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Sample records for spike wave activity

  1. EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH CONTINUOUS SPIKES-WAVES ACTIVITY DURING SLEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Belousova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author represents the review and discussion of current scientific literature devoted to epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes-waves activity during sleep — the special form of partly reversible age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, characterized by triad of symptoms: continuous prolonged epileptiform (spike-wave activity on EEG in sleep, epileptic seizures and cognitive disorders. The author describes the aspects of classification, pathogenesis and etiology, prevalence, clinical picture and diagnostics of this disorder, including the peculiar anomalies on EEG. The especial attention is given to approaches to the treatment of epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikeswaves activity during sleep. Efficacy of valproates, corticosteroid hormones and antiepileptic drugs of other groups is considered. The author represents own experience of treatment this disorder with corticosteroids, scheme of therapy and assessment of efficacy.

  2. Sleep deprivation and spike-wave discharges in epileptic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Vossen, J.M.H.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation were studied on the occurrence of spike-wave discharges in the electroencephalogram of rats of the epileptic WAG/Rij strain, a model for absence epilepsy. This was done before, during and after a period of 12 hours of near total sleep deprivation. A substantial increase in the number of spike-wave discharges was found during the first 4 hours of the deprivation period, whereas in the following deprivation hours epileptic activity returned to baseline values. I...

  3. Mimickers of generalized spike and wave discharges.

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    Azzam, Raed; Bhatt, Amar B

    2014-06-01

    Overinterpretation of benign EEG variants is a common problem that can lead to the misdiagnosis of epilepsy. We review four normal patterns that mimic generalized spike and wave discharges: phantom spike-and-wave, hyperventilation hypersynchrony, hypnagogic/ hypnopompic hypersynchrony, and mitten patterns.

  4. On the genesis of spike-wave oscillations in a mean-field model of human thalamic and corticothalamic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Serafim; Terry, John R.; Breakspear, Michael

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, the genesis of spike-wave activity-a hallmark of many generalized epileptic seizures-is investigated in a reduced mean-field model of human neural activity. Drawing upon brain modelling and dynamical systems theory, we demonstrate that the thalamic circuitry of the system is crucial for the generation of these abnormal rhythms, observing that the combination of inhibition from reticular nuclei and excitation from the cortical signal, interplay to generate the spike-wave oscillation. The mechanism revealed provides an explanation of why approaches based on linear stability and Heaviside approximations to the activation function have failed to explain the phenomena of spike-wave behaviour in mean-field models. A mathematical understanding of this transition is a crucial step towards relating spiking network models and mean-field approaches to human brain modelling

  5. Spike-like solitary waves in incompressible boundary layers driven by a travelling wave.

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    Feng, Peihua; Zhang, Jiazhong; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear waves produced in an incompressible boundary layer driven by a travelling wave are investigated, with damping considered as well. As one of the typical nonlinear waves, the spike-like wave is governed by the driven-damped Benjamin-Ono equation. The wave field enters a completely irregular state beyond a critical time, increasing the amplitude of the driving wave continuously. On the other hand, the number of spikes of solitary waves increases through multiplication of the wave pattern. The wave energy grows in a sequence of sharp steps, and hysteresis loops are found in the system. The wave energy jumps to different levels with multiplication of the wave, which is described by winding number bifurcation of phase trajectories. Also, the phenomenon of multiplication and hysteresis steps is found when varying the speed of driving wave as well. Moreover, the nature of the change of wave pattern and its energy is the stability loss of the wave caused by saddle-node bifurcation.

  6. Spike morphology in blast-wave-driven instability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Fryxell, B.; Budde, A.; Hansen, J. F.; Miles, A. R.; Plewa, T.; Hearn, N.; Knauer, J.

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory experiments described in the present paper observe the blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability with three-dimensional (3D) initial conditions. About 5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser creates conditions similar to those of the He-H interface during the explosion phase of a supernova. The experimental target is a 150 μm thick plastic disk followed by a low-density foam. The plastic piece has an embedded, 3D perturbation. The basic structure of the pattern is two orthogonal sine waves where each sine wave has an amplitude of 2.5 μm and a wavelength of 71 μm. In some experiments, an additional wavelength is added to explore the interaction of modes. In experiments with 3D initial conditions the spike morphology differs from what has been observed in other Rayleigh-Taylor experiments and simulations. Under certain conditions, experimental radiographs show some mass extending from the interface to the shock front. Current simulations show neither the spike morphology nor the spike penetration observed in the experiments. The amount of mass reaching the shock front is analyzed and potential causes for the spike morphology and the spikes reaching the shock are discussed. One such hypothesis is that these phenomena may be caused by magnetic pressure, generated by an azimuthal magnetic field produced by the plasma dynamics.

  7. Surfing a spike wave down the ventral stream.

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    VanRullen, Rufin; Thorpe, Simon J

    2002-10-01

    Numerous theories of neural processing, often motivated by experimental observations, have explored the computational properties of neural codes based on the absolute or relative timing of spikes in spike trains. Spiking neuron models and theories however, as well as their experimental counterparts, have generally been limited to the simulation or observation of isolated neurons, isolated spike trains, or reduced neural populations. Such theories would therefore seem inappropriate to capture the properties of a neural code relying on temporal spike patterns distributed across large neuronal populations. Here we report a range of computer simulations and theoretical considerations that were designed to explore the possibilities of one such code and its relevance for visual processing. In a unified framework where the relation between stimulus saliency and spike relative timing plays the central role, we describe how the ventral stream of the visual system could process natural input scenes and extract meaningful information, both rapidly and reliably. The first wave of spikes generated in the retina in response to a visual stimulation carries information explicitly in its spatio-temporal structure: the most salient information is represented by the first spikes over the population. This spike wave, propagating through a hierarchy of visual areas, is regenerated at each processing stage, where its temporal structure can be modified by (i). the selectivity of the cortical neurons, (ii). lateral interactions and (iii). top-down attentional influences from higher order cortical areas. The resulting model could account for the remarkable efficiency and rapidity of processing observed in the primate visual system.

  8. Low blood glucose precipitates spike-and-wave activity in genetically predisposed animals.

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    Reid, Christopher A; Kim, Tae Hwan; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Absence epilepsies are common, with a major genetic contribution to etiology. Certain environmental factors can influence absence occurrence but a complete understanding of absence precipitation is lacking. Herein we investigate if lowering blood glucose increases spike-wave activity in mouse models with varying seizure susceptibility. Three mouse models were used: an absence seizure model based on the knockin of a human GABA(A) γ2(R43Q) mutation (DBA(R43Q)), the spike-wave discharge (SWD)-prone DBA/2J strain, and the seizure resistant C57Bl/6 strain. Electrocorticography (ECoG) studies were recorded to determine SWDs during hypoglycemia induced by insulin or overnight fasting. An insulin-mediated reduction in blood glucose levels to 4 mm (c.a. 40% reduction) was sufficient to double SWD occurrence in the DBA(R43Q) model and in the SWD-prone DBA/2J mouse strain. Larger reductions in blood glucose further increased SWDs in both these models. However, even with large reductions in blood glucose, no discharges were observed in the seizure-resistant C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Injection of glucose reversed the impact of insulin on SWDs in the DBA(R43Q) model, supporting a reduction in blood glucose as the modulating influence. Overnight fasting reduced blood glucose levels to 4.5 mm (c.a. 35% reduction) and, like insulin, caused a doubling in occurrence of SWDs. Low blood glucose can precipitate SWDs in genetically predisposed animal models and should be considered as a potential environmental risk factor in patients with absence epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. A spatially resolved network spike in model neuronal cultures reveals nucleation centers, circular traveling waves and drifting spiral waves.

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    Paraskevov, A V; Zendrikov, D K

    2017-03-23

    We show that in model neuronal cultures, where the probability of interneuronal connection formation decreases exponentially with increasing distance between the neurons, there exists a small number of spatial nucleation centers of a network spike, from where the synchronous spiking activity starts propagating in the network typically in the form of circular traveling waves. The number of nucleation centers and their spatial locations are unique and unchanged for a given realization of neuronal network but are different for different networks. In contrast, if the probability of interneuronal connection formation is independent of the distance between neurons, then the nucleation centers do not arise and the synchronization of spiking activity during a network spike occurs spatially uniform throughout the network. Therefore one can conclude that spatial proximity of connections between neurons is important for the formation of nucleation centers. It is also shown that fluctuations of the spatial density of neurons at their random homogeneous distribution typical for the experiments in vitro do not determine the locations of the nucleation centers. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental observations.

  10. Dynamics of directional coupling underlying spike-wave discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sysoeva, M.V.; Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Sysoev, I.V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Spike and wave discharges (SWDs), generated within cortico-thalamo-cortical networks, are the electroencephalographic biomarker of absence epilepsy. The current work aims to identify mechanisms of SWD initiation, maintenance and termination by the analyses of dynamics and directionality of

  11. Aspartame exacerbates EEG spike-wave discharge in children with generalized absence epilepsy: a double-blind controlled study.

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    Camfield, P R; Camfield, C S; Dooley, J M; Gordon, K; Jollymore, S; Weaver, D F

    1992-05-01

    There are anecdotal reports of increased seizures in humans after ingestion of aspartame. We studied 10 children with newly diagnosed but untreated generalized absence seizures. Ambulatory cassette recording of EEG allowed quantification of numbers and length of spike-wave discharges in a double-blind study on two consecutive days. On one day the children received 40 mg/kg aspartame and on the other day, a sucrose-sweetened drink. Baseline EEG was the same before aspartame and sucrose. Following aspartame compared with sucrose, the number of spike-wave discharges per hour and mean length of spike-wave discharges increased but not to a statistically significant degree. However, the total duration of spike-wave discharge per hour was significantly increased after aspartame (p = 0.028), with a 40% +/- 17% (SEM) increase in the number of seconds per hour of EEG recording that the children spent in spike-wave discharge. Aspartame appears to exacerbate the amount of EEG spike wave in children with absence seizures. Further studies are needed to establish if this effect occurs at lower doses and in other seizure types.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were...... recruited. Cathodal tDCS and sham stimulation were applied to the epileptic focus, before sleep (1 mA; 20 min). Cathodal tDCS did not reduce the spike-index in any of the patients....

  13. Neuronal Networks in Children with Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep

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    Siniatchkin, Michael; Groening, Kristina; Moehring, Jan; Moeller, Friederike; Boor, Rainer; Brodbeck, Verena; Michel, Christoph M.; Rodionov, Roman; Lemieux, Louis; Stephani, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep is an age-related disorder characterized by the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges during at least greater than 85% of sleep and cognitive deficits associated with this electroencephalography pattern. The pathophysiological mechanisms of continuous spikes and…

  14. Sleep deprivation and spike-wave discharges in epileptic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Vossen, J.M.H.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation were studied on the occurrence of spike-wave discharges in the electroencephalogram of rats of the epileptic WAG/Rij strain, a model for absence epilepsy. This was done before, during and after a period of 12 hours of near total sleep deprivation. A substantial

  15. A prospective study of levetiracetam efficacy in epileptic syndromes with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkins, Mary; Nikanorova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the add-on effect of levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the EEG and clinical status of children with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep (CSWS).......To evaluate the add-on effect of levetiracetam (LEV) treatment on the EEG and clinical status of children with continuous spikes-waves during slow sleep (CSWS)....

  16. Sketches of a hammer-impact, spiked-base, shear-wave source

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    Hasbrouck, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    Generation of shear waves in shallow seismic investigations (those to depths usually less than 100 m) can be accomplished by horizontally striking with a hammer either the end of a wood plank or metal structure embedded at the ground surface. The dimensioned sketches of this report are of a steel, hammer-impact, spiked-base, shear-wave source. It has been used on outcrops and in a desert environment and for conducting experiments on the effect of rotating source direction.

  17. Generalized activity equations for spiking neural network dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Buice

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in uncovering the computational capabilities of spiking neural networks. However, spiking neurons will always be more expensive to simulate compared to rate neurons because of the inherent disparity in time scales - the spike duration time is much shorter than the inter-spike time, which is much shorter than any learning time scale. In numerical analysis, this is a classic stiff problem. Spiking neurons are also much more difficult to study analytically. One possible approach to making spiking networks more tractable is to augment mean field activity models with some information about spiking correlations. For example, such a generalized activity model could carry information about spiking rates and correlations between spikes self-consistently. Here, we will show how this can be accomplished by constructing a complete formal probabilistic description of the network and then expanding around a small parameter such as the inverse of the number of neurons in the network. The mean field theory of the system gives a rate-like description. The first order terms in the perturbation expansion keep track of covariances.

  18. Intra- and interregional cortical interactions related to sharp-wave ripples and dentate spikes.

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    Headley, Drew B; Kanta, Vasiliki; Paré, Denis

    2017-02-01

    The hippocampus generates population events termed sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) and dentate spikes (DSs). While little is known about DSs, SWR-related hippocampal discharges during sleep are thought to replay prior waking activity, reactivating the cortical networks that encoded the initial experience. During slow-wave sleep, such reactivations likely occur during up-states, when most cortical neurons are depolarized. However, most studies have examined the relationship between SWRs and up-states measured in single neocortical regions. As a result, it is currently unclear whether SWRs are associated with particular patterns of widely distributed cortical activity. Additionally, no such investigation has been carried out for DSs. The present study addressed these questions by recording SWRs and DSs from the dorsal hippocampus simultaneously with prefrontal, sensory (visual and auditory), perirhinal, and entorhinal cortices in naturally sleeping rats. We found that SWRs and DSs were associated with up-states in all cortical regions. Up-states coinciding with DSs and SWRs exhibited increased unit activity, power in the gamma band, and intraregional gamma coherence. Unexpectedly, interregional gamma coherence rose much more strongly in relation to DSs than to SWRs. Whereas the increase in gamma coherence was time locked to DSs, that seen in relation to SWRs was not. These observations suggest that SWRs are related to the strength of up-state activation within individual regions throughout the neocortex but not so much to gamma coherence between different regions. Perhaps more importantly, DSs coincided with stronger periods of interregional gamma coherence, suggesting that they play a more important role than previously assumed. Off-line cortico-hippocampal interactions are thought to support memory consolidation. We surveyed the relationship between hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) and dentate spikes (DSs) with up-states across multiple cortical regions. SWRs and

  19. Anticipating Activity in Social Media Spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Higham, Desmond J.; Grindrod, Peter; Mantzaris, Alexander V.; Otley, Amanda; Laflin, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel mathematical model for the activity of microbloggers during an external, event-driven spike. The model leads to a testable prediction of who would become most active if a spike were to take place. This type of information is of great interest to commercial organisations, governments and charities, as it identifies key players who can be targeted with information in real time when the network is most receptive. The model takes account of the fact that dynamic interactions ev...

  20. Enhanced interlaminar excitation or reduced superficial layer inhibition in neocortex generates different spike-and-wave-like electrographic events in vitro.

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    Hall, Stephen P; Traub, Roger D; Adams, Natalie E; Cunningham, Mark O; Schofield, Ian; Jenkins, Alistair J; Whittington, Miles A

    2018-01-01

    Acute in vitro models have revealed a great deal of information about mechanisms underlying many types of epileptiform activity. However, few examples exist that shed light on spike-and-wave (SpW) patterns of pathological activity. SpW are seen in many epilepsy syndromes, both generalized and focal, and manifest across the entire age spectrum. They are heterogeneous in terms of their severity, symptom burden, and apparent anatomical origin (thalamic, neocortical, or both), but any relationship between this heterogeneity and underlying pathology remains elusive. In this study we demonstrate that physiological delta-frequency rhythms act as an effective substrate to permit modeling of SpW of cortical origin and may help to address this issue. For a starting point of delta activity, multiple subtypes of SpW could be modeled computationally and experimentally by either enhancing the magnitude of excitatory synaptic events ascending from neocortical layer 5 to layers 2/3 or selectively modifying superficial layer GABAergic inhibition. The former generated SpW containing multiple field spikes with long interspike intervals, whereas the latter generated SpW with short-interval multiple field spikes. Both types had different laminar origins and each disrupted interlaminar cortical dynamics in a different manner. A small number of examples of human recordings from patients with different diagnoses revealed SpW subtypes with the same temporal signatures, suggesting that detailed quantification of the pattern of spikes in SpW discharges may be a useful indicator of disparate underlying epileptogenic pathologies. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Spike-and-wave-type discharges (SpW) are a common feature in many epilepsies. Their electrographic manifestation is highly varied, as are available genetic clues to associated underlying pathology. Using computational and in vitro models, we demonstrate that distinct subtypes of SpW are generated by lamina-selective disinhibition or enhanced

  1. Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-waves during sleep: the need for transition from childhood to adulthood medical care appears to be related to etiology.

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    de Saint-Martin, Anne; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Valenti-Hirsch, Maria Paola; Hirsch, Edouard

    2014-08-01

    Epileptic encephalopathy with continuous diffuse spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (ECSWS) presents clinically with infrequent nocturnal focal seizures, atypical absences related to secondary bilateral synchrony, negative myoclonia, and atonic and rare generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The unique electroencephalography (EEG) pattern found in ECSWS consists of continuous, diffuse, bilateral spike-waves during slow-wave sleep. Despite the eventual disappearance of clinical seizures and EEG abnormalities by adolescence, the prognosis is guarded in most cases because of neuropsychological and behavioral deficits. ECSWS has a heterogeneous etiology (genetic, structural, and unknown). Because epilepsy and electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities in epileptic encephalopathy with continuous diffuse spike-waves during slow-wave sleep (ECSWS) are self-limited and age related, the need for ongoing medical care and transition to adult care might be questioned. For adolescents in whom etiology remains unknown (possibly genetic) and who experience the disappearance of seizures and EEG abnormalities, there is rarely need for long-term neurologic follow-up, because often a relatively normal cognitive and social evolution follows. However, the majority of patients with structural and possibly "genetic syndromic" etiologies will have persistent cognitive deficits and will need suitable socioeducative care. Therefore, the transition process in ECSWS will depend mainly on etiology and its related features (epileptic active phase duration, and cognitive and behavioral evolution) and revolve around neuropsychological and social support rather than medical and pharmacologic follow-up. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  2. Bumps, breathers, and waves in a neural network with spike frequency adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombes, S.; Owen, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a continuum model of neural tissue that includes the effects of spike frequency adaptation (SFA). The basic model is an integral equation for synaptic activity that depends upon nonlocal network connectivity, synaptic response, and the firing rate of a single neuron. We consider a phenomenological model of SFA via a simple state-dependent threshold firing rate function. As without SFA, Mexican-hat connectivity allows for the existence of spatially localized states (bumps). Importantly recent Evans function techniques are used to show that bumps may destabilize leading to the emergence of breathers and traveling waves. Moreover, a similar analysis for traveling pulses leads to the conditions necessary to observe a stable traveling breather. Simulations confirm our theoretical predictions and illustrate the rich behavior of this model

  3. Automatic EEG spike detection.

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    Harner, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Since the 1970s advances in science and technology during each succeeding decade have renewed the expectation of efficient, reliable automatic epileptiform spike detection (AESD). But even when reinforced with better, faster tools, clinically reliable unsupervised spike detection remains beyond our reach. Expert-selected spike parameters were the first and still most widely used for AESD. Thresholds for amplitude, duration, sharpness, rise-time, fall-time, after-coming slow waves, background frequency, and more have been used. It is still unclear which of these wave parameters are essential, beyond peak-peak amplitude and duration. Wavelet parameters are very appropriate to AESD but need to be combined with other parameters to achieve desired levels of spike detection efficiency. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and expert-system methods may have reached peak efficiency. Support Vector Machine (SVM) technology focuses on outliers rather than centroids of spike and nonspike data clusters and should improve AESD efficiency. An exemplary spike/nonspike database is suggested as a tool for assessing parameters and methods for AESD and is available in CSV or Matlab formats from the author at brainvue@gmail.com. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) is presented as a graphic method for finding better spike parameters and for the step-wise evaluation of the spike detection process.

  4. Correlations decrease with propagation of spiking activity in the mouse barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Nattar Ranganathan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of suprathreshold spiking activity through neuronal populations is important for the function of the central nervous system. Neural correlations have an impact on cortical function particularly on the signaling of information and propagation of spiking activity. Therefore we measured the change in correlations as suprathreshold spiking activity propagated between recurrent neuronal networks of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Using optical methods we recorded spiking activity from large samples of neurons from two neural populations simultaneously. The results indicate that correlations decreased as spiking activity propagated from layer 4 to layer 2/3 in the rodent barrel cortex.

  5. Linking structure and activity in nonlinear spiking networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Koch Ocker

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental advances are producing an avalanche of data on both neural connectivity and neural activity. To take full advantage of these two emerging datasets we need a framework that links them, revealing how collective neural activity arises from the structure of neural connectivity and intrinsic neural dynamics. This problem of structure-driven activity has drawn major interest in computational neuroscience. Existing methods for relating activity and architecture in spiking networks rely on linearizing activity around a central operating point and thus fail to capture the nonlinear responses of individual neurons that are the hallmark of neural information processing. Here, we overcome this limitation and present a new relationship between connectivity and activity in networks of nonlinear spiking neurons by developing a diagrammatic fluctuation expansion based on statistical field theory. We explicitly show how recurrent network structure produces pairwise and higher-order correlated activity, and how nonlinearities impact the networks' spiking activity. Our findings open new avenues to investigating how single-neuron nonlinearities-including those of different cell types-combine with connectivity to shape population activity and function.

  6. Linking structure and activity in nonlinear spiking networks.

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    Ocker, Gabriel Koch; Josić, Krešimir; Shea-Brown, Eric; Buice, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    Recent experimental advances are producing an avalanche of data on both neural connectivity and neural activity. To take full advantage of these two emerging datasets we need a framework that links them, revealing how collective neural activity arises from the structure of neural connectivity and intrinsic neural dynamics. This problem of structure-driven activity has drawn major interest in computational neuroscience. Existing methods for relating activity and architecture in spiking networks rely on linearizing activity around a central operating point and thus fail to capture the nonlinear responses of individual neurons that are the hallmark of neural information processing. Here, we overcome this limitation and present a new relationship between connectivity and activity in networks of nonlinear spiking neurons by developing a diagrammatic fluctuation expansion based on statistical field theory. We explicitly show how recurrent network structure produces pairwise and higher-order correlated activity, and how nonlinearities impact the networks' spiking activity. Our findings open new avenues to investigating how single-neuron nonlinearities-including those of different cell types-combine with connectivity to shape population activity and function.

  7. Effect of Early Diagnosis and Treatment on the Prognosis of Children with Epilepsy Accompanied by Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Wave Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahua Ju

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and treatment on the prognosis of children with epilepsy accompanied by continuous spikes and waves during slow wave sleep (CSCW. Methods: The clinical characteristics, electroencephalogram (ECG features, treatment and prognosis of 12 children with CSCW in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed, and the followup of 6 months to 4 years was given. Results: Imaging showed that 8 children suffered from brain lesions, while other 4 were normal. The initial onset of 10 children was at night, whereas 2 began with absence seizure in lucid interval, and they gradually appeared comprehensive brain function decline, meanwhile, ECG was characterized by continuous discharge during slow wave sleep. After 3 months of treatment with valproic acid, clonazepam, lamotrigine and hormones, the clinical symptoms and ECG of 10 children improved significantly, in which 3 ones recurred after 6 months of comprehensive treatment. Conclusion: The early manifestation of CSWS is untypical, and hence, early diagnosis and treatment can ameliorate the epileptic seizures of children, effectively inhibit epileptic electrical activity and has favorable prognosis.

  8. Single-trial estimation of stimulus and spike-history effects on time-varying ensemble spiking activity of multiple neurons: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    Neurons in cortical circuits exhibit coordinated spiking activity, and can produce correlated synchronous spikes during behavior and cognition. We recently developed a method for estimating the dynamics of correlated ensemble activity by combining a model of simultaneous neuronal interactions (e.g., a spin-glass model) with a state-space method (Shimazaki et al. 2012 PLoS Comput Biol 8 e1002385). This method allows us to estimate stimulus-evoked dynamics of neuronal interactions which is reproducible in repeated trials under identical experimental conditions. However, the method may not be suitable for detecting stimulus responses if the neuronal dynamics exhibits significant variability across trials. In addition, the previous model does not include effects of past spiking activity of the neurons on the current state of ensemble activity. In this study, we develop a parametric method for simultaneously estimating the stimulus and spike-history effects on the ensemble activity from single-trial data even if the neurons exhibit dynamics that is largely unrelated to these effects. For this goal, we model ensemble neuronal activity as a latent process and include the stimulus and spike-history effects as exogenous inputs to the latent process. We develop an expectation-maximization algorithm that simultaneously achieves estimation of the latent process, stimulus responses, and spike-history effects. The proposed method is useful to analyze an interaction of internal cortical states and sensory evoked activity

  9. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles.

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    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE→TC→Cortex. Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 →TC 1 →Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 →Cortex 2 →Cortex 3

  10. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles

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    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE → TC → Cortex . Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 → TC 1 → Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 → Cortex 2

  11. Modulation of the spike activity of neocortex neurons during a conditioned reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhuk, V M; Sanzharovskii, A V; Sachenko, V V; Busel, B I

    2000-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on cats to study the effects of iontophoretic application of glutamate and a number of modulators on the spike activity of neurons in the sensorimotor cortex during a conditioned reflex. These studies showed that glutamate, as well as exerting a direct influence on neuron spike activity, also had a delayed facilitatory action lasting 10-20 min after iontophoresis was finished. Adrenomimetics were found to have a double modulatory effect on intracortical glutamate connections: inhibitory and facilitatory effects were mediated by beta1 and beta2 adrenoceptors respectively. Although dopamine, like glutamate, facilitated neuron spike activity during the period of application, the simultaneous facilitatory actions of glutamate and L-DOPA were accompanied by occlusion of spike activity, and simultaneous application of glutamate and haloperidol suppressed spike activity associated with the conditioned reflex response. Facilitation thus appears to show a significant level of dependence on metabotropic glutamate receptors which, like dopamine receptors, are linked to the intracellular medium via Gi proteins.

  12. Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Spike Pauses in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Grasselli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasticity of intrinsic excitability has been described in several types of neurons, but the significance of non-synaptic mechanisms in brain plasticity and learning remains elusive. Cerebellar Purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials at high frequencies and regulate activity in their target cells in the cerebellar nuclei by generating a characteristic spike burst-pause sequence upon synaptic activation. Using patch-clamp recordings from mouse Purkinje cells, we find that depolarization-triggered intrinsic plasticity enhances spike firing and shortens the duration of spike pauses. Pause plasticity is absent from mice lacking SK2-type potassium channels (SK2−/− mice and in occlusion experiments using the SK channel blocker apamin, while apamin wash-in mimics pause reduction. Our findings demonstrate that spike pauses can be regulated through an activity-dependent, exclusively non-synaptic, SK2 channel-dependent mechanism and suggest that pause plasticity—by altering the Purkinje cell output—may be crucial to cerebellar information storage and learning.

  13. The detection of intestinal spike activity on surface electroenterograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye-Lin, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Prats-Boluda, G [Instituto interuniversitario de investigacion en bioingenierIa y tecnologIa orientada al ser humano (I3BH), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, Ed. 8E, Acceso N, 2a, planta 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ponce, J L [Department of Surgery, Hospital Universitario La Fe de Valencia, Avenida Campanar n0. 51, 46009 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: yiye@eln.upv.es, E-mail: jgarciac@eln.upv.es, E-mail: jlmartinez@eln.upv.es, E-mail: geprabo@eln.upv.es, E-mail: drjlponce@ono.com

    2010-02-07

    Myoelectrical recording could provide an alternative technique for assessing intestinal motility, which is a topic of great interest in gastroenterology since many gastrointestinal disorders are associated with intestinal dysmotility. The pacemaker activity (slow wave, SW) of the electroenterogram (EEnG) has been detected in abdominal surface recordings, although the activity related to bowel contractions (spike bursts, SB) has to date only been detected in experimental models with artificially favored electrical conductivity. The aim of the present work was to assess the possibility of detecting SB activity in abdominal surface recordings under physiological conditions. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions of simultaneous internal and external myolectrical signals were conducted on conscious dogs. Signal analysis was carried out in the spectral domain. The results show that in periods of intestinal contractile activity, high-frequency components of EEnG signals can be detected on the abdominal surface in addition to SW activity. The energy between 2 and 20 Hz of the surface myoelectrical recording presented good correlation with the internal intestinal motility index (0.64 {+-} 0.10 for channel 1 and 0.57 {+-} 0.11 for channel 2). This suggests that SB activity can also be detected in canine surface EEnG recording.

  14. The detection of intestinal spike activity on surface electroenterograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye-Lin, Y; Garcia-Casado, J; Martinez-de-Juan, J L; Prats-Boluda, G; Ponce, J L

    2010-01-01

    Myoelectrical recording could provide an alternative technique for assessing intestinal motility, which is a topic of great interest in gastroenterology since many gastrointestinal disorders are associated with intestinal dysmotility. The pacemaker activity (slow wave, SW) of the electroenterogram (EEnG) has been detected in abdominal surface recordings, although the activity related to bowel contractions (spike bursts, SB) has to date only been detected in experimental models with artificially favored electrical conductivity. The aim of the present work was to assess the possibility of detecting SB activity in abdominal surface recordings under physiological conditions. For this purpose, 11 recording sessions of simultaneous internal and external myolectrical signals were conducted on conscious dogs. Signal analysis was carried out in the spectral domain. The results show that in periods of intestinal contractile activity, high-frequency components of EEnG signals can be detected on the abdominal surface in addition to SW activity. The energy between 2 and 20 Hz of the surface myoelectrical recording presented good correlation with the internal intestinal motility index (0.64 ± 0.10 for channel 1 and 0.57 ± 0.11 for channel 2). This suggests that SB activity can also be detected in canine surface EEnG recording.

  15. Multichannel interictal spike activity detection using time-frequency entropy measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanaraj, Palani; Parvathavarthini, B

    2017-06-01

    Localization of interictal spikes is an important clinical step in the pre-surgical assessment of pharmacoresistant epileptic patients. The manual selection of interictal spike periods is cumbersome and involves a considerable amount of analysis workload for the physician. The primary focus of this paper is to automate the detection of interictal spikes for clinical applications in epilepsy localization. The epilepsy localization procedure involves detection of spikes in a multichannel EEG epoch. Therefore, a multichannel Time-Frequency (T-F) entropy measure is proposed to extract features related to the interictal spike activity. Least squares support vector machine is used to train the proposed feature to classify the EEG epochs as either normal or interictal spike period. The proposed T-F entropy measure, when validated with epilepsy dataset of 15 patients, shows an interictal spike classification accuracy of 91.20%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 84.23%. Moreover, the area under the curve of Receiver Operating Characteristics plot of 0.9339 shows the superior classification performance of the proposed T-F entropy measure. The results of this paper show a good spike detection accuracy without any prior information about the spike morphology.

  16. Remifentanil-induced spike activity as a diagnostic tool in epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlykke, L; Knudsen, M L; Høgenhaven, H

    2008-01-01

    To assess the value of remifentanil in intraoperative evaluation of spike activity in patients undergoing surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).......To assess the value of remifentanil in intraoperative evaluation of spike activity in patients undergoing surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE)....

  17. ViSAPy: a Python tool for biophysics-based generation of virtual spiking activity for evaluation of spike-sorting algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Espen; Ness, Torbjørn V; Khosrowshahi, Amir; Sørensen, Christina; Fyhn, Marianne; Hafting, Torkel; Franke, Felix; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2015-04-30

    New, silicon-based multielectrodes comprising hundreds or more electrode contacts offer the possibility to record spike trains from thousands of neurons simultaneously. This potential cannot be realized unless accurate, reliable automated methods for spike sorting are developed, in turn requiring benchmarking data sets with known ground-truth spike times. We here present a general simulation tool for computing benchmarking data for evaluation of spike-sorting algorithms entitled ViSAPy (Virtual Spiking Activity in Python). The tool is based on a well-established biophysical forward-modeling scheme and is implemented as a Python package built on top of the neuronal simulator NEURON and the Python tool LFPy. ViSAPy allows for arbitrary combinations of multicompartmental neuron models and geometries of recording multielectrodes. Three example benchmarking data sets are generated, i.e., tetrode and polytrode data mimicking in vivo cortical recordings and microelectrode array (MEA) recordings of in vitro activity in salamander retinas. The synthesized example benchmarking data mimics salient features of typical experimental recordings, for example, spike waveforms depending on interspike interval. ViSAPy goes beyond existing methods as it includes biologically realistic model noise, synaptic activation by recurrent spiking networks, finite-sized electrode contacts, and allows for inhomogeneous electrical conductivities. ViSAPy is optimized to allow for generation of long time series of benchmarking data, spanning minutes of biological time, by parallel execution on multi-core computers. ViSAPy is an open-ended tool as it can be generalized to produce benchmarking data or arbitrary recording-electrode geometries and with various levels of complexity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward relating the subthalamic nucleus spiking activity to the local field potentials acquired intranuclearly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michmizos, K P; Nikita, K S; Sakas, D

    2011-01-01

    Studies on neurophysiological correlates of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals reveal a strong relationship between the local field potential (LFP) acquired invasively and metabolic signal changes in fMRI experiments. Most of these studies failed to reveal an analogous relationship between metabolic signals and the spiking activity. That would allow for the prediction of the neural activity exclusively from the fMRI signals. However, the relationship between fMRI signals and spiking activity can be inferred indirectly provided that the LFPs can be used to predict the spiking activity of the area. Until now, only the LFP–spike relationship in cortical areas has been examined. Herein, we show that the spiking activity can be predicted by the LFPs acquired in a deep nucleus, namely the subthalamic nucleus (STN), using a nonlinear cascade model. The model can reproduce the spike patterns inside the motor area of the STN that represent information about the motor plans. Our findings expand the possibility of further recruiting non-invasive neuroimaging techniques to understand the activity of the STN and predict or even control movement

  19. Pharmacodynamics of remifentanil. Induced intracranial spike activity in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Troels Wesenberg; Hogenhaven, Hans; Lee, Andrea P

    2017-01-01

    that remifentanil potentiates spike activity is in agreement with previous findings from smaller studies. Furthermore, we were able to describe the pharmacodynamics of the remifentanil effect on spike activity. Peri-operative provocation with remifentanil may play a future role in guiding neurosurgical intervention...

  20. Computational analysis of network activity and spatial reach of sharp wave-ripples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadullah Canakci

    Full Text Available Network oscillations of different frequencies, durations and amplitudes are hypothesized to coordinate information processing and transfer across brain areas. Among these oscillations, hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs are one of the most prominent. SPW-Rs occurring in the hippocampus are suggested to play essential roles in memory consolidation as well as information transfer to the neocortex. To-date, most of the knowledge about SPW-Rs comes from experimental studies averaging responses from neuronal populations monitored by conventional microelectrodes. In this work, we investigate spatiotemporal characteristics of SPW-Rs and how microelectrode size and distance influence SPW-R recordings using a biophysical model of hippocampus. We also explore contributions from neuronal spikes and synaptic potentials to SPW-Rs based on two different types of network activity. Our study suggests that neuronal spikes from pyramidal cells contribute significantly to ripples while high amplitude sharp waves mainly arise from synaptic activity. Our simulations on spatial reach of SPW-Rs show that the amplitudes of sharp waves and ripples exhibit a steep decrease with distance from the network and this effect is more prominent for smaller area electrodes. Furthermore, the amplitude of the signal decreases strongly with increasing electrode surface area as a result of averaging. The relative decrease is more pronounced when the recording electrode is closer to the source of the activity. Through simulations of field potentials across a high-density microelectrode array, we demonstrate the importance of finding the ideal spatial resolution for capturing SPW-Rs with great sensitivity. Our work provides insights on contributions from spikes and synaptic potentials to SPW-Rs and describes the effect of measurement configuration on LFPs to guide experimental studies towards improved SPW-R recordings.

  1. Spiking Activity of a LIF Neuron in Distributed Delay Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Kumar Choudhary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of membrane potential and spiking activity for a single leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF neuron in distributed delay framework (DDF is investigated. DDF provides a mechanism to incorporate memory element in terms of delay (kernel function into a single neuron models. This investigation includes LIF neuron model with two different kinds of delay kernel functions, namely, gamma distributed delay kernel function and hypo-exponential distributed delay kernel function. Evolution of membrane potential for considered models is studied in terms of stationary state probability distribution (SPD. Stationary state probability distribution of membrane potential (SPDV for considered neuron models are found asymptotically similar which is Gaussian distributed. In order to investigate the effect of membrane potential delay, rate code scheme for neuronal information processing is applied. Firing rate and Fano-factor for considered neuron models are calculated and standard LIF model is used for comparative study. It is noticed that distributed delay increases the spiking activity of a neuron. Increase in spiking activity of neuron in DDF is larger for hypo-exponential distributed delay function than gamma distributed delay function. Moreover, in case of hypo-exponential delay function, a LIF neuron generates spikes with Fano-factor less than 1.

  2. Remifentanil-induced spike activity as a diagnostic tool in epilepsy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronlykke, L.; Knudsen, M.L.; Hogenhaven, H.

    2008-01-01

    . Electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings were performed on the intraventricular hippocampus and from the anterior inferior temporal and lateral neocortex before and after a 300 microg intravenous bolus of remifentanil. Spike activity was quantified as spike-count per minute. RESULTS: A significant increase (P

  3. Wavelet analysis of epileptic spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latka, Miroslaw; Was, Ziemowit; Kozik, Andrzej; West, Bruce J.

    2003-05-01

    Interictal spikes and sharp waves in human EEG are characteristic signatures of epilepsy. These potentials originate as a result of synchronous pathological discharge of many neurons. The reliable detection of such potentials has been the long standing problem in EEG analysis, especially after long-term monitoring became common in investigation of epileptic patients. The traditional definition of a spike is based on its amplitude, duration, sharpness, and emergence from its background. However, spike detection systems built solely around this definition are not reliable due to the presence of numerous transients and artifacts. We use wavelet transform to analyze the properties of EEG manifestations of epilepsy. We demonstrate that the behavior of wavelet transform of epileptic spikes across scales can constitute the foundation of a relatively simple yet effective detection algorithm.

  4. Wavelet analysis of epileptic spikes

    CERN Document Server

    Latka, M; Kozik, A; West, B J; Latka, Miroslaw; Was, Ziemowit; Kozik, Andrzej; West, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Interictal spikes and sharp waves in human EEG are characteristic signatures of epilepsy. These potentials originate as a result of synchronous, pathological discharge of many neurons. The reliable detection of such potentials has been the long standing problem in EEG analysis, especially after long-term monitoring became common in investigation of epileptic patients. The traditional definition of a spike is based on its amplitude, duration, sharpness, and emergence from its background. However, spike detection systems built solely around this definition are not reliable due to the presence of numerous transients and artifacts. We use wavelet transform to analyze the properties of EEG manifestations of epilepsy. We demonstrate that the behavior of wavelet transform of epileptic spikes across scales can constitute the foundation of a relatively simple yet effective detection algorithm.

  5. Noise influence on spike activation in a Hindmarsh–Rose small-world neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhe, Sun; Micheletto, Ruggero

    2016-01-01

    We studied the role of noise in neural networks, especially focusing on its relation to the propagation of spike activity in a small sized system. We set up a source of information using a single neuron that is constantly spiking. This element called initiator x o feeds spikes to the rest of the network that is initially quiescent and subsequently reacts with vigorous spiking after a transitional period of time. We found that noise quickly suppresses the initiator’s influence and favors spontaneous spike activity and, using a decibel representation of noise intensity, we established a linear relationship between noise amplitude and the interval from the initiator’s first spike and the rest of the network activation. We studied the same process with networks of different sizes (number of neurons) and found that the initiator x o has a measurable influence on small networks, but as the network grows in size, spontaneous spiking emerges disrupting its effects on networks of more than about N = 100 neurons. This suggests that the mechanism of internal noise generation allows information transmission within a small neural neighborhood, but decays for bigger network domains. We also analyzed the Fourier spectrum of the whole network membrane potential and verified that noise provokes the reduction of main θ and α peaks before transitioning into chaotic spiking. However, network size does not reproduce a similar phenomena; instead we recorded a reduction in peaks’ amplitude, a better sharpness and definition of Fourier peaks, but not the evident degeneration to chaos observed with increasing external noise. This work aims to contribute to the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of propagation of spontaneous spiking in neural networks and gives a quantitative assessment of how noise can be used to control and modulate this phenomenon in Hindmarsh−Rose (H−R) neural networks. (paper)

  6. Noise influence on spike activation in a Hindmarsh-Rose small-world neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe, Sun; Micheletto, Ruggero

    2016-07-01

    We studied the role of noise in neural networks, especially focusing on its relation to the propagation of spike activity in a small sized system. We set up a source of information using a single neuron that is constantly spiking. This element called initiator x o feeds spikes to the rest of the network that is initially quiescent and subsequently reacts with vigorous spiking after a transitional period of time. We found that noise quickly suppresses the initiator’s influence and favors spontaneous spike activity and, using a decibel representation of noise intensity, we established a linear relationship between noise amplitude and the interval from the initiator’s first spike and the rest of the network activation. We studied the same process with networks of different sizes (number of neurons) and found that the initiator x o has a measurable influence on small networks, but as the network grows in size, spontaneous spiking emerges disrupting its effects on networks of more than about N = 100 neurons. This suggests that the mechanism of internal noise generation allows information transmission within a small neural neighborhood, but decays for bigger network domains. We also analyzed the Fourier spectrum of the whole network membrane potential and verified that noise provokes the reduction of main θ and α peaks before transitioning into chaotic spiking. However, network size does not reproduce a similar phenomena; instead we recorded a reduction in peaks’ amplitude, a better sharpness and definition of Fourier peaks, but not the evident degeneration to chaos observed with increasing external noise. This work aims to contribute to the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of propagation of spontaneous spiking in neural networks and gives a quantitative assessment of how noise can be used to control and modulate this phenomenon in Hindmarsh-Rose (H-R) neural networks.

  7. Emergence of slow collective oscillations in neural networks with spike-timing dependent plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Kaare; Imparato, Alberto; Torcini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The collective dynamics of excitatory pulse coupled neurons with spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is studied. The introduction of STDP induces persistent irregular oscillations between strongly and weakly synchronized states, reminiscent of brain activity during slow-wave sleep. We explain...

  8. Electroencephalographic precursors of spike-wave discharges in a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy: Power spectrum and coherence EEG analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitnikova, E.Y.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Periods in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that immediately precede the onset of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWD) were examined in WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. Precursors of SWD (preSWD) were classified based on the distribution of EEG power in delta-theta-alpha frequency bands as

  9. Deep Spiking Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Connor, P.; Welling, M.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce an algorithm to do backpropagation on a spiking network. Our network is "spiking" in the sense that our neurons accumulate their activation into a potential over time, and only send out a signal (a "spike") when this potential crosses a threshold and the neuron is reset. Neurons only

  10. A thermal spike analysis of low energy ion activated surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, G.M.; Haeri, A.; Sprague, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports a thermal spike analysis utilized to predict the time evolution of energy propagation through a solid resulting from energetic particle impact. An analytical solution was developed that can predict the number of surface excitations such as desorption, diffusion or chemical reaction activated by an energetic particle. The analytical solution is limited to substrates at zero Kelvin and to materials with constant thermal diffusivities. These limitations were removed by developing a computer numerical integration of the propagation of the thermal spike through the solid and the subsequent activation of surface processes

  11. Does arousal interfere with operant conditioning of spike-wave discharges in genetic epileptic rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhagen, Lasse; Breteler, Marinus; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2010-06-01

    One of the ways in which brain computer interfaces can be used is neurofeedback (NF). Subjects use their brain activation to control an external device, and with this technique it is also possible to learn to control aspects of the brain activity by operant conditioning. Beneficial effects of NF training on seizure occurrence have been described in epileptic patients. Little research has been done about differentiating NF effectiveness by type of epilepsy, particularly, whether idiopathic generalized seizures are susceptible to NF. In this experiment, seizures that manifest themselves as spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the EEG were reinforced during 10 sessions in 6 rats of the WAG/Rij strain, an animal model for absence epilepsy. EEG's were recorded before and after the training sessions. Reinforcing SWDs let to decreased SWD occurrences during training; however, the changes during training were not persistent in the post-training sessions. Because behavioural states are known to have an influence on the occurrence of SWDs, it is proposed that the reinforcement situation increased arousal which resulted in fewer SWDs. Additional tests supported this hypothesis. The outcomes have implications for the possibility to train SWDs with operant learning techniques. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergence of Slow Collective Oscillations in Neural Networks with Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Kaare; Imparato, Alberto; Torcini, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    The collective dynamics of excitatory pulse coupled neurons with spike-timing dependent plasticity is studied. The introduction of spike-timing dependent plasticity induces persistent irregular oscillations between strongly and weakly synchronized states, reminiscent of brain activity during slow-wave sleep. We explain the oscillations by a mechanism, the Sisyphus Effect, caused by a continuous feedback between the synaptic adjustments and the coherence in the neural firing. Due to this effect, the synaptic weights have oscillating equilibrium values, and this prevents the system from relaxing into a stationary macroscopic state.

  13. High frequency electric field spikes formed by electron beam-plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-02-01

    In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs

  14. Spiking in auditory cortex following thalamic stimulation is dominated by cortical network activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Bryan M.; Raz, Aeyal; Uhlrich, Daniel J.; Smith, Philip H.; Banks, Matthew I.

    2014-01-01

    The state of the sensory cortical network can have a profound impact on neural responses and perception. In rodent auditory cortex, sensory responses are reported to occur in the context of network events, similar to brief UP states, that produce “packets” of spikes and are associated with synchronized synaptic input (Bathellier et al., 2012; Hromadka et al., 2013; Luczak et al., 2013). However, traditional models based on data from visual and somatosensory cortex predict that ascending sensory thalamocortical (TC) pathways sequentially activate cells in layers 4 (L4), L2/3, and L5. The relationship between these two spatio-temporal activity patterns is unclear. Here, we used calcium imaging and electrophysiological recordings in murine auditory TC brain slices to investigate the laminar response pattern to stimulation of TC afferents. We show that although monosynaptically driven spiking in response to TC afferents occurs, the vast majority of spikes fired following TC stimulation occurs during brief UP states and outside the context of the L4>L2/3>L5 activation sequence. Specifically, monosynaptic subthreshold TC responses with similar latencies were observed throughout layers 2–6, presumably via synapses onto dendritic processes located in L3 and L4. However, monosynaptic spiking was rare, and occurred primarily in L4 and L5 non-pyramidal cells. By contrast, during brief, TC-induced UP states, spiking was dense and occurred primarily in pyramidal cells. These network events always involved infragranular layers, whereas involvement of supragranular layers was variable. During UP states, spike latencies were comparable between infragranular and supragranular cells. These data are consistent with a model in which activation of auditory cortex, especially supragranular layers, depends on internally generated network events that represent a non-linear amplification process, are initiated by infragranular cells and tightly regulated by feed-forward inhibitory

  15. Superficial dorsal horn neurons with double spike activity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Dickenson, Anthony H; Condés-Lara, Miguel

    2007-05-29

    Superficial dorsal horn neurons promote the transfer of nociceptive information from the periphery to supraspinal structures. The membrane and discharge properties of spinal cord neurons can alter the reliability of peripheral signals. In this paper, we analyze the location and response properties of a particular class of dorsal horn neurons that exhibits double spike discharge with a very short interspike interval (2.01+/-0.11 ms). These neurons receive nociceptive C-fiber input and are located in laminae I-II. Double spikes are generated spontaneously or by depolarizing current injection (interval of 2.37+/-0.22). Cells presenting double spike (interval 2.28+/-0.11) increased the firing rate by electrical noxious stimulation, as well as, in the first minutes after carrageenan injection into their receptive field. Carrageenan is a polysaccharide soluble in water and it is used for producing an experimental model of semi-chronic pain. In the present study carrageenan also produces an increase in the interval between double spikes and then, reduced their occurrence after 5-10 min. The results suggest that double spikes are due to intrinsic membrane properties and that their frequency is related to C-fiber nociceptive activity. The present work shows evidence that double spikes in superficial spinal cord neurones are related to the nociceptive stimulation, and they are possibly part of an acute pain-control mechanism.

  16. Heterogeneity of Purkinje cell simple spike-complex spike interactions: zebrin- and non-zebrin-related variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tianyu; Xiao, Jianqiang; Suh, Colleen Y; Burroughs, Amelia; Cerminara, Nadia L; Jia, Linjia; Marshall, Sarah P; Wise, Andrew K; Apps, Richard; Sugihara, Izumi; Lang, Eric J

    2017-08-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) generate two types of action potentials, simple and complex spikes. Although they are generated by distinct mechanisms, interactions between the two spike types exist. Zebrin staining produces alternating positive and negative stripes of PCs across most of the cerebellar cortex. Thus, here we compared simple spike-complex spike interactions both within and across zebrin populations. Simple spike activity undergoes a complex modulation preceding and following a complex spike. The amplitudes of the pre- and post-complex spike modulation phases were correlated across PCs. On average, the modulation was larger for PCs in zebrin positive regions. Correlations between aspects of the complex spike waveform and simple spike activity were found, some of which varied between zebrin positive and negative PCs. The implications of the results are discussed with regard to hypotheses that complex spikes are triggered by rises in simple spike activity for either motor learning or homeostatic functions. Purkinje cells (PCs) generate two types of action potentials, called simple and complex spikes (SSs and CSs). We first investigated the CS-associated modulation of SS activity and its relationship to the zebrin status of the PC. The modulation pattern consisted of a pre-CS rise in SS activity, and then, following the CS, a pause, a rebound, and finally a late inhibition of SS activity for both zebrin positive (Z+) and negative (Z-) cells, though the amplitudes of the phases were larger in Z+ cells. Moreover, the amplitudes of the pre-CS rise with the late inhibitory phase of the modulation were correlated across PCs. In contrast, correlations between modulation phases across CSs of individual PCs were generally weak. Next, the relationship between CS spikelets and SS activity was investigated. The number of spikelets/CS correlated with the average SS firing rate only for Z+ cells. In contrast, correlations across CSs between spikelet numbers and the

  17. Cochlear spike synchronization and neuron coincidence detection model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Rolf

    2018-02-01

    Coincidence detection of a spike pattern fed from the cochlea into a single neuron is investigated using a physical Finite-Difference model of the cochlea and a physiologically motivated neuron model. Previous studies have shown experimental evidence of increased spike synchronization in the nucleus cochlearis and the trapezoid body [Joris et al., J. Neurophysiol. 71(3), 1022-1036 and 1037-1051 (1994)] and models show tone partial phase synchronization at the transition from mechanical waves on the basilar membrane into spike patterns [Ch. F. Babbs, J. Biophys. 2011, 435135]. Still the traveling speed of waves on the basilar membrane cause a frequency-dependent time delay of simultaneously incoming sound wavefronts up to 10 ms. The present model shows nearly perfect synchronization of multiple spike inputs as neuron outputs with interspike intervals (ISI) at the periodicity of the incoming sound for frequencies from about 30 to 300 Hz for two different amounts of afferent nerve fiber neuron inputs. Coincidence detection serves here as a fusion of multiple inputs into one single event enhancing pitch periodicity detection for low frequencies, impulse detection, or increased sound or speech intelligibility due to dereverberation.

  18. Serial Spike Time Correlations Affect Probability Distribution of Joint Spike Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Mina; van Vreeswijk, Carl; Pipa, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the existence of temporally coordinated spiking activity, and its role in information processing in the cortex, has remained a major challenge for neuroscience research. Different methods and approaches have been suggested to test whether the observed synchronized events are significantly different from those expected by chance. To analyze the simultaneous spike trains for precise spike correlation, these methods typically model the spike trains as a Poisson process implying that the generation of each spike is independent of all the other spikes. However, studies have shown that neural spike trains exhibit dependence among spike sequences, such as the absolute and relative refractory periods which govern the spike probability of the oncoming action potential based on the time of the last spike, or the bursting behavior, which is characterized by short epochs of rapid action potentials, followed by longer episodes of silence. Here we investigate non-renewal processes with the inter-spike interval distribution model that incorporates spike-history dependence of individual neurons. For that, we use the Monte Carlo method to estimate the full shape of the coincidence count distribution and to generate false positives for coincidence detection. The results show that compared to the distributions based on homogeneous Poisson processes, and also non-Poisson processes, the width of the distribution of joint spike events changes. Non-renewal processes can lead to both heavy tailed or narrow coincidence distribution. We conclude that small differences in the exact autostructure of the point process can cause large differences in the width of a coincidence distribution. Therefore, manipulations of the autostructure for the estimation of significance of joint spike events seem to be inadequate.

  19. Nicotine-Mediated ADP to Spike Transition: Double Spiking in Septal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodirov, Sodikdjon A; Wehrmeister, Michael; Colom, Luis

    2016-04-01

    The majority of neurons in lateral septum (LS) are electrically silent at resting membrane potential. Nicotine transiently excites a subset of neurons and occasionally leads to long lasting bursting activity upon longer applications. We have observed simultaneous changes in frequencies and amplitudes of spontaneous action potentials (AP) in the presence of nicotine. During the prolonged exposure, nicotine increased numbers of spikes within a burst. One of the hallmarks of nicotine effects was the occurrences of double spikes (known also as bursting). Alignment of 51 spontaneous spikes, triggered upon continuous application of nicotine, revealed that the slope of after-depolarizing potential gradually increased (1.4 vs. 3 mV/ms) and neuron fired the second AP, termed as double spiking. A transition from a single AP to double spikes increased the amplitude of after-hyperpolarizing potential. The amplitude of the second (premature) AP was smaller compared to the first one, and this correlation persisted in regard to their duration (half-width). A similar bursting activity in the presence of nicotine, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously in the septal structure in general and in LS in particular.

  20. Effects of potassium concentration on firing patterns of low-calcium epileptiform activity in anesthetized rat hippocampus: inducing of persistent spike activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhouyan; Durand, Dominique M

    2006-04-01

    It has been shown that a low-calcium high-potassium solution can generate ictal-like epileptiform activity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, during status epileptiform activity, the concentration of [K+]o increases, and the concentration of [Ca2+]o decreases in brain tissue. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that long-lasting persistent spike activity, similar to one of the patterns of status epilepticus, could be generated by a high-potassium, low-calcium solution in the hippocampus in vivo. Artificial cerebrospinal fluid was perfused over the surface of the exposed left dorsal hippocampus of anesthetized rats. A stimulating electrode and a recording probe were placed in the CA1 region. By elevating K+ concentration from 6 to 12 mM in the perfusate solution, the typical firing pattern of low-calcium ictal bursts was transformed into persistent spike activity in the CA1 region with synaptic transmission being suppressed by calcium chelator EGTA. The activity was characterized by double spikes repeated at a frequency approximately 4 Hz that could last for >1 h. The analysis of multiple unit activity showed that both elevating [K+]o and lowering [Ca2+]o decreased the inhibition period after the response of paired-pulse stimulation, indicating a suppression of the after-hyperpolarization (AHP) activity. These results suggest that persistent status epilepticus-like spike activity can be induced by nonsynaptic mechanisms when synaptic transmission is blocked. The unique double-spike pattern of this activity is presumably caused by higher K+ concentration augmenting the frequency of typical low-calcium nonsynaptic burst activity.

  1. The Ripple Pond: Enabling Spiking Networks to See

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed eAfshar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the biologically inspired Ripple Pond Network (RPN, a simply connected spiking neural network which performs a transformation converting two dimensional images to one dimensional temporal patterns suitable for recognition by temporal coding learning and memory networks. The RPN has been developed as a hardware solution linking previously implemented neuromorphic vision and memory structures such as frameless vision sensors and neuromorphic temporal coding spiking neural networks. Working together such systems are potentially capable of delivering end-to-end high-speed, low-power and low-resolution recognition for mobile and autonomous applications where slow, highly sophisticated and power hungry signal processing solutions are ineffective. Key aspects in the proposed approach include utilising the spatial properties of physically embedded neural networks and propagating waves of activity therein for information processing, using dimensional collapse of imagery information into amenable temporal patterns and the use of asynchronous frames for information binding.

  2. The ripple pond: enabling spiking networks to see.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Saeed; Cohen, Gregory K; Wang, Runchun M; Van Schaik, André; Tapson, Jonathan; Lehmann, Torsten; Hamilton, Tara J

    2013-01-01

    We present the biologically inspired Ripple Pond Network (RPN), a simply connected spiking neural network which performs a transformation converting two dimensional images to one dimensional temporal patterns (TP) suitable for recognition by temporal coding learning and memory networks. The RPN has been developed as a hardware solution linking previously implemented neuromorphic vision and memory structures such as frameless vision sensors and neuromorphic temporal coding spiking neural networks. Working together such systems are potentially capable of delivering end-to-end high-speed, low-power and low-resolution recognition for mobile and autonomous applications where slow, highly sophisticated and power hungry signal processing solutions are ineffective. Key aspects in the proposed approach include utilizing the spatial properties of physically embedded neural networks and propagating waves of activity therein for information processing, using dimensional collapse of imagery information into amenable TP and the use of asynchronous frames for information binding.

  3. The dynamic relationship between cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spikes and the spikelet number of complex spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Amelia; Wise, Andrew K; Xiao, Jianqiang; Houghton, Conor; Tang, Tianyu; Suh, Colleen Y; Lang, Eric J; Apps, Richard; Cerminara, Nadia L

    2017-01-01

    Purkinje cells are the sole output of the cerebellar cortex and fire two distinct types of action potential: simple spikes and complex spikes. Previous studies have mainly considered complex spikes as unitary events, even though the waveform is composed of varying numbers of spikelets. The extent to which differences in spikelet number affect simple spike activity (and vice versa) remains unclear. We found that complex spikes with greater numbers of spikelets are preceded by higher simple spike firing rates but, following the complex spike, simple spikes are reduced in a manner that is graded with spikelet number. This dynamic interaction has important implications for cerebellar information processing, and suggests that complex spike spikelet number may maintain Purkinje cells within their operational range. Purkinje cells are central to cerebellar function because they form the sole output of the cerebellar cortex. They exhibit two distinct types of action potential: simple spikes and complex spikes. It is widely accepted that interaction between these two types of impulse is central to cerebellar cortical information processing. Previous investigations of the interactions between simple spikes and complex spikes have mainly considered complex spikes as unitary events. However, complex spikes are composed of an initial large spike followed by a number of secondary components, termed spikelets. The number of spikelets within individual complex spikes is highly variable and the extent to which differences in complex spike spikelet number affects simple spike activity (and vice versa) remains poorly understood. In anaesthetized adult rats, we have found that Purkinje cells recorded from the posterior lobe vermis and hemisphere have high simple spike firing frequencies that precede complex spikes with greater numbers of spikelets. This finding was also evident in a small sample of Purkinje cells recorded from the posterior lobe hemisphere in awake cats. In addition

  4. Electric field spikes formed by electron beam endash plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-01-01

    In the electron beam endash plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam endash plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp open-quotes spikeclose quotes with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward traveling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Detection of bursts in neuronal spike trains by the mean inter-spike interval method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chen; Yong Deng; Weihua Luo; Zhen Wang; Shaoqun Zeng

    2009-01-01

    Bursts are electrical spikes firing with a high frequency, which are the most important property in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the central nervous system. However, bursts are difficult to identify because bursting activities or patterns vary with phys-iological conditions or external stimuli. In this paper, a simple method automatically to detect bursts in spike trains is described. This method auto-adaptively sets a parameter (mean inter-spike interval) according to intrinsic properties of the detected burst spike trains, without any arbitrary choices or any operator judgrnent. When the mean value of several successive inter-spike intervals is not larger than the parameter, a burst is identified. By this method, bursts can be automatically extracted from different bursting patterns of cultured neurons on multi-electrode arrays, as accurately as by visual inspection. Furthermore, significant changes of burst variables caused by electrical stimulus have been found in spontaneous activity of neuronal network. These suggest that the mean inter-spike interval method is robust for detecting changes in burst patterns and characteristics induced by environmental alterations.

  6. GABAergic activities control spike timing- and frequency-dependent long-term depression at hippocampal excitatory synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nishiyama

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic interneuronal network activities in the hippocampus control a variety of neural functions, including learning and memory, by regulating θ and γ oscillations. How these GABAergic activities at pre- and post-synaptic sites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells differentially contribute to synaptic function and plasticity during their repetitive pre- and post-synaptic spiking at θ and γ oscillations is largely unknown. We show here that activities mediated by postsynaptic GABAARs and presynaptic GABABRs determine, respectively, the spike timing- and frequency-dependence of activity-induced synaptic modifications at Schaffer collateral-CA1 excitatory synapses. We demonstrate that both feedforward and feedback GABAAR-mediated inhibition in the postsynaptic cell controls the spike timing-dependent long-term depression of excitatory inputs (“e-LTD” at the θ frequency. We also show that feedback postsynaptic inhibition specifically causes e-LTD of inputs that induce small postsynaptic currents (<70 pA with LTP timing, thus enforcing the requirement of cooperativity for induction of long-term potentiation at excitatory inputs (“e-LTP”. Furthermore, under spike-timing protocols that induce e-LTP and e-LTD at excitatory synapses, we observed parallel induction of LTP and LTD at inhibitory inputs (“i-LTP” and “i-LTD” to the same postsynaptic cells. Finally, we show that presynaptic GABABR-mediated inhibition plays a major role in the induction of frequency-dependent e-LTD at α and β frequencies. These observations demonstrate the critical influence of GABAergic interneuronal network activities in regulating the spike timing and frequency dependences of long-term synaptic modifications in the hippocampus.

  7. Brainmapping Neuronal Networks in Children with Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep as revealed by DICS and RPDC

    OpenAIRE

    Dierck, Carina

    2018-01-01

    CSWS is an age-related epileptic encephalopathy consisting of the triad of seizures, neuropsychological impairment and a specific EEG-pattern. This EEG-pattern is characterized by spike-and-wave-discharges emphasized during non-REM sleep. Until now, little has been known about the pathophysiologic processes. So far research approaches on the underlying neuronal network have been based on techniques with a good spatial but poor temporal resolution like fMRI and FDG-PET. In this study the se...

  8. Causal hierarchy within the thalamo-cortical network in spike and wave discharges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Vaudano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Generalised spike wave (GSW discharges are the electroencephalographic (EEG hallmark of absence seizures, clinically characterised by a transitory interruption of ongoing activities and impaired consciousness, occurring during states of reduced awareness. Several theories have been proposed to explain the pathophysiology of GSW discharges and the role of thalamus and cortex as generators. In this work we extend the existing theories by hypothesizing a role for the precuneus, a brain region neglected in previous works on GSW generation but already known to be linked to consciousness and awareness. We analysed fMRI data using dynamic causal modelling (DCM to investigate the effective connectivity between precuneus, thalamus and prefrontal cortex in patients with GSW discharges.We analysed fMRI data from seven patients affected by Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy (IGE with frequent GSW discharges and significant GSW-correlated haemodynamic signal changes in the thalamus, the prefrontal cortex and the precuneus. Using DCM we assessed their effective connectivity, i.e. which region drives another region. Three dynamic causal models were constructed: GSW was modelled as autonomous input to the thalamus (model A, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (model B, and precuneus (model C. Bayesian model comparison revealed Model C (GSW as autonomous input to precuneus, to be the best in 5 patients while model A prevailed in two cases. At the group level model C dominated and at the population-level the p value of model C was approximately 1.Our results provide strong evidence that activity in the precuneus gates GSW discharges in the thalamo-(fronto cortical network. This study is the first demonstration of a causal link between haemodynamic changes in the precuneus -- an index of awareness -- and the occurrence of pathological discharges in epilepsy.

  9. Attention deficit associated with early life interictal spikes in a rat model is improved with ACTH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Hernan

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy often present with pervasive cognitive and behavioral comorbidities including working memory impairments, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and autism spectrum disorder. These non-seizure characteristics are severely detrimental to overall quality of life. Some of these children, particularly those with epilepsies classified as Landau-Kleffner Syndrome or continuous spike and wave during sleep, have infrequent seizure activity but frequent focal epileptiform activity. This frequent epileptiform activity is thought to be detrimental to cognitive development; however, it is also possible that these IIS events initiate pathophysiological pathways in the developing brain that may be independently associated with cognitive deficits. These hypotheses are difficult to address due to the previous lack of an appropriate animal model. To this end, we have recently developed a rat model to test the role of frequent focal epileptiform activity in the prefrontal cortex. Using microinjections of a GABA(A antagonist (bicuculline methiodine delivered multiple times per day from postnatal day (p 21 to p25, we showed that rat pups experiencing frequent, focal, recurrent epileptiform activity in the form of interictal spikes during neurodevelopment have significant long-term deficits in attention and sociability that persist into adulthood. To determine if treatment with ACTH, a drug widely used to treat early-life seizures, altered outcome we administered ACTH once per day subcutaneously during the time of the induced interictal spike activity. We show a modest amelioration of the attention deficit seen in animals with a history of early life interictal spikes with ACTH, in the absence of alteration of interictal spike activity. These results suggest that pharmacological intervention that is not targeted to the interictal spike activity is worthy of future study as it may be beneficial for preventing or ameliorating adverse

  10. Impact of spike train autostructure on probability distribution of joint spike events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipa, Gordon; Grün, Sonja; van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2013-05-01

    The discussion whether temporally coordinated spiking activity really exists and whether it is relevant has been heated over the past few years. To investigate this issue, several approaches have been taken to determine whether synchronized events occur significantly above chance, that is, whether they occur more often than expected if the neurons fire independently. Most investigations ignore or destroy the autostructure of the spiking activity of individual cells or assume Poissonian spiking as a model. Such methods that ignore the autostructure can significantly bias the coincidence statistics. Here, we study the influence of the autostructure on the probability distribution of coincident spiking events between tuples of mutually independent non-Poisson renewal processes. In particular, we consider two types of renewal processes that were suggested as appropriate models of experimental spike trains: a gamma and a log-normal process. For a gamma process, we characterize the shape of the distribution analytically with the Fano factor (FFc). In addition, we perform Monte Carlo estimations to derive the full shape of the distribution and the probability for false positives if a different process type is assumed as was actually present. We also determine how manipulations of such spike trains, here dithering, used for the generation of surrogate data change the distribution of coincident events and influence the significance estimation. We find, first, that the width of the coincidence count distribution and its FFc depend critically and in a nontrivial way on the detailed properties of the structure of the spike trains as characterized by the coefficient of variation CV. Second, the dependence of the FFc on the CV is complex and mostly nonmonotonic. Third, spike dithering, even if as small as a fraction of the interspike interval, can falsify the inference on coordinated firing.

  11. Spike Code Flow in Cultured Neuronal Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinichi; Nishitani, Yoshi; Hosokawa, Chie; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Sawai, Hajime; Kamimura, Takuya; Yagi, Yasushi; Mizuno-Matsumoto, Yuko; Chen, Yen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We observed spike trains produced by one-shot electrical stimulation with 8 × 8 multielectrodes in cultured neuronal networks. Each electrode accepted spikes from several neurons. We extracted the short codes from spike trains and obtained a code spectrum with a nominal time accuracy of 1%. We then constructed code flow maps as movies of the electrode array to observe the code flow of "1101" and "1011," which are typical pseudorandom sequence such as that we often encountered in a literature and our experiments. They seemed to flow from one electrode to the neighboring one and maintained their shape to some extent. To quantify the flow, we calculated the "maximum cross-correlations" among neighboring electrodes, to find the direction of maximum flow of the codes with lengths less than 8. Normalized maximum cross-correlations were almost constant irrespective of code. Furthermore, if the spike trains were shuffled in interval orders or in electrodes, they became significantly small. Thus, the analysis suggested that local codes of approximately constant shape propagated and conveyed information across the network. Hence, the codes can serve as visible and trackable marks of propagating spike waves as well as evaluating information flow in the neuronal network.

  12. The Effects of Context and Attention on Spiking Activity in Human Early Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Matthew W; Peters, Judith C; Possel, Jessy K; Reithler, Joel; Goebel, Rainer; Ris, Peterjan; Jeurissen, Danique; Reddy, Leila; Claus, Steven; Baayen, Johannes C; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2016-03-01

    Here we report the first quantitative analysis of spiking activity in human early visual cortex. We recorded multi-unit activity from two electrodes in area V2/V3 of a human patient implanted with depth electrodes as part of her treatment for epilepsy. We observed well-localized multi-unit receptive fields with tunings for contrast, orientation, spatial frequency, and size, similar to those reported in the macaque. We also observed pronounced gamma oscillations in the local-field potential that could be used to estimate the underlying spiking response properties. Spiking responses were modulated by visual context and attention. We observed orientation-tuned surround suppression: responses were suppressed by image regions with a uniform orientation and enhanced by orientation contrast. Additionally, responses were enhanced on regions that perceptually segregated from the background, indicating that neurons in the human visual cortex are sensitive to figure-ground structure. Spiking responses were also modulated by object-based attention. When the patient mentally traced a curve through the neurons' receptive fields, the accompanying shift of attention enhanced neuronal activity. These results demonstrate that the tuning properties of cells in the human early visual cortex are similar to those in the macaque and that responses can be modulated by both contextual factors and behavioral relevance. Our results, therefore, imply that the macaque visual system is an excellent model for the human visual cortex.

  13. The Effects of Context and Attention on Spiking Activity in Human Early Visual Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Self

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the first quantitative analysis of spiking activity in human early visual cortex. We recorded multi-unit activity from two electrodes in area V2/V3 of a human patient implanted with depth electrodes as part of her treatment for epilepsy. We observed well-localized multi-unit receptive fields with tunings for contrast, orientation, spatial frequency, and size, similar to those reported in the macaque. We also observed pronounced gamma oscillations in the local-field potential that could be used to estimate the underlying spiking response properties. Spiking responses were modulated by visual context and attention. We observed orientation-tuned surround suppression: responses were suppressed by image regions with a uniform orientation and enhanced by orientation contrast. Additionally, responses were enhanced on regions that perceptually segregated from the background, indicating that neurons in the human visual cortex are sensitive to figure-ground structure. Spiking responses were also modulated by object-based attention. When the patient mentally traced a curve through the neurons' receptive fields, the accompanying shift of attention enhanced neuronal activity. These results demonstrate that the tuning properties of cells in the human early visual cortex are similar to those in the macaque and that responses can be modulated by both contextual factors and behavioral relevance. Our results, therefore, imply that the macaque visual system is an excellent model for the human visual cortex.

  14. Motor control by precisely timed spike patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srivastava, Kyle H; Holmes, Caroline M; Vellema, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    whether the information in spike timing actually plays a role in brain function. By examining the activity of individual motor units (the muscle fibers innervated by a single motor neuron) and manipulating patterns of activation of these neurons, we provide both correlative and causal evidence......A fundamental problem in neuroscience is understanding how sequences of action potentials ("spikes") encode information about sensory signals and motor outputs. Although traditional theories assume that this information is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a specified time...... interval (spike rate), recent studies have shown that additional information is carried by the millisecond-scale timing patterns of action potentials (spike timing). However, it is unknown whether or how subtle differences in spike timing drive differences in perception or behavior, leaving it unclear...

  15. Stress-Induced Impairment of a Working Memory Task: Role of Spiking Rate and Spiking History Predicted Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devilbiss, David M.; Jenison, Rick L.; Berridge, Craig W.

    2012-01-01

    Stress, pervasive in society, contributes to over half of all work place accidents a year and over time can contribute to a variety of psychiatric disorders including depression, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Stress impairs higher cognitive processes, dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and that involve maintenance and integration of information over extended periods, including working memory and attention. Substantial evidence has demonstrated a relationship between patterns of PFC neuron spiking activity (action-potential discharge) and components of delayed-response tasks used to probe PFC-dependent cognitive function in rats and monkeys. During delay periods of these tasks, persistent spiking activity is posited to be essential for the maintenance of information for working memory and attention. However, the degree to which stress-induced impairment in PFC-dependent cognition involves changes in task-related spiking rates or the ability for PFC neurons to retain information over time remains unknown. In the current study, spiking activity was recorded from the medial PFC of rats performing a delayed-response task of working memory during acute noise stress (93 db). Spike history-predicted discharge (SHPD) for PFC neurons was quantified as a measure of the degree to which ongoing neuronal discharge can be predicted by past spiking activity and reflects the degree to which past information is retained by these neurons over time. We found that PFC neuron discharge is predicted by their past spiking patterns for nearly one second. Acute stress impaired SHPD, selectively during delay intervals of the task, and simultaneously impaired task performance. Despite the reduction in delay-related SHPD, stress increased delay-related spiking rates. These findings suggest that neural codes utilizing SHPD within PFC networks likely reflects an additional important neurophysiological mechanism for maintenance of past information over time. Stress

  16. Weak annihilation cusp inside the dark matter spike about a black hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Stuart L; Shelton, Jessie

    2016-06-15

    We reinvestigate the effect of annihilations on the distribution of collisionless dark matter (DM) in a spherical density spike around a massive black hole. We first construct a very simple, pedagogic, analytic model for an isotropic phase space distribution function that accounts for annihilation and reproduces the "weak cusp" found by Vasiliev for DM deep within the spike and away from its boundaries. The DM density in the cusp varies as r -1/2 for s -wave annihilation, where r is the distance from the central black hole, and is not a flat "plateau" profile. We then extend this model by incorporating a loss cone that accounts for the capture of DM particles by the hole. The loss cone is implemented by a boundary condition that removes capture orbits, resulting in an anisotropic distribution function. Finally, we evolve an initial spike distribution function by integrating the Boltzmann equation to show how the weak cusp grows and its density decreases with time. We treat two cases, one for s -wave and the other for p -wave DM annihilation, adopting parameters characteristic of the Milky Way nuclear core and typical WIMP models for DM. The cusp density profile for p -wave annihilation is weaker, varying like ~ r -0.34 , but is still not a flat plateau.

  17. Spike Code Flow in Cultured Neuronal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Tamura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed spike trains produced by one-shot electrical stimulation with 8 × 8 multielectrodes in cultured neuronal networks. Each electrode accepted spikes from several neurons. We extracted the short codes from spike trains and obtained a code spectrum with a nominal time accuracy of 1%. We then constructed code flow maps as movies of the electrode array to observe the code flow of “1101” and “1011,” which are typical pseudorandom sequence such as that we often encountered in a literature and our experiments. They seemed to flow from one electrode to the neighboring one and maintained their shape to some extent. To quantify the flow, we calculated the “maximum cross-correlations” among neighboring electrodes, to find the direction of maximum flow of the codes with lengths less than 8. Normalized maximum cross-correlations were almost constant irrespective of code. Furthermore, if the spike trains were shuffled in interval orders or in electrodes, they became significantly small. Thus, the analysis suggested that local codes of approximately constant shape propagated and conveyed information across the network. Hence, the codes can serve as visible and trackable marks of propagating spike waves as well as evaluating information flow in the neuronal network.

  18. An Unsupervised Online Spike-Sorting Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knieling, Simeon; Sridharan, Kousik S; Belardinelli, Paolo; Naros, Georgios; Weiss, Daniel; Mormann, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular neuronal microelectrode recordings can include action potentials from multiple neurons. To separate spikes from different neurons, they can be sorted according to their shape, a procedure referred to as spike-sorting. Several algorithms have been reported to solve this task. However, when clustering outcomes are unsatisfactory, most of them are difficult to adjust to achieve the desired results. We present an online spike-sorting framework that uses feature normalization and weighting to maximize the distinctiveness between different spike shapes. Furthermore, multiple criteria are applied to either facilitate or prevent cluster fusion, thereby enabling experimenters to fine-tune the sorting process. We compare our method to established unsupervised offline (Wave_Clus (WC)) and online (OSort (OS)) algorithms by examining their performance in sorting various test datasets using two different scoring systems (AMI and the Adamos metric). Furthermore, we evaluate sorting capabilities on intra-operative recordings using established quality metrics. Compared to WC and OS, our algorithm achieved comparable or higher scores on average and produced more convincing sorting results for intra-operative datasets. Thus, the presented framework is suitable for both online and offline analysis and could substantially improve the quality of microelectrode-based data evaluation for research and clinical application.

  19. Dopamine D4 receptor activation increases hippocampal gamma oscillations by enhancing synchronization of fast-spiking interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Andersson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gamma oscillations are electric activity patterns of the mammalian brain hypothesized to serve attention, sensory perception, working memory and memory encoding. They are disrupted or altered in schizophrenic patients with associated cognitive deficits, which persist in spite of treatment with antipsychotics. Because cognitive symptoms are a core feature of schizophrenia it is relevant to explore signaling pathways that potentially regulate gamma oscillations. Dopamine has been reported to decrease gamma oscillation power via D1-like receptors. Based on the expression pattern of D4 receptors (D4R in hippocampus, and pharmacological effects of D4R ligands in animals, we hypothesize that they are in a position to regulate gamma oscillations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address this hypothesis we use rat hippocampal slices and kainate-induced gamma oscillations. Local field potential recordings as well as intracellular recordings of pyramidal cells, fast-spiking and non-fast-spiking interneurons were carried out. We show that D4R activation with the selective ligand PD168077 increases gamma oscillation power, which can be blocked by the D4R-specific antagonist L745,870 as well as by the antipsychotic drug Clozapine. Pyramidal cells did not exhibit changes in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic current amplitudes, but inhibitory currents became more coherent with the oscillations after application of PD168077. Fast-spiking, but not non-fast spiking, interneurons, increase their action potential phase-coupling and coherence with regard to ongoing gamma oscillations in response to D4R activation. Among several possible mechanisms we found that the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 also blocks the D4R mediated increase in gamma oscillation power. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that D4R activation affects fast-spiking interneuron synchronization and thereby increases gamma power by an NMDA receptor-dependent mechanism. This

  20. Spontaneous calcium waves in granule cells in cerebellar slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apuschkin, Mia; Ougaard, Maria; Rekling, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    Multiple regions in the CNS display propagating correlated activity during embryonic and postnatal development. This activity can be recorded as waves of increased calcium concentrations in spiking neurons or glia cells, and have been suggested to be involved in patterning, axonal guidance and es......, that the propagating wave activity is carried through the tissue by axonal collaterals formed by neighboring granule cells, and further suggest that the correlated activity may be related to processes that ensure correct postnatal wiring of the cerebellar circuits....

  1. Characterizing neural activities evoked by manual acupuncture through spiking irregularity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Ming; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le; Yu Hai-Tao; Chen Ying-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The neural system characterizes information in external stimulations by different spiking patterns. In order to examine how neural spiking patterns are related to acupuncture manipulations, experiments are designed in such a way that different types of manual acupuncture (MA) manipulations are taken at the ‘Zusanli’ point of experimental rats, and the induced electrical signals in the spinal dorsal root ganglion are detected and recorded. The interspike interval (ISI) statistical histogram is fitted by the gamma distribution, which has two parameters: one is the time-dependent firing rate and the other is a shape parameter characterizing the spiking irregularities. The shape parameter is the measure of spiking irregularities and can be used to identify the type of MA manipulations. The coefficient of variation is mostly used to measure the spike time irregularity, but it overestimates the irregularity in the case of pronounced firing rate changes. However, experiments show that each acupuncture manipulation will lead to changes in the firing rate. So we combine four relatively rate-independent measures to study the irregularity of spike trains evoked by different types of MA manipulations. Results suggest that the MA manipulations possess unique spiking statistics and characteristics and can be distinguished according to the spiking irregularity measures. These studies have offered new insights into the coding processes and information transfer of acupuncture. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  2. Elucidating the role of AII amacrine cells in glutamatergic retinal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firl, Alana; Ke, Jiang-Bin; Zhang, Lei; Fuerst, Peter G; Singer, Joshua H; Feller, Marla B

    2015-01-28

    Spontaneous retinal activity mediated by glutamatergic neurotransmission-so-called "Stage 3" retinal waves-drives anti-correlated spiking in ON and OFF RGCs during the second week of postnatal development of the mouse. In the mature retina, the activity of a retinal interneuron called the AII amacrine cell is responsible for anti-correlated spiking in ON and OFF α-RGCs. In mature AIIs, membrane hyperpolarization elicits bursting behavior. Here, we postulated that bursting in AIIs underlies the initiation of glutamatergic retinal waves. We tested this hypothesis by using two-photon calcium imaging of spontaneous activity in populations of retinal neurons and by making whole-cell recordings from individual AIIs and α-RGCs in in vitro preparations of mouse retina. We found that AIIs participated in retinal waves, and that their activity was correlated with that of ON α-RGCs and anti-correlated with that of OFF α-RGCs. Though immature AIIs lacked the complement of membrane conductances necessary to generate bursting, pharmacological activation of the M-current, a conductance that modulates bursting in mature AIIs, blocked retinal wave generation. Interestingly, blockade of the pacemaker conductance Ih, a conductance absent in AIIs but present in both ON and OFF cone bipolar cells, caused a dramatic loss of spatial coherence of spontaneous activity. We conclude that during glutamatergic waves, AIIs act to coordinate and propagate activity generated by BCs rather than to initiate spontaneous activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351675-12$15.00/0.

  3. Spiking and bursting patterns of fractional-order Izhikevich model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Wondimu W.; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Mondal, Argha

    2018-03-01

    Bursting and spiking oscillations play major roles in processing and transmitting information in the brain through cortical neurons that respond differently to the same signal. These oscillations display complex dynamics that might be produced by using neuronal models and varying many model parameters. Recent studies have shown that models with fractional order can produce several types of history-dependent neuronal activities without the adjustment of several parameters. We studied the fractional-order Izhikevich model and analyzed different kinds of oscillations that emerge from the fractional dynamics. The model produces a wide range of neuronal spike responses, including regular spiking, fast spiking, intrinsic bursting, mixed mode oscillations, regular bursting and chattering, by adjusting only the fractional order. Both the active and silent phase of the burst increase when the fractional-order model further deviates from the classical model. For smaller fractional order, the model produces memory dependent spiking activity after the pulse signal turned off. This special spiking activity and other properties of the fractional-order model are caused by the memory trace that emerges from the fractional-order dynamics and integrates all the past activities of the neuron. On the network level, the response of the neuronal network shifts from random to scale-free spiking. Our results suggest that the complex dynamics of spiking and bursting can be the result of the long-term dependence and interaction of intracellular and extracellular ionic currents.

  4. Disrupted hippocampal sharp‐wave ripple‐associated spike dynamics in a transgenic mouse model of dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witton, Jonathan; Staniaszek, Lydia E.; Bartsch, Ullrich; Randall, Andrew D.; Jones, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Key points High frequency (100–250 Hz) neuronal oscillations in the hippocampus, known as sharp‐wave ripples (SWRs), synchronise the firing behaviour of groups of neurons and play a key role in memory consolidation.Learning and memory are severely compromised in dementias such as Alzheimer's disease; however, the effects of dementia‐related pathology on SWRs are unknown.The frequency and temporal structure of SWRs was disrupted in a transgenic mouse model of tauopathy (one of the major hallmarks of several dementias).Excitatory pyramidal neurons were more likely to fire action potentials in a phase‐locked manner during SWRs in the mouse model of tauopathy; conversely, inhibitory interneurons were less likely to fire phase‐locked spikes during SWRs.These findings indicate there is reduced inhibitory control of hippocampal network events and point to a novel mechanism which may underlie the cognitive impairments in this model of dementia. Abstract Neurons within the CA1 region of the hippocampus are co‐activated during high frequency (100–250 Hz) sharp‐wave ripple (SWR) activity in a manner that probably drives synaptic plasticity and promotes memory consolidation. In this study we have used a transgenic mouse model of dementia (rTg4510 mice), which overexpresses a mutant form of tau protein, to examine the effects of tauopathy on hippocampal SWRs and associated neuronal firing. Tetrodes were used to record simultaneous extracellular action potentials and local field potentials from the dorsal CA1 pyramidal cell layer of 7‐ to 8‐month‐old wild‐type and rTg4510 mice at rest in their home cage. At this age point these mice exhibit neurofibrillary tangles, neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits. Epochs of sleep or quiet restfulness were characterised by minimal locomotor activity and a low theta/delta ratio in the local field potential power spectrum. SWRs detected off‐line were significantly lower in amplitude and had an altered temporal

  5. SuperSpike: Supervised Learning in Multilayer Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenke, Friedemann; Ganguli, Surya

    2018-04-13

    A vast majority of computation in the brain is performed by spiking neural networks. Despite the ubiquity of such spiking, we currently lack an understanding of how biological spiking neural circuits learn and compute in vivo, as well as how we can instantiate such capabilities in artificial spiking circuits in silico. Here we revisit the problem of supervised learning in temporally coding multilayer spiking neural networks. First, by using a surrogate gradient approach, we derive SuperSpike, a nonlinear voltage-based three-factor learning rule capable of training multilayer networks of deterministic integrate-and-fire neurons to perform nonlinear computations on spatiotemporal spike patterns. Second, inspired by recent results on feedback alignment, we compare the performance of our learning rule under different credit assignment strategies for propagating output errors to hidden units. Specifically, we test uniform, symmetric, and random feedback, finding that simpler tasks can be solved with any type of feedback, while more complex tasks require symmetric feedback. In summary, our results open the door to obtaining a better scientific understanding of learning and computation in spiking neural networks by advancing our ability to train them to solve nonlinear problems involving transformations between different spatiotemporal spike time patterns.

  6. Synchronous spikes are necessary but not sufficient for a synchrony code in populations of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Jan; Kruscha, Alexandra; Lindner, Benjamin; Benda, Jan

    2017-03-07

    Synchronous activity in populations of neurons potentially encodes special stimulus features. Selective readout of either synchronous or asynchronous activity allows formation of two streams of information processing. Theoretical work predicts that such a synchrony code is a fundamental feature of populations of spiking neurons if they operate in specific noise and stimulus regimes. Here we experimentally test the theoretical predictions by quantifying and comparing neuronal response properties in tuberous and ampullary electroreceptor afferents of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus These related systems show similar levels of synchronous activity, but only in the more irregularly firing tuberous afferents a synchrony code is established, whereas in the more regularly firing ampullary afferents it is not. The mere existence of synchronous activity is thus not sufficient for a synchrony code. Single-cell features such as the irregularity of spiking and the frequency dependence of the neuron's transfer function determine whether synchronous spikes possess a distinct meaning for the encoding of time-dependent signals.

  7. Electroencephalographic precursors of spike-wave discharges in a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy: Power spectrum and coherence EEG analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikova, Evgenia; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2009-04-01

    Periods in the electroencephalogram (EEG) that immediately precede the onset of spontaneous spike-wave discharges (SWD) were examined in WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. Precursors of SWD (preSWD) were classified based on the distribution of EEG power in delta-theta-alpha frequency bands as measured in the frontal cortex. In 95% of preSWD, an elevation of EEG power was detected in delta band (1-4Hz). 73% of preSWD showed high power in theta frequencies (4.5-8Hz); these preSWD might correspond to 5-9Hz oscillations that were found in GAERS before SWD onset [Pinault, D., Vergnes, M., Marescaux, C., 2001. Medium-voltage 5-9Hz oscillations give rise to spike-and-wave discharges in a genetic model of absence epilepsy: in vivo dual extracellular recording of thalamic relay and reticular neurons. Neuroscience 105, 181-201], however, theta component of preSWD in our WAG/Rij rats was not shaped into a single rhythm. It is concluded that a coalescence of delta and theta in the cortex is favorable for the occurrence of SWD. The onset of SWD was associated with strengthening of intracortical and thalamo-cortical coherence in 9.5-14Hz and in double beta frequencies. No features of EEG coherence can be considered as unique for any of preSWD subtype. Reticular and ventroposteromedial thalamic nuclei were strongly coupled even before the onset of SWD. All this suggests that SWD derive from an intermixed delta-theta EEG background; seizure onset associates with reinforcement of intracortical and cortico-thalamic associations.

  8. A Simple Deep Learning Method for Neuronal Spike Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Wu, Haifeng; Zeng, Yu

    2017-10-01

    Spike sorting is one of key technique to understand brain activity. With the development of modern electrophysiology technology, some recent multi-electrode technologies have been able to record the activity of thousands of neuronal spikes simultaneously. The spike sorting in this case will increase the computational complexity of conventional sorting algorithms. In this paper, we will focus spike sorting on how to reduce the complexity, and introduce a deep learning algorithm, principal component analysis network (PCANet) to spike sorting. The introduced method starts from a conventional model and establish a Toeplitz matrix. Through the column vectors in the matrix, we trains a PCANet, where some eigenvalue vectors of spikes could be extracted. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) is used to sort spikes. In experiments, we choose two groups of simulated data from public databases availably and compare this introduced method with conventional methods. The results indicate that the introduced method indeed has lower complexity with the same sorting errors as the conventional methods.

  9. A reanalysis of "Two types of asynchronous activity in networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelken, Rainer; Farkhooi, Farzad; Hansel, David; van Vreeswijk, Carl; Wolf, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal activity in the central nervous system varies strongly in time and across neuronal populations. It is a longstanding proposal that such fluctuations generically arise from chaotic network dynamics. Various theoretical studies predict that the rich dynamics of rate models operating in the chaotic regime can subserve circuit computation and learning. Neurons in the brain, however, communicate via spikes and it is a theoretical challenge to obtain similar rate fluctuations in networks of spiking neuron models. A recent study investigated spiking balanced networks of leaky integrate and fire (LIF) neurons and compared their dynamics to a matched rate network with identical topology, where single unit input-output functions were chosen from isolated LIF neurons receiving Gaussian white noise input. A mathematical analogy between the chaotic instability in networks of rate units and the spiking network dynamics was proposed. Here we revisit the behavior of the spiking LIF networks and these matched rate networks. We find expected hallmarks of a chaotic instability in the rate network: For supercritical coupling strength near the transition point, the autocorrelation time diverges. For subcritical coupling strengths, we observe critical slowing down in response to small external perturbations. In the spiking network, we found in contrast that the timescale of the autocorrelations is insensitive to the coupling strength and that rate deviations resulting from small input perturbations rapidly decay. The decay speed even accelerates for increasing coupling strength. In conclusion, our reanalysis demonstrates fundamental differences between the behavior of pulse-coupled spiking LIF networks and rate networks with matched topology and input-output function. In particular there is no indication of a corresponding chaotic instability in the spiking network.

  10. The Effects of Context and Attention on Spiking Activity in Human Early Visual Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W.; Peters, Judith C.; Possel, Jessy K.; Reithler, Joel; Goebel, Rainer; Ris, Peterjan; Jeurissen, Danique; Reddy, Leila; Claus, Steven; Baayen, Johannes C.; Roelfsema, Pieter R.

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the first quantitative analysis of spiking activity in human early visual cortex. We recorded multi-unit activity from two electrodes in area V2/V3 of a human patient implanted with depth electrodes as part of her treatment for epilepsy. We observed well-localized multi-unit receptive

  11. The Effects of Context and Attention on Spiking Activity in Human Early Visual Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Self, Matthew W; Peters, Judith C; Possel, Jessy K; Reithler, Joel; Goebel, Rainer; Ris, Peterjan; Jeurissen, Danique; Reddy, Leila; Claus, Steven; Baayen, Johannes C; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    Here we report the first quantitative analysis of spiking activity in human early visual cortex. We recorded multi-unit activity from two electrodes in area V2/V3 of a human patient implanted with depth electrodes as part of her treatment for epilepsy. We observed well-localized multi-unit receptive

  12. Spiking neural network for recognizing spatiotemporal sequences of spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Dezhe Z.

    2004-01-01

    Sensory neurons in many brain areas spike with precise timing to stimuli with temporal structures, and encode temporally complex stimuli into spatiotemporal spikes. How the downstream neurons read out such neural code is an important unsolved problem. In this paper, we describe a decoding scheme using a spiking recurrent neural network. The network consists of excitatory neurons that form a synfire chain, and two globally inhibitory interneurons of different types that provide delayed feedforward and fast feedback inhibition, respectively. The network signals recognition of a specific spatiotemporal sequence when the last excitatory neuron down the synfire chain spikes, which happens if and only if that sequence was present in the input spike stream. The recognition scheme is invariant to variations in the intervals between input spikes within some range. The computation of the network can be mapped into that of a finite state machine. Our network provides a simple way to decode spatiotemporal spikes with diverse types of neurons

  13. Predictive features of persistent activity emergence in regular spiking and intrinsic bursting model neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Sidiropoulou

    Full Text Available Proper functioning of working memory involves the expression of stimulus-selective persistent activity in pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, which refers to neural activity that persists for seconds beyond the end of the stimulus. The mechanisms which PFC pyramidal neurons use to discriminate between preferred vs. neutral inputs at the cellular level are largely unknown. Moreover, the presence of pyramidal cell subtypes with different firing patterns, such as regular spiking and intrinsic bursting, raises the question as to what their distinct role might be in persistent firing in the PFC. Here, we use a compartmental modeling approach to search for discriminatory features in the properties of incoming stimuli to a PFC pyramidal neuron and/or its response that signal which of these stimuli will result in persistent activity emergence. Furthermore, we use our modeling approach to study cell-type specific differences in persistent activity properties, via implementing a regular spiking (RS and an intrinsic bursting (IB model neuron. We identify synaptic location within the basal dendrites as a feature of stimulus selectivity. Specifically, persistent activity-inducing stimuli consist of activated synapses that are located more distally from the soma compared to non-inducing stimuli, in both model cells. In addition, the action potential (AP latency and the first few inter-spike-intervals of the neuronal response can be used to reliably detect inducing vs. non-inducing inputs, suggesting a potential mechanism by which downstream neurons can rapidly decode the upcoming emergence of persistent activity. While the two model neurons did not differ in the coding features of persistent activity emergence, the properties of persistent activity, such as the firing pattern and the duration of temporally-restricted persistent activity were distinct. Collectively, our results pinpoint to specific features of the neuronal response to a given

  14. Extraction and characterization of essential discharge patterns from multisite recordings of spiking ongoing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    Full Text Available Neural activation patterns proceed often by schemes or motifs distributed across the involved cortical networks. As neurons are correlated, the estimate of all possible dependencies quickly goes out of control. The complex nesting of different oscillation frequencies and their high non-stationariety further hamper any quantitative evaluation of spiking network activities. The problem is exacerbated by the intrinsic variability of neural patterns.Our technique introduces two important novelties and enables to insulate essential patterns on larger sets of spiking neurons and brain activity regimes. First, the sampling procedure over N units is based on a fixed spike number k in order to detect N-dimensional arrays (k-sequences, whose sum over all dimension is k. Then k-sequences variability is greatly reduced by a hierarchical separative clustering, that assigns large amounts of distinct k-sequences to few classes. Iterative separations are stopped when the dimension of each cluster comes to be smaller than a certain threshold. As threshold tuning critically impacts on the number of classes extracted, we developed an effective cost criterion to select the shortest possible description of our dataset. Finally we described three indexes (C,S,R to evaluate the average pattern complexity, the structure of essential classes and their stability in time.We validated this algorithm with four kinds of surrogated activity, ranging from random to very regular patterned. Then we characterized a selection of ongoing activity recordings. By the S index we identified unstable, moderatly and strongly stable patterns while by the C and the R indices we evidenced their non-random structure. Our algorithm seems able to extract interesting and non-trivial spatial dynamics from multisource neuronal recordings of ongoing and potentially stimulated activity. Combined with time-frequency analysis of LFPs could provide a powerful multiscale approach linking population

  15. iSpike: a spiking neural interface for the iCub robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamez, D; Fidjeland, A K; Lazdins, E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents iSpike: a C++ library that interfaces between spiking neural network simulators and the iCub humanoid robot. It uses a biologically inspired approach to convert the robot’s sensory information into spikes that are passed to the neural network simulator, and it decodes output spikes from the network into motor signals that are sent to control the robot. Applications of iSpike range from embodied models of the brain to the development of intelligent robots using biologically inspired spiking neural networks. iSpike is an open source library that is available for free download under the terms of the GPL. (paper)

  16. Effects of Spike Anticipation on the Spiking Dynamics of Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ede Santos-Sierra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization is one of the central phenomena involved in information processing in living systems. It is known that the nervous system requires the coordinated activity of both local and distant neural populations. Such an interplay allows to merge different information modalities in a whole processing supporting high-level mental skills as understanding, memory, abstraction, etc. Though the biological processes underlying synchronization in the brain are not fully understood there have been reported a variety of mechanisms supporting different types of synchronization both at theoretical and experimental level. One of the more intriguing of these phenomena is the anticipating synchronization, which has been recently reported in a pair of unidirectionally coupled artificial neurons under simple conditions cite{Pyragas}, where the slave neuron is able to anticipate in time the behaviour of the master one. In this paper we explore the effect of spike anticipation over the information processing performed by a neural network at functional and structural level. We show that the introduction of intermediary neurons in the network enhances spike anticipation and analyse how these variations in spike anticipation can significantly change the firing regime of the neural network according to its functional and structural properties. In addition we show that the interspike interval (ISI, one of the main features of the neural response associated to the information coding, can be closely related to spike anticipation by each spike, and how synaptic plasticity can be modulated through that relationship. This study has been performed through numerical simulation of a coupled system of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons.

  17. Effects of Spike Anticipation on the Spiking Dynamics of Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos-Sierra, Daniel; Sanchez-Jimenez, Abel; Garcia-Vellisca, Mariano A; Navas, Adrian; Villacorta-Atienza, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Synchronization is one of the central phenomena involved in information processing in living systems. It is known that the nervous system requires the coordinated activity of both local and distant neural populations. Such an interplay allows to merge different information modalities in a whole processing supporting high-level mental skills as understanding, memory, abstraction, etc. Though, the biological processes underlying synchronization in the brain are not fully understood there have been reported a variety of mechanisms supporting different types of synchronization both at theoretical and experimental level. One of the more intriguing of these phenomena is the anticipating synchronization, which has been recently reported in a pair of unidirectionally coupled artificial neurons under simple conditions (Pyragiene and Pyragas, 2013), where the slave neuron is able to anticipate in time the behavior of the master one. In this paper, we explore the effect of spike anticipation over the information processing performed by a neural network at functional and structural level. We show that the introduction of intermediary neurons in the network enhances spike anticipation and analyse how these variations in spike anticipation can significantly change the firing regime of the neural network according to its functional and structural properties. In addition we show that the interspike interval (ISI), one of the main features of the neural response associated with the information coding, can be closely related to spike anticipation by each spike, and how synaptic plasticity can be modulated through that relationship. This study has been performed through numerical simulation of a coupled system of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons.

  18. Multineuronal Spike Sequences Repeat with Millisecond Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koki eMatsumoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical microcircuits are nonrandomly wired by neurons. As a natural consequence, spikes emitted by microcircuits are also nonrandomly patterned in time and space. One of the prominent spike organizations is a repetition of fixed patterns of spike series across multiple neurons. However, several questions remain unsolved, including how precisely spike sequences repeat, how the sequences are spatially organized, how many neurons participate in sequences, and how different sequences are functionally linked. To address these questions, we monitored spontaneous spikes of hippocampal CA3 neurons ex vivo using a high-speed functional multineuron calcium imaging technique that allowed us to monitor spikes with millisecond resolution and to record the location of spiking and nonspiking neurons. Multineuronal spike sequences were overrepresented in spontaneous activity compared to the statistical chance level. Approximately 75% of neurons participated in at least one sequence during our observation period. The participants were sparsely dispersed and did not show specific spatial organization. The number of sequences relative to the chance level decreased when larger time frames were used to detect sequences. Thus, sequences were precise at the millisecond level. Sequences often shared common spikes with other sequences; parts of sequences were subsequently relayed by following sequences, generating complex chains of multiple sequences.

  19. Learning Universal Computations with Spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmeier, Dominik; Uhlmann, Marvin; Kappen, Hilbert J.; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin

    2016-01-01

    Providing the neurobiological basis of information processing in higher animals, spiking neural networks must be able to learn a variety of complicated computations, including the generation of appropriate, possibly delayed reactions to inputs and the self-sustained generation of complex activity patterns, e.g. for locomotion. Many such computations require previous building of intrinsic world models. Here we show how spiking neural networks may solve these different tasks. Firstly, we derive constraints under which classes of spiking neural networks lend themselves to substrates of powerful general purpose computing. The networks contain dendritic or synaptic nonlinearities and have a constrained connectivity. We then combine such networks with learning rules for outputs or recurrent connections. We show that this allows to learn even difficult benchmark tasks such as the self-sustained generation of desired low-dimensional chaotic dynamics or memory-dependent computations. Furthermore, we show how spiking networks can build models of external world systems and use the acquired knowledge to control them. PMID:27309381

  20. Relationship between focal penicillin spikes and cortical spindles in the cerveau isolé cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, R S; Kaibara, M; Girvin, J P

    1983-01-01

    Using the unanesthetized, cerveau isolé preparation in the cat, the association between artificially induced penicillin (PCN) spikes and spontaneously occurring electrocorticographic (ECoG) spindles was investigated. Spikes were elicited by surface application of small pledgets of PCN. After the application of PCN, there was a decrease in spindle amplitude but no change in frequency, duration, or spindle wave frequency in the area of the focus. Examination of the times of occurrence of the spikes and spindles disclosed that in the majority of cases, within a few minutes of the initiation of the foci, there was very high simultaneity, usually 100% between the occurrences of these two events. Examination of the times of occurrence of the spikes within the ECoG spindles failed to disclose any compelling evidence which would favor either the hypothesis that spikes "trigger" spindles or the hypothesis that spindles predispose to focal spikes. Thus, whether spikes trigger spindles, or spikes simply occur in a nonspecific manner during the occurrence of the spindle, or whether it is a combination of both these explanations, must remain an open question on the basis of the data available.

  1. Learning of Precise Spike Times with Homeostatic Membrane Potential Dependent Synaptic Plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Albers

    Full Text Available Precise spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal action potentials underly e.g. sensory representations and control of muscle activities. However, it is not known how the synaptic efficacies in the neuronal networks of the brain adapt such that they can reliably generate spikes at specific points in time. Existing activity-dependent plasticity rules like Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are agnostic to the goal of learning spike times. On the other hand, the existing formal and supervised learning algorithms perform a temporally precise comparison of projected activity with the target, but there is no known biologically plausible implementation of this comparison. Here, we propose a simple and local unsupervised synaptic plasticity mechanism that is derived from the requirement of a balanced membrane potential. Since the relevant signal for synaptic change is the postsynaptic voltage rather than spike times, we call the plasticity rule Membrane Potential Dependent Plasticity (MPDP. Combining our plasticity mechanism with spike after-hyperpolarization causes a sensitivity of synaptic change to pre- and postsynaptic spike times which can reproduce Hebbian spike timing dependent plasticity for inhibitory synapses as was found in experiments. In addition, the sensitivity of MPDP to the time course of the voltage when generating a spike allows MPDP to distinguish between weak (spurious and strong (teacher spikes, which therefore provides a neuronal basis for the comparison of actual and target activity. For spatio-temporal input spike patterns our conceptually simple plasticity rule achieves a surprisingly high storage capacity for spike associations. The sensitivity of the MPDP to the subthreshold membrane potential during training allows robust memory retrieval after learning even in the presence of activity corrupted by noise. We propose that MPDP represents a biophysically plausible mechanism to learn temporal target activity patterns.

  2. Learning of Precise Spike Times with Homeostatic Membrane Potential Dependent Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Christian; Westkott, Maren; Pawelzik, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Precise spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal action potentials underly e.g. sensory representations and control of muscle activities. However, it is not known how the synaptic efficacies in the neuronal networks of the brain adapt such that they can reliably generate spikes at specific points in time. Existing activity-dependent plasticity rules like Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are agnostic to the goal of learning spike times. On the other hand, the existing formal and supervised learning algorithms perform a temporally precise comparison of projected activity with the target, but there is no known biologically plausible implementation of this comparison. Here, we propose a simple and local unsupervised synaptic plasticity mechanism that is derived from the requirement of a balanced membrane potential. Since the relevant signal for synaptic change is the postsynaptic voltage rather than spike times, we call the plasticity rule Membrane Potential Dependent Plasticity (MPDP). Combining our plasticity mechanism with spike after-hyperpolarization causes a sensitivity of synaptic change to pre- and postsynaptic spike times which can reproduce Hebbian spike timing dependent plasticity for inhibitory synapses as was found in experiments. In addition, the sensitivity of MPDP to the time course of the voltage when generating a spike allows MPDP to distinguish between weak (spurious) and strong (teacher) spikes, which therefore provides a neuronal basis for the comparison of actual and target activity. For spatio-temporal input spike patterns our conceptually simple plasticity rule achieves a surprisingly high storage capacity for spike associations. The sensitivity of the MPDP to the subthreshold membrane potential during training allows robust memory retrieval after learning even in the presence of activity corrupted by noise. We propose that MPDP represents a biophysically plausible mechanism to learn temporal target activity patterns.

  3. Treatment characteristics of various sediment components spiked with 2-chlorobiphenyl using reactive activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeok

    2018-04-05

    Previously, the concept of reactive activated carbon (RAC), where the porous structure of activated carbon (AC) is impregnated with palladized zerovalent iron, has been proposed to be effective to adsorb and dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To explain the low dechlorination of PCBs bound to actual aquatic sediments under remediation with RAC, this study investigated the role of various solid organic and inorganic sediment components in adsorbing and desorbing PCBs. Detailed fate and transport mechanism of 2-chlorinated biphenyl (2-ClBP) spiked to sediment components, including kaolin, montmorillonite (MMT), coal, graphite, AC, and their mixture, was revealed. Adsorption and holding capability of sediment components toward 2-ClBP strongly influenced amount of spiked 2-ClBP, amount of desorbed 2-ClBP, overall dechlorination of 2-ClBP to biphenyl (BP), and eventual partitioning of 2-ClBP and BP to water, sediment component, and RAC. Order of the amount of spiked 2-ClBP to sediment components after drying, following AC > mixture > coal > graphite > kaolin > MMT, was in agreements (in opposite direction) with order of the amount of desorbed 2-ClBP and order of overall 2-ClBP dechlorination. Substantial role of organic components in aquatic sediments for holding 2-ClBP and thus preventing it from dechlorination on RAC was proven. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spike-based population coding and working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Boerlin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Compelling behavioral evidence suggests that humans can make optimal decisions despite the uncertainty inherent in perceptual or motor tasks. A key question in neuroscience is how populations of spiking neurons can implement such probabilistic computations. In this article, we develop a comprehensive framework for optimal, spike-based sensory integration and working memory in a dynamic environment. We propose that probability distributions are inferred spike-per-spike in recurrently connected networks of integrate-and-fire neurons. As a result, these networks can combine sensory cues optimally, track the state of a time-varying stimulus and memorize accumulated evidence over periods much longer than the time constant of single neurons. Importantly, we propose that population responses and persistent working memory states represent entire probability distributions and not only single stimulus values. These memories are reflected by sustained, asynchronous patterns of activity which make relevant information available to downstream neurons within their short time window of integration. Model neurons act as predictive encoders, only firing spikes which account for new information that has not yet been signaled. Thus, spike times signal deterministically a prediction error, contrary to rate codes in which spike times are considered to be random samples of an underlying firing rate. As a consequence of this coding scheme, a multitude of spike patterns can reliably encode the same information. This results in weakly correlated, Poisson-like spike trains that are sensitive to initial conditions but robust to even high levels of external neural noise. This spike train variability reproduces the one observed in cortical sensory spike trains, but cannot be equated to noise. On the contrary, it is a consequence of optimal spike-based inference. In contrast, we show that rate-based models perform poorly when implemented with stochastically spiking neurons.

  5. A novel method for the measurement of the von Neumann spike in detonating high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollier, A.; Bouyer, V.; Hébert, P.; Doucet, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in T2 (97 wt. % TATB) and TX1 (52 wt. % TATB and 45 wt. % HMX) high explosives. The experiments consisted in initiating a detonation wave in a 15 mm diameter cylinder of explosive using an explosive wire detonator and an explosive booster. Free surface velocity wave profiles were measured at the explosive/air interface using a Photon Doppler Velocimetry system. We demonstrate that a comparison of these free surface wave profiles with those measured at explosive/window interfaces in similar conditions allows to bracket the von Neumann spike in a narrow range. For T2, our measurements show that the spike pressure lies between 35.9 and 40.1 GPa, whereas for TX1, it lies between 42.3 and 47.0 GPa. The numerical simulations performed in support to these measurements show that they can be used to calibrate reactive burn models and also to check the accuracy of the detonation products equation of state at low pressure.

  6. Adaptive coupling optimized spiking coherence and synchronization in Newman-Watts neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yubing; Xu, Bo; Wu, Ya'nan

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we have numerically studied the effect of adaptive coupling on the temporal coherence and synchronization of spiking activity in Newman-Watts Hodgkin-Huxley neuronal networks. It is found that random shortcuts can enhance the spiking synchronization more rapidly when the increment speed of adaptive coupling is increased and can optimize the temporal coherence of spikes only when the increment speed of adaptive coupling is appropriate. It is also found that adaptive coupling strength can enhance the synchronization of spikes and can optimize the temporal coherence of spikes when random shortcuts are appropriate. These results show that adaptive coupling has a big influence on random shortcuts related spiking activity and can enhance and optimize the temporal coherence and synchronization of spiking activity of the network. These findings can help better understand the roles of adaptive coupling for improving the information processing and transmission in neural systems.

  7. Training spiking neural networks to associate spatio-temporal input-output spike patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mohemmed, A; Schliebs, S; Matsuda, S; Kasabov, N

    2013-01-01

    In a previous work (Mohemmed et al., Method for training a spiking neuron to associate input–output spike trains) [1] we have proposed a supervised learning algorithm based on temporal coding to train a spiking neuron to associate input spatiotemporal spike patterns to desired output spike patterns. The algorithm is based on the conversion of spike trains into analogue signals and the application of the Widrow–Hoff learning rule. In this paper we present a mathematical formulation of the prop...

  8. The local field potential reflects surplus spike synchrony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denker, Michael; Roux, Sébastien; Lindén, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    While oscillations of the local field potential (LFP) are commonly attributed to the synchronization of neuronal firing rate on the same time scale, their relationship to coincident spiking in the millisecond range is unknown. Here, we present experimental evidence to reconcile the notions...... of synchrony at the level of spiking and at the mesoscopic scale. We demonstrate that only in time intervals of significant spike synchrony that cannot be explained on the basis of firing rates, coincident spikes are better phase locked to the LFP than predicted by the locking of the individual spikes....... This effect is enhanced in periods of large LFP amplitudes. A quantitative model explains the LFP dynamics by the orchestrated spiking activity in neuronal groups that contribute the observed surplus synchrony. From the correlation analysis, we infer that neurons participate in different constellations...

  9. Spike persistence and normalization in benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes - Implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hunmin; Kim, Soo Yeon; Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Dlugos, Dennis J

    2018-05-10

    This study was performed 1) to determine the timing of spike normalization in patients with benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS); 2) to identify relationships between age of seizure onset, age of spike normalization, years of spike persistence and treatment; and 3) to assess final outcomes between groups of patients with or without spikes at the time of medication tapering. Retrospective analysis of BECTS patients confirmed by clinical data, including age of onset, seizure semiology and serial electroencephalography (EEG) from diagnosis to remission. Age at spike normalization, years of spike persistence, and time of treatment onset to spike normalization were assessed. Final seizure and EEG outcome were compared between the groups with or without spikes at the time of AED tapering. One hundred and thirty-four patients were included. Mean age at seizure onset was 7.52 ± 2.11 years. Mean age at spike normalization was 11.89 ± 2.11 (range: 6.3-16.8) years. Mean time of treatment onset to spike normalization was 4.11 ± 2.13 (range: 0.24-10.08) years. Younger age of seizure onset was correlated with longer duration of spike persistence (r = -0.41, p < 0.001). In treated patients, spikes persisted for 4.1 ± 1.95 years, compared with 2.9 ± 1.97 years in untreated patients. No patients had recurrent seizures after AED was discontinued, regardless of the presence/absence of spikes at time of AED tapering. Years of spike persistence was longer in early onset BECTS patients. Treatment with AEDs did not shorten years of spike persistence. Persistence of spikes at time of treatment withdrawal was not associated with seizure recurrence. Copyright © 2018 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Statistical properties of superimposed stationary spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Moritz; Helias, Moritz; Boucsein, Clemens; Rotter, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The Poisson process is an often employed model for the activity of neuronal populations. It is known, though, that superpositions of realistic, non- Poisson spike trains are not in general Poisson processes, not even for large numbers of superimposed processes. Here we construct superimposed spike trains from intracellular in vivo recordings from rat neocortex neurons and compare their statistics to specific point process models. The constructed superimposed spike trains reveal strong deviations from the Poisson model. We find that superpositions of model spike trains that take the effective refractoriness of the neurons into account yield a much better description. A minimal model of this kind is the Poisson process with dead-time (PPD). For this process, and for superpositions thereof, we obtain analytical expressions for some second-order statistical quantities-like the count variability, inter-spike interval (ISI) variability and ISI correlations-and demonstrate the match with the in vivo data. We conclude that effective refractoriness is the key property that shapes the statistical properties of the superposition spike trains. We present new, efficient algorithms to generate superpositions of PPDs and of gamma processes that can be used to provide more realistic background input in simulations of networks of spiking neurons. Using these generators, we show in simulations that neurons which receive superimposed spike trains as input are highly sensitive for the statistical effects induced by neuronal refractoriness.

  11. Recent progress in multi-electrode spike sorting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Baptiste; Yger, Pierre; Marre, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, arrays of extracellular electrodes have been developed and manufactured to record simultaneously from hundreds of electrodes packed with a high density. These recordings should allow neuroscientists to reconstruct the individual activity of the neurons spiking in the vicinity of these electrodes, with the help of signal processing algorithms. Algorithms need to solve a source separation problem, also known as spike sorting. However, these new devices challenge the classical way to do spike sorting. Here we review different methods that have been developed to sort spikes from these large-scale recordings. We describe the common properties of these algorithms, as well as their main differences. Finally, we outline the issues that remain to be solved by future spike sorting algorithms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A camel-derived MERS-CoV with a variant spike protein cleavage site and distinct fusion activation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Goldstein, Monty E; Labitt, Rachael N; Hsu, Hung-Lun; Daniel, Susan; Whittaker, Gary R

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to circulate in both humans and camels, and the origin and evolution of the virus remain unclear. Here we characterize the spike protein of a camel-derived MERS-CoV (NRCE-HKU205) identified in 2013, early in the MERS outbreak. NRCE-HKU205 spike protein has a variant cleavage motif with regard to the S2′ fusion activation site—notably, a novel substitution of isoleucine for the otherwise invariant serine at the critical P1′ cleavage site position. The substitutions resulted in a loss of furin-mediated cleavage, as shown by fluorogenic peptide cleavage and western blot assays. Cell–cell fusion and pseudotyped virus infectivity assays demonstrated that the S2′ substitutions decreased spike-mediated fusion and viral entry. However, cathepsin and trypsin-like protease activation were retained, albeit with much reduced efficiency compared with the prototypical EMC/2012 human strain. We show that NRCE-HKU205 has more limited fusion activation properties possibly resulting in more restricted viral tropism and may represent an intermediate in the complex pattern of MERS-CoV ecology and evolution. PMID:27999426

  13. Mapping cortical mesoscopic networks of single spiking cortical or sub-cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongsheng; Vanni, Matthieu P; Mitelut, Catalin C; Chan, Allen W; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Xie, Yicheng; Chen, Andrew Cn; Swindale, Nicholas V; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-02-04

    Understanding the basis of brain function requires knowledge of cortical operations over wide-spatial scales, but also within the context of single neurons. In vivo, wide-field GCaMP imaging and sub-cortical/cortical cellular electrophysiology were used in mice to investigate relationships between spontaneous single neuron spiking and mesoscopic cortical activity. We make use of a rich set of cortical activity motifs that are present in spontaneous activity in anesthetized and awake animals. A mesoscale spike-triggered averaging procedure allowed the identification of motifs that are preferentially linked to individual spiking neurons by employing genetically targeted indicators of neuronal activity. Thalamic neurons predicted and reported specific cycles of wide-scale cortical inhibition/excitation. In contrast, spike-triggered maps derived from single cortical neurons yielded spatio-temporal maps expected for regional cortical consensus function. This approach can define network relationships between any point source of neuronal spiking and mesoscale cortical maps.

  14. The Second Spiking Threshold: Dynamics of Laminar Network Spiking in the Visual Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Lars E.; Bonde, Lars H.; Harvey, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    and moving visual stimuli from the spontaneous ongoing spiking state, in all layers and zones of areas 17 and 18 indicating that the second threshold is a property of the network. Spontaneous and evoked spiking, thus can easily be distinguished. In addition, the trajectories of spontaneous ongoing states......Most neurons have a threshold separating the silent non-spiking state and the state of producing temporal sequences of spikes. But neurons in vivo also have a second threshold, found recently in granular layer neurons of the primary visual cortex, separating spontaneous ongoing spiking from...... visually evoked spiking driven by sharp transients. Here we examine whether this second threshold exists outside the granular layer and examine details of transitions between spiking states in ferrets exposed to moving objects. We found the second threshold, separating spiking states evoked by stationary...

  15. Weak noise in neurons may powerfully inhibit the generation of repetitive spiking but not its propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C Tuckwell

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Many neurons have epochs in which they fire action potentials in an approximately periodic fashion. To see what effects noise of relatively small amplitude has on such repetitive activity we recently examined the response of the Hodgkin-Huxley (HH space-clamped system to such noise as the mean and variance of the applied current vary, near the bifurcation to periodic firing. This article is concerned with a more realistic neuron model which includes spatial extent. Employing the Hodgkin-Huxley partial differential equation system, the deterministic component of the input current is restricted to a small segment whereas the stochastic component extends over a region which may or may not overlap the deterministic component. For mean values below, near and above the critical values for repetitive spiking, the effects of weak noise of increasing strength is ascertained by simulation. As in the point model, small amplitude noise near the critical value dampens the spiking activity and leads to a minimum as noise level increases. This was the case for both additive noise and conductance-based noise. Uniform noise along the whole neuron is only marginally more effective in silencing the cell than noise which occurs near the region of excitation. In fact it is found that if signal and noise overlap in spatial extent, then weak noise may inhibit spiking. If, however, signal and noise are applied on disjoint intervals, then the noise has no effect on the spiking activity, no matter how large its region of application, though the trajectories are naturally altered slightly by noise. Such effects could not be discerned in a point model and are important for real neuron behavior. Interference with the spike train does nevertheless occur when the noise amplitude is larger, even when noise and signal do not overlap, being due to the instigation of secondary noise-induced wave phenomena rather than switching the system from one attractor (firing regularly to

  16. Span: spike pattern association neuron for learning spatio-temporal spike patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohemmed, Ammar; Schliebs, Stefan; Matsuda, Satoshi; Kasabov, Nikola

    2012-08-01

    Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) were shown to be suitable tools for the processing of spatio-temporal information. However, due to their inherent complexity, the formulation of efficient supervised learning algorithms for SNN is difficult and remains an important problem in the research area. This article presents SPAN - a spiking neuron that is able to learn associations of arbitrary spike trains in a supervised fashion allowing the processing of spatio-temporal information encoded in the precise timing of spikes. The idea of the proposed algorithm is to transform spike trains during the learning phase into analog signals so that common mathematical operations can be performed on them. Using this conversion, it is possible to apply the well-known Widrow-Hoff rule directly to the transformed spike trains in order to adjust the synaptic weights and to achieve a desired input/output spike behavior of the neuron. In the presented experimental analysis, the proposed learning algorithm is evaluated regarding its learning capabilities, its memory capacity, its robustness to noisy stimuli and its classification performance. Differences and similarities of SPAN regarding two related algorithms, ReSuMe and Chronotron, are discussed.

  17. Observations of Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves forced by Extratropical Wave Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiladis, G. N.; Biello, J. A.; Straub, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    It is well established by observations that deep tropical convection can in certain situations be forced by extratropical Rossby wave activity. Such interactions are a well-known feature of regions of upper level westerly flow, and in particular where westerlies and equatorward wave guiding by the basic state occur at low enough latitudes to interact with tropical and subtropical moisture sources. In these regions convection is commonly initiated ahead of upper level troughs, characteristic of forcing by quasi-geostrophic dynamics. However, recent observational evidence indicates that extratropical wave activity is also associated with equatorial convection even in regions where there is a "critical line" to Rossby wave propagation at upper levels, that is, where the zonal phase speed of the wave is equal to the zonal flow speed. A common manifestation of this type of interaction involves the initiation of convectively coupled Kelvin waves, as well as mixed Rossby-gravity (MRG) waves. These waves are responsible for a large portion of the convective variability within the ITCZ over the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic sectors, as well as within the Amazon Basin of South America. For example, Kelvin waves originating within the western Pacific ITCZ are often triggered by Rossby wave activity propagating into the Australasian region from the South Indian Ocean extratropics. At other times, Kelvin waves are seen to originate along the eastern slope of the Andes. In the latter case the initial forcing is sometimes linked to a low-level "pressure surge," initiated by wave activity propagating equatorward from the South Pacific storm track. In yet other cases, such as over Africa, the forcing appears to be related to wave activity in the extratropics which is not necessarily propagating into low latitudes, but appears to "project" onto the Kelvin structure, in line with past theoretical and modeling studies. Observational evidence for extratropical forcing of Kelvin and MRG

  18. Spike and burst coding in thalamocortical relay cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur Zeldenrust

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian thalamocortical relay (TCR neurons switch their firing activity between a tonic spiking and a bursting regime. In a combined experimental and computational study, we investigated the features in the input signal that single spikes and bursts in the output spike train represent and how this code is influenced by the membrane voltage state of the neuron. Identical frozen Gaussian noise current traces were injected into TCR neurons in rat brain slices as well as in a validated three-compartment TCR model cell. The resulting membrane voltage traces and spike trains were analyzed by calculating the coherence and impedance. Reverse correlation techniques gave the Event-Triggered Average (ETA and the Event-Triggered Covariance (ETC. This demonstrated that the feature selectivity started relatively long before the events (up to 300 ms and showed a clear distinction between spikes (selective for fluctuations and bursts (selective for integration. The model cell was fine-tuned to mimic the frozen noise initiated spike and burst responses to within experimental accuracy, especially for the mixed mode regimes. The information content carried by the various types of events in the signal as well as by the whole signal was calculated. Bursts phase-lock to and transfer information at lower frequencies than single spikes. On depolarization the neuron transits smoothly from the predominantly bursting regime to a spiking regime, in which it is more sensitive to high-frequency fluctuations. The model was then used to elucidate properties that could not be assessed experimentally, in particular the role of two important subthreshold voltage-dependent currents: the low threshold activated calcium current (IT and the cyclic nucleotide modulated h current (Ih. The ETAs of those currents and their underlying activation/inactivation states not only explained the state dependence of the firing regime but also the long-lasting concerted dynamic action of the two

  19. Decoding spikes in a spiking neuronal network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianfeng [Department of Informatics, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Ding, Mingzhou [Department of Mathematics, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States)

    2004-06-04

    We investigate how to reliably decode the input information from the output of a spiking neuronal network. A maximum likelihood estimator of the input signal, together with its Fisher information, is rigorously calculated. The advantage of the maximum likelihood estimation over the 'brute-force rate coding' estimate is clearly demonstrated. It is pointed out that the ergodic assumption in neuroscience, i.e. a temporal average is equivalent to an ensemble average, is in general not true. Averaging over an ensemble of neurons usually gives a biased estimate of the input information. A method on how to compensate for the bias is proposed. Reconstruction of dynamical input signals with a group of spiking neurons is extensively studied and our results show that less than a spike is sufficient to accurately decode dynamical inputs.

  20. Decoding spikes in a spiking neuronal network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianfeng; Ding, Mingzhou

    2004-01-01

    We investigate how to reliably decode the input information from the output of a spiking neuronal network. A maximum likelihood estimator of the input signal, together with its Fisher information, is rigorously calculated. The advantage of the maximum likelihood estimation over the 'brute-force rate coding' estimate is clearly demonstrated. It is pointed out that the ergodic assumption in neuroscience, i.e. a temporal average is equivalent to an ensemble average, is in general not true. Averaging over an ensemble of neurons usually gives a biased estimate of the input information. A method on how to compensate for the bias is proposed. Reconstruction of dynamical input signals with a group of spiking neurons is extensively studied and our results show that less than a spike is sufficient to accurately decode dynamical inputs

  1. Origin of frontal lobe spikes in the early onset benign occipital lobe epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Alberto J R; Ferreira, José C; Dias, Ana I; Calado, Eulália

    2008-09-01

    Early onset benign occipital lobe epilepsy (Panayiotopoulos syndrome [PS]) is a common and easily recognizable epilepsy. Interictal EEG spike activity is often multifocal but most frequently localized in the occipital lobes. The origin and clinical significance of the extra-occipital spikes remain poorly understood. Three patients with the PS and interictal EEG spikes with frontal lobe topography were studied using high-resolution EEG. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to decompose the spikes in components with distinct temporal dynamics. The components were mapped in the scalp with a spline-laplacian algorithm. The change in scalp potential topography from spike onset to peak, suggests the contribution of several intracranial generators, with different kinetics of activation and significant overlap. ICA was able to separate the major contributors to frontal spikes and consistently revealed an early activating group of components over the occipital areas in all the patients. The local origin of these early potentials was established by the spline-laplacian montage. Frontal spikes in PS are consistently associated with early and unilateral occipital lobe activation, suggesting a postero-anterior spike propagation. Frontal spikes in the PS represent a secondary activation triggered by occipital interictal discharges and do not represent an independent focus.

  2. The influence of single bursts vs. single spikes at excitatory dendrodendritic synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masurkar, Arjun V.; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-01-01

    The synchronization of neuronal activity is thought to enhance information processing. There is much evidence supporting rhythmically bursting external tufted cells (ETCs) of the rodent olfactory bulb glomeruli coordinating the activation of glomerular interneurons and mitral cells via dendrodendritic excitation. However, as bursting has variable significance at axodendritic cortical synapses, it is not clear if ETC bursting imparts a specific functional advantage over the preliminary spike in dendrodendritic synaptic networks. To answer this question, we investigated the influence of single ETC bursts and spikes with the in-vitro rat olfactory bulb preparation at different levels of processing, via calcium imaging of presynaptic ETC dendrites, dual electrical recording of ETC–interneuron synaptic pairs, and multicellular calcium imaging of ETC-induced population activity. Our findings supported single ETC bursts, vs. single spikes, driving robust presynaptic calcium signaling, which in turn was associated with profound extension of the initial monosynaptic spike-driven dendrodendritic excitatory postsynaptic potential. This extension could be driven by either the spike-dependent or spike-independent components of the burst. At the population level, burst-induced excitation was more widespread and reliable compared with single spikes. This further supports the ETC network, in part due to a functional advantage of bursting at excitatory dendrodendritic synapses, coordinating synchronous activity at behaviorally relevant frequencies related to odor processing in vivo. PMID:22277089

  3. Spiking irregularity and frequency modulate the behavioral report of single-neuron stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Guy; von Heimendahl, Moritz; Schlattmann, Peter; Houweling, Arthur R; Brecht, Michael

    2014-02-05

    The action potential activity of single cortical neurons can evoke measurable sensory effects, but it is not known how spiking parameters and neuronal subtypes affect the evoked sensations. Here, we examined the effects of spike train irregularity, spike frequency, and spike number on the detectability of single-neuron stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex. For regular-spiking, putative excitatory neurons, detectability increased with spike train irregularity and decreasing spike frequencies but was not affected by spike number. Stimulation of single, fast-spiking, putative inhibitory neurons led to a larger sensory effect compared to regular-spiking neurons, and the effect size depended only on spike irregularity. An ideal-observer analysis suggests that, under our experimental conditions, rats were using integration windows of a few hundred milliseconds or more. Our data imply that the behaving animal is sensitive to single neurons' spikes and even to their temporal patterning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Building functional networks of spiking model neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, L F; DePasquale, Brian; Memmesheimer, Raoul-Martin

    2016-03-01

    Most of the networks used by computer scientists and many of those studied by modelers in neuroscience represent unit activities as continuous variables. Neurons, however, communicate primarily through discontinuous spiking. We review methods for transferring our ability to construct interesting networks that perform relevant tasks from the artificial continuous domain to more realistic spiking network models. These methods raise a number of issues that warrant further theoretical and experimental study.

  5. The Second Spiking Threshold: Dynamics of Laminar Network Spiking in the Visual Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Lars E.; Bonde, Lars H.; Harvey, Michael A.; Roland, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    Most neurons have a threshold separating the silent non-spiking state and the state of producing temporal sequences of spikes. But neurons in vivo also have a second threshold, found recently in granular layer neurons of the primary visual cortex, separating spontaneous ongoing spiking from visually evoked spiking driven by sharp transients. Here we examine whether this second threshold exists outside the granular layer and examine details of transitions between spiking states in ferrets exposed to moving objects. We found the second threshold, separating spiking states evoked by stationary and moving visual stimuli from the spontaneous ongoing spiking state, in all layers and zones of areas 17 and 18 indicating that the second threshold is a property of the network. Spontaneous and evoked spiking, thus can easily be distinguished. In addition, the trajectories of spontaneous ongoing states were slow, frequently changing direction. In single trials, sharp as well as smooth and slow transients transform the trajectories to be outward directed, fast and crossing the threshold to become evoked. Although the speeds of the evolution of the evoked states differ, the same domain of the state space is explored indicating uniformity of the evoked states. All evoked states return to the spontaneous evoked spiking state as in a typical mono-stable dynamical system. In single trials, neither the original spiking rates, nor the temporal evolution in state space could distinguish simple visual scenes. PMID:27582693

  6. Evaluation of an automated spike-and-wave complex detection algorithm in the EEG from a rat model of absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauquier, Sebastien H; Lai, Alan; Jiang, Jonathan L; Sui, Yi; Cook, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this prospective blinded study was to evaluate an automated algorithm for spike-and-wave discharge (SWD) detection applied to EEGs from genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Five GAERS underwent four sessions of 20-min EEG recording. Each EEG was manually analyzed for SWDs longer than one second by two investigators and automatically using an algorithm developed in MATLAB®. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the manual (reference) versus the automatic (test) methods. The results showed that the algorithm had specificity, sensitivity, PPV and NPV >94%, comparable to published methods that are based on analyzing EEG changes in the frequency domain. This provides a good alternative as a method designed to mimic human manual marking in the time domain.

  7. A Novel and Simple Spike Sorting Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrantonakis, Panagiotis C; Poirazi, Panayiota

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring the activity of multiple, individual neurons that fire spikes in the vicinity of an electrode, namely perform a Spike Sorting (SS) procedure, comprises one of the most important tools for contemporary neuroscience in order to reverse-engineer the brain. As recording electrodes' technology rabidly evolves by integrating thousands of electrodes in a confined spatial setting, the algorithms that are used to monitor individual neurons from recorded signals have to become even more reliable and computationally efficient. In this work, we propose a novel framework of the SS approach in which a single-step processing of the raw (unfiltered) extracellular signal is sufficient for both the detection and sorting of the activity of individual neurons. Despite its simplicity, the proposed approach exhibits comparable performance with state-of-the-art approaches, especially for spike detection in noisy signals, and paves the way for a new family of SS algorithms with the potential for multi-recording, fast, on-chip implementations.

  8. The influence of single bursts versus single spikes at excitatory dendrodendritic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masurkar, Arjun V; Chen, Wei R

    2012-02-01

    The synchronization of neuronal activity is thought to enhance information processing. There is much evidence supporting rhythmically bursting external tufted cells (ETCs) of the rodent olfactory bulb glomeruli coordinating the activation of glomerular interneurons and mitral cells via dendrodendritic excitation. However, as bursting has variable significance at axodendritic cortical synapses, it is not clear if ETC bursting imparts a specific functional advantage over the preliminary spike in dendrodendritic synaptic networks. To answer this question, we investigated the influence of single ETC bursts and spikes with the in vitro rat olfactory bulb preparation at different levels of processing, via calcium imaging of presynaptic ETC dendrites, dual electrical recording of ETC -interneuron synaptic pairs, and multicellular calcium imaging of ETC-induced population activity. Our findings supported single ETC bursts, versus single spikes, driving robust presynaptic calcium signaling, which in turn was associated with profound extension of the initial monosynaptic spike-driven dendrodendritic excitatory postsynaptic potential. This extension could be driven by either the spike-dependent or spike-independent components of the burst. At the population level, burst-induced excitation was more widespread and reliable compared with single spikes. This further supports the ETC network, in part due to a functional advantage of bursting at excitatory dendrodendritic synapses, coordinating synchronous activity at behaviorally relevant frequencies related to odor processing in vivo. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. An Overview of Bayesian Methods for Neural Spike Train Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural spike train analysis is an important task in computational neuroscience which aims to understand neural mechanisms and gain insights into neural circuits. With the advancement of multielectrode recording and imaging technologies, it has become increasingly demanding to develop statistical tools for analyzing large neuronal ensemble spike activity. Here we present a tutorial overview of Bayesian methods and their representative applications in neural spike train analysis, at both single neuron and population levels. On the theoretical side, we focus on various approximate Bayesian inference techniques as applied to latent state and parameter estimation. On the application side, the topics include spike sorting, tuning curve estimation, neural encoding and decoding, deconvolution of spike trains from calcium imaging signals, and inference of neuronal functional connectivity and synchrony. Some research challenges and opportunities for neural spike train analysis are discussed.

  10. SpikeTemp: An Enhanced Rank-Order-Based Learning Approach for Spiking Neural Networks With Adaptive Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; Belatreche, Ammar; Maguire, Liam P; McGinnity, Thomas Martin

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an enhanced rank-order-based learning algorithm, called SpikeTemp, for spiking neural networks (SNNs) with a dynamically adaptive structure. The trained feed-forward SNN consists of two layers of spiking neurons: 1) an encoding layer which temporally encodes real-valued features into spatio-temporal spike patterns and 2) an output layer of dynamically grown neurons which perform spatio-temporal classification. Both Gaussian receptive fields and square cosine population encoding schemes are employed to encode real-valued features into spatio-temporal spike patterns. Unlike the rank-order-based learning approach, SpikeTemp uses the precise times of the incoming spikes for adjusting the synaptic weights such that early spikes result in a large weight change and late spikes lead to a smaller weight change. This removes the need to rank all the incoming spikes and, thus, reduces the computational cost of SpikeTemp. The proposed SpikeTemp algorithm is demonstrated on several benchmark data sets and on an image recognition task. The results show that SpikeTemp can achieve better classification performance and is much faster than the existing rank-order-based learning approach. In addition, the number of output neurons is much smaller when the square cosine encoding scheme is employed. Furthermore, SpikeTemp is benchmarked against a selection of existing machine learning algorithms, and the results demonstrate the ability of SpikeTemp to classify different data sets after just one presentation of the training samples with comparable classification performance.

  11. A unified approach to linking experimental, statistical and computational analysis of spike train data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Meng

    Full Text Available A fundamental issue in neuroscience is how to identify the multiple biophysical mechanisms through which neurons generate observed patterns of spiking activity. In previous work, we proposed a method for linking observed patterns of spiking activity to specific biophysical mechanisms based on a state space modeling framework and a sequential Monte Carlo, or particle filter, estimation algorithm. We have shown, in simulation, that this approach is able to identify a space of simple biophysical models that were consistent with observed spiking data (and included the model that generated the data, but have yet to demonstrate the application of the method to identify realistic currents from real spike train data. Here, we apply the particle filter to spiking data recorded from rat layer V cortical neurons, and correctly identify the dynamics of an slow, intrinsic current. The underlying intrinsic current is successfully identified in four distinct neurons, even though the cells exhibit two distinct classes of spiking activity: regular spiking and bursting. This approach--linking statistical, computational, and experimental neuroscience--provides an effective technique to constrain detailed biophysical models to specific mechanisms consistent with observed spike train data.

  12. Joint Probability-Based Neuronal Spike Train Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal spike trains are used by the nervous system to encode and transmit information. Euclidean distance-based methods (EDBMs have been applied to quantify the similarity between temporally-discretized spike trains and model responses. In this study, using the same discretization procedure, we developed and applied a joint probability-based method (JPBM to classify individual spike trains of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (SARs. The activity of individual SARs was recorded in anaesthetized, paralysed adult male rabbits, which were artificially-ventilated at constant rate and one of three different volumes. Two-thirds of the responses to the 600 stimuli presented at each volume were used to construct three response models (one for each stimulus volume consisting of a series of time bins, each with spike probabilities. The remaining one-third of the responses where used as test responses to be classified into one of the three model responses. This was done by computing the joint probability of observing the same series of events (spikes or no spikes, dictated by the test response in a given model and determining which probability of the three was highest. The JPBM generally produced better classification accuracy than the EDBM, and both performed well above chance. Both methods were similarly affected by variations in discretization parameters, response epoch duration, and two different response alignment strategies. Increasing bin widths increased classification accuracy, which also improved with increased observation time, but primarily during periods of increasing lung inflation. Thus, the JPBM is a simple and effective method performing spike train classification.

  13. Copula Regression Analysis of Simultaneously Recorded Frontal Eye Field and Inferotemporal Spiking Activity during Object-Based Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Clark, Kelsey L.; Gong, Xiajing; Noudoost, Behrad; Li, Mingyao; Moore, Tirin

    2015-01-01

    Inferotemporal (IT) neurons are known to exhibit persistent, stimulus-selective activity during the delay period of object-based working memory tasks. Frontal eye field (FEF) neurons show robust, spatially selective delay period activity during memory-guided saccade tasks. We present a copula regression paradigm to examine neural interaction of these two types of signals between areas IT and FEF of the monkey during a working memory task. This paradigm is based on copula models that can account for both marginal distribution over spiking activity of individual neurons within each area and joint distribution over ensemble activity of neurons between areas. Considering the popular GLMs as marginal models, we developed a general and flexible likelihood framework that uses the copula to integrate separate GLMs into a joint regression analysis. Such joint analysis essentially leads to a multivariate analog of the marginal GLM theory and hence efficient model estimation. In addition, we show that Granger causality between spike trains can be readily assessed via the likelihood ratio statistic. The performance of this method is validated by extensive simulations, and compared favorably to the widely used GLMs. When applied to spiking activity of simultaneously recorded FEF and IT neurons during working memory task, we observed significant Granger causality influence from FEF to IT, but not in the opposite direction, suggesting the role of the FEF in the selection and retention of visual information during working memory. The copula model has the potential to provide unique neurophysiological insights about network properties of the brain. PMID:26063909

  14. Spiking Neural Networks Based on OxRAM Synapses for Real-Time Unsupervised Spike Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Thilo; Vianello, Elisa; Bichler, Olivier; Garbin, Daniele; Cattaert, Daniel; Yvert, Blaise; De Salvo, Barbara; Perniola, Luca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an alternative approach to perform spike sorting of complex brain signals based on spiking neural networks (SNN). The proposed architecture is suitable for hardware implementation by using resistive random access memory (RRAM) technology for the implementation of synapses whose low latency (spike sorting. This offers promising advantages to conventional spike sorting techniques for brain-computer interfaces (BCI) and neural prosthesis applications. Moreover, the ultra-low power consumption of the RRAM synapses of the spiking neural network (nW range) may enable the design of autonomous implantable devices for rehabilitation purposes. We demonstrate an original methodology to use Oxide based RRAM (OxRAM) as easy to program and low energy (Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity. Real spiking data have been recorded both intra- and extracellularly from an in-vitro preparation of the Crayfish sensory-motor system and used for validation of the proposed OxRAM based SNN. This artificial SNN is able to identify, learn, recognize and distinguish between different spike shapes in the input signal with a recognition rate about 90% without any supervision.

  15. Automatic online spike sorting with singular value decomposition and fuzzy C-mean clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliynyk Andriy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how neurons contribute to perception, motor functions and cognition requires the reliable detection of spiking activity of individual neurons during a number of different experimental conditions. An important problem in computational neuroscience is thus to develop algorithms to automatically detect and sort the spiking activity of individual neurons from extracellular recordings. While many algorithms for spike sorting exist, the problem of accurate and fast online sorting still remains a challenging issue. Results Here we present a novel software tool, called FSPS (Fuzzy SPike Sorting, which is designed to optimize: (i fast and accurate detection, (ii offline sorting and (iii online classification of neuronal spikes with very limited or null human intervention. The method is based on a combination of Singular Value Decomposition for fast and highly accurate pre-processing of spike shapes, unsupervised Fuzzy C-mean, high-resolution alignment of extracted spike waveforms, optimal selection of the number of features to retain, automatic identification the number of clusters, and quantitative quality assessment of resulting clusters independent on their size. After being trained on a short testing data stream, the method can reliably perform supervised online classification and monitoring of single neuron activity. The generalized procedure has been implemented in our FSPS spike sorting software (available free for non-commercial academic applications at the address: http://www.spikesorting.com using LabVIEW (National Instruments, USA. We evaluated the performance of our algorithm both on benchmark simulated datasets with different levels of background noise and on real extracellular recordings from premotor cortex of Macaque monkeys. The results of these tests showed an excellent accuracy in discriminating low-amplitude and overlapping spikes under strong background noise. The performance of our method is

  16. Automatic online spike sorting with singular value decomposition and fuzzy C-mean clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliynyk, Andriy; Bonifazzi, Claudio; Montani, Fernando; Fadiga, Luciano

    2012-08-08

    Understanding how neurons contribute to perception, motor functions and cognition requires the reliable detection of spiking activity of individual neurons during a number of different experimental conditions. An important problem in computational neuroscience is thus to develop algorithms to automatically detect and sort the spiking activity of individual neurons from extracellular recordings. While many algorithms for spike sorting exist, the problem of accurate and fast online sorting still remains a challenging issue. Here we present a novel software tool, called FSPS (Fuzzy SPike Sorting), which is designed to optimize: (i) fast and accurate detection, (ii) offline sorting and (iii) online classification of neuronal spikes with very limited or null human intervention. The method is based on a combination of Singular Value Decomposition for fast and highly accurate pre-processing of spike shapes, unsupervised Fuzzy C-mean, high-resolution alignment of extracted spike waveforms, optimal selection of the number of features to retain, automatic identification the number of clusters, and quantitative quality assessment of resulting clusters independent on their size. After being trained on a short testing data stream, the method can reliably perform supervised online classification and monitoring of single neuron activity. The generalized procedure has been implemented in our FSPS spike sorting software (available free for non-commercial academic applications at the address: http://www.spikesorting.com) using LabVIEW (National Instruments, USA). We evaluated the performance of our algorithm both on benchmark simulated datasets with different levels of background noise and on real extracellular recordings from premotor cortex of Macaque monkeys. The results of these tests showed an excellent accuracy in discriminating low-amplitude and overlapping spikes under strong background noise. The performance of our method is competitive with respect to other robust spike

  17. Independent component analysis separates spikes of different origin in the EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrestarazu, Elena; Iriarte, Jorge; Artieda, Julio; Alegre, Manuel; Valencia, Miguel; Viteri, César

    2006-02-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a novel system that finds independent sources in recorded signals. Its usefulness in separating epileptiform activity of different origin has not been determined. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that ICA is useful for separating different spikes using samples of EEG of patients with focal epilepsy. Digital EEG samples from four patients with focal epilepsy were included. The patients had temporal (n = 2), centrotemporal (n = 1) or frontal spikes (n = 1). Twenty-six samples with two (or more) spikes from two different patients were created. The selection of the two spikes for each mixed EEG was performed randomly, trying to have all the different combinations and rejecting the mixture of two spikes from the same patient. Two different examiners studied the EEGs using ICA with JADE paradigm in Matlab platform, trying to separate and to identify the spikes. They agreed in the correct separation of the spikes in 24 of the 26 samples, classifying the spikes as frontal, temporal or centrotemporal, left or right sided. The demonstration of the possibility of detecting different artificially mixed spikes confirms that ICA may be useful in separating spikes or other elements in real EEGs.

  18. Population activity statistics dissect subthreshold and spiking variability in V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Mihály; Koman, Zsombor; Orbán, Gergő

    2017-07-01

    variability. Our work shows that stimulus-dependent changes in pairwise but not in single-cell statistics can differentiate between two widely used models of neuronal variability. Contrasting model predictions with neuronal data provides hints on the noise sources in spiking and provides constraints on statistical models of population activity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Automatic spike sorting using tuning information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Valérie

    2009-09-01

    Current spike sorting methods focus on clustering neurons' characteristic spike waveforms. The resulting spike-sorted data are typically used to estimate how covariates of interest modulate the firing rates of neurons. However, when these covariates do modulate the firing rates, they provide information about spikes' identities, which thus far have been ignored for the purpose of spike sorting. This letter describes a novel approach to spike sorting, which incorporates both waveform information and tuning information obtained from the modulation of firing rates. Because it efficiently uses all the available information, this spike sorter yields lower spike misclassification rates than traditional automatic spike sorters. This theoretical result is verified empirically on several examples. The proposed method does not require additional assumptions; only its implementation is different. It essentially consists of performing spike sorting and tuning estimation simultaneously rather than sequentially, as is currently done. We used an expectation-maximization maximum likelihood algorithm to implement the new spike sorter. We present the general form of this algorithm and provide a detailed implementable version under the assumptions that neurons are independent and spike according to Poisson processes. Finally, we uncover a systematic flaw of spike sorting based on waveform information only.

  20. Detection and Evaluation of Spatio-Temporal Spike Patterns in Massively Parallel Spike Train Data with SPADE

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    Pietro Quaglio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Repeated, precise sequences of spikes are largely considered a signature of activation of cell assemblies. These repeated sequences are commonly known under the name of spatio-temporal patterns (STPs. STPs are hypothesized to play a role in the communication of information in the computational process operated by the cerebral cortex. A variety of statistical methods for the detection of STPs have been developed and applied to electrophysiological recordings, but such methods scale poorly with the current size of available parallel spike train recordings (more than 100 neurons. In this work, we introduce a novel method capable of overcoming the computational and statistical limits of existing analysis techniques in detecting repeating STPs within massively parallel spike trains (MPST. We employ advanced data mining techniques to efficiently extract repeating sequences of spikes from the data. Then, we introduce and compare two alternative approaches to distinguish statistically significant patterns from chance sequences. The first approach uses a measure known as conceptual stability, of which we investigate a computationally cheap approximation for applications to such large data sets. The second approach is based on the evaluation of pattern statistical significance. In particular, we provide an extension to STPs of a method we recently introduced for the evaluation of statistical significance of synchronous spike patterns. The performance of the two approaches is evaluated in terms of computational load and statistical power on a variety of artificial data sets that replicate specific features of experimental data. Both methods provide an effective and robust procedure for detection of STPs in MPST data. The method based on significance evaluation shows the best overall performance, although at a higher computational cost. We name the novel procedure the spatio-temporal Spike PAttern Detection and Evaluation (SPADE analysis.

  1. Reliability of MEG source imaging of anterior temporal spikes: analysis of an intracranially characterized spike focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Richard; Cheyne, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    To assess the reliability of MEG source imaging (MSI) of anterior temporal spikes through detailed analysis of the localization and orientation of source solutions obtained for a large number of spikes that were separately confirmed by intracranial EEG to be focally generated within a single, well-characterized spike focus. MSI was performed on 64 identical right anterior temporal spikes from an anterolateral temporal neocortical spike focus. The effects of different volume conductors (sphere and realistic head model), removal of noise with low frequency filters (LFFs) and averaging multiple spikes were assessed in terms of the reliability of the source solutions. MSI of single spikes resulted in scattered dipole source solutions that showed reasonable reliability for localization at the lobar level, but only for solutions with a goodness-of-fit exceeding 80% using a LFF of 3 Hz. Reliability at a finer level of intralobar localization was limited. Spike averaging significantly improved the reliability of source solutions and averaging 8 or more spikes reduced dependency on goodness-of-fit and data filtering. MSI performed on topographically identical individual spikes from an intracranially defined classical anterior temporal lobe spike focus was limited by low reliability (i.e., scattered source solutions) in terms of fine, sublobar localization within the ipsilateral temporal lobe. Spike averaging significantly improved reliability. MSI performed on individual anterior temporal spikes is limited by low reliability. Reduction of background noise through spike averaging significantly improves the reliability of MSI solutions. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Noisy Spiking in Visual Area V2 of Amblyopic Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Zhang, Bin; Tao, Xiaofeng; Wensveen, Janice M; Smith, Earl L; Chino, Yuzo M

    2017-01-25

    Interocular decorrelation of input signals in developing visual cortex can cause impaired binocular vision and amblyopia. Although increased intrinsic noise is thought to be responsible for a range of perceptual deficits in amblyopic humans, the neural basis for the elevated perceptual noise in amblyopic primates is not known. Here, we tested the idea that perceptual noise is linked to the neuronal spiking noise (variability) resulting from developmental alterations in cortical circuitry. To assess spiking noise, we analyzed the contrast-dependent dynamics of spike counts and spiking irregularity by calculating the square of the coefficient of variation in interspike intervals (CV 2 ) and the trial-to-trial fluctuations in spiking, or mean matched Fano factor (m-FF) in visual area V2 of monkeys reared with chronic monocular defocus. In amblyopic neurons, the contrast versus response functions and the spike count dynamics exhibited significant deviations from comparable data for normal monkeys. The CV 2 was pronounced in amblyopic neurons for high-contrast stimuli and the m-FF was abnormally high in amblyopic neurons for low-contrast gratings. The spike count, CV 2 , and m-FF of spontaneous activity were also elevated in amblyopic neurons. These contrast-dependent spiking irregularities were correlated with the level of binocular suppression in these V2 neurons and with the severity of perceptual loss for individual monkeys. Our results suggest that the developmental alterations in normalization mechanisms resulting from early binocular suppression can explain much of these contrast-dependent spiking abnormalities in V2 neurons and the perceptual performance of our amblyopic monkeys. Amblyopia is a common developmental vision disorder in humans. Despite the extensive animal studies on how amblyopia emerges, we know surprisingly little about the neural basis of amblyopia in humans and nonhuman primates. Although the vision of amblyopic humans is often described as

  3. Decoding spatiotemporal spike sequences via the finite state automata dynamics of spiking neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Dezhe Z

    2008-01-01

    Temporally complex stimuli are encoded into spatiotemporal spike sequences of neurons in many sensory areas. Here, we describe how downstream neurons with dendritic bistable plateau potentials can be connected to decode such spike sequences. Driven by feedforward inputs from the sensory neurons and controlled by feedforward inhibition and lateral excitation, the neurons transit between UP and DOWN states of the membrane potentials. The neurons spike only in the UP states. A decoding neuron spikes at the end of an input to signal the recognition of specific spike sequences. The transition dynamics is equivalent to that of a finite state automaton. A connection rule for the networks guarantees that any finite state automaton can be mapped into the transition dynamics, demonstrating the equivalence in computational power between the networks and finite state automata. The decoding mechanism is capable of recognizing an arbitrary number of spatiotemporal spike sequences, and is insensitive to the variations of the spike timings in the sequences

  4. Application of cross-correlated delay shift rule in spiking neural networks for interictal spike detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilin Guo; Zhenzhong Wang; Cabrerizo, Mercedes; Adjouadi, Malek

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes a Cross-Correlated Delay Shift (CCDS) supervised learning rule to train neurons with associated spatiotemporal patterns to classify spike patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the CCDS rule to automate the detection of interictal spikes in electroencephalogram (EEG) data on patients with epilepsy. Encoding is the initial yet essential step for spiking neurons to process EEG patterns. A new encoding method is utilized to convert the EEG signal into spike patterns. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm identified 69 spikes out of 82 spikes, or 84% detection rate, which is quite high considering the subtleties of interictal spikes and the tediousness of monitoring long EEG records. This CCDS rule is also benchmarked by ReSuMe on the same task.

  5. Spiking Neurons for Analysis of Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terrance

    2008-01-01

    Artificial neural networks comprising spiking neurons of a novel type have been conceived as improved pattern-analysis and pattern-recognition computational systems. These neurons are represented by a mathematical model denoted the state-variable model (SVM), which among other things, exploits a computational parallelism inherent in spiking-neuron geometry. Networks of SVM neurons offer advantages of speed and computational efficiency, relative to traditional artificial neural networks. The SVM also overcomes some of the limitations of prior spiking-neuron models. There are numerous potential pattern-recognition, tracking, and data-reduction (data preprocessing) applications for these SVM neural networks on Earth and in exploration of remote planets. Spiking neurons imitate biological neurons more closely than do the neurons of traditional artificial neural networks. A spiking neuron includes a central cell body (soma) surrounded by a tree-like interconnection network (dendrites). Spiking neurons are so named because they generate trains of output pulses (spikes) in response to inputs received from sensors or from other neurons. They gain their speed advantage over traditional neural networks by using the timing of individual spikes for computation, whereas traditional artificial neurons use averages of activity levels over time. Moreover, spiking neurons use the delays inherent in dendritic processing in order to efficiently encode the information content of incoming signals. Because traditional artificial neurons fail to capture this encoding, they have less processing capability, and so it is necessary to use more gates when implementing traditional artificial neurons in electronic circuitry. Such higher-order functions as dynamic tasking are effected by use of pools (collections) of spiking neurons interconnected by spike-transmitting fibers. The SVM includes adaptive thresholds and submodels of transport of ions (in imitation of such transport in biological

  6. An integrative view of mechanisms underlying generalized spike-and-wave epileptic seizures and its implication on optimal therapeutic treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyuan Yan

    Full Text Available Many types of epileptic seizures are characterized by generalized spike-and-wave discharges. In the past, notable effort has been devoted to understanding seizure dynamics and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, by taking an integrative view of the underlying mechanisms, we demonstrate that epileptic seizures can be generated by many different combinations of synaptic strengths and intrinsic membrane properties. This integrative view has important medical implications: the specific state of a patient characterized by a set of biophysical characteristics ultimately determines the optimal therapeutic treatment. Through the same view, we further demonstrate the potentiation effect of rational polypharmacy in the treatment of epilepsy and provide a new angle to resolve the debate on polypharmacy. Our results underscore the need for personalized medicine and demonstrate that computer modeling and simulation may play an important role in assisting the clinicians in selecting the optimal treatment on an individual basis.

  7. Spike rate and spike timing contributions to coding taste quality information in rat periphery

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    Vernon eLawhern

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that individual sensory neurons in the rodent brain rely on temporal features of the discharge pattern to code differences in taste quality information. In contrast, in-vestigations of individual sensory neurons in the periphery have focused on analysis of spike rate and mostly disregarded spike timing as a taste quality coding mechanism. The purpose of this work was to determine the contribution of spike timing to taste quality coding by rat geniculate ganglion neurons using computational methods that have been applied successfully in other sys-tems. We recorded the discharge patterns of narrowly-tuned and broadly-tuned neurons in the rat geniculate ganglion to representatives of the five basic taste qualities. We used mutual in-formation to determine significant responses and the van Rossum metric to characterize their temporal features. While our findings show that spike timing contributes a significant part of the message, spike rate contributes the largest portion of the message relayed by afferent neurons from rat fungiform taste buds to the brain. Thus, spike rate and spike timing together are more effective than spike rate alone in coding stimulus quality information to a single basic taste in the periphery for both narrowly-tuned specialist and broadly-tuned generalist neurons.

  8. Fluctuating inhibitory inputs promote reliable spiking at theta frequencies in hippocampal interneurons

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    Duluxan eSritharan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Theta frequency (4-12 Hz rhythms in the hippocampus play important roles in learning and memory. CA1 interneurons located at the stratum lacunosum-moleculare and radiatum junction (LM/RAD are thought to contribute to hippocampal theta population activities by rhythmically pacing pyramidal cells with inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. This implies that LM/RAD cells need to fire reliably at theta frequencies in vivo. To determine whether this could occur, we use biophysically-based LM/RAD model cells and apply different cholinergic and synaptic inputs to simulate in vivo-like network environments. We assess spike reliabilities and spiking frequencies, identifying biophysical properties and network conditions that best promote reliable theta spiking. We find that synaptic background activities that feature large inhibitory, but not excitatory, fluctuations are essential. This suggests that strong inhibitory input to these cells is vital for them to be able to contribute to population theta activities. Furthermore, we find that Type I-like oscillator models produced by augmented persistent sodium currents (INap or diminished A type potassium currents (IA enhance reliable spiking at lower theta frequencies. These Type I-like models are also the most responsive to large inhibitory fluctuations and can fire more reliably under such conditions. In previous work, we showed that INap and IA are largely responsible for establishing LM/RAD cells’ subthreshold activities. Taken together with this study, we see that while both these currents are important for subthreshold theta fluctuations and reliable theta spiking, they contribute in different ways – INap to reliable theta spiking and subthreshold activity generation, and IA to subthreshold activities at theta frequencies. This suggests that linking subthreshold and suprathreshold activities should be done with consideration of both in vivo contexts and biophysical specifics.

  9. Successful reconstruction of a physiological circuit with known connectivity from spiking activity alone.

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    Felipe Gerhard

    Full Text Available Identifying the structure and dynamics of synaptic interactions between neurons is the first step to understanding neural network dynamics. The presence of synaptic connections is traditionally inferred through the use of targeted stimulation and paired recordings or by post-hoc histology. More recently, causal network inference algorithms have been proposed to deduce connectivity directly from electrophysiological signals, such as extracellularly recorded spiking activity. Usually, these algorithms have not been validated on a neurophysiological data set for which the actual circuitry is known. Recent work has shown that traditional network inference algorithms based on linear models typically fail to identify the correct coupling of a small central pattern generating circuit in the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab Cancer borealis. In this work, we show that point process models of observed spike trains can guide inference of relative connectivity estimates that match the known physiological connectivity of the central pattern generator up to a choice of threshold. We elucidate the necessary steps to derive faithful connectivity estimates from a model that incorporates the spike train nature of the data. We then apply the model to measure changes in the effective connectivity pattern in response to two pharmacological interventions, which affect both intrinsic neural dynamics and synaptic transmission. Our results provide the first successful application of a network inference algorithm to a circuit for which the actual physiological synapses between neurons are known. The point process methodology presented here generalizes well to larger networks and can describe the statistics of neural populations. In general we show that advanced statistical models allow for the characterization of effective network structure, deciphering underlying network dynamics and estimating information-processing capabilities.

  10. Discriminating Sea Spikes in Incoherent Radar Measurements of Sea Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    het detecteren echter niet te verwachten dat bet gebruik van sea spikes te onderzoeken. Een van deze modellen zal leiden tot een Auteur (s) dergelijk...report I TNO-DV 2008 A067 6/33 Abbreviations CFAR Constant False-Alarm Rate CST Composite Surface Theory FFT Fast Fourier Transform PDF Probability Density...described by the composite surface theory (CST). This theory describes the sea surface as small Bragg-resonant capillary waves riding on top of

  11. Noise-enhanced coding in phasic neuron spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Cheng; Doiron, Brent

    2017-01-01

    The stochastic nature of neuronal response has lead to conjectures about the impact of input fluctuations on the neural coding. For the most part, low pass membrane integration and spike threshold dynamics have been the primary features assumed in the transfer from synaptic input to output spiking. Phasic neurons are a common, but understudied, neuron class that are characterized by a subthreshold negative feedback that suppresses spike train responses to low frequency signals. Past work has shown that when a low frequency signal is accompanied by moderate intensity broadband noise, phasic neurons spike trains are well locked to the signal. We extend these results with a simple, reduced model of phasic activity that demonstrates that a non-Markovian spike train structure caused by the negative feedback produces a noise-enhanced coding. Further, this enhancement is sensitive to the timescales, as opposed to the intensity, of a driving signal. Reduced hazard function models show that noise-enhanced phasic codes are both novel and separate from classical stochastic resonance reported in non-phasic neurons. The general features of our theory suggest that noise-enhanced codes in excitable systems with subthreshold negative feedback are a particularly rich framework to study.

  12. Energy-dispersed ions in the plasma sheet boundary layer and associated phenomena: Ion heating, electron acceleration, Alfvén waves, broadband waves, perpendicular electric field spikes, and auroral emissions

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    A. Keiling

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent Cluster studies reported properties of multiple energy-dispersed ion structures in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL that showed substructure with several well separated ion beamlets, covering energies from 3 keV up to 100 keV (Keiling et al., 2004a, b. Here we report observations from two PSBL crossings, which show a number of identified one-to-one correlations between this beamlet substructure and several plasma-field characteristics: (a bimodal ion conics (<1 keV, (b field-aligned electron flow (<1 keV, (c perpendicular electric field spikes (~20 mV/m, (d broadband electrostatic ELF wave packets (<12.5 Hz, and (e enhanced broadband electromagnetic waves (<4 kHz. The one-to-one correlations strongly suggest that these phenomena were energetically driven by the ion beamlets, also noting that the energy flux of the ion beamlets was 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than, for example, the energy flux of the ion outflow. In addition, several more loosely associated correspondences were observed within the extended region containing the beamlets: (f electrostatic waves (BEN (up to 4 kHz, (g traveling and standing ULF Alfvén waves, (h field-aligned currents (FAC, and (i auroral emissions on conjugate magnetic field lines. Possible generation scenarios for these phenomena are discussed. In conclusion, it is argued that the free energy of magnetotail ion beamlets drove a variety of phenomena and that the spatial fine structure of the beamlets dictated the locations of where some of these phenomena occurred. This emphasizes the notion that PSBL ion beams are important for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. However, it is also shown that the dissipation of electromagnetic energy flux (at altitudes below Cluster of the simultaneously occurring Alfvén waves and FAC was larger (FAC being the largest than the dissipation of beam kinetic energy flux, and thus these two energy carriers contributed more to the energy transport on PSBL field lines

  13. Communication through resonance in spiking neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Gerald; Bujan, Alejandro F; Frégnac, Yves; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2014-08-01

    The cortex processes stimuli through a distributed network of specialized brain areas. This processing requires mechanisms that can route neuronal activity across weakly connected cortical regions. Routing models proposed thus far are either limited to propagation of spiking activity across strongly connected networks or require distinct mechanisms that create local oscillations and establish their coherence between distant cortical areas. Here, we propose a novel mechanism which explains how synchronous spiking activity propagates across weakly connected brain areas supported by oscillations. In our model, oscillatory activity unleashes network resonance that amplifies feeble synchronous signals and promotes their propagation along weak connections ("communication through resonance"). The emergence of coherent oscillations is a natural consequence of synchronous activity propagation and therefore the assumption of different mechanisms that create oscillations and provide coherence is not necessary. Moreover, the phase-locking of oscillations is a side effect of communication rather than its requirement. Finally, we show how the state of ongoing activity could affect the communication through resonance and propose that modulations of the ongoing activity state could influence information processing in distributed cortical networks.

  14. Phasic spike patterning in rat supraoptic neurones in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Nancy; Brown, Colin H; Ludwig, Mike; Leng, Gareth

    2004-01-01

    In vivo, most vasopressin cells of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus fire action potentials in a ‘phasic’ pattern when the systemic osmotic pressure is elevated, while most oxytocin cells fire continuously. The phasic firing pattern is believed to arise as a consequence of intrinsic activity-dependent changes in membrane potential, and these have been extensively studied in vitro. Here we analysed the discharge patterning of supraoptic nucleus neurones in vivo, to infer the characteristics of the post-spike sequence of hyperpolarization and depolarization from the observed spike patterning. We then compared patterning in phasic cells in vivo and in vitro, and we found systematic differences in the interspike interval distributions, and in other statistical parameters that characterized activity patterns within bursts. Analysis of hazard functions (probability of spike initiation as a function of time since the preceding spike) revealed that phasic firing in vitro appears consistent with a regenerative process arising from a relatively slow, late depolarizing afterpotential that approaches or exceeds spike threshold. By contrast, in vivo activity appears to be dominated by stochastic rather than deterministic mechanisms, and appears consistent with a relatively early and fast depolarizing afterpotential that modulates the probability that random synaptic input exceeds spike threshold. Despite superficial similarities in the phasic firing patterns observed in vivo and in vitro, there are thus fundamental differences in the underlying mechanisms. PMID:15146047

  15. Spike propagation in driven chain networks with dominant global inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Wonil; Jin, Dezhe Z.

    2009-01-01

    Spike propagation in chain networks is usually studied in the synfire regime, in which successive groups of neurons are synaptically activated sequentially through the unidirectional excitatory connections. Here we study the dynamics of chain networks with dominant global feedback inhibition that prevents the synfire activity. Neural activity is driven by suprathreshold external inputs. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that spike propagation along the chain is a unique dynamical attractor in a wide parameter regime. The strong inhibition permits a robust winner-take-all propagation in the case of multiple chains competing via the inhibition.

  16. Spike-timing computation properties of a feed-forward neural network model

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    Drew Benjamin Sinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain function is characterized by dynamical interactions among networks of neurons. These interactions are mediated by network topology at many scales ranging from microcircuits to brain areas. Understanding how networks operate can be aided by understanding how the transformation of inputs depends upon network connectivity patterns, e.g. serial and parallel pathways. To tractably determine how single synapses or groups of synapses in such pathways shape transformations, we modeled feed-forward networks of 7-22 neurons in which synaptic strength changed according to a spike-timing dependent plasticity rule. We investigated how activity varied when dynamics were perturbed by an activity-dependent electrical stimulation protocol (spike-triggered stimulation; STS in networks of different topologies and background input correlations. STS can successfully reorganize functional brain networks in vivo, but with a variability in effectiveness that may derive partially from the underlying network topology. In a simulated network with a single disynaptic pathway driven by uncorrelated background activity, structured spike-timing relationships between polysynaptically connected neurons were not observed. When background activity was correlated or parallel disynaptic pathways were added, however, robust polysynaptic spike timing relationships were observed, and application of STS yielded predictable changes in synaptic strengths and spike-timing relationships. These observations suggest that precise input-related or topologically induced temporal relationships in network activity are necessary for polysynaptic signal propagation. Such constraints for polysynaptic computation suggest potential roles for higher-order topological structure in network organization, such as maintaining polysynaptic correlation in the face of relatively weak synapses.

  17. Dynamic Control of Synchronous Activity in Networks of Spiking Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hutt

    Full Text Available Oscillatory brain activity is believed to play a central role in neural coding. Accumulating evidence shows that features of these oscillations are highly dynamic: power, frequency and phase fluctuate alongside changes in behavior and task demands. The role and mechanism supporting this variability is however poorly understood. We here analyze a network of recurrently connected spiking neurons with time delay displaying stable synchronous dynamics. Using mean-field and stability analyses, we investigate the influence of dynamic inputs on the frequency of firing rate oscillations. We show that afferent noise, mimicking inputs to the neurons, causes smoothing of the system's response function, displacing equilibria and altering the stability of oscillatory states. Our analysis further shows that these noise-induced changes cause a shift of the peak frequency of synchronous oscillations that scales with input intensity, leading the network towards critical states. We lastly discuss the extension of these principles to periodic stimulation, in which externally applied driving signals can trigger analogous phenomena. Our results reveal one possible mechanism involved in shaping oscillatory activity in the brain and associated control principles.

  18. Dynamic Control of Synchronous Activity in Networks of Spiking Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, Axel; Mierau, Andreas; Lefebvre, Jérémie

    Oscillatory brain activity is believed to play a central role in neural coding. Accumulating evidence shows that features of these oscillations are highly dynamic: power, frequency and phase fluctuate alongside changes in behavior and task demands. The role and mechanism supporting this variability is however poorly understood. We here analyze a network of recurrently connected spiking neurons with time delay displaying stable synchronous dynamics. Using mean-field and stability analyses, we investigate the influence of dynamic inputs on the frequency of firing rate oscillations. We show that afferent noise, mimicking inputs to the neurons, causes smoothing of the system's response function, displacing equilibria and altering the stability of oscillatory states. Our analysis further shows that these noise-induced changes cause a shift of the peak frequency of synchronous oscillations that scales with input intensity, leading the network towards critical states. We lastly discuss the extension of these principles to periodic stimulation, in which externally applied driving signals can trigger analogous phenomena. Our results reveal one possible mechanism involved in shaping oscillatory activity in the brain and associated control principles.

  19. Spike sorting for polytrodes: a divide and conquer approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V. Swindale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine patterns of neural activity, spike signals recorded by extracellular electrodes have to be clustered (sorted with the aim of ensuring that each cluster represents all the spikes generated by an individual neuron. Many methods for spike sorting have been proposed but few are easily applicable to recordings from polytrodes which may have 16 or more recording sites. As with tetrodes, these are spaced sufficiently closely that signals from single neurons will usually be recorded on several adjacent sites. Although this offers a better chance of distinguishing neurons with similarly shaped spikes, sorting is difficult in such cases because of the high dimensionality of the space in which the signals must be classified. This report details a method for spike sorting based on a divide and conquer approach. Clusters are initially formed by assigning each event to the channel on which it is largest. Each channel-based cluster is then sub-divided into as many distinct clusters as possible. These are then recombined on the basis of pairwise tests into a final set of clusters. Pairwise tests are also performed to establish how distinct each cluster is from the others. A modified gradient ascent clustering (GAC algorithm is used to do the clustering. The method can sort spikes with minimal user input in times comparable to real time for recordings lasting up to 45 minutes. Our results illustrate some of the difficulties inherent in spike sorting, including changes in spike shape over time. We show that some physiologically distinct units may have very similar spike shapes. We show that RMS measures of spike shape similarity are not sensitive enough to discriminate clusters that can otherwise be separated by principal components analysis. Hence spike sorting based on least-squares matching to templates may be unreliable. Our methods should be applicable to tetrodes and scaleable to larger multi-electrode arrays (MEAs.

  20. A Markovian event-based framework for stochastic spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, Jonathan D; Faugeras, Olivier D

    2011-11-01

    In spiking neural networks, the information is conveyed by the spike times, that depend on the intrinsic dynamics of each neuron, the input they receive and on the connections between neurons. In this article we study the Markovian nature of the sequence of spike times in stochastic neural networks, and in particular the ability to deduce from a spike train the next spike time, and therefore produce a description of the network activity only based on the spike times regardless of the membrane potential process. To study this question in a rigorous manner, we introduce and study an event-based description of networks of noisy integrate-and-fire neurons, i.e. that is based on the computation of the spike times. We show that the firing times of the neurons in the networks constitute a Markov chain, whose transition probability is related to the probability distribution of the interspike interval of the neurons in the network. In the cases where the Markovian model can be developed, the transition probability is explicitly derived in such classical cases of neural networks as the linear integrate-and-fire neuron models with excitatory and inhibitory interactions, for different types of synapses, possibly featuring noisy synaptic integration, transmission delays and absolute and relative refractory period. This covers most of the cases that have been investigated in the event-based description of spiking deterministic neural networks.

  1. iRaster: a novel information visualization tool to explore spatiotemporal patterns in multiple spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, J; Stuart, L; Sernagor, E; Borisyuk, R

    2010-12-15

    Over the last few years, simultaneous recordings of multiple spike trains have become widely used by neuroscientists. Therefore, it is important to develop new tools for analysing multiple spike trains in order to gain new insight into the function of neural systems. This paper describes how techniques from the field of visual analytics can be used to reveal specific patterns of neural activity. An interactive raster plot called iRaster has been developed. This software incorporates a selection of statistical procedures for visualization and flexible manipulations with multiple spike trains. For example, there are several procedures for the re-ordering of spike trains which can be used to unmask activity propagation, spiking synchronization, and many other important features of multiple spike train activity. Additionally, iRaster includes a rate representation of neural activity, a combined representation of rate and spikes, spike train removal and time interval removal. Furthermore, it provides multiple coordinated views, time and spike train zooming windows, a fisheye lens distortion, and dissemination facilities. iRaster is a user friendly, interactive, flexible tool which supports a broad range of visual representations. This tool has been successfully used to analyse both synthetic and experimentally recorded datasets. In this paper, the main features of iRaster are described and its performance and effectiveness are demonstrated using various types of data including experimental multi-electrode array recordings from the ganglion cell layer in mouse retina. iRaster is part of an ongoing research project called VISA (Visualization of Inter-Spike Associations) at the Visualization Lab in the University of Plymouth. The overall aim of the VISA project is to provide neuroscientists with the ability to freely explore and analyse their data. The software is freely available from the Visualization Lab website (see www.plymouth.ac.uk/infovis). Copyright © 2010

  2. A reanalysis of “Two types of asynchronous activity in networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons” [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Engelken

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal activity in the central nervous system varies strongly in time and across neuronal populations. It is a longstanding proposal that such fluctuations generically arise from chaotic network dynamics. Various theoretical studies predict that the rich dynamics of rate models operating in the chaotic regime can subserve circuit computation and learning. Neurons in the brain, however, communicate via spikes and it is a theoretical challenge to obtain similar rate fluctuations in networks of spiking neuron models. A recent study investigated spiking balanced networks of leaky integrate and fire (LIF neurons and compared their dynamics to a matched rate network with identical topology, where single unit input-output functions were chosen from isolated LIF neurons receiving Gaussian white noise input. A mathematical analogy between the chaotic instability in networks of rate units and the spiking network dynamics was proposed. Here we revisit the behavior of the spiking LIF networks and these matched rate networks. We find expected hallmarks of a chaotic instability in the rate network: For supercritical coupling strength near the transition point, the autocorrelation time diverges. For subcritical coupling strengths, we observe critical slowing down in response to small external perturbations. In the spiking network, we found in contrast that the timescale of the autocorrelations is insensitive to the coupling strength and that rate deviations resulting from small input perturbations rapidly decay. The decay speed even accelerates for increasing coupling strength. In conclusion, our reanalysis demonstrates fundamental differences between the behavior of pulse-coupled spiking LIF networks and rate networks with matched topology and input-output function. In particular there is no indication of a corresponding chaotic instability in the spiking network.

  3. Spike avalanches exhibit universal dynamics across the sleep-wake cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago L Ribeiro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Scale-invariant neuronal avalanches have been observed in cell cultures and slices as well as anesthetized and awake brains, suggesting that the brain operates near criticality, i.e. within a narrow margin between avalanche propagation and extinction. In theory, criticality provides many desirable features for the behaving brain, optimizing computational capabilities, information transmission, sensitivity to sensory stimuli and size of memory repertoires. However, a thorough characterization of neuronal avalanches in freely-behaving (FB animals is still missing, thus raising doubts about their relevance for brain function.To address this issue, we employed chronically implanted multielectrode arrays (MEA to record avalanches of action potentials (spikes from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of 14 rats, as they spontaneously traversed the wake-sleep cycle, explored novel objects or were subjected to anesthesia (AN. We then modeled spike avalanches to evaluate the impact of sparse MEA sampling on their statistics. We found that the size distribution of spike avalanches are well fit by lognormal distributions in FB animals, and by truncated power laws in the AN group. FB data surrogation markedly decreases the tail of the distribution, i.e. spike shuffling destroys the largest avalanches. The FB data are also characterized by multiple key features compatible with criticality in the temporal domain, such as 1/f spectra and long-term correlations as measured by detrended fluctuation analysis. These signatures are very stable across waking, slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep, but collapse during anesthesia. Likewise, waiting time distributions obey a single scaling function during all natural behavioral states, but not during anesthesia. Results are equivalent for neuronal ensembles recorded from visual and tactile areas of the cerebral cortex, as well as the hippocampus.Altogether, the data provide a comprehensive link between behavior

  4. Local increase of anticyclonic wave activity over northern Eurasia under amplified Arctic warming: WAVE ACTIVITY RESPONSE TO ARCTIC MELTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Daokai [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China; Lu, Jian [Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Sun, Lantao [CIRES, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; PSD, ESRL, NOAA, Boulder Colorado USA; Chen, Gang [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, UCLA, Los Angeles California USA; Zhang, Yaocun [School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing China

    2017-04-10

    In an attempt to resolve the controversy as to whether Arctic sea ice loss leads to more mid-latitude extremes, a metric of finite-amplitude wave activity is adopted to quantify the midlatitude wave activity and its change during the observed period of the drastic Arctic sea ice decline in both ERA Interim reanalysis data and a set of AMIP-type of atmospheric model experiments. Neither the experiment with the trend in the SST or that with the declining trend of Arctic sea ice can simulate the sizable midlatitude-wide reduction in the total wave activity (Ae) observed in the reanalysis, leaving its explanation to the atmospheric internal variability. On the other hand, both the diagnostics of the flux of the local wave activity and the model experiments lend evidence to a possible linkage between the sea ice loss near the Barents and Kara seas and the increasing trend of anticyclonic local wave activity over the northern part of the central Eurasia and the associated impacts on the frequency of temperature extremes.

  5. Information Entropy Production of Maximum Entropy Markov Chains from Spike Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cofré

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The spiking activity of neuronal networks follows laws that are not time-reversal symmetric; the notion of pre-synaptic and post-synaptic neurons, stimulus correlations and noise correlations have a clear time order. Therefore, a biologically realistic statistical model for the spiking activity should be able to capture some degree of time irreversibility. We use the thermodynamic formalism to build a framework in the context maximum entropy models to quantify the degree of time irreversibility, providing an explicit formula for the information entropy production of the inferred maximum entropy Markov chain. We provide examples to illustrate our results and discuss the importance of time irreversibility for modeling the spike train statistics.

  6. Quantum square-well with logarithmic central spike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znojil, Miloslav; Semorádová, Iveta

    2018-01-01

    Singular repulsive barrier V (x) = -gln(|x|) inside a square-well is interpreted and studied as a linear analog of the state-dependent interaction ℒeff(x) = -gln[ψ∗(x)ψ(x)] in nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In the linearized case, Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory is shown to provide a closed-form spectrum at sufficiently small g or after an amendment of the unperturbed Hamiltonian. At any spike strength g, the model remains solvable numerically, by the matching of wave functions. Analytically, the singularity is shown regularized via the change of variables x = expy which interchanges the roles of the asymptotic and central boundary conditions.

  7. Neural spike sorting using iterative ICA and a deflation-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiganj, Z; Mboup, M

    2012-12-01

    We propose a spike sorting method for multi-channel recordings. When applied in neural recordings, the performance of the independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm is known to be limited, since the number of recording sites is much lower than the number of neurons. The proposed method uses an iterative application of ICA and a deflation technique in two nested loops. In each iteration of the external loop, the spiking activity of one neuron is singled out and then deflated from the recordings. The internal loop implements a sequence of ICA and sorting for removing the noise and all the spikes that are not fired by the targeted neuron. Then a final step is appended to the two nested loops in order to separate simultaneously fired spikes. We solve this problem by taking all possible pairs of the sorted neurons and apply ICA only on the segments of the signal during which at least one of the neurons in a given pair was active. We validate the performance of the proposed method on simulated recordings, but also on a specific type of real recordings: simultaneous extracellular-intracellular. We quantify the sorting results on the extracellular recordings for the spikes that come from the neurons recorded intracellularly. The results suggest that the proposed solution significantly improves the performance of ICA in spike sorting.

  8. Tritium uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): HTO and OBT-spiked feed exposures simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Shultz, C.; Stuart, M.; Festarini, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest in organically bound tritium (OBT) formation in edible fish. The major questions revolve around whether or not tritium can accumulate in fish after being released into aquatic environments. Since OBT formation rates in large, edible fish are poorly understood, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) studies, where fish were simultaneously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) and OBT-spiked feed over 130 days, were conducted to evaluate tritium uptake. The measured HTO activity concentrations in fish tissue confirmed that HTO in fish tissue equilibrates quickly with HTO in tank water. The data obtained also confirmed that OBT uptake is faster when fish are ingesting OBT-spiked feed compared to when fish are living in tritiated water (and consuming non-OBT-spiked feed). The difference between the two exposure types is such that the groups exposed to tritiated water and OBT-spiked feed simultaneously were showing the same uptake rates as OBT-spiked feed only exposures. Contrary to what was expected, the rate of OBT uptake (from OBT-spiked feed) seemed to be higher in slow growing fish compared to fast growing fish. Another observation from these studies was that OBT activity concentrations in all organs (viscera) had a tendency to be higher than OBT activity concentrations measured in fish flesh. - Highlights: • Edible size of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were simultaneously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) and OBT-spiked feed over 130 days. • OBT uptake is faster when fish are ingesting OBT-spiked feed compared to when fish are living in tritiated water (and consuming non-OBT-spiked feed). • The rate of OBT uptake (from OBT-spiked feed) seemed to be higher in slow growing fish compared to fast growing fish

  9. Information transmission with spiking Bayesian neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochmann, Timm; Deneve, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Spike trains of cortical neurons resulting from repeatedpresentations of a stimulus are variable and exhibit Poisson-like statistics. Many models of neural coding therefore assumed that sensory information is contained in instantaneous firing rates, not spike times. Here, we ask how much information about time-varying stimuli can be transmitted by spiking neurons with such input and output variability. In particular, does this variability imply spike generation to be intrinsically stochastic? We consider a model neuron that estimates optimally the current state of a time-varying binary variable (e.g. presence of a stimulus) by integrating incoming spikes. The unit signals its current estimate to other units with spikes whenever the estimate increased by a fixed amount. As shown previously, this computation results in integrate and fire dynamics with Poisson-like output spike trains. This output variability is entirely due to the stochastic input rather than noisy spike generation. As a result such a deterministic neuron can transmit most of the information about the time varying stimulus. This contrasts with a standard model of sensory neurons, the linear-nonlinear Poisson (LNP) model which assumes that most variability in output spike trains is due to stochastic spike generation. Although it yields the same firing statistics, we found that such noisy firing results in the loss of most information. Finally, we use this framework to compare potential effects of top-down attention versus bottom-up saliency on information transfer with spiking neurons

  10. A method for decoding the neurophysiological spike-response transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Estee; García-Crescioni, Keyla; Miller, Mark W; Peskin, Charles S; Brezina, Vladimir

    2009-11-15

    Many physiological responses elicited by neuronal spikes-intracellular calcium transients, synaptic potentials, muscle contractions-are built up of discrete, elementary responses to each spike. However, the spikes occur in trains of arbitrary temporal complexity, and each elementary response not only sums with previous ones, but can itself be modified by the previous history of the activity. A basic goal in system identification is to characterize the spike-response transform in terms of a small number of functions-the elementary response kernel and additional kernels or functions that describe the dependence on previous history-that will predict the response to any arbitrary spike train. Here we do this by developing further and generalizing the "synaptic decoding" approach of Sen et al. (1996). Given the spike times in a train and the observed overall response, we use least-squares minimization to construct the best estimated response and at the same time best estimates of the elementary response kernel and the other functions that characterize the spike-response transform. We avoid the need for any specific initial assumptions about these functions by using techniques of mathematical analysis and linear algebra that allow us to solve simultaneously for all of the numerical function values treated as independent parameters. The functions are such that they may be interpreted mechanistically. We examine the performance of the method as applied to synthetic data. We then use the method to decode real synaptic and muscle contraction transforms.

  11. Implementing Signature Neural Networks with Spiking Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Medina, José Luis; Latorre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Spiking Neural Networks constitute the most promising approach to develop realistic Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Unlike traditional firing rate-based paradigms, information coding in spiking models is based on the precise timing of individual spikes. It has been demonstrated that spiking ANNs can be successfully and efficiently applied to multiple realistic problems solvable with traditional strategies (e.g., data classification or pattern recognition). In recent years, major breakthroughs in neuroscience research have discovered new relevant computational principles in different living neural systems. Could ANNs benefit from some of these recent findings providing novel elements of inspiration? This is an intriguing question for the research community and the development of spiking ANNs including novel bio-inspired information coding and processing strategies is gaining attention. From this perspective, in this work, we adapt the core concepts of the recently proposed Signature Neural Network paradigm-i.e., neural signatures to identify each unit in the network, local information contextualization during the processing, and multicoding strategies for information propagation regarding the origin and the content of the data-to be employed in a spiking neural network. To the best of our knowledge, none of these mechanisms have been used yet in the context of ANNs of spiking neurons. This paper provides a proof-of-concept for their applicability in such networks. Computer simulations show that a simple network model like the discussed here exhibits complex self-organizing properties. The combination of multiple simultaneous encoding schemes allows the network to generate coexisting spatio-temporal patterns of activity encoding information in different spatio-temporal spaces. As a function of the network and/or intra-unit parameters shaping the corresponding encoding modality, different forms of competition among the evoked patterns can emerge even in the absence

  12. Barbed micro-spikes for micro-scale biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Sangwon; Lim, Jung-Min; Paik, Seung-Joon; Lee, Ahra; Koo, Kyo-in; Park, Sunkil; Park, Jaehong; Choi, Byoung-Doo; Seo, Jong Mo; Kim, Kyung-ah; Chung, Hum; Song, Si Young; Jeon, Doyoung; Cho, Dongil

    2005-06-01

    Single-crystal silicon planar micro-spikes with protruding barbs are developed for micro-scale biopsy and the feasibility of using the micro-spike as a micro-scale biopsy tool is evaluated for the first time. The fabrication process utilizes a deep silicon etch to define the micro-spike outline, resulting in protruding barbs of various shapes. Shanks of the fabricated micro-spikes are 3 mm long, 100 µm thick and 250 µm wide. Barbs protruding from micro-spike shanks facilitate the biopsy procedure by tearing off and retaining samples from target tissues. Micro-spikes with barbs successfully extracted tissue samples from the small intestines of the anesthetized pig, whereas micro-spikes without barbs failed to obtain a biopsy sample. Parylene coating can be applied to improve the biocompatibility of the micro-spike without deteriorating the biopsy function of the micro-spike. In addition, to show that the biopsy with the micro-spike can be applied to tissue analysis, samples obtained by micro-spikes were examined using immunofluorescent staining. Nuclei and F-actin of cells which are extracted by the micro-spike from a transwell were clearly visualized by immunofluorescent staining.

  13. Spike sorting based upon machine learning algorithms (SOMA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, P M; Nicol, A U; Kendrick, K M; Feng, J F

    2007-02-15

    We have developed a spike sorting method, using a combination of various machine learning algorithms, to analyse electrophysiological data and automatically determine the number of sampled neurons from an individual electrode, and discriminate their activities. We discuss extensions to a standard unsupervised learning algorithm (Kohonen), as using a simple application of this technique would only identify a known number of clusters. Our extra techniques automatically identify the number of clusters within the dataset, and their sizes, thereby reducing the chance of misclassification. We also discuss a new pre-processing technique, which transforms the data into a higher dimensional feature space revealing separable clusters. Using principal component analysis (PCA) alone may not achieve this. Our new approach appends the features acquired using PCA with features describing the geometric shapes that constitute a spike waveform. To validate our new spike sorting approach, we have applied it to multi-electrode array datasets acquired from the rat olfactory bulb, and from the sheep infero-temporal cortex, and using simulated data. The SOMA sofware is available at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Users/pmh20/spikes.

  14. Bayesian population decoding of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwinn, Sebastian; Macke, Jakob; Bethge, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The timing of action potentials in spiking neurons depends on the temporal dynamics of their inputs and contains information about temporal fluctuations in the stimulus. Leaky integrate-and-fire neurons constitute a popular class of encoding models, in which spike times depend directly on the temporal structure of the inputs. However, optimal decoding rules for these models have only been studied explicitly in the noiseless case. Here, we study decoding rules for probabilistic inference of a continuous stimulus from the spike times of a population of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with threshold noise. We derive three algorithms for approximating the posterior distribution over stimuli as a function of the observed spike trains. In addition to a reconstruction of the stimulus we thus obtain an estimate of the uncertainty as well. Furthermore, we derive a 'spike-by-spike' online decoding scheme that recursively updates the posterior with the arrival of each new spike. We use these decoding rules to reconstruct time-varying stimuli represented by a Gaussian process from spike trains of single neurons as well as neural populations.

  15. Bayesian population decoding of spiking neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gerwinn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The timing of action potentials in spiking neurons depends on the temporal dynamics of their inputs and contains information about temporal fluctuations in the stimulus. Leaky integrate-and-fire neurons constitute a popular class of encoding models, in which spike times depend directly on the temporal structure of the inputs. However, optimal decoding rules for these models have only been studied explicitly in the noiseless case. Here, we study decoding rules for probabilistic inference of a continuous stimulus from the spike times of a population of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with threshold noise. We derive three algorithms for approximating the posterior distribution over stimuli as a function of the observed spike trains. In addition to a reconstruction of the stimulus we thus obtain an estimate of the uncertainty as well. Furthermore, we derive a `spike-by-spike' online decoding scheme that recursively updates the posterior with the arrival of each new spike. We use these decoding rules to reconstruct time-varying stimuli represented by a Gaussian process from spike trains of single neurons as well as neural populations.

  16. Sparse Spike Inversion Predicts Lateral Variation of Porosity La méthode Sparse Spike Inversion de prévision des variations latérales de porosité

    OpenAIRE

    Alam A.; Ardali A.

    2006-01-01

    The sparse spike inversion method estimates from deconvolved seismic data that reflectivity which has the minimum sum of absolute values subject to two constraints. First, the reflectivity spectrum matches the seismic data spectrum over a specified bandwidth. Second, the impedance function resulting from integration of the reflectivity passes through a set of impedance windows, specified at interpreted horizon times. We use an interactive workstation to identify the phase of the residual wave...

  17. Coherent and intermittent ensemble oscillations emerge from networks of irregular spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Mahmood S; Wessel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) recordings from spatially distant cortical circuits reveal episodes of coherent gamma oscillations that are intermittent, and of variable peak frequency and duration. Concurrently, single neuron spiking remains largely irregular and of low rate. The underlying potential mechanisms of this emergent network activity have long been debated. Here we reproduce such intermittent ensemble oscillations in a model network, consisting of excitatory and inhibitory model neurons with the characteristics of regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal neurons, and fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold spiking (LTS) interneurons. We find that fluctuations in the external inputs trigger reciprocally connected and irregularly spiking RS and FS neurons in episodes of ensemble oscillations, which are terminated by the recruitment of the LTS population with concurrent accumulation of inhibitory conductance in both RS and FS neurons. The model qualitatively reproduces experimentally observed phase drift, oscillation episode duration distributions, variation in the peak frequency, and the concurrent irregular single-neuron spiking at low rate. Furthermore, consistent with previous experimental studies using optogenetic manipulation, periodic activation of FS, but not RS, model neurons causes enhancement of gamma oscillations. In addition, increasing the coupling between two model networks from low to high reveals a transition from independent intermittent oscillations to coherent intermittent oscillations. In conclusion, the model network suggests biologically plausible mechanisms for the generation of episodes of coherent intermittent ensemble oscillations with irregular spiking neurons in cortical circuits. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Axonal propagation of simple and complex spikes in cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Zayd M; Raman, Indira M

    2005-01-12

    In cerebellar Purkinje neurons, the reliability of propagation of high-frequency simple spikes and spikelets of complex spikes is likely to regulate inhibition of Purkinje target neurons. To test the extent to which a one-to-one correspondence exists between somatic and axonal spikes, we made dual somatic and axonal recordings from Purkinje neurons in mouse cerebellar slices. Somatic action potentials were recorded with a whole-cell pipette, and the corresponding axonal signals were recorded extracellularly with a loose-patch pipette. Propagation of spontaneous and evoked simple spikes was highly reliable. At somatic firing rates of approximately 200 spikes/sec, 375 Hz during somatic hyperpolarizations that silenced spontaneous firing to approximately 150 Hz during spontaneous activity. The probability of propagation of individual spikelets could be described quantitatively as a saturating function of spikelet amplitude, rate of rise, or preceding interspike interval. The results suggest that ion channels of Purkinje axons are adapted to produce extremely short refractory periods and that brief bursts of forward-propagating action potentials generated by complex spikes may contribute transiently to inhibition of postsynaptic neurons.

  19. Improved SpikeProp for Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah Y. H. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A spiking neurons network encodes information in the timing of individual spike times. A novel supervised learning rule for SpikeProp is derived to overcome the discontinuities introduced by the spiking thresholding. This algorithm is based on an error-backpropagation learning rule suited for supervised learning of spiking neurons that use exact spike time coding. The SpikeProp is able to demonstrate the spiking neurons that can perform complex nonlinear classification in fast temporal coding. This study proposes enhancements of SpikeProp learning algorithm for supervised training of spiking networks which can deal with complex patterns. The proposed methods include the SpikeProp particle swarm optimization (PSO and angle driven dependency learning rate. These methods are presented to SpikeProp network for multilayer learning enhancement and weights optimization. Input and output patterns are encoded as spike trains of precisely timed spikes, and the network learns to transform the input trains into target output trains. With these enhancements, our proposed methods outperformed other conventional neural network architectures.

  20. Parametric models to relate spike train and LFP dynamics with neural information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arpan; Dean, Heather L; Pesaran, Bijan

    2012-01-01

    Spike trains and local field potentials (LFPs) resulting from extracellular current flows provide a substrate for neural information processing. Understanding the neural code from simultaneous spike-field recordings and subsequent decoding of information processing events will have widespread applications. One way to demonstrate an understanding of the neural code, with particular advantages for the development of applications, is to formulate a parametric statistical model of neural activity and its covariates. Here, we propose a set of parametric spike-field models (unified models) that can be used with existing decoding algorithms to reveal the timing of task or stimulus specific processing. Our proposed unified modeling framework captures the effects of two important features of information processing: time-varying stimulus-driven inputs and ongoing background activity that occurs even in the absence of environmental inputs. We have applied this framework for decoding neural latencies in simulated and experimentally recorded spike-field sessions obtained from the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of awake, behaving monkeys performing cued look-and-reach movements to spatial targets. Using both simulated and experimental data, we find that estimates of trial-by-trial parameters are not significantly affected by the presence of ongoing background activity. However, including background activity in the unified model improves goodness of fit for predicting individual spiking events. Uncovering the relationship between the model parameters and the timing of movements offers new ways to test hypotheses about the relationship between neural activity and behavior. We obtained significant spike-field onset time correlations from single trials using a previously published data set where significantly strong correlation was only obtained through trial averaging. We also found that unified models extracted a stronger relationship between neural response latency and trial

  1. Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes using multiple sparse volumetric priors for presurgical epileptogenic focus localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Strobbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical source imaging of interictal spikes observed in EEG recordings of patients with refractory epilepsy provides useful information to localize the epileptogenic focus during the presurgical evaluation. However, the selection of the time points or time epochs of the spikes in order to estimate the origin of the activity remains a challenge. In this study, we consider a Bayesian EEG source imaging technique for distributed sources, i.e. the multiple volumetric sparse priors (MSVP approach. The approach allows to estimate the time courses of the intensity of the sources corresponding with a specific time epoch of the spike. Based on presurgical averaged interictal spikes in six patients who were successfully treated with surgery, we estimated the time courses of the source intensities for three different time epochs: (i an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at 50% of the spike peak during the rising phase of the spike, (ii an epoch starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending at the spike peak and (iii an epoch containing the full spike time period starting 50 ms before the spike peak and ending 230 ms after the spike peak. To identify the primary source of the spike activity, the source with the maximum energy from 50 ms before the spike peak till 50% of the spike peak was subsequently selected for each of the time windows. For comparison, the activity at the spike peaks and at 50% of the peaks was localized using the LORETA inversion technique and an ECD approach. Both patient-specific spherical forward models and patient-specific 5-layered finite difference models were considered to evaluate the influence of the forward model. Based on the resected zones in each of the patients, extracted from post-operative MR images, we compared the distances to the resection border of the estimated activity. Using the spherical models, the distances to the resection border for the MSVP approach and each of the different time

  2. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  3. Spike timing rigidity is maintained in bursting neurons under pentobarbital-induced anesthetic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Kato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pentobarbital potentiates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission by prolonging the open time of GABAA receptors. However, it is unknown how pentobarbital regulates cortical neuronal activities via local circuits in vivo. To examine this question, we performed extracellular unit recording in rat insular cortex under awake and anesthetic conditions. Not a few studies apply time-rescaling theorem to detect the features of repetitive spike firing. Similar to these methods, we define an average spike interval locally in time using random matrix theory (RMT, which enables us to compare different activity states on a universal scale. Neurons with high spontaneous firing frequency (> 5 Hz and bursting were classified as HFB neurons (n = 10, and those with low spontaneous firing frequency (< 10 Hz and without bursting were classified as non-HFB neurons (n = 48. Pentobarbital injection (30 mg/kg reduced firing frequency in all HFB neurons and in 78% of non-HFB neurons. RMT analysis demonstrated that pentobarbital increased in the number of neurons with repulsion in both HFB and non-HFB neurons, suggesting that there is a correlation between spikes within a short interspike interval. Under awake conditions, in 50% of HFB and 40% of non-HFB neurons, the decay phase of normalized histograms of spontaneous firing were fitted to an exponential function, which indicated that the first spike had no correlation with subsequent spikes. In contrast, under pentobarbital-induced anesthesia conditions, the number of non-HFB neurons that were fitted to an exponential function increased to 80%, but almost no change in HFB neurons was observed. These results suggest that under both awake and pentobarbital-induced anesthetized conditions, spike firing in HFB neurons is more robustly regulated by preceding spikes than by non-HFB neurons, which may reflect the GABAA receptor-mediated regulation of cortical activities. Whole-cell patch

  4. SPIKY: a graphical user interface for monitoring spike train synchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuz, Thomas; Mulansky, Mario; Bozanic, Nebojsa

    2015-05-01

    Techniques for recording large-scale neuronal spiking activity are developing very fast. This leads to an increasing demand for algorithms capable of analyzing large amounts of experimental spike train data. One of the most crucial and demanding tasks is the identification of similarity patterns with a very high temporal resolution and across different spatial scales. To address this task, in recent years three time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony have been proposed, the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance, and event synchronization. The Matlab source codes for calculating and visualizing these measures have been made publicly available. However, due to the many different possible representations of the results the use of these codes is rather complicated and their application requires some basic knowledge of Matlab. Thus it became desirable to provide a more user-friendly and interactive interface. Here we address this need and present SPIKY, a graphical user interface that facilitates the application of time-resolved measures of spike train synchrony to both simulated and real data. SPIKY includes implementations of the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance, and the SPIKE-synchronization (an improved and simplified extension of event synchronization) that have been optimized with respect to computation speed and memory demand. It also comprises a spike train generator and an event detector that makes it capable of analyzing continuous data. Finally, the SPIKY package includes additional complementary programs aimed at the analysis of large numbers of datasets and the estimation of significance levels. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Comparison of spike-sorting algorithms for future hardware implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah; Judy, Jack W; Markovic, Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Applications such as brain-machine interfaces require hardware spike sorting in order to (1) obtain single-unit activity and (2) perform data reduction for wireless transmission of data. Such systems must be low-power, low-area, high-accuracy, automatic, and able to operate in real time. Several detection and feature extraction algorithms for spike sorting are described briefly and evaluated in terms of accuracy versus computational complexity. The nonlinear energy operator method is chosen as the optimal spike detection algorithm, being most robust over noise and relatively simple. The discrete derivatives method [1] is chosen as the optimal feature extraction method, maintaining high accuracy across SNRs with a complexity orders of magnitude less than that of traditional methods such as PCA.

  6. Temporally coordinated spiking activity of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons co-cultured with astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayama, Tasuku; Suzuki, Ikuro; Odawara, Aoi; Sasaki, Takuya; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2018-01-01

    In culture conditions, human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC)-derived neurons form synaptic connections with other cells and establish neuronal networks, which are expected to be an in vitro model system for drug discovery screening and toxicity testing. While early studies demonstrated effects of co-culture of hiPSC-derived neurons with astroglial cells on survival and maturation of hiPSC-derived neurons, the population spiking patterns of such hiPSC-derived neurons have not been fully characterized. In this study, we analyzed temporal spiking patterns of hiPSC-derived neurons recorded by a multi-electrode array system. We discovered that specific sets of hiPSC-derived neurons co-cultured with astrocytes showed more frequent and highly coherent non-random synchronized spike trains and more dynamic changes in overall spike patterns over time. These temporally coordinated spiking patterns are physiological signs of organized circuits of hiPSC-derived neurons and suggest benefits of co-culture of hiPSC-derived neurons with astrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Stratospheric gravity wave activities inferred through the GPS radio occultation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Takahashi, Hisao; Fechine, Joaquim; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Wickert, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Stratospheric gravity wave activities were deduced from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles obtained by CHAMP satellite between 2001 and 2005. Potential energy profiles are used to analyze the gravity wave activity over South America. The results showed an inter-annual variation of the potential energy integrated between 24 and 34 km of altitude. The gravity wave activity is more concentrated around the equatorial region. In order to evaluate the seasonal variation of the gravity wave activity, a mean potential energy was determined over (10 deg N-10 deg S) and (100 deg W-20 deg W). The results showed a lower gravity wave activity during winter time, while during spring time the mean potential energy showed an increase in the wave activity. The results of the mean potential energy also showed that the gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere exhibits a higher wave activity during 2002 and 2004 and a lower wave activity during 2003 and 2005. (author)

  8. Precise-spike-driven synaptic plasticity: learning hetero-association of spatiotemporal spike patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yu

    Full Text Available A new learning rule (Precise-Spike-Driven (PSD Synaptic Plasticity is proposed for processing and memorizing spatiotemporal patterns. PSD is a supervised learning rule that is analytically derived from the traditional Widrow-Hoff rule and can be used to train neurons to associate an input spatiotemporal spike pattern with a desired spike train. Synaptic adaptation is driven by the error between the desired and the actual output spikes, with positive errors causing long-term potentiation and negative errors causing long-term depression. The amount of modification is proportional to an eligibility trace that is triggered by afferent spikes. The PSD rule is both computationally efficient and biologically plausible. The properties of this learning rule are investigated extensively through experimental simulations, including its learning performance, its generality to different neuron models, its robustness against noisy conditions, its memory capacity, and the effects of its learning parameters. Experimental results show that the PSD rule is capable of spatiotemporal pattern classification, and can even outperform a well studied benchmark algorithm with the proposed relative confidence criterion. The PSD rule is further validated on a practical example of an optical character recognition problem. The results again show that it can achieve a good recognition performance with a proper encoding. Finally, a detailed discussion is provided about the PSD rule and several related algorithms including tempotron, SPAN, Chronotron and ReSuMe.

  9. Precise-spike-driven synaptic plasticity: learning hetero-association of spatiotemporal spike patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Tang, Huajin; Tan, Kay Chen; Li, Haizhou

    2013-01-01

    A new learning rule (Precise-Spike-Driven (PSD) Synaptic Plasticity) is proposed for processing and memorizing spatiotemporal patterns. PSD is a supervised learning rule that is analytically derived from the traditional Widrow-Hoff rule and can be used to train neurons to associate an input spatiotemporal spike pattern with a desired spike train. Synaptic adaptation is driven by the error between the desired and the actual output spikes, with positive errors causing long-term potentiation and negative errors causing long-term depression. The amount of modification is proportional to an eligibility trace that is triggered by afferent spikes. The PSD rule is both computationally efficient and biologically plausible. The properties of this learning rule are investigated extensively through experimental simulations, including its learning performance, its generality to different neuron models, its robustness against noisy conditions, its memory capacity, and the effects of its learning parameters. Experimental results show that the PSD rule is capable of spatiotemporal pattern classification, and can even outperform a well studied benchmark algorithm with the proposed relative confidence criterion. The PSD rule is further validated on a practical example of an optical character recognition problem. The results again show that it can achieve a good recognition performance with a proper encoding. Finally, a detailed discussion is provided about the PSD rule and several related algorithms including tempotron, SPAN, Chronotron and ReSuMe.

  10. Pontas evocadas por estímulos somatossensitivos e atividade epileptiforme no eletrencefalograma em crianças "normais" Somatosensory evoked spikes and epileptiform activity in "normal" children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu C. Fonseca

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos a ocorrência de potenciais de alta voltagem evocados por estímulos somatossensitivos - pontas evocadas (PE - e de atividade epileptiforme espontânea (AE no EEG de 173 crianças normais de 7 a 11 anos de idade. Durante o EEG, dez percussões foram realizadas nas mãos e pés. Foi avaliada a ocorrência de PE acompanhando cada um dos estímulos e a presença de AE. AE foi observada em quatro crianças (2,3%: pontas centroparietais em duas, complexos de ponta-onda lenta generalizados em uma e pontas parietais e temporais médias em uma. Uma menina de 10 anos de idade (0,58% teve ao EEG pontas parietais medianas evocadas pela percussão do pé esquerdo. Este EEG era normal quanto a outros aspectos. Nossos achados de AE em crianças normais são similares aos encontrados em estudos de outros países. Constatamos que espículas somatossensitivas podem ser observadas em crianças normais o que sugere uma natureza funcional ligada à idade.Little is known about somatosensory evoked spikes (SES in the EEG of normal children. We studied the occurrence of SES and spontaneous epileptiform activity (SEA in 173 normal children ageg 7 to 11 years. During the EEG ten taps were applied to both hands and feet. The occurrence of high voltage potentials evoked by each stimulation of one or both heels or hands (SES and the occurrence of SEA were evaluated. SEA was observed in four children (2.3 %: central/parietal spikes in two cases, generalized spike-and-wave in one, and parietal/midtemporal spikes in one case. A ten years old girl (0,58% had SES on median parietal region by tapping the left foot. This EEG was otherwise normal. Our findings of SEA are similar to those obtained in other normal populations. SES can be observed in normal children. These SES suggest that we are dealing with an age-related functional phenomenon.

  11. Semi-automated analysis of EEG spikes in the preterm fetal sheep using wavelet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walbran, A.C.; Unsworth, C.P.; Gunn, A.J.; Benett, L.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Presentation Preference Oral Presentation Perinatal hypoxia plays a key role in the cause of brain injury in premature infants. Cerebral hypothermia commenced in the latent phase of evolving injury (first 6-8 h post hypoxic-ischemic insult) is the lead candidate for treatment however currently there is no means to identify which infants can benefit from treatment. Recent studies suggest that epileptiform transients in latent phase are predictive of neural outcome. To quantify this, an automated means of EEG analysis is required as EEG monitoring produces vast amounts of data which is timely to analyse manually. We have developed a semi-automated EEG spike detection method which employs a discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). EEG data was obtained from a fetal sheep at approximately 0.7 of gestation. Fetal asphyxia was maintained for 25 min and the EEG recorded for 8 h before and after asphyxia. The CWT was calculated followed by the power of the wavelet transform coefficients. Areas of high power corresponded to spike waves so thresholding was employed to identify the spikes. The performance of the method was found have a good sensitivity and selectivity, thus demonstrating that this method is a simple, robust and potentially effective spike detection algorithm.

  12. Coronavirus spike-receptor interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, H.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses cause important diseases in humans and animals. Coronavirus infection starts with the virus binding with its spike proteins to molecules present on the surface of host cells that act as receptors. This spike-receptor interaction is highly specific and determines the virus’ cell, tissue

  13. Active micromixer using surface acoustic wave streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch,; Darren W. , Meyer; Grant D. , Craighead; Harold, G [Ithaca, NY

    2011-05-17

    An active micromixer uses a surface acoustic wave, preferably a Rayleigh wave, propagating on a piezoelectric substrate to induce acoustic streaming in a fluid in a microfluidic channel. The surface acoustic wave can be generated by applying an RF excitation signal to at least one interdigital transducer on the piezoelectric substrate. The active micromixer can rapidly mix quiescent fluids or laminar streams in low Reynolds number flows. The active micromixer has no moving parts (other than the SAW transducer) and is, therefore, more reliable, less damaging to sensitive fluids, and less susceptible to fouling and channel clogging than other types of active and passive micromixers. The active micromixer is adaptable to a wide range of geometries, can be easily fabricated, and can be integrated in a microfluidic system, reducing dead volume. Finally, the active micromixer has on-demand on/off mixing capability and can be operated at low power.

  14. Computational investigations of blunt body drag-reduction spikes in hypersonic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, N.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Drag is an important parameter in the designing of high-speed vehicles. Such vehicles include hypervelocity projectiles, reentry modules, and hypersonic aircrafts. Therefore, there exists an active or passive technique to reduce drag due to the high pressures at nosetip region of the vehicle. Drag can be reduced by attaching a forward facing spike on the nose of the vehicle. The present study reviews and deals with the CFD analysis made on a standard blunt body to reduce aerodynamic drag due to the attachment of forward facing spikes for High-Speed vehicles. Different spike lengths have been examined to study the forebody flowfield. The investigation concludes that spikes are an effective way to reduce the aerodynamic drag due to reduced dynamic pressure on the nose caused by the separated flow on the spikes. With the accomplishment of confidence on computational data, study was extended in hypersonic Mach range with a drag prediction accuracy of ± 10%. In the present work, viscous fluid dynamics studies were performed for a complete freestream Mach number range of 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 for different spike lengths and zero degree angle of attack. (author)

  15. Consensus-Based Sorting of Neuronal Spike Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Julien; Mueller, Christian M; Shein-Idelson, Mark; Hemberger, Mike; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing spike-sorting algorithms is difficult because sorted clusters can rarely be checked against independently obtained "ground truth" data. In most spike-sorting algorithms in use today, the optimality of a clustering solution is assessed relative to some assumption on the distribution of the spike shapes associated with a particular single unit (e.g., Gaussianity) and by visual inspection of the clustering solution followed by manual validation. When the spatiotemporal waveforms of spikes from different cells overlap, the decision as to whether two spikes should be assigned to the same source can be quite subjective, if it is not based on reliable quantitative measures. We propose a new approach, whereby spike clusters are identified from the most consensual partition across an ensemble of clustering solutions. Using the variability of the clustering solutions across successive iterations of the same clustering algorithm (template matching based on K-means clusters), we estimate the probability of spikes being clustered together and identify groups of spikes that are not statistically distinguishable from one another. Thus, we identify spikes that are most likely to be clustered together and therefore correspond to consistent spike clusters. This method has the potential advantage that it does not rely on any model of the spike shapes. It also provides estimates of the proportion of misclassified spikes for each of the identified clusters. We tested our algorithm on several datasets for which there exists a ground truth (simultaneous intracellular data), and show that it performs close to the optimum reached by a support vector machine trained on the ground truth. We also show that the estimated rate of misclassification matches the proportion of misclassified spikes measured from the ground truth data.

  16. Temporal Pattern of Online Communication Spike Trains in Spreading a Scientific Rumor: How Often, Who Interacts with Whom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda eSanli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study complex time series (spike trains of online user communication while spreading messages about the discovery of the Higgs boson in Twitter. We focus on online social interactions among users such as retweet, mention, and reply, and construct different types of active (performing an action and passive (receiving an action spike trains for each user. The spike trains are analyzed by means of local variation, to quantify the temporal behavior of active and passive users, as a function of their activity and popularity. We show that the active spike trains are bursty, independently of their activation frequency. For passive spike trains, in contrast, the local variation of popular users presents uncorrelated (Poisson random dynamics. We further characterize the correlations of the local variation in different interactions. We obtain high values of correlation, and thus consistent temporal behavior, between retweets and mentions, but only for popular users, indicating that creating online attention suggests an alignment in the dynamics of the two interactions.

  17. Modeling Whistler Wave Generation Regimes In Magnetospheric Cyclotron Maser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmanik, D. L.; Demekhov, A. G.; Trakhtengerts, V. Y.; Parrot, M.

    Numerical analysis of the model for cyclotron instability development in the Earth magnetosphere is made.This model, based on the self-consistent set of equations of quasi-linear plasma theory, describes different regimes of wave generation and related energetic particle precipitation. As the source of free energy the injection of energetic electrons with transverse anisotropic distribution function to the interaction region is considered. Two different mechanisms of energetic electron loss from the interaction region are discussed. The first one is precipitation of energetic particles via the loss cone. The other mechanism is drift of particles away from the interaction region across the mag- netic field line. In the case of interaction in plasmasphere or rather large areas of cold plasma density enhancement the loss cone precipitation are dominant. For interaction in a subauroral duct losses due to drift are most effective. A parametric study of the model for both mechanisms of particle losses is made. The main attention is paid to the analysis of generation regimes for different characteristics of energetic electron source, such as the shape of pitch-angle distributions and elec- tron density. We show that in addition to the well-known stationary generation and periodic regime with successive spikes of similar shape, more complex forms of wave spectrum exist. In particular, we found a periodic regime, in which a single period in- cludes two separate spikes with different spectral shapes. In another regime, periodic generation of spikes at higher frequencies together with quasi-stationary generation at lower frequencies occurs. Quasi-periodic regime with spike overlapping, i.e. when generation of a new spike begins before the previous one is over is also found. Results obtained are compared with experimental data on quasi-periodic regimes of whistler wave generation.

  18. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Darokhan, Ziauddin; Valentiniene, Sonata; Roland, Per E.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex spontaneously spike even when there are no visual stimuli. It is unknown whether the spiking evoked by visual stimuli is just a modification of the spontaneous ongoing cortical spiking dynamics or whether the spontaneous spiking state disappears and is replaced by evoked spiking. This study of laminar recordings of spontaneous spiking and visually evoked spiking of neurons in the ferret primary visual cortex shows that the spiking dynamics does not change: the spontaneous spiking as well as evoked spiking is controlled by a stable and persisting fixed point attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization is that it avoids the need for a system reorganization following visual stimulation, and impedes the transition of spontaneous spiking to evoked spiking and the propagation of spontaneous spiking from layer 4 to layers 2–3. PMID:26778982

  19. Separation of transient and oscillatory cerebral activities using over-complete rational dilation wavelet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaibi, S.; Lajnef, T.; Samet, M.; Kachouri, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many natural signals EEG are comprised frequency overlapping of oscillatory and transient components. In our study the intracranial EEG signals of epilepsy are composed of the superposition of oscillatory signals (HFOs: High Frequency oscillations) and a transient signals (spikes and sharp waves, etc.). The oscillatory components (HFOs) exist in the frequency band 80-500Hz. The transient components comes from nonrhythmic brain activities (spikes, sharp waves and vertex waves of varying amplitude, shape and duration) and cover a continuous wide bandwidth from low to high frequencies and resemble an HFOs events when filtered using a band pass classical filter. The classical filtering methods based on FIR filters, Wavelet transforms and the Matching Pursuit cannot separate the oscillatory from transient activities. This paper describes an approach for decomposing an iEEG signals of epilepsy into the sum of oscillatory components and a transient components based on overcomplete rational dilation wavelet transforms (overcomplete RADWT) in conjunction with morphological component analysis (MCA).

  20. Transformation-invariant visual representations in self-organizing spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Benjamin D; Stringer, Simon M

    2012-01-01

    The ventral visual pathway achieves object and face recognition by building transformation-invariant representations from elementary visual features. In previous computer simulation studies with rate-coded neural networks, the development of transformation-invariant representations has been demonstrated using either of two biologically plausible learning mechanisms, Trace learning and Continuous Transformation (CT) learning. However, it has not previously been investigated how transformation-invariant representations may be learned in a more biologically accurate spiking neural network. A key issue is how the synaptic connection strengths in such a spiking network might self-organize through Spike-Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP) where the change in synaptic strength is dependent on the relative times of the spikes emitted by the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons rather than simply correlated activity driving changes in synaptic efficacy. Here we present simulations with conductance-based integrate-and-fire (IF) neurons using a STDP learning rule to address these gaps in our understanding. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate selection of model parameters and training regime, the spiking network model can utilize either Trace-like or CT-like learning mechanisms to achieve transform-invariant representations.

  1. Transform-invariant visual representations in self-organizing spiking neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eEvans

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ventral visual pathway achieves object and face recognition by building transform-invariant representations from elementary visual features. In previous computer simulation studies with rate-coded neural networks, the development of transform invariant representations has been demonstrated using either of two biologically plausible learning mechanisms, Trace learning and Continuous Transformation (CT learning. However, it has not previously been investigated how transform invariant representations may be learned in a more biologically accurate spiking neural network. A key issue is how the synaptic connection strengths in such a spiking network might self-organize through Spike-Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP where the change in synaptic strength is dependent on the relative times of the spikes emitted by the pre- and postsynaptic neurons rather than simply correlated activity driving changes in synaptic efficacy. Here we present simulations with conductance-based integrate-and-fire (IF neurons using a STDP learning rule to address these gaps in our understanding. It is demonstrated that with the appropriate selection of model pa- rameters and training regime, the spiking network model can utilize either Trace-like or CT-like learning mechanisms to achieve transform-invariant representations.

  2. A case-control study of wicket spikes using video-EEG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhaneni, Maya; Baldassari, Laura E; Scribner, James T; Cho, Yong Won; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2013-01-01

    To investigate clinical characteristics associated with wicket spikes in patients undergoing long-term video-EEG monitoring. A case-control study was performed in 479 patients undergoing video-EEG monitoring, with 3 age- (±3 years) and gender-matched controls per patient with wicket spikes. Logistic regression was utilized to investigate the association between wicket spikes and other factors, including conditions that have been previously associated with wicket spikes. Wicket spikes were recorded in 48 patients. There was a significantly higher prevalence of dizziness/vertigo (p=0.002), headaches (p=0.005), migraine (p=0.015), and seizures (p=0.016) in patients with wickets. The majority of patients with wicket spikes did not exhibit epileptiform activity on EEG; however, patients with history of seizures were more likely to have wickets (p=0.017). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures between the groups. Wickets were more common on the left, during sleep, and more likely to be first recorded on day 1-2 of monitoring. Patients with wicket spikes are more likely to have dizziness/vertigo, headaches, migraine, and seizures. Patients with history of seizures are more likely to have wickets. The prevalence of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures is not significantly higher in patients with wickets. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ASSET: Analysis of Sequences of Synchronous Events in Massively Parallel Spike Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, Carlos; Denker, Michael; Gerstein, George; Helias, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    With the ability to observe the activity from large numbers of neurons simultaneously using modern recording technologies, the chance to identify sub-networks involved in coordinated processing increases. Sequences of synchronous spike events (SSEs) constitute one type of such coordinated spiking that propagates activity in a temporally precise manner. The synfire chain was proposed as one potential model for such network processing. Previous work introduced a method for visualization of SSEs in massively parallel spike trains, based on an intersection matrix that contains in each entry the degree of overlap of active neurons in two corresponding time bins. Repeated SSEs are reflected in the matrix as diagonal structures of high overlap values. The method as such, however, leaves the task of identifying these diagonal structures to visual inspection rather than to a quantitative analysis. Here we present ASSET (Analysis of Sequences of Synchronous EvenTs), an improved, fully automated method which determines diagonal structures in the intersection matrix by a robust mathematical procedure. The method consists of a sequence of steps that i) assess which entries in the matrix potentially belong to a diagonal structure, ii) cluster these entries into individual diagonal structures and iii) determine the neurons composing the associated SSEs. We employ parallel point processes generated by stochastic simulations as test data to demonstrate the performance of the method under a wide range of realistic scenarios, including different types of non-stationarity of the spiking activity and different correlation structures. Finally, the ability of the method to discover SSEs is demonstrated on complex data from large network simulations with embedded synfire chains. Thus, ASSET represents an effective and efficient tool to analyze massively parallel spike data for temporal sequences of synchronous activity. PMID:27420734

  4. Higher Order Spike Synchrony in Prefrontal Cortex during visual memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon ePipa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Precise temporal synchrony of spike firing has been postulated as an important neuronal mechanism for signal integration and the induction of plasticity in neocortex. As prefrontal cortex plays an important role in organizing memory and executive functions, the convergence of multiple visual pathways onto PFC predicts that neurons should preferentially synchronize their spiking when stimulus information is processed. Furthermore, synchronous spike firing should intensify if memory processes require the induction of neuronal plasticity, even if this is only for short-term. Here we show with multiple simultaneously recorded units in ventral prefrontal cortex that neurons participate in 3 ms precise synchronous discharges distributed across multiple sites separated by at least 500 µm. The frequency of synchronous firing is modulated by behavioral performance and is specific for the memorized visual stimuli. In particular, during the memory period in which activity is not stimulus driven, larger groups of up to 7 sites exhibit performance dependent modulation of their spike synchronization.

  5. Neural dynamics as sampling: a model for stochastic computation in recurrent networks of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesing, Lars; Bill, Johannes; Nessler, Bernhard; Maass, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    The organization of computations in networks of spiking neurons in the brain is still largely unknown, in particular in view of the inherently stochastic features of their firing activity and the experimentally observed trial-to-trial variability of neural systems in the brain. In principle there exists a powerful computational framework for stochastic computations, probabilistic inference by sampling, which can explain a large number of macroscopic experimental data in neuroscience and cognitive science. But it has turned out to be surprisingly difficult to create a link between these abstract models for stochastic computations and more detailed models of the dynamics of networks of spiking neurons. Here we create such a link and show that under some conditions the stochastic firing activity of networks of spiking neurons can be interpreted as probabilistic inference via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. Since common methods for MCMC sampling in distributed systems, such as Gibbs sampling, are inconsistent with the dynamics of spiking neurons, we introduce a different approach based on non-reversible Markov chains that is able to reflect inherent temporal processes of spiking neuronal activity through a suitable choice of random variables. We propose a neural network model and show by a rigorous theoretical analysis that its neural activity implements MCMC sampling of a given distribution, both for the case of discrete and continuous time. This provides a step towards closing the gap between abstract functional models of cortical computation and more detailed models of networks of spiking neurons.

  6. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of Active Wave Absorption Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Frigaard, Peter

    on a horisontal and vertical velocity are treated. All three systems are based on digital FIR-filters. For numerical comparison a performance function combining the frequency response of the set of filters for each system is derived enabling discussion on optimal filter design and system setup. Irregular wave......A comparison of wave gauge based on velocity meter based active absorption systems is presented discussing advantages and disadvantages of the systems. In detail one system based on two surface elevations, one system based on a surface elevation and a horisontal velocity and one system based...... tests with a highly reflective structure with the purely wave gauge based system and the wave gauge velocity meter based system are performed. The wave test depict the differences between the systems....

  8. Activation of mGluR5 induces spike afterdepolarization and enhanced excitability in medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens by modulating persistent Na+ currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ascenzo, Marcello; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Fellin, Tommaso; Azzena, Gian Battista; Haydon, Philip; Grassi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of metabotropic glutamate receptors type 5 (mGluR5) in drug-induced behaviours is well-established but limited information is available on their functional roles in addiction-relevant brain areas like the nucleus accumbens (NAc). This study demonstrates that pharmacological and synaptic activation of mGluR5 increases the spike discharge of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc. This effect was associated with the appearance of a slow afterdepolarization (ADP) which, in voltage-clamp experiments, was recorded as a slowly inactivating inward current. Pharmacological studies showed that ADP was elicited by mGluR5 stimulation via G-protein-dependent activation of phospholipase C and elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Both ADP and spike aftercurrents were significantly inhibited by the Na+ channel-blocker, tetrodotoxin (TTX). Moreover, the selective blockade of persistent Na+ currents (INaP), achieved by NAc slice pre-incubation with 20 nm TTX or 10 μm riluzole, significantly reduced the ADP amplitude, indicating that this type of Na+ current is responsible for the mGluR5-dependent ADP. mGluR5 activation also produced significant increases in INaP, and the pharmacological blockade of this current prevented the mGluR5-induced enhancement of spike discharge. Collectively, these data suggest that mGluR5 activation upregulates INaP in MSNs of the NAc, thereby inducing an ADP that results in enhanced MSN excitability. Activation of mGluR5 will significantly alter spike firing in MSNs in vivo, and this effect could be an important mechanism by which these receptors mediate certain aspects of drug-induced behaviours. PMID:19433572

  9. Poisson-Like Spiking in Circuits with Probabilistic Synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Bote, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity in cortex is variable both spontaneously and during stimulation, and it has the remarkable property that it is Poisson-like over broad ranges of firing rates covering from virtually zero to hundreds of spikes per second. The mechanisms underlying cortical-like spiking variability over such a broad continuum of rates are currently unknown. We show that neuronal networks endowed with probabilistic synaptic transmission, a well-documented source of variability in cortex, robustly generate Poisson-like variability over several orders of magnitude in their firing rate without fine-tuning of the network parameters. Other sources of variability, such as random synaptic delays or spike generation jittering, do not lead to Poisson-like variability at high rates because they cannot be sufficiently amplified by recurrent neuronal networks. We also show that probabilistic synapses predict Fano factor constancy of synaptic conductances. Our results suggest that synaptic noise is a robust and sufficient mechanism for the type of variability found in cortex. PMID:25032705

  10. Biophysical Neural Spiking, Bursting, and Excitability Dynamics in Reconfigurable Analog VLSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Sejnowski, T J; Cauwenberghs, G

    2011-10-01

    We study a range of neural dynamics under variations in biophysical parameters underlying extended Morris-Lecar and Hodgkin-Huxley models in three gating variables. The extended models are implemented in NeuroDyn, a four neuron, twelve synapse continuous-time analog VLSI programmable neural emulation platform with generalized channel kinetics and biophysical membrane dynamics. The dynamics exhibit a wide range of time scales extending beyond 100 ms neglected in typical silicon models of tonic spiking neurons. Circuit simulations and measurements show transition from tonic spiking to tonic bursting dynamics through variation of a single conductance parameter governing calcium recovery. We similarly demonstrate transition from graded to all-or-none neural excitability in the onset of spiking dynamics through the variation of channel kinetic parameters governing the speed of potassium activation. Other combinations of variations in conductance and channel kinetic parameters give rise to phasic spiking and spike frequency adaptation dynamics. The NeuroDyn chip consumes 1.29 mW and occupies 3 mm × 3 mm in 0.5 μm CMOS, supporting emerging developments in neuromorphic silicon-neuron interfaces.

  11. Simulations of drastically reduced SBS with laser pulses composed of a Spike Train of Uneven Duration and Delay (STUD pulses)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueller, S.; Afeyan, B.

    2013-01-01

    By comparing the impact of established laser smoothing techniques like Random Phase Plates (RPP) and Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion (SSD) to the concept of 'Spike Trains of Uneven Duration and Delay' (STUD pulses) on the amplification of parametric instabilities in laser-produced plasmas, we show with the help of numerical simulations, that STUD pulses can drastically reduce instability growth by orders of magnitude. The simulation results, obtained with the code Harmony in a nonuniformly flowing mm-size plasma for the Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) instability, show that the efficiency of the STUD pulse technique is due to the fact that successive re-amplification in space and time of parametrically excited plasma waves inside laser hot spots is minimized. An overall mean fluctuation level of ion acoustic waves at low amplitude is established because of the frequent change of the speckle pattern in successive spikes. This level stays orders of magnitude below the levels of ion acoustic waves excited in hot spots of RPP and SSD laser beams. (authors)

  12. Operant conditioning of synaptic and spiking activity patterns in single hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Nobuyoshi; Sakaguchi, Tetsuya; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2014-04-02

    Learning is a process of plastic adaptation through which a neural circuit generates a more preferable outcome; however, at a microscopic level, little is known about how synaptic activity is patterned into a desired configuration. Here, we report that animals can generate a specific form of synaptic activity in a given neuron in the hippocampus. In awake, head-restricted mice, we applied electrical stimulation to the lateral hypothalamus, a reward-associated brain region, when whole-cell patch-clamped CA1 neurons exhibited spontaneous synaptic activity that met preset criteria. Within 15 min, the mice learned to generate frequently the excitatory synaptic input pattern that satisfied the criteria. This reinforcement learning of synaptic activity was not observed for inhibitory input patterns. When a burst unit activity pattern was conditioned in paired and nonpaired paradigms, the frequency of burst-spiking events increased and decreased, respectively. The burst reinforcement occurred in the conditioned neuron but not in other adjacent neurons; however, ripple field oscillations were concomitantly reinforced. Neural conditioning depended on activation of NMDA receptors and dopamine D1 receptors. Acutely stressed mice and depression model mice that were subjected to forced swimming failed to exhibit the neural conditioning. This learning deficit was rescued by repetitive treatment with fluoxetine, an antidepressant. Therefore, internally motivated animals are capable of routing an ongoing action potential series into a specific neural pathway of the hippocampal network.

  13. A memristive spiking neuron with firing rate coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eIgnatov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Perception, decisions, and sensations are all encoded into trains of action potentials in the brain. The relation between stimulus strength and all-or-nothing spiking of neurons is widely believed to be the basis of this coding. This initiated the development of spiking neuron models; one of today's most powerful conceptual tool for the analysis and emulation of neural dynamics. The success of electronic circuit models and their physical realization within silicon field-effect transistor circuits lead to elegant technical approaches. Recently, the spectrum of electronic devices for neural computing has been extended by memristive devices, mainly used to emulate static synaptic functionality. Their capabilities for emulations of neural activity were recently demonstrated using a memristive neuristor circuit, while a memristive neuron circuit has so far been elusive. Here, a spiking neuron model is experimentally realized in a compact circuit comprising memristive and memcapacitive devices based on the strongly correlated electron material vanadium dioxide (VO2 and on the chemical electromigration cell Ag/TiO2-x/Al. The circuit can emulate dynamical spiking patterns in response to an external stimulus including adaptation, which is at the heart of firing rate coding as first observed by E.D. Adrian in 1926.

  14. Glycan shield and fusion activation of a deltacoronavirus spike glycoprotein fine-tuned for enteric infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoli; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Snijder, Joost; Yoshioka, Craig; Walls, Alexandra C; Li, Wentao; McGuire, Andrew T; Rey, Félix A; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Veesler, David

    2017-11-01

    Coronaviruses recently emerged as major human pathogens causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle-East respiratory syndrome. They utilize the spike (S) glycoprotein anchored in the viral envelope to mediate host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes to initiate infection. The S protein is a major determinant of the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and is also the main target of the host humoral immune response. We report here the 3.5 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the S glycoprotein trimer from the pathogenic porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), which belongs to the recently identified delta genus. Structural and glycoproteomics data indicate that the glycans of PDCoV S are topologically conserved when compared with the human respiratory coronavirus HCoV-NL63 S, resulting in similar surface areas being shielded from neutralizing antibodies and implying that both viruses are under comparable immune pressure in their respective hosts. The structure further reveals a shortened S 2 ' activation loop, containing a reduced number of basic amino acids, which participates to rendering the spike largely protease-resistant. This property distinguishes PDCoV S from recently characterized betacoronavirus S proteins and suggests that the S protein of enterotropic PDCoV has evolved to tolerate the protease-rich environment of the small intestine and to fine-tune its fusion activation to avoid premature triggering and reduction of infectivity. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses use transmembrane spike (S) glycoprotein trimers to promote host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We determined a near-atomic resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the S ectodomain trimer from the pathogenic porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), which is responsible for diarrhea in piglets and has had devastating consequences for the swine industry worldwide. Structural and glycoproteomics data reveal that PDCoV S is

  15. Spiking Neural P Systems with Communication on Request.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Linqiang; Păun, Gheorghe; Zhang, Gexiang; Neri, Ferrante

    2017-12-01

    Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems are Neural System models characterized by the fact that each neuron mimics a biological cell and the communication between neurons is based on spikes. In the Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] systems investigated so far, the application of evolution rules depends on the contents of a neuron (checked by means of a regular expression). In these [Formula: see text] systems, a specified number of spikes are consumed and a specified number of spikes are produced, and then sent to each of the neurons linked by a synapse to the evolving neuron. [Formula: see text]In the present work, a novel communication strategy among neurons of Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems is proposed. In the resulting models, called Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems with Communication on Request, the spikes are requested from neighboring neurons, depending on the contents of the neuron (still checked by means of a regular expression). Unlike the traditional Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] systems, no spikes are consumed or created: the spikes are only moved along synapses and replicated (when two or more neurons request the contents of the same neuron). [Formula: see text]The Spiking Neural [Formula: see text] Systems with Communication on Request are proved to be computationally universal, that is, equivalent with Turing machines as long as two types of spikes are used. Following this work, further research questions are listed to be open problems.

  16. Self-control with spiking and non-spiking neural networks playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Chris; Banfield, Gaye; Cleanthous, Aristodemos

    2010-01-01

    Self-control can be defined as choosing a large delayed reward over a small immediate reward, while precommitment is the making of a choice with the specific aim of denying oneself future choices. Humans recognise that they have self-control problems and attempt to overcome them by applying precommitment. Problems in exercising self-control, suggest a conflict between cognition and motivation, which has been linked to competition between higher and lower brain functions (representing the frontal lobes and the limbic system respectively). This premise of an internal process conflict, lead to a behavioural model being proposed, based on which, we implemented a computational model for studying and explaining self-control through precommitment behaviour. Our model consists of two neural networks, initially non-spiking and then spiking ones, representing the higher and lower brain systems viewed as cooperating for the benefit of the organism. The non-spiking neural networks are of simple feed forward multilayer type with reinforcement learning, one with selective bootstrap weight update rule, which is seen as myopic, representing the lower brain and the other with the temporal difference weight update rule, which is seen as far-sighted, representing the higher brain. The spiking neural networks are implemented with leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with learning based on stochastic synaptic transmission. The differentiating element between the two brain centres in this implementation is based on the memory of past actions determined by an eligibility trace time constant. As the structure of the self-control problem can be likened to the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma (IPD) game in that cooperation is to defection what self-control is to impulsiveness or what compromising is to insisting, we implemented the neural networks as two players, learning simultaneously but independently, competing in the IPD game. With a technique resembling the precommitment effect, whereby the

  17. Memristors Empower Spiking Neurons With Stochasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2015-06-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that probabilistic spiking can be interpreted as learning and inference in cortical microcircuits. This interpretation creates new opportunities for building neuromorphic systems driven by probabilistic learning algorithms. However, such systems must have two crucial features: 1) the neurons should follow a specific behavioral model, and 2) stochastic spiking should be implemented efficiently for it to be scalable. This paper proposes a memristor-based stochastically spiking neuron that fulfills these requirements. First, the analytical model of the memristor is enhanced so it can capture the behavioral stochasticity consistent with experimentally observed phenomena. The switching behavior of the memristor model is demonstrated to be akin to the firing of the stochastic spike response neuron model, the primary building block for probabilistic algorithms in spiking neural networks. Furthermore, the paper proposes a neural soma circuit that utilizes the intrinsic nondeterminism of memristive switching for efficient spike generation. The simulations and analysis of the behavior of a single stochastic neuron and a winner-take-all network built of such neurons and trained on handwritten digits confirm that the circuit can be used for building probabilistic sampling and pattern adaptation machinery in spiking networks. The findings constitute an important step towards scalable and efficient probabilistic neuromorphic platforms. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Interspike Interval Based Filtering of Directional Selective Retinal Ganglion Cells Spike Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Vasile Martiniuc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The information regarding visual stimulus is encoded in spike trains at the output of retina by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Among these, the directional selective cells (DSRGC are signaling the direction of stimulus motion. DSRGCs' spike trains show accentuated periods of short interspike intervals (ISIs framed by periods of isolated spikes. Here we use two types of visual stimulus, white noise and drifting bars, and show that short ISI spikes of DSRGCs spike trains are more often correlated to their preferred stimulus feature (that is, the direction of stimulus motion and carry more information than longer ISI spikes. Firstly, our results show that correlation between stimulus and recorded neuronal response is best at short ISI spiking activity and decrease as ISI becomes larger. We then used grating bars stimulus and found that as ISI becomes shorter the directional selectivity is better and information rates are higher. Interestingly, for the less encountered type of DSRGC, known as ON-DSRGC, short ISI distribution and information rates revealed consistent differences when compared with the other directional selective cell type, the ON-OFF DSRGC. However, these findings suggest that ISI-based temporal filtering integrates a mechanism for visual information processing at the output of retina toward higher stages within early visual system.

  19. An 8-year old boy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep presenting with positive onconeuronal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin-Yan; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Feng, Chen; Wang, Jian-Wen; Yang, Guan; Lammers, Stephen H T; Yang, Xiao Fan; Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-03-01

    To determine the etiology of epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS)/electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) in an 8-year old boy with a history of neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus. A combination of clinical characterization and follow-up, video EEG and laboratory investigations. We report the case of an 8-year old boy with a history of neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus, who presented with intellectual disability, pharmacotherapy-resistant epilepsy and CSWS/ESES. Although the patient's neuroblastoma had been successfully treated 8 years prior to presentation and an extensive workup did not show a tumor reoccurrence, testing for onconeuronal antibodies was positive for anti-Ma2 and anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies. High-dose intravenous methylprednisolone and a taper of oral methylprednisolone were given, leading to a significant clinical improvement. During the taper the patient's condition and EEG manifestations deteriorated again necessitating another cycle of steroid therapy, which lead to a stable improvement. During a 6-month follow-up no CSWS/ESES was seen on EEG and anti-Ma2 and anti-CV2/CRMP5 antibodies remained undetectable. This case suggests that onconeuronal antibodies may be involved in the pathogenesis of CSWS/ESES. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of substance P on the correlation of spike train evoked by electro acupuncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Chen; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jiang; Guo, Yi; Zhao, Xue; Guo, Yong-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze spike trains induced by EA before and after inhibiting SP in PC6 area. • Inhibiting SP leads to an increase of spiking rate of median nerve. • SP may modulate membrane potential to affect the spiking rate. • SP has an influence on long-range correlation of spike train evoked by EA. • SP play an important role in EA-induced neural spiking and encoding. - Abstract: Substance P (SP) participates in the neural signal transmission evoked by electro-acupuncture (EA). This paper investigates the impact of SP on the correlation of spike train in the median nerve evoked by EA at 'Neiguan' acupoint (PC6). It shows that the spiking rate and interspike interval (ISI) distribution change obviously after inhibiting SP. This variation of spiking activity indicates that SP affects the temporal structure of spike train through modulating the action potential on median nerve filaments. Furtherly, the correlation coefficient and scaling exponent are considered to measure the correlation of spike train. Scaled Windowed Variance (SWV) method is applied to calculate scaling exponent which quantifies the long-range correlation of the neural electrical signals. It is found that the correlation coefficients of ISI increase after inhibiting SP released. In addition, the scaling exponents of neuronal spike train have significant differences between before and after inhibiting SP. These findings demonstrate that SP has an influence on the long-range correlation of spike train. Our results indicate that SP may play an important role in EA-induced neural spiking and encoding.

  1. Non-orthogonally transitive G2 spike solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Woei Chet

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the orthogonally transitive (OT) G 2 spike solution to the non-OT G 2 case. This is achieved by applying Geroch’s transformation on a Kasner seed. The new solution contains two more parameters than the OT G 2 spike solution. Unlike the OT G 2 spike solution, the new solution always resolves its spike. (fast track communication)

  2. Capturing spike variability in noisy Izhikevich neurons using point process generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Kramer, Mark A.; Eden, Uri T.

    2018-01-01

    current. We then fit these spike train datawith a statistical model (a generalized linear model, GLM, with multiplicative influences of past spiking). For different levels of noise, we show how the GLM captures both the deterministic features of the Izhikevich neuron and the variability driven...... by the noise. We conclude that the GLM captures essential features of the simulated spike trains, but for near-deterministic spike trains, goodness-of-fit analyses reveal that the model does not fit very well in a statistical sense; the essential random part of the GLM is not captured....... are separately applied; understanding the relationships between these modeling approaches remains an area of active research. In this letter, we examine this relationship using simulation. To do so, we first generate spike train data from a well-known dynamical model, the Izhikevich neuron, with a noisy input...

  3. Spike-timing-based computation in sound localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan F M Goodman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spike timing is precise in the auditory system and it has been argued that it conveys information about auditory stimuli, in particular about the location of a sound source. However, beyond simple time differences, the way in which neurons might extract this information is unclear and the potential computational advantages are unknown. The computational difficulty of this task for an animal is to locate the source of an unexpected sound from two monaural signals that are highly dependent on the unknown source signal. In neuron models consisting of spectro-temporal filtering and spiking nonlinearity, we found that the binaural structure induced by spatialized sounds is mapped to synchrony patterns that depend on source location rather than on source signal. Location-specific synchrony patterns would then result in the activation of location-specific assemblies of postsynaptic neurons. We designed a spiking neuron model which exploited this principle to locate a variety of sound sources in a virtual acoustic environment using measured human head-related transfer functions. The model was able to accurately estimate the location of previously unknown sounds in both azimuth and elevation (including front/back discrimination in a known acoustic environment. We found that multiple representations of different acoustic environments could coexist as sets of overlapping neural assemblies which could be associated with spatial locations by Hebbian learning. The model demonstrates the computational relevance of relative spike timing to extract spatial information about sources independently of the source signal.

  4. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureline Logiaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  5. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logiaco, Laureline; Quilodran, René; Procyk, Emmanuel; Arleo, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  6. Using Matrix and Tensor Factorizations for the Single-Trial Analysis of Population Spike Trains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Onken

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neuronal recording techniques are leading to ever larger numbers of simultaneously monitored neurons. This poses the important analytical challenge of how to capture compactly all sensory information that neural population codes carry in their spatial dimension (differences in stimulus tuning across neurons at different locations, in their temporal dimension (temporal neural response variations, or in their combination (temporally coordinated neural population firing. Here we investigate the utility of tensor factorizations of population spike trains along space and time. These factorizations decompose a dataset of single-trial population spike trains into spatial firing patterns (combinations of neurons firing together, temporal firing patterns (temporal activation of these groups of neurons and trial-dependent activation coefficients (strength of recruitment of such neural patterns on each trial. We validated various factorization methods on simulated data and on populations of ganglion cells simultaneously recorded in the salamander retina. We found that single-trial tensor space-by-time decompositions provided low-dimensional data-robust representations of spike trains that capture efficiently both their spatial and temporal information about sensory stimuli. Tensor decompositions with orthogonality constraints were the most efficient in extracting sensory information, whereas non-negative tensor decompositions worked well even on non-independent and overlapping spike patterns, and retrieved informative firing patterns expressed by the same population in response to novel stimuli. Our method showed that populations of retinal ganglion cells carried information in their spike timing on the ten-milliseconds-scale about spatial details of natural images. This information could not be recovered from the spike counts of these cells. First-spike latencies carried the majority of information provided by the whole spike train about fine

  7. Noise-robust unsupervised spike sorting based on discriminative subspace learning with outlier handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. Most of the feature extraction and dimensionality reduction techniques that have been used for spike sorting give a projection subspace which is not necessarily the most discriminative one. Therefore, the clusters which appear inherently separable in some discriminative subspace may overlap if projected using conventional feature extraction approaches leading to a poor sorting accuracy especially when the noise level is high. In this paper, we propose a noise-robust and unsupervised spike sorting algorithm based on learning discriminative spike features for clustering. The proposed algorithm uses discriminative subspace learning to extract low dimensional and most discriminative features from the spike waveforms and perform clustering with automatic detection of the number of the clusters. The core part of the algorithm involves iterative subspace selection using linear discriminant analysis and clustering using Gaussian mixture model with outlier detection. A statistical test in the discriminative subspace is proposed to automatically detect the number of the clusters. Comparative results on publicly available simulated and real in vivo datasets demonstrate that our algorithm achieves substantially improved cluster distinction leading to higher sorting accuracy and more reliable detection of clusters which are highly overlapping and not detectable using conventional feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis or wavelets. By providing more accurate information about the activity of more number of individual neurons with high robustness to neural noise and outliers, the proposed unsupervised spike sorting algorithm facilitates more detailed and accurate analysis of single- and multi-unit activities in neuroscience and brain machine interface studies.

  8. Noise-robust unsupervised spike sorting based on discriminative subspace learning with outlier handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. Most of the feature extraction and dimensionality reduction techniques that have been used for spike sorting give a projection subspace which is not necessarily the most discriminative one. Therefore, the clusters which appear inherently separable in some discriminative subspace may overlap if projected using conventional feature extraction approaches leading to a poor sorting accuracy especially when the noise level is high. In this paper, we propose a noise-robust and unsupervised spike sorting algorithm based on learning discriminative spike features for clustering. Approach. The proposed algorithm uses discriminative subspace learning to extract low dimensional and most discriminative features from the spike waveforms and perform clustering with automatic detection of the number of the clusters. The core part of the algorithm involves iterative subspace selection using linear discriminant analysis and clustering using Gaussian mixture model with outlier detection. A statistical test in the discriminative subspace is proposed to automatically detect the number of the clusters. Main results. Comparative results on publicly available simulated and real in vivo datasets demonstrate that our algorithm achieves substantially improved cluster distinction leading to higher sorting accuracy and more reliable detection of clusters which are highly overlapping and not detectable using conventional feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis or wavelets. Significance. By providing more accurate information about the activity of more number of individual neurons with high robustness to neural noise and outliers, the proposed unsupervised spike sorting algorithm facilitates more detailed and accurate analysis of single- and multi-unit activities in neuroscience and brain machine interface studies.

  9. Synchronous Spike Patterns in Macaque Motor Cortex during an Instructed-Delay Reach-to-Grasp Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Emiliano; Quaglio, Pietro; Denker, Michael; Brochier, Thomas; Riehle, Alexa; Grün, Sonja

    2016-08-10

    The computational role of spike time synchronization at millisecond precision among neurons in the cerebral cortex is hotly debated. Studies performed on data of limited size provided experimental evidence that low-order correlations occur in relation to behavior. Advances in electrophysiological technology to record from hundreds of neurons simultaneously provide the opportunity to observe coordinated spiking activity of larger populations of cells. We recently published a method that combines data mining and statistical evaluation to search for significant patterns of synchronous spikes in massively parallel spike trains (Torre et al., 2013). The method solves the computational and multiple testing problems raised by the high dimensionality of the data. In the current study, we used our method on simultaneous recordings from two macaque monkeys engaged in an instructed-delay reach-to-grasp task to determine the emergence of spike synchronization in relation to behavior. We found a multitude of synchronous spike patterns aligned in both monkeys along a preferential mediolateral orientation in brain space. The occurrence of the patterns is highly specific to behavior, indicating that different behaviors are associated with the synchronization of different groups of neurons ("cell assemblies"). However, pooled patterns that overlap in neuronal composition exhibit no specificity, suggesting that exclusive cell assemblies become active during different behaviors, but can recruit partly identical neurons. These findings are consistent across multiple recording sessions analyzed across the two monkeys. Neurons in the brain communicate via electrical impulses called spikes. How spikes are coordinated to process information is still largely unknown. Synchronous spikes are effective in triggering a spike emission in receiving neurons and have been shown to occur in relation to behavior in a number of studies on simultaneous recordings of few neurons. We recently published

  10. Continuous spike-waves during slow waves sleep: a clinical and electroencephalografic study in fifteen children Ponta-onda contínua do sono lento: estudo clínico e eletrencefalográfico em quinze crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA A. F. DJABRAIAN

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on the clinical and EEG features of 15 patients with the syndrome of "continuous spike waves during slow wave sleep" (CSWSS. The differential diagnosis of CSWSS includes benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes, and Landau-Kleffner and Lennox-Gastaut syndromes. We found normal CT and MRI features in 6 cases, periventricular leukomalacia with and without diffuse brain atrophy in 4 cases and hydrocephalus in 1 case. There was no association between specific neurological findings and CSWSS. Nine of our cases had relatively focal discharges, like some cases from the literature. The occurrence of CSWSS appears to be age-related, generaly between the ages of 5 to 12 years, with a strong temporal relation to the neupsychological deterioration in its nature, severity and prognosis. We believe that this striking disorder has been overlooked and that routine sleep EEG studies on epileptic children may disclose additional cases of CSWSS.Relatamos as características clínicas e eletroencefalográficas de 15 patientes com a síndrome de ponta-onda contínua do sono não-REM (POCSNR. O diagnóstico diferencial da POCSNR inclue a epilepsia benigna da infância com pontas centro-temporais e as síndromes de Landau-Kleffner e Lennox-Gastaut. Encontramos TC e RNM de crânio normais em 6 casos, leucomalácia periventricular em 4 e hidrocefalia em 1. Não houve associação de achados neurológicos específicos e a POCSNR. Nove dos nossos casos tinham descargas relativamente focais, como alguns casos da literatura. A ocorrência da POCSNR parece ser idade-dependente, geralmente entre 5 e 12 anos, com forte relação temporal à deteriorização neurocognitiva, em sua natureza, severidade e prognóstico. Acreditamos que esta síndrome tem sido pouco diagnosticada e que a realização rotineira de EEG em sono em crianças epilépticas possa revelar novos casos de POCSNR.

  11. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Acoustic Waves Near Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsue, Teresa; Pesnell, Dean; Hill, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Active region areas on the Sun are abundant with a variety of waves that are both acoustically helioseismic and magnetohydrodynamic in nature. The occurrence of a solar flare can disrupt these waves, through MHD mode-mixing or scattering by the excitation of these waves. We take a multi-wavelength observational approach to understand the source of theses waves by studying active regions where flaring activity occurs. Our approach is to search for signals within a time series of images using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm, by producing multi-frequency power map movies. We study active regions both spatially and temporally and correlate this method over multiple wavelengths using data from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. By surveying the active regions on multiple wavelengths we are able to observe the behavior of these waves within the Solar atmosphere, from the photosphere up through the corona. We are able to detect enhancements of power around active regions, which could be acoustic power halos and of an MHD-wave propagating outward by the flaring event. We are in the initial stages of this study understanding the behaviors of these waves and could one day contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for their formation; that has not yet been explained.

  12. Epileptiform spike detection via convolutional neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Alexander Rosenberg; Jin, Jing; Maszczyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The EEG of epileptic patients often contains sharp waveforms called "spikes", occurring between seizures. Detecting such spikes is crucial for diagnosing epilepsy. In this paper, we develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) for detecting spikes in EEG of epileptic patients in an automated...

  13. Quantitative Comparative Analysis of the Bio-Active and Toxic Constituents of Leaves and Spikes of Schizonepeta tenuifolia at Different Harvesting Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwei Ding

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A GC-MS-Selected Ion Monitoring (SIM detection method was developed for simultaneous determination of four monoterpenes: (--menthone, (+-pulegone, (--limonene and (+-menthofuran as the main bio-active and toxic constituents, and four other main compounds in the volatile oils of Schizonepeta tenuifolia (ST leaves and spikes at different harvesting times. The results showed that the method was simple, sensitive and reproducible, and that harvesting time was a possible key factor in influencing the quality of ST leaves, but not its spikes. The research might be helpful for determining the harvesting time of ST samples and establishing a validated method for the quality control of ST volatile oil and other relative products.

  14. Wave activity in the neighborhood of the bowshock of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Shapiro, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.I.; Zacharov, A.; Kiraly, P.; Szego, K.; Nagy, A.F.; Grard, R.J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma wave activity in the neighborhood of the Martial bow shock were measured for the first time by the Soviet spacecraft Phobos-2 in a wide frequency range from dc to 150 kHz. The wave activity varied in character as the spacecraft moved across different plasma regions: in the neighborhood of the Martian bow shock, inside the magnetosheath and in the tail region. In this paper the authors provide suggestions for the processes responsible for these plasma waves. The most interesting peculiarities of the wave activity around Mars is the sharp increase of wave intensity in the magnetosheath region. This increase is attributed to two different physical mechanisms. High frequency waves are excited at the shock front due to currents flowing along the front; these ion acoustic waves are convected inside by the solar wind. The low frequency waves (∼100 Hz) close to the inside boundary were, they believe, generated by heavy Martian ions diffusing through the planetopause into the magnetosheath

  15. Layer-specific high-frequency spiking in the prefrontal cortex of awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimbo Saroeni Raymond Maria Boudewijns

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cortical pyramidal neurons show irregular in vivo action potential (AP spiking with high frequency bursts occurring on sparse background activity. Somatic APs can backpropagate from soma into basal and apical dendrites and locally generate dendritic calcium spikes. The critical AP frequency for generation of such dendritic calcium spikes can be very different depending on cell-type or brain area involved. Previously, it was shown in vitro that calcium electrogenesis can also be induced in L(ayer 5 pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex (PFC. It remains an open question whether somatic burst spiking and resulting dendritic calcium electrogenesis also occur in morphologically more compact L2/3 pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, it is not known whether critical frequencies that trigger dendritic calcium electrogenesis occur in PFC under awake conditions in vivo. Here, we addressed these issues and found that pyramidal neurons in both PFC L2/3 and L5 in awake rats spike APs in short bursts, but with different probabilities. The critical frequency for calcium electrogenesis in vitro was layer-specific and lower in L5 neurons compared to L2/3. Taking the in vitro critical frequency as predictive measure for dendritic electrogenesis during in vivo spontaneous activity, supracritical bursts in vivo were observed in a larger fraction of L5 neurons compared to L2/3 neurons but with similar incidence within these subpopulations. Together, these results show that in PFC of awake rats, AP spiking occurs at frequencies that are relevant for dendritic calcium electrogenesis and suggest that in awake rat PFC, dendritic calcium electrogenesis may be involved in neuronal computation.

  16. Synaptic convergence regulates synchronization-dependent spike transfer in feedforward neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailamul, Pachaya; Jang, Jaeson; Paik, Se-Bum

    2017-12-01

    Correlated neural activities such as synchronizations can significantly alter the characteristics of spike transfer between neural layers. However, it is not clear how this synchronization-dependent spike transfer can be affected by the structure of convergent feedforward wiring. To address this question, we implemented computer simulations of model neural networks: a source and a target layer connected with different types of convergent wiring rules. In the Gaussian-Gaussian (GG) model, both the connection probability and the strength are given as Gaussian distribution as a function of spatial distance. In the Uniform-Constant (UC) and Uniform-Exponential (UE) models, the connection probability density is a uniform constant within a certain range, but the connection strength is set as a constant value or an exponentially decaying function, respectively. Then we examined how the spike transfer function is modulated under these conditions, while static or synchronized input patterns were introduced to simulate different levels of feedforward spike synchronization. We observed that the synchronization-dependent modulation of the transfer function appeared noticeably different for each convergence condition. The modulation of the spike transfer function was largest in the UC model, and smallest in the UE model. Our analysis showed that this difference was induced by the different spike weight distributions that was generated from convergent synapses in each model. Our results suggest that, the structure of the feedforward convergence is a crucial factor for correlation-dependent spike control, thus must be considered important to understand the mechanism of information transfer in the brain.

  17. Typology of nonlinear activity waves in a layered neural continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Paul; Leisman, Gerry

    2006-04-01

    Neural tissue, a medium containing electro-chemical energy, can amplify small increments in cellular activity. The growing disturbance, measured as the fraction of active cells, manifests as propagating waves. In a layered geometry with a time delay in synaptic signals between the layers, the delay is instrumental in determining the amplified wavelengths. The growth of the waves is limited by the finite number of neural cells in a given region of the continuum. As wave growth saturates, the resulting activity patterns in space and time show a variety of forms, ranging from regular monochromatic waves to highly irregular mixtures of different spatial frequencies. The type of wave configuration is determined by a number of parameters, including alertness and synaptic conditioning as well as delay. For all cases studied, using numerical solution of the nonlinear Wilson-Cowan (1973) equations, there is an interval in delay in which the wave mixing occurs. As delay increases through this interval, during a series of consecutive waves propagating through a continuum region, the activity within that region changes from a single-frequency to a multiple-frequency pattern and back again. The diverse spatio-temporal patterns give a more concrete form to several metaphors advanced over the years to attempt an explanation of cognitive phenomena: Activity waves embody the "holographic memory" (Pribram, 1991); wave mixing provides a plausible cause of the competition called "neural Darwinism" (Edelman, 1988); finally the consecutive generation of growing neural waves can explain the discontinuousness of "psychological time" (Stroud, 1955).

  18. The Omega-Infinity Limit of Single Spikes

    CERN Document Server

    Axenides, Minos; Linardopoulos, Georgios

    A new infinite-size limit of strings in RxS2 is presented. The limit is obtained from single spike strings by letting their angular velocity omega become infinite. We derive the energy-momenta relation of omega-infinity single spikes as their linear velocity v-->1 and their angular momentum J-->1. Generally, the v-->1, J-->1 limit of single spikes is singular and has to be excluded from the spectrum and be studied separately. We discover that the dispersion relation of omega-infinity single spikes contains logarithms in the limit J-->1. This result is somewhat surprising, since the logarithmic behavior in the string spectra is typically associated with their motion in non-compact spaces such as AdS. Omega-infinity single spikes seem to completely cover the surface of the 2-sphere they occupy, so that they may essentially be viewed as some sort of "brany strings". A proof of the sphere-filling property of omega-infinity single spikes is given in the appendix.

  19. Spikes and matter inhomogeneities in massless scalar field models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coley, A A; Lim, W C

    2016-01-01

    We shall discuss the general relativistic generation of spikes in a massless scalar field or stiff perfect fluid model. We first investigate orthogonally transitive (OT) G 2 stiff fluid spike models both heuristically and numerically, and give a new exact OT G 2 stiff fluid spike solution. We then present a new two-parameter family of non-OT G 2 stiff fluid spike solutions, obtained by the generalization of non-OT G 2 vacuum spike solutions to the stiff fluid case by applying Geroch’s transformation on a Jacobs seed. The dynamics of these new stiff fluid spike solutions is qualitatively different from that of the vacuum spike solutions in that the matter (stiff fluid) feels the spike directly and the stiff fluid spike solution can end up with a permanent spike. We then derive the evolution equations of non-OT G 2 stiff fluid models, including a second perfect fluid, in full generality, and briefly discuss some of their qualitative properties and their potential numerical analysis. Finally, we discuss how a fluid, and especially a stiff fluid or massless scalar field, affects the physics of the generation of spikes. (paper)

  20. Spiking neural P systems with multiple channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong; Yang, Jinyu; Wang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Sun, Zhang; Song, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Xiaohui; Huang, Xiangnian

    2017-11-01

    Spiking neural P systems (SNP systems, in short) are a class of distributed parallel computing systems inspired from the neurophysiological behavior of biological spiking neurons. In this paper, we investigate a new variant of SNP systems in which each neuron has one or more synaptic channels, called spiking neural P systems with multiple channels (SNP-MC systems, in short). The spiking rules with channel label are introduced to handle the firing mechanism of neurons, where the channel labels indicate synaptic channels of transmitting the generated spikes. The computation power of SNP-MC systems is investigated. Specifically, we prove that SNP-MC systems are Turing universal as both number generating and number accepting devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geomagnetic spikes on the core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. J.; Constable, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme variations of Earth's magnetic field occurred in the Levantine region around 1000 BC, where the field intensity rose and fell by a factor of 2-3 over a short time and confined spatial region. There is presently no coherent link between this intensity spike and the generating processes in Earth's liquid core. Here we test the attribution of a surface spike to a flux patch visible on the core-mantle boundary (CMB), calculating geometric and energetic bounds on resulting surface geomagnetic features. We show that the Levantine intensity high must span at least 60 degrees in longitude. Models providing the best trade-off between matching surface spike intensity, minimizing L1 and L2 misfit to the available data and satisfying core energy constraints produce CMB spikes 8-22 degrees wide with peak values of O(100) mT. We propose that the Levantine spike grew in place before migrating northward and westward, contributing to the growth of the axial dipole field seen in Holocene field models. Estimates of Ohmic dissipation suggest that diffusive processes, which are often neglected, likely govern the ultimate decay of geomagnetic spikes. Using these results, we search for the presence of spike-like features in geodynamo simulations.

  2. Bursts generate a non-reducible spike-pattern code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G Eyherabide

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available On the single-neuron level, precisely timed spikes can either constitute firing-rate codes or spike-pattern codes that utilize the relative timing between consecutive spikes. There has been little experimental support for the hypothesis that such temporal patterns contribute substantially to information transmission. Using grasshopper auditory receptors as a model system, we show that correlations between spikes can be used to represent behaviorally relevant stimuli. The correlations reflect the inner structure of the spike train: a succession of burst-like patterns. We demonstrate that bursts with different spike counts encode different stimulus features, such that about 20% of the transmitted information corresponds to discriminating between different features, and the remaining 80% is used to allocate these features in time. In this spike-pattern code, the "what" and the "when" of the stimuli are encoded in the duration of each burst and the time of burst onset, respectively. Given the ubiquity of burst firing, we expect similar findings also for other neural systems.

  3. Stochastic Variational Learning in Recurrent Spiking Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eJimenez Rezende

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to learn and perform statistical inference with biologically plausible recurrent network of spiking neurons is an important step towards understanding perception and reasoning. Here we derive and investigate a new learning rule for recurrent spiking networks with hidden neurons, combining principles from variational learning and reinforcement learning. Our network defines a generative model over spike train histories and the derived learning rule has the form of a local Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity rule modulated by global factors (neuromodulators conveying information about ``novelty on a statistically rigorous ground.Simulations show that our model is able to learn bothstationary and non-stationary patterns of spike trains.We also propose one experiment that could potentially be performed with animals in order to test the dynamics of the predicted novelty signal.

  4. Stochastic variational learning in recurrent spiking networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Rezende, Danilo; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn and perform statistical inference with biologically plausible recurrent networks of spiking neurons is an important step toward understanding perception and reasoning. Here we derive and investigate a new learning rule for recurrent spiking networks with hidden neurons, combining principles from variational learning and reinforcement learning. Our network defines a generative model over spike train histories and the derived learning rule has the form of a local Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity rule modulated by global factors (neuromodulators) conveying information about "novelty" on a statistically rigorous ground. Simulations show that our model is able to learn both stationary and non-stationary patterns of spike trains. We also propose one experiment that could potentially be performed with animals in order to test the dynamics of the predicted novelty signal.

  5. Event-Driven Contrastive Divergence for Spiking Neuromorphic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre eNeftci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs and Deep Belief Networks have been demonstrated to perform efficiently in variety of applications, such as dimensionality reduction, feature learning, and classification. Their implementation on neuromorphic hardware platforms emulating large-scale networks of spiking neurons can have significant advantages from the perspectives of scalability, power dissipation and real-time interfacing with the environment. However the traditional RBM architecture and the commonly used training algorithm known as Contrastive Divergence (CD are based on discrete updates and exact arithmetics which do not directly map onto a dynamical neural substrate. Here, we present an event-driven variation of CD to train a RBM constructed with Integrate & Fire (I&F neurons, that is constrained by the limitations of existing and near future neuromorphic hardware platforms. Our strategy is based on neural sampling, which allows us to synthesize a spiking neural network that samples from a target Boltzmann distribution. The reverberating activity of the network replaces the discrete steps of the CD algorithm, while Spike Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP carries out the weight updates in an online, asynchronous fashion.We demonstrate our approach by training an RBM composed of leaky I&F neurons with STDP synapses to learn a generative model of the MNIST hand-written digit dataset, and by testing it in recognition, generation and cue integration tasks. Our results contribute to a machine learning-driven approach for synthesizing networks of spiking neurons capable of carrying out practical, high-level functionality.

  6. Event-driven contrastive divergence for spiking neuromorphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neftci, Emre; Das, Srinjoy; Pedroni, Bruno; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and Deep Belief Networks have been demonstrated to perform efficiently in a variety of applications, such as dimensionality reduction, feature learning, and classification. Their implementation on neuromorphic hardware platforms emulating large-scale networks of spiking neurons can have significant advantages from the perspectives of scalability, power dissipation and real-time interfacing with the environment. However, the traditional RBM architecture and the commonly used training algorithm known as Contrastive Divergence (CD) are based on discrete updates and exact arithmetics which do not directly map onto a dynamical neural substrate. Here, we present an event-driven variation of CD to train a RBM constructed with Integrate & Fire (I&F) neurons, that is constrained by the limitations of existing and near future neuromorphic hardware platforms. Our strategy is based on neural sampling, which allows us to synthesize a spiking neural network that samples from a target Boltzmann distribution. The recurrent activity of the network replaces the discrete steps of the CD algorithm, while Spike Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP) carries out the weight updates in an online, asynchronous fashion. We demonstrate our approach by training an RBM composed of leaky I&F neurons with STDP synapses to learn a generative model of the MNIST hand-written digit dataset, and by testing it in recognition, generation and cue integration tasks. Our results contribute to a machine learning-driven approach for synthesizing networks of spiking neurons capable of carrying out practical, high-level functionality.

  7. Simple networks for spike-timing-based computation, with application to olfactory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Carlos D; Hopfield, J J

    2003-03-06

    Spike synchronization across neurons can be selective for the situation where neurons are driven at similar firing rates, a "many are equal" computation. This can be achieved in the absence of synaptic interactions between neurons, through phase locking to a common underlying oscillatory potential. Based on this principle, we instantiate an algorithm for robust odor recognition into a model network of spiking neurons whose main features are taken from known properties of biological olfactory systems. Here, recognition of odors is signaled by spike synchronization of specific subsets of "mitral cells." This synchronization is highly odor selective and invariant to a wide range of odor concentrations. It is also robust to the presence of strong distractor odors, thus allowing odor segmentation within complex olfactory scenes. Information about odors is encoded in both the identity of glomeruli activated above threshold (1 bit of information per glomerulus) and in the analog degree of activation of the glomeruli (approximately 3 bits per glomerulus).

  8. Self-Organization of Microcircuits in Networks of Spiking Neurons with Plastic Synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Koch Ocker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The synaptic connectivity of cortical networks features an overrepresentation of certain wiring motifs compared to simple random-network models. This structure is shaped, in part, by synaptic plasticity that promotes or suppresses connections between neurons depending on their joint spiking activity. Frequently, theoretical studies focus on how feedforward inputs drive plasticity to create this network structure. We study the complementary scenario of self-organized structure in a recurrent network, with spike timing-dependent plasticity driven by spontaneous dynamics. We develop a self-consistent theory for the evolution of network structure by combining fast spiking covariance with a slow evolution of synaptic weights. Through a finite-size expansion of network dynamics we obtain a low-dimensional set of nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of two-synapse connectivity motifs. With this theory in hand, we explore how the form of the plasticity rule drives the evolution of microcircuits in cortical networks. When potentiation and depression are in approximate balance, synaptic dynamics depend on weighted divergent, convergent, and chain motifs. For additive, Hebbian STDP these motif interactions create instabilities in synaptic dynamics that either promote or suppress the initial network structure. Our work provides a consistent theoretical framework for studying how spiking activity in recurrent networks interacts with synaptic plasticity to determine network structure.

  9. Self-Organization of Microcircuits in Networks of Spiking Neurons with Plastic Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocker, Gabriel Koch; Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Doiron, Brent

    2015-08-01

    The synaptic connectivity of cortical networks features an overrepresentation of certain wiring motifs compared to simple random-network models. This structure is shaped, in part, by synaptic plasticity that promotes or suppresses connections between neurons depending on their joint spiking activity. Frequently, theoretical studies focus on how feedforward inputs drive plasticity to create this network structure. We study the complementary scenario of self-organized structure in a recurrent network, with spike timing-dependent plasticity driven by spontaneous dynamics. We develop a self-consistent theory for the evolution of network structure by combining fast spiking covariance with a slow evolution of synaptic weights. Through a finite-size expansion of network dynamics we obtain a low-dimensional set of nonlinear differential equations for the evolution of two-synapse connectivity motifs. With this theory in hand, we explore how the form of the plasticity rule drives the evolution of microcircuits in cortical networks. When potentiation and depression are in approximate balance, synaptic dynamics depend on weighted divergent, convergent, and chain motifs. For additive, Hebbian STDP these motif interactions create instabilities in synaptic dynamics that either promote or suppress the initial network structure. Our work provides a consistent theoretical framework for studying how spiking activity in recurrent networks interacts with synaptic plasticity to determine network structure.

  10. Systematic Regional Variations in Purkinje Cell Spiking Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianqiang; Cerminara, Nadia L.; Kotsurovskyy, Yuriy; Aoki, Hanako; Burroughs, Amelia; Wise, Andrew K.; Luo, Yuanjun; Marshall, Sarah P.; Sugihara, Izumi; Apps, Richard; Lang, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the uniform anatomy of the cerebellar cortex, molecular and physiological studies indicate that significant differences exist between cortical regions, suggesting that the spiking activity of Purkinje cells (PCs) in different regions could also show distinct characteristics. To investigate this possibility we obtained extracellular recordings from PCs in different zebrin bands in crus IIa and vermis lobules VIII and IX in anesthetized rats in order to compare PC firing characteristics between zebrin positive (Z+) and negative (Z−) bands. In addition, we analyzed recordings from PCs in the A2 and C1 zones of several lobules in the posterior lobe, which largely contain Z+ and Z− PCs, respectively. In both datasets significant differences in simple spike (SS) activity were observed between cortical regions. Specifically, Z− and C1 PCs had higher SS firing rates than Z+ and A2 PCs, respectively. The irregularity of SS firing (as assessed by measures of interspike interval distribution) was greater in Z+ bands in both absolute and relative terms. The results regarding systematic variations in complex spike (CS) activity were less consistent, suggesting that while real differences can exist, they may be sensitive to other factors than the cortical location of the PC. However, differences in the interactions between SSs and CSs, including the post-CS pause in SSs and post-pause modulation of SSs, were also consistently observed between bands. Similar, though less strong trends were observed in the zonal recordings. These systematic variations in spontaneous firing characteristics of PCs between zebrin bands in vivo, raises the possibility that fundamental differences in information encoding exist between cerebellar cortical regions. PMID:25144311

  11. Systematic regional variations in Purkinje cell spiking patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiang Xiao

    Full Text Available In contrast to the uniform anatomy of the cerebellar cortex, molecular and physiological studies indicate that significant differences exist between cortical regions, suggesting that the spiking activity of Purkinje cells (PCs in different regions could also show distinct characteristics. To investigate this possibility we obtained extracellular recordings from PCs in different zebrin bands in crus IIa and vermis lobules VIII and IX in anesthetized rats in order to compare PC firing characteristics between zebrin positive (Z+ and negative (Z- bands. In addition, we analyzed recordings from PCs in the A2 and C1 zones of several lobules in the posterior lobe, which largely contain Z+ and Z- PCs, respectively. In both datasets significant differences in simple spike (SS activity were observed between cortical regions. Specifically, Z- and C1 PCs had higher SS firing rates than Z+ and A2 PCs, respectively. The irregularity of SS firing (as assessed by measures of interspike interval distribution was greater in Z+ bands in both absolute and relative terms. The results regarding systematic variations in complex spike (CS activity were less consistent, suggesting that while real differences can exist, they may be sensitive to other factors than the cortical location of the PC. However, differences in the interactions between SSs and CSs, including the post-CS pause in SSs and post-pause modulation of SSs, were also consistently observed between bands. Similar, though less strong trends were observed in the zonal recordings. These systematic variations in spontaneous firing characteristics of PCs between zebrin bands in vivo, raises the possibility that fundamental differences in information encoding exist between cerebellar cortical regions.

  12. Inferring oscillatory modulation in neural spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kensuke; Kass, Robert E

    2017-10-01

    Oscillations are observed at various frequency bands in continuous-valued neural recordings like the electroencephalogram (EEG) and local field potential (LFP) in bulk brain matter, and analysis of spike-field coherence reveals that spiking of single neurons often occurs at certain phases of the global oscillation. Oscillatory modulation has been examined in relation to continuous-valued oscillatory signals, and independently from the spike train alone, but behavior or stimulus triggered firing-rate modulation, spiking sparseness, presence of slow modulation not locked to stimuli and irregular oscillations with large variability in oscillatory periods, present challenges to searching for temporal structures present in the spike train. In order to study oscillatory modulation in real data collected under a variety of experimental conditions, we describe a flexible point-process framework we call the Latent Oscillatory Spike Train (LOST) model to decompose the instantaneous firing rate in biologically and behaviorally relevant factors: spiking refractoriness, event-locked firing rate non-stationarity, and trial-to-trial variability accounted for by baseline offset and a stochastic oscillatory modulation. We also extend the LOST model to accommodate changes in the modulatory structure over the duration of the experiment, and thereby discover trial-to-trial variability in the spike-field coherence of a rat primary motor cortical neuron to the LFP theta rhythm. Because LOST incorporates a latent stochastic auto-regressive term, LOST is able to detect oscillations when the firing rate is low, the modulation is weak, and when the modulating oscillation has a broad spectral peak.

  13. Canards in a minimal piecewise-linear square-wave burster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desroches, M.; Krupa, M. [Inria Sophia-Antipolis Méditerranée Research Centre, MathNeuro Project-Team 2004 route des Lucioles BP 93, 06902 Valbonne Cedex (France); Fernández-García, S., E-mail: soledad@us.es [Departamento EDAN, University of Seville, Facultad de Matemáticas C/ Tarfia, s/n., 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    We construct a piecewise-linear (PWL) approximation of the Hindmarsh-Rose (HR) neuron model that is minimal, in the sense that the vector field has the least number of linearity zones, in order to reproduce all the dynamics present in the original HR model with classical parameter values. This includes square-wave bursting and also special trajectories called canards, which possess long repelling segments and organise the transitions between stable bursting patterns with n and n + 1 spikes, also referred to as spike-adding canard explosions. We propose a first approximation of the smooth HR model, using a continuous PWL system, and show that its fast subsystem cannot possess a homoclinic bifurcation, which is necessary to obtain proper square-wave bursting. We then relax the assumption of continuity of the vector field across all zones, and we show that we can obtain a homoclinic bifurcation in the fast subsystem. We use the recently developed canard theory for PWL systems in order to reproduce the spike-adding canard explosion feature of the HR model as studied, e.g., in Desroches et al., Chaos 23(4), 046106 (2013).

  14. Computational modeling of seizure dynamics using coupled neuronal networks: factors shaping epileptiform activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Naze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epileptic seizure dynamics span multiple scales in space and time. Understanding seizure mechanisms requires identifying the relations between seizure components within and across these scales, together with the analysis of their dynamical repertoire. Mathematical models have been developed to reproduce seizure dynamics across scales ranging from the single neuron to the neural population. In this study, we develop a network model of spiking neurons and systematically investigate the conditions, under which the network displays the emergent dynamic behaviors known from the Epileptor, which is a well-investigated abstract model of epileptic neural activity. This approach allows us to study the biophysical parameters and variables leading to epileptiform discharges at cellular and network levels. Our network model is composed of two neuronal populations, characterized by fast excitatory bursting neurons and regular spiking inhibitory neurons, embedded in a common extracellular environment represented by a slow variable. By systematically analyzing the parameter landscape offered by the simulation framework, we reproduce typical sequences of neural activity observed during status epilepticus. We find that exogenous fluctuations from extracellular environment and electro-tonic couplings play a major role in the progression of the seizure, which supports previous studies and further validates our model. We also investigate the influence of chemical synaptic coupling in the generation of spontaneous seizure-like events. Our results argue towards a temporal shift of typical spike waves with fast discharges as synaptic strengths are varied. We demonstrate that spike waves, including interictal spikes, are generated primarily by inhibitory neurons, whereas fast discharges during the wave part are due to excitatory neurons. Simulated traces are compared with in vivo experimental data from rodents at different stages of the disorder. We draw the conclusion

  15. Electricity market price spike analysis by a hybrid data model and feature selection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Keynia, Farshid

    2010-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, energy price forecasting is an important activity for both suppliers and consumers. For this reason, many techniques have been proposed to predict electricity market prices in the recent years. However, electricity price is a complex volatile signal owning many spikes. Most of electricity price forecast techniques focus on the normal price prediction, while price spike forecast is a different and more complex prediction process. Price spike forecasting has two main aspects: prediction of price spike occurrence and value. In this paper, a novel technique for price spike occurrence prediction is presented composed of a new hybrid data model, a novel feature selection technique and an efficient forecast engine. The hybrid data model includes both wavelet and time domain variables as well as calendar indicators, comprising a large candidate input set. The set is refined by the proposed feature selection technique evaluating both relevancy and redundancy of the candidate inputs. The forecast engine is a probabilistic neural network, which are fed by the selected candidate inputs of the feature selection technique and predict price spike occurrence. The efficiency of the whole proposed method for price spike occurrence forecasting is evaluated by means of real data from the Queensland and PJM electricity markets. (author)

  16. A Hammer-Impact, Aluminum, Shear-Wave Seismic Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Near-surface seismic surveys often employ hammer impacts to create seismic energy. Shear-wave surveys using horizontally polarized waves require horizontal hammer impacts against a rigid object (the source) that is coupled to the ground surface. I have designed, built, and tested a source made out of aluminum and equipped with spikes to improve coupling. The source is effective in a variety of settings, and it is relatively simple and inexpensive to build.

  17. Noradrenaline decreases spike voltage threshold and induces electrographic sharp waves in turtle medial cortex in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Daniel; Velluti, Julio C

    2004-01-01

    The noradrenergic modulation of neuronal properties has been described at different levels of the mammalian brain. Although the anatomical characteristics of the noradrenergic system are well known in reptiles, functional data are scarce. In our study the noradrenergic modulation of cortical electrogenesis in the turtle medial cortex was studied in vitro using a combination of field and intracellular recordings. Turtle EEG consists of a low voltage background interspersed by spontaneous large sharp waves (LSWs). Noradrenaline (NA, 5-40 microM) induced (or enhanced) the generation of LSWs in a dose-dependent manner. Pharmacological experiments suggest the participation of alpha and beta receptors in this effect. In medial cortex neurons NA induced a hyperpolarization of the resting potential and a decrease of input resistance. Both effects were observed also after TTX treatment. Noradrenaline increased the response of the cells to depolarizing pulses, resulting in an upward shift of the frequency/current relation. In most cells the excitability change was mediated by a decrease of the spike voltage threshold resulting in the reduction of the amount of depolarization needed to fire the cell (voltage threshold minus resting potential). As opposed to the mechanisms reported in mammalian neurons, no changes in the frequency adaptation or the post-train afterhyperpolarization were observed. The NA effects at the cellular level were not reproduced by noradrenergic agonists. Age- and species-dependent properties in the pharmacology of adrenergic receptors could be involved in this result. Cellular effects of NA in turtle cortex are similar to those described in mammals, although the increase in cellular excitability seems to be mediated by a different mechanism. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Supervised Learning Based on Temporal Coding in Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Hesham

    2017-08-01

    Gradient descent training techniques are remarkably successful in training analog-valued artificial neural networks (ANNs). Such training techniques, however, do not transfer easily to spiking networks due to the spike generation hard nonlinearity and the discrete nature of spike communication. We show that in a feedforward spiking network that uses a temporal coding scheme where information is encoded in spike times instead of spike rates, the network input-output relation is differentiable almost everywhere. Moreover, this relation is piecewise linear after a transformation of variables. Methods for training ANNs thus carry directly to the training of such spiking networks as we show when training on the permutation invariant MNIST task. In contrast to rate-based spiking networks that are often used to approximate the behavior of ANNs, the networks we present spike much more sparsely and their behavior cannot be directly approximated by conventional ANNs. Our results highlight a new approach for controlling the behavior of spiking networks with realistic temporal dynamics, opening up the potential for using these networks to process spike patterns with complex temporal information.

  19. A novel scheme for the validation of an automated classification method for epileptic spikes by comparison with multiple observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Niraj K; Pedreira, Carlos; Centeno, Maria; Chaudhary, Umair J; Wehner, Tim; França, Lucas G S; Yadee, Tinonkorn; Murta, Teresa; Leite, Marco; Vos, Sjoerd B; Ourselin, Sebastien; Diehl, Beate; Lemieux, Louis

    2017-07-01

    To validate the application of an automated neuronal spike classification algorithm, Wave_clus (WC), on interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) obtained from human intracranial EEG (icEEG) data. Five 10-min segments of icEEG recorded in 5 patients were used. WC and three expert EEG reviewers independently classified one hundred IED events into IED classes or non-IEDs. First, we determined whether WC-human agreement variability falls within inter-reviewer agreement variability by calculating the variation of information for each classifier pair and quantifying the overlap between all WC-reviewer and all reviewer-reviewer pairs. Second, we compared WC and EEG reviewers' spike identification and individual spike class labels visually and quantitatively. The overlap between all WC-human pairs and all human pairs was >80% for 3/5 patients and >58% for the other 2 patients demonstrating WC falling within inter-human variation. The average sensitivity of spike marking for WC was 91% and >87% for all three EEG reviewers. Finally, there was a strong visual and quantitative similarity between WC and EEG reviewers. WC performance is indistinguishable to that of EEG reviewers' suggesting it could be a valid clinical tool for the assessment of IEDs. WC can be used to provide quantitative analysis of epileptic spikes. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous detection of weak sensory signals in afferent spike trains: the role of anti-correlated interspike intervals in detection performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goense, J B M; Ratnam, R

    2003-10-01

    An important problem in sensory processing is deciding whether fluctuating neural activity encodes a stimulus or is due to variability in baseline activity. Neurons that subserve detection must examine incoming spike trains continuously, and quickly and reliably differentiate signals from baseline activity. Here we demonstrate that a neural integrator can perform continuous signal detection, with performance exceeding that of trial-based procedures, where spike counts in signal- and baseline windows are compared. The procedure was applied to data from electrosensory afferents of weakly electric fish (Apteronotus leptorhynchus), where weak perturbations generated by small prey add approximately 1 spike to a baseline of approximately 300 spikes s(-1). The hypothetical postsynaptic neuron, modeling an electrosensory lateral line lobe cell, could detect an added spike within 10-15 ms, achieving near ideal detection performance (80-95%) at false alarm rates of 1-2 Hz, while trial-based testing resulted in only 30-35% correct detections at that false alarm rate. The performance improvement was due to anti-correlations in the afferent spike train, which reduced both the amplitude and duration of fluctuations in postsynaptic membrane activity, and so decreased the number of false alarms. Anti-correlations can be exploited to improve detection performance only if there is memory of prior decisions.

  1. Linking investment spikes and productivity growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geylani, P.C.; Stefanou, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between productivity growth and investment spikes using Census Bureau’s plant-level dataset for the U.S. food manufacturing industry. There are differences in productivity growth and investment spike patterns across different sub-industries and food manufacturing

  2. A new supervised learning algorithm for spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Zhong, Shuiming

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of supervised learning with temporal encoding for spiking neurons is to make the neurons emit a specific spike train encoded by the precise firing times of spikes. If only running time is considered, the supervised learning for a spiking neuron is equivalent to distinguishing the times of desired output spikes and the other time during the running process of the neuron through adjusting synaptic weights, which can be regarded as a classification problem. Based on this idea, this letter proposes a new supervised learning method for spiking neurons with temporal encoding; it first transforms the supervised learning into a classification problem and then solves the problem by using the perceptron learning rule. The experiment results show that the proposed method has higher learning accuracy and efficiency over the existing learning methods, so it is more powerful for solving complex and real-time problems.

  3. A customizable stochastic state point process filter (SSPPF) for neural spiking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yao; Li, Will X Y; Min, Biao; Han, Yan; Cheung, Ray C C

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic State Point Process Filter (SSPPF) is effective for adaptive signal processing. In particular, it has been successfully applied to neural signal coding/decoding in recent years. Recent work has proven its efficiency in non-parametric coefficients tracking in modeling of mammal nervous system. However, existing SSPPF has only been realized in commercial software platforms which limit their computational capability. In this paper, the first hardware architecture of SSPPF has been designed and successfully implemented on field-programmable gate array (FPGA), proving a more efficient means for coefficient tracking in a well-established generalized Laguerre-Volterra model for mammalian hippocampal spiking activity research. By exploring the intrinsic parallelism of the FPGA, the proposed architecture is able to process matrices or vectors with random size, and is efficiently scalable. Experimental result shows its superior performance comparing to the software implementation, while maintaining the numerical precision. This architecture can also be potentially utilized in the future hippocampal cognitive neural prosthesis design.

  4. Solving constraint satisfaction problems with networks of spiking neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno eJonke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Network of neurons in the brain apply – unlike processors in our current generation ofcomputer hardware – an event-based processing strategy, where short pulses (spikes areemitted sparsely by neurons to signal the occurrence of an event at a particular point intime. Such spike-based computations promise to be substantially more power-efficient thantraditional clocked processing schemes. However it turned out to be surprisingly difficult todesign networks of spiking neurons that can solve difficult computational problems on the levelof single spikes (rather than rates of spikes. We present here a new method for designingnetworks of spiking neurons via an energy function. Furthermore we show how the energyfunction of a network of stochastically firing neurons can be shaped in a quite transparentmanner by composing the networks of simple stereotypical network motifs. We show that thisdesign approach enables networks of spiking neurons to produce approximate solutions todifficult (NP-hard constraint satisfaction problems from the domains of planning/optimizationand verification/logical inference. The resulting networks employ noise as a computationalresource. Nevertheless the timing of spikes (rather than just spike rates plays an essential rolein their computations. Furthermore, networks of spiking neurons carry out for the Traveling Salesman Problem a more efficient stochastic search for good solutions compared with stochastic artificial neural networks (Boltzmann machines and Gibbs sampling.

  5. When the Ostrich-Algorithm Fails: Blanking Method Affects Spike Train Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Kevin; Mottaghi, Soheil; Christ, Olaf; Feuerstein, Thomas J; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2018-01-01

    Modern electroceuticals are bound to employ the usage of electrical high frequency (130-180 Hz) stimulation carried out under closed loop control, most prominent in the case of movement disorders. However, particular challenges are faced when electrical recordings of neuronal tissue are carried out during high frequency electrical stimulation, both in-vivo and in-vitro . This stimulation produces undesired artifacts and can render the recorded signal only partially useful. The extent of these artifacts is often reduced by temporarily grounding the recording input during stimulation pulses. In the following study, we quantify the effects of this method, "blanking," on the spike count and spike train statistics. Starting from a theoretical standpoint, we calculate a loss in the absolute number of action potentials, depending on: width of the blanking window, frequency of stimulation, and intrinsic neuronal activity. These calculations were then corroborated by actual high signal to noise ratio (SNR) single cell recordings. We state that, for clinically relevant frequencies of 130 Hz (used for movement disorders) and realistic blanking windows of 2 ms, up to 27% of actual existing spikes are lost. We strongly advice cautioned use of the blanking method when spike rate quantification is attempted. Blanking (artifact removal by temporarily grounding input), depending on recording parameters, can lead to significant spike loss. Very careful use of blanking circuits is advised.

  6. When the Ostrich-Algorithm Fails: Blanking Method Affects Spike Train Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Joseph

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern electroceuticals are bound to employ the usage of electrical high frequency (130–180 Hz stimulation carried out under closed loop control, most prominent in the case of movement disorders. However, particular challenges are faced when electrical recordings of neuronal tissue are carried out during high frequency electrical stimulation, both in-vivo and in-vitro. This stimulation produces undesired artifacts and can render the recorded signal only partially useful. The extent of these artifacts is often reduced by temporarily grounding the recording input during stimulation pulses. In the following study, we quantify the effects of this method, “blanking,” on the spike count and spike train statistics. Starting from a theoretical standpoint, we calculate a loss in the absolute number of action potentials, depending on: width of the blanking window, frequency of stimulation, and intrinsic neuronal activity. These calculations were then corroborated by actual high signal to noise ratio (SNR single cell recordings. We state that, for clinically relevant frequencies of 130 Hz (used for movement disorders and realistic blanking windows of 2 ms, up to 27% of actual existing spikes are lost. We strongly advice cautioned use of the blanking method when spike rate quantification is attempted.Impact statementBlanking (artifact removal by temporarily grounding input, depending on recording parameters, can lead to significant spike loss. Very careful use of blanking circuits is advised.

  7. Economic impact on the Florida economy of energy price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mory, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    A substantial disturbance in oil supplies is likely to generate a large price upsurge and a downturn in the level of economic activity. Each of these two effects diminishes demand by a certain amount. The specific price surge required to reduce demand to the lower level of supply can be calculated with an oil demand function and with empirical estimations of the association between price spikes and declines in economic activity. The first section presents an energy demand model for Florida, which provides the price and income elasticities needed. The second section includes theoretical explanations and empirical estimations of the relationship between price spikes and recessions. Based on historical evidence, it seems that Florida's and the nation's economic systems are very sensitive to oil price surges. As price spikes appear damaging to the economy, it could be expected that reductions in the price of oil are beneficial to the system. That is likely to be the case in the long run, but no empirical evidence of favorable short-term effects of oil price decreases was found. Several possible explanations and theoretical reasons are offered to explain this lack of association. The final section presents estimates of the effect of oil disruptions upon specific industries in Florida and the nation

  8. Millimeter-wave active probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi-Ahy, Gholamreza; Bloom, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A millimeter-wave active probe for use in injecting signals with frequencies above 50GHz to millimeter-wave and ultrafast devices and integrated circuits including a substrate upon which a frequency multiplier consisting of filter sections and impedance matching sections are fabricated in uniplanar transmission line format. A coaxial input and uniplanar 50 ohm transmission line couple an approximately 20 GHz input signal to a low pass filter which rolls off at approximately 25 GHz. An input impedance matching section couples the energy from the low pass filter to a pair of matched, antiparallel beam lead diodes. These diodes generate odd-numberd harmonics which are coupled out of the diodes by an output impedance matching network and bandpass filter which suppresses the fundamental and third harmonics and selects the fifth harmonic for presentation at an output.

  9. Spike timing precision of neuronal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Deniz; Demir, Alper

    2018-04-17

    Spike timing is believed to be a key factor in sensory information encoding and computations performed by the neurons and neuronal circuits. However, the considerable noise and variability, arising from the inherently stochastic mechanisms that exist in the neurons and the synapses, degrade spike timing precision. Computational modeling can help decipher the mechanisms utilized by the neuronal circuits in order to regulate timing precision. In this paper, we utilize semi-analytical techniques, which were adapted from previously developed methods for electronic circuits, for the stochastic characterization of neuronal circuits. These techniques, which are orders of magnitude faster than traditional Monte Carlo type simulations, can be used to directly compute the spike timing jitter variance, power spectral densities, correlation functions, and other stochastic characterizations of neuronal circuit operation. We consider three distinct neuronal circuit motifs: Feedback inhibition, synaptic integration, and synaptic coupling. First, we show that both the spike timing precision and the energy efficiency of a spiking neuron are improved with feedback inhibition. We unveil the underlying mechanism through which this is achieved. Then, we demonstrate that a neuron can improve on the timing precision of its synaptic inputs, coming from multiple sources, via synaptic integration: The phase of the output spikes of the integrator neuron has the same variance as that of the sample average of the phases of its inputs. Finally, we reveal that weak synaptic coupling among neurons, in a fully connected network, enables them to behave like a single neuron with a larger membrane area, resulting in an improvement in the timing precision through cooperation.

  10. Upregulation of transmitter release probability improves a conversion of synaptic analogue signals into neuronal digital spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Action potentials at the neurons and graded signals at the synapses are primary codes in the brain. In terms of their functional interaction, the studies were focused on the influence of presynaptic spike patterns on synaptic activities. How the synapse dynamics quantitatively regulates the encoding of postsynaptic digital spikes remains unclear. We investigated this question at unitary glutamatergic synapses on cortical GABAergic neurons, especially the quantitative influences of release probability on synapse dynamics and neuronal encoding. Glutamate release probability and synaptic strength are proportionally upregulated by presynaptic sequential spikes. The upregulation of release probability and the efficiency of probability-driven synaptic facilitation are strengthened by elevating presynaptic spike frequency and Ca2+. The upregulation of release probability improves spike capacity and timing precision at postsynaptic neuron. These results suggest that the upregulation of presynaptic glutamate release facilitates a conversion of synaptic analogue signals into digital spikes in postsynaptic neurons, i.e., a functional compatibility between presynaptic and postsynaptic partners. PMID:22852823

  11. Causal Inference and Explaining Away in a Spiking Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Bote, Rubén; Drugowitsch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    While the brain uses spiking neurons for communication, theoretical research on brain computations has mostly focused on non-spiking networks. The nature of spike-based algorithms that achieve complex computations, such as object probabilistic inference, is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that a family of high-dimensional quadratic optimization problems with non-negativity constraints can be solved exactly and efficiently by a network of spiking neurons. The network naturally imposes the non-negativity of causal contributions that is fundamental to causal inference, and uses simple operations, such as linear synapses with realistic time constants, and neural spike generation and reset non-linearities. The network infers the set of most likely causes from an observation using explaining away, which is dynamically implemented by spike-based, tuned inhibition. The algorithm performs remarkably well even when the network intrinsically generates variable spike trains, the timing of spikes is scrambled by external sources of noise, or the network is mistuned. This type of network might underlie tasks such as odor identification and classification. PMID:26621426

  12. Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based Motion: From Dynamic Vision Sensor to Robot Motor Open-Loop Control through Spike-VITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Perez-Peña

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a complete spike-based architecture: from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (retina to a stereo head robotic platform. The aim of this research is to reproduce intended movements performed by humans taking into account as many features as possible from the biological point of view. This paper fills the gap between current spike silicon sensors and robotic actuators by applying a spike processing strategy to the data flows in real time. The architecture is divided into layers: the retina, visual information processing, the trajectory generator layer which uses a neuroinspired algorithm (SVITE that can be replicated into as many times as DoF the robot has; and finally the actuation layer to supply the spikes to the robot (using PFM. All the layers do their tasks in a spike-processing mode, and they communicate each other through the neuro-inspired AER protocol. The open-loop controller is implemented on FPGA using AER interfaces developed by RTC Lab. Experimental results reveal the viability of this spike-based controller. Two main advantages are: low hardware resources (2% of a Xilinx Spartan 6 and power requirements (3.4 W to control a robot with a high number of DoF (up to 100 for a Xilinx Spartan 6. It also evidences the suitable use of AER as a communication protocol between processing and actuation.

  13. Neuro-Inspired Spike-Based Motion: From Dynamic Vision Sensor to Robot Motor Open-Loop Control through Spike-VITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Peña, Fernando; Morgado-Estevez, Arturo; Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Jimenez-Fernandez, Angel; Gomez-Rodriguez, Francisco; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Lopez-Coronado, Juan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a complete spike-based architecture: from a Dynamic Vision Sensor (retina) to a stereo head robotic platform. The aim of this research is to reproduce intended movements performed by humans taking into account as many features as possible from the biological point of view. This paper fills the gap between current spike silicon sensors and robotic actuators by applying a spike processing strategy to the data flows in real time. The architecture is divided into layers: the retina, visual information processing, the trajectory generator layer which uses a neuroinspired algorithm (SVITE) that can be replicated into as many times as DoF the robot has; and finally the actuation layer to supply the spikes to the robot (using PFM). All the layers do their tasks in a spike-processing mode, and they communicate each other through the neuro-inspired AER protocol. The open-loop controller is implemented on FPGA using AER interfaces developed by RTC Lab. Experimental results reveal the viability of this spike-based controller. Two main advantages are: low hardware resources (2% of a Xilinx Spartan 6) and power requirements (3.4 W) to control a robot with a high number of DoF (up to 100 for a Xilinx Spartan 6). It also evidences the suitable use of AER as a communication protocol between processing and actuation. PMID:24264330

  14. Time Resolution Dependence of Information Measures for Spiking Neurons: Scaling and Universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Crutchfield

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mutual information between stimulus and spike-train response is commonly used to monitor neural coding efficiency, but neuronal computation broadly conceived requires more refined and targeted information measures of input-output joint processes. A first step towards that larger goal is todevelop information measures for individual output processes, including information generation (entropy rate, stored information (statisticalcomplexity, predictable information (excess entropy, and active information accumulation (bound information rate. We calculate these for spike trains generated by a variety of noise-driven integrate-and-fire neurons as a function of time resolution and for alternating renewal processes. We show that their time-resolution dependence reveals coarse-grained structural properties of interspike interval statistics; e.g., $tau$-entropy rates that diverge less quickly than the firing rate indicate interspike interval correlations. We also find evidence that the excess entropy and regularized statistical complexity of different types of integrate-and-fire neurons are universal in the continuous-time limit in the sense that they do not depend on mechanism details. This suggests a surprising simplicity in the spike trains generated by these model neurons. Interestingly, neurons with gamma-distributed ISIs and neurons whose spike trains are alternating renewal processes do not fall into the same universality class. These results lead to two conclusions. First, the dependence of information measures on time resolution reveals mechanistic details about spike train generation. Second, information measures can be used as model selection tools for analyzing spike train processes.

  15. Performance comparison of extracellular spike sorting algorithms for single-channel recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Jiri; Prekopcsak, Zoltan; Sieger, Tomas; Novak, Daniel; Jech, Robert

    2012-01-30

    Proper classification of action potentials from extracellular recordings is essential for making an accurate study of neuronal behavior. Many spike sorting algorithms have been presented in the technical literature. However, no comparative analysis has hitherto been performed. In our study, three widely-used publicly-available spike sorting algorithms (WaveClus, KlustaKwik, OSort) were compared with regard to their parameter settings. The algorithms were evaluated using 112 artificial signals (publicly available online) with 2-9 different neurons and varying noise levels between 0.00 and 0.60. An optimization technique based on Adjusted Mutual Information was employed to find near-optimal parameter settings for a given artificial signal and algorithm. All three algorithms performed significantly better (psorting algorithm, receiving the best evaluation score for 60% of all signals. OSort operated at almost five times the speed of the other algorithms. In terms of accuracy, OSort performed significantly less well (palgorithms was optimal in general. The accuracy of the algorithms depended on proper choice of the algorithm parameters and also on specific properties of the examined signal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spike Pattern Structure Influences Synaptic Efficacy Variability Under STDP and Synaptic Homeostasis. II: Spike Shuffling Methods on LIF Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedong Bi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Synapses may undergo variable changes during plasticity because of the variability of spike patterns such as temporal stochasticity and spatial randomness. Here, we call the variability of synaptic weight changes during plasticity to be efficacy variability. In this paper, we investigate how four aspects of spike pattern statistics (i.e., synchronous firing, burstiness/regularity, heterogeneity of rates and heterogeneity of cross-correlations influence the efficacy variability under pair-wise additive spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP and synaptic homeostasis (the mean strength of plastic synapses into a neuron is bounded, by implementing spike shuffling methods onto spike patterns self-organized by a network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF neurons. With the increase of the decay time scale of the inhibitory synaptic currents, the LIF network undergoes a transition from asynchronous state to weak synchronous state and then to synchronous bursting state. We first shuffle these spike patterns using a variety of methods, each designed to evidently change a specific pattern statistics; and then investigate the change of efficacy variability of the synapses under STDP and synaptic homeostasis, when the neurons in the network fire according to the spike patterns before and after being treated by a shuffling method. In this way, we can understand how the change of pattern statistics may cause the change of efficacy variability. Our results are consistent with those of our previous study which implements spike-generating models on converging motifs. We also find that burstiness/regularity is important to determine the efficacy variability under asynchronous states, while heterogeneity of cross-correlations is the main factor to cause efficacy variability when the network moves into synchronous bursting states (the states observed in epilepsy.

  17. Stimulus-dependent spiking relationships with the EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    The development and refinement of noninvasive techniques for imaging neural activity is of paramount importance for human neuroscience. Currently, the most accessible and popular technique is electroencephalography (EEG). However, nearly all of what we know about the neural events that underlie EEG signals is based on inference, because of the dearth of studies that have simultaneously paired EEG recordings with direct recordings of single neurons. From the perspective of electrophysiologists there is growing interest in understanding how spiking activity coordinates with large-scale cortical networks. Evidence from recordings at both scales highlights that sensory neurons operate in very distinct states during spontaneous and visually evoked activity, which appear to form extremes in a continuum of coordination in neural networks. We hypothesized that individual neurons have idiosyncratic relationships to large-scale network activity indexed by EEG signals, owing to the neurons' distinct computational roles within the local circuitry. We tested this by recording neuronal populations in visual area V4 of rhesus macaques while we simultaneously recorded EEG. We found substantial heterogeneity in the timing and strength of spike-EEG relationships and that these relationships became more diverse during visual stimulation compared with the spontaneous state. The visual stimulus apparently shifts V4 neurons from a state in which they are relatively uniformly embedded in large-scale network activity to a state in which their distinct roles within the local population are more prominent, suggesting that the specific way in which individual neurons relate to EEG signals may hold clues regarding their computational roles. PMID:26108954

  18. Rebound spiking in layer II medial entorhinal cortex stellate cells: Possible mechanism of grid cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Christopher F.; Ferrante, Michele; Chapman, G. William; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Rebound spiking properties of medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) stellate cells induced by inhibition may underlie their functional properties in awake behaving rats, including the temporal phase separation of distinct grid cells and differences in grid cell firing properties. We investigated rebound spiking properties using whole cell patch recording in entorhinal slices, holding cells near spiking threshold and delivering sinusoidal inputs, superimposed with realistic inhibitory synaptic inputs to test the capacity of cells to selectively respond to specific phases of inhibitory input. Stellate cells showed a specific phase range of hyperpolarizing inputs that elicited spiking, but non-stellate cells did not show phase specificity. In both cell types, the phase range of spiking output occurred between the peak and subsequent descending zero crossing of the sinusoid. The phases of inhibitory inputs that induced spikes shifted earlier as the baseline sinusoid frequency increased, while spiking output shifted to later phases. Increases in magnitude of the inhibitory inputs shifted the spiking output to earlier phases. Pharmacological blockade of h-current abolished the phase selectivity of hyperpolarizing inputs eliciting spikes. A network computational model using cells possessing similar rebound properties as found in vitro produces spatially periodic firing properties resembling grid cell firing when a simulated animal moves along a linear track. These results suggest that the ability of mEC stellate cells to fire rebound spikes in response to a specific range of phases of inhibition could support complex attractor dynamics that provide completion and separation to maintain spiking activity of specific grid cell populations. PMID:26385258

  19. Computational modeling of distinct neocortical oscillations driven by cell-type selective optogenetic drive: Separable resonant circuits controlled by low-threshold spiking and fast-spiking interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorea Vierling-Claassen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective optogenetic drive of fast spiking interneurons (FS leads to enhanced local field potential (LFP power across the traditional gamma frequency band (20-80Hz; Cardin et al., 2009. In contrast, drive to regular-spiking pyramidal cells (RS enhances power at lower frequencies, with a peak at 8 Hz. The first result is consistent with previous computational studies emphasizing the role of FS and the time constant of GABAA synaptic inhibition in gamma rhythmicity. However, the same theoretical models do not typically predict low-frequency LFP enhancement with RS drive. To develop hypotheses as to how the same network can support these contrasting behaviors, we constructed a biophysically principled network model of primary somatosensory neocortex containing FS, RS and low-threshold-spiking (LTS interneurons. Cells were modeled with detailed cell anatomy and physiology, multiple dendritic compartments, and included active somatic and dendritic ionic currents. Consistent with prior studies, the model demonstrated gamma resonance during FS drive, dependent on the time-constant of GABAA inhibition induced by synchronous FS activity. Lower frequency enhancement during RS drive was replicated only on inclusion of an inhibitory LTS population, whose activation was critically dependent on RS synchrony and evoked longer-lasting inhibition. Our results predict that differential recruitment of FS and LTS inhibitory populations is essential to the observed cortical dynamics and may provide a means for amplifying the natural expression of distinct oscillations in normal cortical processing.

  20. Fitting neuron models to spike trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille eRossant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational modeling is increasingly used to understand the function of neural circuitsin systems neuroscience.These studies require models of individual neurons with realisticinput-output properties.Recently, it was found that spiking models can accurately predict theprecisely timed spike trains produced by cortical neurons in response tosomatically injected currents,if properly fitted. This requires fitting techniques that are efficientand flexible enough to easily test different candidate models.We present a generic solution, based on the Brian simulator(a neural network simulator in Python, which allowsthe user to define and fit arbitrary neuron models to electrophysiological recordings.It relies on vectorization and parallel computing techniques toachieve efficiency.We demonstrate its use on neural recordings in the barrel cortex andin the auditory brainstem, and confirm that simple adaptive spiking modelscan accurately predict the response of cortical neurons. Finally, we show how a complexmulticompartmental model can be reduced to a simple effective spiking model.

  1. Length and activation dependent variations in muscle shear wave speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernak, L A; DeWall, R J; Lee, K S; Thelen, D G

    2013-01-01

    Muscle stiffness is known to vary as a result of a variety of disease states, yet current clinical methods for quantifying muscle stiffness have limitations including cost and availability. We investigated the capability of shear wave elastography (SWE) to measure variations in gastrocnemius shear wave speed induced via active contraction and passive stretch. Ten healthy young adults were tested. Shear wave speeds were measured using a SWE transducer positioned over the medial gastrocnemius at ankle angles ranging from maximum dorsiflexion to maximum plantarflexion. Shear wave speeds were also measured during voluntary plantarflexor contractions at a fixed ankle angle. Average shear wave speed increased significantly from 2.6 to 5.6 m s –1 with passive dorsiflexion and the knee in an extended posture, but did not vary with dorsiflexion when the gastrocnemius was shortened in a flexed knee posture. During active contractions, shear wave speed monotonically varied with the net ankle moment generated, reaching 8.3 m s –1 in the maximally contracted condition. There was a linear correlation between shear wave speed and net ankle moment in both the active and passive conditions; however, the slope of this linear relationship was significantly steeper for the data collected during passive loading conditions. The results show that SWE is a promising approach for quantitatively assessing changes in mechanical muscle loading. However, the differential effect of active and passive loading on shear wave speed makes it important to carefully consider the relevant loading conditions in which to use SWE to characterize in vivo muscle properties. (paper)

  2. Constructing Precisely Computing Networks with Biophysical Spiking Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwemmer, Michael A; Fairhall, Adrienne L; Denéve, Sophie; Shea-Brown, Eric T

    2015-07-15

    While spike timing has been shown to carry detailed stimulus information at the sensory periphery, its possible role in network computation is less clear. Most models of computation by neural networks are based on population firing rates. In equivalent spiking implementations, firing is assumed to be random such that averaging across populations of neurons recovers the rate-based approach. Recently, however, Denéve and colleagues have suggested that the spiking behavior of neurons may be fundamental to how neuronal networks compute, with precise spike timing determined by each neuron's contribution to producing the desired output (Boerlin and Denéve, 2011; Boerlin et al., 2013). By postulating that each neuron fires to reduce the error in the network's output, it was demonstrated that linear computations can be performed by networks of integrate-and-fire neurons that communicate through instantaneous synapses. This left open, however, the possibility that realistic networks, with conductance-based neurons with subthreshold nonlinearity and the slower timescales of biophysical synapses, may not fit into this framework. Here, we show how the spike-based approach can be extended to biophysically plausible networks. We then show that our network reproduces a number of key features of cortical networks including irregular and Poisson-like spike times and a tight balance between excitation and inhibition. Lastly, we discuss how the behavior of our model scales with network size or with the number of neurons "recorded" from a larger computing network. These results significantly increase the biological plausibility of the spike-based approach to network computation. We derive a network of neurons with standard spike-generating currents and synapses with realistic timescales that computes based upon the principle that the precise timing of each spike is important for the computation. We then show that our network reproduces a number of key features of cortical networks

  3. Different propagation speeds of recalled sequences in plastic spiking neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuhui; Zheng, Zhigang; Hu, Gang; Wu, Si; Rasch, Malte J.

    2015-03-01

    Neural networks can generate spatiotemporal patterns of spike activity. Sequential activity learning and retrieval have been observed in many brain areas, and e.g. is crucial for coding of episodic memory in the hippocampus or generating temporal patterns during song production in birds. In a recent study, a sequential activity pattern was directly entrained onto the neural activity of the primary visual cortex (V1) of rats and subsequently successfully recalled by a local and transient trigger. It was observed that the speed of activity propagation in coordinates of the retinotopically organized neural tissue was constant during retrieval regardless how the speed of light stimulation sweeping across the visual field during training was varied. It is well known that spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is a potential mechanism for embedding temporal sequences into neural network activity. How training and retrieval speeds relate to each other and how network and learning parameters influence retrieval speeds, however, is not well described. We here theoretically analyze sequential activity learning and retrieval in a recurrent neural network with realistic synaptic short-term dynamics and STDP. Testing multiple STDP rules, we confirm that sequence learning can be achieved by STDP. However, we found that a multiplicative nearest-neighbor (NN) weight update rule generated weight distributions and recall activities that best matched the experiments in V1. Using network simulations and mean-field analysis, we further investigated the learning mechanisms and the influence of network parameters on recall speeds. Our analysis suggests that a multiplicative STDP rule with dominant NN spike interaction might be implemented in V1 since recall speed was almost constant in an NMDA-dominant regime. Interestingly, in an AMPA-dominant regime, neural circuits might exhibit recall speeds that instead follow the change in stimulus speeds. This prediction could be tested in

  4. Fluctuations and information filtering in coupled populations of spiking neurons with adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deger, Moritz; Schwalger, Tilo; Naud, Richard; Gerstner, Wulfram

    2014-12-01

    Finite-sized populations of spiking elements are fundamental to brain function but also are used in many areas of physics. Here we present a theory of the dynamics of finite-sized populations of spiking units, based on a quasirenewal description of neurons with adaptation. We derive an integral equation with colored noise that governs the stochastic dynamics of the population activity in response to time-dependent stimulation and calculate the spectral density in the asynchronous state. We show that systems of coupled populations with adaptation can generate a frequency band in which sensory information is preferentially encoded. The theory is applicable to fully as well as randomly connected networks and to leaky integrate-and-fire as well as to generalized spiking neurons with adaptation on multiple time scales.

  5. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos...

  6. Spike: Artificial intelligence scheduling for Hubble space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark; Miller, Glenn; Sponsler, Jeff; Vick, Shon; Jackson, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Efficient utilization of spacecraft resources is essential, but the accompanying scheduling problems are often computationally intractable and are difficult to approximate because of the presence of numerous interacting constraints. Artificial intelligence techniques were applied to the scheduling of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This presents a particularly challenging problem since a yearlong observing program can contain some tens of thousands of exposures which are subject to a large number of scientific, operational, spacecraft, and environmental constraints. New techniques were developed for machine reasoning about scheduling constraints and goals, especially in cases where uncertainty is an important scheduling consideration and where resolving conflicts among conflicting preferences is essential. These technique were utilized in a set of workstation based scheduling tools (Spike) for HST. Graphical displays of activities, constraints, and schedules are an important feature of the system. High level scheduling strategies using both rule based and neural network approaches were developed. While the specific constraints implemented are those most relevant to HST, the framework developed is far more general and could easily handle other kinds of scheduling problems. The concept and implementation of the Spike system are described along with some experiments in adapting Spike to other spacecraft scheduling domains.

  7. Solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Networks of Spiking Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, Zeno; Habenschuss, Stefan; Maass, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Network of neurons in the brain apply-unlike processors in our current generation of computer hardware-an event-based processing strategy, where short pulses (spikes) are emitted sparsely by neurons to signal the occurrence of an event at a particular point in time. Such spike-based computations promise to be substantially more power-efficient than traditional clocked processing schemes. However, it turns out to be surprisingly difficult to design networks of spiking neurons that can solve difficult computational problems on the level of single spikes, rather than rates of spikes. We present here a new method for designing networks of spiking neurons via an energy function. Furthermore, we show how the energy function of a network of stochastically firing neurons can be shaped in a transparent manner by composing the networks of simple stereotypical network motifs. We show that this design approach enables networks of spiking neurons to produce approximate solutions to difficult (NP-hard) constraint satisfaction problems from the domains of planning/optimization and verification/logical inference. The resulting networks employ noise as a computational resource. Nevertheless, the timing of spikes plays an essential role in their computations. Furthermore, networks of spiking neurons carry out for the Traveling Salesman Problem a more efficient stochastic search for good solutions compared with stochastic artificial neural networks (Boltzmann machines) and Gibbs sampling.

  8. Multineuron spike train analysis with R-convolution linear combination kernel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Taro

    2018-06-01

    A spike train kernel provides an effective way of decoding information represented by a spike train. Some spike train kernels have been extended to multineuron spike trains, which are simultaneously recorded spike trains obtained from multiple neurons. However, most of these multineuron extensions were carried out in a kernel-specific manner. In this paper, a general framework is proposed for extending any single-neuron spike train kernel to multineuron spike trains, based on the R-convolution kernel. Special subclasses of the proposed R-convolution linear combination kernel are explored. These subclasses have a smaller number of parameters and make optimization tractable when the size of data is limited. The proposed kernel was evaluated using Gaussian process regression for multineuron spike trains recorded from an animal brain. It was compared with the sum kernel and the population Spikernel, which are existing ways of decoding multineuron spike trains using kernels. The results showed that the proposed approach performs better than these kernels and also other commonly used neural decoding methods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep spindle activity in double cortex syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Emilia; Marcoz, Jean-Pierre; Foletti, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    Cortical dysgenesis is increasingly recognised as a cause of epilepsy. We report a case with double cortex heterotopia and secondarily generalized seizures with a generalised spike wave pattern. During the course of the disease, the child developed electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep. From the first examination, sleep pattern revealed increased frequency and amplitude of spindle activity, more evident in anterior areas. The role of the thalamocortical pathway in increased sleep spindle activity is discussed with emphasis on the possible role of altered thalamocortical pathways in abnormal cortical migration. A strong suspicion of cortical dysgenesis may therefore be based on specific EEG sleep patterns.

  10. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Nieus, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs), interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities) that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity. PMID:28749937

  11. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lonardoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs, interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity.

  12. α-Oscillations in the monkey sensorimotor network influence discrimination performance by rhythmical inhibition of neuronal spiking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegens, Saskia; Nácher, Verónica; Luna, Rogelio; Romo, Ranulfo; Jensen, Ole

    2011-11-29

    Extensive work in humans using magneto- and electroencephalography strongly suggests that decreased oscillatory α-activity (8-14 Hz) facilitates processing in a given region, whereas increased α-activity serves to actively suppress irrelevant or interfering processing. However, little work has been done to understand how α-activity is linked to neuronal firing. Here, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials and spikes from somatosensory, premotor, and motor regions while a trained monkey performed a vibrotactile discrimination task. In the local field potentials we observed strong activity in the α-band, which decreased in the sensorimotor regions during the discrimination task. This α-power decrease predicted better discrimination performance. Furthermore, the α-oscillations demonstrated a rhythmic relation with the spiking, such that firing was highest at the trough of the α-cycle. Firing rates increased with a decrease in α-power. These findings suggest that α-oscillations exercise a strong inhibitory influence on both spike timing and firing rate. Thus, the pulsed inhibition by α-oscillations plays an important functional role in the extended sensorimotor system.

  13. Comparison of electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lepkova, Katarina; Kubal, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation methods for removal of heavy metals from polluted soils have been subjected for quite intense research during the past years since these methods are well suitable for fine-grained soils where other remediation methods fail. Electrodialytic remediation is an electrokinetic...... remediation method which is based on applying an electric DC field and the use of ion exchange membranes that ensures the main transport of heavy metals to be out of the pollutes soil. An experimental investigation was made with electrodialytic removal of Cu from spiked kaolinite, spiked soil and industrially...... polluted soil under the same operational conditions (constant current density 0.2 mA/cm2 and duration 28 days). The results of the present paper show that caution must be taken when generalising results obtained in spiked kaolinite to remediation of industrially polluted soils, as it was shown...

  14. Toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments to benthic invertebrates-Spiking methodology, species sensitivity, and nickel bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, John M.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Rudel, David

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes data from studies of the toxicity and bioavailability of nickel in nickel-spiked freshwater sediments. The goal of these studies was to generate toxicity and chemistry data to support development of broadly applicable sediment quality guidelines for nickel. The studies were conducted as three tasks, which are presented here as three chapters: Task 1, Development of methods for preparation and toxicity testing of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; Task 2, Sensitivity of benthic invertebrates to toxicity of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments; and Task 3, Effect of sediment characteristics on nickel bioavailability. Appendices with additional methodological details and raw chemistry and toxicity data for the three tasks are available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2011/5225/downloads/.

  15. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Electrographic Status Epilepticus in Slow-Wave Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosella, Christopher M; Greiner, Hansel M; Byars, Anna W; Arthur, Todd M; Leach, James L; Turner, Michele; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2016-07-01

    Electrographic status epilepticus in slow sleep or continuous spike and waves during slow-wave sleep is an epileptic encephalopathy characterized by seizures, neurocognitive regression, and significant activation of epileptiform discharges during nonrapid eye movement sleep. There is no consensus on the diagnostic criteria and evidence-based optimal treatment algorithm for children with electrographic status epilepticus in slow sleep. We describe a 12-year-old girl with drug-resistant electrographic status epilepticus in slow wave sleep that was successfully treated with vagus nerve stimulation. Her clinical presentation, presurgical evaluation, decision-making, and course after vagus nerve stimulator implantation are described in detail. After vagus nerve stimulator implantation, the girl remained seizure free for more than a year, resolved the electrographic status epilepticus in slow sleep pattern on electroencephalography, and exhibited significant cognitive improvement. Vagus nerve stimulation may be considered for electrographic status epilepticus in slow sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spike Timing Matters in Novel Neuronal Code Involved in Vibrotactile Frequency Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birznieks, Ingvars; Vickery, Richard M

    2017-05-22

    Skin vibrations sensed by tactile receptors contribute significantly to the perception of object properties during tactile exploration [1-4] and to sensorimotor control during object manipulation [5]. Sustained low-frequency skin vibration (perception of frequency is still unknown. Measures based on mean spike rates of neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex are sufficient to explain performance in some frequency discrimination tasks [7-11]; however, there is emerging evidence that stimuli can be distinguished based also on temporal features of neural activity [12, 13]. Our study's advance is to demonstrate that temporal features are fundamental for vibrotactile frequency perception. Pulsatile mechanical stimuli were used to elicit specified temporal spike train patterns in tactile afferents, and subsequently psychophysical methods were employed to characterize human frequency perception. Remarkably, the most salient temporal feature determining vibrotactile frequency was not the underlying periodicity but, rather, the duration of the silent gap between successive bursts of neural activity. This burst gap code for frequency represents a previously unknown form of neural coding in the tactile sensory system, which parallels auditory pitch perception mechanisms based on purely temporal information where longer inter-pulse intervals receive higher perceptual weights than short intervals [14]. Our study also demonstrates that human perception of stimuli can be determined exclusively by temporal features of spike trains independent of the mean spike rate and without contribution from population response factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low Activity Microstates During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Hiroyuki; Billeh, Yazan N; Diba, Kamran

    2017-06-01

    To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (260-360 g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns.org.1,2. LOW states lasted longer than OFF/DOWN states and were distinguished by a subset of "LOW-active" cells. LOW activity sleep was preceded and followed by increased sharp-wave ripple activity. We also observed decreased slow-wave activity and sleep spindles in the hippocampal LFP and neocortical EEG upon LOW onset, with a partial rebound immediately after LOW. LOW states demonstrated activity patterns consistent with sleep but frequently transitioned into microarousals and showed EMG and LFP differences from small-amplitude irregular activity during quiet waking. Their likelihood decreased within individual non-REM epochs yet increased over the course of sleep. By analyzing data from the entorhinal cortex of rats,1 as well as the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the postsubiculum, and the anterior thalamus of mice,2 obtained from http://crcns.org, we confirmed that LOW states corresponded to markedly diminished activity simultaneously in all of these regions. We propose that LOW states are an important microstate within non-REM sleep that provide respite from high-activity sleep and may serve a restorative function. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  18. Biophysical Insights into How Spike Threshold Depends on the Rate of Membrane Potential Depolarization in Type I and Type II Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Sheng Yi

    Full Text Available Dynamic spike threshold plays a critical role in neuronal input-output relations. In many neurons, the threshold potential depends on the rate of membrane potential depolarization (dV/dt preceding a spike. There are two basic classes of neural excitability, i.e., Type I and Type II, according to input-output properties. Although the dynamical and biophysical basis of their spike initiation has been established, the spike threshold dynamic for each cell type has not been well described. Here, we use a biophysical model to investigate how spike threshold depends on dV/dt in two types of neuron. It is observed that Type II spike threshold is more depolarized and more sensitive to dV/dt than Type I. With phase plane analysis, we show that each threshold dynamic arises from the different separatrix and K+ current kinetics. By analyzing subthreshold properties of membrane currents, we find the activation of hyperpolarizing current prior to spike initiation is a major factor that regulates the threshold dynamics. The outward K+ current in Type I neuron does not activate at the perithresholds, which makes its spike threshold insensitive to dV/dt. The Type II K+ current activates prior to spike initiation and there is a large net hyperpolarizing current at the perithresholds, which results in a depolarized threshold as well as a pronounced threshold dynamic. These predictions are further attested in several other functionally equivalent cases of neural excitability. Our study provides a fundamental description about how intrinsic biophysical properties contribute to the threshold dynamics in Type I and Type II neurons, which could decipher their significant functions in neural coding.

  19. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin

    2016-01-01

    attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization...

  20. From retinal waves to activity-dependent retinogeniculate map development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Jeffrey; Cao, Yongqiang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A neural model is described of how spontaneous retinal waves are formed in infant mammals, and how these waves organize activity-dependent development of a topographic map in the lateral geniculate nucleus, with connections from each eye segregated into separate anatomical layers. The model simulates the spontaneous behavior of starburst amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells during the production of retinal waves during the first few weeks of mammalian postnatal development. It proposes how excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms within individual cells, such as Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels, and cAMP currents and signaling cascades, can modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of waves, notably by controlling the after-hyperpolarization currents of starburst amacrine cells. Given the critical role of the geniculate map in the development of visual cortex, these results provide a foundation for analyzing the temporal dynamics whereby the visual cortex itself develops.

  1. An Event-Driven Classifier for Spiking Neural Networks Fed with Synthetic or Dynamic Vision Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Stromatias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel methodology for training an event-driven classifier within a Spiking Neural Network (SNN System capable of yielding good classification results when using both synthetic input data and real data captured from Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS chips. The proposed supervised method uses the spiking activity provided by an arbitrary topology of prior SNN layers to build histograms and train the classifier in the frame domain using the stochastic gradient descent algorithm. In addition, this approach can cope with leaky integrate-and-fire neuron models within the SNN, a desirable feature for real-world SNN applications, where neural activation must fade away after some time in the absence of inputs. Consequently, this way of building histograms captures the dynamics of spikes immediately before the classifier. We tested our method on the MNIST data set using different synthetic encodings and real DVS sensory data sets such as N-MNIST, MNIST-DVS, and Poker-DVS using the same network topology and feature maps. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by achieving the highest classification accuracy reported on the N-MNIST (97.77% and Poker-DVS (100% real DVS data sets to date with a spiking convolutional network. Moreover, by using the proposed method we were able to retrain the output layer of a previously reported spiking neural network and increase its performance by 2%, suggesting that the proposed classifier can be used as the output layer in works where features are extracted using unsupervised spike-based learning methods. In addition, we also analyze SNN performance figures such as total event activity and network latencies, which are relevant for eventual hardware implementations. In summary, the paper aggregates unsupervised-trained SNNs with a supervised-trained SNN classifier, combining and applying them to heterogeneous sets of benchmarks, both synthetic and from real DVS chips.

  2. An Event-Driven Classifier for Spiking Neural Networks Fed with Synthetic or Dynamic Vision Sensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromatias, Evangelos; Soto, Miguel; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel methodology for training an event-driven classifier within a Spiking Neural Network (SNN) System capable of yielding good classification results when using both synthetic input data and real data captured from Dynamic Vision Sensor (DVS) chips. The proposed supervised method uses the spiking activity provided by an arbitrary topology of prior SNN layers to build histograms and train the classifier in the frame domain using the stochastic gradient descent algorithm. In addition, this approach can cope with leaky integrate-and-fire neuron models within the SNN, a desirable feature for real-world SNN applications, where neural activation must fade away after some time in the absence of inputs. Consequently, this way of building histograms captures the dynamics of spikes immediately before the classifier. We tested our method on the MNIST data set using different synthetic encodings and real DVS sensory data sets such as N-MNIST, MNIST-DVS, and Poker-DVS using the same network topology and feature maps. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by achieving the highest classification accuracy reported on the N-MNIST (97.77%) and Poker-DVS (100%) real DVS data sets to date with a spiking convolutional network. Moreover, by using the proposed method we were able to retrain the output layer of a previously reported spiking neural network and increase its performance by 2%, suggesting that the proposed classifier can be used as the output layer in works where features are extracted using unsupervised spike-based learning methods. In addition, we also analyze SNN performance figures such as total event activity and network latencies, which are relevant for eventual hardware implementations. In summary, the paper aggregates unsupervised-trained SNNs with a supervised-trained SNN classifier, combining and applying them to heterogeneous sets of benchmarks, both synthetic and from real DVS chips.

  3. Training Deep Spiking Neural Networks Using Backpropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Haeng; Delbruck, Tobi; Pfeiffer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Deep spiking neural networks (SNNs) hold the potential for improving the latency and energy efficiency of deep neural networks through data-driven event-based computation. However, training such networks is difficult due to the non-differentiable nature of spike events. In this paper, we introduce a novel technique, which treats the membrane potentials of spiking neurons as differentiable signals, where discontinuities at spike times are considered as noise. This enables an error backpropagation mechanism for deep SNNs that follows the same principles as in conventional deep networks, but works directly on spike signals and membrane potentials. Compared with previous methods relying on indirect training and conversion, our technique has the potential to capture the statistics of spikes more precisely. We evaluate the proposed framework on artificially generated events from the original MNIST handwritten digit benchmark, and also on the N-MNIST benchmark recorded with an event-based dynamic vision sensor, in which the proposed method reduces the error rate by a factor of more than three compared to the best previous SNN, and also achieves a higher accuracy than a conventional convolutional neural network (CNN) trained and tested on the same data. We demonstrate in the context of the MNIST task that thanks to their event-driven operation, deep SNNs (both fully connected and convolutional) trained with our method achieve accuracy equivalent with conventional neural networks. In the N-MNIST example, equivalent accuracy is achieved with about five times fewer computational operations.

  4. Grain price spikes and beggar-thy-neighbor policy responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Anderson, Kym

    2017-01-01

    When prices spike in international grain markets, national governments often reduce the extent to which that spike affects their domestic food markets. Those actions exacerbate the price spike and international welfare transfer associated with that terms of trade change. Several recent analyses...

  5. The sodium channel activator Lu AE98134 normalizes the altered firing properties of fast spiking interneurons in Dlx5/6+/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Schoubye, Nadia Lybøl; Frederiksen, Kristen; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    Mental disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with impaired firing properties of fast spiking inhibitory interneurons (FSINs) causing reduced task-evoked gamma-oscillation in prefrontal cortex. The voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1 is highly expressed in PV-positive interneurons, but only...... at low levels in principal cells. Positive modulators of Nav1.1 channels are for this reason considered potential candidates for the treatment of cognitive disorders. Here we examined the effect of the novel positive modulator of voltage-gated sodium channels Lu AE98134. We found that Lu AE98134...... facilitated the sodium current mediated by NaV1.1 expressed in HEK cells by shifting its activation to more negative values, decreasing its inactivation kinetics and promoting a persistent inward current. In a slice preparation from the brain of adult mice, Lu AE98134 promoted the excitability of fast spiking...

  6. Effect of the sub-threshold periodic current forcing on the regularity and the synchronization of neuronal spiking activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Mahmut; Uzuntarla, Muhammet; Agaoglu, Sukriye Nihal

    2006-01-01

    We first investigate the amplitude effect of the subthreshold periodic forcing on the regularity of the spiking events by using the coefficient of variation of interspike intervals. We show that the resonance effect in the coefficient of variation, which is dependent on the driving frequency for larger membrane patch sizes, disappears when the amplitude of the subthreshold forcing is decreased. Then, we demonstrate that the timings of the spiking events of a noisy and periodically driven neuron concentrate on a specific phase of the stimulus. We also show that increasing the intensity of the noise causes the phase probability density of the spiking events to get smaller values, and eliminates differences in the phase locking behavior of the neuron for different patch sizes

  7. Differential Activation of Fast-Spiking and Regular-Firing Neuron Populations During Movement and Reward in the Dorsal Medial Frontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Nathan; Barnes, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex is thought to be important for guiding behavior according to an animal's expectations. Efforts to decode the region have focused not only on the question of what information it computes, but also how distinct circuit components become engaged during behavior. We find that the activity of regular-firing, putative projection neurons contains rich information about behavioral context and firing fields cluster around reward sites, while activity among putative inhibitory and fast-spiking neurons is most associated with movement and accompanying sensory stimulation. These dissociations were observed even between adjacent neurons with apparently reciprocal, inhibitory–excitatory connections. A smaller population of projection neurons with burst-firing patterns did not show clustered firing fields around rewards; these neurons, although heterogeneous, were generally less selective for behavioral context than regular-firing cells. The data suggest a network that tracks an animal's behavioral situation while, at the same time, regulating excitation levels to emphasize high valued positions. In this scenario, the function of fast-spiking inhibitory neurons is to constrain network output relative to incoming sensory flow. This scheme could serve as a bridge between abstract sensorimotor information and single-dimensional codes for value, providing a neural framework to generate expectations from behavioral state. PMID:24700585

  8. Introduction to spiking neural networks: Information processing, learning and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponulak, Filip; Kasinski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    The concept that neural information is encoded in the firing rate of neurons has been the dominant paradigm in neurobiology for many years. This paradigm has also been adopted by the theory of artificial neural networks. Recent physiological experiments demonstrate, however, that in many parts of the nervous system, neural code is founded on the timing of individual action potentials. This finding has given rise to the emergence of a new class of neural models, called spiking neural networks. In this paper we summarize basic properties of spiking neurons and spiking networks. Our focus is, specifically, on models of spike-based information coding, synaptic plasticity and learning. We also survey real-life applications of spiking models. The paper is meant to be an introduction to spiking neural networks for scientists from various disciplines interested in spike-based neural processing.

  9. Neuronal spike sorting based on radial basis function neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghavi Kani M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studying the behavior of a society of neurons, extracting the communication mechanisms of brain with other tissues, finding treatment for some nervous system diseases and designing neuroprosthetic devices, require an algorithm to sort neuralspikes automatically. However, sorting neural spikes is a challenging task because of the low signal to noise ratio (SNR of the spikes. The main purpose of this study was to design an automatic algorithm for classifying neuronal spikes that are emitted from a specific region of the nervous system."n "nMethods: The spike sorting process usually consists of three stages: detection, feature extraction and sorting. We initially used signal statistics to detect neural spikes. Then, we chose a limited number of typical spikes as features and finally used them to train a radial basis function (RBF neural network to sort the spikes. In most spike sorting devices, these signals are not linearly discriminative. In order to solve this problem, the aforesaid RBF neural network was used."n "nResults: After the learning process, our proposed algorithm classified any arbitrary spike. The obtained results showed that even though the proposed Radial Basis Spike Sorter (RBSS reached to the same error as the previous methods, however, the computational costs were much lower compared to other algorithms. Moreover, the competitive points of the proposed algorithm were its good speed and low computational complexity."n "nConclusion: Regarding the results of this study, the proposed algorithm seems to serve the purpose of procedures that require real-time processing and spike sorting.

  10. Event-driven processing for hardware-efficient neural spike sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Pereira, João L.; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. The prospect of real-time and on-node spike sorting provides a genuine opportunity to push the envelope of large-scale integrated neural recording systems. In such systems the hardware resources, power requirements and data bandwidth increase linearly with channel count. Event-based (or data-driven) processing can provide here a new efficient means for hardware implementation that is completely activity dependant. In this work, we investigate using continuous-time level-crossing sampling for efficient data representation and subsequent spike processing. Approach. (1) We first compare signals (synthetic neural datasets) encoded with this technique against conventional sampling. (2) We then show how such a representation can be directly exploited by extracting simple time domain features from the bitstream to perform neural spike sorting. (3) The proposed method is implemented in a low power FPGA platform to demonstrate its hardware viability. Main results. It is observed that considerably lower data rates are achievable when using 7 bits or less to represent the signals, whilst maintaining the signal fidelity. Results obtained using both MATLAB and reconfigurable logic hardware (FPGA) indicate that feature extraction and spike sorting accuracies can be achieved with comparable or better accuracy than reference methods whilst also requiring relatively low hardware resources. Significance. By effectively exploiting continuous-time data representation, neural signal processing can be achieved in a completely event-driven manner, reducing both the required resources (memory, complexity) and computations (operations). This will see future large-scale neural systems integrating on-node processing in real-time hardware.

  11. Error-backpropagation in temporally encoded networks of spiking neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Bohte (Sander); J.A. La Poutré (Han); J.N. Kok (Joost)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFor a network of spiking neurons that encodes information in the timing of individual spike-times, we derive a supervised learning rule, emph{SpikeProp, akin to traditional error-backpropagation and show how to overcome the discontinuities introduced by thresholding. With this algorithm,

  12. Spike Pattern Structure Influences Synaptic Efficacy Variability Under STDP and Synaptic Homeostasis. I: Spike Generating Models on Converging Motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedong eBi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In neural systems, synaptic plasticity is usually driven by spike trains. Due to the inherent noises of neurons and synapses as well as the randomness of connection details, spike trains typically exhibit variability such as spatial randomness and temporal stochasticity, resulting in variability of synaptic changes under plasticity, which we call efficacy variability. How the variability of spike trains influences the efficacy variability of synapses remains unclear. In this paper, we try to understand this influence under pair-wise additive spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP when the mean strength of plastic synapses into a neuron is bounded (synaptic homeostasis. Specifically, we systematically study, analytically and numerically, how four aspects of statistical features, i.e. synchronous firing, burstiness/regularity, heterogeneity of rates and heterogeneity of cross-correlations, as well as their interactions influence the efficacy variability in converging motifs (simple networks in which one neuron receives from many other neurons. Neurons (including the post-synaptic neuron in a converging motif generate spikes according to statistical models with tunable parameters. In this way, we can explicitly control the statistics of the spike patterns, and investigate their influence onto the efficacy variability, without worrying about the feedback from synaptic changes onto the dynamics of the post-synaptic neuron. We separate efficacy variability into two parts: the drift part (DriftV induced by the heterogeneity of change rates of different synapses, and the diffusion part (DiffV induced by weight diffusion caused by stochasticity of spike trains. Our main findings are: (1 synchronous firing and burstiness tend to increase DiffV, (2 heterogeneity of rates induces DriftV when potentiation and depression in STDP are not balanced, and (3 heterogeneity of cross-correlations induces DriftV together with heterogeneity of rates. We anticipate our

  13. A Cross-Correlated Delay Shift Supervised Learning Method for Spiking Neurons with Application to Interictal Spike Detection in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lilin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Cabrerizo, Mercedes; Adjouadi, Malek

    2017-05-01

    This study introduces a novel learning algorithm for spiking neurons, called CCDS, which is able to learn and reproduce arbitrary spike patterns in a supervised fashion allowing the processing of spatiotemporal information encoded in the precise timing of spikes. Unlike the Remote Supervised Method (ReSuMe), synapse delays and axonal delays in CCDS are variants which are modulated together with weights during learning. The CCDS rule is both biologically plausible and computationally efficient. The properties of this learning rule are investigated extensively through experimental evaluations in terms of reliability, adaptive learning performance, generality to different neuron models, learning in the presence of noise, effects of its learning parameters and classification performance. Results presented show that the CCDS learning method achieves learning accuracy and learning speed comparable with ReSuMe, but improves classification accuracy when compared to both the Spike Pattern Association Neuron (SPAN) learning rule and the Tempotron learning rule. The merit of CCDS rule is further validated on a practical example involving the automated detection of interictal spikes in EEG records of patients with epilepsy. Results again show that with proper encoding, the CCDS rule achieves good recognition performance.

  14. Mechanisms of sharp wave initiation and ripple generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlingloff, Dániel; Káli, Szabolcs; Freund, Tamás F; Hájos, Norbert; Gulyás, Attila I

    2014-08-20

    Replay of neuronal activity during hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) is essential in memory formation. To understand the mechanisms underlying the initiation of irregularly occurring SWRs and the generation of periodic ripples, we selectively manipulated different components of the CA3 network in mouse hippocampal slices. We recorded EPSCs and IPSCs to examine the buildup of neuronal activity preceding SWRs and analyzed the distribution of time intervals between subsequent SWR events. Our results suggest that SWRs are initiated through a combined refractory and stochastic mechanism. SWRs initiate when firing in a set of spontaneously active pyramidal cells triggers a gradual, exponential buildup of activity in the recurrent CA3 network. We showed that this tonic excitatory envelope drives reciprocally connected parvalbumin-positive basket cells, which start ripple-frequency spiking that is phase-locked through reciprocal inhibition. The synchronized GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents give rise to a major component of the ripple-frequency oscillation in the local field potential and organize the phase-locked spiking of pyramidal cells. Optogenetic stimulation of parvalbumin-positive cells evoked full SWRs and EPSC sequences in pyramidal cells. Even with excitation blocked, tonic driving of parvalbumin-positive cells evoked ripple oscillations. Conversely, optogenetic silencing of parvalbumin-positive cells interrupted the SWRs or inhibited their occurrence. Local drug applications and modeling experiments confirmed that the activity of parvalbumin-positive perisomatic inhibitory neurons is both necessary and sufficient for ripple-frequency current and rhythm generation. These interneurons are thus essential in organizing pyramidal cell activity not only during gamma oscillation, but, in a different configuration, during SWRs. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411385-14$15.00/0.

  15. Unsupervised spike sorting based on discriminative subspace learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Mohammad Reza; Yang, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Spike sorting is a fundamental preprocessing step for many neuroscience studies which rely on the analysis of spike trains. In this paper, we present two unsupervised spike sorting algorithms based on discriminative subspace learning. The first algorithm simultaneously learns the discriminative feature subspace and performs clustering. It uses histogram of features in the most discriminative projection to detect the number of neurons. The second algorithm performs hierarchical divisive clustering that learns a discriminative 1-dimensional subspace for clustering in each level of the hierarchy until achieving almost unimodal distribution in the subspace. The algorithms are tested on synthetic and in-vivo data, and are compared against two widely used spike sorting methods. The comparative results demonstrate that our spike sorting methods can achieve substantially higher accuracy in lower dimensional feature space, and they are highly robust to noise. Moreover, they provide significantly better cluster separability in the learned subspace than in the subspace obtained by principal component analysis or wavelet transform.

  16. Multiplexed Spike Coding and Adaptation in the Thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Mease

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency “burst” clusters of spikes are a generic output pattern of many neurons. While bursting is a ubiquitous computational feature of different nervous systems across animal species, the encoding of synaptic inputs by bursts is not well understood. We find that bursting neurons in the rodent thalamus employ “multiplexing” to differentially encode low- and high-frequency stimulus features associated with either T-type calcium “low-threshold” or fast sodium spiking events, respectively, and these events adapt differently. Thus, thalamic bursts encode disparate information in three channels: (1 burst size, (2 burst onset time, and (3 precise spike timing within bursts. Strikingly, this latter “intraburst” encoding channel shows millisecond-level feature selectivity and adapts across statistical contexts to maintain stable information encoded per spike. Consequently, calcium events both encode low-frequency stimuli and, in parallel, gate a transient window for high-frequency, adaptive stimulus encoding by sodium spike timing, allowing bursts to efficiently convey fine-scale temporal information.

  17. Probabilistic Inference in General Graphical Models through Sampling in Stochastic Networks of Spiking Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecevski, Dejan; Buesing, Lars; Maass, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    An important open problem of computational neuroscience is the generic organization of computations in networks of neurons in the brain. We show here through rigorous theoretical analysis that inherent stochastic features of spiking neurons, in combination with simple nonlinear computational operations in specific network motifs and dendritic arbors, enable networks of spiking neurons to carry out probabilistic inference through sampling in general graphical models. In particular, it enables them to carry out probabilistic inference in Bayesian networks with converging arrows (“explaining away”) and with undirected loops, that occur in many real-world tasks. Ubiquitous stochastic features of networks of spiking neurons, such as trial-to-trial variability and spontaneous activity, are necessary ingredients of the underlying computational organization. We demonstrate through computer simulations that this approach can be scaled up to neural emulations of probabilistic inference in fairly large graphical models, yielding some of the most complex computations that have been carried out so far in networks of spiking neurons. PMID:22219717

  18. Probabilistic inference in general graphical models through sampling in stochastic networks of spiking neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Pecevski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An important open problem of computational neuroscience is the generic organization of computations in networks of neurons in the brain. We show here through rigorous theoretical analysis that inherent stochastic features of spiking neurons, in combination with simple nonlinear computational operations in specific network motifs and dendritic arbors, enable networks of spiking neurons to carry out probabilistic inference through sampling in general graphical models. In particular, it enables them to carry out probabilistic inference in Bayesian networks with converging arrows ("explaining away" and with undirected loops, that occur in many real-world tasks. Ubiquitous stochastic features of networks of spiking neurons, such as trial-to-trial variability and spontaneous activity, are necessary ingredients of the underlying computational organization. We demonstrate through computer simulations that this approach can be scaled up to neural emulations of probabilistic inference in fairly large graphical models, yielding some of the most complex computations that have been carried out so far in networks of spiking neurons.

  19. Probabilistic inference in general graphical models through sampling in stochastic networks of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecevski, Dejan; Buesing, Lars; Maass, Wolfgang

    2011-12-01

    An important open problem of computational neuroscience is the generic organization of computations in networks of neurons in the brain. We show here through rigorous theoretical analysis that inherent stochastic features of spiking neurons, in combination with simple nonlinear computational operations in specific network motifs and dendritic arbors, enable networks of spiking neurons to carry out probabilistic inference through sampling in general graphical models. In particular, it enables them to carry out probabilistic inference in Bayesian networks with converging arrows ("explaining away") and with undirected loops, that occur in many real-world tasks. Ubiquitous stochastic features of networks of spiking neurons, such as trial-to-trial variability and spontaneous activity, are necessary ingredients of the underlying computational organization. We demonstrate through computer simulations that this approach can be scaled up to neural emulations of probabilistic inference in fairly large graphical models, yielding some of the most complex computations that have been carried out so far in networks of spiking neurons.

  20. From retinal waves to activity-dependent retinogeniculate map development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Markowitz

    Full Text Available A neural model is described of how spontaneous retinal waves are formed in infant mammals, and how these waves organize activity-dependent development of a topographic map in the lateral geniculate nucleus, with connections from each eye segregated into separate anatomical layers. The model simulates the spontaneous behavior of starburst amacrine cells and retinal ganglion cells during the production of retinal waves during the first few weeks of mammalian postnatal development. It proposes how excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms within individual cells, such as Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels, and cAMP currents and signaling cascades, can modulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of waves, notably by controlling the after-hyperpolarization currents of starburst amacrine cells. Given the critical role of the geniculate map in the development of visual cortex, these results provide a foundation for analyzing the temporal dynamics whereby the visual cortex itself develops.

  1. Effect of heavy metals on pH buffering capacity and solubility of Ca, Mg, K, and P in non-spiked and heavy metal-spiked soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2016-06-01

    In many parts of the world, soil acidification and heavy metal contamination has become a serious concern due to the adverse effects on chemical properties of soil and crop yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pH (in the range of 1 to 3 units above and below the native pH of soils) on calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P) solubility in non-spiked and heavy metal-spiked soil samples. Spiked samples were prepared by cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) as chloride salts and incubating soils for 40 days. The pH buffering capacity (pHBC) of each sample was determined by plotting the amount of H(+) or OH(-) added (mmol kg(-1)) versus the related pH value. The pHBC of soils ranged from 47.1 to 1302.5 mmol kg(-1) for non-spiked samples and from 45.0 to 1187.4 mmol kg(-1) for spiked soil samples. The pHBC values were higher in soil 2 (non-spiked and spiked) which had higher calcium carbonate content. The results indicated the presence of heavy metals in soils generally decreased the solution pH and pHBC values in spiked samples. In general, solubility of Ca, Mg, and K decreased with increasing equilibrium pH of non-spiked and spiked soil samples. In the case of P, increasing the pH to about 7, decreased the solubility in all soils but further increase of pH from 7, enhanced P solubility. The solubility trends and values for Ca, Mg, and K did not differed significantly in non-spiked and spiked samples. But in the case of P, a reduction in solubility was observed in heavy metal-spiked soils. The information obtained in this study can be useful to make better estimation of the effects of soil pollutants on anion and cation solubility from agricultural and environmental viewpoints.

  2. The Mutation Frequency in Different Spike Categories in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenberg, O.; Doll, Hans; Sandfær, J.

    1964-01-01

    After gamma irradiation of barley seeds, a comparison has been made between the chlorophyll-mutant frequencies in X1 spikes that had multicellular bud meristems in the seeds at the time of treatment (denoted as pre-formed spikes) and X1 spikes having no recognizable meristems at the time...

  3. Orthobunyavirus ultrastructure and the curious tripodal glycoprotein spike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A Bowden

    Full Text Available The genus Orthobunyavirus within the family Bunyaviridae constitutes an expanding group of emerging viruses, which threaten human and animal health. Despite the medical importance, little is known about orthobunyavirus structure, a prerequisite for understanding virus assembly and entry. Here, using electron cryo-tomography, we report the ultrastructure of Bunyamwera virus, the prototypic member of this genus. Whilst Bunyamwera virions are pleomorphic in shape, they display a locally ordered lattice of glycoprotein spikes. Each spike protrudes 18 nm from the viral membrane and becomes disordered upon introduction to an acidic environment. Using sub-tomogram averaging, we derived a three-dimensional model of the trimeric pre-fusion glycoprotein spike to 3-nm resolution. The glycoprotein spike consists mainly of the putative class-II fusion glycoprotein and exhibits a unique tripod-like arrangement. Protein-protein contacts between neighbouring spikes occur at membrane-proximal regions and intra-spike contacts at membrane-distal regions. This trimeric assembly deviates from previously observed fusion glycoprotein arrangements, suggesting a greater than anticipated repertoire of viral fusion glycoprotein oligomerization. Our study provides evidence of a pH-dependent conformational change that occurs during orthobunyaviral entry into host cells and a blueprint for the structure of this group of emerging pathogens.

  4. Characterization of reliability of spike timing in spinal interneurons during oscillating inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten D.; Ryge, Jesper

    2001-01-01

    that interneurons can respond with a high reliability of spike timing, but only by combining fast and slow oscillations is it possible to obtain a high reliability of firing during rhythmic locomotor movements. Theoretical analysis of the rotation number provided new insights into the mechanism for obtaining......The spike timing in rhythmically active interneurons in the mammalian spinal locomotor network varies from cycle to cycle. We tested the contribution from passive membrane properties to this variable firing pattern, by measuring the reliability of spike timing, P, in interneurons in the isolated...... the analysis we used a leaky integrate and fire (LIF) model with a noise term added. The LIF model was able to reproduce the experimentally observed properties of P as well as the low-pass properties of the membrane. The LIF model enabled us to use the mathematical theory of nonlinear oscillators to analyze...

  5. Persistence and storage of activity patterns in spiking recurrent cortical networks: modulation of sigmoid signals by after-hyperpolarization currents and acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Jesse; Grossberg, Stephen; Versace, Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    Many cortical networks contain recurrent architectures that transform input patterns before storing them in short-term memory (STM). Theorems in the 1970's showed how feedback signal functions in rate-based recurrent on-center off-surround networks control this process. A sigmoid signal function induces a quenching threshold below which inputs are suppressed as noise and above which they are contrast-enhanced before pattern storage. This article describes how changes in feedback signaling, neuromodulation, and recurrent connectivity may alter pattern processing in recurrent on-center off-surround networks of spiking neurons. In spiking neurons, fast, medium, and slow after-hyperpolarization (AHP) currents control sigmoid signal threshold and slope. Modulation of AHP currents by acetylcholine (ACh) can change sigmoid shape and, with it, network dynamics. For example, decreasing signal function threshold and increasing slope can lengthen the persistence of a partially contrast-enhanced pattern, increase the number of active cells stored in STM, or, if connectivity is distance-dependent, cause cell activities to cluster. These results clarify how cholinergic modulation by the basal forebrain may alter the vigilance of category learning circuits, and thus their sensitivity to predictive mismatches, thereby controlling whether learned categories code concrete or abstract features, as predicted by Adaptive Resonance Theory. The analysis includes global, distance-dependent, and interneuron-mediated circuits. With an appropriate degree of recurrent excitation and inhibition, spiking networks maintain a partially contrast-enhanced pattern for 800 ms or longer after stimuli offset, then resolve to no stored pattern, or to winner-take-all (WTA) stored patterns with one or multiple winners. Strengthening inhibition prolongs a partially contrast-enhanced pattern by slowing the transition to stability, while strengthening excitation causes more winners when the network

  6. Persistence and storage of activity patterns in spiking recurrent cortical networks:Modulation of sigmoid signals by after-hyperpolarization currents and acetylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse ePalma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many cortical networks contain recurrent architectures that transform input patterns before storing them in short-term memory (STM. Theorems in the 1970’s showed how feedback signal functions in rate-based recurrent on-center off-surround networks control this process. A sigmoid signal function induces a quenching threshold below which inputs are suppressed as noise and above which they are contrast-enhanced before pattern storage. This article describes how changes in feedback signaling, neuromodulation, and recurrent connectivity may alter pattern processing in recurrent on-center off-surround networks of spiking neurons. In spiking neurons, fast, medium, and slow after-hyperpolarization (AHP currents control sigmoid signal threshold and slope. Modulation of AHP currents by acetylcholine (ACh can change sigmoid shape and, with it, network dynamics. For example, decreasing signal function threshold and increasing slope can lengthen the persistence of a partially contrast-enhanced pattern, increase the number of active cells stored in STM, or, if connectivity is distance-dependent, cause cell activities to cluster. These results clarify how cholinergic modulation by the basal forebrain may alter the vigilance of category learning circuits, and thus their sensitivity to predictive mismatches, thereby controlling whether learned categories code concrete or abstract features, as predicted by Adaptive Resonance Theory. The analysis includes global, distance-dependent, and interneuron-mediated circuits. With an appropriate degree of recurrent excitation and inhibition, spiking networks maintain a partially contrast-enhanced pattern for 800 milliseconds or longer after stimuli offset, then resolve to no stored pattern, or to winner-take-all stored patterns with one or multiple winners. Strengthening inhibition prolongs a partially contrast-enhanced pattern by slowing the transition to stability, while strengthening excitation causes more winners

  7. Spike Bursts from an Excitable Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Leite, Jose R.; Rosero, Edison J.; Barbosa, Wendson A. S.; Tredicce, Jorge R.

    Diode Lasers with double optical feedback are shown to present power drop spikes with statistical distribution controllable by the ratio of the two feedback times. The average time between spikes and the variance within long time series are studied. The system is shown to be excitable and present bursting of spikes created with specific feedback time ratios and strength. A rate equation model, extending the Lang-Kobayashi single feedback for semiconductor lasers proves to match the experimental observations. Potential applications to construct network to mimic neural systems having controlled bursting properties in each unit will be discussed. Brazilian Agency CNPQ.

  8. Differential effects of midazolam and zolpidem on sleep-wake states and epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depoortere, H.; Francon, D.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Drinkenburg, W.H.I.M.; Coenen, A.M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Hypnotic drugs are known to possess antiepileptic activity. Therefore, the effects of the benzodiazepine hypnotic midazolam (10 mg/kg) and the novel imidazopyridine hypnotic zolpidem (10 mg/kg) on sleep-wake states and on the number of spike-wave discharges were evaluated in WAG/Rij rats. Rats of

  9. Complexity optimization and high-throughput low-latency hardware implementation of a multi-electrode spike-sorting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragas, Jelena; Jackel, David; Hierlemann, Andreas; Franke, Felix

    2015-03-01

    Reliable real-time low-latency spike sorting with large data throughput is essential for studies of neural network dynamics and for brain-machine interfaces (BMIs), in which the stimulation of neural networks is based on the networks' most recent activity. However, the majority of existing multi-electrode spike-sorting algorithms are unsuited for processing high quantities of simultaneously recorded data. Recording from large neuronal networks using large high-density electrode sets (thousands of electrodes) imposes high demands on the data-processing hardware regarding computational complexity and data transmission bandwidth; this, in turn, entails demanding requirements in terms of chip area, memory resources and processing latency. This paper presents computational complexity optimization techniques, which facilitate the use of spike-sorting algorithms in large multi-electrode-based recording systems. The techniques are then applied to a previously published algorithm, on its own, unsuited for large electrode set recordings. Further, a real-time low-latency high-performance VLSI hardware architecture of the modified algorithm is presented, featuring a folded structure capable of processing the activity of hundreds of neurons simultaneously. The hardware is reconfigurable “on-the-fly” and adaptable to the nonstationarities of neuronal recordings. By transmitting exclusively spike time stamps and/or spike waveforms, its real-time processing offers the possibility of data bandwidth and data storage reduction.

  10. A stationary wavelet transform and a time-frequency based spike detection algorithm for extracellular recorded data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Florian; Stark, Hans-Georg; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Spike detection from extracellular recordings is a crucial preprocessing step when analyzing neuronal activity. The decision whether a specific part of the signal is a spike or not is important for any kind of other subsequent preprocessing steps, like spike sorting or burst detection in order to reduce the classification of erroneously identified spikes. Many spike detection algorithms have already been suggested, all working reasonably well whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough. When the noise level is high, however, these algorithms have a poor performance. In this paper we present two new spike detection algorithms. The first is based on a stationary wavelet energy operator and the second is based on the time-frequency representation of spikes. Both algorithms are more reliable than all of the most commonly used methods. The performance of the algorithms is confirmed by using simulated data, resembling original data recorded from cortical neurons with multielectrode arrays. In order to demonstrate that the performance of the algorithms is not restricted to only one specific set of data, we also verify the performance using a simulated publicly available data set. We show that both proposed algorithms have the best performance under all tested methods, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio in both data sets. This contribution will redound to the benefit of electrophysiological investigations of human cells. Especially the spatial and temporal analysis of neural network communications is improved by using the proposed spike detection algorithms.

  11. On the stability and dynamics of stochastic spiking neuron models: Nonlinear Hawkes process and point process GLMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, Felipe; Deger, Moritz; Truccolo, Wilson

    2017-02-01

    Point process generalized linear models (PP-GLMs) provide an important statistical framework for modeling spiking activity in single-neurons and neuronal networks. Stochastic stability is essential when sampling from these models, as done in computational neuroscience to analyze statistical properties of neuronal dynamics and in neuro-engineering to implement closed-loop applications. Here we show, however, that despite passing common goodness-of-fit tests, PP-GLMs estimated from data are often unstable, leading to divergent firing rates. The inclusion of absolute refractory periods is not a satisfactory solution since the activity then typically settles into unphysiological rates. To address these issues, we derive a framework for determining the existence and stability of fixed points of the expected conditional intensity function (CIF) for general PP-GLMs. Specifically, in nonlinear Hawkes PP-GLMs, the CIF is expressed as a function of the previous spike history and exogenous inputs. We use a mean-field quasi-renewal (QR) approximation that decomposes spike history effects into the contribution of the last spike and an average of the CIF over all spike histories prior to the last spike. Fixed points for stationary rates are derived as self-consistent solutions of integral equations. Bifurcation analysis and the number of fixed points predict that the original models can show stable, divergent, and metastable (fragile) dynamics. For fragile models, fluctuations of the single-neuron dynamics predict expected divergence times after which rates approach unphysiologically high values. This metric can be used to estimate the probability of rates to remain physiological for given time periods, e.g., for simulation purposes. We demonstrate the use of the stability framework using simulated single-neuron examples and neurophysiological recordings. Finally, we show how to adapt PP-GLM estimation procedures to guarantee model stability. Overall, our results provide a

  12. Spike-timing dependent plasticity in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Fino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the major input nucleus of basal ganglia, an ensemble of interconnected sub-cortical nuclei associated with fundamental processes of action-selection and procedural learning and memory. The striatum receives afferents from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus. In turn, it relays the integrated information towards the basal ganglia output nuclei through which it operates a selected activation of behavioral effectors. The striatal output neurons, the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, are in charge of the detection and integration of behaviorally relevant information. This property confers to the striatum the ability to extract relevant information from the background noise and select cognitive-motor sequences adapted to environmental stimuli. As long-term synaptic efficacy changes are believed to underlie learning and memory, the corticostriatal long-term plasticity provides a fundamental mechanism for the function of the basal ganglia in procedural learning. Here, we reviewed the different forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP occurring at corticostriatal synapses. Most of the studies have focused on MSNs and their ability to develop long-term plasticity. Nevertheless, the striatal interneurons (the fast-spiking GABAergic, the NO synthase and cholinergic interneurons also receive monosynaptic afferents from the cortex and tightly regulated corticostriatal information processing. Therefore, it is important to take into account the variety of striatal neurons to fully understand the ability of striatum to develop long-term plasticity. Corticostriatal STDP with various spike-timing dependence have been observed depending on the neuronal sub-populations and experimental conditions. This complexity highlights the extraordinary potentiality in term of plasticity of the corticostriatal pathway.

  13. Directional spike propagation in a recurrent network: dynamical firewall as anisotropic recurrent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Toshikazu; Hayashi, Hatsuo

    2012-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that theta rhythm propagates along the septotemporal axis of the hippocampal CA1 of the rat running on a track, and it has been suggested that directional spike propagation in the hippocampal CA3 is reflected in CA1. In this paper, we show that directional spike propagation occurs in a recurrent network model in which neurons are connected locally and connection weights are modified through STDP. The recurrent network model consists of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, which are intrinsic bursting and fast spiking neurons developed by Izhikevich, respectively. The maximum length of connections from excitatory neurons is shorter in the horizontal direction than the vertical direction. Connections from inhibitory neurons have the same maximum length in both directions, and the maximum length of inhibitory connections is the same as that of excitatory connections in the vertical direction. When connection weights between excitatory neurons (E→E) were modified through STDP and those from excitatory neurons to inhibitory neurons (E→I) were constant, spikes propagated in the vertical direction as expected from the network structure. However, when E→I connection weights were modified through STDP, as well as E→E connection weights, spikes propagated in the horizontal direction against the above expectation. This paradoxical propagation was produced by strengthened E→I connections which shifted the timing of inhibition forward. When E→I connections are enhanced, the direction of effective inhibition changes from horizontal to vertical, as if a gate for spike propagation is opened in the horizontal direction and firewalls come out in the vertical direction. These results suggest that the advance of timing of inhibition caused by potentiation of E→I connections is influential in network activity and is an important element in determining the direction of spike propagation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. How adaptation shapes spike rate oscillations in recurrent neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eAugustin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural mass signals from in-vivo recordings often show oscillations with frequencies ranging from <1 Hz to 100 Hz. Fast rhythmic activity in the beta and gamma range can be generated by network based mechanisms such as recurrent synaptic excitation-inhibition loops. Slower oscillations might instead depend on neuronal adaptation currents whose timescales range from tens of milliseconds to seconds. Here we investigate how the dynamics of such adaptation currents contribute to spike rate oscillations and resonance properties in recurrent networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Based on a network of sparsely coupled spiking model neurons with two types of adaptation current and conductance based synapses with heterogeneous strengths and delays we use a mean-field approach to analyze oscillatory network activity. For constant external input, we find that spike-triggered adaptation currents provide a mechanism to generate slow oscillations over a wide range of adaptation timescales as long as recurrent synaptic excitation is sufficiently strong. Faster rhythms occur when recurrent inhibition is slower than excitation and oscillation frequency increases with the strength of inhibition. Adaptation facilitates such network based oscillations for fast synaptic inhibition and leads to decreased frequencies. For oscillatory external input, adaptation currents amplify a narrow band of frequencies and cause phase advances for low frequencies in addition to phase delays at higher frequencies. Our results therefore identify the different key roles of neuronal adaptation dynamics for rhythmogenesis and selective signal propagation in recurrent networks.

  15. Cellular and circuit mechanisms maintain low spike co-variability and enhance population coding in somatosensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng eLy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The responses of cortical neurons are highly variable across repeated presentations of a stimulus. Understanding this variability is critical for theories of both sensory and motor processing, since response variance affects the accuracy of neural codes. Despite this influence, the cellular and circuit mechanisms that shape the trial-to-trial variability of population responses remain poorly understood. We used a combination of experimental and computational techniques to uncover the mechanisms underlying response variability of populations of pyramidal (E cells in layer 2/3 of rat whisker barrel cortex. Spike trains recorded from pairs of E-cells during either spontaneous activity or whisker deflected responses show similarly low levels of spiking co-variability, despite large differences in network activation between the two states. We developed network models that show how spike threshold nonlinearities dilutes E-cell spiking co-variability during spontaneous activity and low velocity whisker deflections. In contrast, during high velocity whisker deflections, cancelation mechanisms mediated by feedforward inhibition maintain low E-cell pairwise co-variability. Thus, the combination of these two mechanisms ensure low E-cell population variability over a wide range of whisker deflection velocities. Finally, we show how this active decorrelation of population variability leads to a drastic increase in the population information about whisker velocity. The canonical cellular and circuit components of our study suggest that low network variability over a broad range of neural states may generalize across the nervous system.

  16. A stochastic-field description of finite-size spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Grégory; Payeur, Alexandre; Longtin, André

    2017-08-01

    Neural network dynamics are governed by the interaction of spiking neurons. Stochastic aspects of single-neuron dynamics propagate up to the network level and shape the dynamical and informational properties of the population. Mean-field models of population activity disregard the finite-size stochastic fluctuations of network dynamics and thus offer a deterministic description of the system. Here, we derive a stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) describing the temporal evolution of the finite-size refractory density, which represents the proportion of neurons in a given refractory state at any given time. The population activity-the density of active neurons per unit time-is easily extracted from this refractory density. The SPDE includes finite-size effects through a two-dimensional Gaussian white noise that acts both in time and along the refractory dimension. For an infinite number of neurons the standard mean-field theory is recovered. A discretization of the SPDE along its characteristic curves allows direct simulations of the activity of large but finite spiking networks; this constitutes the main advantage of our approach. Linearizing the SPDE with respect to the deterministic asynchronous state allows the theoretical investigation of finite-size activity fluctuations. In particular, analytical expressions for the power spectrum and autocorrelation of activity fluctuations are obtained. Moreover, our approach can be adapted to incorporate multiple interacting populations and quasi-renewal single-neuron dynamics.

  17. Comparison of Classifier Architectures for Online Neural Spike Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Maryam; Khan, Amir Ali; Kamboh, Awais Mehmood

    2017-04-01

    High-density, intracranial recordings from micro-electrode arrays need to undergo Spike Sorting in order to associate the recorded neuronal spikes to particular neurons. This involves spike detection, feature extraction, and classification. To reduce the data transmission and power requirements, on-chip real-time processing is becoming very popular. However, high computational resources are required for classifiers in on-chip spike-sorters, making scalability a great challenge. In this review paper, we analyze several popular classifiers to propose five new hardware architectures using the off-chip training with on-chip classification approach. These include support vector classification, fuzzy C-means classification, self-organizing maps classification, moving-centroid K-means classification, and Cosine distance classification. The performance of these architectures is analyzed in terms of accuracy and resource requirement. We establish that the neural networks based Self-Organizing Maps classifier offers the most viable solution. A spike sorter based on the Self-Organizing Maps classifier, requires only 7.83% of computational resources of the best-reported spike sorter, hierarchical adaptive means, while offering a 3% better accuracy at 7 dB SNR.

  18. Automatic fitting of spiking neuron models to electrophysiological recordings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Rossant

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Spiking models can accurately predict the spike trains produced by cortical neurons in response to somatically injected currents. Since the specific characteristics of the model depend on the neuron, a computational method is required to fit models to electrophysiological recordings. The fitting procedure can be very time consuming both in terms of computer simulations and in terms of code writing. We present algorithms to fit spiking models to electrophysiological data (time-varying input and spike trains that can run in parallel on graphics processing units (GPUs. The model fitting library is interfaced with Brian, a neural network simulator in Python. If a GPU is present it uses just-in-time compilation to translate model equations into optimized code. Arbitrary models can then be defined at script level and run on the graphics card. This tool can be used to obtain empirically validated spiking models of neurons in various systems. We demonstrate its use on public data from the INCF Quantitative Single-Neuron Modeling 2009 competition by comparing the performance of a number of neuron spiking models.

  19. Tonic 5nM DA stabilizes neuronal output by enabling bidirectional activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current via PKA and calcineurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenz, Wulf-Dieter C; Rodgers, Edmund W; Baro, Deborah J

    2015-01-01

    Volume transmission results in phasic and tonic modulatory signals. The actions of tonic dopamine (DA) at type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs) are largely undefined. Here we show that tonic 5nM DA acts at D1Rs to stabilize neuronal output over minutes by enabling activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current (I h). In the presence but not absence of 5nM DA, I h maximal conductance (G max) was adjusted according to changes in slow wave activity in order to maintain spike timing. Our study on the lateral pyloric neuron (LP), which undergoes rhythmic oscillations in membrane potential with depolarized plateaus, demonstrated that incremental, bi-directional changes in plateau duration produced corresponding alterations in LP I hG max when preparations were superfused with saline containing 5nM DA. However, when preparations were superfused with saline alone there was no linear correlation between LP I hGmax and duty cycle. Thus, tonic nM DA modulated the capacity for activity to modulate LP I h G max; this exemplifies metamodulation (modulation of modulation). Pretreatment with the Ca2+-chelator, BAPTA, or the specific PKA inhibitor, PKI, prevented all changes in LP I h in 5nM DA. Calcineurin inhibitors blocked activity-dependent changes enabled by DA and revealed a PKA-mediated, activity-independent enhancement of LP I hG max. These data suggested that tonic 5nM DA produced two simultaneous, PKA-dependent effects: a direct increase in LP I h G max and a priming event that permitted calcineurin regulation of LP I h. The latter produced graded reductions in LP I hG max with increasing duty cycles. We also demonstrated that this metamodulation preserved the timing of LP's first spike when network output was perturbed with bath-applied 4AP. In sum, 5nM DA permits slow wave activity to provide feedback that maintains spike timing, suggesting that one function of low-level, tonic modulation is to stabilize specific features of a dynamic output.

  20. Tonic 5nM DA stabilizes neuronal output by enabling bidirectional activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current via PKA and calcineurin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf-Dieter C Krenz

    Full Text Available Volume transmission results in phasic and tonic modulatory signals. The actions of tonic dopamine (DA at type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs are largely undefined. Here we show that tonic 5nM DA acts at D1Rs to stabilize neuronal output over minutes by enabling activity-dependent regulation of the hyperpolarization activated current (I h. In the presence but not absence of 5nM DA, I h maximal conductance (G max was adjusted according to changes in slow wave activity in order to maintain spike timing. Our study on the lateral pyloric neuron (LP, which undergoes rhythmic oscillations in membrane potential with depolarized plateaus, demonstrated that incremental, bi-directional changes in plateau duration produced corresponding alterations in LP I hG max when preparations were superfused with saline containing 5nM DA. However, when preparations were superfused with saline alone there was no linear correlation between LP I hGmax and duty cycle. Thus, tonic nM DA modulated the capacity for activity to modulate LP I h G max; this exemplifies metamodulation (modulation of modulation. Pretreatment with the Ca2+-chelator, BAPTA, or the specific PKA inhibitor, PKI, prevented all changes in LP I h in 5nM DA. Calcineurin inhibitors blocked activity-dependent changes enabled by DA and revealed a PKA-mediated, activity-independent enhancement of LP I hG max. These data suggested that tonic 5nM DA produced two simultaneous, PKA-dependent effects: a direct increase in LP I h G max and a priming event that permitted calcineurin regulation of LP I h. The latter produced graded reductions in LP I hG max with increasing duty cycles. We also demonstrated that this metamodulation preserved the timing of LP's first spike when network output was perturbed with bath-applied 4AP. In sum, 5nM DA permits slow wave activity to provide feedback that maintains spike timing, suggesting that one function of low-level, tonic modulation is to stabilize specific features of a dynamic output.

  1. Scaling of spiking and humping in keyhole welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, P S; Chuang, K C [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); DebRoy, T [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ku, J S, E-mail: pswei@mail.nsysu.edu.tw, E-mail: cielo.zhuang@gmail.com, E-mail: rtd1@psu.edu, E-mail: jsku@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-22

    Spiking, rippling and humping seriously reduce the strength of welds. The effects of beam focusing, volatile alloying element concentration and welding velocity on spiking, coarse rippling and humping in keyhole mode electron-beam welding are examined through scale analysis. Although these defects have been studied in the past, the mechanisms for their formation are not fully understood. This work relates the average amplitudes of spikes to fusion zone depth for the welding of Al 6061, SS 304 and carbon steel, and Al 5083. The scale analysis introduces welding and melting efficiencies and an appropriate power distribution to account for the focusing effects, and the energy which is reflected and escapes through the keyhole opening to the surroundings. The frequency of humping and spiking can also be predicted from the scale analysis. The analysis also reveals the interrelation between coarse rippling and humping. The data and the mechanistic findings reported in this study are useful for understanding and preventing spiking and humping during keyhole mode electron and laser beam welding.

  2. Biophysical properties and computational modeling of calcium spikes in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckwell, Henry C

    2013-06-01

    Serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nuclei, with their extensive innervation of nearly the whole brain have important modulatory effects on many cognitive and physiological processes. They play important roles in clinical depression and other psychiatric disorders. In order to quantify the effects of serotonergic transmission on target cells it is desirable to construct computational models and to this end these it is necessary to have details of the biophysical and spike properties of the serotonergic neurons. Here several basic properties are reviewed with data from several studies since the 1960s to the present. The quantities included are input resistance, resting membrane potential, membrane time constant, firing rate, spike duration, spike and afterhyperpolarization (AHP) amplitude, spike threshold, cell capacitance, soma and somadendritic areas. The action potentials of these cells are normally triggered by a combination of sodium and calcium currents which may result in autonomous pacemaker activity. We here analyse the mechanisms of high-threshold calcium spikes which have been demonstrated in these cells the presence of TTX (tetrodotoxin). The parameters for calcium dynamics required to give calcium spikes are quite different from those for regular spiking which suggests the involvement of restricted parts of the soma-dendritic surface as has been found, for example, in hippocampal neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A metric space approach to the information capacity of spike trains

    OpenAIRE

    HOUGHTON, CONOR JAMES; GILLESPIE, JAMES

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Classical information theory can be either discrete or continuous, corresponding to discrete or continuous random variables. However, although spike times in a spike train are described by continuous variables, the information content is usually calculated using discrete information theory. This is because the number of spikes, and hence, the number of variables, varies from spike train to spike train, making the continuous theory difficult to apply.It is possible to avoid ...

  4. Clustering predicts memory performance in networks of spiking and non-spiking neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiliang eChen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem we address in this paper is that of finding effective and parsimonious patterns of connectivity in sparse associative memories. This problem must be addressed in real neuronal systems, so that results in artificial systems could throw light on real systems. We show that there are efficient patterns of connectivity and that these patterns are effective in models with either spiking or non-spiking neurons. This suggests that there may be some underlying general principles governing good connectivity in such networks. We also show that the clustering of the network, measured by Clustering Coefficient, has a strong linear correlation to the performance of associative memory. This result is important since a purely static measure of network connectivity appears to determine an important dynamic property of the network.

  5. Sialic Acid Binding Properties of Soluble Coronavirus Spike (S1 Proteins: Differences between Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Winter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The spike proteins of a number of coronaviruses are able to bind to sialic acids present on the cell surface. The importance of this sialic acid binding ability during infection is, however, quite different. We compared the spike protein of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV and the spike protein of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV. Whereas sialic acid is the only receptor determinant known so far for IBV, TGEV requires interaction with its receptor aminopeptidase N to initiate infection of cells. Binding tests with soluble spike proteins carrying an IgG Fc-tag revealed pronounced differences between these two viral proteins. Binding of the IBV spike protein to host cells was in all experiments sialic acid dependent, whereas the soluble TGEV spike showed binding to APN but had no detectable sialic acid binding activity. Our results underline the different ways in which binding to sialoglycoconjugates is mediated by coronavirus spike proteins.

  6. Stochastic synchronization in finite size spiking networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Brent; Rinzel, John; Reyes, Alex

    2006-09-01

    We study a stochastic synchronization of spiking activity in feedforward networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons. A stochastic mean field analysis shows that synchronization occurs only when the network size is sufficiently small. This gives evidence that the dynamics, and hence processing, of finite size populations can be drastically different from that observed in the infinite size limit. Our results agree with experimentally observed synchrony in cortical networks, and further strengthen the link between synchrony and propagation in cortical systems.

  7. Voltage-spike analysis for a free-running parallel inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C. Y.; Wilson, T. G.

    1974-01-01

    Unwanted and sometimes damaging high-amplitude voltage spikes occur during each half cycle in many transistor saturable-core inverters at the moment when the core saturates and the transistors switch. The analysis shows that spikes are an intrinsic characteristic of certain types of inverters even with negligible leakage inductance and purely resistive load. The small but unavoidable after-saturation inductance of the saturable-core transformer plays an essential role in creating these undesired thigh-voltage spikes. State-plane analysis provides insight into the complex interaction between core and transistors, and shows the circuit parameters upon which the magnitude of these spikes depends.

  8. In-reactor creep of zirconium alloys by thermal spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, E.F.

    1975-01-01

    The size and duration of thermal spikes from fast neutrons have been calculated for zirconium alloys, showing that spikes up to 1.8 nm radius may exist for 2 x 10 -11 s at greater than melting point, at 570K ambient temperature. Creep rates have been calculated assuming that the elastic strain from the applied stress relaxes in the volume of the spikes (by preferential loop alignment or modification of an existing dislocation network). The calculated rates are consistent with strain rates observed in long term tests-in-reactor, if spike lifetimes are 2 to 2.5 x 10 -11 s. (Auth.)

  9. Automated spike preparation system for Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Clark, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is a method frequently employed to measure dissolved, irradiated nuclear materials. A known quantity of a unique isotope of the element to be measured (referred to as the ''spike'') is added to the solution containing the analyte. The resulting solution is chemically purified then analyzed by mass spectrometry. By measuring the magnitude of the response for each isotope and the response for the ''unique spike'' then relating this to the known quantity of the ''spike'', the quantity of the nuclear material can be determined. An automated spike preparation system was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to dispense spikes for use in IDMS analytical methods. Prior to this development, technicians weighed each individual spike manually to achieve the accuracy required. This procedure was time-consuming and subjected the master stock solution to evaporation. The new system employs a high precision SMI Model 300 Unipump dispenser interfaced with an electronic balance and a portable Epson HX-20 notebook computer to automate spike preparation

  10. Spike-threshold adaptation predicted by membrane potential dynamics in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Fontaine

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons encode information in sequences of spikes, which are triggered when their membrane potential crosses a threshold. In vivo, the spiking threshold displays large variability suggesting that threshold dynamics have a profound influence on how the combined input of a neuron is encoded in the spiking. Threshold variability could be explained by adaptation to the membrane potential. However, it could also be the case that most threshold variability reflects noise and processes other than threshold adaptation. Here, we investigated threshold variation in auditory neurons responses recorded in vivo in barn owls. We found that spike threshold is quantitatively predicted by a model in which the threshold adapts, tracking the membrane potential at a short timescale. As a result, in these neurons, slow voltage fluctuations do not contribute to spiking because they are filtered by threshold adaptation. More importantly, these neurons can only respond to input spikes arriving together on a millisecond timescale. These results demonstrate that fast adaptation to the membrane potential captures spike threshold variability in vivo.

  11. Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Mykola; Blagaia, Anna; Pelo, Ihor

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of the air environment significantly affects the health of the population. Chemical plant protection products in the spring and summer time may be the main pollutants of the air environment in rural areas. Chemical plant protection products are dangerous substances of anthropogenic origin. If applying pesticides in high concentrations, the risk of poisoning by active ingredients of pesticide preparations in workers directly contacting with it increases. The aim: Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides was the aim of the work. Materials and methods: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides, samples of air, and swabs from workers' skin and stripes from overalls were materials of the research. Methods of full-scale in-field hygienic experiment, gas-liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as statistical and bibliographic methods were used in the research. Results and conclusions: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides were not detected in the working zone air and atmospheric air at the levels exceeding the limits of its detection by appropriate chromatography methods. Findings confirmed the air environment safety for agricultural workers and rural population if studied combined fungicides are applied following the hygienically approved suggested application rates and in accordance of good agricultural practice rules. However the possible complex risk for workers after certain studied fungicides application may be higher than acceptable due to the elevated values for dermal effects. The complex risk was higher than acceptable in еру case of aerial spraying of both studied fungicides, meanwhile only one combination of active ingredients revealed possible risk for workers applying fungicides by rod method of cereal spiked crops treatment.

  12. MIGRATION OF SEISMIC AND VOLCANIC ACTIVITY AS DISPLAY OF WAVE GEODYNAMIC PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Vikulin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Publications about the earthquake foci migration have been reviewed. An important result of such studies is establishment of wave nature of seismic activity migration that is manifested by two types of rotational waves; such waves are responsible for interaction between earthquakes foci and propagate with different velocities. Waves determining long-range interaction of earthquake foci are classified as Type 1; their limiting velocities range from 1 to 10 cm/s. Waves determining short-range interaction of foreshocks and aftershocks of individual earthquakes are classified as Type 2; their velocities range from 1 to 10 km/s. According to the classification described in [Bykov, 2005], these two types of migration waves correspond to slow and fast tectonic waves. The most complete data on earthquakes (for a period over 4.1 million of years and volcanic eruptions (for 12 thousand years of the planet are consolidated in a unified systematic format and analyzed by methods developed by the authors. For the Pacific margin, Alpine-Himalayan belt and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which are the three most active zones of the Earth, new patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of seismic and volcanic activity are revealed; they correspond to Type 1 of rotational waves. The wave nature of the migration of seismic and volcanic activity is confirmed. A new approach to solving problems of geodynamics is proposed with application of the data on migration of seismic and volcanic activity, which are consolidated in this study, in combination with data on velocities of movement of tectonic plate boundaries. This approach is based on the concept of integration of seismic, volcanic and tectonic processes that develop in the block geomedium and interact with each other through rotating waves with a symmetric stress tensor. The data obtained in this study give grounds to suggest that a geodynamic value, that is mechanically analogous to an impulse

  13. Inferior Olive HCN1 Channels Coordinate Synaptic Integration and Complex Spike Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek L.F. Garden

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar climbing-fiber-mediated complex spikes originate from neurons in the inferior olive (IO, are critical for motor coordination, and are central to theories of cerebellar learning. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated (HCN channels expressed by IO neurons have been considered as pacemaker currents important for oscillatory and resonant dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that in vitro, network actions of HCN1 channels enable bidirectional glutamatergic synaptic responses, while local actions of HCN1 channels determine the timing and waveform of synaptically driven action potentials. These roles are distinct from, and may complement, proposed pacemaker functions of HCN channels. We find that in behaving animals HCN1 channels reduce variability in the timing of cerebellar complex spikes, which serve as a readout of IO spiking. Our results suggest that spatially distributed actions of HCN1 channels enable the IO to implement network-wide rules for synaptic integration that modulate the timing of cerebellar climbing fiber signals.

  14. Emergent dynamics of spiking neurons with fluctuating threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Anindita; Das, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    Role of fluctuating threshold on neuronal dynamics is investigated. The threshold function is assumed to follow a normal probability distribution. Standard deviation of inter-spike interval of the response is computed as an indicator of irregularity in spike emission. It has been observed that, the irregularity in spiking is more if the threshold variation is more. A significant change in modal characteristics of Inter Spike Intervals (ISI) is seen to occur as a function of fluctuation parameter. Investigation is further carried out for coupled system of neurons. Cooperative dynamics of coupled neurons are discussed in view of synchronization. Total and partial synchronization regimes are depicted with the help of contour plots of synchrony measure under various conditions. Results of this investigation may provide a basis for exploring the complexities of neural communication and brain functioning.

  15. Equatorial wave activity during 2007 over Gadanki, a tropical station

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    been used to investigate the wave activity in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Waves in the ...... Oltmans S J 2001 Water vapor control at the tropopause by equatorial Kelvin .... observed in UARS microwave limb sounder temperature.

  16. Proteolytic activation of the SARS-coronavirus spike protein: cutting enzymes at the cutting edge of antiviral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Graham; Zmora, Pawel; Gierer, Stefanie; Heurich, Adeline; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pandemic revealed that zoonotic transmission of animal coronaviruses (CoV) to humans poses a significant threat to public health and warrants surveillance and the development of countermeasures. The activity of host cell proteases, which cleave and activate the SARS-CoV spike (S) protein, is essential for viral infectivity and constitutes a target for intervention. However, the identities of the proteases involved have been unclear. Pioneer studies identified cathepsins and type II transmembrane serine proteases as cellular activators of SARS-CoV and demonstrated that several emerging viruses might exploit these enzymes to promote their spread. Here, we will review the proteolytic systems hijacked by SARS-CoV for S protein activation, we will discuss their contribution to viral spread in the host and we will outline antiviral strategies targeting these enzymes. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.'' Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The electric potential of tripolar spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nocera, L. [Theoretical Plasma Physics, IPCF-CNR, Via Moruzzi 1, I-56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-02-22

    We present an analytical formula for the waveform of the electric potential associated with a tripolar spike in a plasma. This formula is based on the construction and on the subsequent solution of a differential equation for the waveform. We work out this equation as a direct consequence of the morphological and functional properties of the observed waveform, without making any reference to the velocity distributions of the electrons and of the ions which sustain the spike. In the approximation of small potential amplitudes, we solve this equation by quadrature. In particular, in the second order approximation, the solution of this equation is given in terms of elementary functions. This analytical solution is able to reproduce the potential waveforms associated with electron holes, ion holes, monotonic and nonmonotonic double layers and tripolar spikes, in excellent agreement with observations.

  18. The electric potential of tripolar spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, L.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analytical formula for the waveform of the electric potential associated with a tripolar spike in a plasma. This formula is based on the construction and on the subsequent solution of a differential equation for the waveform. We work out this equation as a direct consequence of the morphological and functional properties of the observed waveform, without making any reference to the velocity distributions of the electrons and of the ions which sustain the spike. In the approximation of small potential amplitudes, we solve this equation by quadrature. In particular, in the second order approximation, the solution of this equation is given in terms of elementary functions. This analytical solution is able to reproduce the potential waveforms associated with electron holes, ion holes, monotonic and nonmonotonic double layers and tripolar spikes, in excellent agreement with observations.

  19. A stationary wavelet transform and a time-frequency based spike detection algorithm for extracellular recorded data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Florian; Stark, Hans-Georg; Thielemann, Christiane

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Spike detection from extracellular recordings is a crucial preprocessing step when analyzing neuronal activity. The decision whether a specific part of the signal is a spike or not is important for any kind of other subsequent preprocessing steps, like spike sorting or burst detection in order to reduce the classification of erroneously identified spikes. Many spike detection algorithms have already been suggested, all working reasonably well whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough. When the noise level is high, however, these algorithms have a poor performance. Approach. In this paper we present two new spike detection algorithms. The first is based on a stationary wavelet energy operator and the second is based on the time-frequency representation of spikes. Both algorithms are more reliable than all of the most commonly used methods. Main results. The performance of the algorithms is confirmed by using simulated data, resembling original data recorded from cortical neurons with multielectrode arrays. In order to demonstrate that the performance of the algorithms is not restricted to only one specific set of data, we also verify the performance using a simulated publicly available data set. We show that both proposed algorithms have the best performance under all tested methods, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio in both data sets. Significance. This contribution will redound to the benefit of electrophysiological investigations of human cells. Especially the spatial and temporal analysis of neural network communications is improved by using the proposed spike detection algorithms.

  20. Spike-timing dependent plasticity and the cognitive map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Daniel; Philippides, Andrew; Husbands, Phil; O'Shea, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of place cells - single pyramidal neurons that encode spatial location - it has been hypothesized that the hippocampus may act as a cognitive map of known environments. This putative function has been extensively modeled using auto-associative networks, which utilize rate-coded synaptic plasticity rules in order to generate strong bi-directional connections between concurrently active place cells that encode for neighboring place fields. However, empirical studies using hippocampal cultures have demonstrated that the magnitude and direction of changes in synaptic strength can also be dictated by the relative timing of pre- and post-synaptic firing according to a spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) rule. Furthermore, electrophysiology studies have identified persistent "theta-coded" temporal correlations in place cell activity in vivo, characterized by phase precession of firing as the corresponding place field is traversed. It is not yet clear if STDP and theta-coded neural dynamics are compatible with cognitive map theory and previous rate-coded models of spatial learning in the hippocampus. Here, we demonstrate that an STDP rule based on empirical data obtained from the hippocampus can mediate rate-coded Hebbian learning when pre- and post-synaptic activity is stochastic and has no persistent sequence bias. We subsequently demonstrate that a spiking recurrent neural network that utilizes this STDP rule, alongside theta-coded neural activity, allows the rapid development of a cognitive map during directed or random exploration of an environment of overlapping place fields. Hence, we establish that STDP and phase precession are compatible with rate-coded models of cognitive map development.

  1. Spike-timing dependent plasticity and the cognitive map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBush

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of place cells – single pyramidal neurons that encode spatial location – it has been hypothesised that the hippocampus may act as a cognitive map of known environments. This putative function has been extensively modelled using auto-associative networks, which utilise rate-coded synaptic plasticity rules in order to generate strong bi-directional connections between concurrently active place cells that encode for neighbouring place fields. However, empirical studies using hippocampal cultures have demonstrated that the magnitude and direction of changes in synaptic strength can also be dictated by the relative timing of pre- and post- synaptic firing according to a spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP rule. Furthermore, electrophysiology studies have identified persistent ‘theta-coded’ temporal correlations in place cell activity in vivo, characterised by phase precession of firing as the corresponding place field is traversed. It is not yet clear if STDP and theta-coded neural dynamics are compatible with cognitive map theory and previous rate-coded models of spatial learning in the hippocampus. Here, we demonstrate that an STDP rule based on empirical data obtained from the hippocampus can mediate rate-coded Hebbian learning when pre- and post- synaptic activity is stochastic and has no persistent sequence bias. We subsequently demonstrate that a spiking recurrent neural network that utilises this STDP rule, alongside theta-coded neural activity, allows the rapid development of a cognitive map during directed or random exploration of an environment of overlapping place fields. Hence, we establish that STDP and phase precession are compatible with rate-coded models of cognitive map development.

  2. Learning to Recognize Actions From Limited Training Examples Using a Recurrent Spiking Neural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Priyadarshini; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in machine learning today is to build a model that can learn from few examples. Here, we describe a reservoir based spiking neural model for learning to recognize actions with a limited number of labeled videos. First, we propose a novel encoding, inspired by how microsaccades influence visual perception, to extract spike information from raw video data while preserving the temporal correlation across different frames. Using this encoding, we show that the reservoir generalizes its rich dynamical activity toward signature action/movements enabling it to learn from few training examples. We evaluate our approach on the UCF-101 dataset. Our experiments demonstrate that our proposed reservoir achieves 81.3/87% Top-1/Top-5 accuracy, respectively, on the 101-class data while requiring just 8 video examples per class for training. Our results establish a new benchmark for action recognition from limited video examples for spiking neural models while yielding competitive accuracy with respect to state-of-the-art non-spiking neural models. PMID:29551962

  3. Contribution of LFP dynamics to single-neuron spiking variability in motor cortex during movement execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Michael E.; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos; Donoghue, John P.; Truccolo, Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the sources of variability in single-neuron spiking responses is an important open problem for the theory of neural coding. This variability is thought to result primarily from spontaneous collective dynamics in neuronal networks. Here, we investigate how well collective dynamics reflected in motor cortex local field potentials (LFPs) can account for spiking variability during motor behavior. Neural activity was recorded via microelectrode arrays implanted in ventral and dorsal premotor and primary motor cortices of non-human primates performing naturalistic 3-D reaching and grasping actions. Point process models were used to quantify how well LFP features accounted for spiking variability not explained by the measured 3-D reach and grasp kinematics. LFP features included the instantaneous magnitude, phase and analytic-signal components of narrow band-pass filtered (δ,θ,α,β) LFPs, and analytic signal and amplitude envelope features in higher-frequency bands. Multiband LFP features predicted single-neuron spiking (1ms resolution) with substantial accuracy as assessed via ROC analysis. Notably, however, models including both LFP and kinematics features displayed marginal improvement over kinematics-only models. Furthermore, the small predictive information added by LFP features to kinematic models was redundant to information available in fast-timescale (spiking history. Overall, information in multiband LFP features, although predictive of single-neuron spiking during movement execution, was redundant to information available in movement parameters and spiking history. Our findings suggest that, during movement execution, collective dynamics reflected in motor cortex LFPs primarily relate to sensorimotor processes directly controlling movement output, adding little explanatory power to variability not accounted by movement parameters. PMID:26157365

  4. Voltage spikes in Nb3Sn and NbTi strands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordini, B.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A.V.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet program at Fermilab several NbTi and Nb 3 Sn strands were tested with particular emphasis on the study of voltage spikes and their relationship to superconductor instabilities. The voltage spikes were detected under various experimental conditions using voltage-current (V-I) and voltage-field (V-H) methods. Two types of spikes, designated ''magnetization'' and ''transport current'' spikes, have been identified. Their origin is most likely related to magnetization flux jump and transport current redistribution, respectively. Many of the signals observed appear to be a combination of these two types of spikes; the combination of these two instability mechanisms should play a dominant role in determining the minimum quench current

  5. A supervised learning rule for classification of spatiotemporal spike patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilin Guo; Zhenzhong Wang; Adjouadi, Malek

    2016-08-01

    This study introduces a novel supervised algorithm for spiking neurons that take into consideration synapse delays and axonal delays associated with weights. It can be utilized for both classification and association and uses several biologically influenced properties, such as axonal and synaptic delays. This algorithm also takes into consideration spike-timing-dependent plasticity as in Remote Supervised Method (ReSuMe). This paper focuses on the classification aspect alone. Spiked neurons trained according to this proposed learning rule are capable of classifying different categories by the associated sequences of precisely timed spikes. Simulation results have shown that the proposed learning method greatly improves classification accuracy when compared to the Spike Pattern Association Neuron (SPAN) and the Tempotron learning rule.

  6. A Visual Guide to Sorting Electrophysiological Recordings Using 'SpikeSorter'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindale, Nicholas V; Mitelut, Catalin; Murphy, Timothy H; Spacek, Martin A

    2017-02-10

    Few stand-alone software applications are available for sorting spikes from recordings made with multi-electrode arrays. Ideally, an application should be user friendly with a graphical user interface, able to read data files in a variety of formats, and provide users with a flexible set of tools giving them the ability to detect and sort extracellular voltage waveforms from different units with some degree of reliability. Previously published spike sorting methods are now available in a software program, SpikeSorter, intended to provide electrophysiologists with a complete set of tools for sorting, starting from raw recorded data file and ending with the export of sorted spikes times. Procedures are automated to the extent this is currently possible. The article explains and illustrates the use of the program. A representative data file is opened, extracellular traces are filtered, events are detected and then clustered. A number of problems that commonly occur during sorting are illustrated, including the artefactual over-splitting of units due to the tendency of some units to fire spikes in pairs where the second spike is significantly smaller than the first, and over-splitting caused by slow variation in spike height over time encountered in some units. The accuracy of SpikeSorter's performance has been tested with surrogate ground truth data and found to be comparable to that of other algorithms in current development.

  7. Fast convergence of spike sequences to periodic patterns in recurrent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Dezhe Z.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamical attractors are thought to underlie many biological functions of recurrent neural networks. Here we show that stable periodic spike sequences with precise timings are the attractors of the spiking dynamics of recurrent neural networks with global inhibition. Almost all spike sequences converge within a finite number of transient spikes to these attractors. The convergence is fast, especially when the global inhibition is strong. These results support the possibility that precise spatiotemporal sequences of spikes are useful for information encoding and processing in biological neural networks

  8. Financial time series prediction using spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David; Hussain, Abir Jaafar; Tawfik, Hissam

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a novel application of a particular type of spiking neural network, a Polychronous Spiking Network, was used for financial time series prediction. It is argued that the inherent temporal capabilities of this type of network are suited to non-stationary data such as this. The performance of the spiking neural network was benchmarked against three systems: two "traditional", rate-encoded, neural networks; a Multi-Layer Perceptron neural network and a Dynamic Ridge Polynomial neural network, and a standard Linear Predictor Coefficients model. For this comparison three non-stationary and noisy time series were used: IBM stock data; US/Euro exchange rate data, and the price of Brent crude oil. The experiments demonstrated favourable prediction results for the Spiking Neural Network in terms of Annualised Return and prediction error for 5-Step ahead predictions. These results were also supported by other relevant metrics such as Maximum Drawdown and Signal-To-Noise ratio. This work demonstrated the applicability of the Polychronous Spiking Network to financial data forecasting and this in turn indicates the potential of using such networks over traditional systems in difficult to manage non-stationary environments.

  9. Active graphene-silicon hybrid diode for terahertz waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quan; Tian, Zhen; Zhang, Xueqian; Singh, Ranjan; Du, Liangliang; Gu, Jianqiang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2015-05-11

    Controlling the propagation properties of the terahertz waves in graphene holds great promise in enabling novel technologies for the convergence of electronics and photonics. A diode is a fundamental electronic device that allows the passage of current in just one direction based on the polarity of the applied voltage. With simultaneous optical and electrical excitations, we experimentally demonstrate an active diode for the terahertz waves consisting of a graphene-silicon hybrid film. The diode transmits terahertz waves when biased with a positive voltage while attenuates the wave under a low negative voltage, which can be seen as an analogue of an electronic semiconductor diode. Here, we obtain a large transmission modulation of 83% in the graphene-silicon hybrid film, which exhibits tremendous potential for applications in designing broadband terahertz modulators and switchable terahertz plasmonic and metamaterial devices.

  10. Spike timing regulation on the millisecond scale by distributed synaptic plasticity at the cerebellum input stage: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A Garrido

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The way long-term synaptic plasticity regulates neuronal spike patterns is not completely understood. This issue is especially relevant for the cerebellum, which is endowed with several forms of long-term synaptic plasticity and has been predicted to operate as a timing and a learning machine. Here we have used a computational model to simulate the impact of multiple distributed synaptic weights in the cerebellar granular layer network. In response to mossy fiber bursts, synaptic weights at multiple connections played a crucial role to regulate spike number and positioning in granule cells. The weight at mossy fiber to granule cell synapses regulated the delay of the first spike and the weight at mossy fiber and parallel fiber to Golgi cell synapses regulated the duration of the time-window during which the first-spike could be emitted. Moreover, the weights of synapses controlling Golgi cell activation regulated the intensity of granule cell inhibition and therefore the number of spikes that could be emitted. First spike timing was regulated with millisecond precision and the number of spikes ranged from 0 to 3. Interestingly, different combinations of synaptic weights optimized either first-spike timing precision or spike number, efficiently controlling transmission and filtering properties. These results predict that distributed synaptic plasticity regulates the emission of quasi-digital spike patterns on the millisecond time scale and allows the cerebellar granular layer to flexibly control burst transmission along the mossy fiber pathway.

  11. Genes with a spike expression are clustered in chromosome (sub)bands and spike (sub)bands have a powerful prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassambara, Alboukadel; Hose, Dirk; Moreaux, Jérôme; Walker, Brian A.; Protopopov, Alexei; Reme, Thierry; Pellestor, Franck; Pantesco, Véronique; Jauch, Anna; Morgan, Gareth; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic abnormalities are common in patients with multiple myeloma, and may deregulate gene products involved in tumor survival, proliferation, metabolism and drug resistance. In particular, translocations may result in a high expression of targeted genes (termed spike expression) in tumor cells. We identified spike genes in multiple myeloma cells of patients with newly-diagnosed myeloma and investigated their prognostic value. Design and Methods Genes with a spike expression in multiple myeloma cells were picked up using box plot probe set signal distribution and two selection filters. Results In a cohort of 206 newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma, 2587 genes/expressed sequence tags with a spike expression were identified. Some spike genes were associated with some transcription factors such as MAF or MMSET and with known recurrent translocations as expected. Spike genes were not associated with increased DNA copy number and for a majority of them, involved unknown mechanisms. Of spiked genes, 36.7% clustered significantly in 149 out of 862 documented chromosome (sub)bands, of which 53 had prognostic value (35 bad, 18 good). Their prognostic value was summarized with a spike band score that delineated 23.8% of patients with a poor median overall survival (27.4 months versus not reached, Pband score was independent of other gene expression profiling-based risk scores, t(4;14), or del17p in an independent validation cohort of 345 patients. Conclusions We present a new approach to identify spike genes and their relationship to patients’ survival. PMID:22102711

  12. Fractal characterization of acupuncture-induced spike trains of rat WDR neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yingyuan; Guo, Yi; Wang, Jiang; Hong, Shouhai; Wei, Xile; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Fractal analysis is a valuable tool for measuring MA-induced neural activities. •In course of the experiments, the spike trains display different fractal properties. •The fractal properties reflect the long-term modulation of MA on WDR neurons. •The results may explain the long-lasting effects induced by acupuncture. -- Abstract: The experimental and the clinical studies have showed manual acupuncture (MA) could evoke multiple responses in various neural regions. Characterising the neuronal activities in these regions may provide more deep insights into acupuncture mechanisms. This paper used fractal analysis to investigate MA-induced spike trains of Wide Dynamic Range (WDR) neurons in rat spinal dorsal horn, an important relay station and integral component in processing acupuncture information. Allan factor and Fano factor were utilized to test whether the spike trains were fractal, and Allan factor were used to evaluate the scaling exponents and Hurst exponents. It was found that these two fractal exponents before and during MA were different significantly. During MA, the scaling exponents of WDR neurons were regulated in a small range, indicating a special fractal pattern. The neuronal activities were long-range correlated over multiple time scales. The scaling exponents during and after MA were similar, suggesting that the long-range correlations not only displayed during MA, but also extended to after withdrawing the needle. Our results showed that fractal analysis is a useful tool for measuring acupuncture effects. MA could modulate neuronal activities of which the fractal properties change as time proceeding. This evolution of fractal dynamics in course of MA experiments may explain at the level of neuron why the effect of MA observed in experiment and in clinic are complex, time-evolutionary, long-range even lasting for some time after stimulation

  13. Predictive coding of dynamical variables in balanced spiking networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerlin, Martin; Machens, Christian K; Denève, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Two observations about the cortex have puzzled neuroscientists for a long time. First, neural responses are highly variable. Second, the level of excitation and inhibition received by each neuron is tightly balanced at all times. Here, we demonstrate that both properties are necessary consequences of neural networks that represent information efficiently in their spikes. We illustrate this insight with spiking networks that represent dynamical variables. Our approach is based on two assumptions: We assume that information about dynamical variables can be read out linearly from neural spike trains, and we assume that neurons only fire a spike if that improves the representation of the dynamical variables. Based on these assumptions, we derive a network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons that is able to implement arbitrary linear dynamical systems. We show that the membrane voltage of the neurons is equivalent to a prediction error about a common population-level signal. Among other things, our approach allows us to construct an integrator network of spiking neurons that is robust against many perturbations. Most importantly, neural variability in our networks cannot be equated to noise. Despite exhibiting the same single unit properties as widely used population code models (e.g. tuning curves, Poisson distributed spike trains), balanced networks are orders of magnitudes more reliable. Our approach suggests that spikes do matter when considering how the brain computes, and that the reliability of cortical representations could have been strongly underestimated.

  14. Basal levels of metabolic activity are elevated in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS): measurement of regional activity of cytochrome oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase by histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Franck; Koning, Estelle; Nehlig, Astrid

    2003-08-01

    The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) are considered an isomorphic, predictive, and homologous model of human generalized absence epilepsy. It is characterized by the expression of spike-and-wave discharges in the thalamus and cortex. In this strain, basal regional rates of cerebral glucose utilization measured by the quantitative autoradiographic [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose technique display a widespread consistent increase compared to a selected strain of genetically nonepileptic rats (NE). In order to verify whether these high rates of glucose metabolism are paralleled by elevated activities of the enzymes of the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways, we measured by histochemistry the regional activity of the two key enzymes of glucose metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) for the anaerobic pathway and cytochrome oxidase (CO) for the aerobic pathway coupled to oxidative phosphorylation. CO and LDH activities were significantly higher in GAERS than in NE rats in 24 and 28 of the 30 brain regions studied, respectively. The differences in CO and LDH activity between both strains were widespread, affected all brain systems studied, and ranged from 12 to 63%. The data of the present study confirm the generalized increase in cerebral glucose metabolism in GAERS, occurring both at the glycolytic and at the oxidative step. However, they still do not allow us to understand why the ubiquitous mutation(s) generates spike-and-wave discharges only in the thalamocortical circuit.

  15. A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C-L; Kim, K; Truong, Q; Shen, A; Li, Z; Chen, Y

    2012-01-01

    A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor is presented in this paper. The spiking neuron circuit has a crossbar architecture in which the transistor gates are connected to its row electrodes and the transistor sources are connected to its column electrodes. An electrochemical cell is incorporated in the gate of the transistor by sandwiching a hydrogen-doped poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether (PEG) electrolyte between the CNT channel and the top gate electrode. An input spike applied to the gate triggers a dynamic drift of the hydrogen ions in the PEG electrolyte, resulting in a post-synaptic current (PSC) through the CNT channel. Spikes input into the rows trigger PSCs through multiple CNT transistors, and PSCs cumulate in the columns and integrate into a ‘soma’ circuit to trigger output spikes based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism. The spiking neuron circuit can potentially emulate biological neuron networks and their intelligent functions. (paper)

  16. Spike timing analysis in neural networks with unsupervised synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizusaki, B. E. P.; Agnes, E. J.; Brunnet, L. G.; Erichsen, R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The synaptic plasticity rules that sculpt a neural network architecture are key elements to understand cortical processing, as they may explain the emergence of stable, functional activity, while avoiding runaway excitation. For an associative memory framework, they should be built in a way as to enable the network to reproduce a robust spatio-temporal trajectory in response to an external stimulus. Still, how these rules may be implemented in recurrent networks and the way they relate to their capacity of pattern recognition remains unclear. We studied the effects of three phenomenological unsupervised rules in sparsely connected recurrent networks for associative memory: spike-timing-dependent-plasticity, short-term-plasticity and an homeostatic scaling. The system stability is monitored during the learning process of the network, as the mean firing rate converges to a value determined by the homeostatic scaling. Afterwards, it is possible to measure the recovery efficiency of the activity following each initial stimulus. This is evaluated by a measure of the correlation between spike fire timings, and we analysed the full memory separation capacity and limitations of this system.

  17. An online supervised learning method based on gradient descent for spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Yang, Jing; Zhong, Shuiming

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of supervised learning with temporal encoding for spiking neurons is to make the neurons emit a specific spike train encoded by precise firing times of spikes. The gradient-descent-based (GDB) learning methods are widely used and verified in the current research. Although the existing GDB multi-spike learning (or spike sequence learning) methods have good performance, they work in an offline manner and still have some limitations. This paper proposes an online GDB spike sequence learning method for spiking neurons that is based on the online adjustment mechanism of real biological neuron synapses. The method constructs error function and calculates the adjustment of synaptic weights as soon as the neurons emit a spike during their running process. We analyze and synthesize desired and actual output spikes to select appropriate input spikes in the calculation of weight adjustment in this paper. The experimental results show that our method obviously improves learning performance compared with the offline learning manner and has certain advantage on learning accuracy compared with other learning methods. Stronger learning ability determines that the method has large pattern storage capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bistability induces episodic spike communication by inhibitory neurons in neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantsev, V B; Asatryan, S Yu

    2011-09-01

    Bistability is one of the important features of nonlinear dynamical systems. In neurodynamics, bistability has been found in basic Hodgkin-Huxley equations describing the cell membrane dynamics. When the neuron is clamped near its threshold, the stable rest potential may coexist with the stable limit cycle describing periodic spiking. However, this effect is often neglected in network computations where the neurons are typically reduced to threshold firing units (e.g., integrate-and-fire models). We found that the bistability may induce spike communication by inhibitory coupled neurons in the spiking network. The communication is realized in the form of episodic discharges with synchronous (correlated) spikes during the episodes. A spiking phase map is constructed to describe the synchronization and to estimate basic spike phase locking modes.

  19. Voltage spikes in Nb3Sn and NbTi strands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordini, B.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Orris, D.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.C.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin,; /Fermilab

    2005-09-01

    As part of the High Field Magnet program at Fermilab several NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn strands were tested with particular emphasis on the study of voltage spikes and their relationship to superconductor instabilities. The voltage spikes were detected under various experimental conditions using voltage-current (V-I) and voltage-field (V-H) methods. Two types of spikes, designated ''magnetization'' and ''transport current'' spikes, have been identified. Their origin is most likely related to magnetization flux jump and transport current redistribution, respectively. Many of the signals observed appear to be a combination of these two types of spikes; the combination of these two instability mechanisms should play a dominant role in determining the minimum quench current.

  20. Pressurized water reactor iodine spiking behavior under power transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The most accepted theory explaining the cause of pressurized water reactor iodine spiking is steam formation and condensation in damaged fuel rods. The phase transformation of the primary coolant from water to steam and back again is believed to cause the iodine spiking phenomenon. But due to the complex nature of the phenomenon, a comprehensive model of the behavior has not yet been successfully developed. This paper presents a new model based on an empirical approach, which gives a first-order estimation of the peak iodine spiking magnitude. Based on the proposed iodine spiking model, it is apparent that it is feasible to derive a correlation using the plant operating data base to monitor and control the peak iodine spiking magnitude

  1. Contamination spike simulation and measurement in a clean metal vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.E.; Yang, C.Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for the generation of contamination-induced voltage spikes in a clean metal vapor laser. The method facilitates the study of the characteristics of this troublesome phenomenon in laser systems. Analysis of these artificially generated dirt spikes shows that the breakdown time of the laser tube is increased when these spike appear. The concept of a Townsend discharge is used to identify the parameter which changes the breakdown time of the discharges. The residual ionization control method is proposed to generate dirt spikes in a clean laser. Experimental results show that a wide range of dirt spike magnitudes can be obtained by using the proposed method. The method provides easy and accurate control of the magnitude of the dirt spike, and the laser tube does not become polluted. Results based on the measurements can be used in actual laser systems to monitor the appearance of dirt spikes and thus avoid the danger of thyratron failure

  2. Principal cell spiking, postsynaptic excitation, and oxygen consumption in the rat cerebellar cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten; Piilgaard, Henning; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    excitatory synaptic input. Subsequent inhibition of action potential propagation and neurotransmission by blocking voltage-gated Na+-channels eliminated the increases in CMRO2 due to PF stimulation and increased PC spiking, but left a large fraction of CMRO2, i.e., basal CMRO2, intact. In conclusion, whereas......) of postsynaptic excitation and PC spiking during evoked and ongoing neuronal activity in the rat. By inhibiting excitatory synaptic input using ionotropic glutamate receptor blockers, we found that the increase in CMRO2 evoked by parallel fiber (PF) stimulation depended entirely on postsynaptic excitation...... basal CMRO2 in anesthetized animals did not seem to be related to neurosignaling, increases in CMRO2 could be induced by all aspects of neurosignaling. Our findings imply that CMRO2 responses cannot a priori be assigned to specific neuronal activities....

  3. Stimulus-dependent modulation of spike burst length in cat striate cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, B C; DeBruyn, E J; Snider, R K; Kabara, J F; Bonds, A B

    1997-07-01

    Burst activity, defined by groups of two or more spikes with intervals of cats. Bursting varied broadly across a population of 507 simple and complex cells. Half of this population had > or = 42% of their spikes contained in bursts. The fraction of spikes in bursts did not vary as a function of average firing rate and was stationary over time. Peaks in the interspike interval histograms were found at both 3-5 ms and 10-30 ms. In many cells the locations of these peaks were independent of firing rate, indicating a quantized control of firing behavior at two different time scales. The activity at the shorter time scale most likely results from intrinsic properties of the cell membrane, and that at the longer scale from recurrent network excitation. Burst frequency (bursts per s) and burst length (spikes per burst) both depended on firing rate. Burst frequency was essentially linear with firing rate, whereas burst length was a nonlinear function of firing rate and was also governed by stimulus orientation. At a given firing rate, burst length was greater for optimal orientations than for nonoptimal orientations. No organized orientation dependence was seen in bursts from lateral geniculate nucleus cells. Activation of cortical contrast gain control at low response amplitudes resulted in no burst length modulation, but burst shortening at optimal orientations was found in responses characterized by supersaturation. At a given firing rate, cortical burst length was shortened by microinjection of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and bursts became longer in the presence of N-methyl-bicuculline, a GABA(A) receptor blocker. These results are consistent with a model in which responses are reduced at nonoptimal orientations, at least in part, by burst shortening that is mediated by GABA. A similar mechanism contributes to response supersaturation at high contrasts via recruitment of inhibitory responses that are tuned to adjacent orientations. Burst length modulation can serve

  4. Mouse neuroblastoma cell-based model and the effect of epileptic events on calcium oscillations and neural spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhwan; Jung, Unsang; Baek, Juyoung; Lee, Sangwon; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Shinwon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mouse neuroblastoma cells have been considered as an attractive model for the study of human neurological and prion diseases, and they have been intensively used as a model system in different areas. For example, the differentiation of neuro2a (N2A) cells, receptor-mediated ion current, and glutamate-induced physiological responses have been actively investigated with these cells. These mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells are of interest because they grow faster than other cells of neural origin and have a number of other advantages. The calcium oscillations and neural spikes of mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells in epileptic conditions are evaluated. Based on our observations of neural spikes in these cells with our proposed imaging modality, we reported that they can be an important model in epileptic activity studies. We concluded that mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells produce epileptic spikes in vitro in the same way as those produced by neurons or astrocytes. This evidence suggests that increased levels of neurotransmitter release due to the enhancement of free calcium from 4-aminopyridine causes the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells to produce epileptic spikes and calcium oscillations.

  5. Soliton and periodic solutions for higher order wave equations of KdV type (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuri, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is twofold. First, a new ansaetze is introduced for the construction of exact solutions for higher order wave equations of KdV type (I). We show the existence of a class of discontinuous soliton solutions with infinite spikes. Second, the projective Riccati technique is implemented as an alternate approach for obtaining new exact solutions, solitary solutions, and periodic wave solutions

  6. STDP-based spiking deep convolutional neural networks for object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradpisheh, Saeed Reza; Ganjtabesh, Mohammad; Thorpe, Simon J; Masquelier, Timothée

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can be used in spiking neural networks (SNN) to extract visual features of low or intermediate complexity in an unsupervised manner. These studies, however, used relatively shallow architectures, and only one layer was trainable. Another line of research has demonstrated - using rate-based neural networks trained with back-propagation - that having many layers increases the recognition robustness, an approach known as deep learning. We thus designed a deep SNN, comprising several convolutional (trainable with STDP) and pooling layers. We used a temporal coding scheme where the most strongly activated neurons fire first, and less activated neurons fire later or not at all. The network was exposed to natural images. Thanks to STDP, neurons progressively learned features corresponding to prototypical patterns that were both salient and frequent. Only a few tens of examples per category were required and no label was needed. After learning, the complexity of the extracted features increased along the hierarchy, from edge detectors in the first layer to object prototypes in the last layer. Coding was very sparse, with only a few thousands spikes per image, and in some cases the object category could be reasonably well inferred from the activity of a single higher-order neuron. More generally, the activity of a few hundreds of such neurons contained robust category information, as demonstrated using a classifier on Caltech 101, ETH-80, and MNIST databases. We also demonstrate the superiority of STDP over other unsupervised techniques such as random crops (HMAX) or auto-encoders. Taken together, our results suggest that the combination of STDP with latency coding may be a key to understanding the way that the primate visual system learns, its remarkable processing speed and its low energy consumption. These mechanisms are also interesting for artificial vision systems, particularly for hardware

  7. Stochastic optimal control of single neuron spike trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iolov, Alexandre; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Longtin, Andrë

    2014-01-01

    stimulation of a neuron to achieve a target spike train under the physiological constraint to not damage tissue. Approach. We pose a stochastic optimal control problem to precisely specify the spike times in a leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model of a neuron with noise assumed to be of intrinsic or synaptic...... origin. In particular, we allow for the noise to be of arbitrary intensity. The optimal control problem is solved using dynamic programming when the controller has access to the voltage (closed-loop control), and using a maximum principle for the transition density when the controller only has access...... to the spike times (open-loop control). Main results. We have developed a stochastic optimal control algorithm to obtain precise spike times. It is applicable in both the supra-threshold and sub-threshold regimes, under open-loop and closed-loop conditions and with an arbitrary noise intensity; the accuracy...

  8. Multimodal imaging of spike propagation: a technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N; Grant, P E; Suzuki, N; Madsen, J R; Bergin, A M; Hämäläinen, M S; Stufflebeam, S M

    2012-06-01

    We report an 11-year-old boy with intractable epilepsy, who had cortical dysplasia in the right superior frontal gyrus. Spatiotemporal source analysis of MEG and EEG spikes demonstrated a similar time course of spike propagation from the superior to inferior frontal gyri, as observed on intracranial EEG. The tractography reconstructed from DTI showed a fiber connection between these areas. Our multimodal approach demonstrates spike propagation and a white matter tract guiding the propagation.

  9. Dispersion formulae for waves in a magneto-active relativistic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, P.; Mohanty, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    Dispersion formulae are derived for the transverse waves propagating through a collisionless magneto-active plasma in the direction of the magnetic field valid for relativistic as well as non-relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation under various limiting conditions of temperatures and magnetic field are discussed. (author)

  10. Dispersion formulae for waves in a magneto-active relativistic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, P. (Ravenshaw Coll., Cuttack (India)); Mohanty, J.N. (F.M. College, Balasore (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1980-12-01

    Dispersion formulae are derived for the transverse waves propagating through a collisionless magneto-active plasma in the direction of the magnetic field valid for relativistic as well as non-relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation under various limiting conditions of temperatures and magnetic field are discussed.

  11. Formation and Dynamics of Waves in a Cortical Model of Cholinergic Modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Roach

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (ACh is a regulator of neural excitability and one of the neurochemical substrates of sleep. Amongst the cellular effects induced by cholinergic modulation are a reduction in spike-frequency adaptation (SFA and a shift in the phase response curve (PRC. We demonstrate in a biophysical model how changes in neural excitability and network structure interact to create three distinct functional regimes: localized asynchronous, traveling asynchronous, and traveling synchronous. Our results qualitatively match those observed experimentally. Cortical activity during slow wave sleep (SWS differs from that during REM sleep or waking states. During SWS there are traveling patterns of activity in the cortex; in other states stationary patterns occur. Our model is a network composed of Hodgkin-Huxley type neurons with a M-current regulated by ACh. Regulation of ACh level can account for dynamical changes between functional regimes. Reduction of the magnitude of this current recreates the reduction in SFA the shift from a type 2 to a type 1 PRC observed in the presence of ACh. When SFA is minimal (in waking or REM sleep state, high ACh patterns of activity are localized and easily pinned by network inhomogeneities. When SFA is present (decreasing ACh, traveling waves of activity naturally arise. A further decrease in ACh leads to a high degree of synchrony within traveling waves. We also show that the level of ACh determines how sensitive network activity is to synaptic heterogeneity. These regimes may have a profound functional significance as stationary patterns may play a role in the proper encoding of external input as memory and traveling waves could lead to synaptic regularization, giving unique insights into the role and significance of ACh in determining patterns of cortical activity and functional differences arising from the patterns.

  12. The Analysis and Suppression of the spike noise in vibrator record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, H.; Jiang, T.; Xu, X.; Ge, L.; Lin, J.; Yang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    During the seismic exploration with vibrator, seismic recording systems have often been affected by random spike noise in the background, which leads to strong data distortions as a result of the cross-correlation processing of the vibrator method. Partial or total loss of the desired seismic information is possible if no automatic spike reduction is available in the field prior to correlation of the field record. Generally speaking, original record of vibrator is uncorrelated data, in which the signal is non-wavelet form. In order to obtain the seismic record similar to explosive source, the signal of uncorrelated data needs to use the correlation algorithm to compress into wavelet form. The correlation process results in that the interference of spike in correlated data is not only being suppressed, but also being expanded. So the spike noise suppression of vibrator is indispensable. According to numerical simulation results, the effect of spike in the vibrator record is mainly affected by the amplitude and proportional points in the uncorrelated record. When the spike noise ratio in uncorrelated record reaches 1.5% and the average amplitude exceeds 200, it will make the SNR(signal-to-noise ratio) of the correlated record lower than 0dB, so that it is difficult to separate the signal. While the amplitude and ratio is determined by the intensity of background noise. Therefore, when the noise level is strong, in order to improve SNR of the seismic data, the uncorrelated record of vibrator need to take necessary steps to suppress spike noise. For the sake of reducing the influence of the spike noise, we need to make the detection and suppression of spike noise process for the uncorrelated record. Because vibrator works by inputting sweep signal into the underground long time, ideally, the peak and valley values of each trace have little change. On the basis of the peak and valley values, we can get a reference amplitude value. Then the spike can be detected and

  13. Spatiotemporal mapping of interictal spike propagation: a novel methodology applied to pediatric intracranial EEG recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Tomlinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized cortical activity is implicated in both normative cognitive functioning andmany neurological disorders. For epilepsy patients with intractable seizures, irregular patterns ofsynchronization within the epileptogenic zone (EZ is believed to provide the network substratethrough which seizures initiate and propagate. Mapping the EZ prior to epilepsy surgery is critical fordetecting seizure networks in order to achieve post-surgical seizure control. However, automatedtechniques for characterizing epileptic networks have yet to gain traction in the clinical setting.Recent advances in signal processing and spike detection have made it possible to examine thespatiotemporal propagation of interictal spike discharges across the epileptic cortex. In this study, wepresent a novel methodology for detecting, extracting, and visualizing spike propagation anddemonstrate its potential utility as a biomarker for the epileptogenic zone. Eighteen pre-surgicalintracranial EEG recordings were obtained from pediatric patients ultimately experiencing favorable(i.e., seizure-free, n = 9 or unfavorable (i.e., seizure-persistent, n = 9 surgical outcomes. Novelalgorithms were applied to extract multi-channel spike discharges and visualize their spatiotemporalpropagation. Quantitative analysis of spike propagation was performed using trajectory clusteringand spatial autocorrelation techniques. Comparison of interictal propagation patterns revealed anincrease in trajectory organization (i.e., spatial autocorrelation among Sz-Free patients compared toSz-Persist patients. The pathophysiological basis and clinical implications of these findings areconsidered.

  14. Validation of double-spike electrograms as markers of conduction delay or block in atrial flutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, F G; Arribas, F; Barbero, J M; Kallmeyer, C; Goicolea, A

    1988-04-01

    Recent mapping studies of atrial flutter have shown that fragmented electrograms can be found in most cases from the posterior, posteroseptal and posterolateral walls of the right atrium. The fragmentation pattern most often consists of a double spike. To further assess double-spike electrograms as a possible marker of conduction delay, bipolar electrograms were continuously recorded during atrial overdrive pacing of common flutter from the right atrium (7 patients) and from the proximal coronary sinus (5). Baseline double-spike separation of 50 to 130 ms was unchanged in 1 patient and slightly increased (5 to 25 ms) in 4 by coronary sinus pacing. The electrogram sequence was unchanged and the surface morphology was similar to that of basal flutter. Right atrial pacing decreased double-spike separation by 25 to 85 ms from basal values of 45 to 175 ms (23 to 83%), suggesting fusion in the area of fragmented electrograms. These findings suggest that double-spike electrograms represent activation on both sides of a conduction delay zone. The changes induced in these electrograms by pacing from the anterior right atrium and the coronary sinus are consistent with flutter circuits rotating counterclockwise (frontal plane) in the posterior right atrial wall in common atrial flutter.

  15. Motif statistics and spike correlations in neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yu; Shea-Brown, Eric; Trousdale, James; Josić, Krešimir

    2013-01-01

    Motifs are patterns of subgraphs of complex networks. We studied the impact of such patterns of connectivity on the level of correlated, or synchronized, spiking activity among pairs of cells in a recurrent network of integrate and fire neurons. For a range of network architectures, we find that the pairwise correlation coefficients, averaged across the network, can be closely approximated using only three statistics of network connectivity. These are the overall network connection probability and the frequencies of two second order motifs: diverging motifs, in which one cell provides input to two others, and chain motifs, in which two cells are connected via a third intermediary cell. Specifically, the prevalence of diverging and chain motifs tends to increase correlation. Our method is based on linear response theory, which enables us to express spiking statistics using linear algebra, and a resumming technique, which extrapolates from second order motifs to predict the overall effect of coupling on network correlation. Our motif-based results seek to isolate the effect of network architecture perturbatively from a known network state. (paper)

  16. Cytoplasmic tail of coronavirus spike protein has intracellular

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/042/02/0231-0244. Keywords. Coronavirus spike protein trafficking; cytoplasmic tail signal; endoplasmic reticulum–Golgi intermediate complex; lysosome. Abstract. Intracellular trafficking and localization studies of spike protein from SARS and OC43 showed that SARS spikeprotein is ...

  17. Glycan shield and fusion activation of a deltacoronavirus spike glycoprotein fine-tuned for enteric infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiong, Xiaoli; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Snijder, Joost|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018328; Yoshioka, Craig; Walls, Alexandra C; Li, Wentao|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411296272; McGuire, Andrew T; Rey, Félix A; Bosch, Berend-Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/273306049; Veesler, David

    2017-01-01

    Coronaviruses recently emerged as major human pathogens causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle-East respiratory syndrome. They utilize the spike (S) glycoprotein anchored in the viral envelope to mediate host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes to

  18. A novel automated spike sorting algorithm with adaptable feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestel, Robert; Daus, Andreas W; Thielemann, Christiane

    2012-10-15

    To study the electrophysiological properties of neuronal networks, in vitro studies based on microelectrode arrays have become a viable tool for analysis. Although in constant progress, a challenging task still remains in this area: the development of an efficient spike sorting algorithm that allows an accurate signal analysis at the single-cell level. Most sorting algorithms currently available only extract a specific feature type, such as the principal components or Wavelet coefficients of the measured spike signals in order to separate different spike shapes generated by different neurons. However, due to the great variety in the obtained spike shapes, the derivation of an optimal feature set is still a very complex issue that current algorithms struggle with. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm that (i) extracts a variety of geometric, Wavelet and principal component-based features and (ii) automatically derives a feature subset, most suitable for sorting an individual set of spike signals. Thus, there is a new approach that evaluates the probability distribution of the obtained spike features and consequently determines the candidates most suitable for the actual spike sorting. These candidates can be formed into an individually adjusted set of spike features, allowing a separation of the various shapes present in the obtained neuronal signal by a subsequent expectation maximisation clustering algorithm. Test results with simulated data files and data obtained from chick embryonic neurons cultured on microelectrode arrays showed an excellent classification result, indicating the superior performance of the described algorithm approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Femtosecond laser fabricated spike structures for selective control of cellular behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlie, Sabrina; Fadeeva, Elena; Koch, Jürgen; Ngezahayo, Anaclet; Chichkov, Boris N

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate the potential of femtosecond laser generated micrometer sized spike structures as functional surfaces for selective cell controlling. The spike dimensions as well as the average spike to spike distance can be easily tuned by varying the process parameters. Moreover, negative replications in soft materials such as silicone elastomer can be produced. This allows tailoring of wetting properties of the spike structures and their negative replicas representing a reduced surface contact area. Furthermore, we investigated material effects on cellular behavior. By comparing human fibroblasts and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells we found that the influence of the material was cell specific. The cells not only changed their morphology, but also the cell growth was affected. Whereas, neuroblastoma cells proliferated at the same rate on the spike structures as on the control surfaces, the proliferation of fibroblasts was reduced by the spike structures. These effects can result from the cell specific adhesion patterns as shown in this work. These findings show a possibility to design defined surface microstructures, which could control cellular behavior in a cell specific manner.

  20. Does spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity couple or decouple neurons firing in synchrony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eKnoblauch

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Spike synchronization is thought to have a constructive role for feature integration, attention, associativelearning, and the formation of bidirectionally connected Hebbian cell assemblies. By contrast, theoreticalstudies on spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP report an inherently decoupling influence of spikesynchronization on synaptic connections of coactivated neurons. For example, bidirectional synapticconnections as found in cortical areas could be reproduced only by assuming realistic models of STDP andrate coding. We resolve this conflict by theoretical analysis and simulation of various simple and realisticSTDP models that provide a more complete characterization of conditions when STDP leads to eithercoupling or decoupling of neurons firing in synchrony. In particular, we show that STDP consistentlycouples synchronized neurons if key model parameters are matched to physiological data: First, synapticpotentiation must be significantly stronger than synaptic depression for small (positive or negative timelags between presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes. Second, spike synchronization must be sufficientlyimprecise, for example, within a time window of 5-10msec instead of 1msec. Third, axonal propagationdelays should not be much larger than dendritic delays. Under these assumptions synchronized neuronswill be strongly coupled leading to a dominance of bidirectional synaptic connections even for simpleSTDP models and low mean firing rates at the level of spontaneous activity.

  1. Google Searches for "Cheap Cigarettes" Spike at Tax Increases: Evidence from an Algorithm to Detect Spikes in Time Series Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L

    2018-05-03

    Online cigarette dealers have lower prices than brick-and-mortar retailers and advertise tax-free status.1-8 Previous studies show smokers search out these online alternatives at the time of a cigarette tax increase.9,10 However, these studies rely upon researchers' decision to consider a specific date and preclude the possibility that researchers focus on the wrong date. The purpose of this study is to introduce an unbiased methodology to the field of observing search patterns and to use this methodology to determine whether smokers search Google for "cheap cigarettes" at cigarette tax increases and, if so, whether the increased level of searches persists. Publicly available data from Google Trends is used to observe standardized search volumes for the term, "cheap cigarettes". Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate and E-Divisive with Means tests were performed to observe spikes and mean level shifts in search volume. Of the twelve cigarette tax increases studied, ten showed spikes in searches for "cheap cigarettes" within two weeks of the tax increase. However, the mean level shifts did not occur for any cigarette tax increase. Searches for "cheap cigarettes" spike around the time of a cigarette tax increase, but the mean level of searches does not shift in response to a tax increase. The SHESD and EDM tests are unbiased methodologies that can be used to identify spikes and mean level shifts in time series data without an a priori date to be studied. SHESD and EDM affirm spikes in interest are related to tax increases. • Applies improved statistical techniques (SHESD and EDM) to Google search data related to cigarettes, reducing bias and increasing power • Contributes to the body of evidence that state and federal tax increases are associated with spikes in searches for cheap cigarettes and may be good dates for increased online health messaging related to tobacco.

  2. Spike-timing theory of working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botond Szatmáry

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is the part of the brain's memory system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of information necessary for cognition. Although WM has limited capacity at any given time, it has vast memory content in the sense that it acts on the brain's nearly infinite repertoire of lifetime long-term memories. Using simulations, we show that large memory content and WM functionality emerge spontaneously if we take the spike-timing nature of neuronal processing into account. Here, memories are represented by extensively overlapping groups of neurons that exhibit stereotypical time-locked spatiotemporal spike-timing patterns, called polychronous patterns; and synapses forming such polychronous neuronal groups (PNGs are subject to associative synaptic plasticity in the form of both long-term and short-term spike-timing dependent plasticity. While long-term potentiation is essential in PNG formation, we show how short-term plasticity can temporarily strengthen the synapses of selected PNGs and lead to an increase in the spontaneous reactivation rate of these PNGs. This increased reactivation rate, consistent with in vivo recordings during WM tasks, results in high interspike interval variability and irregular, yet systematically changing, elevated firing rate profiles within the neurons of the selected PNGs. Additionally, our theory explains the relationship between such slowly changing firing rates and precisely timed spikes, and it reveals a novel relationship between WM and the perception of time on the order of seconds.

  3. Impact of sub and supra-threshold adaptation currents in networks of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliaux, David; Yger, Pierre; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2015-12-01

    Neuronal adaptation is the intrinsic capacity of the brain to change, by various mechanisms, its dynamical responses as a function of the context. Such a phenomena, widely observed in vivo and in vitro, is known to be crucial in homeostatic regulation of the activity and gain control. The effects of adaptation have already been studied at the single-cell level, resulting from either voltage or calcium gated channels both activated by the spiking activity and modulating the dynamical responses of the neurons. In this study, by disentangling those effects into a linear (sub-threshold) and a non-linear (supra-threshold) part, we focus on the the functional role of those two distinct components of adaptation onto the neuronal activity at various scales, starting from single-cell responses up to recurrent networks dynamics, and under stationary or non-stationary stimulations. The effects of slow currents on collective dynamics, like modulation of population oscillation and reliability of spike patterns, is quantified for various types of adaptation in sparse recurrent networks.

  4. Dual roles for spike signaling in cortical neural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana eBallard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A prominent feature of signaling in cortical neurons is that of randomness in the action potential. The output of a typical pyramidal cell can be well fit with a Poisson model, and variations in the Poisson rate repeatedly have been shown to be correlated with stimuli. However while the rate provides a very useful characterization of neural spike data, it may not be the most fundamental description of the signaling code. Recent data showing γ frequency range multi-cell action potential correlations, together with spike timing dependent plasticity, are spurring a re-examination of the classical model, since precise timing codes imply that the generation of spikes is essentially deterministic. Could the observed Poisson randomness and timing determinism reflect two separate modes of communication, or do they somehow derive from a single process? We investigate in a timing-based model whether the apparent incompatibility between these probabilistic and deterministic observations may be resolved by examining how spikes could be used in the underlying neural circuits. The crucial component of this model draws on dual roles for spike signaling. In learning receptive fields from ensembles of inputs, spikes need to behave probabilistically, whereas for fast signaling of individual stimuli, the spikes need to behave deterministically. Our simulations show that this combination is possible if deterministic signals using γ latency coding are probabilistically routed through different members of a cortical cell population at different times. This model exhibits standard features characteristic of Poisson models such as orientation tuning post-stimulus histograms and exponential interval histograms. In addition it makes testable predictions that follow from the γ latency coding.

  5. Role of LAMP1 Binding and pH Sensing by the Spike Complex of Lassa Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Dvashi, Hadas; Israeli, Hadar; Shani, Orly; Katz, Aliza; Diskin, Ron

    2016-11-15

    To effectively infect cells, Lassa virus needs to switch in an endosomal compartment from its primary receptor, α-dystroglycan, to a protein termed LAMP1. A unique histidine triad on the surface of the receptor-binding domain from the glycoprotein spike complex of Lassa virus is important for LAMP1 binding. Here we investigate mutated spikes that have an impaired ability to interact with LAMP1 and show that although LAMP1 is important for efficient infectivity, it is not required for spike-mediated membrane fusion per se Our studies reveal important regulatory roles for histidines from the triad in sensing acidic pH and preventing premature spike triggering. We further show that LAMP1 requires a positively charged His230 residue to engage with the spike complex and that LAMP1 binding promotes membrane fusion. These results elucidate the molecular role of LAMP1 binding during Lassa virus cell entry and provide new insights into how pH is sensed by the spike. Lassa virus is a devastating disease-causing agent in West Africa, with a significant yearly death toll and severe long-term complications associated with its infection in survivors. In recent years, we learned that Lassa virus needs to switch receptors in a pH-dependent manner to efficiently infect cells, but neither the molecular mechanisms that allow switching nor the actual effects of switching were known. Here we investigate the activity of the viral spike complex after abrogation of its ability to switch receptors. These studies inform us about the role of switching receptors and provide new insights into how the spike senses acidic pH. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Analysis of an inverter-supplied multi-winding transformer with a full-wave rectifier at the output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopcic, Beno; Dolinar, Drago; Stumberger, Gorazd

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the magnetic analysis of an inverter-supplied multi-winding transformer frequently used in resistance spot welding applications. The basic structure of the analyzed system consists of an inverter, a single-phase transformer with two secondary windings and a full-wave rectifier mounted at the output of the transformer, which assure a very short rise time of the welding current. The disturbing current spikes often appear in the transformer's primary in the steady-state operation, which can activate the over-current protection switch-off of the system. The results of numerical analysis performed on the nonlinear model of the discussed system have shown that very strong magnetic saturation of the transformer's iron core, caused by the interaction among the different ohmic resistances of secondary windings and different characteristics of the output rectifier diodes, provokes unwanted current spikes. Magnetic saturation could be efficiently eliminated using very simple passive method proposed in this paper. All findings are confirmed by systematic analysis numerically and experimentally

  7. Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura

    2016-07-12

    A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.

  8. A review on cluster estimation methods and their application to neural spike data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, James; Nguyen, Thanh; Cogill, Steven; Bhatti, Asim; Luo, Lingkun; Yang, Samuel; Nahavandi, Saeid

    2018-06-01

    The extracellular action potentials recorded on an electrode result from the collective simultaneous electrophysiological activity of an unknown number of neurons. Identifying and assigning these action potentials to their firing neurons-'spike sorting'-is an indispensable step in studying the function and the response of an individual or ensemble of neurons to certain stimuli. Given the task of neural spike sorting, the determination of the number of clusters (neurons) is arguably the most difficult and challenging issue, due to the existence of background noise and the overlap and interactions among neurons in neighbouring regions. It is not surprising that some researchers still rely on visual inspection by experts to estimate the number of clusters in neural spike sorting. Manual inspection, however, is not suitable to processing the vast, ever-growing amount of neural data. To address this pressing need, in this paper, thirty-three clustering validity indices have been comprehensively reviewed and implemented to determine the number of clusters in neural datasets. To gauge the suitability of the indices to neural spike data, and inform the selection process, we then calculated the indices by applying k-means clustering to twenty widely used synthetic neural datasets and one empirical dataset, and compared the performance of these indices against pre-existing ground truth labels. The results showed that the top five validity indices work consistently well across variations in noise level, both for the synthetic datasets and the real dataset. Using these top performing indices provides strong support for the determination of the number of neural clusters, which is essential in the spike sorting process.

  9. Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Jensen, Palle Martin; Sørensen, Lone B.

    2010-01-01

    This study continues the investigation of wave boundary layers reported by Carstensen, Sumer & Fredsøe (J. Fluid Mech., 2010, part 1 of this paper). The present paper summarizes the results of an experimental investigation of turbulent solitary wave boundary layers, simulated by solitary motion...... the boundary-layer flow experiences a regular array of vortex tubes near the bed over a short period of time during the deceleration stage; and (iii) transitional regime characterized with turbulent spots, revealed by single/multiple, or, sometimes, quite dense spikes in the bed shear stress traces...

  10. Measures of spike train synchrony for data with multiple time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satuvuori, Eero; Mulansky, Mario; Bozanic, Nebojsa; Malvestio, Irene; Zeldenrust, Fleur; Lenk, Kerstin; Kreuz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Measures of spike train synchrony are widely used in both experimental and computational neuroscience. Time-scale independent and parameter-free measures, such as the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance and SPIKE-synchronization, are preferable to time scale parametric measures, since by

  11. A novel unsupervised spike sorting algorithm for intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R; Shah, A K; Loeb, J A; Swamy, M N S; Agarwal, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, unsupervised spike classification algorithm for intracranial EEG. The method combines template matching and principal component analysis (PCA) for building a dynamic patient-specific codebook without a priori knowledge of the spike waveforms. The problem of misclassification due to overlapping classes is resolved by identifying similar classes in the codebook using hierarchical clustering. Cluster quality is visually assessed by projecting inter- and intra-clusters onto a 3D plot. Intracranial EEG from 5 patients was utilized to optimize the algorithm. The resulting codebook retains 82.1% of the detected spikes in non-overlapping and disjoint clusters. Initial results suggest a definite role of this method for both rapid review and quantitation of interictal spikes that could enhance both clinical treatment and research studies on epileptic patients.

  12. No WIMP mini-spikes in dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, M.; Bertone, G.; Volonteri, M.; Weniger, C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of black holes inevitably affects the distribution of dark and baryonic matter in their vicinity, leading to an enhancement of the dark matter density, called spike, and if dark matter is made of WIMPs, to a strong enhancement of the dark matter annihilation rate. Spikes at the center

  13. The Mechanisms of Repetitive Spike Generation in an Axonless Retinal Interneuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Cembrowski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several types of retinal interneurons exhibit spikes but lack axons. One such neuron is the AII amacrine cell, in which spikes recorded at the soma exhibit small amplitudes (5 ms. Here, we used electrophysiological recordings and computational analysis to examine the mechanisms underlying this atypical spiking. We found that somatic spikes likely represent large, brief action potential-like events initiated in a single, electrotonically distal dendritic compartment. In this same compartment, spiking undergoes slow modulation, likely by an M-type K conductance. The structural correlate of this compartment is a thin neurite that extends from the primary dendritic tree: local application of TTX to this neurite, or excision of it, eliminates spiking. Thus, the physiology of the axonless AII is much more complex than would be anticipated from morphological descriptions and somatic recordings; in particular, the AII possesses a single dendritic structure that controls its firing pattern.

  14. Investigation of Slow-wave Activity Saturation during Surgical Anesthesia Reveals a Signature of Neural Inertia in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnaby, Catherine E; Sleigh, Jamie W; Hight, Darren; Jbabdi, Saad; Tracey, Irene

    2017-10-01

    Previously, we showed experimentally that saturation of slow-wave activity provides a potentially individualized neurophysiologic endpoint for perception loss during anesthesia. Furthermore, it is clear that induction and emergence from anesthesia are not symmetrically reversible processes. The observed hysteresis is potentially underpinned by a neural inertia mechanism as proposed in animal studies. In an advanced secondary analysis of 393 individual electroencephalographic data sets, we used slow-wave activity dose-response relationships to parameterize slow-wave activity saturation during induction and emergence from surgical anesthesia. We determined whether neural inertia exists in humans by comparing slow-wave activity dose responses on induction and emergence. Slow-wave activity saturation occurs for different anesthetics and when opioids and muscle relaxants are used during surgery. There was wide interpatient variability in the hypnotic concentrations required to achieve slow-wave activity saturation. Age negatively correlated with power at slow-wave activity saturation. On emergence, we observed abrupt decreases in slow-wave activity dose responses coincident with recovery of behavioral responsiveness in ~33% individuals. These patients are more likely to have lower power at slow-wave activity saturation, be older, and suffer from short-term confusion on emergence. Slow-wave activity saturation during surgical anesthesia implies that large variability in dosing is required to achieve a targeted potential loss of perception in individual patients. A signature for neural inertia in humans is the maintenance of slow-wave activity even in the presence of very-low hypnotic concentrations during emergence from anesthesia.

  15. Point process modeling and estimation: Advances in the analysis of dynamic neural spiking data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyi

    2016-08-01

    A common interest of scientists in many fields is to understand the relationship between the dynamics of a physical system and the occurrences of discrete events within such physical system. Seismologists study the connection between mechanical vibrations of the Earth and the occurrences of earthquakes so that future earthquakes can be better predicted. Astrophysicists study the association between the oscillating energy of celestial regions and the emission of photons to learn the Universe's various objects and their interactions. Neuroscientists study the link between behavior and the millisecond-timescale spike patterns of neurons to understand higher brain functions. Such relationships can often be formulated within the framework of state-space models with point process observations. The basic idea is that the dynamics of the physical systems are driven by the dynamics of some stochastic state variables and the discrete events we observe in an interval are noisy observations with distributions determined by the state variables. This thesis proposes several new methodological developments that advance the framework of state-space models with point process observations at the intersection of statistics and neuroscience. In particular, we develop new methods 1) to characterize the rhythmic spiking activity using history-dependent structure, 2) to model population spike activity using marked point process models, 3) to allow for real-time decision making, and 4) to take into account the need for dimensionality reduction for high-dimensional state and observation processes. We applied these methods to a novel problem of tracking rhythmic dynamics in the spiking of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's patients with the goal of optimizing placement of deep brain stimulation electrodes. We developed a decoding algorithm that can make decision in real-time (for example, to stimulate the neurons or not) based on various sources of information present in

  16. A single and rapid calcium wave at egg activation in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna H. York-Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Activation is an essential process that accompanies fertilisation in all animals and heralds major cellular changes, most notably, resumption of the cell cycle. While activation involves wave-like oscillations in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in mammals, ascidians and polychaete worms and a single Ca2+ peak in fish and frogs, in insects, such as Drosophila, to date, it has not been shown what changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels occur. Here, we utilise ratiometric imaging of Ca2+ indicator dyes and genetically encoded Ca2+ indicator proteins to identify and characterise a single, rapid, transient wave of Ca2+ in the Drosophila egg at activation. Using genetic tools, physical manipulation and pharmacological treatments we demonstrate that the propagation of the Ca2+ wave requires an intact actin cytoskeleton and an increase in intracellular Ca2+ can be uncoupled from egg swelling, but not from progression of the cell cycle. We further show that mechanical pressure alone is not sufficient to initiate a Ca2+ wave. We also find that processing bodies, sites of mRNA decay and translational regulation, become dispersed following the Ca2+ transient. Based on this data we propose the following model for egg activation in Drosophila: exposure to lateral oviduct fluid initiates an increase in intracellular Ca2+ at the egg posterior via osmotic swelling, possibly through mechano-sensitive Ca2+ channels; a single Ca2+ wave then propagates in an actin dependent manner; this Ca2+ wave co-ordinates key developmental events including resumption of the cell cycle and initiation of translation of mRNAs such as bicoid.

  17. Fast and Efficient Asynchronous Neural Computation with Adapting Spiking Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Zambrano (Davide); S.M. Bohte (Sander)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBiological neurons communicate with a sparing exchange of pulses - spikes. It is an open question how real spiking neurons produce the kind of powerful neural computation that is possible with deep artificial neural networks, using only so very few spikes to communicate. Building on

  18. Coincidence Detection Using Spiking Neurons with Application to Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhlan Kamaruzaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We elucidate the practical implementation of Spiking Neural Network (SNN as local ensembles of classifiers. Synaptic time constant τs is used as learning parameter in representing the variations learned from a set of training data at classifier level. This classifier uses coincidence detection (CD strategy trained in supervised manner using a novel supervised learning method called τs Prediction which adjusts the precise timing of output spikes towards the desired spike timing through iterative adaptation of τs. This paper also discusses the approximation of spike timing in Spike Response Model (SRM for the purpose of coincidence detection. This process significantly speeds up the whole process of learning and classification. Performance evaluations with face datasets such as AR, FERET, JAFFE, and CK+ datasets show that the proposed method delivers better face classification performance than the network trained with Supervised Synaptic-Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP. We also found that the proposed method delivers better classification accuracy than k nearest neighbor, ensembles of kNN, and Support Vector Machines. Evaluation on several types of spike codings also reveals that latency coding delivers the best result for face classification as well as for classification of other multivariate datasets.

  19. A matched-filter algorithm to detect amperometric spikes resulting from quantal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Ramachandran, Supriya; Gillis, Kevin D

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical microelectrodes located immediately adjacent to the cell surface can detect spikes of amperometric current during exocytosis as the transmitter released from a single vesicle is oxidized on the electrode surface. Automated techniques to detect spikes are needed in order to quantify the spike rate as a measure of the rate of exocytosis. We have developed a Matched Filter (MF) detection algorithm that scans the data set with a library of prototype spike templates while performing a least-squares fit to determine the amplitude and standard error. The ratio of the fit amplitude to the standard error constitutes a criterion score that is assigned for each time point and for each template. A spike is detected when the criterion score exceeds a threshold and the highest-scoring template and the time of peak score is identified. The search for the next spike commences only after the score falls below a second, lower threshold to reduce false positives. The approach was extended to detect spikes with double-exponential decays with the sum of two templates. Receiver Operating Characteristic plots (ROCs) demonstrate that the algorithm detects >95% of manually identified spikes with a false-positive rate of ∼2%. ROCs demonstrate that the MF algorithm performs better than algorithms that detect spikes based on a derivative-threshold approach. The MF approach performs well and leads into approaches to identify spike parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Part I: Spin wave dynamics in YIG spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study is made of the interactions between spin wave modes excited in a sphere of yttrium iron garnet by pumping the Suhl subsidiary absorption with microwaves. The dynamical behavior of the magnetization is observed under high resolution by varying the dc field and microwave pump power. Varied behavior is found: (1) onset of the Suhl instability by excitation of a single spin wave mode; (2) when two or more modes are excited, interactions lead to auto-oscillations displaying period-doubling to chaos; (3) quasiperiodicity, locking, and chaos occur when three or more modes are excited; (4) abrupt transition to wide band power spectra (i.e., turbulence), with hysteresis; (5) irregular relaxation oscillations and aperiodic spiking behavior. A theoretical model is developed using the plane wave approximation obtaining the lowest order nonlinear interaction terms between the excited modes. Extension of this analysis to the true spherical spin-modes is discussed. Bifurcation behavior is examined, and dynamical behavior is numerically computed and compared to the experimental data. A theory is developed regarding the nature of the experimentally observed relaxation oscillations and spiking behavior based on the interaction of ''weak'' and ''strong'' modes, and this is demonstrated in the numerical simulations for two modes. Quasiperiodicity is shown to occur in the numerical study when at least 3 modes are excited with appropriate parameter values. A possible mechanism for generating microwave subharmonics at half of the pumping frequency is discussed. 57 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Sequentially switching cell assemblies in random inhibitory networks of spiking neurons in the striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, Adam; Wickens, Jeff

    2010-04-28

    The striatum is composed of GABAergic medium spiny neurons with inhibitory collaterals forming a sparse random asymmetric network and receiving an excitatory glutamatergic cortical projection. Because the inhibitory collaterals are sparse and weak, their role in striatal network dynamics is puzzling. However, here we show by simulation of a striatal inhibitory network model composed of spiking neurons that cells form assemblies that fire in sequential coherent episodes and display complex identity-temporal spiking patterns even when cortical excitation is simply constant or fluctuating noisily. Strongly correlated large-scale firing rate fluctuations on slow behaviorally relevant timescales of hundreds of milliseconds are shown by members of the same assembly whereas members of different assemblies show strong negative correlation, and we show how randomly connected spiking networks can generate this activity. Cells display highly irregular spiking with high coefficients of variation, broadly distributed low firing rates, and interspike interval distributions that are consistent with exponentially tailed power laws. Although firing rates vary coherently on slow timescales, precise spiking synchronization is absent in general. Our model only requires the minimal but striatally realistic assumptions of sparse to intermediate random connectivity, weak inhibitory synapses, and sufficient cortical excitation so that some cells are depolarized above the firing threshold during up states. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental studies, consistent with recently determined striatal anatomy and physiology, and support a new view of endogenously generated metastable state switching dynamics of the striatal network underlying its information processing operations.

  2. Organically bound tritium (OBT) formation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): HTO and OBT-spiked food exposure experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Shultz, C.; Stuart, M.; McNamara, E.; Festarini, A.; Bureau, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the rate of organically bound tritium (OBT) formation, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to tritiated water (HTO) or OBT-spiked food. The HTO (in water) exposure study was conducted using a tritium activity concentration of approximately 7000 Bq/L and the OBT (in food) exposure study was conducted using a tritium activity concentration of approximately 30,000 Bq/L. Fish in both studies were expected to be exposed to similar tritium levels assuming 25% incorporation of the tritiated amino acids found in the food. Four different sampling campaigns of HTO exposure (Day 10, 30, 70, 140) and five different sampling campaigns of OBT-spiked food exposure (Day 9, 30, 70, 100, 140) were conducted to measure HTO and OBT activity concentrations in fish tissues. OBT depuration was also evaluated over a period of 30 days following the 140 d exposure studies. The results suggested that the OBT formation rate was slower when the fish were exposed to HTO compared to when the fish were ingesting OBT. In addition, the results indicated that OBT can bioaccumulate in fish tissues following OBT-spiked food exposure. - Highlights: ► The rate of organically bound tritium (OBT) formation was determined in rainbow trout. ► Rainbow trout were exposed to tritium in the form of tritiated water (HTO) and OBT-spiked food. ► OBT formation rate was slower when the fish were exposed to HTO compared to when the fish were ingesting OBT.

  3. Mouse neuroblastoma cell based model and the effect of epileptic events on calcium oscillations and neural spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhwan; Baek, Juyeong; Jung, Unsang; Lee, Sangwon; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun; Kang, Shinwon

    2013-05-01

    Recently, Mouse neuroblastoma cells are considered as an attractive model for the study of human neurological and prion diseases, and intensively used as a model system in different areas. Among those areas, differentiation of neuro2a (N2A) cells, receptor mediated ion current, and glutamate induced physiological response are actively investigated. The reason for the interest to mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells is that they have a fast growing rate than other cells in neural origin with a few another advantages. This study evaluated the calcium oscillations and neural spikes recording of mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells in an epileptic condition. Based on our observation of neural spikes in mouse N2A cell with our proposed imaging modality, we report that mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells can be an important model related to epileptic activity studies. It is concluded that the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells produce the epileptic spikes in vitro in the same way as produced by the neurons or the astrocytes. This evidence advocates the increased and strong level of neurotransmitters release by enhancement in free calcium using the 4-aminopyridine which causes the mouse neuroblastoma N2A cells to produce the epileptic spikes and calcium oscillation.

  4. Thermal spike analysis of highly charged ion tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlušić, M.; Jakšić, M.

    2012-01-01

    The irradiation of material using swift heavy ion or highly charged ion causes excitation of the electron subsystem at nanometer scale along the ion trajectory. According to the thermal spike model, energy deposited into the electron subsystem leads to temperature increase due to electron–phonon coupling. If ion-induced excitation is sufficiently intensive, then melting of the material can occur, and permanent damage (i.e., ion track) can be formed upon rapid cooling. We present an extension of the analytical thermal spike model of Szenes for the analysis of surface ion track produced after the impact of highly charged ion. By applying the model to existing experimental data, more than 60% of the potential energy of the highly charged ion was shown to be retained in the material during the impact and transformed into the energy of the thermal spike. This value is much higher than 20–40% of the transferred energy into the thermal spike by swift heavy ion. Thresholds for formation of highly charged ion track in different materials show uniform behavior depending only on few material parameters.

  5. Recording Spikes Activity in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons Using Flexible or Transparent Graphene Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Veliev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of nanoelectronics applied to neural interfaces has started few decades ago, and aims to provide new tools for replacing or restoring disabled functions of the nervous systems as well as further understanding the evolution of such complex organization. As the same time, graphene and other 2D materials have offered new possibilities for integrating micro and nano-devices on flexible, transparent, and biocompatible substrates, promising for bio and neuro-electronics. In addition to many bio-suitable features of graphene interface, such as, chemical inertness and anti-corrosive properties, its optical transparency enables multimodal approach of neuronal based systems, the electrical layer being compatible with additional microfluidics and optical manipulation ports. The convergence of these fields will provide a next generation of neural interfaces for the reliable detection of single spike and record with high fidelity activity patterns of neural networks. Here, we report on the fabrication of graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs on various substrates (silicon, sapphire, glass coverslips, and polyimide deposited onto Si/SiO2 substrates, exhibiting high sensitivity (4 mS/V, close to the Dirac point at VLG < VD and low noise level (10−22 A2/Hz, at VLG = 0 V. We demonstrate the in vitro detection of the spontaneous activity of hippocampal neurons in-situ-grown on top of the graphene sensors during several weeks in a millimeter size PDMS fluidics chamber (8 mm wide. These results provide an advance toward the realization of biocompatible devices for reliable and high spatio-temporal sensing of neuronal activity for both in vitro and in vivo applications.

  6. A model-based spike sorting algorithm for removing correlation artifacts in multi-neuron recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillow, Jonathan W; Shlens, Jonathon; Chichilnisky, E J; Simoncelli, Eero P

    2013-01-01

    We examine the problem of estimating the spike trains of multiple neurons from voltage traces recorded on one or more extracellular electrodes. Traditional spike-sorting methods rely on thresholding or clustering of recorded signals to identify spikes. While these methods can detect a large fraction of the spikes from a recording, they generally fail to identify synchronous or near-synchronous spikes: cases in which multiple spikes overlap. Here we investigate the geometry of failures in traditional sorting algorithms, and document the prevalence of such errors in multi-electrode recordings from primate retina. We then develop a method for multi-neuron spike sorting using a model that explicitly accounts for the superposition of spike waveforms. We model the recorded voltage traces as a linear combination of spike waveforms plus a stochastic background component of correlated Gaussian noise. Combining this measurement model with a Bernoulli prior over binary spike trains yields a posterior distribution for spikes given the recorded data. We introduce a greedy algorithm to maximize this posterior that we call "binary pursuit". The algorithm allows modest variability in spike waveforms and recovers spike times with higher precision than the voltage sampling rate. This method substantially corrects cross-correlation artifacts that arise with conventional methods, and substantially outperforms clustering methods on both real and simulated data. Finally, we develop diagnostic tools that can be used to assess errors in spike sorting in the absence of ground truth.

  7. Inherently stochastic spiking neurons for probabilistic neural computation

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2015-04-01

    Neuromorphic engineering aims to design hardware that efficiently mimics neural circuitry and provides the means for emulating and studying neural systems. In this paper, we propose a new memristor-based neuron circuit that uniquely complements the scope of neuron implementations and follows the stochastic spike response model (SRM), which plays a cornerstone role in spike-based probabilistic algorithms. We demonstrate that the switching of the memristor is akin to the stochastic firing of the SRM. Our analysis and simulations show that the proposed neuron circuit satisfies a neural computability condition that enables probabilistic neural sampling and spike-based Bayesian learning and inference. Our findings constitute an important step towards memristive, scalable and efficient stochastic neuromorphic platforms. © 2015 IEEE.

  8. Pulsed neural networks consisting of single-flux-quantum spiking neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, T.; Asai, T.; Amemiya, Y.

    2007-01-01

    An inhibitory pulsed neural network was developed for brain-like information processing, by using single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuits. It consists of spiking neuron devices that are coupled to each other through all-to-all inhibitory connections. The network selects neural activity. The operation of the neural network was confirmed by computer simulation. SFQ neuron devices can imitate the operation of the inhibition phenomenon of neural networks

  9. Initiation of sleep-dependent cortical-hippocampal correlations at wakefulness-sleep transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Daniel C; Ji, Daoyun

    2014-10-01

    Sleep is involved in memory consolidation. Current theories propose that sleep-dependent memory consolidation requires active communication between the hippocampus and neocortex. Indeed, it is known that neuronal activities in the hippocampus and various neocortical areas are correlated during slow-wave sleep. However, transitioning from wakefulness to slow-wave sleep is a gradual process. How the hippocampal-cortical correlation is established during the wakefulness-sleep transition is unknown. By examining local field potentials and multiunit activities in the rat hippocampus and visual cortex, we show that the wakefulness-sleep transition is characterized by sharp-wave ripple events in the hippocampus and high-voltage spike-wave events in the cortex, both of which are accompanied by highly synchronized multiunit activities in the corresponding area. Hippocampal ripple events occur earlier than the cortical high-voltage spike-wave events, and hippocampal ripple incidence is attenuated by the onset of cortical high-voltage spike waves. This attenuation leads to a temporary weak correlation in the hippocampal-cortical multiunit activities, which eventually evolves to a strong correlation as the brain enters slow-wave sleep. The results suggest that the hippocampal-cortical correlation is established through a concerted, two-step state change that first synchronizes the neuronal firing within each brain area and then couples the synchronized activities between the two regions. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Sustained increase of spontaneous input and spike transfer in the CA3-CA1 pathway following long term potentiation in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar eHerreras

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Long term potentiation (LTP is commonly used to study synaptic plasticity but the associated changes in the spontaneous activity of individual neurons or the computational properties of neural networks in vivo remain largely unclear. The multisynaptic origin of spontaneous spikes makes difficult estimating the impact of a particular potentiated input. Accordingly, we adopted an approach that isolates pathway-specific postsynaptic activity from raw local field potentials (LFPs in the rat hippocampus in order to study the effects of LTP on ongoing spike transfer between cell pairs in the CA3-CA1 pathway. CA1 Schaffer-specific LFPs elicited by spontaneous clustered firing of CA3 pyramidal cells involved a regular succession of elementary micro-field-EPSPs (gamma-frequency that fired spikes in CA1 units. LTP increased the amplitude but not the frequency of these ongoing excitatory quanta. Also, the proportion of Schaffer-driven spikes in both CA1 pyramidal cells and interneurons increased in a cell-specific manner only in previously connected CA3-CA1 cell pairs, i.e., when the CA3 pyramidal cell had shown pre-LTP significant correlation with firing of a CA1 unit and potentiated spike-triggered average of Schaffer LFPs following LTP. Moreover, LTP produced subtle reorganization of presynaptic CA3 cell assemblies. These findings show effective enhancement of pathway specific ongoing activity which leads to increased spike transfer in potentiated segments of a network. These indicate that plastic phenomena induced by external protocols may intensify spontaneous information flow across specific channels as proposed in transsynaptic propagation of plasticity and synfire chain hypotheses that may be the substrate for different types of memory involving multiple brain structures.

  11. State-dependent spike and local field synchronization between motor cortex and substantia nigra in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnik, Elena; Cruz, Ana V; Avila, Irene; Wahba, Marian I; Novikov, Nikolay; Ilieva, Neda M; McCoy, Alex J; Gerber, Colin; Walters, Judith R

    2012-06-06

    Excessive beta frequency oscillatory and synchronized activity has been reported in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian patients and animal models of the disease. To gain insight into processes underlying this activity, this study explores relationships between oscillatory activity in motor cortex and basal ganglia output in behaving rats after dopamine cell lesion. During inattentive rest, 7 d after lesion, increases in motor cortex-substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) coherence emerged in the 8-25 Hz range, with significant increases in local field potential (LFP) power in SNpr but not motor cortex. In contrast, during treadmill walking, marked increases in both motor cortex and SNpr LFP power, as well as coherence, emerged in the 25-40 Hz band with a peak frequency at 30-35 Hz. Spike-triggered waveform averages showed that 77% of SNpr neurons, 77% of putative cortical interneurons, and 44% of putative pyramidal neurons were significantly phase-locked to the increased cortical LFP activity in the 25-40 Hz range. Although the mean lag between cortical and SNpr LFPs fluctuated around zero, SNpr neurons phase-locked to cortical LFP oscillations fired, on average, 17 ms after synchronized spiking in motor cortex. High coherence between LFP oscillations in cortex and SNpr supports the view that cortical activity facilitates entrainment and synchronization of activity in basal ganglia after loss of dopamine. However, the dramatic increases in cortical power and relative timing of phase-locked spiking in these areas suggest that additional processes help shape the frequency-specific tuning of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network during ongoing motor activity.

  12. Sound Source Localization through 8 MEMS Microphones Array Using a Sand-Scorpion-Inspired Spiking Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Garreau, Guillaume; Georgiou, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Sand-scorpions and many other arachnids perceive their environment by using their feet to sense ground waves. They are able to determine amplitudes the size of an atom and locate the acoustic stimuli with an accuracy of within 13° based on their neuronal anatomy. We present here a prototype sound source localization system, inspired from this impressive performance. The system presented utilizes custom-built hardware with eight MEMS microphones, one for each foot, to acquire the acoustic scene, and a spiking neural model to localize the sound source. The current implementation shows smaller localization error than those observed in nature.

  13. Absolute Ca Isotopic Measurement Using an Improved Double Spike Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jiun-San Shen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of the 42Ca-48Ca double spike. This is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and natural Ca data. Be cause the natural sample (two mixtures and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to con strain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. Once the isotopic composition of the Ca double spike is established, we are able to obtain the true Ca isotopic composition of the NIST Ca standard SRM915a, 40Ca/44Ca = 46.537 ± 2 (2sm, n = 55, 42Ca/44Ca = 0.31031 ± 1, 43Ca/44Ca = 0.06474 ± 1, and 48Ca/44Ca = 0.08956 ± 1. De spite an off set of 1.3% in 40Ca/44Ca between our result and the previously re ported value (Russell et al. 1978, our data indicate an off set of 1.89__in 40Ca/44Ca between SRM915a and seawater, entirely consistent with the published results.

  14. The Effects of Guanfacine and Phenylephrine on a Spiking Neuron Model of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggins, Peter; Stewart, Terrence C; Choo, Xuan; Eliasmith, Chris

    2017-01-01

    We use a spiking neural network model of working memory (WM) capable of performing the spatial delayed response task (DRT) to investigate two drugs that affect WM: guanfacine (GFC) and phenylephrine (PHE). In this model, the loss of information over time results from changes in the spiking neural activity through recurrent connections. We reproduce the standard forgetting curve and then show that this curve changes in the presence of GFC and PHE, whose application is simulated by manipulating functional, neural, and biophysical properties of the model. In particular, applying GFC causes increased activity in neurons that are sensitive to the information currently being remembered, while applying PHE leads to decreased activity in these same neurons. Interestingly, these differential effects emerge from network-level interactions because GFC and PHE affect all neurons equally. We compare our model to both electrophysiological data from neurons in monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and to behavioral evidence from monkeys performing the DRT. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  15. WAVE regulatory complex activation by cooperating GTPases Arf and Rac1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koronakis, Vassilis; Hume, Peter J; Humphreys, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) is a critical element in the control of actin polymerization at the eukaryotic cell membrane, but how WRC is activated remains uncertain. While Rho GTPase Rac1 can bind and activate WRC in vitro, this interaction is of low affinity, suggesting other factors may...... be important. By reconstituting WAVE-dependent actin assembly on membrane-coated beads in mammalian cell extracts, we found that Rac1 was not sufficient to engender bead motility, and we uncovered a key requirement for Arf GTPases. In vitro, Rac1 and Arf1 were individually able to bind weakly to recombinant...... be central components in WAVE signalling, acting directly, alongside Rac1....

  16. The Nature of Power Spikes: a regime-switch approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Jong (Cyriel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractDue to its non-storable nature, electricity is a commodity with probably the most volatile spot prices, exemplified by occasional spikes. Appropriate pricing, portfolio, and risk management models have to incorporate these characteristics, and the spikes in particular. We investigate the

  17. A review on cluster estimation methods and their application to neural spike data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, James; Nguyen, Thanh; Cogill, Steven; Bhatti, Asim; Luo, Lingkun; Yang, Samuel; Nahavandi, Saeid

    2018-06-01

    The extracellular action potentials recorded on an electrode result from the collective simultaneous electrophysiological activity of an unknown number of neurons. Identifying and assigning these action potentials to their firing neurons—‘spike sorting’—is an indispensable step in studying the function and the response of an individual or ensemble of neurons to certain stimuli. Given the task of neural spike sorting, the determination of the number of clusters (neurons) is arguably the most difficult and challenging issue, due to the existence of background noise and the overlap and interactions among neurons in neighbouring regions. It is not surprising that some researchers still rely on visual inspection by experts to estimate the number of clusters in neural spike sorting. Manual inspection, however, is not suitable to processing the vast, ever-growing amount of neural data. To address this pressing need, in this paper, thirty-three clustering validity indices have been comprehensively reviewed and implemented to determine the number of clusters in neural datasets. To gauge the suitability of the indices to neural spike data, and inform the selection process, we then calculated the indices by applying k-means clustering to twenty widely used synthetic neural datasets and one empirical dataset, and compared the performance of these indices against pre-existing ground truth labels. The results showed that the top five validity indices work consistently well across variations in noise level, both for the synthetic datasets and the real dataset. Using these top performing indices provides strong support for the determination of the number of neural clusters, which is essential in the spike sorting process.

  18. Organically bound tritium (OBT) formation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): HTO and OBT-spiked food exposure experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S B; Shultz, C; Stuart, M; McNamara, E; Festarini, A; Bureau, D P

    2013-02-01

    In order to determine the rate of organically bound tritium (OBT) formation, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to tritiated water (HTO) or OBT-spiked food. The HTO (in water) exposure study was conducted using a tritium activity concentration of approximately 7000 Bq/L and the OBT (in food) exposure study was conducted using a tritium activity concentration of approximately 30,000 Bq/L. Fish in both studies were expected to be exposed to similar tritium levels assuming 25% incorporation of the tritiated amino acids found in the food. Four different sampling campaigns of HTO exposure (Day 10, 30, 70, 140) and five different sampling campaigns of OBT-spiked food exposure (Day 9, 30, 70, 100, 140) were conducted to measure HTO and OBT activity concentrations in fish tissues. OBT depuration was also evaluated over a period of 30 days following the 140 d exposure studies. The results suggested that the OBT formation rate was slower when the fish were exposed to HTO compared to when the fish were ingesting OBT. In addition, the results indicated that OBT can bioaccumulate in fish tissues following OBT-spiked food exposure. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis for Abnormal Spike Development of the Wheat Mutant dms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin-Xin; Li, Qiao-Yun; Shen, Chun-Cai; Duan, Zong-Biao; Yu, Dong-Yan; Niu, Ji-Shan; Ni, Yong-Jing; Jiang, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) spike development is the foundation for grain yield. We obtained a novel wheat mutant, dms, characterized as dwarf, multi-pistil and sterility. Although the genetic changes are not clear, the heredity of traits suggests that a recessive gene locus controls the two traits of multi-pistil and sterility in self-pollinating populations of the medium plants (M), such that the dwarf genotype (D) and tall genotype (T) in the progeny of the mutant are ideal lines for studies regarding wheat spike development. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular basis for spike abnormalities of dwarf genotype. Four unigene libraries were assembled by sequencing the mRNAs of the super-bulked differentiating spikes and stem tips of the D and T plants. Using integrative analysis, we identified 419 genes highly expressed in spikes, including nine typical homeotic genes of the MADS-box family and the genes TaAP2, TaFL and TaDL. We also identified 143 genes that were significantly different between young spikes of T and D, and 26 genes that were putatively involved in spike differentiation. The result showed that the expression levels of TaAP1-2, TaAP2, and other genes involved in the majority of biological processes such as transcription, translation, cell division, photosynthesis, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, and energy production and conversion were significantly lower in D than in T. We identified a set of genes related to wheat floral organ differentiation, including typical homeotic genes. Our results showed that the major causal factors resulting in the spike abnormalities of dms were the lower expression homeotic genes, hormonal imbalance, repressed biological processes, and deficiency of construction materials and energy. We performed a series of studies on the homeotic genes, however the other three causal factors for spike abnormal phenotype of dms need further study.

  20. Fluid-thermal analysis of aerodynamic heating over spiked blunt body configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qihao; Xu, Jinglei; Guo, Shuai

    2017-03-01

    When flying at hypersonic speeds, the spiked blunt body is constantly subjected to severe aerodynamic heating. To illustrate the thermal response of different configurations and the relevant flow field variation, a loosely-coupled fluid-thermal analysis is performed in this paper. The Mesh-based parallel Code Coupling Interface (MpCCI) is adopted to implement the data exchange between the fluid solver and the thermal solver. The results indicate that increases in spike diameter and length will result in a sharp decline of the wall temperature along the spike, and the overall heat flux is remarkably reduced to less than 300 W/cm2 with the aerodome mounted at the spike tip. Moreover, the presence and evolution of small vortices within the recirculation zone are observed and proved to be induced by the stagnation effect of reattachment points on the spike. In addition, the drag coefficient of the configuration with a doubled spike length presents a maximum drop of 4.59% due to the elevated wall temperature. And the growing difference of the drag coefficient is further increased during the accelerating process.

  1. High-contrast sub-Doppler absorption spikes in a hot atomic vapor cell exposed to a dual-frequency laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Hafiz, Moustafa; Coget, Grégoire; Boudot, Rodolphe; Brazhnikov, Denis; Taichenachev, Alexei; Yudin, Valeriy; De Clercq, Emeric

    2017-01-01

    The saturated absorption technique is an elegant method widely used in atomic and molecular physics for high-resolution spectroscopy, laser frequency standards and metrology purposes. We have recently discovered that a saturated absorption scheme with a dual-frequency laser can lead to a significant sign reversal of the usual Doppler-free dip, yielding a deep enhanced-absorption spike. In this paper, we report detailed experimental investigations of this phenomenon, together with a full in-depth theoretical description. It is shown that several physical effects can support or oppose the formation of the high-contrast central spike in the absorption profile. The physical conditions for which all these effects act constructively and result in very bright Doppler-free resonances are revealed. Apart from their theoretical interest, results obtained in this manuscript are of great interest for laser spectroscopy and laser frequency stabilization purposes, with applications in laser cooling, matter-wave sensors, atomic clocks or quantum optics. (paper)

  2. The chronotron: a neuron that learns to fire temporally precise spike patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan V Florian

    Full Text Available In many cases, neurons process information carried by the precise timings of spikes. Here we show how neurons can learn to generate specific temporally precise output spikes in response to input patterns of spikes having precise timings, thus processing and memorizing information that is entirely temporally coded, both as input and as output. We introduce two new supervised learning rules for spiking neurons with temporal coding of information (chronotrons, one that provides high memory capacity (E-learning, and one that has a higher biological plausibility (I-learning. With I-learning, the neuron learns to fire the target spike trains through synaptic changes that are proportional to the synaptic currents at the timings of real and target output spikes. We study these learning rules in computer simulations where we train integrate-and-fire neurons. Both learning rules allow neurons to fire at the desired timings, with sub-millisecond precision. We show how chronotrons can learn to classify their inputs, by firing identical, temporally precise spike trains for different inputs belonging to the same class. When the input is noisy, the classification also leads to noise reduction. We compute lower bounds for the memory capacity of chronotrons and explore the influence of various parameters on chronotrons' performance. The chronotrons can model neurons that encode information in the time of the first spike relative to the onset of salient stimuli or neurons in oscillatory networks that encode information in the phases of spikes relative to the background oscillation. Our results show that firing one spike per cycle optimizes memory capacity in neurons encoding information in the phase of firing relative to a background rhythm.

  3. Accelerated spike resampling for accurate multiple testing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Matthew T

    2013-02-01

    Controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using standard spike resampling techniques often requires prohibitive amounts of computation. Importance sampling techniques can be used to accelerate the computation. The general theory is presented, along with specific examples for testing differences across conditions using permutation tests and for testing pairwise synchrony and precise lagged-correlation between many simultaneously recorded spike trains using interval jitter.

  4. Perceptron learning rule derived from spike-frequency adaptation and spike-time-dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Liu, Shih-Chii; Hahnloser, Richard H R

    2010-03-09

    It is widely believed that sensory and motor processing in the brain is based on simple computational primitives rooted in cellular and synaptic physiology. However, many gaps remain in our understanding of the connections between neural computations and biophysical properties of neurons. Here, we show that synaptic spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP) combined with spike-frequency adaptation (SFA) in a single neuron together approximate the well-known perceptron learning rule. Our calculations and integrate-and-fire simulations reveal that delayed inputs to a neuron endowed with STDP and SFA precisely instruct neural responses to earlier arriving inputs. We demonstrate this mechanism on a developmental example of auditory map formation guided by visual inputs, as observed in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX) of barn owls. The interplay of SFA and STDP in model ICX neurons precisely transfers the tuning curve from the visual modality onto the auditory modality, demonstrating a useful computation for multimodal and sensory-guided processing.

  5. Cortical plasticity induced by spike-triggered microstimulation in primate somatosensory cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguo Song

    Full Text Available Electrical stimulation of the nervous system for therapeutic purposes, such as deep brain stimulation in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, has been used for decades. Recently, increased attention has focused on using microstimulation to restore functions as diverse as somatosensation and memory. However, how microstimulation changes the neural substrate is still not fully understood. Microstimulation may cause cortical changes that could either compete with or complement natural neural processes, and could result in neuroplastic changes rendering the region dysfunctional or even epileptic. As part of our efforts to produce neuroprosthetic devices and to further study the effects of microstimulation on the cortex, we stimulated and recorded from microelectrode arrays in the hand area of the primary somatosensory cortex (area 1 in two awake macaque monkeys. We applied a simple neuroprosthetic microstimulation protocol to a pair of electrodes in the area 1 array, using either random pulses or pulses time-locked to the recorded spiking activity of a reference neuron. This setup was replicated using a computer model of the thalamocortical system, which consisted of 1980 spiking neurons distributed among six cortical layers and two thalamic nuclei. Experimentally, we found that spike-triggered microstimulation induced cortical plasticity, as shown by increased unit-pair mutual information, while random microstimulation did not. In addition, there was an increased response to touch following spike-triggered microstimulation, along with decreased neural variability. The computer model successfully reproduced both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the experimental findings. The physiological findings of this study suggest that even simple microstimulation protocols can be used to increase somatosensory information flow.

  6. Real-time computing platform for spiking neurons (RT-spike).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Eduardo; Ortigosa, Eva M; Agís, Rodrigo; Carrillo, Richard; Arnold, Michael

    2006-07-01

    A computing platform is described for simulating arbitrary networks of spiking neurons in real time. A hybrid computing scheme is adopted that uses both software and hardware components to manage the tradeoff between flexibility and computational power; the neuron model is implemented in hardware and the network model and the learning are implemented in software. The incremental transition of the software components into hardware is supported. We focus on a spike response model (SRM) for a neuron where the synapses are modeled as input-driven conductances. The temporal dynamics of the synaptic integration process are modeled with a synaptic time constant that results in a gradual injection of charge. This type of model is computationally expensive and is not easily amenable to existing software-based event-driven approaches. As an alternative we have designed an efficient time-based computing architecture in hardware, where the different stages of the neuron model are processed in parallel. Further improvements occur by computing multiple neurons in parallel using multiple processing units. This design is tested using reconfigurable hardware and its scalability and performance evaluated. Our overall goal is to investigate biologically realistic models for the real-time control of robots operating within closed action-perception loops, and so we evaluate the performance of the system on simulating a model of the cerebellum where the emulation of the temporal dynamics of the synaptic integration process is important.

  7. Reflex reading epilepsy: effect of linguistic characteristics on spike frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Dima; Lassonde, Maryse; Nguyen, Dang Khoa; Denault, Carole; Macoir, Joël; Rouleau, Isabelle; Béland, Renée

    2011-04-01

    Reading epilepsy is a rare reflex epilepsy in which seizures are provoked by reading. Several cases have been described in the literature, but the pathophysiological processes vary widely and remain unclear. We describe a 42-year-old male patient with reading epilepsy evaluated using clinical assessments and continuous video/EEG recordings. We administered verbal, nonverbal, and reading tasks to determine factors precipitating seizures. Linguistic characteristics of the words were manipulated. Results indicated that reading-induced seizures were significantly more numerous than those observed during verbal and nonverbal tasks. In reading tasks, spike frequency significantly increased with involvement of the phonological reading route. Spikes were recorded predominantly in left parasagittal regions. Future cerebral imaging studies will enable us to visualize the spatial localization and temporal course of reading-induced seizures and brain activity involved in reading. A better understanding of reading epilepsy is crucial for reading rehabilitation in these patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SPAN: spike pattern association neuron for learning spatio-temporal sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Mohemmed, A; Schliebs, S; Matsuda, S; Kasabov, N

    2012-01-01

    Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) were shown to be suitable tools for the processing of spatio-temporal information. However, due to their inherent complexity, the formulation of efficient supervised learning algorithms for SNN is difficult and remains an important problem in the research area. This article presents SPAN — a spiking neuron that is able to learn associations of arbitrary spike trains in a supervised fashion allowing the processing of spatio-temporal information encoded in the prec...

  9. An improved model to simulate pressurized water reactor iodine spiking behavior under power transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Among those theories to interpret the PWR iodine spiking behaviors, the most accepted concept is based on steam formation and condensation in damaged fuel rods. Due to the complex nature of the phenomenon, a comprehensive model of the iodine behavior has not yet been successfully developed. In 1992 a new empirical model was introduced to establish a correlation with the operating parameters. The comparison results of the predicted iodine-131 equivalent activity value with the operating radiochemistry database was off by 23%. This paper presents an improved model. Although it is still an empirical model which also gives a first order estimation of the peak iodine spiking magnitude, the deviation between prediction and measurement was reduced to ∼7%. It is believed that this improved model can be used for better prediction and control of the iodine spiking magnitude resulted from failed fuel rods during power transients or plant shutdown. (author)

  10. Robust spike sorting of retinal ganglion cells tuned to spot stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Alireza; Badea, Tudor C

    2016-08-01

    We propose an automatic spike sorting approach for the data recorded from a microelectrode array during visual stimulation of wild type retinas with tiled spot stimuli. The approach first detects individual spikes per electrode by their signature local minima. With the mixture probability distribution of the local minima estimated afterwards, it applies a minimum-squared-error clustering algorithm to sort the spikes into different clusters. A template waveform for each cluster per electrode is defined, and a number of reliability tests are performed on it and its corresponding spikes. Finally, a divisive hierarchical clustering algorithm is used to deal with the correlated templates per cluster type across all the electrodes. According to the measures of performance of the spike sorting approach, it is robust even in the cases of recordings with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  11. Space-Time Dynamics of Membrane Currents Evolve to Shape Excitation, Spiking, and Inhibition in the Cortex at Small and Large Scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland, Per E.

    2017-01-01

    positions. After transition to active spiking states, larger structured zones with active spiking neurons appear, propagating through the cortical network, driving it into various forms of widespread excitation, and engaging the network from microscopic scales to whole cortical areas. At each engaged...... cortical site, the amount of excitation in the network, after a delay, becomes matched by an equal amount of space-time fine-tuned inhibition that might be instrumental in driving the dynamics toward perception and action....

  12. The transfer function of neuron spike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Igor; Monteiro, Luiz H A; Miranda, Maria D

    2015-08-01

    The mathematical modeling of neuronal signals is a relevant problem in neuroscience. The complexity of the neuron behavior, however, makes this problem a particularly difficult task. Here, we propose a discrete-time linear time-invariant (LTI) model with a rational function in order to represent the neuronal spike detected by an electrode located in the surroundings of the nerve cell. The model is presented as a cascade association of two subsystems: one that generates an action potential from an input stimulus, and one that represents the medium between the cell and the electrode. The suggested approach employs system identification and signal processing concepts, and is dissociated from any considerations about the biophysical processes of the neuronal cell, providing a low-complexity alternative to model the neuronal spike. The model is validated by using in vivo experimental readings of intracellular and extracellular signals. A computational simulation of the model is presented in order to assess its proximity to the neuronal signal and to observe the variability of the estimated parameters. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of spike sorting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing; Hanafy, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.

  14. Skeletonized inversion of surface wave: Active source versus controlled noise comparison

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing

    2016-07-14

    We have developed a skeletonized inversion method that inverts the S-wave velocity distribution from surface-wave dispersion curves. Instead of attempting to fit every wiggle in the surface waves with predicted data, it only inverts the picked dispersion curve, thereby mitigating the problem of getting stuck in a local minimum. We have applied this method to a synthetic model and seismic field data from Qademah fault, located at the western side of Saudi Arabia. For comparison, we have performed dispersion analysis for an active and controlled noise source seismic data that had some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive characteristics. Our results demonstrated that skeletonized inversion can obtain reliable 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models for our geologic setting. A limitation is that we need to build layered initial model to calculate the Jacobian matrix, which is time consuming.

  15. The variational spiked oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Ullah, N.

    1992-08-01

    A variational analysis of the spiked harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian -d 2 / d x 2 + x 2 + δ/ x 5/2 , δ > 0, is reported in this work. A trial function satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is suggested. The results are excellent for a large range of values of the coupling parameter. (author)

  16. Trace element ink spiking for signature authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzistavros, V.S.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Signature authentication is a critical question in forensic document examination. Last years the evolution of personal computers made signature copying a quite easy task, so the development of new ways for signature authentication is crucial. In the present work a commercial ink was spiked with many trace elements in various concentrations. Inorganic and organometallic ink soluble compounds were used as spiking agents, whilst ink retained its initial properties. The spiked inks were used for paper writing and the documents were analyzed by a non destructive method, the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The thin target model was proved right for quantitative analysis and a very good linear relationship of the intensity (X-ray signal) against concentration was estimated for all used elements. Intensity ratios between different elements in the same ink gave very stable results, independent on the writing alterations. The impact of time both to written document and prepared inks was also investigated. (author)

  17. A Fully Automated Approach to Spike Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jason E; Magland, Jeremy F; Barnett, Alex H; Tolosa, Vanessa M; Tooker, Angela C; Lee, Kye Y; Shah, Kedar G; Felix, Sarah H; Frank, Loren M; Greengard, Leslie F

    2017-09-13

    Understanding the detailed dynamics of neuronal networks will require the simultaneous measurement of spike trains from hundreds of neurons (or more). Currently, approaches to extracting spike times and labels from raw data are time consuming, lack standardization, and involve manual intervention, making it difficult to maintain data provenance and assess the quality of scientific results. Here, we describe an automated clustering approach and associated software package that addresses these problems and provides novel cluster quality metrics. We show that our approach has accuracy comparable to or exceeding that achieved using manual or semi-manual techniques with desktop central processing unit (CPU) runtimes faster than acquisition time for up to hundreds of electrodes. Moreover, a single choice of parameters in the algorithm is effective for a variety of electrode geometries and across multiple brain regions. This algorithm has the potential to enable reproducible and automated spike sorting of larger scale recordings than is currently possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. On the Spike Train Variability Characterized by Variance-to-Mean Power Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shinsuke

    2015-07-01

    We propose a statistical method for modeling the non-Poisson variability of spike trains observed in a wide range of brain regions. Central to our approach is the assumption that the variance and the mean of interspike intervals are related by a power function characterized by two parameters: the scale factor and exponent. It is shown that this single assumption allows the variability of spike trains to have an arbitrary scale and various dependencies on the firing rate in the spike count statistics, as well as in the interval statistics, depending on the two parameters of the power function. We also propose a statistical model for spike trains that exhibits the variance-to-mean power relationship. Based on this, a maximum likelihood method is developed for inferring the parameters from rate-modulated spike trains. The proposed method is illustrated on simulated and experimental spike trains.

  19. Predicting Spike Occurrence and Neuronal Responsiveness from LFPs in Primary Somatosensory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storchi, Riccardo; Zippo, Antonio G.; Caramenti, Gian Carlo; Valente, Maurizio; Biella, Gabriele E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Local Field Potentials (LFPs) integrate multiple neuronal events like synaptic inputs and intracellular potentials. LFP spatiotemporal features are particularly relevant in view of their applications both in research (e.g. for understanding brain rhythms, inter-areal neural communication and neronal coding) and in the clinics (e.g. for improving invasive Brain-Machine Interface devices). However the relation between LFPs and spikes is complex and not fully understood. As spikes represent the fundamental currency of neuronal communication this gap in knowledge strongly limits our comprehension of neuronal phenomena underlying LFPs. We investigated the LFP-spike relation during tactile stimulation in primary somatosensory (S-I) cortex in the rat. First we quantified how reliably LFPs and spikes code for a stimulus occurrence. Then we used the information obtained from our analyses to design a predictive model for spike occurrence based on LFP inputs. The model was endowed with a flexible meta-structure whose exact form, both in parameters and structure, was estimated by using a multi-objective optimization strategy. Our method provided a set of nonlinear simple equations that maximized the match between models and true neurons in terms of spike timings and Peri Stimulus Time Histograms. We found that both LFPs and spikes can code for stimulus occurrence with millisecond precision, showing, however, high variability. Spike patterns were predicted significantly above chance for 75% of the neurons analysed. Crucially, the level of prediction accuracy depended on the reliability in coding for the stimulus occurrence. The best predictions were obtained when both spikes and LFPs were highly responsive to the stimuli. Spike reliability is known to depend on neuron intrinsic properties (i.e. on channel noise) and on spontaneous local network fluctuations. Our results suggest that the latter, measured through the LFP response variability, play a dominant role. PMID:22586452

  20. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  1. An Efficient Supervised Training Algorithm for Multilayer Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiurui; Qu, Hong; Liu, Guisong; Zhang, Malu; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The spiking neural networks (SNNs) are the third generation of neural networks and perform remarkably well in cognitive tasks such as pattern recognition. The spike emitting and information processing mechanisms found in biological cognitive systems motivate the application of the hierarchical structure and temporal encoding mechanism in spiking neural networks, which have exhibited strong computational capability. However, the hierarchical structure and temporal encoding approach require neurons to process information serially in space and time respectively, which reduce the training efficiency significantly. For training the hierarchical SNNs, most existing methods are based on the traditional back-propagation algorithm, inheriting its drawbacks of the gradient diffusion and the sensitivity on parameters. To keep the powerful computation capability of the hierarchical structure and temporal encoding mechanism, but to overcome the low efficiency of the existing algorithms, a new training algorithm, the Normalized Spiking Error Back Propagation (NSEBP) is proposed in this paper. In the feedforward calculation, the output spike times are calculated by solving the quadratic function in the spike response model instead of detecting postsynaptic voltage states at all time points in traditional algorithms. Besides, in the feedback weight modification, the computational error is propagated to previous layers by the presynaptic spike jitter instead of the gradient decent rule, which realizes the layer-wised training. Furthermore, our algorithm investigates the mathematical relation between the weight variation and voltage error change, which makes the normalization in the weight modification applicable. Adopting these strategies, our algorithm outperforms the traditional SNN multi-layer algorithms in terms of learning efficiency and parameter sensitivity, that are also demonstrated by the comprehensive experimental results in this paper.

  2. Isotope and Patient Age Predict for PSA Spikes After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostancic, Chelsea; Merrick, Gregory S.; Butler, Wayne M.; Wallner, Kent E.; Allen, Zachariah; Galbreath, Robert; Lief, Jonathan; Gutman, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prostate-specific antigen (PSA) spikes after permanent prostate brachytherapy in low-risk patients. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 164 prostate cancer patients who were part of a prospective randomized trial comparing 103 Pd and 125 I for low-risk disease. Of the 164 patients, 61 (37.2%) received short-course androgen deprivation therapy. The median follow-up was 5.4 years. On average, 11.1 post-treatment PSA measurements were obtained per patient. Biochemical disease-free survival was defined as a PSA level of ≤0.40 ng/mL after nadir. A PSA spike was defined as an increase of ≥0.2 ng/mL, followed by a durable decline to prespike levels. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors for a PSA spike. Results: Of the 164 patients, 44 (26.9%) developed a PSA spike. Of the 46 hormone-naive 125 I patients and 57 hormone-naive 103 Pd patients, 21 (45.7%) and 8 (14.0%) developed a PSA spike. In the hormone-naive patients, the mean time between implantation and the spike was 22.6 months and 18.7 months for 125 I and 103 Pd, respectively. In patients receiving neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy, the incidence of spikes was comparable between isotopes ( 125 I 28.1% and 103 Pd 20.7%). The incidence of spikes was substantially different in patients 125 I and/or <65 years of age. Differences in isotope-related spikes are most pronounced in hormone-naive patients

  3. Boobs, Boxing, and Bombs: Problematizing the Entertainment of Spike TV

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, Gerald; Potvin, L.

    2009-01-01

    Spike is the only television network in North America “for men.” Its motto, “Get more action,” is suggestive of pursuits of various forms of violence. We conceptualize Spike not as trivial entertainment, but rather as a form of pop culture that erodes the gains of feminists who have challenged the prevalence of normalized hegemonic masculinity (HM). Our paper highlights themes of Spike content, and connects those themes to the literature on HM. Moreover, we validate the identities and lives ...

  4. Can Neural Activity Propagate by Endogenous Electrical Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chen; Shivacharan, Rajat S.; Zhang, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that synaptic transmissions and gap junctions are the major governing mechanisms for signal traveling in the neural system. Yet, a group of neural waves, either physiological or pathological, share the same speed of ∼0.1 m/s without synaptic transmission or gap junctions, and this speed is not consistent with axonal conduction or ionic diffusion. The only explanation left is an electrical field effect. We tested the hypothesis that endogenous electric fields are sufficient to explain the propagation with in silico and in vitro experiments. Simulation results show that field effects alone can indeed mediate propagation across layers of neurons with speeds of 0.12 ± 0.09 m/s with pathological kinetics, and 0.11 ± 0.03 m/s with physiologic kinetics, both generating weak field amplitudes of ∼2–6 mV/mm. Further, the model predicted that propagation speed values are inversely proportional to the cell-to-cell distances, but do not significantly change with extracellular resistivity, membrane capacitance, or membrane resistance. In vitro recordings in mice hippocampi produced similar speeds (0.10 ± 0.03 m/s) and field amplitudes (2.5–5 mV/mm), and by applying a blocking field, the propagation speed was greatly reduced. Finally, osmolarity experiments confirmed the model's prediction that cell-to-cell distance inversely affects propagation speed. Together, these results show that despite their weak amplitude, electric fields can be solely responsible for spike propagation at ∼0.1 m/s. This phenomenon could be important to explain the slow propagation of epileptic activity and other normal propagations at similar speeds. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT