adult Medicaid Expansions on Children's Use of Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Maya; Pollack, Craig Evan; Roberts, Eric T

    2017-12-01

    Since the passage of the Affordable Care Act, Medicaid enrollment has increased by ∼17 million adults, including many low-income parents. One potentially important, but little studied, consequence of expanding health insurance for parents is its effect on children's receipt of preventive services. By using state Medicaid eligibility thresholds linked to the 2001-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, we assessed the relationship between changes in adult Medicaid eligibility and children's likelihood of receiving annual well-child visits (WCVs). In instrumental variable analyses, we used these changes in Medicaid eligibility to estimate the relationship between parental enrollment in Medicaid and children's receipt of WCVs. Our analytic sample consisted of 50 622 parent-child dyads in families with incomes Medicaid eligibility (measured relative to the federal poverty level) was associated with a 0.27 percentage point higher probability that a child received an annual WCV (95% confidence interval: 0.058 to 0.48 percentage points, P = .012). Instrumental variable analyses revealed that parental enrollment in Medicaid was associated with a 29 percentage point higher probability that their child received an annual WCV (95% confidence interval: 11 to 47 percentage points, P = .002). In our study, we demonstrate that Medicaid expansions targeted at low-income adults are associated with increased receipt of recommended pediatric preventive care for their children. This finding reveals an important spillover effect of parental insurance coverage that should be considered in future policy decisions surrounding adult Medicaid eligibility. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Chlamydial infections in wildlife-conservation threats and/or reservoirs of 'spill-over' infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnard, Delaney; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2016-11-30

    Members of the order Chlamydiales are biphasic intracellular pathogens known to cause disease in both humans and animals. As we learn more about the genetic diversity of this group of pathogens, evidence is growing that these bacteria infect a broader range of animal hosts than previously thought. Over 400 host species are now documented globally with the majority of these being wild animals. Given the impact of chlamydial infections on humans and domesticated animals, the identification of members of the order Chlamydiales in wildlife raises significant questions over a) their impact on animal health and b) the relationships to those strains also found in humans and domestic animals. In some species such as the iconic marsupial, the koala, the conservation impact is known with chlamydial infections associated with debilitating disease, however, in general, little is known about the pathogenic potential of Chlamydiae infecting most wildlife hosts. Accumulating evidence suggests contact with wild animals is a risk factor for infections in domestic animals and/or humans. Beyond the well-recognised zoonotic pathogen, Chlamydia psittaci, a range of studies have now reported traditional pathogens in the family Chlamydiaceae such as Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia abortus in wild animals. The spectre of cross-host transmission 'spill-over' and 'spill-back' in the epidemiology of infections is of potential concern, however, comprehensive epidemiological studies are lacking for most of these. Accurate evaluation of the significance of chlamydial infections in wildlife is otherwise hampered by i) the cross-sectional nature of most impact studies, ii) a lack of standardised diagnostic approaches, iii) limited study sizes, and iv) biases associated with opportunistic sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spillover effects of community uninsurance on working-age adults and seniors: an instrumental variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Escarce, José J

    2011-09-01

    : Previous research suggests, but does not definitively establish, that a high level of uninsurance in a community may negatively affect access to and quality of health care for insured persons. : To assess the effect of the level of uninsurance in a community on access to and satisfaction with care-an important dimension of quality-among insured persons. : The 1996 to 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component data linked to data from the Current Population Survey, Area Resource File, and the InterStudy Competitive Edge. Analyses include 86,928 insured adult respondents living in approximately 200 large metropolitan areas. : Measures of whether an individual had a usual source of care, had any delay/difficulty obtaining needed care, used office-based services, used prescription drug services, and used any medical services, and measures of satisfaction with care. : Among privately insured adults, a higher community uninsurance rate resulted in a lower probability of having a usual source of care, having an office-based visit, having any medical expenditures, and reporting being satisfied with the quality of care provided by the usual source of care. A higher community uninsurance rate also led to a higher probability of reporting difficulty obtaining needed care. Among Medicare enrollees, a higher community uninsurance rate resulted in lower reported satisfaction with care and higher probability of experiencing difficulty or delay in getting needed care. : Our results suggest substantial spillover effects of the community uninsurance rate on access to and satisfaction with health care among insured working-age adults and seniors. Consequently, new efforts to address the problem of the uninsured may bring significant benefits to persons who already have insurance.

  3. Microbes in the Anthropocene: spillover of agriculturally selected bacteria and their impact on natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are enormously diverse, with at least millions of species and trillions of genes unknown to science or poorly described. Soil microbial communities are key components of agriculture, for example, in provisioning nitrogen and protecting crops from pathogens, providing overall ecosystem services in excess of $1000bn per year. It is important to know how humans are affecting this hidden diversity. Much is known about the negative consequences of agricultural intensification on higher organisms, but almost nothing is known about how alterations to landscapes affect microbial diversity, distributions and processes. We review what is known about spatial flows of microbes and their response to land-use change, and outline nine hypotheses to advance research of microbiomes across landscapes. We hypothesize that intensified agriculture selects for certain taxa and genes, which then ‘spill over’ into adjacent unmodified areas and generate a halo of genetic differentiation around agricultural fields. Consequently, the spatial configuration and management intensity of different habitats combines with the dispersal ability of individual taxa to determine the extent of spillover, which can impact the functioning of adjacent unmodified habitats. When landscapes are heterogeneous and dispersal rates are high, this will select for large genomes that allow exploitation of multiple habitats, a process that may be accelerated through horizontal gene transfer. Continued expansion of agriculture will increase genotypic similarity, making microbial community functioning increasingly variable in human-dominated landscapes, potentially also impacting the consistent provisioning of ecosystem services. While the resulting economic costs have not been calculated, it is clear that dispersal dynamics of microbes should be taken into consideration to ensure that ecosystem functioning and services are maintained in agri-ecosystem mosaics. PMID:27928044

  4. Volatility Spillovers and Causality of Carbon Emissions, Oil and Coal Spot and Futures for the EU and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that the efforts to limit climate change should focus on reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide over other greenhouse gases or air pollutants. Many countries are paying substantial attention to carbon emissions to improve air quality and public health. The largest source of carbon emissions from human activities in some countries in Europe and elsewhere is from burning fossil fuels for electricity, heat, and transportation. The prices of fuel and carbon emissions can influence each other. Owing to the importance of carbon emissions and their connection to fossil fuels, and the possibility of [1] Granger (1980 causality in spot and futures prices, returns, and volatility of carbon emissions, crude oil and coal have recently become very important research topics. For the USA, daily spot and futures prices are available for crude oil and coal, but there are no daily futures prices for carbon emissions. For the European Union (EU, there are no daily spot prices for coal or carbon emissions, but there are daily futures prices for crude oil, coal and carbon emissions. For this reason, daily prices will be used to analyse Granger causality and volatility spillovers in spot and futures prices of carbon emissions, crude oil, and coal. As the estimators are based on quasi-maximum likelihood estimators (QMLE under the incorrect assumption of a normal distribution, we modify the likelihood ratio (LR test to a quasi-likelihood ratio test (QLR to test the multivariate conditional volatility Diagonal BEKK model, which estimates and tests volatility spillovers, and has valid regularity conditions and asymptotic properties, against the alternative Full BEKK model, which also estimates volatility spillovers, but has valid regularity conditions and asymptotic properties only under the null hypothesis of zero off-diagonal elements. Dynamic hedging strategies by using optimal hedge ratios are suggested to analyse market fluctuations in the

  5. Health-promoting behaviors through pregnancy, maternity leave, and return to work: effects of role spillover and other correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L; Williams, Alysha; Stewart, Donna E; Franche, Renée-Louise

    2006-01-01

    Women's health-promoting behavior changes and their correlates across the transition to motherhood and return to work are insufficiently understood. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare women's health-promoting behaviors, particularly physical activity (PA), across these transitions. A prospective, observational design was employed to assess 243 female healthcare workers from 3 sites with regard to health-promoting behaviors, and their demographic (e.g., age, parity) and psychosocial (i.e., work-family role spillover) correlates. Forty-two participants were recruited while pregnant and re-assessed during maternity leave and upon return to work, and compared to 201 non-pregnant participants. No significant changes in health-promoting behaviors were observed from pregnancy through the postpartum. Pregnant participants reported better nutrition than comparison participants (p=.001), and were more likely to check their pulse when exercising (p=.004). During pregnancy, health-promoting behaviors were related to parental status, with first-time mothers engaging in more positive behaviors. Correlates of PA during maternity leave and return to work included family income and exercise history. Positive family-to-work spillover was significantly greater among pregnant women than among comparison participants (p<.001), and positive work-to-family spillover was related to greater PA upon return to work (p<.01). This study reveals little variability in health-promoting behaviors from the prenatal to the postpartum period. Both demographic and psychosocial factors have effects on health-promoting behaviors, and we must look to these correlates to promote increased PA.

  6. Does climate policy lead to relocation with adverse effects for GHG emissions or not? A first assessment of the spillovers of climate policy for energy intensive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.; Worrell, E.

    2004-12-01

    Energy-intensive industries play a special role in climate policy. World-wide, industry is responsible for about 50% of greenhouse gas emissions. The emission intensity makes these industries an important target for climate policy. At the same time these industries are particularly vulnerable if climate policy would lead to higher energy costs, and if they would be unable to offset these increased costs. The side effects of climate policy on GHG emissions in foreign countries are typically referred to as 'spillovers'. Negative spillovers reduce the effectiveness of a climate policy, while positive spillovers increase its effectiveness. This paper provides a review of the literature on the spillover effects of climate policy for carbon intensive industries. Reviews of past trends in production location of energy-intensive industries show an increased share of non-Annex 1 countries. However, this trend is primarily driven by demand growth, and there is no empirical evidence for a role of environmental policy in these development patterns. In contrast, climate models do show a strong carbon leakage of emissions from these industries. Even though that climate policy may have a more profound impact than previous environmental policies, the results of the modelling are ambiguous. The energy and carbon intensity of energy-intensive industries is rapidly declining in most developing countries, and reducing the 'gap' between industrialized and developing countries. Still, considerable potential for emission reduction exists, both in developing and industrialized countries. Technology development is likely to deliver further reductions in energy use and CO2 emissions. Despite the potential for positive spillovers in the energy-intensive industries, none of the models used in the analysis of spillovers of climate policies has an endogenous representation of technological change for the energy-intensive industries. This underlines the need for a better understanding of

  7. International Transmission Effects of Volatility Spillovers Between Stock Returns and Exchange Rates: Evidence from Greece, Portugal and Spain since the Introduction of the Euro

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of volatility spillovers between stock returns and exchange rate changes for Greece, Spain and Portugal for the 1999-2006 period after the introduction of the Euro as well as the 1999-2001 and 2002-2003/May and 2003/June-2006 periods since the Euro has been introduced. We use an EGARCH model which takes into account whether bad news has the same impact on volatility as good news. We also investigate whether volatility spillovers between exchange rates and e...

  8. The real world of blood glucose point-of-care testing (POCT) system running in China teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Fei; Xie, Yun; Shi, Bing-Yin; Niu, Min; Guo, Hui; Cao, Yan; Liu, Bing-Li; Yan, Reng-Na; Su, Xiao-Fei; Wu, Jin-Dan; Zhang, Dan-Feng; Chen, Li-Ming; Ma, Jian-Hua

    2018-06-01

     The blood glucose point-of-care testing (POCT) system is important in the decision-making process involving patients suspected of having hypoglycemia. To investigate the real world of the POCT system being used in teaching hospitals in China. The survey was conducted by Hisend Research Group from May 2015 to July 2015 in four teaching hospitals in China. The survey questions were referred to the ISO 15197:2013 standard requirements for the use of the POCT system in a hospital setting. A total of 170 subjects were included from 4 hospitals, which included nursing staff, nurse unit managers, employees from the department of medical instruments, and staff members employed by the clinical laboratories in the Tianjin Metabolism Hospital, Nanjing First Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, and the First hospital affiliated with the Xi'an Transportation University. The average score for the four hospitals surveyed in this study was 66.6, which varied from 46.1 to 79.7. The main factors influencing the scores were the multiple choices of blood-glucose meters, and the quality control assessment. Our data indicates that the real world use of the POCT system in hospital settings in China needs more closer adherence to a quality management framework.

  9. Estimating 'Value at Risk' of crude oil price and its spillover effect using the GED-GARCH approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Tsai, Hsien-Tang

    2008-01-01

    Estimation has been carried out using GARCH-type models, based on the Generalized Error Distribution (GED), for both the extreme downside and upside Value-at-Risks (VaR) of returns in the WTI and Brent crude oil spot markets. Furthermore, according to a new concept of Granger causality in risk, a kernel-based test is proposed to detect extreme risk spillover effect between the two oil markets. Results of an empirical study indicate that the GED-GARCH-based VaR approach appears more effective than the well-recognized HSAF (i.e. historical simulation with ARMA forecasts). Moreover, this approach is also more realistic and comprehensive than the standard normal distribution-based VaR model that is commonly used. Results reveal that there is significant two-way risk spillover effect between WTI and Brent markets. Supplementary study indicates that at the 99% confidence level, when negative market news arises that brings about a slump in oil price return, historical information on risk in the WTI market helps to forecast the Brent market. Conversely, it is not the case when positive news occurs and returns rise. Historical information on risk in the two markets can facilitate forecasts of future extreme market risks for each other. These results are valuable for anyone who needs evaluation and forecasts of the risk situation in international crude oil markets. (author)

  10. The role of sleep in adolescents' daily stress recovery: Negative affect spillover and positive affect bounce-back effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chue, Amanda E; Gunthert, Kathleen C; Kim, Rebecca W; Alfano, Candice A; Ruggiero, Aria R

    2018-07-01

    The present study examined the role of sleep in daily affective stress recovery processes in adolescents. Eighty-nine American adolescents recorded their emotions and stress through daily surveys and sleep with Fitbit devices for two weeks. Results show that objectively measured sleep (sleep onset latency and sleep debt) moderated negative affective responses to previous-day stress, such that stress-related negative affect spillover effects became more pronounced as amount of sleep decreased. Total sleep time and sleep debt moderated cross-day positive affect "bounce-back" effects. With more sleep, morning positive affect on days following high stress tended to bounce back to the levels that were common following low stress days. Conversely, if sleep was short following high stress days, positive affect remained low the next morning. No evidence for subjective sleep quality as a moderator of spillover/bounce-back effects was found. This research suggests that sleep quantity could relate to overnight affective stress recovery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A framework for the study of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers: spillover of bat pathogens as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James L. N.; Leach, Melissa; Waldman, Linda; MacGregor, Hayley; Fooks, Anthony R.; Jones, Kate E.; Restif, Olivier; Dechmann, Dina; Hayman, David T. S.; Baker, Kate S.; Peel, Alison J.; Kamins, Alexandra O.; Fahr, Jakob; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breiman, Robert F.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Field, Hume E.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health and human health remain poorly understood and responding appropriately to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial societal challenge. In the context of disease emergence from wildlife, wildlife and habitat should be conserved, which in turn will preserve vital ecosystem structure and function, which has broader implications for human wellbeing and environmental sustainability, while simultaneously minimizing the spillover of pathogens from wild animals into human beings. In this review, we propose a novel framework for the holistic and interdisciplinary investigation of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers, using the spillover of bat pathogens as a case study. This study has been developed to gain a detailed interdisciplinary understanding, and it combines cutting-edge perspectives from both natural and social sciences, linked to policy impacts on public health, land use and conservation. PMID:22966143

  12. Stress spillover of health symptoms from healthy spouses to patient spouses in older married couples managing both diabetes and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorgason, Jeremy B; Roper, Susanne O; Sandberg, Jonathan G; Berg, Cynthia A

    2012-12-01

    Many studies examining illness within marriage have investigated how illness in one spouse influences the other spouse. In later-life marriages, where both spouses are more likely to have health challenges, there is an increased likelihood that health symptoms from both spouses affect each other. In the current study we examined how health symptoms in a "healthy" spouse may exacerbate health problems in a partner (the patient) who is managing multiple chronic illnesses. Surveys were collected across 14 days from 27 later-life couples where patients had both diabetes and osteoarthritis. Results indicated that higher healthy spouse symptoms were generally associated with higher patient symptoms, suggesting a spillover effect. Spouse reports of positive and negative mood were inversely linked with patient health outcomes. Spouse reports of higher positive marital interactions were surprisingly linked with higher patients' arthritis activity and activity limitations, possibly indicating a compensatory effect where marital interactions increase with symptoms. Daily spouse reports of positive marital interactions and mood were linked with patient health outcomes even after the spillover of health symptoms was taken into account.

  13. A framework for the study of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers: spillover of bat pathogens as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James L N; Leach, Melissa; Waldman, Linda; Macgregor, Hayley; Fooks, Anthony R; Jones, Kate E; Restif, Olivier; Dechmann, Dina; Hayman, David T S; Baker, Kate S; Peel, Alison J; Kamins, Alexandra O; Fahr, Jakob; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa; Suu-Ire, Richard; Breiman, Robert F; Epstein, Jonathan H; Field, Hume E; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-10-19

    Many serious emerging zoonotic infections have recently arisen from bats, including Ebola, Marburg, SARS-coronavirus, Hendra, Nipah, and a number of rabies and rabies-related viruses, consistent with the overall observation that wildlife are an important source of emerging zoonoses for the human population. Mechanisms underlying the recognized association between ecosystem health and human health remain poorly understood and responding appropriately to the ecological, social and economic conditions that facilitate disease emergence and transmission represents a substantial societal challenge. In the context of disease emergence from wildlife, wildlife and habitat should be conserved, which in turn will preserve vital ecosystem structure and function, which has broader implications for human wellbeing and environmental sustainability, while simultaneously minimizing the spillover of pathogens from wild animals into human beings. In this review, we propose a novel framework for the holistic and interdisciplinary investigation of zoonotic disease emergence and its drivers, using the spillover of bat pathogens as a case study. This study has been developed to gain a detailed interdisciplinary understanding, and it combines cutting-edge perspectives from both natural and social sciences, linked to policy impacts on public health, land use and conservation.

  14. The Information and Communication Technology User Role: Implications for the Work Role and Inter-Role Spillover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piszczek, Matthew M; Pichler, Shaun; Turel, Ofir; Greenhaus, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Management and organization research has traditionally focused on employees' work role and the interface between their work and family roles. We suggest that persons assume a third role in modern society that is relevant to work and organizations, namely the Information and Communication Technology User (ICTU) role. Based on role theory and boundary theory, we develop propositions about the characteristics of this role, as well as how ICTU role characteristics are related to boundary spanning activity, inter-role spillover with the work role, and work role performance. To this end, we first conceptualize the ICTU role and its associations with work and family roles. We then apply identity theory and boundary management theory to advance our understanding of how the ICTU role is related to criteria that are important to individuals and to organizations, namely self-selection into certain types of work roles and positive and negative inter-role spillover. The implications of this role for theory, research, and practice in management and organizations are discussed.

  15. Stock Market Linkages: Evidence From The US, China And India During The Subprime Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Amanjot

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Subprime crisis spillovered the returns and volatility from the US stock market to the other integrated economies. The present study attempts to analyze the stock market linkages between the US, India and China, especially during the US subprime Crisis. The technique of Tri-Variate Vector Autoregression and the Spillover Index has been employed so as to analyze the relations during the time period 2007 to 2009. To estimate the time varying risk parameters, the technique of Threshold Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic [TGARCH (1,1] model has been used. A uni-directional causality has been observed from the US market to the Indian and Chinese market, whereas another unidirectional causality has also been spotted running from the Chinese market to the Indian market in the context of stock market returns during the crisis period. A unidirectional volatility spillover from the US to the Indian market and from the Indian to the Chinese market has been found to be significant. As per the volatility Spillover Index, the cross market impact on the volatility reduces over a time period 2007-2009, due to the increased impact of the past volatility and the presence of 'leverage effect'. The falling returns added to the volatility in the respective markets. The efficient tests of causality inspired by Hill (2007 reported an indirect impact of the US market volatility on the Chinese market via Indian. The portfolio managers should discount this information well ahead of time to maintain the portfolio values by taking positions in futures and options market.

  16. The Role of the Five Factor Model of Personality in the Perceptions of Negative and Positive Forms of Work-Nonwork Spillover: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Jesse S.; Clark, Malissa A.; Jaramillo, David

    2011-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examines the relationships between the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality and negative and positive forms of work-nonwork spillover (e.g., work-family conflict and facilitation). Results, based on aggregated correlations drawn from 66 studies and 72 independent samples (Total N = 28,127), reveal that the FFM is…

  17. Study on Spatial Spillover Effects of Logistics Industry Development for Economic Growth in the Yangtze River Delta City Cluster Based on Spatial Durbin Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxing; Wang, Yuhong

    2017-12-04

    The overall entropy method is used to evaluate the development level of the logistics industry in the city based on a mechanism analysis of the spillover effect of the development of the logistics industry on economic growth, according to the panel data of 26 cities in the Yangtze River delta. On this basis, the paper uses the spatial durbin model to study the direct impact of the development of the logistics industry on economic growth and the spatial spillover effect. The results show that the direct impact coefficient of the development of the logistics industry in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration on local economic growth is 0.092, and the significant spatial spillover effect on the economic growth in the surrounding area is 0.197. Compared with the labor force input, capital investment and the degree of opening to the world, and government functions, the logistics industry's direct impact coefficient is the largest, other than capital investment; the coefficient of the spillover effect is higher than other control variables, making it a "strong engine" of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration economic growth.

  18. Quantitative chemical exchange saturation transfer (qCEST) MRI--RF spillover effect-corrected omega plot for simultaneous determination of labile proton fraction ratio and exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Phillip Zhe; Wang, Yu; Dai, ZhuoZhi; Xiao, Gang; Wu, Renhua

    2014-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is sensitive to dilute proteins and peptides as well as microenvironmental properties. However, the complexity of the CEST MRI effect, which varies with the labile proton content, exchange rate and experimental conditions, underscores the need for developing quantitative CEST (qCEST) analysis. Towards this goal, it has been shown that omega plot is capable of quantifying paramagnetic CEST MRI. However, the use of the omega plot is somewhat limited for diamagnetic CEST (DIACEST) MRI because it is more susceptible to direct radio frequency (RF) saturation (spillover) owing to the relatively small chemical shift. Recently, it has been found that, for dilute DIACEST agents that undergo slow to intermediate chemical exchange, the spillover effect varies little with the labile proton ratio and exchange rate. Therefore, we postulated that the omega plot analysis can be improved if RF spillover effect could be estimated and taken into account. Specifically, simulation showed that both labile proton ratio and exchange rate derived using the spillover effect-corrected omega plot were in good agreement with simulated values. In addition, the modified omega plot was confirmed experimentally, and we showed that the derived labile proton ratio increased linearly with creatine concentration (p plot for quantitative analysis of DIACEST MRI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Social and Spill-Over Benefits as Motivating Factors to Investment in Formal Education in Africa: A Reflection around Ghanaian, Kenyan and Rwandan Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, S. Y.; Bizimana, B.; Ndayambaje, I.; Karongo, V.; Lawrence, K. Lyn; Orodho, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the social and spill-over benefits as motivating factors to investment in formal education in selected countries in Africa. The paper had three objectives, namely) to profile the key statistics of formal schooling; ii) examine the formal education and iii) link national goals of education with expectations in Ghana, Kenya and…

  20. Una aproximación a la identificación, medición y generación de los spillovers recíprocos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Caicedo Asprilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se examina la literatura sobre los spillovers recíprocos, con el fin de contribuir a la comprensión que tienen estas externalidades en la organización industrial, la localización de las firmas multinacionales y la aglomeración de empresas. Pese a que la captura y representación de esta clase de externalidades ha sido objeto de críticas, aquí se recogen algunos trabajos que muestran la naturaleza e importancia de los spillovers recíprocos. Se aplicó el método bibliométrico de análisis de citas usando la base de datos Google Scholar. Se evidencia que los spillovers recíprocos se manifiestan a través de las citas de patentes, movilidad de la mano de obra entre empresas, el aprendizaje de formas de organización y producción, el compartimiento de canales de distribución, etc. De igual manera se muestra que los spillovers recíprocos surgen gracias a la configuración de redes entre las multinacionales y los actores de la región de llegada. Se concluye que si bien los spillovers recíprocos son difíciles de capturar y de medir, es posible seguir el rastro a este tipo de externalidades cuando el análisis se realiza en función del proceso de transferencia de tecnología

  1. Do Sustainable Stocks Offer Diversification Benefits for Conventional Portfolios? An Empirical Analysis of Risk Spillovers and Dynamic Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Balcilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential diversification benefits of socially responsible investments for conventional stock portfolios by examining the risk spillovers and dynamic correlations between conventional and sustainability stock indexes from a number of regions. We observe significant unidirectional volatility transmissions from conventional to sustainable equities, suggesting that the criteria applied for socially responsible investments do not necessarily shield these securities from common market shocks. While significant dynamic correlations are observed between sustainable and conventional stocks, particularly in Europe, the analysis of both in- and out-of-sample dynamic portfolios suggests that supplementing conventional stock portfolios with sustainable counterparts improves the risk/return profile of stock portfolios in all regions. The findings overall suggest that sustainable investments can indeed provide diversification gains for conventional stock portfolios globally.

  2. Family Stress and Parental Responses to Children’s Negative Emotions: Tests of the Spillover, Crossover, and Compensatory Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A.; O’Brien, Marion; Blankson, A. Nayena; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2010-01-01

    The relations between 4 sources of family stress (marital dissatisfaction, home chaos, parental depressive symptoms, and job role dissatisfaction) and the emotion socialization practice of mothers’ and fathers’ responses to children’s negative emotions were examined. Participants included 101 couples with 7-year-old children. Dyadic analyses were conducted using the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model and relations were tested in terms of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. Results suggest that measures of family stress relate to supportive and nonsupportive parental responses, though many of these relations differ by parent gender. The results are discussed in terms of the 3 theoretical hypotheses, all of which are supported to some degree depending on the family stressor examined. PMID:19803603

  3. Family stress and parental responses to children's negative emotions: tests of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; O'Brien, Marion; Blankson, A Nayena; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P

    2009-10-01

    The relations between 4 sources of family stress (marital dissatisfaction, home chaos, parental depressive symptoms, and job role dissatisfaction) and the emotion socialization practice of mothers' and fathers' responses to children's negative emotions were examined. Participants included 101 couples with 7-year-old children. Dyadic analyses were conducted using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and relations were tested in terms of the spillover, crossover, and compensatory hypotheses. Results suggest that measures of family stress relate to supportive and nonsupportive parental responses, though many of these relations differ by parent gender. The results are discussed in terms of the 3 theoretical hypotheses, all of which are supported to some degree depending on the family stressor examined.

  4. Stress spillover, African Americans' couple and health outcomes, and the stress-buffering effect of family-centered prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Bryant, Chalandra M; Lavner, Justin A; Brody, Gene H

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated (a) the stress spillover pathways linking contextual stressors, changes in couple relationship functioning and depressive symptoms, and changes in individuals' physical health, and (b) the stress-buffering effect of participation in an efficacious, family centered prevention program designed to protect couples from the deleterious effects of stressors. The sample consisted of 346 rural African American couples (63% married) who participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Protecting Strong African American Families (ProSAAF) program. Participants were assessed at three time points across 17 months. Results examining stress spillover within the control group indicated that elevated current, but not prior, financial hardship was associated with decreased effective communication, relationship satisfaction, and relationship confidence as well as increased depressive symptoms; current levels of racial discrimination also predicted greater depressive symptoms. Relationship confidence and relationship satisfaction, but not communication or depressive symptoms, in turn predicted declines in self-reported physical health. Results examining stress-buffering effects suggested that participation in ProSAAF protected individuals' relationship confidence from declines associated with elevated financial hardship. In addition, the indirect effect linking financial hardship to declines in physical health through relationship confidence that emerged among participants in the control group was no longer evident for ProSAAF couples. Results highlight the effect of contextual stressors on African Americans' couple and individual well-being and the potential for the ProSAAF program to provide a constructed resilience resource, protecting couple's confidence in their relationship from the negative effects of financial hardship and, consequently, promoting physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Individual- and Organization-Level Work-to-Family Spillover Are Uniquely Associated with Hotel Managers' Work Exhaustion and Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D; Neuendorf, Claudia; Grandey, Alicia; Lam, Chun Bun; Almeida, David M

    2016-01-01

    Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, this paper examined the unique and interactive associations of negative and positive work-to-family spillover (NWFS and PWFS, respectively) at the individual and organizational level with hotel managers' work exhaustion and satisfaction, beyond job demands and supervisors' leadership style. Guided by the levels of analysis framework, we first tested the unique associations of NWFS and PWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at the individual level (571 hotel managers), beyond job demands supervisors' leadership style. Second, using multilevel modeling, we tested the climate effects of NWFS and PWFS on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction aggregated at the organizational level (41 hotels). Third, we examined the role of the organizational climate of PWFS in the associations of individual-level NWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Beyond the effects of psychological job demands and supervisor's transformational leadership, at the individual level, hotel managers who experienced higher NWFS than other managers reported more exhaustion and lower job satisfaction, whereas those with higher PWFS reported less exhaustion and higher satisfaction. At the organizational level, working in hotels where the average level of NWFS was higher than other hotels was associated with feeling more exhaustion of the individual members; working in hotels with higher PWFS was associated with feeling less exhaustion. The negative link between individual-level NWFS and job satisfaction was buffered when organization-level PWFS was higher, compared to when it was lower. This study moves beyond a focus on traditional job characteristics, toward considering individual and organizational experiences in the work-family interface as unique predictors of work exhaustion and satisfaction. Strengths of the study include illuminating organizational work-family climate effects such that coworkers' shared experiences of

  6. China Emerging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    historical components to the disputes in the South China Sea that have bearing on the issue. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia , the Philippines...government for needed efficiency. It becomes more and more untenable for an authoritative government to enforce censorship , political repression, state

  7. Investigation of antibiotics in mollusks from coastal waters in the Bohai Sea of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenhui; Shi Yali; Gao Lihong; Liu Jiemin; Cai Yaqi

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the presence and distribution of 22 antibiotics, including eight quinolones, nine sulfonamides and five macrolides in mollusks from the Bohai Sea of China. 190 samples of eleven species were collected in 2006, 2007 and 2009. Laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely distributed in the mollusks with quinolones as the major compounds with concentrations of 0.71∼1575.10 μg/kg, which were up to two orders of magnitude higher than those of sulfonamides (0∼76.75 μg/kg) and macrolides (0∼36.21 μg/kg). The contents of quinolones and macrolides did not show significant changes from 2006, 2007 to 2009, while sulfonamides decreased significantly from 2006 to 2009. Compared with other sites, the city of Dalian was more polluted with quinolones, while Beidaihe was more contaminated with erythromycin and sulfapyridine. In addition, Mactra veneriformis and Meretrix merehjgntrix Linnaeus contained higher concentrations of quinolones and sulfamonomethoxine, while Mytilus edulis had higher levels of erythromycin and sulfapyridine. - Highlights: ► Antibiotics widely existed in the mollusks from the Bohai Sea. ► Quinolones were the major antibiotics in the mollusks. ► The concentrations of sulfonamides decreased from 2006 to 2009. - Antibiotics were widely distributed in the mollusks with quinolones as the major compounds.

  8. Big Five personality traits, job satisfaction and subjective wellbeing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qingguo; Willis, Mike; O'Shea, Bob; Zhai, Yubo; Yang, Yuwen

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the Big Five personality traits on job satisfaction and subjective wellbeing (SWB). The paper also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction on the Big Five-SWB relationship. Data were collected from a sample of 818 urban employees from five Chinese cities: Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang, Dalian, and Fushun. All the study variables were measured with well-established multi-item scales that have been validated both in English-speaking populations and in China. The study found only extraversion to have an effect on job satisfaction, suggesting that there could be cultural difference in the relationships between the Big Five and job satisfaction in China and in the West. The study found that three factors in the Big Five--extraversion, conscientiousness, and neuroticism--have an effect on SWB. This finding is similar to findings in the West, suggesting convergence in the relationship between the Big Five and SWB in different cultural contexts. The research found that only the relationship between extraversion and SWB is partially mediated by job satisfaction, implying that the effect of the Big Five on SWB is mainly direct, rather than indirect via job satisfaction. The study also found that extraversion was the strongest predictor of both job satisfaction and SWB. This finding implies that extraversion could be more important than other factors in the Big Five in predicting job satisfaction and SWB in a "high collectivism" and "high power distance" country such as China. The research findings are discussed in the Chinese cultural context. The study also offers suggestions on the directions for future research.

  9. Interregional carbon emission spillover–feedback effects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youguo

    2017-01-01

    A three-region input–output model was applied in this study to analyze the emission spillover–feedback effects across the eastern, middle, and western regions of China. Results revealed that the interregional trade has important spillover effects (SEs) on the emissions of each region, particularly in the middle and western regions, but the feedback effects are few. Although the eastern regional final demands have a smaller economic SE per unit than those of the middle and western regions in 2002–2010, its emission SE gradually exceeded that of the two other regions. The interregional trade policy has to be enforced in the future, but the emission SEs should be controlled efficiently. Therefore, the central government should continue to implement the policies on the reduction of energy and carbon intensities from the past decade, limit coal consumption, and encourage renewable fuel development. At the same time, the central government and the eastern region can help the middle and western regions control their carbon intensity by providing fiscal, technological, and training assistance. The middle and western regions should set strict admittance standards for energy-intensive plants that transferred from the eastern region. - Highlights: • We study spillover-feedback effects (SFEs) with a three-region input-output model. • We calculate the emission SFEs among the east, middle and west China. • We compare changes of the interregional emission and economic SFEs in 2002–2010. • Regional sector emission SFEs are also presented. • The policy implication of emission SFEs are discussed.

  10. A typology of interpartner conflict and maternal parenting practices in high-risk families: examining spillover and compensatory models and implications for child adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante; Fittoria, Michael G

    2014-11-01

    The present study incorporates a person-based approach to identify spillover and compartmentalization patterns of interpartner conflict and maternal parenting practices in an ethnically diverse sample of 192 2-year-old children and their mothers who had experienced higher levels of socioeconomic risk. In addition, we tested whether sociocontextual variables were differentially predictive of theses profiles and examined how interpartner-parenting profiles were associated with children's physiological and psychological adjustment over time. As expected, latent class analyses extracted three primary profiles of functioning: adequate functioning, spillover, and compartmentalizing families. Furthermore, interpartner-parenting profiles were differentially associated with both sociocontextual predictors and children's adjustment trajectories. The findings highlight the developmental utility of incorporating person-based approaches to models of interpartner conflict and maternal parenting practices.

  11. Intra- and Inter-Regional Return and Volatility Spillovers Across Emerging and Developing Markets: Evidence from Stock Indices and Stock Index Futures

    OpenAIRE

    Yarovaya, Larisa; Brzeszczynski, Janusz; Lau, Marco Chi Keung

    2016-01-01

    We provide empirical evidence on the patterns of intra- and inter-regional transmission of information across 10 developed and 11 emerging markets in Asia, the Americas, Europe and Africa using both stock indices and stock index futures. The main transmission channels are examined in the period from 2005 to 2014 through the analysis of return and volatility spillovers around the most recent crises based on the generalized vector autoregressive framework. Our findings demonstrate that markets ...

  12. Second-best trade policies, R&D spillovers and government (in)ability to precommit in an intra-industry trade framework

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir

    -, č. 427 (2010), s. 1-71 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : government commitment * optimal tariffs and R&D subsidies * first-best versus second-best strategic policy * R&D spillovers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp427.pdf

  13. Household food insufficiency, financial strain, work-family spillover, and depressive symptoms in the working class: the Work, Family, and Health Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; El Ayadi, Alison M; Tamers, Sara L; Sabbath, Erika L; Berkman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association of household-level stressors with depressive symptoms among low-wage nursing home employees. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 from 452 multiethnic primary and nonprimary wage earners in 4 facilities in Massachusetts. We used logistic regression to estimate the association of depressive symptoms with household financial strain, food insufficiency, and work-family spillover (preoccupation with work-related concerns while at home and vice versa). Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with household financial strain (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 3.21) and food insufficiency (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.10, 4.18). Among primary earners, stratified analyses showed that food insufficiency was associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.42, 9.11) but financial strain was not. Among nonprimary wage earners, depressive symptoms correlated with financial strain (OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 1.48, 9.01) and work-family spillover (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.11, 9.35). Household financial strain, food insufficiency, and work-family spillover are pervasive problems for working populations, but associations vary by primary wage earner status. The prevalence of food insufficiency among full-time employees was striking and might have a detrimental influence on depressive symptoms and the health of working-class families.

  14. Individual- and Organization-level Work-to-Family Spillover are Uniquely Associated with Hotel Managers' Work Exhaustion and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soomi Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Building on the Conservation of Resources theory, this paper examined the unique and interactive associations of negative and positive work-to-family spillover (NWFS and PWFS, respectively at the individual and organizational level with hotel managers’ wok exhaustion and satisfaction, beyond job demands and supervisors’ leadership style. Design/methodology/approach: Guided by the levels of analysis framework, we first tested the unique associations of NWFS and PWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at the individual level (571 hotel managers, beyond job demands supervisors’ leadership style. Second, using multilevel modeling, we tested the climate effects of NWFS and PWFS on emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction aggregated at the organizational level (41 hotels. Third, we examined the role of the organizational climate of PWFS in the associations of individual-level NWFS with emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. Findings: Beyond the effects of psychological job demands and supervisor’s transformational leadership, at the individual level, hotel managers who experienced higher NWFS than other managers reported more exhaustion and lower job satisfaction, whereas those with higher PWFS reported less exhaustion and higher satisfaction. At the organizational level, working in hotels where the average level of NWFS was higher than other hotels was associated with feeling more exhaustion of the individual members; working in hotels with higher PWFS was associated with feeling less exhaustion. The negative link between individual-level NWFS and job satisfaction was buffered when organization-level PWFS was higher, compared to when it was lower. Originality/value: This study moves beyond a focus on traditional job characteristics, toward considering individual and organizational experiences in the work-family interface as unique predictors of work exhaustion and satisfaction. Strengths of the study include

  15. Impact of Maine's Medicaid drug formulary change on non-Medicaid markets: spillover effects of a restrictive drug formulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y Richard; Pauly, Mark V; Lin, Y Aileen

    2003-10-01

    Market penetration of HMOs affect physician practice styles for non-HMO patients. To study the impact of a restrictive Medicaid drug formulary on prescribing patterns for other patients, ie, so-called spillover effects. A before-and-after, 3-state comparison study. On January 1, 2001, Maine's Medicaid program implemented a restrictive drug formulary for the proton pump inhibitor class, with pantoprazole as the only preferred drug. The Medicaid and non-Medicaid market shares of pantoprazole in Maine (vs New Hampshire and Vermont and among Maine physicians with different Medicaid share of practice. After 3 months, the market share of pantoprazole in Maine (vs 2 control states) increased 79% among Medicaid prescriptions (vs 1%-2%), 10% among cash prescriptions (vs 3%), and 7% among other third-party payer prescriptions (vs 1%). The market shares increased more among Maine physicians with a higher Medicaid share of practice (high vs middle vs low [market]: 16% vs 8% vs 5% [cash]; 11% vs 5% vs 4% [other third-party payers]). Linear regression results indicate that practicing medicine in Maine leads to a 72% increase in pantoprazole share among Medicaid prescriptions (P markets, with somewhat stronger effects in the cash market.

  16. Hydrogen spillover in Pt-single-walled carbon nanotube composites: formation of stable C-H bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Ranadeep; Rajasekaran, Srivats; Friebel, Daniel; Beasley, Cara; Jiao, Liying; Ogasawara, Hirohito; Dai, Hongjie; Clemens, Bruce; Nilsson, Anders

    2011-04-13

    Using in situ electrical conductivity and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements, we have examined how the hydrogen uptake of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is influenced by the addition of Pt nanoparticles. The conductivity of platinum-sputtered single-walled carbon nanotubes (Pt-SWNTs) during molecular hydrogen exposure decreased more rapidly than that of the corresponding pure SWNTs, which supports a hydrogenation mechanism facilitated by "spillover" of dissociated hydrogen from the Pt nanoparticles. C 1s XPS spectra indicate that the Pt-SWNTs store hydrogen by means of chemisorption, that is, covalent C-H bond formation: molecular hydrogen charging at elevated pressure (8.27 bar) and room temperature yielded Pt-SWNTs with up to 16 ± 1.5 at. % sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, which corresponds to a hydrogen-storage capacity of 1.2 wt % (excluding the weight of Pt nanoparticles). Pt-SWNTs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique exhibited the highest Pt/SWNT ratio and also the best hydrogen uptake. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  17. Stereotype threat spillover: how coping with threats to social identity affects aggression, eating, decision making, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzlicht, Michael; Kang, Sonia K

    2010-09-01

    Stereotype threat spillover is a situational predicament in which coping with the stress of stereotype confirmation leaves one in a depleted volitional state and thus less likely to engage in effortful self-control in a variety of domains. We examined this phenomenon in 4 studies in which we had participants cope with stereotype and social identity threat and then measured their performance in domains in which stereotypes were not "in the air." In Study 1 we examined whether taking a threatening math test could lead women to respond aggressively. In Study 2 we investigated whether coping with a threatening math test could lead women to indulge themselves with unhealthy food later on and examined the moderation of this effect by personal characteristics that contribute to identity-threat appraisals. In Study 3 we investigated whether vividly remembering an experience of social identity threat results in risky decision making. Finally, in Study 4 we asked whether coping with threat could directly influence attentional control and whether the effect was implemented by inefficient performance monitoring, as assessed by electroencephalography. Our results indicate that stereotype threat can spill over and impact self-control in a diverse array of nonstereotyped domains. These results reveal the potency of stereotype threat and that its negative consequences might extend further than was previously thought. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Work-family spillover revisited: Is there hope for marital happiness in the dual-earner family?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Smit

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades social scientists have increasingly become aware of the dynamic qualities of gender and marital roles in the family. The changes taking place in terms of both the role contents and role behaviour of especially dual-earner couples have been identified as aspects affecting family life to a large extent. The increasing interface between the work and family spheres, based on the so-called work-family spillover model, has led to the conventional thesis that the non-traditional role behaviour of dualearner spouses and marital dissolution are causally related. The strenuous lifestyle associated with the dual-earner family may therefore have a detrimental effect on marital and familial relationships. This article gives, in the first place, an overview of the dilemmas the dualearner family may be confronted with. In the second place, possible intervening or mediating variables that may come into play in the process of facilitating a work-family fit in the dual-earner family are discussed. Recent research suggests that these intervening variables may not only help dualearner families to cope successfully with strenuous dilemmas, but may even contribute to the experience of higher levels of marital integration and happiness.

  19. Mapping and Evaluating the Urbanization Process in Northeast China Using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunpeng Yi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Urban Light Index (ULI is constructed to facilitate analysis and quantitative evaluation of the process of urbanization and expansion rate by using DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data during the years from 1992 to 2010. A unit circle urbanization evaluation model is established to perform a comprehensive analysis of the urbanization process of 34 prefecture-level cities in Northeast China. Furthermore, the concept of urban light space is put forward. In this study, urban light space is divided into four types: the core urban area, the transition zone between urban and suburban areas, suburban area and fluorescent space. Proceeding from the temporal and spatial variation of the four types of light space, the pattern of morphologic change and space-time evolution of the four principal cities in Northeast China (Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang, Dalian is analyzed and given particular attention. Through a correlation analysis between ULI and the traditional urbanization indexes (urban population, proportion of the secondary and tertiary industries in the regional GDP and the built-up area, the advantages and disadvantages as well as the feasibility of using the ULI in the study of urbanization are evaluated. The research results show that ULI has a strong correlation with urban built-up area (R2 = 0.8277. The morphologic change and history of the evolving urban light space can truly reflect the characteristics of urban sprawl. The results also indicate that DMSP/OLS Nighttime Light Data is applicable for extracting urban space information and has strong potential to urbanization research.

  20. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  1. China Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are playing increasingly important roles in clinical and translational research nowadays. China, as a country with the largest population and abundant clinical resources, attaches great importance to the development of biobanks. In recent years, with the increasing support from the Chinese government, biobanks are blooming across the country. This paper provides a detailed overview of China biobanking, which is further divided in the following four parts: (i) general introduction of the number, category and distribution of current biobanks; (ii) summarization of the current development status, and issues that Chinese biobanks are faced with; (iii) international cooperation between China and the global biobanking community; (iv) prospect of the modern twenty-first century Chinese biobanks, which would achieve standardized operation, systematic specimen management, and extensive collaboration, and thus provide support for the robust research discoveries and personalized medicine etc.

  2. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M.; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM 10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM 10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m 3 , respectively. The similarities in PM 10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM 10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM 10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM 10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM 10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM 10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM 10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  3. National- to port-level inventories of shipping emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingliang; Liu, Huan; Jin, Xinxin; He, Kebin

    2017-11-01

    Shipping in China plays a global role, and has led worldwide maritime transportation for the last decade. However, without taking national or local port boundaries into account, it is impossible to determine the responsibility that each local authority has on emission controls, nor compare them with land-based emissions to determine the priority for controlling these emissions. In this study, we provide national- to port-level inventories for China. The results show that in 2013, the total emissions of CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), particulate matter (PM), SO2 and CO2 were 0.0741 ± 0.0004 Tg•yr-1, 0.0691 ± 0.0004 Tg•yr-1, 1.91 ± 0.01 Tg•yr-1, 0.164 ± 0.001 Tg•yr-1, 1.30 ± 0.01 Tg•yr-1 and 86.3 ± 0.3 Tg•yr-1 in China, respectively. By providing high-resolution spatial distribution maps of these emissions, we identify three hotspots, centered on the Bohai Rim Area, the Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta. These three hotspots account for 8% of the ocean area evaluated in this study, but contribute around 37% of total shipping emissions. Compared with on-road mobile source emissions, NO x and PM emissions from ships are equivalent to about 34% and 29% of the total mobile vehicle emissions in China. Moreover, this study provides detailed emission inventories for 24 ports in the country, which also greatly contributes to our understanding of global shipping emissions, given that eight of these ports rank within the top twenty of the port league table. Several ports in China suffer emissions 12-147 times higher than those at Los Angeles port. The ports of Ningbo-Zhou Shan, Shanghai, Hong Kong and Dalian dominate the port-level inventories, with individual emissions accounting for 28%-31%, 10%-14%, 10%-12% and 8%-14% of total emissions, respectively.

  4. Hydrogen spillover phenomenon: Enhanced reversible hydrogen adsorption/desorption at Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-coated Pt electrode in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sata, Shunsuke [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G1-5 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Awad, Mohamed I.; El-Deab, Mohamed S. [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G1-5 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Okajima, Takeyoshi [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G1-5 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Ohsaka, Takeo, E-mail: ohsaka@echem.titech.ac.j [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-G1-5 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2010-04-01

    The current study is concerned with the preparation and characterization of tantalum oxide-loaded Pt (TaO{sub x}/Pt) electrodes for hydrogen spillover application. XPS, SEM, EDX and XRD techniques are used to characterize the TaO{sub x}/Pt surfaces. TaO{sub x}/Pt electrodes were prepared by galvanostatic electrodeposition of Ta on Pt from LiF-NaF (60:40 mol%) molten salts containing K{sub 2}TaF{sub 7} (20 wt%) at 800 deg. C and then by annealing in air at various temperatures (200, 400 and 600 deg. C). The thus-fabricated TaO{sub x}/Pt electrodes were compared with the non-annealed Ta/Pt and the unmodified Pt electrodes for the hydrogen adsorption/desorption (H{sub ads}/H{sub des}) reaction. The oxidation of Ta to the stoichiometric oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) increases with increasing the annealing temperature as revealed from XPS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The higher the annealing temperature the larger is the enhancement in the H{sub ads}/H{sub des} reaction at TaO{sub x}/Pt electrode. The extraordinary increase in the hydrogen adsorption/desorption at the electrode annealed at 600 deg. C is explained on the basis of a hydrogen spillover-reverse spillover mechanism. The hydrogen adsorption at the TaO{sub x}/Pt electrode is a diffusion-controlled process.

  5. Analysis of Income Inequality Based on Income Mobility for Poverty Alleviation in Rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese economy has achieved sustained high-speed growth. However, the widening gaps in income, especially for rural China, seem to be a dark lining to these extraordinary achievements. Taking the duration of poverty into the consideration, this article analyzes the income inequality of rural per capita net income (RPCNI based on income mobility in rural China. Analysis results showed that Gini coefficient of RPCNI declined, but that income mobility was mainly limited in the interior for low- and high-income groups. Income inequalities rose sharply within eastern and western China from 1990 to 2010. Benefiting from the developed economy, the upward mobility was universal in eastern China. The spillover effect on neighboring poor counties was feeble in western China, which directly caused long-term rich and poor. The Gini coefficient of RPCNI in central China was always at a low level, corresponding to the phenomenon of short-term rich and long-term poor. In northeastern China, the Gini coefficient sharply decreased and the large body of income mobility between non-neighboring groups was quite remarkable. The spatial pattern of intra-provincial Gini coefficient and income mobility of RPCNI has been divided by the “HU line”, which is a “geo-demographic demarcation line” discovered by Chinese population geographer HU Huanyong in 1935. In southeastern China, the characteristics of income mobility of each county depended on the distance between the county and the capital city. The spatial pattern of income mobility of RPCNI in agricultural provinces was different from that in non-agricultural provinces. According to the income inequality and income mobility, appropriate welfare and development policies was proposed to combat rural poverty at both regional and provincial scales.

  6. China's revival

    OpenAIRE

    Isachsen, Arne Jon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on China's unique economic experience over the last three decades. What lessons can be learned from China’s blend of visible central guidance at the macro level and fierce competition at the micro level?

  7. China White

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Lash, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article reflects on some themes in Harrison White’s work in the context of China, where the social and cultural construction of markets is quite literal. We explore how we get markets where previously there were no markets and draw on White’s central themes of ‘uncertainty’, ‘value’ and ‘order...

  8. Ephemeral China/Handmade China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A China that is in a frenzied state of economic boom and potential social instability, which is most vividly represented in its architectural and urban developments, is, I hope I will convince you, ephemeral. A quite different China, perhaps is not so visible as its new buildings and cities, is metaphorically ‘handmade’. I should like to extend the meanings of the handmade to the more stable and long lasting attitudes towards social life, and even mortality. My sources for the second China are partially from literature (not from architecture. With the construction boom since the mid-1990s, mainstream Western architectural journals and galleries have been racing to expose new architecture in China; celebrity Western architects have been winning major commissions in China: the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is a case in point. The sheer quantity and speed of China’s development, as evidenced in architecture and urbanisation, causes an ‘unbearable lightness of being’ (to paraphrase Milan Kundera. Does all this then suggest that China, as solidified in its buildings and cities, is no longer ‘handmade’ in the sense that memory and a sense of history are redundant (particularly for a country that has a recorded history of more than 5000 years, which have been so lovingly recorded in handmade artefacts? The true meaning of the handmade, which absorbs labour — an ‘honourable labour’ as Joseph Conrad lovingly put it in his Mirror of the Sea, as well as memory, like that of a home, is a static artefact, which harbours our changing emotion, the frailties of human life, and indeed, the growing awareness that comes with time of our mortality: the handmade offers the necessary enshrinement of life’s vulnerability. Let me assure you, the seemingly fast-changing China, as represented in its new architecture and city forms, as well in its frenzied urbanisation and booming economy, is but a smoke screen. It is, in other words, ephemeral. The

  9. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    ... whether continued economic growth will lead to increasing hegemonic tendencies. This thesis employs a China-centric approach--China's history, classical strategic literature, strategic trends, and sources from the People's Republic of China (PRC...

  10. Is China different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson; Ljungwall, Christer

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from exports than other countries. The results show that exports have been more significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  11. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2013-01-01

    We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies.......We examine whether China has benefited more from financial development than other countries. The results show that financial development has been less significant for growth in China than in other countries, even when China is compared with other transition economies....

  12. China Energy Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  13. China Pop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steen, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence in this cultu......Popular culture in China is a dynamic and contested sphere of activities, conflicts and negotiations. The effects of globalization as well as new media and communication technologies challenge the authorities and enrich cultural creativity. Today, the state maintains it omnipresence...... in this cultural sector while promoting a policy of dialogue, integration and exclusion. Cooperation with the state is attractive because it is rewarded with unlimited access to official media, audiences and commercial success. The article focuses on recent trends in China’s most important genres of popular music......: Mandopop, (red) mainstream music and rock music. It argues that the Chinese state’s success in raising the popularity of the mainstream is based on its constant promotion, patriotic education, a general pride in China’s strength, nationalism and – equally important – adaptation and the commercial...

  14. Inversión extranjera directa, movilidad laboral y derrames de conocimiento en Costa Rica Foreign direct investment, labor mobility and knowledge spillovers in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Monge González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca determinar la existencia e importancia de los derrames de conocimiento asociados con la movilidad laboral desde las multinacionales (MNCS que operan bajo el régimen de zonas francas (ZF en Costa Rica; es decir, el impacto de tales derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de las empresas locales que contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Se observó que, de un total de 41 149 empleados de MNCS que dejaron de laborar para estas empresas entre el 2001 y el 2007, un tercio se trasladó a empresas locales (15 139. El impacto de los derrames de conocimiento sobre el desempeño de empresas locales se midió en términos de tres variables: ventas, empleo y productividad media del trabajo; para esto se empleó un panel de empresas locales para el periodo que va del 2007 al 2009. Mediante el empleo de modelos econométricos sugeridos por la literatura en este campo, se encontró evidencia de que las empresas locales que han contratado ex empleados de MNCS obtienen un mejor desempeño en términos de crecimiento de sus ventas y empleo, que aquellas empresas locales que no contratan ex empleados de MNCS. Es decir, se obtuvo una clara evidencia de la externalidad positiva asociada con los derrames de conocimiento para Costa Rica, producto de la movilidad laboral desde las MNCS. No se encontró esta evidencia cuando el desempeño de las empresas locales se mide en términos de la productividad media del trabajador. Finalmente, los resultados señalan la importancia de llevar a cabo nuevas investigaciones sobre la capacidad de absorción de las empresas locales para potenciar más los impactos positivos de los derrames de conocimiento, así como respecto al impacto de tales derrames sobre la productividad total de los factores.This paper aims to determine the existence of knowledge spillovers associated to labor mobility from multinational companies (MNCS operating in Costa Rica. That is, the impact of such knowledge spillovers over the

  15. China opens the door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, K.

    1997-01-01

    The door to China`s vast market for power generation was opened a bit further for foreign firms in November. That is when power ministry head Shi Dazhen said the country would rely on overseas investors for 20 percent of the funding needed to boost output--double the amount foreigners were previously allowed to contribute. Through 1995, foreigners invested $12.2 billion in China`s electricity industry, accounting for 10 percent of total investment. According to Shi, foreign investors will be asked to provide about $17 billion of the $84 billion China plans to invest in the sector over the next five years. Under China`s Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000), the government aims to boost the country`s power generation capacity at the rate of 15,000 MW to 20,000 MW annually by the year 2000. Since China`s public external debt balance already exceeds $80 billion, however, the government would seem to have little choice but to allow foreigners a greater role. Shi also said that foreigners would be allowed 100 percent ownership of PRC power projects. This is discouraged under China`s current industry guidelines. It is, however, expected to be permitted under China`s first build-operate-transfer (BOT) law, which was anticipated by the end of 1996, says Susan Urkevich, director of project finance at HSBC Investment Bank Asia in Hong Kong. Indeed, China`s first BOT is already happening.

  16. Spillover effects of HIV testing policies: changes in HIV testing guidelines and HCV testing practices in drug treatment programs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima A. Frimpong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent to which state adoption of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC 2006 revisions to adult and adolescent HIV testing guidelines is associated with availability of other important prevention and medical services. We hypothesized that in states where the pretest counseling requirement for HIV testing was dropped from state legislation, substance use disorder treatment programs would have higher availability of HCV testing services than in states that had maintained this requirement. Methods We analyzed a nationally representative sample of 383 opioid treatment programs from the 2005 and 2011 National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (NDATSS. Data were collected from program directors and clinical supervisors through telephone surveys. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to measure associations between state adoption of CDC recommended guidelines for HIV pretest counseling and availability of HCV testing services. Results The effects of HIV testing legislative changes on HCV testing practices varied by type of opioid treatment program. In states that had removed the requirement for HIV pretest counseling, buprenorphine-only programs were more likely to offer HCV testing to their patients. The positive spillover effect of HIV pretest counseling policies, however, did not extend to methadone programs and did not translate into increased availability of on-site HCV testing in either program type. Conclusions Our findings highlight potential positive spillover effects of HIV testing policies on HCV testing practices. They also suggest that maximizing the benefits of HIV policies may require other initiatives, including resources and programmatic efforts that support systematic integration with other services and effective implementation.

  17. Potential spillover educational effects of cancer-related direct-to-consumer advertising on cancer patients' increased information seeking behaviors: results from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L

    2014-06-01

    Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients' general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients' exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over 3 years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients' information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged-weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from nonmedical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B = .023, 95% CI = .005-.040, p = .012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B = .009, 95% CI = -.001-.018, p = .067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians.

  18. Potential Spillover Educational Effects Of Cancer-Related Direct-To-Consumer Advertising On Cancer Patients’ Increased Information Seeking Behaviors: Results From A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy SL

    2014-01-01

    Spillover effects of exposure to direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of cancer treatments on patients’ general inquiry about their treatments and managing their illness are not well understood. This study examines the effects of cancer patients’ exposure to cancer-related DTCA on subsequent health information seeking behaviors from clinician and non-clinician sources (lay media and interpersonal contacts). Using a longitudinal survey design over three years, data was collected from cancer survivors diagnosed with colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer who were randomly sampled from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. Study outcome measures include patients’ information engagement with their clinicians and information seeking from non-medical sources about cancer treatment and quality of life issues, measured in the second survey. The predictor variable is the frequency of exposure to cancer-related DTCA since diagnosis, measured at the round 1 survey. The analyses utilized lagged weighted multivariate regressions and adjusted for round 1 levels of patient-clinician engagement, information seeking from non-medical sources, and confounders. Exposure to cancer-related DTCA is associated with increased levels of subsequent patient-clinician information engagement (B=.023, 95%CI=.005 to .040, p=.012), controlling for confounders. In comparison, exposure to DTCA is marginally significant in predicting health information seeking from non-clinician sources (B=.009, 95%CI=−.001 to .018, p=.067). Cancer-related DTCA has potentially beneficial spillover effects on health information seeking behaviors among cancer patients. Exposure to DTCA predicts (a little) more patient engagement with their physicians. PMID:24254248

  19. Evolutionary Game Analysis on Opportunistic Behavior Based on Cooperative Spillover%基于合作溢出的机会主义行为演化博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢乐斌; 王旭

    2011-01-01

    Enterprises in the market economy and knowledge society are forming strategic alliance with each other in order to obtain necessary skills and capabilities. Strategic alliance opportunities inevitably create opportunistic and self-interest behaviors, thereby resulting in disorderly competition and reduced alliance profit. It is important to learn how to develop a healthy alliance by reducing opportunism behaviors and improving alliance profits. In reality, alliance members tend to take effective supervisory and preventive measures to avoid cooperative spillover of exclusion resource, and reduce or avoid the loss of their own interests. Therefore, research of alliance stability and alliance income should be based on at least two aspects: supervisory and preventive measures, as well as cooperative spillover of exclusion resource.The current research on alliance and opportunism behaviors of alliance members is mainly based on single factor, such as information symmetry, supervision and prevention, external environment, cooperative spillover effect of exclusion resource, trust or culture. Two or more influencing factors were rarely considered at the same time. According to the evolutionary game theory, this paper uses a replicator equation as our basic model to characterize the change of opportunist proportion and mutually beneficial proportion when cooperative spillover occurs. We also analyze evolution laws under stable alliance equilibrium, and potential influence of cooperative spillover on alliance profits.In the first part we construct an alliance system that is created by many individuals. The evolutionary game model is based on exclusion resources that takes opportunist proportion in alliance and mutually beneficial proportion. In the second part, we calculate the stable alliance equilibrium point and study the evolution law of opportunistic behavior according to the Jacobin matrix. Excessive prevention cost can stop cooperative spillover of mutually beneficial

  20. A Scanning scheimpflug lidar system developed for urban pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Guan, Peng; Mei, Liang

    2018-04-01

    A scanning Scheimpflug lidar system based on the Scheimpflug principle has been developed by employing a high power multimode 808 nm laser diode and a highly integrated CMOS sensor in Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Northern China. Atmospheric scanning measurements in urban area were performed for the studies of particle emission sources.

  1. Estimation of Effect of Foreign Direct Investment on the Russian Economy during Sanctions Based on Spillover Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolievna Fedorova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study estimates the effect of foreign direct investments (FDI on the efficiency of enterprises in Russia. The article test the following hypotheses: first – FDI coming from the countries that sanctioned Russia cause larger effect on the efficiency of local companies, unlike China and countries that didn’t impose sanctions, and the effect depends on the share of property of foreign investors in the local companies; second – increasing the volume of investments into research and development of receivers of FDI causes positive effect on the competitiveness of local enterprises; third – FDI into import substituting industries coming from countries that imposed sanctions cause lesser effect on the competitiveness and operational efficiency of Russian companies. The empirical base of the study includes 168 000 observations among 33 606 Russian enterprises during 2011–201. Based on the study, the authors partially confirm the first hypothesis and fully confirm the second and the third hypotheses

  2. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012. Grantee: Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. More than 200 million migrant workers in. China are self-employed or work without contracts, benefits, or legal protection. IDRC- supported research in both India and China has examined ...

  3. Have Fun in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Xingqi

    2008-01-01

    @@ As a most important part of service industry in China,tourism attracts much attention.Tourism has been developing quickly for a loilg term since China's opening-up and reform and has become Pillar industry in many Places.

  4. China's 'Hot Money' Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F; Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... The recent large inflow of financial capital into China, commonly referred to as "hot money," has led some economists to warn that such flows may have a destabilizing effect on China's economy...

  5. Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun

    2012-01-03

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization.

  6. Does training of general practitioners for intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes have a spillover effect on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in 'at risk' individuals with normoglycaemia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Rebecca Kate; Bruun, Niels H; Witte, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    the two treatment groups (HR 1.02 [95% CI 0.92, 1.14]). Conclusions/interpretation: Training of general practitioners to provide target-driven intensive management of blood glucose levels and other cardiovascular risk factors showed some evidence of a spillover effect on the risk of CVD over a 9 year......Aims/hypothesis: Within a trial of intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes, we aimed to assess a potential spillover effect of the trial intervention on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among people who screened positive on a diabetes risk......-detected diabetes (control group); or (2) screening plus training and support in intensive multifactorial treatment of individuals with screen-detected diabetes (intervention group). We identified all individuals who screened positive on a diabetes risk questionnaire in ADDITION-Denmark but were normoglycaemic...

  7. Impact of Production Linkages on Industrial Upgrading in ASEAN, the People’s Republic of China, and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    on firms' self-reported customers and suppliers. Evidence from interconnected firms in Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, and Viet Nam suggests that there are strong spillover effects between downstream and upstream firms in terms of international standard certification. The degree of product and process......This paper presents a simple model of industrial upgrading as a result of backward and forward information linkages between upstream and downstream relations. It also serves as an empirical investigation of the impact of mutual knowledge exchange on the knowledge production function using data...... innovation is quite diverse across manufacturing firms within a local supply chain and within a global supply chain. Firms are likely to achieve product innovation if they have customers in foreign countries. Customers in Japan and the People's Republic of China play an important product innovation role...

  8. High-frequency Research of Stock Index Futures-spot Market Volatility Spillover---Wavelet Noise Reduction based on the EEMD%高频股指期现货市场波动溢出效应的研究--基于EEMD的小波降噪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莉

    2015-01-01

    It is always a hotspot to use high-frequent data as the proof for the Volatility Spillover Effect in the spot and future markets in both theoretical and practical fields, but the high-frequent data is susceptible to the pollution of noise. Based on the disa-dvantage of high-frequent data, there are two methods come out with: first, verifying the validity, is to create a new method to reduce noise, like EEMD + Wavelet Soft Threshold Noise Reduction Method; second is applying the high-frequent data, which has already acc-epted the Noise Reduction, to the study of BEK-GARCH Model for the Volatility Spillover Effect. Both spot and future markets contain larger Volatility Agglomeration Effects , after verifying that the reductions of noise influence from microstructure. The spot markets in China influence on the future markets in short and long terms, but future markets only have effects on the volatility of spot markets in short term. Also, the influence of the future markets to spot markets is greater than that of the spot markets on the futures markets in short term. Overall, the impact of spot markets to futures markets from stock index in China is sustainable.%利用高频数据进行股指期现货市场波动溢出的研究一直是理论界和实务界研究的热点,但是高频数据易受噪音污染,基于此,文章在这些方面做了一些研究:一是提出新的降噪方法, EEMD+小波软阈值降噪法,并验证了其有效性。二是把降噪后高频数据应用于BEKK-GARCH模型研究波动溢出。经验证,降低微观结构噪音影响后,两个市场均存在较大的波动率聚集效应,我国现货市场的冲击在短期、长期均会对期货市场产生影响,期货则仅在短期对现货市场波动有影响,但短期内期货市场对现货市场的影响大于现货对期货市场的影响。总体上看,我国股指现货市场对期货市场的影响较持久。

  9. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Fischer, Ingrid

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  10. On China dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿恒健

    2016-01-01

    What is china dream? Different people may have different opinions. But there is no doubt everyone to the understanding of the Chinese dream is good. every Chinese yearning for a better life with this kind of good , and hope for a wealthy and prosperous China is saddled with everyone, this dream is a dream that every Chinese people, and is also the China dream.

  11. Debating China's assertiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai; Feng, Huiyun

    2012-01-01

    Engaging the recent debate on China's assertive foreign policy, we suggest that it is normal for China – a rising power – to change its policy to a confident or even assertive direction because of its transformed national interests. We argue also that it is better to understand future US–China re...

  12. Global China Insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, Rien; Havinga, Marieke; Fischer, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Journal in which the Groningen Confucius Institute (GCI) shares different perspectives on China and provides insights into China from as many different aspects as possible. GCI aims to provide a full view of real China to the readers as well as featuring international and comprehensive perspectives,

  13. Modeling uranium(VI) adsorption onto montmorillonite under varying carbonate concentrations: A surface complexation model accounting for the spillover effect on surface potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournassat, C.; Tinnacher, R. M.; Grangeon, S.; Davis, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of U(VI) adsorption onto montmorillonite clay is confounded by the complexities of: (1) the montmorillonite structure in terms of adsorption sites on basal and edge surfaces, and the complex interactions between the electrical double layers at these surfaces, and (2) U(VI) solution speciation, which can include cationic, anionic and neutral species. Previous U(VI)-montmorillonite adsorption and modeling studies have typically expanded classical surface complexation modeling approaches, initially developed for simple oxides, to include both cation exchange and surface complexation reactions. However, previous models have not taken into account the unique characteristics of electrostatic surface potentials that occur at montmorillonite edge sites, where the electrostatic surface potential of basal plane cation exchange sites influences the surface potential of neighboring edge sites ('spillover' effect). A series of U(VI) - Na-montmorillonite batch adsorption experiments was conducted as a function of pH, with variable U(VI), Ca, and dissolved carbonate concentrations. Based on the experimental data, a new type of surface complexation model (SCM) was developed for montmorillonite, that specifically accounts for the spillover effect using the edge surface speciation model by Tournassat et al. (2016a). The SCM allows for a prediction of U(VI) adsorption under varying chemical conditions with a minimum number of fitting parameters, not only for our own experimental results, but also for a number of published data sets. The model agreed well with many of these datasets without introducing a second site type or including the formation of ternary U(VI)-carbonato surface complexes. The model predictions were greatly impacted by utilizing analytical measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations in individual sample solutions rather than assuming solution equilibration with a specific partial pressure of CO2, even when the gas phase was

  14. China's Organic Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...

  15. Green markets in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The great cities of China have enormous pollution problems. The World Bank has estimated that the economic losses in deaths and health damage caused by outdoor air pollution corresponds to 4.5 per cent of China's GNP. If the authorities of China should want to clean the air, that would greatly impact the global climate policy. China has the next largest emission of carbon dioxide of all countries in the world, and these emissions often have the same source as the hazardous particles and gases. China is now probing economical instruments in the environmental policy, and some industrial areas will try quota trade as a road to cleaner air

  16. Headache care in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shengyuan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhou, Jiying; Liu, Ruozhuo; Wan, Qi; Li, Yansheng

    2014-04-01

    Headache disorders are problematic worldwide. China is no different. A population-based door-to-door survey revealed that the 1-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in China was 23.8%, constituting a major societal burden. Many headache centers and clinics have been established in China, and headache disorders (and associated stress) are receiving an increased level of expert attention. This review summarizes the outcomes of the epidemiological survey and the progress of clinical and basic research in China, describes the present situation in terms of headache diagnosis and treatment, and discusses the future of headache care in China. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  17. Enhanced hydrogen storage in sandwich-structured rGO/Co1-xS/rGO hybrid papers through hydrogen spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Qin, Wei; Jian, Jiahuang; Liu, Jiawei; Wu, Xiaohong; Gao, Peng; Hultman, Benjamin; Wu, Gang

    2017-08-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based two-dimensional (2D) structures have been fabricated for electrochemical hydrogen storage. However, the effective transfer of atomic hydrogen to adjacent rGO surfaces is suppressed by binders, which are widely used in conventional electrochemical hydrogen storage electrodes, leading to a confining of the performance of rGO for hydrogen storage. As a proof of concept experiment, a novel strategy is developed to fabricate the binder-free sandwich-structured rGO/Co1-xS/rGO hybrid paper via facile ball milling and filtration process. Based on the structure investigation, Co1-xS is immobilized in the space between the individual rGO sheets by the creation of chemical "bridges" (Csbnd S bonds). Through the Csbnd S bonds, the atomic hydrogen is transferred from Co1-xS to rGO accompanying a Csbnd H chemical bond formation. When used as an electrode, the hybrid paper exhibits an improved hydrogen storage capacity of 3.82 wt% and, most importantly, significant cycling stability for up to 50 cycles. Excluding the direct hydrogen storage contribution from the Co1-xS in the hybrid paper, the hydrogen storage ability of rGO is enhanced by 10× through the spillover effects caused by the Co1-xS modifier.

  18. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  19. Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDonald, Greg; Yow, Yit-Seng; Li, Xing

    China's economy is growing quickly, and is innovation-led.  Europe can relate to China through joint R&D, programmes which offer an alternative vehicle of engagement to the traditional political and economic approaches. Innovation in China: The Dawning of the Asian Century promotes an awareness...... of the dynamics of innovation in China. It examines Chinese and European approaches to science and technology and contends that the ‘rules for survival' in R&D and education are changing in favour of China, in terms of base R&D parameters such as research expenditure, scientists trained, papers published...... and patents awarded. The authors recommend options for Europe and China to connect through longitudinal R&D  projects and ‘carrousel-training exchanges' in environmental and health related fields....

  20. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  1. South China Sea Dispute

    OpenAIRE

    Tanderup, Kasper Buch; Grinderslev, Emil Juhler; Tønnesen-Højbjerg, Asser Laurits Svend

    2017-01-01

    China is rising rapidly in terms of economics, military spending, sphere of influence and claims to in their view former territory. This paper has aimed to discuss the latter through analysis of the present dispute concerning islands and maritime territory in the South China Sea. The Chinese have become increasingly assertive in their claims formulated through a U-shaped line entailing most of the area within the South China Sea. The claims are contested by Vietnam, the Philippines, Indonesia...

  2. China's renewables law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Li

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses China's Renewable Energy Promotion Law which will come into force in January 2006. The law shows China's commitment to renewable energy sources. The target is to raise the country's energy consumption from renewables to 10% by 2020. Data for current capacity, and expected capacity by 2020, are given for wind power, solar power, biomass and hydroelectric power. The financial and technological hurdles which China must overcome are mentioned briefly

  3. Nuclear Parity with China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    nuclear force structure. It even is conceivable that a slow but steady expansion could have been accomplished without triggering a reaction by...Russia’s reactions , which would likely not be benign. • Achieving nuclear parity is not a matter of honor for China. Chinese leaders never have...analyzes that information, defines its interests, and decides how to act. China and the United States are exact opposites in this typography : China

  4. Should Latin America Fear China?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lora

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares growth conditions in China and Latin America to assess fears that China will displace Latin America in the coming decades. China`s strengths include the size of the economy, macroeconomic stability, abundant low-cost labor, the rapid expansion of physical infrastructure, and the ability to innovate. China`s weaknesses, stemming from insufficient separation between market and state, include poor corporate governance, a fragile financial system and misallocation of savings. ...

  5. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2006-01-01

    ...), the state banking system, and fixed exchange rate system. In addition, China faces several other difficult challenges, such as pollution and growing income inequality, that threaten social stability...

  6. China Report, Economic Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from China dealing with Economic Affairs. The Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Foreign Trade and Investment, Economic Zones, Finance and Banking, and Agriculture.

  7. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    .... However, China faces a number of challenges, including the fallout from the global financial crisis, widespread government corruption, an inefficient banking system, over-dependence on exports...

  8. Explaining technological change of wind power in China and the United States: Roles of energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian

    The following dissertation explains how technological change of wind power, in terms of cost reduction and performance improvement, is achieved in China and the US through energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how energy policies affect key actors in the power sector to promote renewable energy and achieve cost reductions for climate change mitigation in different institutional arrangements. The dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay examines the learning processes and technological change of wind power in China. I integrate collaboration and technological learning theories to model how wind technologies are acquired and diffused among various wind project participants in China through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)--an international carbon trade program, and empirically test whether different learning channels lead to cost reduction of wind power. Using pooled cross-sectional data of Chinese CDM wind projects and spatial econometric models, I find that a wind project developer's previous experience (learning-by-doing) and industrywide wind project experience (spillover effect) significantly reduce the costs of wind power. The spillover effect provides justification for subsidizing users of wind technologies so as to offset wind farm investors' incentive to free-ride on knowledge spillovers from other wind energy investors. The CDM has played such a role in China. Most importantly, this essay provides the first empirical evidence of "learning-by-interacting": CDM also drives wind power cost reduction and performance improvement by facilitating technology transfer through collaboration between foreign turbine manufacturers and local wind farm developers. The second essay extends this learning framework to the US wind power sector, where I examine how state energy policies, restructuring of the electricity market, and learning among actors in wind industry lead to

  9. Combining gender, work, and family identities: The cross-over and spill-over of gender norms into young adults’ work and family aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes Meeussen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (incompatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women’s family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N=445 perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to ‘have it all’: mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men’s family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults’ gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way.

  10. Combining Gender, Work, and Family Identities: The Cross-Over and Spill-Over of Gender Norms into Young Adults’ Work and Family Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women’s family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults (N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to ‘have it all’: mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men’s family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults’ gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way. PMID:27909416

  11. Combining Gender, Work, and Family Identities: The Cross-Over and Spill-Over of Gender Norms into Young Adults' Work and Family Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeussen, Loes; Veldman, Jenny; Van Laar, Colette

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigates how descriptive and prescriptive gender norms that communicate work and family identities to be (in)compatible with gender identities limit or enhance young men and women's family and career aspirations. Results show that young adults ( N = 445) perceived gender norms to assign greater compatibility between female and family identities and male and work identities than vice versa, and that young men and women mirror their aspirations to this traditional division of tasks. Spill-over effects of norms across life domains and cross-over effects of norms across gender-groups indicated that young women, more than young men, aimed to 'have it all': mirroring their career ambitions to a male career model, while keeping their family aspirations high. Moreover, young women opposed traditional role divisions in the family domain by decreasing their family aspirations in face of norms of lower family involvement or higher career involvement of men. Conversely, in line with traditional gender roles, young men showed lower family aspirations in the face of strong male career norms; and showed increases in their career aspirations when perceiving women to take up more family roles. Young men's family aspirations were, however, more influenced by new norms prescribing men to invest more in their family, suggesting opportunities for change. Together, these findings show that through social norms, young adults' gender identity affects aspirations for how to manage the co-presence of their work and family identities. Altering these norms may provide leverage for change to allow both men and women to combine their multiple identities in an enriching way.

  12. The Spillover of US Immigration Policy on Citizens and Permanent Residents of Mexican Descent: How Internalizing ‘Illegality’ Impacts Public Health in the Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha eSabo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The militarization of the U.S.-Mexico border region exacerbates the process of ‘Othering’ Latino immigrants—as illegal aliens. The internalization of ‘illegality’ can manifest as a sense of undeservingness of legal protection in the population and be detrimental on a biopsychological level. Objective: We explore the impacts of ‘illegality’ among a population of US citizen and permanent resident farmworkers of Mexican descent. We do so through the lens of immigration enforcement-related stress and the ability to file formal complaints of discrimination and mistreatment perpetrated by local immigration enforcement agents, including local police authorized to enforce immigration law. Methods: Drawing from cross-sectional data gathered through the National Institute of Occupation Safety and Health, Challenges to Farmworker Health at the US-Mexico Border study, a community-based participatory research project conducted at the Arizona-Sonora border, we compared Arizona resident farmworkers (N=349 to Mexico-based farmworkers (N=140 or Transnational farmworkers who cross the US-Mexico border daily or weekly to work in US agriculture. Results: Both samples of farmworkers experience significant levels of stress in anticipation of encounters with immigration officials. Fear was cited as the greatest factor preventing individuals from reporting immigration abuses. The groups varied slightly in the relative weight attributed to different types of fear. Conclusion: The militarization of the border has consequences for individuals who are not the target of immigration enforcement. These spillover effects cause harm to farmworkers in multiple ways. Multi institutional and community-centered systems for reporting immigration related victimization is required. Applied participatory research with affected communities can mitigate the public health effects of state-sponsored immigration discrimination and violence among US citizen and

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the yellow-browed bunting ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polymerase chain reaction (LA-PCR) kit (Takara, Dalian,. China) .... boxes in the central domain; CSB, conserved sequence block; CSB-like, a sequence similar to the CSB; LSP, ..... and Ecology Safety in Anhui Province, the Key Programme of.

  14. Carbon emissions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  15. China's Innovation Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  16. China's 'recycling economy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin.......Climate change and sustainability are hot topics in China, but it is hard to find research addressing the outcomes of Education for Sustainable Development, says Associate Professor Yi Jin....

  17. Carbon emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhu [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Sustainability Science Program

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzes the spatial-temporal pattern and processes of China's energy-related carbon emissions. Based on extensive quantitative analysis, it outlines the character and trajectory of China's energy-related carbon emissions during the period 1995-2010, examining the distribution pattern of China's carbon emissions from regional and sectoral perspectives and revealing the driving factors of China's soaring emission increase. Further, the book investigates the supply chain carbon emissions (the carbon footprints) of China's industrial sectors. Anthropogenic climate change is one of the most serious challenges currently facing humankind. China is the world's largest developing country, top primary energy consumer and carbon emitter. Achieving both economic growth and environmental conservation is the country's twofold challenge. Understanding the status, features and driving forces of China's energy-related carbon emissions is a critical aspect of attaining global sustainability. This work, for the first time, presents both key findings on and a systematic evaluation of China's carbon emissions from energy consumption. The results have important implications for global carbon budgets and burden-sharing with regard to climate change mitigation. The book will be of great interest to readers around the world, as it addresses a topic of truly global significance.

  18. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  19. Outsourcing to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model.

  20. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  1. China and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  2. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    We examine whether China has benefited more than other countries from financial sector development by performing a meta-analysis of the relevant literature covering a large number of countries at different stages of development. Although the results for China are inconclusive, they indicate...

  3. Heat roadmap China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Weiming; Wang, Yu; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating is regarded as a key element of energy saving actions in the Chinese national energy strategy, while space heating in China is currently still dominated by coal boilers. However, there is no existing quantitative study to analyse the future heat strategy for China. Therefore...

  4. Financial Derivatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Francis Repka sees bright prospects for the future development of the financial derivatives market in China. Repka,Vice President of the Asian Bond Finance Department of Societe Generale, says the situation in France just after the birth of derivatives was very similar to the situation in China today.

  5. China's water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, B.

    2008-01-01

    After the devastating natural disasters that have hit China recently, another crisis is looming, Drought, pollution and heavy usage in the fast-developing megacities have resulted in a shortage of water. A huge construction effort is underway to divert water from the south to the north. But experts warn that it will not solve China's structural water problems

  6. Educational Technology in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  7. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  8. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jiang [National Research Center for Science and Technology for Development, Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  9. AREVA in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    China has a great need for secure, safe, and economic energy supplies that combat the greenhouse effect and global warming. Since January 2002, China, the most heavily populated country with more than 1.3 billion inhabitants in a territory of 9.5 million km 2 (17 times larger than France), has a nuclear capacity of 9 GWe with 11 nuclear plants on line. Forecasts of electricity consumption report a need for 900 to 1,000 GWe per year through 2020, and at this time the country's objective is to increase nuclear generated electricity from 1% to 4% of its total output. This means a need for additional 30 GWe, which is the equivalent of twenty 1,500 MWe reactors. In addition to nuclear power, China is pushing renewable energy. With the passage of the 2005 Renewable Energy Law, China's government imposed a national renewable energy requirement that is expected to boost the use of renewable energy capacity from 10 to 12 percent by 2020, up from 3% in 2003. This law requires power operators to buy electricity from alternative energy providers and gives economic incentives to these providers. Consequently, China is expanding its interests in renewable energy sources including wind and bio-energies, among others. It is in this context that AREVA, a world expert in energy, creates and offers solutions to generate, transmit, and distribute electricity for China. Based on its long experience and global presence, AREVA has become the worldwide leader for nuclear energy in the areas of construction, equipment, and services for nuclear power plants, and for the whole nuclear fuel cycle. AREVA is also a world leader in electrical power-grid equipment and systems. This document presents: China's need for energy; the Sources of China's energy mix; the challenges of China's nuclear program; AREVA's action in supporting China's ambitious nuclear program; the strong opportunities in renewable energy; and the high potential market for AREVA's T and D Division

  10. China from a regional perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper explains the political economic background for China's insertion to the world system. It furthermore expands on a critical perspective on China's soft power strategy. It goes on to discuss China's foreign policy strategy towards Southeast Asia and China's rivalry with the US in the region....

  11. Holography applications in recent China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dahsiung

    2000-10-01

    Reports on recent developments on holography applications in China are given in this paper, including the development of anti-counterfeiting Holograms from 1986-2000, China issued Banknotes in 1999 with holograms and OVIs, the developments in Machine Readable Holograms in China, the developments in Anti-counterfeiting Information Networks in China.

  12. China's power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  13. China's oil resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesegart, K

    1981-03-01

    The United Nations International Meeting on Petroleum Geology is being held this month from 18-25 in China, a country whose oil reserves up to mid-sixties had been judged by foreign observers to be minute and the development of her oil sector of no major importance. Today, with an annual crude output of 106 mn tons, China already ranks ninth among the world's oil producers. And, with the prospect of a further advance towards leadership among producers and exporters of the coveted energy material, the West is showing growing interest in China's energy potential. How real is this prospect forms the subject of this article. 3 tables.

  14. Playing Against China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadvi, Khalid; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Xue, Hong

    2011-01-01

    The rise of China as the global factory raises challenges for many developing countries and their producers. The football-manufacturing sector is a case in which China has emerged as a global player. It is also a sector where compliance with international labour standards is considered critical...... football production. We draw on evidence from three of the main production locations – China, Pakistan and India. It appears that compliance with labour standards not only has different implications for the three production locations, but also that compliance alone is an insufficient basis for competing...

  15. Networking with China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, R.L.A.; Granieri, C.; Fan, Lan; Xu, Rongsheng; Karita, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the history and current status of computer networking between IHEP in Beijing, China and the rest of the world, starting with no links at the beginning of 1987 through X.25 public networks and dial up links, to the installing, in March 1993, of one of the first dedicated 64 kbps satellite computer links between China and the outside world. In May 1994, IHEP became the first operational worldwide Internet connection. Experience with this dedicated link between SLAC and IHEP will be presented together with future plans to add a land line between KEK and IHEP and to extend the links within China

  16. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  17. Is China Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungwall, Christer; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R......&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China....

  18. Energy supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidou Ni; Niendak Sze

    1995-01-01

    Coal is the main primary energy source in China. How to use coal cleanly and efficiently is the extremely important problem in China. Energy conservation and technology innovation are the key measures for mitigation of the pressure of energy supply. Import of energy (petroleum, LNG and high calorific coal) is inevitable. China has quite abundant energy resources, but the energy resource per capita is rather low. Because of the structure of industry and backwardness of technology, the energy consumption per unit GNP is also very low

  19. Venezuela and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2016-01-01

    of a political and economic model which can inspire or be followed by other countries. Although China's influence and increasing power in Venezuela is unquestionable in economic terms, the Venezuelan government uses its agreements with China strategically to legitimate its policies, in the name of a South...... draws on this context of 'interdependent hegemony' to explore the existing relationship between Venezuela, as a swing state, and China, as one of the Big Three global powers. Particularly, I focus on Venezuelan efforts to develop, at the domestic and regional level, a counterhegemonic political project...

  20. An improved optimization algorithm of the three-compartment model with spillover and partial volume corrections for dynamic FDG PET images of small animal hearts in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinlin; Kundu, Bijoy K.

    2018-03-01

    The three-compartment model with spillover (SP) and partial volume (PV) corrections has been widely used for noninvasive kinetic parameter studies of dynamic 2-[18F] fluoro-2deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography images of small animal hearts in vivo. However, the approach still suffers from estimation uncertainty or slow convergence caused by the commonly used optimization algorithms. The aim of this study was to develop an improved optimization algorithm with better estimation performance. Femoral artery blood samples, image-derived input functions from heart ventricles and myocardial time-activity curves (TACs) were derived from data on 16 C57BL/6 mice obtained from the UCLA Mouse Quantitation Program. Parametric equations of the average myocardium and the blood pool TACs with SP and PV corrections in a three-compartment tracer kinetic model were formulated. A hybrid method integrating artificial immune-system and interior-reflective Newton methods were developed to solve the equations. Two penalty functions and one late time-point tail vein blood sample were used to constrain the objective function. The estimation accuracy of the method was validated by comparing results with experimental values using the errors in the areas under curves (AUCs) of the model corrected input function (MCIF) and the 18F-FDG influx constant K i . Moreover, the elapsed time was used to measure the convergence speed. The overall AUC error of MCIF for the 16 mice averaged  -1.4  ±  8.2%, with correlation coefficients of 0.9706. Similar results can be seen in the overall K i error percentage, which was 0.4  ±  5.8% with a correlation coefficient of 0.9912. The t-test P value for both showed no significant difference. The mean and standard deviation of the MCIF AUC and K i percentage errors have lower values compared to the previously published methods. The computation time of the hybrid method is also several times lower than using just a stochastic

  1. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  2. IDRC in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    reduced poverty in China, rural ... INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. FL. IC. K. R. /D. A. V ... Chinese research institutions collaborate in regional, IDRC-supported research ... part of a regional consortium that is building.

  3. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2008-01-01

    ... (the fastest annual growth since 1994). While China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth in the years ahead and could become the world's largest economy within a decade or so, it faces a number of challenges, including...

  4. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    China's gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate over the past twenty years has been phenomenal and if continued even at a slightly slower pace, could exceed the GDP of the United States (US) by 2020...

  5. China Report, Economic Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This report from China contains the topics: NATIONAL POLICY AND ISSUES, PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ZONES, ECONOMIC PLANNING, ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT, FINANCE AND BANKING, INDUSTRY, SMALL- SCALE ENTERPRISES, CONSTRUCTION, DOMESTIC...

  6. The EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In September 2004 David Shambaugh, of George Washington University, published a small article under the heading: “China and Europe: The Emerging Axis.” In his view, one “of the most important, yet least appreciated developments … has been the dramatic growth in ties between China and Europe......” (Shambaugh 2004, 243). He pointed, firstly, at the strong growth in trade relations; the EU also became the largest foreign supplier of technology and equipment, in the form of direct investment, but also through a number of joint technology projects. The EU-China Framework Program became the world’s largest...... common research project. As to political cooperation, numerous meetings have been institutionalised, among them, at the top level an annual EU-China Summit. The contacts have resulted in a number of agreements, for instance on group tourism. According to estimates 100,000 Chinese Students went...

  7. Service innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slepniov, Dmitrij; Jin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to advance our understanding of service innovation in China and to identify the major drivers and impediments for manufacturing companies pushing into services in China. Design/methodology/approach – By employing an in-depth longitudinal case of a Chinese company...... Chinese cities. Both internal and external factors played a significant role in influencing the development and implementation of service innovation in the case. The paper details and discusses the factors that affect service innovation in China. Research Limitations – The study is exposed...... in informing our expectations about the push of many Chinese manufacturing companies into services. The paper provides insights into the development and diffusion of service innovation in many fast transforming industrial companies in China. Lessons for other developing countries can also be drawn from...

  8. One Health in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict. Therefore, it is critical to investigate potential threats in the context of the human-animal-environment interface to protect human and animal health. The “One Health” concept recognizes that human health is connected to animal and environmental health. This review primarily discusses specific health problems in China, particularly zoonoses, and explains the origin and development of the One Health approach, as well as the importance of a holistic approach in China.

  9. China's coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmazin, V A

    1988-09-01

    Presents data on China's coal industry. China's coal reserves are estimated to be 4,000 million Mt; annual production is over 800 Mt. Eleven new mining projects have been recently completed. They were financed with participation of foreign capital (US$ 1,400 million). Twenty-five new mines with 32.27 Mt production capacity were planned to be put into operation in 1988. Annual coal production is expected to increase to 870 Mt in 1990 at a cost of US$ 8,500 million. Numerical data on China's individual coal basins, new schemes, capital outlay and foreign capital participation are given. The dynamic development of China's coal industry since 1949 is briefly reviewed and management methods are explained.

  10. China's Economic Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Wayne M

    2007-01-01

    .... China is expected to continue to enjoy rapid economic growth over the next several years, provided that it continues to implement needed reforms, particularly in regard to its inefficient state-owned...

  11. China's water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  12. China's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsnell, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The influence of China's growing energy demand on world oil markets is considered. Starting from a very low base of energy consumption per capita, China's potential for growth in oil demand is likely still to be subject to the extremely strong impact of a stop-go economic policy in which the availability of oil is used as a macroeconomic control variable to counter inflation. This has led to considerable monthly variations in oil import levels. While this situation continues, the buying pressure from China will tend to alternate between a trickle and a flood with consequent destabilizing impacts on the market. The markets potentially involved are those of Asia, the Middle East, West Africa and the Mediterranean with knock-on effects in the North Sea and Rotterdam. China is likely to constitute a major indirect force in these markets as a volatile source of demand at the margin. (UK)

  13. Assessing China's Hegemonic Ambitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ng, Chad-Son

    2005-01-01

    .... Given China's domination of Tibet, incursions into the Spratly Islands, run-ins with the US and Japan, and a host of other seemingly assertive behavior, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate...

  14. Food irradiation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the author discussed the recent situation of food irradiation in China, its history, facilities, clearance, commercialization, and with emphasis on market testing and public acceptance of irradiated food. (author)

  15. Geoinformatics Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  16. China Food Trade Promotes the Development of SIAL China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2011-01-01

    @@ According to SIAL CHINA, the 13th China International Food and Beverages Exhibition (SIAL China 2012) will be held in Shanghai New International Expo Center On May 9, 2012.It is hosted together by COMEXPOSIUM and China Business Development Center.Since it was introduced in China for the first time in 2000, SIAL CHINA has maintained a developed speed.Especially in recent years, relying on both foreign and domestic markets, it expanded the influences quickly and became one of the most important food trade exhibitions in Asia, despite of the financial crisis.

  17. All change for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on China's petrochemical industry and its planned raising of foreign investment and reform of the industry in preparation for international competition with the opening up of China's domestic market as part of the accession process to the World Trade Organisation. Details are given of the reorganisation of the industry, its financing, and the consumption of petrochemicals in the agriculture sector and construction, textile and packaging industries

  18. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi [eds.] [Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China)

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  19. China's Innovation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Shulin; Schwaag Serber, Sylvia; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    2016-01-01

    In their 2006 article on innovation in China in this journal, Gu and Lundvall pointed to some weaknesses and challenges for China’s growth and they also outlined ideas for policy action to overcome those. In this short note, written in collaboration with Sylvia Schwag Serger, they go back...... and assess China's social and economic development in the 10 years that followed in the light of their original analysis of challenges and ideas for policy action...

  20. Biofuels in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  1. A dyadic model of the work-family interface: a study of dual-earner couples in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Man Yee; Chen, Xuefei; Cheung, Fanny M; Liu, Huimin; Worthington, Everett L

    2013-01-01

    This study adopted a spillover-crossover model to examine the roles of personality and perceived social support as antecedents of the work-family interface among dual-earner couples in China. Married couples (N = 306) from 2 major cities in China (Shanghai and Jinan) completed questionnaires measuring a relationship-oriented personality trait (i.e., family orientation), perceived family and work support, and work-family conflict and enhancement. The results showed that family orientation and perceived family support was positively associated with family-to-work enhancement and negatively associated with family-to-work conflict for both husbands and wives. Perceived work support was positively associated with family-to-work enhancement for wives and negatively associated with work-to-family conflict for husbands. Similarities in family orientation between partners were positively correlated with the individual's family-to-work enhancement. This study also illustrated the crossover of the work-family interface between dual-earner couples by using the actor-partner interdependence model. The pattern of associations between personality trait and perceived social support varied by gender. Husbands' family orientation was negatively correlated with work-to-family enhancement experienced by wives, and husbands' perceived work support was positively correlated with work-to-family enhancement experienced by wives. Wives' perceived work support was positively correlated with family-to-work conflict experienced by husbands.

  2. The Impacts of Technical Progress on Sulfur Dioxide Kuznets Curve in China: A Spatial Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zhou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reveal the nexus for sulfur dioxide (SO2 emission and income, as well as the effects of technical progress on SO2 emission in China based on environment Kuznets curve (EKC hypothesis. The spatial panel technique is used in case the coefficient estimates are biased due to the negligence of spatial dependence. With the provincial panel data of China from 2004 to 2014, this is the first research that finds an inverse N-trajectory of the relationship between SO2 emission and economic growth and confirms the beneficial impacts of technical advancement on SO2 emission abatement. The empirical results also suggest that the industrial structure change is an important driving force of the SO2 EKC. In addition, the direct and spillover effects of determinants on sulfur emission are clarified and estimated by a correct approach. Finally, we check the stability of our conclusions on the EKC shape for SO2 and technical progress effects when controlling for different variables and specifications, through which we find the turning points are sensitive to variables selections.

  3. Bioethics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, En-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Historically, the preconditions for the emergence of bioethics in China. were political reforms and their applications. The Hanzhong Euthanasia Case and the publication of Qiu Ren-zong's academic work Bioethics played a significant role in the development of bioethics in China. Other contributory factors include the establishment of the Chinese Society of Medical Ethics/Chinese Medical Association (C.M.A), the publication of the Journal of Chinese Medical Ethics, and the teaching and education of bioethics in China. Major achievements of bioethics in China include the establishment of ethics committee and ethics review system, active international communication and cooperation among the academic circles, and the successful management of the 8th World Congress of Bioethics in Beijing in 2006. Chinese bioethics focus on native Chinese realities and conditions, absorb the international research achievements in relevant fields, and combine international ideas with traditional Chinese doctrines. Admittedly, there are still some aspects to be improved, yet bioethics has attracted a lot of attention from the core leadership in China and has gained sound financial support, which augers well for its further development. This article also briefly introduces the development of bioethics in Hong Kong and Taiwan, China.

  4. China And The International Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    existing order, it stated that China will “take an active part in reforming and developing 13 Feng Zhang, “Chinese Thinking on the South China Sea and the...interests and those that do not align as closely with U.S. interests. China might be challenging 19 Zhang’s “Chinese Thinking on the South China...China Bets on Sensitive U.S. Start-Ups, Worrying the Pentagon,” New York Times, March 22, 2017a; Paul Mozur and Jane Perlez, “China Tech Investment

  5. South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Brian; Blackmore, Graham

    2001-01-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of the three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the South

  6. South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, Brian [Hong Kong Univ., Swire Inst. of Marine Science, Hong Kong (China); Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Ecology and Biodiversity, Hong Kong (China); Blackmore, Graham [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Biology, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-07-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshops and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km{sup 2} and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economics on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken

  7. China Dimensions Data Collection: China Maps Bibliographic Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — China Maps Bibliographic Database is an historical collection of bibliographic information for more than 400 maps of China. The information resides in a searchable...

  8. China Dimensions Data Collection: Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Priority Programme for China's Agenda 21 consists of full-text program descriptions supporting China's economic and social development. The descriptions represent 69...

  9. Is South China Sea the new 'inalienable' part of China?

    OpenAIRE

    Jash, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    China’s growing military posture and unilateral behavior in South China Sea has raised red alarms in international politics, vehemently challenging the existing status quo. What is apparent is that China’s uncompromising attitude in the South China Sea presents China’s obsession over its territorial claims, wherein, South China Sea can be called the ‘new inalienable part’ of China.

  10. China's South China Sea Conundrum - No Easier Pass

    OpenAIRE

    Jash, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    On July 12, 2016, The Hague- based Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) finally hit the hammer on the verdict of the landmark case of South China Sea arbitration. This case was unilaterally initiated by the Republic of the Philippines on January 22, 2013, on its relevant disputes in the South China Sea with the People’s Republic of China. At the very outset, this case brought China at crossroads to its international repute given Philippines’ allegations against its assertive and unlawful clai...

  11. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  12. Spillover effects of international standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    Most studies focus on trade effects and organizational outcomes of international standards, neglecting the effect of standards on employees. Using a two-year matched firm–employee panel dataset, this paper finds that the application of standards improves work conditions in small and medium....... The study reveals unexpected benefits from certification, calling for higher investment in standards....

  13. Research on the Competitive Strategy of Cross-Border E-Commerce Comprehensive Pilot Area Based on the Spatial Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Bo; Wang, Huipo

    2016-01-01

    By now, 13 cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas have been approved by the State Council of China; Dalian and Tianjin are two of them. But with the development of the construction of the cross-border e-commerce comprehensive pilot areas, the competition between those pilot areas is inevitable. Dalian and Tianjin are located in the Bohai Sea and the distance between them is only 800 kilometers. For Dalian and Tianjin they are in thus competitive situations: first they have to compe...

  14. Longitudinal Surveillance of Betacoronaviruses in Fruit Bats in Yunnan Province, China During 2009-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yun; Li, Bei; Jiang, Ren-Di; Hu, Bing-Jie; Luo, Dong-Sheng; Zhu, Guang-Jian; Hu, Ben; Liu, Hai-Zhou; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Yang, Xing-Lou; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that fruit bats carry two betacoronaviruses, BatCoV HKU9 and BatCoV GCCDC1. To investigate the epidemiology and genetic diversity of these coronaviruses, we conducted a longitudinal surveillance in fruit bats in Yunnan province, China during 2009-2016. A total of 59 (10.63%) bat samples were positive for the two betacorona-viruses, 46 (8.29%) for HKU9 and 13 (2.34%) for GCCDC1, or closely related viruses. We identified a novel HKU9 strain, tentatively designated as BatCoV HKU9-2202, by sequencing the full-length genome. The BatCoV HKU9-2202 shared 83% nucleotide identity with other BatCoV HKU9 stains based on whole genome sequences. The most divergent region is in the spike protein, which only shares 68% amino acid identity with BatCoV HKU9. Quantitative PCR revealed that the intestine was the primary infection organ of BatCoV HKU9 and GCCDC1, but some HKU9 was also detected in the heart, kidney, and lung tissues of bats. This study highlights the importance of virus surveillance in natural reservoirs and emphasizes the need for preparedness against the potential spill-over of these viruses to local residents living near bat caves.

  15. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  16. China's roadmap for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Yao, Zhonghua; Wan, Weixing

    2018-05-01

    China has approved or planned a string of several space exploration missions to be launched over the next decade. A new generation of planetary scientists in China is playing an important role in determining the scientific goals of future missions.

  17. Foreign direct investment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bredero, Q.S.

    2007-01-01

    Foreign Direct Investment in China is one of the most comprehensive studies of FDI in China and provides a remarkable background of information on the evolution of China’s FDI policies over the last 30 years.

  18. China's place in global geopolitics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Heurlin, Bertel

    This text studies the major internal and external pressures and constraints as China emerges as an economic power.......This text studies the major internal and external pressures and constraints as China emerges as an economic power....

  19. An application of a double bootstrap to investigate the effects of technological progress on total-factor energy consumption performance in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) for measuring China's energy efficiency across 30 provinces during the period 1997 to 2012. The TEPI is derived by solving an improved non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, which is based on an energy distance function. The production possibility set is constructed by combining the super-efficiency and sequential DEA models to avoid “discriminating power problem” and “technical regress”. In order to explore the impacts of technological progress on TEPI and perform statistical inferences on the results, a two-stage double bootstrap approach is adopted. The important findings are that China's energy technology innovation produces a negative effect on TEPI, while technology import and imitative innovation produce positive effects on TEPI. Thus, the main contribution of TEPI improvement is technology import. These conclusions imply that technology import especially foreign direct investment (FDI) is important for imitative innovation and can improve China's energy efficiency. In the long run, as the technical level of China approaches to the frontier, energy technology innovation and its wide adoption become a sustained way to improve energy efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent for China to introduce measures such as technology translation and spillover policies as well as energy pricing reforms to support energy technology innovation. - Highlights: • A total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) is introduced. • Three types of technological progress have various effects on TEPI. • FDI is the main contributor of TEPI improvement. • An improved DEA calculation method is introduced. • A two-stage double-bootstrap non-radial DEA model is used.

  20. China energy databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi (eds.) (Energy Research Inst., Beijing, BJ (China))

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.