WorldWideScience

Sample records for spi spectrometer aboard

  1. Mechanical and thermal design of an experiment aboard the space shuttle: the Spacelab spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrometer designed by ONERA and IASB (Belgium Space Aeronomy Institute) to measure atmospheric trace constituents was flown aboard Spacelab 1 during the 9 th mission of the American Space Shuttle from November 28 to December 8, 1983. After a brief summary of the history of the project related to Spacelab, the mechanical and thermal design of the spectrometer is described. Some methods, calculations and characteristic tests are detailed as examples. The behaviour of the experiment during the mission and the results of the post-flight tests are shortly analyzed in order to prepare the qualification for a reflight [fr

  2. Regolith X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) Aboard the OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, R. A.; Chodas, M.; Bayley, L.; Allen, B.; Hong, J.; Biswas, P.; McMenamin, C.; Stout, K.; Bokhour, E.; Bralower, H.; Carte, D.; Chen, S.; Jones, M.; Kissel, S.; Schmidt, F.; Smith, M.; Sondecker, G.; Lim, L. F.; Lauretta, D. S.; Grindlay, J. E.; Binzel, R. P.

    2018-02-01

    The Regolith X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (REXIS) is the student collaboration experiment proposed and built by an MIT-Harvard team, launched aboard NASA's OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission. REXIS complements the scientific investigations of other OSIRIS-REx instruments by determining the relative abundances of key elements present on the asteroid's surface by measuring the X-ray fluorescence spectrum (stimulated by the natural solar X-ray flux) over the range of energies 0.5 to 7 keV. REXIS consists of two components: a main imaging spectrometer with a coded aperture mask and a separate solar X-ray monitor to account for the Sun's variability. In addition to element abundance ratios (relative to Si) pinpointing the asteroid's most likely meteorite association, REXIS also maps elemental abundance variability across the asteroid's surface using the asteroid's rotation as well as the spacecraft's orbital motion. Image reconstruction at the highest resolution is facilitated by the coded aperture mask. Through this operation, REXIS will be the first application of X-ray coded aperture imaging to planetary surface mapping, making this student-built instrument a pathfinder toward future planetary exploration. To date, 60 students at the undergraduate and graduate levels have been involved with the REXIS project, with the hands-on experience translating to a dozen Master's and Ph.D. theses and other student publications.

  3. The life and death of massive stars revealed by the observation of nuclear gamma-ray lines with the Integral/SPI spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this research thesis is to bring up observational constraints on the mechanisms which govern life and death of massive stars, i.e. stars having an initial mass greater than eight times the Sun's mass, and smaller than 120 to 150 solar masses. Thus, it aims at detecting the vestiges of recent and close supernovae in order to find out the traces of the dynamics of their first instants. The author has explored the radiation of three radio-isotopes accessible to the nuclear gamma astronomy ( 44 Ti, 60 Fe, 26 Al) using observations performed with high resolution gamma spectrometer (SPI) on the INTEGRAL international observatory. After an overview of the present knowledge on the massive star explosion mechanism, the author presents the specificities and potential of the investigated radio-isotopes. He describes the data treatment methods and a population synthesis programme for the prediction of decay gamma streaks, and then reports its work on the inner dynamics of Cassiopeia A explosion, the stellar activity of the galaxy revealed by the radioisotope observation, the nucleo-synthetic activity of the Swan region

  4. Study of the electron-positron annihilation in the galactic center region with the Integral/SPI spectrometer; Etude de l'annihilation electron-positon dans la region du centre galactique avec le spectrometre INTEGRAL/SPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizun, P

    2007-04-15

    A spectral feature was detected in 1970 in the gamma-ray emission from the central regions of the Milky Way, during balloon flight observations. Located near 511 keV, this feature was soon attributed to the gamma-ray line tracing the annihilation of electrons with their anti-particles, positrons. However, none of the multiple astrophysical scenarios contemplated to explain the production of positrons in the Galactic bulge has been able to reproduce the high injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line, close to 10{sup 43} positrons per second. Launched in 2002, the European gamma-ray satellite INTEGRAL was provided with a spectrometer, SPI, whose unprecedented imaging and spectral capabilities in this energy range enable us to further study the source of the 511 keV line detected in the Galactic centre region. Indeed, a better determination of the spatial extent of the source, the intrinsic width of the line and the fraction of positrons annihilating in-flight, directly or via the formation of ortho-Positronium atoms would improve our knowledge of both the annihilation medium and the initial source of positrons, and could allow us to discriminate between the various explanatory scenarios. The first part of this thesis deals with a key ingredient in the extraction of the annihilation spectrum: the optimization of the instrumental background model. New data screening and tracer selection procedures are presented. Classical multi-linear models are compared to neural and Bayesian networks. Finally, three years of observation are used to constrain the width of the source and derive its spectrum. The second part of the thesis focuses on one of the possible scenarios explaining the high positron injection rate deduced from the flux of the 511 keV line: the annihilation of light dark matter particles into electron-positron pairs. The various radiation mechanisms involved are modeled and confronted to observations in order to set an upper limit on the injection

  5. Results from the magnetic electron ion spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Joseph; O'Brien, Paul; Roeder, James; Reeves, Geoffrey; Claudepierre, Seth; Clemmons, James; Spence, Harlan; Blake, Bernard

    The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft (formerly RBSP) measure electrons and ions in the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. The MagEIS instruments are part of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT), which also includes the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) analyzer. MagEIS consists of four magnetic electron spectrometers aboard each of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft that measure the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of electrons from 20 keV to 4 MeV. The MagEIS suite also contains a silicon-detector telescope that measures the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of protons from 60 keV to 20 MeV, and helium and oxygen ions above a hundred keV/AMU. We briefly describe the instrument design and measurement technique and present a set of results from the MagEIS observations, including ultra-low frequency (ULF) modulations of energetic electron flux, and observations of electron flux enhancements associated with the recent BARREL x-ray observations.

  6. Initial Results from the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) Instruments Aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Clemmons, J. H.; Roeder, J. L.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Van Allen Probes ECT Team

    2013-05-01

    The Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometer (MagEIS) instruments aboard the Van Allen Probes Spacecraft (formerly RBSP) measure electrons and ions in the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. The MagEIS instruments are part of the Energetic Particle, Composition, and Thermal Plasma Suite (ECT), which also includes the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) and the Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) analyzer. MagEIS consists of four magnetic electron spectrometers aboard each of the two Van Allen Probes spacecraft that measure the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of electrons from 20 keV to 4 MeV. The MagEIS suite also contains a silicon-detector telescope that measures the differential fluxes, energies, and angular distributions of protons from 60 keV to 20 MeV, and helium and oxygen ions above a hundred keV/AMU. We briefly describe the instrument design and measurement technique and present a set of initial results from the MagEIS observations, including ultra-low frequency (ULF) modulations of energetic electron flux, and observations of electron flux enhancements associated with the recent BARREL x-ray observations.

  7. Practical SPI Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta, José Francisco; García, Javier; Amescua, Antonio

    This paper presents a practical procedure named P4SPI for planning, monitoring and closing an SPI. Planning activities are performed using PMBOK's process areas as a reference; monitoring activities using Six Sigma tools and techniques and closing activities using gathering qualitative and quantitative information about the SPI Implementation. These activities are supported by office templates.

  8. The life and death of massive stars revealed by the observation of nuclear gamma-ray lines with the Integral/SPI spectrometer; La vie et la mort des etoiles massives revelees par l'observation des raies gamma nucleaires grace au spectrometre INTEGRAL/SPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P

    2008-11-15

    The aim of this research thesis is to bring up observational constraints on the mechanisms which govern life and death of massive stars, i.e. stars having an initial mass greater than eight times the Sun's mass, and smaller than 120 to 150 solar masses. Thus, it aims at detecting the vestiges of recent and close supernovae in order to find out the traces of the dynamics of their first instants. The author has explored the radiation of three radio-isotopes accessible to the nuclear gamma astronomy ({sup 44}Ti, {sup 60}Fe, {sup 26}Al) using observations performed with high resolution gamma spectrometer (SPI) on the INTEGRAL international observatory. After an overview of the present knowledge on the massive star explosion mechanism, the author presents the specificities and potential of the investigated radio-isotopes. He describes the data treatment methods and a population synthesis programme for the prediction of decay gamma streaks, and then reports its work on the inner dynamics of Cassiopeia A explosion, the stellar activity of the galaxy revealed by the radioisotope observation, the nucleo-synthetic activity of the Swan region.

  9. Qualification of a Multi-Channel Infrared Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Monitoring CO, HCl, HCN, HF, and CO2 Aboard Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Forouhar, Siamak; May, Randy D.; Meyer, Marit E.; Kulis, Michael J.; Berger, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of specific combustion products can provide early-warning detection of accidental fires aboard manned spacecraft and also identify the source and severity of combustion events. Furthermore, quantitative in situ measurements are important for gauging levels of exposure to hazardous gases, particularly on long-duration missions where analysis of returned samples becomes impractical. Absorption spectroscopy using tunable laser sources in the 2 to 5 micrometer wavelength range enables accurate, unambiguous detection of CO, HCl, HCN, HF, and CO2, which are produced in varying amounts through the heating of electrical components and packaging materials commonly used aboard spacecraft. Here, we report on calibration and testing of a five-channel laser absorption spectrometer designed to accurately monitor ambient gas-phase concentrations of these five compounds, with low-level detection limits based on the Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations. The instrument employs a two-pass absorption cell with a total optical pathlength of 50 cm and a dedicated infrared semiconductor laser source for each target gas. We present results from testing the five-channel sensor in the presence of trace concentrations of the target compounds that were introduced using both gas sources and oxidative pyrolysis (non-flaming combustion) of solid material mixtures.

  10. Positron astronomy with SPI/INTEGRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenspointner, G.; Diehl, R.; Strong, A.; Weidenspointner, G.; Skinner, G.K.; Skinner, G.K.; Jean, P.; Knoedlseder, J.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Cordier, B.; Schanne, S.; Winkler, C.

    2008-01-01

    We provide an overview of positron astronomy results that have been obtained using the INTEGRAL spectrometer SPI, and discuss their implications for the still mysterious origin of positrons in our Galaxy. It has long been known that the 511 keV positron annihilation emission is strongest from the central region of our Galaxy. Recently, it has been discovered with the SPI spectrometer that the weaker 511 keV line emission from the inner Galactic disk appears to be asymmetric, with the emission to the west of the Galactic center being about twice as strong than that to the east. This distribution of positron annihilation resembles that of low mass X-ray binaries as observed with the INTEGRAL imager IBIS at hard X-ray energies, suggesting that these systems could provide a significant portion of the positrons in our Galaxy. In addition, the spectrometer SPI has permitted unprecedented spectroscopy of annihilation radiation from the bulge and disk regions of the Galaxy, which commences to yield important insights into the conditions of the medium in which the positrons annihilate. (authors)

  11. spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hedelius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruker™ EM27/SUN instruments are commercial mobile solar-viewing near-IR spectrometers. They show promise for expanding the global density of atmospheric column measurements of greenhouse gases and are being marketed for such applications. They have been shown to measure the same variations of atmospheric gases within a day as the high-resolution spectrometers of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. However, there is little known about the long-term precision and uncertainty budgets of EM27/SUN measurements. In this study, which includes a comparison of 186 measurement days spanning 11 months, we note that atmospheric variations of Xgas within a single day are well captured by these low-resolution instruments, but over several months, the measurements drift noticeably. We present comparisons between EM27/SUN instruments and the TCCON using GGG as the retrieval algorithm. In addition, we perform several tests to evaluate the robustness of the performance and determine the largest sources of errors from these spectrometers. We include comparisons of XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O. Specifically we note EM27/SUN biases for January 2015 of 0.03, 0.75, –0.12, and 2.43 % for XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O respectively, with 1σ running precisions of 0.08 and 0.06 % for XCO2 and XCH4 from measurements in Pasadena. We also identify significant error caused by nonlinear sensitivity when using an extended spectral range detector used to measure CO and N2O.

  12. A novel approach for modelling the cluster detector and the SPI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-30

    background (PB) ratios of the cluster and spectrometer for integral satellite (SPI) for the first time considering up to four-fold events. Instead of using an empirical method or simulation, we present a novel approach for calculating ...

  13. LADEE Neutral Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)...

  14. Controlling macromolecular topology with genetically encoded SpyTag-SpyCatcher chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Fei; Tirrell, David A; Arnold, Frances H

    2013-09-18

    Control of molecular topology constitutes a fundamental challenge in macromolecular chemistry. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of artificial elastin-like proteins (ELPs) with unconventional nonlinear topologies including circular, tadpole, star, and H-shaped proteins using genetically encoded SpyTag-SpyCatcher chemistry. SpyTag is a short polypeptide that binds its protein partner SpyCatcher and forms isopeptide bonds under physiological conditions. Sequences encoding SpyTag and SpyCatcher can be strategically placed into ELP genes to direct post-translational topological modification in situ. Placement of SpyTag at the N-terminus and SpyCatcher at the C-terminus directs formation of circular ELPs. Induction of expression at 16 °C with 10 μM IPTG yields 80% monomeric cyclic protein. When SpyTag is placed in the middle of the chain, it exhibits an even stronger tendency toward cyclization, yielding up to 94% monomeric tadpole proteins. Telechelic ELPs containing either SpyTag or SpyCatcher can be expressed, purified, and then coupled spontaneously upon mixing in vitro. Block proteins, 3-arm or 4-arm star proteins, and H-shaped proteins have been prepared, with the folded CnaB2 domain that results from the SpyTag-SpyCatcher reaction as the molecular core or branch junction. The modular character of the SpyTag-SpyCatcher strategy should make it useful for preparing nonlinear macromolecules of diverse sequence and structure.

  15. INTEGRAL: In flight behavior of ISGRI and SPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebrun, F.; Roques, J.-P.; Sauvageon, A.; Terrier, R.; Laurent, P.; Limousin, O.; Lugiez, F.; Claret, A.

    2005-01-01

    The payload of INTEGRAL, the space gamma-ray observatory launched in October 2002, features two gamma-ray telescopes that take advantage of the semiconductor technologies. The spectrometer SPI, is equipped with 19 high-purity germanium detectors cooled at 85 K. We will report on the SPI in-flight background, performance, the detector evolution and the annealings performed every 6 months. The INTEGRAL Soft Gamma-Ray Imager (ISGRI) is the low-energy camera of the IBIS telescope. It is the first large camera equipped with CdTe detectors. We will present some system aspects, in particular the noisy pixel handling and will report on its in-flight background, performance and their evolution

  16. Single Event Upset Analysis: On-orbit performance of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Digital Signal Processor Memory aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqiang; Choutko, Vitaly; Xiao, Liyi

    2018-03-01

    Based on the collection of error data from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Digital Signal Processors (DSP), on-orbit Single Event Upsets (SEUs) of the DSP program memory are analyzed. The daily error distribution and time intervals between errors are calculated to evaluate the reliability of the system. The particle density distribution of International Space Station (ISS) orbit is presented and the effects from the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the geomagnetic poles are analyzed. The impact of solar events on the DSP program memory is carried out combining data analysis and Monte Carlo simulation (MC). From the analysis and simulation results, it is concluded that the area corresponding to the SAA is the main source of errors on the ISS orbit. Solar events can also cause errors on DSP program memory, but the effect depends on the on-orbit particle density.

  17. Android/GUI Controlled Bluetooth Spy Robot (SPY-BOT)

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal K Thomas; Radhika S; ShyamMohanan.C; Sreelakshmi Rajan; Deepak S Koovackal; Suvarna A

    2017-01-01

    The robotic vehicle can be controlled by a PC or an android device. The GUI interface used to control the robot is developed in MATLAB, and the android app is developed using MIT appinventor 2. The robotic vehicle is equipped with an IP web camera for GUI interface and another wireless camera having night vision capability for remote monitoring/spying purposes. This system can be used in sensitive areas where humans cannot enter directly. The commands provided by android application/GUI inter...

  18. A novel approach for modelling the cluster detector and the SPI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    detectors and for performing experimental studies with the SPI spectrometer for high-energy γ -rays. Keywords. ... corresponds to the complete absorption of incident γ energy and gets contributions from. Pramana – J. Phys. ..... For a γ-ray of energy Eγ , let us first define the ratio of the single-detector hit events to the total full ...

  19. InSpiRe - Intelligent Spine Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Kasper Hafstrøm; Helms, Niels Henrik; Kjær, Per

    Rapport on InSpiRe-projektet: InSpiRe er et nationalt netværk, der skal fremme mulighederne for intelligent genoptræning i forhold til ryglidelser. I netværket mødes forskere, virksomheder, kiropraktorer og fysioterapeuter for at udvikle nye genoptrænings og/eller behandlingsteknologier.......Rapport on InSpiRe-projektet: InSpiRe er et nationalt netværk, der skal fremme mulighederne for intelligent genoptræning i forhold til ryglidelser. I netværket mødes forskere, virksomheder, kiropraktorer og fysioterapeuter for at udvikle nye genoptrænings og/eller behandlingsteknologier....

  20. Involvement of SPI-2-encoded SpiC in flagellum synthesis in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugita Asami

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SpiC encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 on the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium chromosome is required for survival within macrophages and systemic infection in mice. Additionally, SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages by affecting the expression of FliC, a component of flagella filaments. Here, we show the contribution of SpiC in flagellum synthesis. Results Quantitative RT-PCR shows that the expression levels of the class 3 fliD and motA genes that encode for the flagella cap and motor torque proteins, respectively, were lower for a spiC mutant strain than for the wild-type Salmonella. Further, this mutant had lower expression levels of the class 2 genes including the fliA gene encoding the flagellar-specific alternative sigma factor. We also found differences in flagella assembly between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Many flagella filaments were observed on the bacterial surface of the wild-type strain, whereas the spiC mutant had only few flagella. The absence of spiC led to reduced expression of the FlhD protein, which functions as the master regulator in flagella gene expression, although no significant difference at the transcription level of the flhDC operon was observed between the wild-type strain and the spiC mutant. Conclusion The data show that SpiC is involved in flagella assembly by affecting the post-transcription expression of flhDC.

  1. How Do Artifact Models Help Direct SPI Projects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhrmann, Marco; Richardson, Ita

    2015-01-01

    To overcome shortcomings associated with software process improvement (SPI), we previously recommended that process engineers focus on the artifacts to be developed in SPI projects. These artifacts should define desired outcomes, rather than specific methods. During this prior research, we...

  2. InSpiRe - Intelligent Spine Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Kasper Hafstrøm; Helms, Niels Henrik; Kjær, Per

    InSpiRe er et projekt, der har haft omdrejningspunkt i etableringen af et nyt netværk indenfor intelligent genoptræning med særligt fokus på rygsmerter. Projektet er gennemført i perioden 1/3 2011 2011-1/3 2012, med støtte fra Syddansk Vækstforum, og er blevet drevet af projektparterne Knowledge...

  3. SPi User Manual V0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.; Yarema, R.; /Fermilab; Newcomer, M.; Dressnandt, N.; /Pennsylvania U.; Villani, G.; Weber, M.; Holt, R.; /Rutherford

    2011-05-01

    This document describes the Serial Powering Interface (SPi) ASIC. SPi is a general purpose ASIC prototype designed for use in serial powering of silicon detector instrumentation. This description is written as a user manual to aid application, not as a design description. SPi is a generic custom ASIC, manufactured in 0.25 {mu}m CMOS by TSMC, to interface between a constant current source and silicon detector read-out chips. There is no SEU (single event upset) protection, but most (not all) components are radiation tolerant design. An operating voltage of 1.2 to 2.5 volts and other design features make the IC suitable for a variety of serial powering architectures and ROICs. It should be noted that the device is likely to be a prototype for demonstration rather than a product for inclusion in a detector. The next design(s), SPin, are likely to be designed for a specific application (eg SLHC). The component includes: (1) Seven bi-directional LVDS-like buffers for high data rate links to/from the read-out chips. These are AC coupled (series capacitor) off-chip for DC level conversion; (2) A programmable internal programmable shunt regulator to provide a defined voltage to readout chips when linked in a serial powering chain; (3) A programmable internal shunt regulator control circuit for external transistor control; (4) Shunt current measurement (for internal shunt regulator); (5) A programmable internal shunt regulator current alarm; and (6) Two programmable linear regulators.

  4. Learning and Organizational Change in SPI Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Marikka

    Explaining how organizations chance has been a central and enduring quest of management scholars and many other disciplines. In order to be successful change requires not only a new process or technology but also the engagement and participation of the people involved. In this vein the change process results in new behavior and is routinized in practical daily business life of the company. Change management provides a framework for managing the human side of these changes. In this article we present a literature review on the change management in the context of Software Process Improvement. The traditional view of learning, as a “lessons learned” or post-mortem reporting activity is often apparent in SPI literature. However, learning can also be viewed as a continuous change process where specific learning cycle starts with creative conflict and ends up in formal norms and systems. Since this perspective has almost no visibility in SPI literature of past it could show a new direction to the future development of change management in SPI.

  5. The Impact of Female Attractiveness in Spy

    OpenAIRE

    Pangjaya, Veronika Juliani; Handojo, Priska Febrinia

    2017-01-01

    This thesis discusses the impact of female attractiveness on the female character which is related to the way Spy sees attractive women and what the impacts to them are. There are criteria for female attractiveness that are displayed by the film such as physical attributes and traits. In order to show the criteria of attractive women and the responses that they get, I use stereotyping theory. Women who are physically attractive get better treatment, but in order to get that, they have to dres...

  6. The Spy VI child : A newly discovered Neandertal infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Rougier, Helene; Maureille, Bruno; Higham, Thomas; van der Plicht, Johannes; De Clerck, Nora; Semal, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Spy cave (Jemeppe-sur-Sambre Belgium) is reputed for the two adult Neandertal individuals discovered in situ in 1886 Recent reassessment of the Spy collections has allowed direct radiocarbon dating of these individuals The sorting of all of the faunal collections has also led to the discovery of the

  7. The measurement of various molecules of pyrolysis gas of coal by using VUV-SPI-TOFMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Norihiro; Nishifuji, Masayuki; Hayash, Shun-ichi

    2013-04-01

    We developed and tested a system that combines a vacuum ultraviolet single photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (VUV-SPI-TOFMS) with a Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and used it for the simultaneous detection of the various compounds generated during the pyrolysis of coal. We characterized the performance of the system, including its limits of detection and time resolution. We also determined the various compounds that could be detected using the system. The instrument exhibited a laboratory-determined detection limit that was in the parts per billion volume (ppbv) range and a detection time of 10 s for most of the aromatic compounds generated during the pyrolysis process. In addition, using this system, it was possible to determine the correlation between the pyrolysis temperature and the various compounds generated from different types of coals during the pyrolysis process.

  8. Monolithic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  9. MAVEN Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This bundle contains the data collected by the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) instrument aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN)...

  10. INTEGRAL/SPI γ-ray line spectroscopy. Response and background characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Roland; Siegert, Thomas; Greiner, Jochen; Krause, Martin; Kretschmer, Karsten; Lang, Michael; Pleintinger, Moritz; Strong, Andrew W.; Weinberger, Christoph; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2018-03-01

    Context. The space based γ-ray observatory INTEGRAL of the European Space Agency (ESA) includes the spectrometer instrument "SPI". This is a coded mask telescope featuring a 19-element Germanium detector array for high-resolution γ-ray spectroscopy, encapsulated in a scintillation detector assembly that provides a veto for background from charged particles. In space, cosmic rays irradiate spacecraft and instruments, which, in spite of the vetoing detectors, results in a large instrumental background from activation of those materials, and leads to deterioration of the charge collection properties of the Ge detectors. Aim. We aim to determine the measurement characteristics of our detectors and their evolution with time, that is, their spectral response and instrumental background. These incur systematic variations in the SPI signal from celestial photons, hence their determination from a broad empirical database enables a reduction of underlying systematics in data analysis. For this, we explore compromises balancing temporal and spectral resolution within statistical limitations. Our goal is to enable modelling of background applicable to spectroscopic studies of the sky, accounting separately for changes of the spectral response and of instrumental background. Methods: We use 13.5 years of INTEGRAL/SPI data, which consist of spectra for each detector and for each pointing of the satellite. Spectral fits to each such spectrum, with independent but coherent treatment of continuum and line backgrounds, provides us with details about separated background components. From the strongest background lines, we first determine how the spectral response changes with time. Applying symmetry and long-term stability tests, we eliminate degeneracies and reduce statistical fluctuations of background parameters, with the aim of providing a self-consistent description of the spectral response for each individual detector. Accounting for this, we then determine how the

  11. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  12. Multidimensional spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  13. iSpy: A powerful and lightweight event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alverson, G. [Northeastern U.; Eulisse, G. [Fermilab; McCauley, T. [Fermilab; Taylor, L. [Fermilab

    2012-01-01

    iSpy is a general-purpose event data and detector visualization program that was developed as an event display for the CMS experiment at the LHC and has seen use by the general public and teachers and students in the context of education and outreach. Central to the iSpy design philosophy is ease of installation, use, and extensibility. The application itself uses the open-access packages Qt4 and Open Inventor and is distributed either as a fully-bound executable or a standard installer package: one can simply download and double-click to begin. Mac OSX, Linux, and Windows are supported. iSpy renders the standard 2D, 3D, and tabular views, and the architecture allows for a generic approach to production of new views and projections. iSpy reads and displays data in the ig format: event information is written in compressed JSON format files designed for distribution over a network. This format is easily extensible and makes the iSpy client indifferent to the original input data source. The ig format is the one used for release of approved CMS data to the public.

  14. Application of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Karavitis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The main premise of the current effort is that the use of a drought index, such as Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, may lead to a more appropriate understanding of drought duration, magnitude and spatial extent in semi-arid areas like Greece. The importance of the Index may be marked in its simplicity and its ability to identify the beginning and end of a drought event. Thus, it may point towards drought contingency planning and through it to drought alert mechanisms. In this context, Greece, as it very often faces the hazardous impacts of droughts, presents an almost ideal case for the SPI application. The present approach examines the SPI drought index application for all of Greece and it is evaluated accordingly by historical precipitation data. Different time series of data from 46 precipitation stations, covering the period 1947–2004, and for time scales of 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months, were used. The computation of the index was achieved by the appropriate usage of a pertinent software tool. Then, spatial representation of the SPI values was carried out with geo-statistical methods using the SURFER 9 software package. The results underline the potential that the SPI usage exhibits in a drought alert and forecasting effort as part of a drought contingency planning posture.

  15. HUBBLE SPIES MOST DISTANT SUPERNOVA EVER SEEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers pinpointed a blaze of light from the farthest supernova ever seen, a dying star that exploded 10 billion years ago. The detection and analysis of this supernova, called 1997ff, is greatly bolstering the case for the existence of a mysterious form of dark energy pervading the cosmos, making galaxies hurl ever faster away from each other. The supernova also offers the first glimpse of the universe slowing down soon after the Big Bang, before it began speeding up. This panel of images, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, shows the supernova's cosmic neighborhood; its home galaxy; and the dying star itself. Astronomers found this supernova in 1997 during a second look at the northern Hubble Deep Field [top panel], a tiny region of sky first explored by the Hubble telescope in 1995. The image shows the myriad of galaxies Hubble spied when it peered across more than 10 billion years of time and space. The white box marks the area where the supernova dwells. The photo at bottom left is a close-up view of that region. The white arrow points to the exploding star's home galaxy, a faint elliptical. Its redness is due to the billions of old stars residing there. The picture at bottom right shows the supernova itself, distinguished by the white dot in the center. Although this stellar explosion is among the brightest beacons in the universe, it could not be seen directly in the Hubble images. The stellar blast is so distant from Earth that its light is buried in the glow of its host galaxy. To find the supernova, astronomers compared two pictures of the 'deep field' taken two years apart. One image was of the original Hubble Deep Field; the other, the follow-up deep-field picture taken in 1997. Using special computer software, astronomers then measured the light from the galaxies in both images. Noting any changes in light output between the two pictures, the computer identified a blob of light in the 1997 picture

  16. SPI Analysis of the Supernova Remnant DEM L71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Kari A.; Dwarkadas, Vikram; Burrows, David N.; Aisyah Mansoor, Siti; Crum, Ryan M.

    2017-08-01

    Supernova remnants are complex, three-dimensional objects; properly accounting for this complexity when modeling the resulting X-ray emission presents quite a challenge and makes it difficult to accurately characterize the properties of the full SNR volume. The SPIES (Smoothed Particle Inference Exploration of Supernova Remnants) project aims to address this challenge by applying a fundamentally different approach to analyzing X-ray observations of SNRs. Smoothed Particle Inference (SPI) is a Bayesian modeling process that fits a population of gas blobs ("smoothed particles") such that their superposed emission reproduces the observed spatial and spectral distribution of photons. We present here the results of an SPI analysis of the Type Ia supernova remnant DEM L71. Among other results, we find that despite its regular appearance, the temperature and other parameter maps exhibit irregular substructure.

  17. Drought analysis of Antalya province by standardized precipitation index (SPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi DİNÇ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drought is occurring as a result of global warming in our country and as well as over the world and defined as the precipitation deficit in a certain time period which is lower than that of the normal. It affects negatively all of the living being. Many drought indices have been developed to define the severity and characteristics of drought over time and space. In this study, drought characteristics have been evaluated by using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI in meteorological stations located in Alanya, Antalya, Demre, Elmalı, Finike, Gazipaşa, Korkuteli and Manavgat having long term data (1974-2014. According to 3-, 6-, 12- and 24- months time scales, the trend in SPI values are not decreasing and the SPI values were found to be between 0.99 (normal and ~-0.99 (drought close to normal. It is concluded that drought can occur in summer as well as in winter.

  18. Mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manojlov, V.E.; Nedelin, P.N.; Lukichev, A.N.; Sapozhkov, L.K.; Turubarov, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Mass spectrometers of different types are suggested to use for qualitative and quantitative analyses of gas. The operation principles of static and dynamic mass spectrometer are studied. In static mass spectrometers mass separation of ions is performed by changing the value of accelerating voltage in the ion source when retaining the magnetic field intensity. Such devices are stationary. The device mass is conditioned by the magnet mass. Mass separation in dynamic mass spectrometers is dependent on the degree of energy increment of ions in HF-electric fields. Radio frequency mass spectrometers are used with advantage for studying upper layers of an atmosphere and are installed on radiosondes and satellites. The main technical characteristics of the MX-1330 mass spectrometer, the basis of which is the analyzer with 180 deg deviation of an ion beam in the field of permanent magnet, are presented. The device is intended for controlling the environment and permits to analyze gases with a molecular mass up to 450 using various systems of gas filling. The error of determination of molecular substance is not greater than +-3 %; the magnetic field intensity constitutes 4.8x10 5 A/m; the supply voltage is 380/220 V; the total power is 5.0 kVA [ru

  19. SPI Conformance Gel Applications in Geothermal Zonal Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle [Clean Tech Innovations, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Zonal isolation in geothermal injection and producing wells is important while drilling the wells when highly fractured geothermal zones are encountered and there is a need to keep the fluids from interfering with the drilling operation. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) objectives are to advance technologies to make it more cost effective to develop, produce, and monitor geothermal reservoirs and produce geothermal energy. Thus, zonal isolation is critical to well cost, reservoir evaluation and operations. Traditional cementing off of the lost circulation or thief zones during drilling is often done to stem the drilling mud losses. This is an expensive and generally unsuccessful technique losing the potential of the remaining fracture system. Selective placement of strong SPI gels into only the offending fractures can maintain and even improve operational efficiency and resource life. The SPI gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a promising solution to thief zones and conformance problems with water and CO2 floods and potentially geothermal operations. This gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an initiator (either internal such as an additive or external such as CO2) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current mechanical methods of using packers, plugs, liners and cementing technologies that often severely damage the highly fractured area that is isolated. In the SPI gels, the initiator sets up the fluid into a water-like (not a precipitate) gel and when the isolated zone needs to be reopened, the SPI gel may be removed with an alkaline solution without formation damage occurring. In addition, the SPI gel in commercial quantities is expected to be less expensive than competing mechanical systems and has unique deep placement possibilities. This project seeks to improve upon the SPI gel integrity by modifying the various components to impart temperature stability for use in

  20. US-EU SPYING ALLEGATIONS 2013- A CASE FOR CONSTRUCTIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Hincu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how the revelations about the United States of America (US spying on the European Union (2013 represented an occasion for the latter to reiterate its normative power and the particular importance of the transatlantic partnership. Through observation of “acts of social facts essentialization” by the US and EU and by using a constructivist conceptualization of “agent identity” and “international socialization”, the article concludes that the constructivist framework of analysis explains the unfolding of the spying issue. This deductive approach uses the method of discourse and official documents analysis.

  1. The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the process of making "The Sneaky Sneaker Spies and the Mysterious Black Ink," a six-minute animation starring five art students who form a detective club. This animation is available online for art teachers to use in their own classrooms. After showing this video in class, art teachers could have students try…

  2. Spies like us? Respondent perceptions of research sponsors in 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those who would use anthropologists as spies are seen to act contrary to the cannons of scientific and or academic research. As more and more anthropologists find employment in government and the corporate world, the lines between academia and legitimate applied research become blurred. The purpose of this paper ...

  3. SPI Trend Analysis of New Zealand Applying the ITA Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A natural temporary imbalance of water availability, consisting of persistent lower-than-average or higher-than-average precipitation, can cause extreme dry and wet conditions that adversely impact agricultural yields, water resources, infrastructure, and human systems. In this study, dry and wet periods in New Zealand were expressed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. First, both the short term (3 and 6 months and the long term (12 and 24 months SPI were estimated, and then, possible trends in the SPI values were detected by means of a new graphical technique, the Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA, which allows the trend identification of the low, medium, and high values of a series. Results show that, in every area currently subject to drought, an increase in this phenomenon can be expected. Specifically, the results of this paper highlight that agricultural regions on the eastern side of the South Island, as well as the north-eastern regions of the North Island, are the most consistently vulnerable areas. In fact, in these regions, the trend analysis mainly showed a general reduction in all the values of the SPI: that is, a tendency toward heavier droughts and weaker wet periods.

  4. Assessment of meteorological drought using SPI in West Azarbaijan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is the assessment of the characteristics such as intensity, frequency and duration of meteorological drought using SPI with 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months time scales in West Azarbaijan Province, Iran. The indices have been computed in various time scales for 38 gauging stations with 32 years record ...

  5. Structural basis of divergent cyclin-dependent kinase activation by Spy1/RINGO proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Denise A.; Fifield, Bre-Anne; Marceau, Aimee H.; Tripathi, Sarvind; Porter, Lisa A.; Rubin, Seth M. (UCSC); (Windsor)

    2017-06-30

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are principal drivers of cell division and are an important therapeutic target to inhibit aberrant proliferation. Cdk enzymatic activity is tightly controlled through cyclin interactions, posttranslational modifications, and binding of inhibitors such as the p27 tumor suppressor protein. Spy1/RINGO (Spy1) proteins bind and activate Cdk but are resistant to canonical regulatory mechanisms that establish cell-cycle checkpoints. Cancer cells exploit Spy1 to stimulate proliferation through inappropriate activation of Cdks, yet the mechanism is unknown. We have determined crystal structures of the Cdk2-Spy1 and p27-Cdk2-Spy1 complexes that reveal how Spy1 activates Cdk. We find that Spy1 confers structural changes to Cdk2 that obviate the requirement of Cdk activation loop phosphorylation. Spy1 lacks the cyclin-binding site that mediates p27 and substrate affinity, explaining why Cdk-Spy1 is poorly inhibited by p27 and lacks specificity for substrates with cyclin-docking sites. We identify mutations in Spy1 that ablate its ability to activate Cdk2 and to proliferate cells. Our structural description of Spy1 provides important mechanistic insights that may be utilized for targeting upregulated Spy1 in cancer.

  6. Neuromodulated Synaptic Plasticity on the SpiNNaker Neuromorphic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Mikaitis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available SpiNNaker is a digital neuromorphic architecture, designed specifically for the low power simulation of large-scale spiking neural networks at speeds close to biological real-time. Unlike other neuromorphic systems, SpiNNaker allows users to develop their own neuron and synapse models as well as specify arbitrary connectivity. As a result SpiNNaker has proved to be a powerful tool for studying different neuron models as well as synaptic plasticity—believed to be one of the main mechanisms behind learning and memory in the brain. A number of Spike-Timing-Dependent-Plasticity(STDP rules have already been implemented on SpiNNaker and have been shown to be capable of solving various learning tasks in real-time. However, while STDP is an important biological theory of learning, it is a form of Hebbian or unsupervised learning and therefore does not explain behaviors that depend on feedback from the environment. Instead, learning rules based on neuromodulated STDP (three-factor learning rules have been shown to be capable of solving reinforcement learning tasks in a biologically plausible manner. In this paper we demonstrate for the first time how a model of three-factor STDP, with the third-factor representing spikes from dopaminergic neurons, can be implemented on the SpiNNaker neuromorphic system. Using this learning rule we first show how reward and punishment signals can be delivered to a single synapse before going on to demonstrate it in a larger network which solves the credit assignment problem in a Pavlovian conditioning experiment. Because of its extra complexity, we find that our three-factor learning rule requires approximately 2× as much processing time as the existing SpiNNaker STDP learning rules. However, we show that it is still possible to run our Pavlovian conditioning model with up to 1 × 104 neurons in real-time, opening up new research opportunities for modeling behavioral learning on SpiNNaker.

  7. Spectrometer gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  8. HUBBLE SPIES BROWN DWARFS IN NEARBY STELLAR NURSERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Probing deep within a neighborhood stellar nursery, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope uncovered a swarm of newborn brown dwarfs. The orbiting observatory's near-infrared camera revealed about 50 of these objects throughout the Orion Nebula's Trapezium cluster [image at right], about 1,500 light-years from Earth. Appearing like glistening precious stones surrounding a setting of sparkling diamonds, more than 300 fledgling stars and brown dwarfs surround the brightest, most massive stars [center of picture] in Hubble's view of the Trapezium cluster's central region. All of the celestial objects in the Trapezium were born together in this hotbed of star formation. The cluster is named for the trapezoidal alignment of those central massive stars. Brown dwarfs are gaseous objects with masses so low that their cores never become hot enough to fuse hydrogen, the thermonuclear fuel stars like the Sun need to shine steadily. Instead, these gaseous objects fade and cool as they grow older. Brown dwarfs around the age of the Sun (5 billion years old) are very cool and dim, and therefore are difficult for telescopes to find. The brown dwarfs discovered in the Trapezium, however, are youngsters (1 million years old). So they're still hot and bright, and easier to see. This finding, along with observations from ground-based telescopes, is further evidence that brown dwarfs, once considered exotic objects, are nearly as abundant as stars. The image and results appear in the Sept. 20 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The brown dwarfs are too dim to be seen in a visible-light image taken by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 [picture at left]. This view also doesn't show the assemblage of infant stars seen in the near-infrared image. That's because the young stars are embedded in dense clouds of dust and gas. The Hubble telescope's near-infrared camera, the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer, penetrated those clouds to capture a view of those

  9. DS1 IDS (PLASMA WAVE SPECTROMETER) DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set present plasma wave spectrometer data from the IDS instrument flown aboard the Deep Space 1 spacecraft. The data are observations of Comet 19P/Borrelly...

  10. Determination of the Integral/SPI instrumental response and his application to the observation of gamma ray lines in the Vela region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attie, D.

    2005-01-01

    The INTEGRAL/SPI spectrometer was designed to observe the sky in the energy band of 20 keV to 8 MeV. The specificity of instrument SPI rests on the excellent spectral resolution (2.3 keV with 1 MeV) of its detecting plan, composed of 19 cooled germanium crystals; covering an effective area of 508 cm 2 . The use of a coded mask, located at 1.7 m above the detection plan ensures to it a resolving power of 2.5 degrees. The aim of this thesis, begun before the INTEGRAL launch, is made up of two parts. The first part relates to the analysis of the spectrometer calibration data. The objective was to measure and check the performances of the telescope, in particular to validate simulations of the INTEGRAL/SPI instrument response. This objective was successfully achieved. This analysis also highlights the presence of a significant instrumental background noise. Whereas, the second part concentrates on the data analysis of the Vela region observations. I have approached two astrophysical topics dealing with: - the search for radioactive decays lines of titanium-44, which is produced by explosive nucleosynthesis, in the supernova remnant of Vela Junior and, - the search of cyclotron resonance scattering features expected towards 25 keV and 52 keV in the accreting pulsar spectrum of the x-ray binary star Vela X-1. Putting forward the hypothesis that the result obtained previously by COMPTEL is correct and considering the no-detection of the titanium-44 lines by SPI, we give a lower limit at 4500 km s -1 for the ejecta velocity from Vela Junior. The analysis on the research of the cyclotron lines have shown that the results are very sensitive to the instrumental background. Thorough studies will be necessary to guarantee an unambiguous detection of these lines. (author)

  11. The Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  12. Seeing is believing -- SpyJack system investigates field problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, D.

    1998-01-01

    The SpyJack Remote Monitoring System, a stand-alone, single-site remote well monitoring system that works off its own embedded controller is described. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) unit, developed by CORE Technologies Inc., has an integrated voice/alarm system, monitoring sensors installed at remote well sites continuously 24 hours a day with a digital camera, with 300 degrees of visual confirmation capability. It can also be used as a surveillance tool against terrorism as has been shown in the case of some recent debilitating attacks on remote wells in Alberta. SpyJack monitors flow rates and pressures, pumpjack stroke rates, sucker rod temperature, load cell and engine shut-off relay, as well as ambient temperature, tank levels, and motion detection. At the office, SpyJack Well Management Interface uses nine drop-down screens to take users through the remote monitoring and control of each site. The screens include production sensors, line sensors, dyno chart, environmental/safety sensors and sensor information and set up. Currently under development is the unsolicited dial-out capability. When implemented the system will send out information at pre-determined times, such as every four hours, or at specific times during the day. Compressing images to enable speedier downloading is also being planned

  13. MASS SPECTROMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, F.A.

    1960-08-23

    A mass spectrometer is designed with a first adjustable magnetic field for resolving an ion beam into beams of selected masses, a second adjustable magnetic field for further resolving the ion beam from the first field into beams of selected masses, a thin foil disposed in the path of the beam between the first and second magnets to dissociate molecular ions incident thereon, an electrostatic field for further resolving the ion beam from the second field into beams of selected masses, and a detector disposed adjacent to the electrostatic field to receive the ion beam.

  14. Axis Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sungil

    2006-01-01

    The Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF) project carried out by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is an effort to bring cold neutron instrumentation to Korea's only large scale research reactor, HANARO, located in Daejeon. As part of the CNRF project, a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer (Cold-TAS) is being developed along with other five: 40 m long and 12 m long small angle neutron scattering instruments (40m-SANS and 12m-SANS), disk-chopper time-of-flight spectrometer (DC-ToF), Bio- Reflectometer (Bio-REF) and the reflectometer with vertical sample geometry (REF-V). For those cold neutron instruments, the performance of an individual instrument depends not only on its design but also on the guide that feeds cold neutrons to the instrument. Therefore, the quality of the neutron flux at an instrument position has to be checked with the specification of the instrument. As for the Cold-TAS, since the instrument requires a tall beam and a high flux of short wavelength neutrons, it was tentatively decided that it would use the cold guide 4 (CG4). The detailed specification of the guide is listed. Checking the neutron flux of the guide at the instrument position is the obvious next step

  15. The digital ASIC for the digital front end electronics of the SPI astrophysics gamma-ray experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, E.; Mur, M.; Schanne, S.

    1998-01-01

    The SPI spectrometer is one of the gamma-ray astronomy instruments that will be installed on the ESA INTEGRAL satellite, intended to be launched in 2001 by the European Space Agency. The Digital Front-End Electronics sub-system (DFEE) is in charge of the real time data processing of the various measurements produced by the Germanium (Ge) detectors and the Bismuth Germanate (BGO) anti-coincidence shield. The central processing unit of the DFEE is implemented in a digital ASIC circuit, which provides the real time association of the various time signals, acquires the associated energy measurements, and classifies the various types of physics events. The paper gives the system constraints of the DFEE, the architecture of the ASIC circuit, the technology requirements, and the strategy for test and integration. Emphasis is given to the high level language development and simulation, the automatic circuit synthesis approach, and the performance estimation

  16. Determination of the Integral/SPI instrumental response and his application to the observation of gamma ray lines in the Vela region; Determination de la reponse instrumentale du spectrometre INTEGRAL/SPI et application a l'observation des raies gamma de la region des Voiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attie, D

    2005-01-15

    The INTEGRAL/SPI spectrometer was designed to observe the sky in the energy band of 20 keV to 8 MeV. The specificity of instrument SPI rests on the excellent spectral resolution (2.3 keV with 1 MeV) of its detecting plan, composed of 19 cooled germanium crystals; covering an effective area of 508 cm{sup 2}. The use of a coded mask, located at 1.7 m above the detection plan ensures to it a resolving power of 2.5 degrees. The aim of this thesis, begun before the INTEGRAL launch, is made up of two parts. The first part relates to the analysis of the spectrometer calibration data. The objective was to measure and check the performances of the telescope, in particular to validate simulations of the INTEGRAL/SPI instrument response. This objective was successfully achieved. This analysis also highlights the presence of a significant instrumental background noise. Whereas, the second part concentrates on the data analysis of the Vela region observations. I have approached two astrophysical topics dealing with: - the search for radioactive decays lines of titanium-44, which is produced by explosive nucleosynthesis, in the supernova remnant of Vela Junior and, - the search of cyclotron resonance scattering features expected towards 25 keV and 52 keV in the accreting pulsar spectrum of the x-ray binary star Vela X-1. Putting forward the hypothesis that the result obtained previously by COMPTEL is correct and considering the no-detection of the titanium-44 lines by SPI, we give a lower limit at 4500 km s{sup -1} for the ejecta velocity from Vela Junior. The analysis on the research of the cyclotron lines have shown that the results are very sensitive to the instrumental background. Thorough studies will be necessary to guarantee an unambiguous detection of these lines. (author)

  17. Penerapan Metoda Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI pada Rancang Bangun Data Logger berbasis SD card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SUSANA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI adalah protokol komunikasi yang dapat digunakan sebagai interface komunikasi antara mikrokontroler dengan SD Card. Dengan menerapkan metoda SPI pada data logger berbasis SD Card, maka dapat diketahui karakteristik protokol komunikasi SPI antara mikrokontroler dengan SD Card. SD Card diformat dengan tipe FAT 16, dan data di dalam SD Card berupa sekumpulan paket data sensor yang diambil secara periodik dan disimpan dalam bentuk file dengan format.csv. Berdasarkan format paket data sensor yang dibuat, dapat dihitungwaktu perekaman data yang diperlukan agar kapasitas SD Card terisi penuh oleh data sensor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan,bahwa metoda SPI yang diterapkan pada penelitian ini memiliki sifat akan melakukan pemeriksaan berulang pada pin MISO terhadap command yang dikirimkan oleh mikrokontroler melalui pin MOSI. Proses read/write data pada SD Card data logger memiliki keberhasilan 100%, karena SD Card telah terinisialisasi dalam mode SPI melalui perintah reset dan init SD Card. Komunikasi ini dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan crystal 4 Mhz – 20 Mhz. Untuk pengujian konfigurasi SPI, hanya Independent Slave Configuration yang dapat digunakan pada komunikasi SPI dengan 2 SD card sebagai slave. Kata kunci: Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI, Data Logger, SD card, FAT16 ABSTRACT Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI is a communication protocol that can be applied as a communication interface between microcontroller to SD Card. By implementing the SPI method to a data logger based on SD Card, it can be known the characteristics of the SPI communications protocol between microcontroller to SD Card. SD Card formatted in FAT 16 type, and data on the SD Card is the form of sensor data packets collection which be captured periodically and saved in .csv format file. Based on the sensor data packet format is created, it can be calculated recording time data required so that the SD Card capacity completely filled by the

  18. [Nurses and spies during the First World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halioua, Bruno

    2014-06-01

    During the First World War, some nurses distinguished themselves by playing a significant role in spy networks, using their activity as a cover. They took an active part in the setting up of escape routes for allied prisoners of war and the gathering of intelligence on the positions of German troops, in particular in Belgium and northern France. Among them Edith Cavell, Gabrielle Petit, Louise de Bettignies, Marie-Léonie Vanhoutte, Marthe Cocknaert and Emilienne-Rose Ducimetière are considered as heroines.

  19. Understanding surveillance technologies spy devices, their origins & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2001-01-01

    From electronic wire taps to baby monitors and long-distance video and listening devices, startling changes occur everyday in how we gather, interpret, and transmit information. An extraordinary range of powerful new technologies has come into existence to meet the requirements of this expanding field.Your search for a comprehensive resource for surveillance devices is over. Understanding Surveillance Technologies: Spy Devices, Their Origins and Applications serves as a provocative, broad-based, and visually appealing reference that introduces and describes the technologies rapidly moving into

  20. An EUV spectrometer for atmospheric remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.; Cotton, D.M.; Lampton, M.; Siegmund, O.H.W.; Link, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the Berkeley EUV Airglow Rocket Spectrometer (BEARS) experiment, designed to investigate the interactions between the solar ionizing radiation and the earth's upper atmosphere. The primary objective of this experiment is the verification the feasibility of using EUV observations as a quantitative diagnostic of the terrestrial atmosphere and its plasma environment. The expected information provided by spectroscopic measurements of EUV emission will include data on the excitation mechanisms, excitation rates, and branching ratios. The BEARS experimental package consists of a high-resolution EUV airglow spectrometer, a hydrogen Lyman-alpha photometer to measure both the solar radiations and the geocoronal emissions, and a moderate-resolution solar EUV spectrometer. In a test experiment, the instruments were carried aboard a four-stage sounding rocket to a peak altitude of about 960 km and obtained airglow spectra in the 980-1060 A range and in the 1300-1360 range. 34 refs

  1. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.L.; Nielsen, D.; Frydenberg, Morten

    2002-01-01

    aboard. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated in a multivariate analysis including ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period, and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded...... identified during a total of 31 140 years at sea. Among these, 209 accidents resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. The mean risk of having an occupational accident was 6.4/100 years at sea and the risk of an accident causing a permanent disability of 5% or more was 0.67/100 years...... rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious...

  2. Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Fourier Transform Spectrometer project demonstrates the efficacy of a miniaturized spectrometer for flight applications.A spectrometer is an instrument used to...

  3. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Mims, Forrest M.; Parisi, Alfio V.

    2018-01-01

    Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades. PMID:29342899

  4. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J.S. McGonigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades.

  5. Smartphone Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Andrew J S; Wilkes, Thomas C; Pering, Tom D; Willmott, Jon R; Cook, Joseph M; Mims, Forrest M; Parisi, Alfio V

    2018-01-14

    Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a 'lab in a phone' capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades.

  6. Interferon induces up-regulation of Spi-1/PU.1 in human leukemia K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, P; Delgado, M D; Richard, C; Moreau-Gachelin, F; León, J

    1997-11-26

    The human K562 cell line is derived from a chronic myelogenous leukemia in blastic crisis. Treatment of K562 cells with interferons alpha, beta or gamma resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation. Spi-1/PU.1 is a transcription factor of the Ets family which is required for normal hematopoyesis. We have found that spi-1 mRNA and protein as well as Spi-1-DNA binding activity increase after exposure of K562 cells to interferons. The increase in spi-1 expression ranged from 4- to 8-fold with the different interferons. K562 cells can be differentiated in vitro towards erythroid cells or monocyte-macrophage cells. Interestingly, the regulation of spi-1 by interferon-alpha depended on the differentiated phenotype of K562 cells: interferon-alpha failed to induce spi-1 in erythroid differentiated cells, whereas it induced spi-1 in monocyte-macrophage differentiated cells. The results suggest a role for Spi-1 in the cytostatic response to interferons.

  7. Identification of cognate host targets and specific ubiquitylation sites on the Salmonella SPI-1 effector SopB/SigD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, Lindsay D; Kristensen, Anders R; Boyle, Erin C

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is a bacterial pathogen responsible for enteritis and typhoid fever. Virulence is linked to two Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI-1 and SPI-2) on the bacterial chromosome, each of which encodes a type III secretion system. While both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 systems secrete......B alone can alter Cdc42 activity. This approach is also widely applicable to identify binding partners to other bacterial effectors....

  8. Engine Operating Conditions and Fuel Properties on Pre-Spark Heat Release and SPI Promotion in SI Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splitter, Derek A [ORNL; Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Jatana, Gurneesh S [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This work explores the dependence of fuel ignition delay on stochastic pre-ignition (SPI). Findings are based on bulk gas thermodynamic state, where the effects of kinetically controlled bulk gas pre-spark heat release (PSHR) are correlated to SPI tendency and magnitude. Specifically, residual gas and low temperature PSHR chemistry effects and observations are explored, which are found to be indicative of bulk gas conditions required for strong SPI events. Analyzed events range from non-knocking SPI to knocking SPI and even detonation SPI events in excess of 325 bar peak cylinder pressure. The work illustrates that singular SPI event count and magnitude are found to be proportional to PSHR of the bulk gas mixture and residual gas fraction. Cycle-to-cycle variability in trapped residual mass and temperature are found to impose variability in singular SPI event count and magnitude. However, clusters and short lived bursts of multiple SPI events are found to better correlate with fuel-wall interaction. The results highlight the interplay of bulk gas thermodynamics and SPI ignition source, on SPI event magnitude and cluster tendency. Moreover, the results highlight fundamental fuel reactivity and associated hypersensitivity to operating conditions at SPI prone operating conditions.

  9. Assessment of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in Tegal City, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudya, Y.; Onishi, T.

    2018-03-01

    One of the adverse impacts of climate change is drought, which occurs more frequently in Tegal city, Indonesia. The application of drought index analysis is useful for drought assessment to consider adaptation and mitigation method in order to deal with climate change. By figuring out the level and duration of the drought. In order to analyze drought in the specific area, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is an index to quantify the rainfall deficit for multiple timescales. In 2015, Indonesia experienced severe drought, which has not been analyzed, yet. Thus, it is important to assess a quantitative evaluation of the drought condition. The study shows that from all deficit periods, the most severe drought in duration and peak took place in 2015, with each drought index as follows: 1 month deficit or SPI-1 (-3.11) in 1985 (-2.51) in 2015, 3 month deficit or SPI-3 (-2.291) in 1995 (-1.82) in 2015, 6 month deficit or SPI-6 (-2.40) in 1997 and (-1.84) in 2015, 9 month deficit or SPI-9 (-1.12) in 2015, 12 month deficit or SPI-12 (-1.19) in 2015. The result underlines the potential that SPI exhibits in drought identification and the use of the rainfall strongly linked to drought relief policy and measure implementation in Tegal city.

  10. Radiation Hardened CAN-to-I2C/SPI ASIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort seeks to develop a rad-hard CAN-to-I2C/SPI (Controller-Area Network to Inter-Integrated Circuit and Serial Peripheral Interface) ASIC for efficient and...

  11. A Half-Day Workshop on ``Smarter Investment by Aligning SPI Initiatives, Capabilities and Stakeholder Values''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selioukova, Yana; Frühwirth, Christian

    Software companies who want to improve software process capabilities (SPCs)a systematic method to make informed investment decisions on software process improvement (SPI) initiatives. Such decisions should aim at creating maximum stakeholder values. To address this problem, we present a method with tool support that may help companies align stakeholder values with SPCs and SPI initiatives. The proposed method has been developed based on the well-established “Quality Function Deployment” (QFD) approach. The experience with the proposed method suggests that it particularly helps to reduce the risk of misalignment by identifying those SPI initiatives that are most beneficial to stakeholders. The tool support provided with the proposed method also generated positive experiences in increasing the usability of the method and helped companies in the elicitation and prioritization of stakeholder values. Therefore, we propose a workshop for the method work out named “Smarter Investment by Aligning SPI Initiatives, Capabilities and Stakeholder Values” in hypothetical case company.

  12. Triple-axis spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeroek, Gy.

    2001-01-01

    A triple-axis spectrometer has been designed for structural and dynamical studies of condensed matter. Because of the limited number of other operational equipment the triple axis spectrometer was used in a multi purpose regime, e.g. high resolution diffractometry, strain analysis, reflectometry, quasielastic and inelastic scattering. A polarization setup was also tested on this spectrometer. (R.P.)

  13. Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels And The Making Of Modern Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2016-01-01

    Book review of: Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels and the Making of Modern Societies. By Luc Boltanski (trans. C Porter). Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014. xviii+340 pp. £18.99/€23.80. ISBN: 9780745664057.......Book review of: Mysteries and Conspiracies: Detective Stories, Spy Novels and the Making of Modern Societies. By Luc Boltanski (trans. C Porter). Cambridge: Polity Press, 2014. xviii+340 pp. £18.99/€23.80. ISBN: 9780745664057....

  14. Epigenetic silencing of Bim transcription by Spi-1/PU.1 promotes apoptosis resistance in leukaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridinger-Saison, M; Evanno, E; Gallais, I; Rimmelé, P; Selimoglu-Buet, D; Sapharikas, E; Moreau-Gachelin, F; Guillouf, C

    2013-01-01

    Deregulation of transcriptional networks contributes to haematopoietic malignancies. The transcription factor Spi-1/PU.1 is a master regulator of haematopoiesis and its alteration leads to leukaemia. Spi-1 overexpression inhibits differentiation and promotes resistance to apoptosis in erythroleukaemia. Here, we show that Spi-1 inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis in vitro and in vivo through the transcriptional repression of Bim, a proapoptotic factor. BIM interacts with MCL-1 that behaves as a major player in the survival of the preleukaemic cells. The repression of BIM expression reduces the amount of BIM-MCL-1 complexes, thus increasing the fraction of potentially active antiapoptotic MCL-1. We then demonstrate that Spi-1 represses Bim transcription by binding to the Bim promoter and by promoting the trimethylation of histone 3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3, a repressive histone mark) on the Bim promoter. The PRC2 repressive complex of Polycomb is directly responsible for the deposit of H3K27me3 mark at the Bim promoter. SUZ12 and the histone methyltransferase EZH2, two PRC2 subunits bind to the Bim promoter at the same location than H3K27me3, distinct of the Spi-1 DNA binding site. As Spi-1 interacts with SUZ12 and EZH2, these results indicate that Spi-1 modulates the activity of PRC2 without directly recruiting the complex to the site of its activity on the chromatin. Our results identify a new mechanism whereby Spi-1 represses transcription and provide mechanistic insights on the antiapoptotic function of a transcription factor mediated by the epigenetic control of gene expression. PMID:23852375

  15. klanke, voëlgeluide en musiek in die digkuns van Lina Spies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27 Jan 2006 ... En in “Oor Mozart en Manuskripte” (Spies 1982: 30) skryf sy: “sonder woorde en musiek is hemel hel”. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om na te gaan hoe Lina Spies se sensitiwiteit vir klank (veral voëlgeluide) en haar belangstelling in en liefde vir musiek tot uiting kom in haar gedigte. Wat was die impuls vir ...

  16. Salmonella Typhimurium induces SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulated and strain dependent downregulation of MHC II expression on porcine alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Parys Alexander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foodborne salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial zoonotic diseases worldwide. Salmonella Typhimurium is the serovar most frequently isolated from persistently infected slaughter pigs in Europe. Circumvention of the host’s immune system by Salmonella might contribute to persistent infection of pigs. In the present study, we found that Salmonella Typhimurium strain 112910a specifically downregulated MHC II, but not MHC I, expression on porcine alveolar macrophages in a Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-1 and SPI-2 dependent way. Salmonella induced downregulation of MHC II expression and intracellular proliferation of Salmonella in macrophages were significantly impaired after opsonization with Salmonella specific antibodies prior to inoculation. Furthermore, the capacity to downregulate MHC II expression on macrophages differed significantly among Salmonella strains, independently of strain specific differences in invasion capacity, Salmonella induced cytotoxicity and altered macrophage activation status. The fact that strain specific differences in MHC II downregulation did not correlate with the extent of in vitro SPI-1 or SPI-2 gene expression indicates that other factors are involved in MHC II downregulation as well. Since Salmonella strain dependent interference with the pig’s immune response through downregulation of MHC II expression might indicate that certain Salmonella strains are more likely to escape serological detection, our findings are of major interest for Salmonella monitoring programs primarily based on serology.

  17. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  18. Comparison of SPI and SPEI indices for Drought Characterization under Climate Change Scenario in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V.; Jain, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    Many drought indices are available for quantifying and characterizing the drought events. Selection of a particular drought index could influence the outcome of the study. In this study, we compared two drought indices namely, Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) under climate change condition. Data from 7 RCM models namely, CCCma-CanESM2, CERFACS-CNRM-CM5, GFDL-ESM2M, MOHC-HadGEM2, MIROC-MIROC5, MPI-ESM-LR and MPI-ESM-MR for RCP 4.5 scenario have been used to calculate 12 month SPI and SPEI values. L-moments which provides robust distribution parameter estimation, have been used to identify best fit distribution for projected data at each grid point for each month. Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope test have been used to detect trends in drought severity, duration, peak, and interval between drought events. Results of this study reveal that SPI shows decreasing trends in drought severity, duration and peak with negative Sen's slope, however, the SPEI shows increasing trends of severity, duration and peak with a positive Sen's slope for almost all over India. The analysis reveals that projected percentage of drought affected area based on SPI in the first half of the 21st century is higher compared to those obtained using SPEI, however for the second half of the 21st century, the projected drought affected computed using SPEI is higher compared to the corresponding area obtained using SPI. Decrease in droughts severity, duration and peaks in SPI analysis could be attributed to projected increase in monsoon rainfall in Indian Subcontinent during second half of 21st century however, SPI was found incapable to account the increase in temperature thus neglecting the drying due to increased evapotranspiration whereas SPEI shows significant drying in Indian subcontinent on account of increasing trend in temperature observed in projected future RCM scenarios.

  19. Spy and Counterspy as a “Cultural Hero” in the Soviet Cinema of the Cold War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Sukovataya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aim to analyze the evolution of the Soviet spy cinema of the Cold War in the context of the cultural history and the social changes in the USA and the Soviet Union, and the relations with the political opponents. The public reception of the Soviet spy and spying was evolved in the Soviet Union and it was reflected in the cinema plots and characters transformations.

  20. The SPEDE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, P.; Cox, D. M.; O'Neill, G. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Butler, P. A.; Gaffney, L. P.; Greenlees, P. T.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Illana, A.; Joss, D. T.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Ojala, J.; Page, R. D.; Rahkila, P.; Ranttila, K.; Thornhill, J.; Tuunanen, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.; Pakarinen, J.

    2018-03-01

    The electron spectrometer, SPEDE, has been developed and will be employed in conjunction with the Miniball spectrometer at the HIE-ISOLDE facility, CERN. SPEDE allows for direct measurement of internal conversion electrons emitted in-flight, without employing magnetic fields to transport or momentum filter the electrons. Together with the Miniball spectrometer, it enables simultaneous observation of γ rays and conversion electrons in Coulomb excitation experiments using radioactive ion beams.

  1. The papain inhibitor (SPI) of Streptomyces mobaraensis inhibits bacterial cysteine proteases and is an antagonist of bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zindel, Stephan; Kaman, Wendy E; Fröls, Sabrina; Pfeifer, Felicitas; Peters, Anna; Hays, John P; Fuchsbauer, Hans-Lothar

    2013-07-01

    A novel papain inhibitory protein (SPI) from Streptomyces mobaraensis was studied to measure its inhibitory effect on bacterial cysteine protease activity (Staphylococcus aureus SspB) and culture supernatants (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacillus anthracis). Further, growth of Bacillus anthracis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio cholerae was completely inhibited by 10 μM SPI. At this concentration of SPI, no cytotoxicity was observed. We conclude that SPI inhibits bacterial virulence factors and has the potential to become a novel therapeutic treatment against a range of unrelated pathogenic bacteria.

  2. SpyB, a Small Heme-Binding Protein, Affects the Composition of the Cell Wall in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Rebecca J; Chen, Jing; Kant, Sashi; Rechkina, Elena; Rush, Jeffrey S; Forsberg, Lennart S; Jaehrig, Bernhard; Azadi, Parastoo; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Zhu, Haining; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Pancholi, Vijay; Korotkova, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a hemolytic human pathogen associated with a wide variety of infections ranging from minor skin and throat infections to life-threatening invasive diseases. The cell wall of GAS consists of peptidoglycan sacculus decorated with a carbohydrate comprising a polyrhamnose backbone with immunodominant N-acetylglucosamine side-chains. All GAS genomes contain the spyBA operon, which encodes a 35-amino-acid membrane protein SpyB, and a membrane-bound C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferase SpyA. In this study, we addressed the function of SpyB in GAS. Phenotypic analysis of a spyB deletion mutant revealed increased bacterial aggregation, and reduced sensitivity to β-lactams of the cephalosporin class and peptidoglycan hydrolase PlyC. Glycosyl composition analysis of cell wall isolated from the spyB mutant suggested an altered carbohydrate structure compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, we found that SpyB associates with heme and protoporphyrin IX. Heme binding induces SpyB dimerization, which involves disulfide bond formation between the subunits. Thus, our data suggest the possibility that SpyB activity is regulated by heme.

  3. WordSpy: identifying transcription factor binding motifs by building a dictionary and learning a grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guandong; Yu, Taotao; Zhang, Weixiong

    2005-07-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding sites or motifs (TFBMs) are functional cis-regulatory DNA sequences that play an essential role in gene transcriptional regulation. Although many experimental and computational methods have been developed, finding TFBMs remains a challenging problem. We propose and develop a novel dictionary based motif finding algorithm, which we call WordSpy. One significant feature of WordSpy is the combination of a word counting method and a statistical model which consists of a dictionary of motifs and a grammar specifying their usage. The algorithm is suitable for genome-wide motif finding; it is capable of discovering hundreds of motifs from a large set of promoters in a single run. We further enhance WordSpy by applying gene expression information to separate true TFBMs from spurious ones, and by incorporating negative sequences to identify discriminative motifs. In addition, we also use randomly selected promoters from the genome to evaluate the significance of the discovered motifs. The output from WordSpy consists of an ordered list of putative motifs and a set of regulatory sequences with motif binding sites highlighted. The web server of WordSpy is available at http://cic.cs.wustl.edu/wordspy.

  4. Reliability and validity of the Korean standard pattern identification for stroke (K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Byoung-Kab

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was conducted to examine the reliability and validity of the ‘Korean Standard Pattern Identification for Stroke (K-SPI-Stroke’, which was developed and evaluated within the context of traditional Korean medicine (TKM. Methods Between September 2006 and December 2010, 2,905 patients from 11 Korean medical hospitals were asked to complete the K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire as a part of project ' Fundamental study for the standardization and objectification of pattern identification in traditional Korean medicine for stroke (SOPI-Stroke. Each patient was independently diagnosed by two TKM physicians from the same site according to one of four patterns, as suggested by the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine: 1 a Qi deficiency pattern, 2 a Dampness-phlegm pattern, 3 a Yin deficiency pattern, or 4 a Fire-heat pattern. We estimated the internal consistency using Cronbach’s α coefficient, the discriminant validity using the means score of patterns, and the predictive validity using the classification accuracy of the K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire. Results The K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire had satisfactory internal consistency (α = 0.700 and validity, with significant differences in the mean of scores among the four patterns. The overall classification accuracy of this questionnaire was 65.2 %. Conclusion These results suggest that the K-SPI-Stroke questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for estimating the severity of the four patterns.

  5. The Omicron Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Allardyce, B W

    1976-01-01

    It is intended to build a spectrometer with a large solid angle and a large momentum acceptance at the reconstructed synchrocyclotron at CERN. This spectrometer will have an energy resolution of about 1 MeV for particles with momenta up to about 400 MeV/c.

  6. Composition, acquisition, and distribution of the Vi exopolysaccharide-encoding Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island SPI-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Derek; Wain, John; Baker, Stephen; Line, Alexandra; Chohan, Sonia; Fookes, Maria; Barron, Andrew; Gaora, Peadar O; Chabalgoity, José A; Thanky, Niren; Scholes, Christoph; Thomson, Nicholas; Quail, Michael; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

    2003-09-01

    Vi capsular polysaccharide production is encoded by the viaB locus, which has a limited distribution in Salmonella enterica serovars. In S. enterica serovar Typhi, viaB is encoded on a 134-kb pathogenicity island known as SPI-7 that is located between partially duplicated tRNA(pheU) sites. Functional and bioinformatic analysis suggests that SPI-7 has a mosaic structure and may have evolved as a consequence of several independent insertion events. Analysis of viaB-associated DNA in Vi-positive S. enterica serovar Paratyphi C and S. enterica serovar Dublin isolates revealed the presence of similar SPI-7 islands. In S. enterica serovars Paratyphi C and Dublin, the SopE bacteriophage and a 15-kb fragment adjacent to the intact tRNA(pheU) site were absent. In S. enterica serovar Paratyphi C only, a region encoding a type IV pilus involved in the adherence of S. enterica serovar Typhi to host cells was missing. The remainder of the SPI-7 islands investigated exhibited over 99% DNA sequence identity in the three serovars. Of 30 other Salmonella serovars examined, 24 contained no insertions at the equivalent tRNA(pheU) site, 2 had a 3.7-kb insertion, and 4 showed sequence variation at the tRNA(pheU)-phoN junction, which was not analyzed further. Sequence analysis of the SPI-7 region from S. enterica serovar Typhi strain CT18 revealed significant synteny with clusters of genes from a variety of saprophytic bacteria and phytobacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. This analysis suggested that SPI-7 may be a mobile element, such as a conjugative transposon or an integrated plasmid remnant.

  7. Composition, Acquisition, and Distribution of the Vi Exopolysaccharide-Encoding Salmonella enterica Pathogenicity Island SPI-7

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, Derek; Wain, John; Baker, Stephen; Line, Alexandra; Chohan, Sonia; Fookes, Maria; Barron, Andrew; Ó Gaora, Peadar; Chabalgoity, José A.; Thanky, Niren; Scholes, Christoph; Thomson, Nicholas; Quail, Michael; Parkhill, Julian; Dougan, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    Vi capsular polysaccharide production is encoded by the viaB locus, which has a limited distribution in Salmonella enterica serovars. In S. enterica serovar Typhi, viaB is encoded on a 134-kb pathogenicity island known as SPI-7 that is located between partially duplicated tRNApheU sites. Functional and bioinformatic analysis suggests that SPI-7 has a mosaic structure and may have evolved as a consequence of several independent insertion events. Analysis of viaB-associated DNA in Vi-positive S...

  8. Assessment Tools as Drivers for SPI: Short-term Benefits and Long-term Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Nørbjerg, Jacob; Cho, Hiu Ngan

    2007-01-01

    Full scale software process maturity assessments are costly, can have large organizational impact, and are carried out at long (12-24 months) intervals. Consequently, there is a need for techniques and tools to monitor and help manage an SPI project through inexpensive, ongoing progress assessment....... In this paper we present findings from two cases of using such a tool We have found that the tool does provide useful snapshots of the status of an SPI projects, but that long-term use of the tool introduces costs and challenges related to modifying and tailoring the tool to both the organizational context...

  9. Assessment Tools as Drivers for SPI: Short-term Benefits and Long-term Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Nørbjerg, Jacob; Cho, Hiu Ngan

    2007-01-01

    Full scale software process maturity assessments are costly, can have large organizational impact, and are carried out at long (12-24 months) intervals. Consequently, there is a need for techniques and tools to monitor and help manage an SPI project through inexpensive, ongoing progress assessments....... In this paper we present findings from two cases of using such a tool. We have found that the tool does provide useful snapshots of the status of SPI projects, but that long-term use of the tool introduces costs and challenges related to modifying and tailoring the tool to both the organizational context...

  10. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Against SpiC Protein Secreted by T3SS-2 of Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shizhong; Qian, Shanshan; Pan, Zhiming; Sun, Lin; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan

    2015-12-01

    SpiC protein, a member of Salmonella spp. type III secretion system (T3SS)-2, is necessary for the survival of Salmonella within macrophages, and it plays a vital role in Salmonella pathogenesis. To develop and test monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against SpiC protein, two recombinant proteins, rHis-SpiC and rGST-SpiC, were expressed in vitro in the prokaryotic expression vectors pET-30(a) and pGEX-6p-1, respectively, and rHis-SpiC protein used to immunize mice. Hybridomas were generated from the splenocytes of these mice and the monoclonal antibodies produced by these cells were assessed using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with rGST-SpiC as the coating antigen. An immunoblotting analysis indicated that all seven of the MAbs developed in this study could specifically recognize the SpiC protein. These MAbs will be very useful in the study of SpiC function and for use in the immunodiagnosis of Salmonella infection.

  11. The IL-8 protease SpyCEP/ScpC of group A Streptococcus promotes resistance to neutrophil killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Timmer, Anjuli M; Pence, Morgan A; Locke, Jeffrey B; Buchanan, John T; Turner, Claire E; Mishalian, Inbal; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Hanski, Emanuel; Nizet, Victor

    2008-08-14

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) promotes neutrophil-mediated host defense through its chemoattractant and immunostimulatory activities. The Group A Streptococcus (GAS) protease SpyCEP (also called ScpC) cleaves IL-8, and SpyCEP expression is strongly upregulated in vivo in the M1T1 GAS strains associated with life-threatening systemic disease including necrotizing fasciitis. Coupling allelic replacement with heterologous gene expression, we show that SpyCEP is necessary and sufficient for IL-8 degradation. SpyCEP decreased IL-8-dependent neutrophil endothelial transmigration and bacterial killing, the latter by reducing neutrophil extracellular trap formation. The knockout mutant lacking SpyCEP was attenuated for virulence in murine infection models, and SpyCEP expression conferred protection to coinfecting bacteria. We also show that the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus iniae possesses a functional homolog of SpyCEP (CepI) that cleaves IL-8, promotes neutrophil resistance, and contributes to virulence. By inactivating the multifunctional host defense peptide IL-8, the SpyCEP protease impairs neutrophil clearance mechanisms, contributing to the pathogenesis of invasive streptococcal infection.

  12. The CXC Chemokine-degrading Protease SpyCep of Streptococcus pyogenes Promotes Its Uptake into Endothelial Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simran Jeet; Nerlich, Andreas; Bergmann, Simone; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus; Zähner, Dorothea; Hanski, Emanuel; Zinkernagel, Annelies; Nizet, Victor; Chhatwal, Gursharan S.; Talay, Susanne R.

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes expresses the LPXTG motif-containing cell envelope serine protease SpyCep (also called ScpC, PrtS) that degrades and inactivates the major chemoattractant interleukin 8 (IL-8), thereby impairing host neutrophil recruitment. In this study, we identified a novel function of SpyCep: the ability to mediate uptake into primary human endothelial cells. SpyCep triggered its uptake into endothelial cells but not into human epithelial cells originating from pharynx or lung, indicating an endothelial cell-specific uptake mechanism. SpyCep mediated cellular invasion by an endosomal/lysosomal pathway distinct from the caveolae-mediated invasion pathway of S. pyogenes. Recombinant expression and purification of proteolytically active SpyCep and a series of subfragments allowed functional dissection of the domains responsible for endothelial cell invasion and IL-8 degradation. The N-terminal PR domain was sufficient to mediate endothelial cell invasion, whereas for IL-8-degrading activity, the protease domain and the flanking A domain were required. A polyclonal rabbit serum raised against the recombinant protease efficiently blocked the invasion-mediating activity of SpyCep but not its proteolytic function, further indicating that SpyCep-mediated internalization is independent from its enzymatic activity. SpyCep may thus specifically mediate its own uptake as secreted protein into human endothelial cells. PMID:20562101

  13. The CXC chemokine-degrading protease SpyCep of Streptococcus pyogenes promotes its uptake into endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simran Jeet; Nerlich, Andreas; Bergmann, Simone; Rohde, Manfred; Fulde, Marcus; Zähner, Dorothea; Hanski, Emanuel; Zinkernagel, Annelies; Nizet, Victor; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Talay, Susanne R

    2010-09-03

    Streptococcus pyogenes expresses the LPXTG motif-containing cell envelope serine protease SpyCep (also called ScpC, PrtS) that degrades and inactivates the major chemoattractant interleukin 8 (IL-8), thereby impairing host neutrophil recruitment. In this study, we identified a novel function of SpyCep: the ability to mediate uptake into primary human endothelial cells. SpyCep triggered its uptake into endothelial cells but not into human epithelial cells originating from pharynx or lung, indicating an endothelial cell-specific uptake mechanism. SpyCep mediated cellular invasion by an endosomal/lysosomal pathway distinct from the caveolae-mediated invasion pathway of S. pyogenes. Recombinant expression and purification of proteolytically active SpyCep and a series of subfragments allowed functional dissection of the domains responsible for endothelial cell invasion and IL-8 degradation. The N-terminal PR domain was sufficient to mediate endothelial cell invasion, whereas for IL-8-degrading activity, the protease domain and the flanking A domain were required. A polyclonal rabbit serum raised against the recombinant protease efficiently blocked the invasion-mediating activity of SpyCep but not its proteolytic function, further indicating that SpyCep-mediated internalization is independent from its enzymatic activity. SpyCep may thus specifically mediate its own uptake as secreted protein into human endothelial cells.

  14. The IL-8 Protease SpyCEP/ScpC of Group A Streptococcus Promotes Resistance to Neutrophil Killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Timmer, Anjuli M.; Pence, Morgan A.; Locke, Jeffrey B.; Buchanan, John T.; Turner, Claire E.; Mishalian, Inbal; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Hanski, Emanuel; Nizet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Interleukin-8 (IL-8) promotes neutrophil-mediated host defense through its chemoattractant and immunostimulatory activities. The Group A Streptococcus (GAS) protease SpyCEP (also called ScpC) cleaves IL-8, and SpyCEP expression is strongly upregulated in vivo in the M1T1 GAS strains associated with life-threatening systemic disease including necrotizing fasciitis. Coupling allelic replacement with heterologous gene expression, we show that SpyCEP is necessary and sufficient for IL-8 degradation. SpyCEP decreased IL-8-dependent neutrophil endothelial transmigration and bacterial killing, the latter by reducing neutrophil extracellular trap formation. The knockout mutant lacking SpyCEP was attenuated for virulence in murine infection models, and SpyCEP expression conferred protection to coinfecting bacteria. We also show that the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus iniae possesses a functional homolog of SpyCEP (Cepl) that cleaves IL-8, promotes neutrophil resistance, and contributes to virulence. By inactivating the multifunctional host defense peptide IL-8, the SpyCEP protease impairs neutrophil clearance mechanisms, contributing to the pathogenesis of invasive streptococcal infection. PMID:18692776

  15. Crosstalk between virulence loci: regulation of Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) by products of the std fimbrial operon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Garrido, Javier; Casadesús, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Invasion of intestinal epithelial cells is a critical step in Salmonella infection and requires the expression of genes located in Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). A key factor for SPI-1 expression is DNA adenine (Dam) methylation, which activates synthesis of the SPI-1 transcriptional activator HilD. Dam-dependent regulation of hilD is postranscriptional (and therefore indirect), indicating the involvement of unknown cell functions under Dam methylation control. A genetic screen has identified the std fimbrial operon as the missing link between Dam methylation and SPI-1. We show that all genes in the std operon are part of a single transcriptional unit, and describe three previously uncharacterized ORFs (renamed stdD, stdE, and stdF). We present evidence that two such loci (stdE and stdF) are involved in Dam-dependent control of Salmonella SPI-1: in a Dam(-) background, deletion of stdE or stdF suppresses SPI-1 repression; in a Dam(+) background, constitutive expression of StdE and/or StdF represses SPI-1. Repression of SPI-1 by products of std operon explains the invasion defect of Salmonella Dam(-) mutants, which constitutively express the std operon. Dam-dependent repression of std in the ileum may be required to permit invasion, as indicated by two observations: constitutive expression of StdE and StdF reduces invasion of epithelial cells in vitro (1,000 fold) and attenuates Salmonella virulence in the mouse model (>60 fold). In turn, crosstalk between std and SPI-1 may play a role in intestinal infections by preventing expression of SPI-1 in the caecum, an intestinal compartment in which the std operon is known to be expressed.

  16. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  17. Improved Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Mass Spectrometer project will develop system requirements and analyze the path to space qualification.   The results of this project...

  18. Micro Plasma Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this IRAD project is to develop a preliminary design elements of miniature electron and ion plasma spectrometers and supporting electronics, focusing...

  19. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bin; Weng Huimin; Han Rongdian; Ye Bangjiao

    2010-01-01

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  20. Neutral Kaon Spectrometer 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, M.; Beckford, B.; Fujii, T.; Fujii, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Han, Y. C.; Hashimoto, O.; Hirose, K.; Ishikawa, T.; Kanda, H.; Kimura, C.; Maeda, K.; Nakamura, S. N.; Suzuki, K.; Tsukada, K.; Yamamoto, F.; Yamazaki, H.

    2018-04-01

    A large-acceptance spectrometer, Neutral Kaon Spectrometer 2 (NKS2), was newly constructed to explore various photoproduction reactions in the gigaelectronvolt region at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS, currently ELPH), Tohoku University. The spectrometer consisted of a dipole magnet, drift chambers, and plastic scintillation counters. NKS2 was designed to separate pions and protons in a momentum range of less than 1 GeV/ c, and was placed in a tagged photon beamline. A cryogenic H2/D2 target fitted to the spectrometer were designed. The design and performance of the detectors are described. The results of the NKS2 experiment on analyzing strangeness photoproduction data using a 0.8-1.1 GeV tagged photon beam are also presented.

  1. The zebrafish spi1 promoter drives myeloid-specific expression in stable transgenic fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, AC; McPhee, DO; Condron, MM; Varma, S; Cody, SH; Onnebo, SMN; Paw, BH; Zon, LI; Lieschke, GJ

    2003-01-01

    The spi1 (pu.1) gene has recently been identified as a useful marker of early myeloid cells in zebrafish. To enhance the versatility of this organism as a model for studying myeloid development, the promoter of this gene has been isolated and characterized. Transient transgenesis revealed that a 5.3

  2. Assessment Tools as Drivers for SPI: Short-term Benefits and Long-term Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Nørbjerg, Jacob; Cho, Hiu Ngan

    2007-01-01

    Full scale software process maturity assessments are costly, can have large organizational impact, and are carried out at long (12-24 months) intervals. Consequently, there is a need for techniques and tools to monitor and help manage an SPI project through inexpensive, ongoing progress assessmen...

  3. Google and the "Twisted Cyber Spy" Affair: US-Chinese Communication in an Age of Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Stephen John

    2011-01-01

    The "twisted cyber spy" affair began in 2010, when Google was attacked by Chinese cyber-warriors charged with stealing Google's intellectual property, planting viruses in its computers, and hacking the accounts of Chinese human rights activists. In the ensuing international embroglio, the US mainstream press, corporate leaders, and White…

  4. The evaluation of scientific monograph and publisher's role: the spanish project Scholarly Publishers Indicators (SPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Capaccioni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the issue about the quality assessment of scientific monograph and the role of publishers in the field of Humanities and Social Sciences, focusing on the Spanish project Scholarly Publishers Indicators (SPI. This project was born to identify and explore specific quality indicators for scientific books, starting from the opinion of SSH Spanish experts.

  5. CWI cryptanalyst discovers new cryptographic attack variant in Flame spy malware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. Stevens (Marc); R.J.F. Cramer (Ronald)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractCryptanalyst Marc Stevens from the Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica (CWI) in Amsterdam, known for breaking the https security in 2008 using a cryptanalytic attack on MD5, analyzed the recent Flame virus this week. He discovered that for this spy malware an as yet unknown cryptographic

  6. Identification of Streptococcus pyogenes - Phenotypic Tests vs Molecular Assay (spy1258PCR): A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Tintu; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is differentiated from other beta haemolytic streptococci (BHS) by certain presumptive tests such as bacitracin sensitivity and production of Pyrollidonyl Aryl Sulfatase (PYR). The phenotypic and genotypic confirmatory tests are Lancefield grouping for cell wall carbohydrate antigen and PCR for spy1258 gene respectively. Reliance on presumptive tests alone may lead to misidentification of isolates. To compare the predictive values of routine phenotypic tests with spy1258 PCR for the identification of Streptococcus pyogenes. This comparative analytical study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, over a period of 18 months (1(st) November 2013 to 30(th) April 2015). Two hundred and six consecutive BHS isolates from various clinical samples were subjected to phenotypic tests such as bacitracin sensitivity, PYR test and Lancefield grouping. The results were compared with spy1258 PCR which was considered 95 the confirmatory test for identification. The sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests were as follows; Susceptibility to bacitracin - 95.42%, 70.96%, PYR test - 95.42%, 77.41%, Lancefield grouping- 97.71%, 80.64%. Clinical laboratories should not depend on bacitracin sensitivity as a single presumptive test for the routine identification of GAS but should use supplemental tests such as PYR test or latex agglutination test and for best results use spy1258 PCR.

  7. Integration of a complex regulatory cascade involving the SirA/BarA and Csr global regulatory systems that controls expression of the Salmonella SPI-1 and SPI-2 virulence regulons through HilD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Luary C; Yakhnin, Helen; Camacho, Martha I; Georgellis, Dimitris; Babitzke, Paul; Puente, José L; Bustamante, Víctor H

    2011-06-01

    Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) play key roles in the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica. Previously, we showed that when Salmonella grows in Luria-Bertani medium, HilD, encoded in SPI-1, first induces the expression of hilA, located in SPI-1, and subsequently of the ssrAB operon, located in SPI-2. These genes code for HilA and the SsrA/B two-component system, the positive regulators of the SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulons respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that CsrA, a global regulatory RNA binding protein, post-transcriptionally regulates hilD expression by directly binding near the Shine-Dalgarno and translation initiation codon sequences of the hilD mRNA, preventing its translation and leading to its accelerated turnover. Negative regulation is counteracted by the global SirA/BarA two-component system, which directly activates the expression of CsrB and CsrC, two non-coding regulatory RNAs that sequester CsrA, thereby preventing it from binding to its target mRNAs. Our results illustrate the integration of global and specific regulators into a multifactorial regulatory cascade controlling the expression of virulence genes acquired by horizontal transfer events. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The role of coupled positive feedback in the expression of the SPI1 type three secretion system in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Saini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common food-borne pathogen that induces inflammatory diarrhea and invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type three secretion system (T3SS encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1. The genes encoding the SPI1 T3SS are tightly regulated by a network of interacting transcriptional regulators involving three coupled positive feedback loops. While the core architecture of the SPI1 gene circuit has been determined, the relative roles of these interacting regulators and associated feedback loops are still unknown. To determine the function of this circuit, we measured gene expression dynamics at both population and single-cell resolution in a number of SPI1 regulatory mutants. Using these data, we constructed a mathematical model of the SPI1 gene circuit. Analysis of the model predicted that the circuit serves two functions. The first is to place a threshold on SPI1 activation, ensuring that the genes encoding the T3SS are expressed only in response to the appropriate combination of environmental and cellular cues. The second is to amplify SPI1 gene expression. To experimentally test these predictions, we rewired the SPI1 genetic circuit by changing its regulatory architecture. This enabled us to directly test our predictions regarding the function of the circuit by varying the strength and dynamics of the activating signal. Collectively, our experimental and computational results enable us to deconstruct this complex circuit and determine the role of its individual components in regulating SPI1 gene expression dynamics.

  9. Topology Engineering of Proteins in Vivo Using Genetically Encoded, Mechanically Interlocking SpyX Modules for Enhanced Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Wu, Wen-Hao; Liu, Ya-Jie; Wu, Xia-Ling; Cao, Yang; Song, Bo; Li, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Wen-Bin

    2017-05-24

    Recombinant proteins are traditionally limited to linear configuration. Herein, we report in vivo protein topology engineering using highly efficient, mechanically interlocking SpyX modules named AXB and BXA. SpyX modules are protein domains composed of p53dim (X), SpyTag (A), and SpyCatcher (B). The p53dim guides the intertwining of the two nascent protein chains followed by autocatalytic isopeptide bond formation between SpyTag and SpyCatcher to fulfill the interlocking, leading to a variety of backbone topologies. Direct expression of AXB or BXA produces protein catenanes with distinct ring sizes. Recombinant proteins containing SpyX modules are obtained either as mechanically interlocked obligate dimers if the protein of interest is fused to the N- or C-terminus of SpyX modules, or as star proteins if the protein is fused to both N- and C-termini. As examples, cellular syntheses of dimers of (GB1) 2 (where GB1 stands for immunoglobulin-binding domain B1 of streptococcal protein G) and of four-arm elastin-like star proteins were demonstrated. Comparison of the catenation efficiencies in different constructs reveals that BXA is generally much more effective than AXB, which is rationalized by the arrangement of three domains in space. Mechanical interlocking induces considerable stability enhancement. Both AXB and BXA have a melting point ∼20 °C higher than the linear controls and the BXA catenane has a melting point ~2 °C higher than the cyclic control BX'A. Notably, four-arm elastin-like star proteins demonstrate remarkable tolerance against trypsin digestion. The SpyX modules provide a convenient and versatile approach to construct unconventional protein topologies via the "assembly-reaction" synergy, which opens a new horizon in protein science for stability enhancement and function reinforcement via topology engineering.

  10. Correction: The role of coupled positive feedback in the expression of the SPI1 type three secretion system in Salmonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Saini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common food-borne pathogen that induces inflammatory diarrhea and invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type three secretion system (T3SS encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1. The genes encoding the SPI1 T3SS are tightly regulated by a network of interacting transcriptional regulators involving three coupled positive feedback loops. While the core architecture of the SPI1 gene circuit has been determined, the relative roles of these interacting regulators and associated feedback loops are still unknown. To determine the function of this circuit, we measured gene expression dynamics at both population and single-cell resolution in a number of SPI1 regulatory mutants. Using these data, we constructed a mathematical model of the SPI1 gene circuit. Analysis of the model predicted that the circuit serves two functions. The first is to place a threshold on SPI1 activation, ensuring that the genes encoding the T3SS are expressed only in response to the appropriate combination of environmental and cellular cues. The second is to amplify SPI1 gene expression. To experimentally test these predictions, we rewired the SPI1 genetic circuit by changing its regulatory architecture. This enabled us to directly test our predictions regarding the function of the circuit by varying the strength and dynamics of the activating signal. Collectively, our experimental and computational results enable us to deconstruct this complex circuit and determine the role of its individual components in regulating SPI1 gene expression dynamics.

  11. Compton backscattering axial spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad'ko, V.E.; Mokrushin, A.D.; Razumovskaya, I.V.

    1981-01-01

    Compton gamma backscattering axial spectrometer of new design with the 200 time larger aperture as compared with the known spectrometers at the equal angular resolution (at E=159 keV) is described. Collimator unit, radiation source and gamma detector are located in the central part of the spectrometer. The investigated specimen (of cylindrical form) and the so called ''black body'' used for absorption of photons, passed through the specimen are placed in the peripheric part. Both these parts have an imaginary symmetry axis that is why the spectrometer is called axial. 57 Co is used as the gamma source. The 122 keV spectral line which corresponds to the 83 keV backscattered photon serves as working line. Germanium disk detector of 10 mm diameter and 4 mm height has energy resolution not worse than 900 eV. The analysis of results of test measurements of compton water profile and their comparison with data obtained earlier show that only finity of detector resolution can essentially affect the form of Compton profile. It is concluded that the suggested variant of the spectrometer would be useful for determination of Compton profiles of chemical compounds of heavy elements [ru

  12. A Spiking Neural Network Model of the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus on the SpiNNaker Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen-Bhattacharya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a spiking neural network model of the thalamic Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN developed on SpiNNaker, which is a state-of-the-art digital neuromorphic hardware built with very-low-power ARM processors. The parallel, event-based data processing in SpiNNaker makes it viable for building massively parallel neuro-computational frameworks. The LGN model has 140 neurons representing a “basic building block” for larger modular architectures. The motivation of this work is to simulate biologically plausible LGN dynamics on SpiNNaker. Synaptic layout of the model is consistent with biology. The model response is validated with existing literature reporting entrainment in steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP—brain oscillations corresponding to periodic visual stimuli recorded via electroencephalography (EEG. Periodic stimulus to the model is provided by: a synthetic spike-train with inter-spike-intervals in the range 10–50 Hz at a resolution of 1 Hz; and spike-train output from a state-of-the-art electronic retina subjected to a light emitting diode flashing at 10, 20, and 40 Hz, simulating real-world visual stimulus to the model. The resolution of simulation is 0.1 ms to ensure solution accuracy for the underlying differential equations defining Izhikevichs neuron model. Under this constraint, 1 s of model simulation time is executed in 10 s real time on SpiNNaker; this is because simulations on SpiNNaker work in real time for time-steps dt ⩾ 1 ms. The model output shows entrainment with both sets of input and contains harmonic components of the fundamental frequency. However, suppressing the feed-forward inhibition in the circuit produces subharmonics within the gamma band (>30 Hz implying a reduced information transmission fidelity. These model predictions agree with recent lumped-parameter computational model-based predictions, using conventional computers. Scalability of the framework is demonstrated by a multi

  13. The dilepton spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yegneswaran, A.; Claesson, G.; Fulton, R.; Hendrie, D.L.; Krebs, G.F.; Lallier, E.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Matis, H.S.; Mulera, T.; Naudet, C.; Nesbitt, D.; Roche, G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Seidl, P.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Beedoe, S.; Bystricky, J.; Carroll, J.; Gordon, J.; Igo, G.; Oillataguerre, P. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)); Christo, S.; Gilot, J.F.; Kirk, P.; Wang, Z.; Xu, I. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA)); Force, P.; Landaud, G. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)); Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Welsh, R. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA)); Miller, D. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The dilepton spectrometer (DLS) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac has been designed and constructed to investigate the production of electron-positron pairs with low mass and low transverse momentum in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for incident-beam kinetic energies of 5 A GeV and less. This article briefly recalls the physics objectives of the program, discusses the methodology of the measurement, presents details of the design of the spectrometer and the detector elements, and reports on their performance. Selected experimental results are given to illustrate the capability of the DLS and to demonstrate the level to which it is possible to realize the physics objectives with the spectrometer. (orig.).

  14. Design of the SPI interface of 10-gigabit ethernet with FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Liu, Zhao; Su, Li; Jin, Depeng; Zeng, Lieguang

    2005-02-01

    Due to its low cost and packet data efficiency, Ethernet has been one of the most influential technologies for Local Area Networks (LAN). Moreover, the 10-Gigabit Ethernet has begun to move Ethernet from the LAN out to encompass the metro area network. The technology features, protocol architecture and the frame format are introduced. In order to realize the logical boundary between the physical layer and the link layer, the protocol of SPI (System Packet Interface) level4 is adopted. A method of realizing the SPI interface of 10-Gigabit Ethernet is put forward and the function block diagram is presented. In order to reduce the power waste of the chip, the parallel algorithm is chosen in the design.

  15. Spatial and temporal analysis of drought in greece using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livada, I.; Assimakopoulos, V. D.

    2007-07-01

    In the present study the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to detect drought events in spatial and temporal basis. Using monthly precipitation data from 23 stations well spread over Greece and for a period of 51 years, a classification of drought is performed, based on its intensity and duration. Results indicate that, mild and moderate droughts reduce from north to south and from west to east on the 3- and 6-months time scale, while for the class of severe drought, the frequencies in the southern part of Greece are higher than in the other parts of the country. Furthermore the frequency of occurrence of severe and extreme drought conditions is very low over the whole Greek territory on the 12-month running time scale. Finally SPI was compared to the “de Martonne aridity index (I)” and a satisfactory correlation between them was found.

  16. Environmental sensing by mature B cells is controlled by the transcription factors PU.1 and SpiB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Simon N; Tellier, Julie; Liao, Yang; Trezise, Stephanie; Light, Amanda; O'Donnell, Kristy; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann; Shi, Wei; Tarlinton, David M; Nutt, Stephen L

    2017-11-10

    Humoral immunity requires B cells to respond to multiple stimuli, including antigen, membrane and soluble ligands, and microbial products. Ets family transcription factors regulate many aspects of haematopoiesis, although their functions in humoral immunity are difficult to decipher as a result of redundancy between the family members. Here we show that mice lacking both PU.1 and SpiB in mature B cells do not generate germinal centers and high-affinity antibody after protein immunization. PU.1 and SpiB double-deficient B cells have a survival defect after engagement of CD40 or Toll-like receptors (TLR), despite paradoxically enhanced plasma cell differentiation. PU.1 and SpiB regulate the expression of many components of the B cell receptor signaling pathway and the receptors for CD40L, BAFF and TLR ligands. Thus, PU.1 and SpiB enable B cells to appropriately respond to environmental cues.

  17. In the Service of Empire: Imperialism and the British Spy Thriller, 1901-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    hero, celebrated in novels, paintings, and music . Kipling was in Simla with Roberts when the Penjdeh Incident occurred—a moment when war with Russia...mention the difficulties of gathering intelligence before an insurrec- tion broke out, meant that the army was a vital instrument in maintaining...Though others had muscled in on the genre , le Queux ulti- mately trumped them all with Spies of the Kaiser. Published in 1909, and preceded by an

  18. The Spy in the Sandbox: Practical Cache Attacks in JavaScript and their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The Spy in the Sandbox: Practical Cache Attacks in JavaScript and their Implications Yossef Oren Vasileios P. Kemerlis Simha Sethumadhavan Angelos D...security General Terms Languages, Measurement, Security Keywords side-channel attacks; cache-timing attacks; JavaScript -based cache attacks; covert...more detail in Section 3, executes a JavaScript - based cache attack, which lets the attacker track accesses to the victim’s last-level cache over

  19. A framework for plasticity implementation on the SpiNNaker neural architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluppi, Francesco; Lagorce, Xavier; Stromatias, Evangelos; Pfeiffer, Michael; Plana, Luis A; Furber, Steve B; Benosman, Ryad B

    2014-01-01

    Many of the precise biological mechanisms of synaptic plasticity remain elusive, but simulations of neural networks have greatly enhanced our understanding of how specific global functions arise from the massively parallel computation of neurons and local Hebbian or spike-timing dependent plasticity rules. For simulating large portions of neural tissue, this has created an increasingly strong need for large scale simulations of plastic neural networks on special purpose hardware platforms, because synaptic transmissions and updates are badly matched to computing style supported by current architectures. Because of the great diversity of biological plasticity phenomena and the corresponding diversity of models, there is a great need for testing various hypotheses about plasticity before committing to one hardware implementation. Here we present a novel framework for investigating different plasticity approaches on the SpiNNaker distributed digital neural simulation platform. The key innovation of the proposed architecture is to exploit the reconfigurability of the ARM processors inside SpiNNaker, dedicating a subset of them exclusively to process synaptic plasticity updates, while the rest perform the usual neural and synaptic simulations. We demonstrate the flexibility of the proposed approach by showing the implementation of a variety of spike- and rate-based learning rules, including standard Spike-Timing dependent plasticity (STDP), voltage-dependent STDP, and the rate-based BCM rule. We analyze their performance and validate them by running classical learning experiments in real time on a 4-chip SpiNNaker board. The result is an efficient, modular, flexible and scalable framework, which provides a valuable tool for the fast and easy exploration of learning models of very different kinds on the parallel and reconfigurable SpiNNaker system.

  20. Development of SPIES (Space Intelligent Eyeing System) for smart vehicle tracing and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Suzanah; Ariffin Osoman, Muhammad; Guan Liyong, Chua; Zulfadhli Mohd Noor, Mohd; Mohamed, Ikhwan

    2016-06-01

    SPIES or Space-based Intelligent Eyeing System is an intelligent technology which can be utilized for various applications such as gathering spatial information of features on Earth, tracking system for the movement of an object, tracing system to trace the history information, monitoring driving behavior, security and alarm system as an observer in real time and many more. SPIES as will be developed and supplied modularly will encourage the usage based on needs and affordability of users. SPIES are a complete system with camera, GSM, GPS/GNSS and G-Sensor modules with intelligent function and capabilities. Mainly the camera is used to capture pictures and video and sometimes with audio of an event. Its usage is not limited to normal use for nostalgic purpose but can be used as a reference for security and material of evidence when an undesirable event such as crime occurs. When integrated with space based technology of the Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS), photos and videos can be recorded together with positioning information. A product of the integration of these technologies when integrated with Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) and Geographic Information System (GIS) will produce innovation in the form of information gathering methods in still picture or video with positioning information that can be conveyed in real time via the web to display location on the map hence creating an intelligent eyeing system based on space technology. The importance of providing global positioning information is a challenge but overcome by SPIES even in areas without GNSS signal reception for the purpose of continuous tracking and tracing capability

  1. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The Omega spectrometer which came into action during the year. An array of optical spark chambers can be seen withdrawn from the magnet aperture. In the 'igloo' above the magnet is located the Plumbicon camera system which collects information from the spark chambers.

  2. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  3. MIRI spectrometer optical design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, B.; Visser, H.; Pel, J.W.; Moddemeijer, K.; Smorenburg, C.

    2004-01-01

    MIRI (the Mid InfraRed Instrument) is one of the focal plane instruments of the James Webb Space Telescope. The instrument comprises a camera and a spectrometer module. The instrument plays the following key roles in the JWST science program. Discovery of the "first light". Assembly of galaxies:

  4. Magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Katayama, I.; Nagayama, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Morinobu, S.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic spectrometer called 'Grand Raiden' is operated at the RCNP ring cyclotron facility in Osaka for nuclear physics studies at intermediate energies. This magnetic spectrometer has excellent ion-optical properties. In the design of the spectrometer, the second-order dispersion matching condition has been taken into account, and almost all the aberration terms such as (x vertical bar θ 3 ), (x vertical bar θφ 2 ), (x vertical bar θ 2 δ) and (x vertical bar θδ 2 ) in a third-order matrix calculation are optimized. A large magnetic rigidity of the spectrometer (K = 1400 MeV) gives a great advantage to measure the charge-exchange ( 3 He, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The ability of the high-resolution measurement has been demonstrated. Various coincidence measurements are performed to study the nuclear structures of highly excited states through decay properties of nuclear levels following nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

  5. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-03-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless-steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth-order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification.

  6. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification.

  7. In Situ Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The In Situ Mass Spectrometer projects focuses on a specific subsystem to leverage advanced research for laser-based in situ mass spectrometer development...

  8. Characterization of MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Diaa; Sabry, Yasser; Omran, Haitham; Medhat, Mostafa; Hafez, Amr; Saadany, Bassam

    2011-03-01

    In this work we present the full characterization of an optical MEMS Fourier Transform Infra Red FTIR spectrometer fabricated by Deep Reactive Ion Etching DRIE Technology on Silicon substrate. Both electrical and optical properties of the spectrometer are measured. The presented techniques allows to build an engineering model for the spectrometer and to predict its main specifications taking into account the specificity of the MEMS technology used in the spectrometer fabrication.

  9. Wide band ENDOR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Filho, C.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of an ENDOR spectrometer operating from 0,5 to 75 MHz within a single band, with ore Klystron and homodine detection, and no fundamental changes on the electron spin resonance spectrometer was described. The ENDOR signal can be detected both by amplitude modulation of the frequency field, or direct detection of the ESR output, which is taken to a signal analyser. The signal-to-noise ratio is raised by averaging rather than filtering avoiding the use of long time constants, providing natural line widths. The experimental apparatus and the spectra obtained are described. A discussion, relating the ENDOR line amplitudes with the experimental conditions is done and ENDOR mechanism, in which there is a relevant presence of cross relaxation is proposed

  10. FAST NEUTRON SPECTROMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, F.J.; Hurst, G.S.; Reinhardt, P.W.

    1959-08-18

    An improved proton recoil spectrometer for determining the energy spectrum of a fast neutron beam is described. Instead of discriminating against and thereby"throwing away" the many recoil protons other than those traveling parallel to the neutron beam axis as do conventional spectrometers, this device utilizes protons scattered over a very wide solid angle. An ovoidal gas-filled recoil chamber is coated on the inside with a scintillator. The ovoidal shape of the sensitive portion of the wall defining the chamber conforms to the envelope of the range of the proton recoils from the radiator disposed within the chamber. A photomultiplier monitors the output of the scintillator, and a counter counts the pulses caused by protons of energy just sufficient to reach the scintillator.

  11. Mark III spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.; Bernstein, J.; Bunnell, K.; Burgueno, G.; Cassell, R.; Collins, B.; Coward, D.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisele, R.; Haber, B.

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and performance of the Mark III, a new general purpose large solid angle spectrometer at SPEAR, the SLAC 2-8 GeV e/sup +/e storage ring. The detector has been designed for the study of exclusive final states in e/sup +/e annihilation, which requires large solid angle coverage combined with charged particle momentum resolution, particle identification, and photon detection efficiency at low energies. (orig.).

  12. Mark III spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.; Bernstein, J.; Bunnell, K.; Burgueno, G.; Cassell, R.; Collins, B.; Coward, D.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisele, R.; Haber, B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA))

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and performance of the Mark III, a new general purpose large solid angle spectrometer at SPEAR, the SLAC 2-8 GeV e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring. The detector has been designed for the study of exclusive final states in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which requires large solid angle coverage combined with charged particle momentum resolution, particle identification, and photon detection efficiency at low energies.

  13. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, L.A.; Di Paolo, Hugo; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Marti, Guillermo V; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  14. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  15. Miniaturized Ion Mobility Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, William J (Inventor); Stimac, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    By utilizing the combination of a unique electronic ion injection control circuit in conjunction with a particularly designed drift cell construction, the instantly disclosed ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) achieves increased levels of sensitivity, while achieving significant reductions in size and weight. The instant IMS is of a much simpler and easy to manufacture design, rugged and hermetically sealed, capable of operation at high temperatures to at least 250 degrees Centigrade, and is uniquely sensitive, particularly to explosive chemicals.

  16. A spectrometer for the NSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the capabilities of a magnetic spectrometer are needed to fully exploit the research programme involving charged particle detection to be carried out on the Nuclear Structure Facility (NSF) presently under construction at Daresbury. Performance requirements for such a spectrometer are examined indicating that the QMG/2 spectrometer of the Groningen type is very well suited to the high resolution work which will be possible using beams of light - heavy ions (A < 40). Consequently, and following the recommendations of the Magnetic Spectrometer Working Party, this spectrometer is to be installed at the NSF. (U.K.)

  17. Improved Mobility Control for Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Silica-Polymer-Initiator (SPI) Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oglesby, Kenneth

    2014-01-31

    SPI gels are multi-component silicate based gels for improving (areal and vertical) conformance in oilfield enhanced recovery operations, including water-floods and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods, as well as other applications. SPI mixtures are like-water when pumped, but form light up to very thick, paste-like gels in contact with CO{sub 2}. When formed they are 3 to 10 times stronger than any gelled polyacrylamide gel now available, however, they are not as strong as cement or epoxy, allowing them to be washed / jetted out of the wellbore without drilling. This DOE funded project allowed 8 SPI field treatments to be performed in 6 wells (5 injection wells and 1 production well) in 2 different fields with different operators, in 2 different basins (Gulf Coast and Permian) and in 2 different rock types (sandstone and dolomite). Field A was in a central Mississippi sandstone that injected CO{sub 2} as an immiscible process. Field B was in the west Texas San Andres dolomite formation with a mature water-alternating-gas miscible CO{sub 2} flood. Field A treatments are now over 1 year old while Field B treatments have only 4 months data available under variable WAG conditions. Both fields had other operational events and well work occurring before/ during / after the treatments making definitive evaluation difficult. Laboratory static beaker and dynamic sand pack tests were performed with Ottawa sand and both fields’ core material, brines and crude oils to improve SPI chemistry, optimize SPI formulations, ensure SPI mix compatibility with field rocks and fluids, optimize SPI treatment field treatment volumes and methods, and ensure that strong gels set in the reservoir. Field quality control procedures were designed and utilized. Pre-treatment well (surface) injectivities ranged from 0.39 to 7.9 MMCF/psi. The SPI treatment volumes ranged from 20.7 cubic meters (m{sup 3}, 5460 gallons/ 130 bbls) to 691 m{sup 3} (182,658 gallons/ 4349 bbls). Various size and types

  18. Power potential and the energy in the Spiš region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major Michal

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is a short review of the energy power information about three districts: Spišská Nová Ves, Gelnica and Levoèa. These districts are parts of the county of Košice and Prešov. The contribution contains a summary of basic illustration information about the sources of energy and about a consumption of electric and heat energy in the area. In the area of the region, there is no standard thermal power station and no nuclear power station. From own sources of the region, there is especially a water energy. The majority of heat and electric energy, which is necessary in the region, comes from outside sources. The sources of power are situated in Spišská Nová Ves and Gelnica districts. The Levoèa district has no own source of energy.In the Spišská Nová Ves district, there is one industrial establishment, which produces the heat and electric energy for the own use and also for the export. With the exception of this one establishment, in Spišská district, there are 3 little hydro - electric power plants with the total installed power capacity 138 kW. And there is also one energy unit for the output of electricity and heat with the installed power capacity 400 kW. In the area of Gelnica, there is one hydro – electric power plant, in the water reservoir named Ružín. It has installed the power capacity 2x30 MW. There are also 7 little hydro - electric power plants with the total installed power capacity 528 kW and one energy unit for the output of electricity and heat with installed power capacity 1100 kW.The future development of own energy sources in the region is oriented to the exploitation of natural energy sources, especially to the water energy and energy from biological gas. There is project of using the biological gas for the power purpose from one dump in the Spišská Nová Ves district. It will be realised in the time period of 10 years. In all listed above districts measurements are realized, which will show if

  19. SPI-1-encoded type III secretion system of Salmonella enterica is required for the suppression of porcine alveolar macrophage cytokine expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Barbora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genes localized at Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1 are involved in Salmonella enterica invasion of host non-professional phagocytes. Interestingly, in macrophages, SPI-1-encoded proteins, in addition to invasion, induce cell death via activation of caspase-1 which also cleaves proIL-1β and proIL-18, precursors of 2 proinflammatory cytokines. In this study we were therefore interested in whether SPI-1-encoded type III secretion system (T3SS may influence proinflammatory response of macrophages. To test this hypothesis, we infected primary porcine alveolar macrophages with wild-type S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis and their isogenic SPI-1 deletion mutants. ΔSPI1 mutants of both serovars invaded approx. 5 times less efficiently than the wild-type strains and despite this, macrophages responded to the infection with ΔSPI1 mutants by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, TNFα, IL-23α and GM-CSF. Identical macrophage responses to that induced by the ΔSPI1 mutants were also observed to the infection with sipB but not the sipA mutant. The hilA mutant exhibited an intermediate phenotype between the ΔSPI1 mutant and the wild-type S. Enteritidis. Our results showed that the SPI-1-encoded T3SS is required not only for cell invasion but in macrophages also for the suppression of early proinflammatory cytokine expression.

  20. Microencapsulation of model oil in wall matrices consisting of SPI and maltodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Rosenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation can provide means to entrap, protect and deliver nutritional lipids and related compounds that are susceptible to deterioration. The encapsulation of high lipid loads represents a challenge. The research has investigated the encapsulation by spray drying of a model oil, at a core load of 25–60%, in wall systems consisting of 2.5–10% SPI and 17.5–10% maltodextrin. In general, core-in-wall-emulsions exhibited unimodal PSD and a mean particle diameter < 0.5 µm. Dry microcapsules ranged in diameter from about 5 to less than 50 µm and exhibited only a limited extent of surface indentation. Core domains, in the form of protein-coated droplets, were embedded throughout the wall matrices and no visible cracks connecting these domains with the environment could be detected. Core retention ranged from 72.2 to 95.9% and was significantly affected (p < 0.05 by a combined influence of wall composition and initial core load. Microencapsulation efficiency, MEE, ranged from 25.4 to 91.6% and from 12.4 to 91.4% after 5 and 30 min of extraction, respectively (p < 0.05. MEE was significantly influenced by wall composition, extraction time, initial core load and DE value of the maltodextrins. Results indicated that wall solutions containing as low as 2.5% SPI and 17.5% maltodextrin were very effective as microencapsulating agents for high oil load. Results highlighted the functionality of SPI as microencapsulating agent in food applications and indicated the importance of carefully designing the composition of core-in-wall-emulsions.

  1. MASS SPECTROMETER LEAK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.R.

    1960-10-18

    An improved valve is described for precisely regulating the flow of a sample fluid to be analyzed, such as in a mass spectrometer, where a gas sample is allowed to "leak" into an evacuated region at a very low, controlled rate. The flow regulating valve controls minute flow of gases by allowing the gas to diffuse between two mating surfaces. The structure of the valve is such as to prevent the corrosive feed gas from contacting the bellows which is employed in the operation of the valve, thus preventing deterioration of the bellows.

  2. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  3. Prototype Neutron Energy Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Mitchell, Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Richard Maurer, Ronald Wolff

    2010-06-16

    The project goals are: (1) Use three to five pressurized helium tubes with varying polyethylene moderators to build a neutron energy spectrometer that is most sensitive to the incident neutron energy of interest. Neutron energies that are of particular interest are those from the fission neutrons (typically around 1-2 MeV); (2) Neutron Source Identification - Use the neutron energy 'selectivity' property as a tool to discriminate against other competing processes by which neutrons are generated (viz. Cosmic ray induced neutron production [ship effect], [a, n] reactions); (3) Determine the efficiency as a function of neutron energy (response function) of each of the detectors, and thereby obtain the composite neutron energy spectrum from the detector count rates; and (4) Far-field data characterization and effectively discerning shielded fission source. Summary of the presentation is: (1) A light weight simple form factor compact neutron energy spectrometer ready to be used in maritime missions has been built; (2) Under laboratory conditions, individual Single Neutron Source Identification is possible within 30 minutes. (3) Sources belonging to the same type of origin viz., (a, n), fission, cosmic cluster in the same place in the 2-D plot shown; and (4) Isotopes belonging to the same source origin like Cm-Be, Am-Be (a, n) or Pu-239, U-235 (fission) do have some overlap in the 2-D plot.

  4. MEJORA DE PROCESOS DE SOFTWARE ÁGIL CON AGILE - SPI PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR PARDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivar la aplicación de proyectos de mejora de procesos en las empresas de desarrollo de software iberoamericanas, en su gran mayoría Micro, Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas Desarrolladoras de Software (MiPyMEs_DS es una necesidad imperante para la búsqueda de una industria de software que sea competitiva no solo en contextos regionales sino también internacionales. Los modelos internacionalmente reconocidos, representan alto riesgo en su aplicación para una MiPyMES_DS, esto debido quizá a su gran inversión en dinero, tiempo, recursos, difícil gestión, además de la complejidad de las recomendaciones y un retorno de la inversión a largo plazo. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar a Agile SPI - Process como un proceso de mejora de procesos basado principalmente en metodologías y principios ágiles, requerimientos livianos y adaptaciones de modelos internacionales. De la misma manera en el artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la implementación de Agile SPI - Process en varias MiPyMEs_DS de Iberoamérica y el sur occidente de Colombia.

  5. “Habits of employees”: smoking, spies, and shopfloor culture at Hammermill Paper Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    As cigarette smoking expanded dramatically during the early twentieth century, it brought more and more workers into conflict with the policies and demands of the manufacturers who employed them. As this paper shows, addiction to nicotine ignited daily struggles over workers’ shopfloor rights and the ability of employers to set rules, establish discipline, and monitor behavior. A specific set of records from the archives of the Hammermill Paper Company, a paper manufacturer once based in Erie, Pennsylvania, provide a unique opportunity to explore the impact of cigarette consumption on labor relations during the era of mass production, as two nosy factory spies probed and documented worker actions and attitudes in the summer of 1915. As a result of their intelligence gathering, the spies discovered a factory-wide work culture rooted in the addictive pleasure of cigarette smoke. This discovery worried them. Worker-smokers needed to dampen their hunger for nicotine with frequent, and often clandestine, breaks from work, typically in defiance of “no-smoking” rules, employer designations for the uses of factory space, and bosses’ demands for continuous production. Highlighting the intersections of the histories of labor, smoking, and addiction, this paper argues that cigarettes were a key battleground in workers’ and managers’ intensifying struggles over who really controlled the industrial shopfloor during the early 1900s.

  6. The nanopore mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Joseph; Maulbetsch, William; Lepoitevin, Mathilde; Wiener, Benjamin; Mihovilovic Skanata, Mirna; Moon, Wooyoung; Pruitt, Cole; Stein, Derek

    2017-11-01

    We report the design of a mass spectrometer featuring an ion source that delivers ions directly into high vacuum from liquid inside a capillary with a sub-micrometer-diameter tip. The surface tension of water and formamide is sufficient to maintain a stable interface with high vacuum at the tip, and the gas load from the interface is negligible, even during electrospray. These conditions lifted the usual requirement of a differentially pumped system. The absence of a background gas also opened up the possibility of designing ion optics to collect and focus ions in order to achieve high overall transmission and detection efficiencies. We describe the operation and performance of the instrument and present mass spectra from solutions of salt ions and DNA bases in formamide and salt ions in water. The spectra show singly charged solute ions clustered with a small number of solvent molecules.

  7. BNL multiparticle spectrometer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the program controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both on-line and off-line operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed

  8. A Moessbauer effect spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayek, M.K.; Abbas, Y.M.; Bahgat, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    A Moessbauer effect spectrometer of Harwell type is installed and put in operation. The driving system is of a constant acceleration mode with a velocity range 40mm/sec. and associated to a 1024 multichannel analyser working in a multiscalar time mode. The gamma ray sources are 50 mCi Co 57 in Pd and 20 mCi Snsup(119m) in Ba Sn(O) 3 . Measurements are taken with the source kept at room temperature, while the absorber can be maintained at various temperatures. Gamma ray resonance spectra of different standard samples are obtained. Zero velocity and magnetic field calibration curves are deduced. Examples of some Moessbauer spectra for running investigated materials with a comprehensive general description are also given

  9. Photo ion spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Young, Charles E.; Pellin, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    A charged particle spectrometer for performing ultrasensitive quantitative analysis of selected atomic components removed from a sample. Significant improvements in performing energy and angular refocusing spectroscopy are accomplished by means of a two dimensional structure for generating predetermined electromagnetic field boundary conditions. Both resonance and non-resonance ionization of selected neutral atomic components allow accumulation of increased chemical information. A multiplexed operation between a SIMS mode and a neutral atomic component ionization mode with EARTOF analysis enables comparison of chemical information from secondary ions and neutral atomic components removed from the sample. An electronic system is described for switching high level signals, such as SIMS signals, directly to a transient recorder and through a charge amplifier to the transient recorder for a low level signal pulse counting mode, such as for a neutral atomic component ionization mode.

  10. The Philippine spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliano, J.O.

    1965-01-01

    A notable project for international collaboration, in which participants from Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, China and the Philippines are working together, has been launched in the Philippines with Indian assistance under the aegis of the Agency. This is a regional training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer, which has been established since January 1965 at the Philippine Atomic Research Centre in Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. It is called the IPA Project after the signatories to a five year trilateral agreement, namely, the Government of India,the Republic of the Philippines, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The programme is administered by a Joint Committee composed of one representative each of the Philippines, India and the Agency. The objective of this cooperative venture is to establish a research centre on neutron diffraction in which scientists and technicians from any Member State of IAEA in South Asia, South-East Asia and Pacific, or Far East regions could come to participate in research and training. Studies in solid state physics, such a s the structure determination of alloys and organic crystals, studies on the orientation of magnetic moments in the lattice of magnetic substances, and other problems based on elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons are undertaken. There are a number of research reactors in this region where neutron spectrometers can be utilized and the recent establishment of this cooperative international research and training programme has been a timely one for this area of the world. Indeed, a number of other countries have shown a strong growing interest in the development of the project

  11. Magnetic quadrupole and solenoidal spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, H.; Schapira, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    General optical properties of magnetic quadrupole spectrometers are reviewed, together with experimental purposes for nuclear physics: background reduction, magnetic rigidity filtering for extreme forward angles measurements, light charged particle discrimination, ionic charge state separation, time of flight mass spectrometry and fast collection of radioactive nuclear reaction products. Possibility of alternative devices such as superconducting quadrupoles or solenoid spectrometers are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. The ALICE forward muon spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ICE detector will allow to identify the quarkonium states through both the dielectron and the dimuon channels. For this purpose the apparatus is equipped with a transition radiation detector in its central part and with a forward muon spectrometer at small angles. After a brief description of the forward muon spectrometer, ...

  13. ATF beamline 1 analysis spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Ulc, S.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the design parameters and expected performance of the analysis spectrometer for beamline 1 at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility. The spectrometer should be well suited for measuring the change in energy caused by the first generation laser acceleration experiments

  14. Hyphenation of two simultaneously employed soft photo ionization mass spectrometers with thermal analysis of biomass and biochar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendt, Alois; Geissler, Robert; Streibel, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► First simultaneous hyphenation of two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo ionization techniques (SPI and REMPI) to Thermal Analysis using a newly developed prototype for EGA is presented. ► Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) enables sensitive and selective analysis of aromatic species. ► Single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an innovative electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) comprehensively ionizes (nearly) all organic molecules. ► The resulting mass spectra show distinct patterns for the evolved gases of the miscellaneous biomasses and chars thereof. ► The potential for detailed kinetic studies is apparent on account of the complex pyrolysis gas compositions. - Abstract: Evolved gas analysis (EGA) is a powerful and complementary tool for Thermal Analysis. In this context, two time-of-flight mass spectrometers with different soft photo-ionization techniques are simultaneously hyphenated to a thermo balance and applied in form of a newly developed prototype for EGA of pyrolysis gases from biomass and biochar. Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) is applied for selective analysis of aromatic species. Furthermore, single photon ionization (SPI) using VUV light supplied by an electron-beam pumped excimer light source (EBEL) was used to comprehensively ionize (nearly) all organic molecules. The soft ionization capability of photo-ionization techniques allows direct and on-line analysis of the evolved pyrolysis gases. Characteristic mass spectra with specific patterns could be obtained for the miscellaneous biomass feeds used. Temperature profiles of the biochars reveal a desorption step, followed by pyrolysis as observed for the biomasses. Furthermore, the potential for kinetic studies is apparent for this instrumental setup.

  15. Soy Protein Isolate (SPI) feeding does not result in reproductive toxicity in the pre-pubertal rats testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In rodents, diets supplemented with pure soy isoflavones have estrogenic actions in the developing male reproductive tract. Few studies have examined the potential estrogenicity of soy protein isolate (SPI), the major soy component in soy-based infant formula, as opposed to pure isoflavones. In the ...

  16. Engineering a thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuit on SpiNNaker: a preliminary study towards modelling sleep and wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a thalamo-cortico-thalamic (TCT implementation on SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network architecture, a brain inspired hardware platform designed to incorporate the inherent biological properties of parallelism, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. These attributes make SpiNNaker an ideal platform for simulating biologically plausible computational models. Our focus in this work is to design a TCT framework that can be simulated on SpiNNaker to mimic dynamical behaviour similar to Electroencephalogram (EEG time and power-spectra signatures in sleep-wake transition. The scale of the model is minimised for simplicity in this proof-of-concept study; thus the total number of spiking neurons is approximately 1000 and represents a `mini-column' of the thalamocortical tissue. All data on model structure, synaptic layout and parameters is inspired from previous studies and abstracted at a level that is appropriate to the aims of the current study as well as computationally suitable for model simulation on a small 4-chip SpiNNaker system. The initial results from selective deletion of synaptic connectivity parameters in the model show similarity with EEG time series characteristics of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide a positive perspective and a basis for future implementation of a very large scale biologically plausible model of thalamo-cortico-thalamic interactivity---the essential brain circuit that regulates the biological sleep-wake cycle and associated EEG rhythms.

  17. Dam methylation regulates the expression of SPI-5-encoded sopB gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomodonato, Mónica N; Llana, Mariángeles Noto; Castañeda, María del Rosario Aya; Buzzola, Fernanda; García, Mauro D; Calderón, Marina Gallo; Sarnacki, Sebastián H; Cerquetti, María C

    2014-08-01

    DNA adenine methylation is an essential factor in Salmonella virulence. Here, we investigate the involvement of DNA adenine methylase (Dam) in the expression and translocation of a SPI-5-encoded effector of S. Typhimurium. SopB expression and secretion were determined using SopB-FLAG-tagged wild type and dam strains of S. Typhimurium. Western blot and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed that the dam mutant expresses lower levels of SopB protein and sopB mRNA than the wild type strain under SPI-1 and SPI-2 inducing conditions in vitro. SopB secretion was also considerably impaired in the absence of dam. In agreement with in vitro experiments, SopB synthesis in dam mutants recovered from infected epithelial cells and from murine mesenteric lymph nodes was reduced by 40% respect to the wild type strain (p dam mutant. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in S. Typhimurium, Dam methylation modulates the expression and translocation of SPI-5-encoded SopB effector. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunguang Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI- photoelectron ionization (PEI portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE below 10.6 eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6 eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29 cm, the weight is 27 kg, and the power consumption is only 70 W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX, SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5 ppbv (S/N = 10 : 1 with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear.

  19. Development of a Portable Single Photon Ionization-Photoelectron Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunguang; Li, Jinxu; Tang, Bin; Zhu, Liping; Hou, Keyong; Li, Haiyang

    2015-01-01

    A vacuum ultraviolet lamp based single photon ionization- (SPI-) photoelectron ionization (PEI) portable reflecting time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was designed for online monitoring gas samples. It has a dual mode ionization source: SPI for analyte with ionization energy (IE) below 10.6 eV and PEI for IE higher than 10.6 eV. Two kinds of sampling inlets, a capillary inlet and a membrane inlet, are utilized for high concentration and trace volatile organic compounds, respectively. A mass resolution of 1100 at m/z 64 has been obtained with a total size of 40 × 31 × 29 cm, the weight is 27 kg, and the power consumption is only 70 W. A mixture of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX), SO2, and discharging products of SF6 were used to test its performance, and the result showed that the limit of quantitation for BTX is as low as 5 ppbv (S/N = 10 : 1) with linear dynamic ranges greater than four orders of magnitude. The portable TOFMS was also evaluated by analyzing volatile organic compounds from wine and decomposition products of SF6 inside of a gas-insulated switchgear. PMID:26587023

  20. Discourse of simulacra in Kovacević's drama Balkan Spy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Snežana J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a reading of the famous Dušan Kovačević's drama Balkan Spy, contextualized by postulates of simulacra. The starting point for finding symbols that corresponded to the system of the non-referent world (and each such system creates its own reality, and proceeds from its own frame in which it must be interpreted is a book of Jean Baudrillard 'Simulacrum and Simulation'. Through chapters that accentuate simulacrum-like phenomena for proving the actual through imaginary and cloned, as well as defining the world of literary text as a kind of Disneyland, it becomes evident soundness of this idea that confirms the quality of this drama.

  1. Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maca, Petr; Pech, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI) and were derived for the period of 1948–2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons. PMID:26880875

  2. Forecasting SPEI and SPI Drought Indices Using the Integrated Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Maca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper compares forecast of drought indices based on two different models of artificial neural networks. The first model is based on feedforward multilayer perceptron, sANN, and the second one is the integrated neural network model, hANN. The analyzed drought indices are the standardized precipitation index (SPI and the standardized precipitation evaporation index (SPEI and were derived for the period of 1948–2002 on two US catchments. The meteorological and hydrological data were obtained from MOPEX experiment. The training of both neural network models was made by the adaptive version of differential evolution, JADE. The comparison of models was based on six model performance measures. The results of drought indices forecast, explained by the values of four model performance indices, show that the integrated neural network model was superior to the feedforward multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer of neurons.

  3. The Tutelkan SPI Framework for Small Settings: A Methodology Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Gonzalo; Astudillo, Hernán; Visconti, Marcello; López, Claudia

    Software organizations aim to improve their processes to increase their productivity, competitiveness and performance. Although numerous standards and models have been proposed, their adoption among small organizations is hard due to some size mismatches and to lack of experienced process engineers, which forces them to hire (expensive) external consultants. This article describes the Tutelkan SPI Framework, which proposes a three-fold approach to this problem: (1) providing a library of reusable process assets, (2) offering composition tools to describe small organizations processes using these assets, and (3) systematically training small organization focused consultants for these library and toolset. The framework has been successfully piloted with several Chilean small companies, and the library and tools are open and freely available.

  4. INTEGRAL IBIS, SPI, and JEM-X observations of LVT151012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.

    2017-01-01

    During the first observing run of LIGO, two gravitational wave events and one lower-significance trigger (LVT151012) were reported by the LIGO/Virgo collaboration. At the time of LVT151012, the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) was pointing at a region of the sky coincident...... with the high localization probability area of the event and thus permitted us to search for its electromagnetic counterpart (both prompt and afterglow emission). The imaging instruments on-board INTEGRAL (IBIS/ISGRI, IBIS/PICsIT, SPI, and the two JEM-X modules)have been exploited to attempt the detection...... of view in order to provide an efficient monitoring of the entire LVT151012 localization region at energies above 75 keV. We did not find any significant transient source that was spatially and/or temporally coincident withLVT151012, obtaining tight upper limits on the associated hard X-ray and...

  5. Neutron range spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglos, Stephen H.

    1989-06-06

    A neutron range spectrometer and method for determining the neutron energy spectrum of a neutron emitting source are disclosed. Neutrons from the source are collimnated along a collimation axis and a position sensitive neutron counter is disposed in the path of the collimated neutron beam. The counter determines positions along the collimation axis of interactions between the neutrons in the neutron beam and a neutron-absorbing material in the counter. From the interaction positions, a computer analyzes the data and determines the neutron energy spectrum of the neutron beam. The counter is preferably shielded and a suitable neutron-absorbing material is He-3. The computer solves the following equation in the analysis: ##EQU1## where: N(x).DELTA.x=the number of neutron interactions measured between a position x and x+.DELTA.x, A.sub.i (E.sub.i).DELTA.E.sub.i =the number of incident neutrons with energy between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i, and C=C(E.sub.i)=N .sigma.(E.sub.i) where N=the number density of absorbing atoms in the position sensitive counter means and .sigma. (E.sub.i)=the average cross section of the absorbing interaction between E.sub.i and E.sub.i +.DELTA.E.sub.i.

  6. UCN gravitational spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    1988-01-01

    Concept design is carried out of two types of ultra cold neutron scallering equipment using the fall-focusing principle. One of the systems comprises a vertical gravitational spectrometer and the other includes a horizontal gravitation analyzer. A study is made of their performance and the following results are obtained. Fall-focusing type ultra cold neutron scattering equipment can achieve a high accuracy for measurement of energy and momentum. Compared with conventional neutron scattering systems, this type of equipment can use neutron very efficiently because scattered neutrons within a larger solid angle can be used. The maximum solid angle is nearly 4π and 2π for the vertical and horizontal type, respectively. Another feature is that the size of equipment can be reduced. In the present concept design, the equipment is spherical with a diameter of about 1 m, as compared with NESSIE which is 6.7 m in length and 4.85 m in height with about the same accuracy. Two horizontal analyzers and a vertical spectroscope are proposed. They are suitable for angle-dependent non-elastic scattering in the neutron velocity range of 6∼15 m/s, pure elastic scattering in the range of 4∼7 m/s, or angle-integration non-elastic scattering in the range of 4∼15 m/s. (N.K.)

  7. Respiratory mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostert, J.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    1983-06-01

    The high degree of technical perfection of the respiratory mass spectrometer has rendered the instrument feasible for routine monitoring of anesthetized patients. It is proposed that the difference between inspired and expired oxygen tension in mm Hg be equated with whole body oxygen consumption in ml/min/M/sup 2/ body-surface area at STPD, by the expedient of multiplying tension-differences by a factor of 2. Years of experience have confirmed the value of promptly recognizing sudden drops in this l/E tension difference below 50 mm Hg indicative of metabolic injury from hypovolemia or respiratory depression. Rises in l/E tension-differences were associated with shivering as well as voluntary muscle activity. Tension differences of less than 25 mm Hg (equated with a whole-body O/sub 2/ consumption of less than 50 ml O/sub 2//min/M/sup 2/) occurred in a patient in the sitting position for posterior fossa exploration without acidosis, hypoxia or hypotension for several hours prior to irreversible cardiac arrest. The value of clinical monitoring by mass spectrometry is especially impressive in open-heart surgery.

  8. Protocol for CONSORT-SPI: an extension for social and psychological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul; Grant, Sean; Hopewell, Sally; Macdonald, Geraldine; Moher, David; Michie, Susan; Mayo-Wilson, Evan

    2013-09-02

    Determining the effectiveness of social and psychological interventions is important for improving individual and population health. Such interventions are complex and, where possible, are best evaluated by randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The use of research findings in policy and practice decision making is hindered by poor reporting of RCTs. Poor reporting limits the ability to replicate interventions, synthesise evidence in systematic reviews, and utilise findings for evidence-based policy and practice. The lack of guidance for reporting the specific methodological features of complex intervention RCTs contributes to poor reporting. We aim to develop an extension of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement for Social and Psychological Interventions (CONSORT-SPI). This research project will be conducted in five phases. The first phase was the project launch, which consisted of the establishment of a Project Executive and International Advisory Group, and recruitment of journal editors and the CONSORT Group. The second phase involves a Delphi process that will generate a list of possible items to include in the CONSORT Extension. Next, there will be a formal consensus meeting to select the reporting items to add to, or modify for, the CONSORT-SPI Extension. Fourth, guideline documents will be written, including an explanation and elaboration (E&E) document that will provide detailed advice for each item and examples of good reporting. The final phase will comprise guideline dissemination, with simultaneous publication and endorsement of the guideline in multiple journals, endorsement by funding agencies, presentations at conferences and other meetings, and a dedicated website that will facilitate feedback about the guideline. As demonstrated by previous CONSORT guidelines, the development of an evidence-based reporting guideline for social and psychological intervention RCTs should improve the accuracy, comprehensiveness, and transparency of

  9. SSCMDA: spy and super cluster strategy for MiRNA-disease association prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Xie, Di; Liu, Hongsheng; Wang, Fan; Yan, Gui-Ying; Chen, Xing

    2018-01-01

    In the biological field, the identification of the associations between microRNAs (miRNAs) and diseases has been paid increasing attention as an extremely meaningful study for the clinical medicine. However, it is expensive and time-consuming to confirm miRNA-disease associations by experimental methods. Therefore, in recent years, several effective computational models for predicting the potential miRNA-disease associations have been developed. In this paper, we proposed the Spy and Super Cluster strategy for MiRNA-Disease Association prediction (SSCMDA) based on known miRNA-disease associations, integrated disease similarity and integrated miRNA similarity. For problems of mixed unknown miRNA-disease pairs containing both potential associations and real negative associations, which will lead to inaccurate prediction, spy strategy is adopted by SSCMDA to identify reliable negative samples from the unknown miRNA-disease pairs. Moreover, the super-cluster strategy could gather as many positive samples as possible to improve the accuracy of the prediction by overcoming the shortage of lacking sufficient positive training samples. As a result, the AUCs of global leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV), local LOOCV and 5-fold cross validation were 0.9007, 0.8747 and 0.8806+/-0.0025, respectively. According to the AUC results, SSCMDA has shown a significant improvement compared with some previous models. We further carried out case studies based on various version of HMDD database to test the prediction performance robustness of SSCMDA. We also implemented case study to examine whether SSCMDA was effective for new diseases without any known associated miRNAs. As a result, a large proportion of the predicted miRNAs have been verified by experimental reports. PMID:29416734

  10. Gravity Spy - Integrating LIGO detector characterization, citizen science, and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevin, Michael; Gravity Spy

    2016-06-01

    On September 14th 2015, the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO) made the first direct observation of gravitational waves and opened a new field of observational astronomy. However, being the most complicated and sensitve experiment ever undertaken in gravitational physics, aLIGO is susceptible to various sources of environmental and instrumental noise that hinder the search for more gravitational waves.Of particular concern are transient, non-Gaussian noise features known as glitches. Glitches can mimic true astrophysical gravitational waves, occur at a high enough frequency to be coherent between the two detectors, and generally worsen aLIGO's detection capabilities. The proper classification and charaterization of glitches is paramount in optimizing aLIGO's ability to detect gravitational waves. However, teaching computers to identify and morphologically classify these artifacts is exceedingly difficult.Human intuition has proven to be a useful tool in classifcation probelms such as this. Gravity Spy is an innovative, interdisciplinary project hosted by Zooniverse that combines aLIGO detector characterization, citizen science, machine learning, and social science. In this project, citizen scientists and computers will work together in a sybiotic relationship that leverages human pattern recognition and the ability of machine learning to process large amounts of data systematically: volunteers classify triggers from the aLIGO data steam that are constantly updated as aLIGO takes in new data, and these classifications are used to train machine learning algorithms which proceed to classify the bulk of aLIGO data and feed questionable glithces back to the users.In this talk, I will discuss the workflow and initial results of the Gravity Spy project with regard to aLIGO's future observing runs and highlight the potential of such citizen science projects in promoting nascent fields such as gravitational wave astrophysics.

  11. Drought analysis using SPI index and its effects on groundwater resources in East of Kermanshah, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, A.; Mirbagheri, B.; Kheiri, A.

    2010-09-01

    Drought is universally acknowledged as a phenomenon associated with scarcity of water. Drought varies with regard to the time of occurrence, duration, intensity, and extent of the area affected from year to year. Ground water, which is found in aquifers below the surface of the Earth, is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. Droughts, seasonal variations in rainfall, and pumping affect the height of the underground water levels. The overall objective of this study is to apply a quantitative index namely SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) to measure the drought conditions in the east region of Kermanshah, Iran during the last 30 years. To do this, different indices were considered to determine the drought conditions such as the longest period of drought, the number of months faced to drought and total drought magnitudes(DM). To evaluate the likely effects of drought on groundwater resources, first the relationship between them was shown graphically and then the correlation was calculated. The results of the research indicated that, among all mentioned indices, total drought magnitudes is a better index showing the drought condition in the region. The results on drought effects on groundwater resources using the correlation coefficient also showed that the droughts will have significant effect on ground water discharge. An analysis of the distribution of droughts showed that for droughts with short periods, the deficit in the groundwater discharge is smaller than in the recharge. While for droughts with long periods, the deficit in the groundwater discharge is larger than in the recharge. Key words: Drought Magnitude, SPI, Groundwater, Kermanshah

  12. Adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The present proposal describes the development of an adaptive Computed Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS), or "Snapshot" spectrometer which can "instantaneously"...

  13. Elements of Tiny Plasma Spectrometers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to advance major elements of a miniaturized plasma spectrometer for flight on future missions. This type of instrument has been developed and successfully...

  14. Moessbauer spectrometer on integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomov, T.; Spasov, A.; Kunov, B.

    1978-01-01

    Two versions of the small-size high-quality Moessbauer spectrometer for 57 Fe spectroscopy are developed. The first version includes a proportion counter, a preamplifier, a one-chennel analyzer, a timer, and a scaler. The spectrometer is intended for measuring characteristic points of the Moessbauer-spectra and operates at constant velocities. The spectrometer parameters are as follows: integral non-linearity of the entire channel about 1%, maximum load for 14 keV line 8x10 4 pulse/s. The second version uses a multichannel time analyzer as a recording device. The spectrometer operates in the saw-toothed velocity modulation, the integral nonlinearity of the modulation being at least 0.1%

  15. Miniaturized Waveguide Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To demonstrate the efficacy of a spectrometer-on-chip system for in-situ and remote monitoring of planetary atmospheric and surface chemistry, physics, and surface...

  16. Versatile central spectrometer for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.; Goulianso, K.; Knapp, B.; Rosen, J.; Schlein, P.

    1975-01-01

    A large aperture magnetic spectrometer is proposed to study hadrons and leptons produced in the central region at Isabelle. The essential element of the spectrometer is a large double-dipole magnet system with common flux return straddling the intersection region. The air gaps provide magnetic analysis of charged particle for up to 50 percent of the azimuthal angular range. Drift chambers, Cherenkov counters and shower detectors positioned on both sides of the beam lines comprise two spectrometers for analysis of hadrons and electrons. Muons can be momentum analyzed over a large fraction at the azimuthal angle by utilizing the upper and lower sections on the magnet yoke to provide hadron filtering and magnetic deflection. Cylindrical chambers around the vacuum pipe provide multiplicity information for events of interest. The proposed magnet configuration allows unobscured coverage of smaller angle particles with the addition of septum magnet spectrometers downstream of the central magnet in both arms.

  17. Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an UV-NIR (350nm to 1050 nm) portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM) for flight on a variety of airborne platforms with high SNR and response uniformity...

  18. Electron spectrometers with internal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, J.C.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The efforts that the Department of Physics (DEFI) of Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) are being made aiming at adjusting the electron spectrometers with internal conversion to its necessity, are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  20. Radiation measurements aboard the fourth Gemini flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janni, J F; Schneider, M F

    1967-01-01

    Two special tissue-equivalent ionization chambers and 5 highly sensitive passive dosimetry packages were flown aboard the recent Gemini 4 flight for the purpose of obtaining precise values of instantaneous dose rate, accumulated dose. and shielding effectiveness. This experiment marked the first time that well-defined tissue dose and radiation survey measurements have been carried out in manned spaceflight operations. Since all measurements were accomplished under normal spacecraft environmental conditions, the biological dose resulted primarily from trapped inner Van Allen Belt radiation encountered by the spacecraft in the South Atlantic Anomaly. The experiment determined the particle type, ionizing and penetrating power, and variation with time and position within the Gemini spacecraft. Measured dose rates ranged from 100 mrad/hr for passes penetrating deeply into the South Atlantic Anomaly to less than 0.1 mrad/hr from lower latitude cosmic radiation. The accumulated tissue dose measured by the active ionization chambers, shielded by 0.4 gm/cm2 for the 4-day mission, was 82 mrad. Since the 5 passive dosimetry packages were each located in different positions within the spacecraft, the total mission surface dose measured by these detectors varied from 73 to 27 mrad, depending upon location and shielding. The particles within the spacecraft were recorded in nuclear emulsion, which established that over 90% of the tissue dose was attributable to penetrating protons. This experiment indicates that the radiation environment under shielded conditions at Gemini altitudes was not hazardous.

  1. Spectrometers for compact neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J.; Böhm, S.; Dabruck, J. P.; Rücker, U.; Gutberlet, T.; Brückel, T.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the potential for neutron spectrometers at novel accelerator driven compact neutron sources. Such a High Brilliance Source (HBS) relies on low energy nuclear reactions, which enable cryogenic moderators in very close proximity to the target and neutron optics at comparably short distances from the moderator compared to existing sources. While the first effect aims at increasing the phase space density of a moderator, the second allows the extraction of a large phase space volume, which is typically requested for spectrometer applications. We find that competitive spectrometers can be realized if (a) the neutron production rate can be synchronized with the experiment repetition rate and (b) the emission characteristics of the moderator can be matched to the phase space requirements of the experiment. MCNP simulations for protons or deuterons on a Beryllium target with a suitable target/moderator design yield a source brightness, from which we calculate the sample fluxes by phase space considerations for different types of spectrometers. These match closely the figures of todays spectrometers at medium flux sources. Hence we conclude that compact neutron sources might be a viable option for next generation neutron sources.

  2. Inverse-magnetron mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulin, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is the operation of a typical magnetron mass spectrometer with an internal ion source and that of an inverse magnetron mass spectrometer with an external ion source. It is found that for discrimination of the same mass using the inverse design of mass spectrometers it is possible to employ either r 2 /r 1 times lesser magnetic fields at equal accelerating source-collector voltages, or r 2 /r 1 higher accelerating voltages at equal magnetic fields, as compared to the typical design (r 1 and r 2 being radii of the internal and external electrodes of the analyser, respectively). The design of an inverse-magnetron mass spectrometer is described. The mass analyzer is formed by a cylindrical electrode of 3 mm diameter and a coaxial tubular cylinder of 55 mm diameter. External to the analyzer is an ionizing chamber at the pressure of up to 5x10 -6 torr. The magnetic field along the chamber axis produced by a solenoid was 300 Oe. At the accelerating voltage of 100 V and mass 28, the spectrometer has a resolution of 30 at a half-peak height

  3. Occurrence Probabilities of Wet and Dry Periods in Southern Italy through the SPI Evaluated on Synthetic Monthly Precipitation Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article investigates dry and wet periods in a large area of the Mediterranean basin. First, a stochastic model was applied to a homogeneous database of monthly precipitation values of 46 rain gauges in five regions of southern Italy. In particular, after estimating the model parameters, a set of 104 years of monthly precipitation for each rain gauge was generated by means of a Monte Carlo technique. Then, dry and wet periods were analyzed through the application of the standardized precipitation index (SPI over 3-month and 6-month timespan (short-term and 12-month and 24-month period (long-term. As a result of the SPI application on the generated monthly precipitation series, higher occurrence probabilities of dry conditions than wet conditions have been detected, especially when long-term precipitation scales are considered.

  4. Accuracy and reliability of SPI ProX global positioning system devices for measuring movement demands of team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köklü, Y; Arslan, Y; Alemdaroğlu, U; Duffield, R

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of SPI ProX global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement at various speeds and movement patterns as evident in team sport demands. Eleven amateur soccer players performed a 40 m straight sprint test (with 10-20-30 m split times), a zigzag test, 30 m walking, jogging and moderate intensity runs. Results indicated that the SPI ProX GPS measurements showed acceptable accuracy for all movement patterns for distance (coefficient of variation [CV]=0.14% to 3.73%; 95% ratio limits of agreement [95% ratio LOA]=0.97 x / ÷ 1.09 to 1.00 x / ÷ 1.05) and speed (CV=4.22% to 9.52%; 95%LOA=-0.17 ± 1.70 km h-1 to 2.30 ± 1.17 km h-1) compared with the measured distance and speed determined from timing gates, respectively. Furthermore, acceptable reliability of SPI ProX GPS measures for distance (CV=0.34% to 3.81%; 95%LOA=-0.09 ± 0.23 m to -0.34 ± 2.31 m) and speed (CV=3.19% to 6.95%; 95%LOA=-0.05 ± 3.90 km h-1 to 0.42 ± 3.68 km h-1) were also evident. Whilst SPI ProX GPS devices were within acceptable ranges of reliability, they remained significantly different to criterion measures of team sport movement demands.

  5. Malware Memory Analysis for Non specialists: Investigating Publicly Available Memory Images for Prolaco and SpyEye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    in this work against both the Prolaco worm and SpyEye Trojan horse: • Classes \\Local Settings\\Software\\Microsoft\\Windows\\Shell\\MuiCache • Control...List of symbols/abbreviations/acronyms/initialisms ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange AV Anti-Virus or Antivirus CFNOC...possible to select indexing terms which are Unclassified, the classification of each should be indicated as with the title.) Antivirus ; Anti-virus

  6. Measuring absolute spin polarization in dissolution-DNP by Spin PolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Chappuis, Quentin; Bornet, Aurélien; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization at 1.2 K and 6.7 T allows one to achieve spin temperatures on the order of a few millikelvin, so that the high-temperature approximation (ΔEPolarimetrY Magnetic Resonance (SPY-MR), is illustrated for various pairs of (13)C spins (I, S) in acetate and pyruvate. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of the ROTAX spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tietze-Jaensch, H.; Schmidt, W.; Geick, R.

    1997-01-01

    After installation of the new-type rotating crystal analyser spectrometer ROTAX at ISIS, we report on practical experience and describe its current status. The rotating analyser technique works feasibly and reliably and provides an ultimate scan flexibility on a pulsed time-of-flight neutron spectrometer. The spinning analyser achieves a mulitplex advantage factor of ca. 50 without compromising the resolution of the instrument. Despite these instrument merits its individual beam position at ISIS has only an unsatisfactorily weak flux, thus hindering this instrument yet to become fully competitive with other high-performance neutron spectrometers based at high-flux reactors. However, we strongly recommend a ROTAX-type instrument to be emphasized when the instrumentation suite of the future European spallation source ESS will come under scrutiny. (orig.)

  8. How to Design a Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeline, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    Designing a spectrometer requires knowledge of the problem to be solved, the molecules whose properties will contribute to a solution of that problem and skill in many subfields of science and engineering. A seemingly simple problem, design of an ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared spectrometer, is used to show the reasoning behind the trade-offs in instrument design. Rather than reporting a fully optimized instrument, the Yin and Yang of design choices, leading to decisions about financial cost, materials choice, resolution, throughput, aperture, and layout are described. To limit scope, aspects such as grating blaze, electronics design, and light sources are not presented. The review illustrates the mixture of mathematical rigor, rule of thumb, esthetics, and availability of components that contribute to the art of spectrometer design.

  9. Half Life: The Divided Life of Bruno Pontecorvo, Physicist or Spy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, Frank

    2016-01-01

    It was at the height of the Cold War, in the summer of 1950, when Bruno Pontecorvo mysteriously vanished behind the Iron Curtain. Who was he, and what caused him to disappear? Was he simply a physicist, or also a spy and communist radical? A protege of Enrico Fermi, Pontecorvo was one of the most promising nuclear physicists in the world. He spent years hunting for the Higgs boson of his day - the neutrino - a nearly massless particle thought to be essential to the process of particle decay. His work on the Manhattan Project helped to usher in the nuclear age, and confirmed his reputation as a brilliant physicist. Why, then, would he disappear as he stood on the cusp of true greatness, perhaps even the Nobel Prize? In this book, physicist and historian Frank Close offers a heretofore untold history of Pontecorvo's life, based on unprecedented access to Pontecorvo's friends and family and the Russian scientists with whom he would later work. Close takes a microscope to Pontecorvo's life, combining a thorough biography of one of the most important scientists of the twentieth century with the drama of Cold War espionage. With all the elements of a Cold War thriller - classified atomic research, an infamous double agent, a possible kidnapping by Soviet operatives - this book is a history of nuclear physics at perhaps its most powerful: when it created the bomb

  10. Subcloning Plus Insertion (SPI) - A Novel Recombineering Method for the Rapid Construction of Gene Targeting Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Thimma R.; Kelsall, Emma J.; Fevat, Léna M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Gene targeting refers to the precise modification of a genetic locus using homologous recombination. The generation of novel cell lines and transgenic mouse models using this method necessitates the construction of a ‘targeting’ vector, which contains homologous DNA sequences to the target gene, and has for many years been a limiting step in the process. Vector construction can be performed in vivo in Escherichia coli cells using homologous recombination mediated by phage recombinases using a technique termed recombineering. Recombineering is the preferred technique to subclone the long homology sequences (>4kb) and various targeting elements including selection markers that are required to mediate efficient allelic exchange between a targeting vector and its cognate genomic locus. Typical recombineering protocols follow an iterative scheme of step-wise integration of the targeting elements and require intermediate purification and transformation steps. Here, we present a novel recombineering methodology of vector assembly using a multiplex approach. Plasmid gap repair is performed by the simultaneous capture of genomic sequence from mouse Bacterial Artificial Chromosome libraries and the insertion of dual bacterial and mammalian selection markers. This subcloning plus insertion method is highly efficient and yields a majority of correct recombinants. We present data for the construction of different types of conditional gene knockout, or knock-in, vectors and BAC reporter vectors that have been constructed using this method. SPI vector construction greatly extends the repertoire of the recombineering toolbox and provides a simple, rapid and cost-effective method of constructing these highly complex vectors. PMID:25590226

  11. jSPyDB, an open source database-independent tool for data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Cavallari, Francesca; Di Guida, Salvatore; Innocente, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of commercial tools available for accessing Databases, built on Java or .Net, is increasing. However, many of these applications have several drawbacks: usually they are not open-source, they provide interfaces only with a specific kind of database, they are platform-dependent and very CPU and memory consuming. jSPyDB is a free web-based tool written using Python and Javascript. It relies on jQuery and python libraries, and is intended to provide a simple handler to different database technologies inside a local web browser. Such a tool, exploiting fast access libraries such as SQLAlchemy, is easy to install, and to configure. The design of this tool envisages three layers. The front-end client side in the local web browser communicates with a backend server. Only the server is able to connect to the different databases for the purposes of performing data definition and manipulation. The server makes the data available to the client, so that the user can display and handle them safely. Moreover, thanks to jQuery libraries, this tool supports export of data in different formats, such as XML and JSON. Finally, by using a set of pre-defined functions, users are allowed to create their customized views for a better data visualization. In this way, we optimize the performance of database servers by avoiding short connections and concurrent sessions. In addition, security is enforced since we do not provide users the possibility to directly execute any SQL statement.

  12. jSPyDB, an open source database-independent tool for data management

    CERN Document Server

    Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the number of commercial tools available for accessing Databases, built on Java or .Net, is increasing. However, many of these applications have several drawbacks: usually they are not open-source, they provide interfaces only with a specific kind of database, they are platform-dependent and very CPU and memory consuming. jSPyDB is a free web based tool written using Python and Javascript. It relies on jQuery and python libraries, and is intended to provide a simple handler to different Database technologies inside a local web browser. Such a tool, exploiting fast access libraries such as SQLAlchemy, is easy to install, and to configure. The design of this tool envisages three layers. The front-end client side in the local web browser communicates with a backend server. Only the server is able to connect to the different databases for the purposes of performing data definition and manipulation. The server makes the data available to the client, so that the user can display and handle them safely. ...

  13. Using Stochastic Spiking Neural Networks on SpiNNaker to Solve Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Fonseca Guerra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Constraint satisfaction problems (CSP are at the core of numerous scientific and technological applications. However, CSPs belong to the NP-complete complexity class, for which the existence (or not of efficient algorithms remains a major unsolved question in computational complexity theory. In the face of this fundamental difficulty heuristics and approximation methods are used to approach instances of NP (e.g., decision and hard optimization problems. The human brain efficiently handles CSPs both in perception and behavior using spiking neural networks (SNNs, and recent studies have demonstrated that the noise embedded within an SNN can be used as a computational resource to solve CSPs. Here, we provide a software framework for the implementation of such noisy neural solvers on the SpiNNaker massively parallel neuromorphic hardware, further demonstrating their potential to implement a stochastic search that solves instances of P and NP problems expressed as CSPs. This facilitates the exploration of new optimization strategies and the understanding of the computational abilities of SNNs. We demonstrate the basic principles of the framework by solving difficult instances of the Sudoku puzzle and of the map color problem, and explore its application to spin glasses. The solver works as a stochastic dynamical system, which is attracted by the configuration that solves the CSP. The noise allows an optimal exploration of the space of configurations, looking for the satisfiability of all the constraints; if applied discontinuously, it can also force the system to leap to a new random configuration effectively causing a restart.

  14. Using Stochastic Spiking Neural Networks on SpiNNaker to Solve Constraint Satisfaction Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca Guerra, Gabriel A; Furber, Steve B

    2017-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems (CSP) are at the core of numerous scientific and technological applications. However, CSPs belong to the NP-complete complexity class, for which the existence (or not) of efficient algorithms remains a major unsolved question in computational complexity theory. In the face of this fundamental difficulty heuristics and approximation methods are used to approach instances of NP (e.g., decision and hard optimization problems). The human brain efficiently handles CSPs both in perception and behavior using spiking neural networks (SNNs), and recent studies have demonstrated that the noise embedded within an SNN can be used as a computational resource to solve CSPs. Here, we provide a software framework for the implementation of such noisy neural solvers on the SpiNNaker massively parallel neuromorphic hardware, further demonstrating their potential to implement a stochastic search that solves instances of P and NP problems expressed as CSPs. This facilitates the exploration of new optimization strategies and the understanding of the computational abilities of SNNs. We demonstrate the basic principles of the framework by solving difficult instances of the Sudoku puzzle and of the map color problem, and explore its application to spin glasses. The solver works as a stochastic dynamical system, which is attracted by the configuration that solves the CSP. The noise allows an optimal exploration of the space of configurations, looking for the satisfiability of all the constraints; if applied discontinuously, it can also force the system to leap to a new random configuration effectively causing a restart.

  15. Timing Analysis of V404 Cyg during Its Brightest Outburst with INTEGRAL/SPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodi, J.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P.

    2017-10-01

    The outburst of V404 Cyg during the summer of 2015 reached unparalleled intensities at X-ray and soft gamma-ray energies with fluxes > 50 Crab in the 20-50 keV energy band. To date, studies in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray energy domain have focused primarily on the energy spectra. In this work, a timing analysis has been performed with INTEGRAL/SPI data in the 20-300 keV energy range for INTEGRAL revolution 1557, which corresponds to the brightest flare of V404 Cyg (on 2015 June 26). The power spectra are fit with broken power-law and multi-Lorentzian models and compared with previously reported results of V404 Cyg flaring activity from 1989 and 2015. Also, we took advantage of the good signal-to-noise ratio obtained above 70 keV to quantify the timing/fast-variability properties of the source as a function of energy. We then point out similarities of V404 Cyg with the black hole transient V4641 Sgr. Like V4641 Sgr, we found that the power spectra of V404 Cyg during high flux periods did not possess the expected flat-top feature typically seen in a hard spectral state. Interpretations are proposed in the framework of the fluctuating-propagation model to explain the observed properties.

  16. Streptococcus pneumoniae Attenuated Strain SPY1 with an Artificial Mineral Shell Induces Humoral and Th17 Cellular Immunity and Protects Mice against Pneumococcal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyuan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen leading to substantial morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Vaccination is an effective strategy to prevent S. pneumoniae infection. SPY1 is a pneumococcal vaccine candidate strain obtained in our previous study. To improve its stability and immunogencity, in this study, we constructed the SPY1ΔlytA strain that lacks autolysin activity and was coated with an artificial exterior surface calcium phosphate shell by in situ mineralization. The resulting strain SPY1ΔlytACaPi displayed enhanced thermal stability enabling storage at 37°C for 1 week. Furthermore, mucosal and subcutaneous immunization with the SPY1ΔlytACaPi strain induced better protective effects than SPY1ΔlytA in anti-colonization after challenging with 19F and anti-invasion by D39 in mice. Subcutaneous immunization with SPY1ΔlytACaPi elicited higher IgG level while mucosal immunization primarily elicited an immune response which is supposed to be related to Th17 cells. Taken together, the mineralized strain may be a promising candidate for an attenuated S. pneumoniae vaccine.

  17. Interfacing an aspiration ion mobility spectrometer to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, Alexey; Viidanoja, Jyrki; Kaerpaenoja, Esko; Paakkanen, Heikki; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kostiainen, Risto; Sysoev, Alexey; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the combination of an aspiration-type ion mobility spectrometer with a mass spectrometer. The interface between the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer and the mass spectrometer was designed to allow for quick mounting of the aspiration ion mobility spectrometer onto a Sciex API-300 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The developed instrumentation is used for gathering fundamental information on aspiration ion mobility spectrometry. Performance of the instrument is demonstrated using 2,6-di-tert-butyl pyridine and dimethyl methylphosphonate

  18. Droughts in a warming climate: A global assessment of Standardized precipitation index (SPI) and Reconnaissance drought index (RDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi Zarch, Mohammad Amin; Sivakumar, Bellie; Sharma, Ashish

    2015-07-01

    Both drought and aridity indicate imbalance in water availability. While drought is a natural temporal hazard, aridity is a constant climatic feature. This paper investigates the changes in drought characteristics across different aridity zones with and without consideration of potential evapotranspiration (PET), as a means to better assess drought in a warming climate. Two drought indexes are employed: (1) Standardized precipitation index (SPI), which is solely based on precipitation; and (2) Reconnaissance drought index (RDI), which, in addition to precipitation, takes PET into account. The two indexes are first employed to observed precipitation and PET data for the period 1960-2009 from the CRU (Climate Research Unit, University of East Anglia) TS 3.1 database. The results indicate that although all the aridity zones experience both downward and upward drought trends, no significant trend is found over large parts of the zones. However, the agreement between SPI and RDI reduces from the hyper-arid zone on one extreme toward the humid zone on the other. In the three more humid zones (i.e. semi-arid, sub-humid, and humid), the indexes exhibit different trends, with RDI showing more decreasing trends (i.e. becoming drier). While SPI generally shows more drought prone areas than RDI for the pre-1998 period, the opposite is observed for the post-1998 period. Given the known changes to PET in observed records, and also expected increases as global warming intensifies, these results suggest that RDI will be consistently different to the SPI as global warming intensifies. This hypothesis is further tested for historic and future climate projections from the CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia) Mk3.6 global climate model (GCM), with use of the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and RCP8.5 (Representative Concentration Pathways). In this case, PET is calculated using FAO56-PM model for assessment of

  19. Lunar surface reflectance by LALT aboard KAGUYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Tazawa, S.; Sasaki, S.; Kawano, N.

    2009-12-01

    The Laser Altimeter (LALT) aboard Japanese lunar explorer KAGUYA (SELENE) is a ranging instrument which measures the distance between the satellite and the lunar surface with accuracy of 1 m by detecting the timing delay of the reflected laser light. The main science goal of the LALT is to obtain the lunar global topographic data including polar regions for the study of the origin and the evolution of the Moon [1]. Besides, the LALT is equipped with an intensity monitor of the returned pulses. The intensity of the returned pulses contains information concerning surface roughness and reflectance of the footprints, which will contribute to the study of the lunar surface maturity and age. The reflectance at LALT wavelength (1064nm) is sensitive to the surface maturity and composition. The data should be particularly important at lunar polar regions where camera instruments should suffer from phase angle effects in the surface reflectance and moreover cannot obtain reflectance data at the permanently shadowed area. The normal operation of the LALT began on 30th, December 2007 after two months’ commissioning phase. Before the end of the normal operation phase in October 2008, the LALT measured more than 10 million range data. Unfortunately, due to the laser power decrease and also possible smaller surface reflectance than the expected value before launch (15 % at 1 micro meter), the return pulse intensity during the nominal mission phase is so small that they are not reliable enough to discuss the surface property. During the extended mission phase, which started November 2008, the satellite altitude decreased to 50 km. Due to the malfunction of the reaction wheel and high-voltage instruments were shutdown, the observation was suspended until 11th of February, 2009. LALT successfully resumed observation on 12th February and continued observation until the controlled crash of KAGUYA onto the Moon on 10th of June, 2009. Thanks to the lower orbit during this phase, the

  20. Mid infrared MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfan, Mazen; Sabry, Yasser M.; Mortada, Bassem; Sharaf, Khaled; Khalil, Diaa

    2016-03-01

    In this work we report, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, a bulk-micromachined wideband MEMS-based spectrometer covering both the NIR and the MIR ranges and working from 1200 nm to 4800 nm. The core engine of the spectrometer is a scanning Michelson interferometer micro-fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology. The spectrum is obtained using the Fourier Transform techniques that allows covering a very wide spectral range limited by the detector responsivity. The moving mirror of the interferometer is driven by a relatively large stroke electrostatic comb-drive actuator. Zirconium fluoride (ZrF4) multimode optical fibers are used to connect light between the white light source and the interferometer input, as well as the interferometer output to a PbSe photoconductive detector. The recorded signal-to-noise ratio is 25 dB at the wavelength of 3350 nm. The spectrometer is successfully used in measuring the absorption spectra of methylene chloride, quartz glass and polystyrene film. The presented solution provides a low cost method for producing miniaturized spectrometers in the near-/mid-infrared.

  1. Quantifying ice loss in the eastern Himalayas since 1974 using declassified spy satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Maurer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan glaciers are important natural resources and climate indicators for densely populated regions in Asia. Remote sensing methods are vital for evaluating glacier response to changing climate over the vast and rugged Himalayan region, yet many platforms capable of glacier mass balance quantification are somewhat temporally limited due to typical glacier response times. We here rely on declassified spy satellite imagery and ASTER data to quantify surface lowering, ice volume change, and geodetic mass balance during 1974–2006 for glaciers in the eastern Himalayas, centered on the Bhutan–China border. The wide range of glacier types allows for the first mass balance comparison between clean, debris, and lake-terminating (calving glaciers in the region. Measured glaciers show significant ice loss, with an estimated mean annual geodetic mass balance of −0.13 ± 0.06 m w.e. yr−1 (meters of water equivalent per year for 10 clean-ice glaciers, −0.19 ± 0.11 m w.e. yr−1 for 5 debris-covered glaciers, −0.28 ± 0.10 m w.e. yr−1 for 6 calving glaciers, and −0.17 ± 0.05 m w.e. yr−1 for all glaciers combined. Contrasting hypsometries along with melt pond, ice cliff, and englacial conduit mechanisms result in statistically similar mass balance values for both clean-ice and debris-covered glacier groups. Calving glaciers comprise 18 % (66 km2 of the glacierized area yet have contributed 30 % (−0.7 km3 to the total ice volume loss, highlighting the growing relevance of proglacial lake formation and associated calving for the future ice mass budget of the Himalayas as the number and size of glacial lakes increase.

  2. The heavy metals content in wild growing mushrooms from burdened Spiš area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Slávik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the rate of entry of heavy metals into the edible parts of wild mushrooms, from central Spiš area. The area is characterized by extremely high content of heavy metals particularly mercury in abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The toxicity of heavy metals is well known and described. Known is also the ability of fungi to accumulate contaminants from substrates in which mushrooms grow. We have collected commonly consumed species of mushrooms (Russula vesca., Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Lecinum piceinum, Boletus reticulatus. Sampling was conducted for two years 2012 and 2013. The samples taken mushrooms and substrates on which to grow, we determined heavy metal content (Cd, Pb, Cu, including total mercury content modified by atomic absorption spectrometry (AMA - 254. In the substrate, we determined the humus content and pH value. The heavy metal content in soils were evaluated according to Law no. 220/2004 Z.z The exceedance limit values of Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg was recorded. Most significantly the respective limit was recorded in soil samples in the case of mercury. The determined concentration Hg was 39.01 mg.kg-1. From the results, we evaluated the degree of ability to bioaccumulate heavy metals different kinds of fungi. We also evaluated the health safety of the consumption of these fungi on the comparison with the limit values provided in the food code of SR. We recorded a high rate of accumulation of mercury in the species Boletus reticulatus and Macrolepiota procera. For these types we recorded the most significant than allowed concentrations of mercury in mushrooms. The highest recorded concentration reached 17.64 mg.kg-1 Hg in fresh matter. The limit value was exceeded also in the case of copper. We do not recommend to increased consumption of wild mushrooms in the reference area.

  3. Compact Spectrometers Based on Linear Variable Filters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Demonstrate a linear-variable spectrometer with an H2RG array. Linear Variable Filter (LVF) spectrometers provide attractive resource benefits – high optical...

  4. Electron spectrometer for gas-phase spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Schlachter, A.S. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    An electron spectrometer for high-resolution spectroscopy of gaseous samples using synchrotron radiation has been designed and constructed. The spectrometer consists of a gas cell, cylindrical electrostatic lens, spherical-sector electron energy analyzer, position-sensitive detector and associated power supplies, electronics and vacuum pumps. Details of the spectrometer design are presented together with some representative spectra.

  5. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures

  7. Heavy-ion-spectrometer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-01

    LBL safety policy (Pub 300 Appendix E) states that every research operation with a Class A risk potential (DOE 5484.1) should identify potentially hazardous procedures associated with the operation and develop methods for accomplishing the operation safely without personnel injury or property damage. The rules and practices that management deems to be minimally necessary for the safe operations of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) in the Bevatron Experimental Hall (51B) are set forth in this Operation Safety Procedures (OSP).

  8. The HISS spectrometer at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1981-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System at LBL is designed to be a general purpose experimental work bench able to support a wide variety of experiments. Our philosophy is to provide instruments capable of investigating, with multi-particle sensitivity, a large portion of phase space. We have not chosen a particular region such as mid-rapidity or projectile frame, but instead, have made sure that the magnet and the instrumentation allow these choices as well as many others. (orig.)

  9. The superconducting kaon spectrometer - SKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, T.; Takahashi, T.; Aoki, K.; Doi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Makida, Y.; Nomachi, M.; Noumi, H.; Sasaki, O.; Shintomi, T.; Bhang, H.; Park, H.; Youn, M.; Yu, H.; Gavrilov, Y.; Ajimura, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Ohkusu, A.; Shinkai, N.; Maeda, K.; Sawafta, R.

    1995-01-01

    A superconducting kaon spectrometer has been installed in the north experimental hall of the KEK 12-GeV proton synchrotron. The spectrometer was designed to serve for nuclear physics experiments with meson beams in the 1 GeV/c region, particular emphasis being laid on study of Λ-hypernuclei via (π + ,K + ) reactions. In order to obtain Λ-hypernuclear data with better statistics and energy resolution, it was designed to have a good momentum resolution of 0.1% FWHM and a large acceptance of 100 msr. It consists of a large superconducting dipole magnet, tracking chambers, and trigger counters that can efficiently select kaons from large background of pions and protons. The overall energy resolution for scattering is realized together with a beam-line spectrometer in the K6 beam line, the momentum resolution of which was also designed to be better than 0.1% FWHM. A good energy resolution of better than 2 MeV FWHM has been confirmed in π - - 12 C elastic scattering and in the (π + ,K + ) reaction on 12 C. (orig.)

  10. Oxford MDM-2 magnetic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pringle, D.M.; Catford, W.N.; Winfield, J.S.; Lewis, D.G.; Jelley, N.A.; Allen, K.W.; Coupland, J.H.

    1986-05-01

    A new high resolution magnetic spectrometer - the Oxford MDM-2 spectrometer - has been designed, installed and tested. The layout of the magnetic elements is in the order: entrance sextupole and multipole, gradient-field dipole and exit multipole. The device has a ''normal'' focal plane, and the 1.6 m radius dipole magnet has a maximum mass-energy product of 315 MeV amu. At the maximum solid angle of 8 msr, the ratio of energies that can be accepted by the spectrometer (Esub(max)/Esub(min)) is 1.31. Precise measurements have been performed on the magnetic elements. The dipole magnet has very low hysteresis and field integral errors that amount to less than 1 part in 10/sup 4/. After some in situ modifications the field distributions of the magnets closely approximated the original design specifications. On-line tests with various ion-beams have revealed the optimum setting for each element. These are close to theoretical predictions from the program RAYTRACE, incorporating the parameterised results of the magnetic measurements. An aberration limited resolution (E/..delta..E) of greater than 3000 has been observed at 8 msr solid angle.

  11. Seasonal streamflow forecasting: experiences with precipitation bias correction and SPI conditioning to improve performance for hydrological events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, M. H.; Crochemore, L.; Pappenberger, F.; Perrin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Many fields such as drought risk assessment or reservoir management can benefit from seasonal streamflow forecasts. This study presents the results of two analyses aiming to: 1) assess the skill of seasonal precipitation forecasts in France and provide insights into the way bias correcting precipitation forecasts can improve the skill of streamflow forecasts at extended lead times, and 2) evaluate how the conditioning of historical data based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) from bias-corrected GCM precipitation forecasts can be useful to select traces within the historical data and further improve the forecast of droughts. We evaluated several bias correction approaches and conditioned precipitation scenarios in sixteen catchments in France, with the help of ECMWF System 4 seasonal precipitation forecasts and the GR6J hydrological model. The results show that, in most catchments, raw seasonal precipitation and streamflow forecasts are often sharper than the conventional ESP method. However, they are not significantly better in terms of reliability. Forecast skill is generally improved when applying bias correction. The simple linear scaling of monthly values contributed mainly to increase forecast sharpness and accuracy, while the empirical distribution mapping of daily values was successful in improving forecast reliability. Our results also show that conditioning past observations based on the three-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI3) can improve the sharpness of ensemble forecasts based on historical data, while maintaining good reliability. An evaluation of forecast ensembles for low-flow forecasting showed that the SPI3-conditioned ensembles provided reliable forecasts of low-flow duration and deficit volume based on the 80th exceedance percentile. Drought risk forecasting is illustrated for the 2003 drought event.

  12. A NMR spectrometer for educational purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colnago, Luiz A.; Torre Neto, Andre

    1991-01-01

    A NMR spectrometer has been constructed for educational purposes, such as teaching of the technique basic principles and instrumentation. The spectrometer has been designed with a minimum number of components so that the students may have acquittance with both the spectrometer, through block diagrams, and the small numbers of existent components . The device was based on a 0.t Tesla magnet from the continuous wave spectrometer (E M 300 - Varian) existent at the Instituto Militar de Engenharia, and it is expected to facilitate the comprehension of the commercial spectrometers

  13. Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (EMIRS) Overview from the Emirates Mars Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunaiji, Eman; Edwards, Christopher; Smith, Michael; Christensen, Philip; AlMheiri, Suhail; Reed, Heather

    2017-04-01

    Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (EMIRS) instrument is one of three scientific instruments aboard the Emirate Mars Mission (EMM), with the name of "Hope". EMM is United Arab Emirates' (UAE) mission to be launched in 2020, with the aim of exploring the dynamics of the atmosphere of Mars on a global scale with sampling on a diurnal and sub-seasonal time-scales. EMM has three scientific instruments selected to provide an improved understanding of circulation and weather in the Martian lower atmosphere as well as the thermosphere and exosphere. The EMIRS instrument is an interferometric thermal infrared spectrometer that is jointly developed by Arizona State University (ASU) and Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC), Dubai, UAE. It builds on a long heritage of thermal infrared spectrometers designed, built, and managed, by ASU's Mars Space Flight Facility, including the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES). EMIRS operates in the 6-40+ μm range with 5 cm-1 spectral sampling, enabled by a Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) diamond beam splitter and state of the art electronics. This instrument utilizes a 3×3 line array detector and a scan mirror to make high-precision infrared radiance measurements over most of the Martian hemisphere. The EMIRS instrument is optimized to capture the integrated, lower-middle atmosphere dynamics over a Martian hemisphere, using a scan-mirror to make 60 global images per week ( 20 images per orbit) at a resolution of 100-300 km/pixel while requiring no special spacecraft maneuvers.

  14. Spi2 gene polymorphism is not associated with recurrent airway obstruction and inflammatory airway disease in thoroughbred horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to detect the presence of polymorphisms at exons 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the Spi2 gene, and evaluate a possible association between them and recurrent airway obstruction (RAO or inflammatory airway disease (IAD in thoroughbred horses, through single-strand conformational-polymorphism (SSCP screening. Although polymorphism was not detected in exons 1, 2 and 3, three alleles and six genotypes were identified in exon 4. The frequencies of allele A (0.6388 and genotype AA (0.3888 were higher in horses affected by RAO, although no association was found between polymorphism and horses with either RAO or IAD.

  15. Ion mobility spectrometer / mass spectrometer (IMS-MS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka Deborah Elaine; Austin, Daniel E.

    2005-07-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400). Combining Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) with Mass Spectrometry (MS) is described. The IMS-MS combination overcomes several limitations present in simple IMS systems. Ion mobility alone is insufficient to identify an unknown chemical agent. Collision cross section, upon which mobility is based, is not sufficiently unique or predictable a priori to be able to make a confident peak assignment unless the compounds present are already identified. Molecular mass, on the other hand, is much more readily interpreted and related to compounds. For a given compound, the molecular mass can be determined using a pocket calculator (or in one's head) while a reasonable value of the cross-section might require hours of computation time. Thus a mass spectrum provides chemical specificity and identity not accessible in the mobility spectrum alone. In addition, several advanced mass spectrometric methods, such as tandem MS, have been extensively developed for the purpose of molecular identification. With an appropriate mass spectrometer connected to an ion mobility spectrometer, these advanced identification methods become available, providing greater characterization capability.

  16. Pining for home: Studying crew homesickness aboard a cruise liner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each has the potential to generate extra costs and reduced profits to the cruise organisation. Unhappy and homesick crews are more likely to want to cut short their employment aboard, and leave the ship before the contract ends. This has a replacement cost implication that adds to operating costs and reduced profits.

  17. 21 CFR 1240.90 - Approval of treatment aboard conveyances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.90 Approval of treatment aboard conveyances. (a... produce, potable water. (b) The Commissioner of Food and Drugs may base his approval or disapproval of the... Section 1240.90 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  18. Camera aboard 'Friendship 7' photographs John Glenn during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    A camera aboard the 'Friendship 7' Mercury spacecraft photographs Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. during the Mercury-Atlas 6 spaceflight (00302-3); Photographs Glenn as he uses a photometer to view the sun during sunsent on the MA-6 space flight (00304).

  19. Ion Mobility Spectrometer / Mass Spectrometer (IMS-MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunka, Deborah E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Austin, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2005-10-01

    The use of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS)in the Detection of Contraband Sandia researchers use ion mobility spectrometers for trace chemical detection and analysis in a variety of projects and applications. Products developed in recent years based on IMS-technology include explosives detection personnel portals, the Material Area Access (MAA) checkpoint of the future, an explosives detection vehicle portal, hand-held detection systems such as the Hound and Hound II (all 6400), micro-IMS sensors (1700), ordnance detection (2500), and Fourier Transform IMS technology (8700). The emphasis to date has been on explosives detection, but the detection of chemical agents has also been pursued (8100 and 6400).

  20. Transcriptional regulation of the proto-oncogene Zfp521 by SPI1 (PU.1) and HOXC13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming; Al-Dallal, Salma; Al-Haj, Latifa; Panjwani, Shiraj; McCartney, Akina S; Edwards, Sarah M; Manjunath, Pooja; Walker, Catherine; Awgulewitsch, Alexander; Hentges, Kathryn E

    2016-10-01

    The mouse zinc-finger gene Zfp521 (also known as ecotropic viral insertion site 3; Evi3; and ZNF521 in humans) has been identified as a B-cell proto-oncogene, causing leukemia in mice following retroviral insertions in its promoter region that drive Zfp521 over-expression. Furthermore, ZNF521 is expressed in human hematopoietic cells, and translocations between ZNF521 and PAX5 are associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the regulatory factors that control Zfp521 expression directly have not been characterized. Here we demonstrate that the transcription factors SPI1 (PU.1) and HOXC13 synergistically regulate Zfp521 expression, and identify the regions of the Zfp521 promoter required for this transcriptional activity. We also show that SPI1 and HOXC13 activate Zfp521 in a dose-dependent manner. Our data support a role for this regulatory mechanism in vivo, as transgenic mice over-expressing Hoxc13 in the fetal liver show a strong correlation between Hoxc13 expression levels and Zfp521 expression. Overall these experiments provide insights into the regulation of Zfp521 expression in a nononcogenic context. The identification of transcription factors capable of activating Zfp521 provides a foundation for further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in ZFP521-driven cell differentiation processes and diseases linked to Zfp521 mis-expression. © 2016 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of the proto‐oncogene Zfp521 by SPI1 (PU.1) and HOXC13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming; Al‐Dallal, Salma; Al‐Haj, Latifa; Panjwani, Shiraj; McCartney, Akina S.; Edwards, Sarah M.; Manjunath, Pooja; Walker, Catherine; Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mouse zinc‐finger gene Zfp521 (also known as ecotropic viral insertion site 3; Evi3; and ZNF521 in humans) has been identified as a B‐cell proto‐oncogene, causing leukemia in mice following retroviral insertions in its promoter region that drive Zfp521 over‐expression. Furthermore, ZNF521 is expressed in human hematopoietic cells, and translocations between ZNF521 and PAX5 are associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the regulatory factors that control Zfp521 expression directly have not been characterized. Here we demonstrate that the transcription factors SPI1 (PU.1) and HOXC13 synergistically regulate Zfp521 expression, and identify the regions of the Zfp521 promoter required for this transcriptional activity. We also show that SPI1 and HOXC13 activate Zfp521 in a dose‐dependent manner. Our data support a role for this regulatory mechanism in vivo, as transgenic mice over‐expressing Hoxc13 in the fetal liver show a strong correlation between Hoxc13 expression levels and Zfp521 expression. Overall these experiments provide insights into the regulation of Zfp521 expression in a nononcogenic context. The identification of transcription factors capable of activating Zfp521 provides a foundation for further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms involved in ZFP521‐driven cell differentiation processes and diseases linked to Zfp521 mis‐expression. PMID:27506447

  2. Minimal SPI1-T3SS effector requirement for Salmonella enterocyte invasion and intracellular proliferation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaiyi; Riba, Ambre; Nietschke, Monika; Torow, Natalia; Repnik, Urska; Pütz, Andreas; Fulde, Marcus; Dupont, Aline; Hensel, Michael; Hornef, Mathias

    2018-03-01

    Effector molecules translocated by the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)1-encoded type 3 secretion system (T3SS) critically contribute to the pathogenesis of human Salmonella infection. They facilitate internalization by non-phagocytic enterocytes rendering the intestinal epithelium an entry site for infection. Their function in vivo has remained ill-defined due to the lack of a suitable animal model that allows visualization of intraepithelial Salmonella. Here, we took advantage of our novel neonatal mouse model and analyzed various bacterial mutants and reporter strains as well as gene deficient mice. Our results demonstrate the critical but redundant role of SopE2 and SipA for enterocyte invasion, prerequisite for transcriptional stimulation and mucosal translocation in vivo. In contrast, the generation of a replicative intraepithelial endosomal compartment required the cooperative action of SipA and SopE2 or SipA and SopB but was independent of SopA or host MyD88 signaling. Intraepithelial growth had no critical influence on systemic spread. Our results define the role of SPI1-T3SS effector molecules during enterocyte invasion and intraepithelial proliferation in vivo providing novel insight in the early course of Salmonella infection.

  3. Breaking The Millisecond Barrier On SpiNNaker: Implementing Asynchronous Event-Based Plastic Models With Microsecond Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eLagorce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spike-based neuromorphic sensors such as retinas and cochleas, change the way in which the world is sampled. Instead of producing data sampled at a constant rate, these sensors output spikes that are asynchronous and event driven. The event-based nature of neuromorphic sensors implies a complete paradigm shift in current perception algorithms towards those that emphasize the importance of precise timing. The spikes produced by these sensors usually have a time resolution in the order of microseconds. This high temporal resolution is a crucial factor in learning tasks. It is also widely used in the field of biological neural networks. Sound localization for instance relies on detecting time lags between the two ears which, in the barn owl, reaches a temporal resolution of 5 microseconds. Current available neuromorphic computation platforms such as SpiNNaker often limit their users to a time resolution in the order of milliseconds that is not compatible with the asynchronous outputs of neuromorphic sensors. To overcome these limitations and allow for the exploration of new types of neuromorphic computing architectures, we introduce a novel software framework on the SpiNNaker platform. This framework allows for simulations of spiking networks and plasticity mechanisms using a completely asynchronous and event-based scheme running with a microsecond time resolution. Results on two example networks using this new implementation are presented.

  4. The man, who wasn't a spy. The life of the communist and scientist Klaus Fuchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, R.

    2005-01-01

    In 1949 the Sovjet Union ignited her first atomic bomb, many years earlyer than expected by western secret services. A decisive role played the German physicist Klaus Fuchs. From 1943 to 1946 he cooperated in the US atomic bomb program, called Manhatten Project. All knowledge he yield, all information he got, he passed on secret ways to the Sovjet Union. In 1950 he was exposed and condemned because of spying. This book is worldwide the first comprehensive biography of a man, who had been regarded as the ''most dangerous spy of the 20th century'' in the western world, and his work had been kept a secret in the East lasting for decades. The author evaluated an extensive source material from the USA, Great Britain and the Sovjet Union, released to pubication not till after 1990. Furtheron he could rely on the memory of many actors in the surrounding of Klaus Fuchs, who also found the way to the publicity after the end of the East-West-Conflict. (GL)

  5. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Bene, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Brocco, L; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, J P D; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; Dantone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, P; Favier, Jean; Fiandrini, E; Fisher, P H; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Grimm, O; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu, H T; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mihul, A; Mourao, A; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Sartorelli, G; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torsti, J; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Vandenhirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Gunten, H V; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan, L G; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m sup 2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  6. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (ams)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionica, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), once installed on the International Space Station will provide precise measurements of the cosmic ray spectra up to TeV energy range, and will search for cosmological antimatter and missing matter. A prototype version of the detector was operated successfully on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998 (STS-91). Here we briefly report on the design of the AMS apparatus and present the results of the measurements of the fluxes of proton, electron, positron and helium from the STS-91 flight.

  7. Portable neutron spectrometer and dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, D.A.; Erkkila, B.H.; Vasilik, D.G.

    The disclosure relates to a battery operated neutron spectrometer/dosimeter utilizing a microprocessor, a built-in tissue equivalent LET neutron detector, and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer with integral liquid crystal display. The apparatus calculates doses and dose rates from neutrons incident on the detector and displays a spectrum of rad or rem as a function of keV per micron of equivalent tissue and also calculates and displays accumulated dose in millirads and millirem as well as neutron dose rates in millirads per hour and millirem per hour.

  8. New spectrometer for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajsfelner, Rene

    1970-02-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study and development of an electrostatic spectrometer which is not only more accurate for the determination of size distributions of electrically charged radio-active atmospheric aerosols, but which can also be used for measuring the grain-size distribution of any cloud of particles which will previously have been charged according to a known, reproducible law. An experimental study has been made of the development of this precipitator and also of its calibration. The electrical charge on spherical polystyrene latex particles suspended in air by atomization has been studied; a theoretical explanation of these results is put forward. (author) [fr

  9. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A.; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.; Shoumilov, E.; Siedling, R.; Son, D.; Song, T.; Steuer, M.; Sun, G.S.; Suter, H.; Tang, X.W.; Ting, S.C.C.Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torsti, J.; Tr umper, J.; Ulbricht, J.; Urpo, S.; Usoskin, I.; Valtonen, E.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Velcea, F.; Velikhov, E.; Verlaat, B.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P.; Viertel, G.; Vite, D.; Gunten, H. Von; Wicki, S.W.S. Waldmeier; Wallraff, W.; Wang, B.C.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, Y.H.; Wiik, K.; Williams, C.; Wu, S.X.; Xia, P.C.; Yan, J.L.; Yan, L.G.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, M.; Ye, S.W.; Yeh, P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, W.Z.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m 2 ) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS

  10. Ion Mobility Spectrometer Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Nicholas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; McLain, Derek [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Steeb, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-12-20

    The Morpho Saffran Itemizer 4DX Ion Mobility Spectrometer previously used to detect uranium signatures in FY16 was used at the former New Brunswick Facility, a past uranium facility located on site at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was chosen in an attempt to detect safeguards relevant signatures and has a history of processing uranium at various enrichments, chemical forms, and purities; various chemicals such as nitric acid, uranium fluorides, phosphates and metals are present at various levels. Several laboratories were sampled for signatures of nuclear activities around the laboratory. All of the surfaces that were surveyed were below background levels of the radioanalytical instrumentation and determined to be radiologically clean.

  11. Ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer with fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikver, R.; Suurmaa, Eh.; Syugis, A.; Tammik, A.; Lippmaa, Eh.

    1983-01-01

    The ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer with Fourier transformation intended for investigating mass specta and chemical reaction kinetics in the gaseous phase is described. The mass-spectrum of CO and N 2 positive ions is shown. The spectrometer consists of an electromagnet with power supply, a vacuum system, a cell with electronic equipment and a minicomputer. In the vacuum system (5x10 -9 Torr) there is a cubic measuring cell heated up to 400 deg C. The spectrometer mass resolution is of the 10 5 order. The spectrometer is able to operate as a high-resolution analytical mass-spectrometer of positive and negative ions. The experience of the spectrometer operation confirms its effectiveness for investigating ion-molecular reactions, in particular, proton transfer reactions

  12. Fourier transform spectrometer for Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, Takashi; Kaneko, Yutaka; Kuze, Akihiko; Kondo, Kayoko

    2005-01-01

    Global warming has become a very serious issue for human beings. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3), making it mandatory for developed nations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by six (6) to eight (8) per cent of their total emissions in 1990, and to meet this goal sometime between 2008 and 2012. The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is designed to monitor the global distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the space. GOSAT is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the Ministry of Environment (MOE), and the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). JAXA is responsible for the satellite and instrument development, MOE is involved in the instrument development, and NIES is responsible for the satellite data retrieval. The satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2008. In order to detect the CO2 variation of boundary layers, both the technique to measure the column density and the retrieval algorithm to remove cloud and aerosol contamination are investigated. Main mission sensor of the GOSAT is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with high optical throughput, spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage, and a cloud-aerosol detecting imager attached to the satellite. The paper presents the mission sensor system of the GOSAT together with the results of performance demonstration with proto-type instrument aboard an aircraft.

  13. Digital Spectrometers for Interplanetary Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Raffanti, Richard; Richards, Brian; Stek, Paul; Werthimer, Dan; Nikolic, Borivoje

    2010-01-01

    A fully digital polyphase spectrometer recently developed by the University of California Berkeley Wireless Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides a low mass, power, and cost implementation of a spectrum channelizer for submillimeter spectrometers for future missions to the Inner and Outer Solar System. The digital polyphase filter bank spectrometer (PFB) offers broad bandwidth with high spectral resolution, minimal channel-to-channel overlap, and high out-of-band rejection.

  14. The construction of the SPEG spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastebois, J.

    1979-01-01

    About two years ago, two distinct types of magnetic spectrometer were proposed. Since then for essentially financial reasons, only one type has been retained by the Scientific Council: the SPEG ('Energy loss spectrometer for GANIL'). This spectrometer is described in a technical document of April 1978. An overall view of the equipment is given here together with a survey of the means necessary for its realization [fr

  15. A computer based Moessbauer spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Ge; Li Yuzhi; Yin Zejie; Yao Chunbo; Li Tie; Tan Yexian; Wang Jian

    1999-01-01

    A computer based Moessbauer spectrometer system with a single chip processor for online control and data acquisition is developed. The spectrometer is designed as a single-width NIM module and can be performed directly in NIM crate. Because the structure of the spectrometer is designed to be quite flexible, the system is easy to be configured with other kinds of Moessbauer driver, and can be used in other data acquisition systems

  16. Results from Polish Spondyloarthritis Initiative registry (PolSPI) - methodology and data from - the first year of observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guła, Zofia; Barczyńska, Tacjana; Brzosko, Marek; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Jeka, Sławomir; Jodłowska-Cicio, Katarzyna; Kwaśny-Krochin, Beata; Leszczyński, Piotr; Lubiński, Łukasz; Łosińska, Katarzyna; Pawlak-Buś, Katarzyna; Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Samborski, Włodzimierz; Schlabs, Małgorzata; Siedlar, Maciej; Sikorska, Dorota; Świerkot, Jerzy; Węgierska, Małgorzata; Wiland, Piotr; Korkosz, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Report on one-year results from the Polish Spondyloarthritis Initiative registry (PolSPI), containing the cross-sectional analysis of clinical and imaging data as well as database methodology. The PolSPI registry includes patients with axial (axSpA) and peripheral (perSpA) spondyloarthritis according to ASAS classification criteria, and/or patients with ankylosing spondylitis according to modified New York criteria, psoriatic arthritis according to CASPAR criteria, arthropathy in inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, juvenile spondyloarthritis or undifferentiated spondyloarthritis. Epidemiologic data and history of signs, symptoms and treatment of spondyloarthritis are collected and assessment of disease activity is performed. Radiographic images of sacroiliac joint, cervical and lumbar spine, and results of bone densitometry are collected. Every 6 months blood samples for inflammatory markers, and for long-term storage are taken. During a one-year period from September 2015 to August 2016, 63 patients were registered on an electronic database; 44 (69.8%) of patients were classified as axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and 19 (30.2%) as peripheral spondyloarthritis (perSpA) according to ASAS criteria. Statistically significant differences between axSpA and perSpA were discovered in the percentage of HLA-B27 antigen occurrence (92.6% and 50%, respectively), BASDAI (2.8% and 4.1%, respectively), DAS 28 (2.66% and 4.03%, respectively), percentage of peripheral arthritis (20% and 88.8%, respectively), enthesitis (26.7% and 70.6%, respectively), dactylitis (6.7% and 88.9%, respectively), as well as extra-articular symptoms: acute anterior uveitis (26.7% and 5.6%, respectively) and psoriasis (6.9% and 55.6%, respectively). Patients with axSpA had significantly higher mean grade of sacroiliac involvement according to New York criteria, higher mSASSS score, and lower T-score in femoral neck in bone densitometry. At the early stage of the disease patients with ax

  17. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-18

    experience loss of physical fitness while underway. Bennett and co-workers (2) noted a 7% reduction of maximal oxygen consumption in non-exercising...Inc. designed and built a comprehensive resistance exercise device to help counteract muscle deconditioning during long term space flights (the SX... Physical activity aboard nuclear submarines as measured by pedometry. Groton: Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Report 1053, 1985, p. 12

  18. Time-of-flight spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The flight time of an ion in an inhomogeneous, oscillatory electric field (IOFE) is an m/e-dependent property of this field and is independent of the initial position and velocity. The d.c. component of the equation of motion for an ion in the IOFE describes a harmonic oscillation of constant period. When ions oscillate for many periods with one species overtaking another the motion may no longer be truly periodic although the resulting period or 'quasi-period' still remains independent of the initial conditions. This period or 'quasi-period' is used in the time-of-flight mass spectrometer described. The principle of operation is also described and both analytical and experimental results are reported. (B.D.)

  19. The BNL multiparticle spectrometer software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses some solutions to problems common to the design, management and maintenance of a large high energy physics spectrometer software system. The experience of dealing with a large, complex program and the necessity of having the programm controlled by various people at different levels of computer experience has led us to design a program control structure of mnemonic and self-explanatory nature. The use of this control language in both ''on-line'' and ''off-line'' operation of the program will be discussed. The solution of structuring a large program for modularity so that substantial changes to the program can be made easily for a wide variety of high energy physics experiments is discussed. Specialized tools for this type of large program management are also discussed. (orig.)

  20. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  1. The growth hormone dependent serine protease inhibitor, Spi 2.1 inhibits the des (1-3) insulin-like growth factor-I generating protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maake, C; Yamamoto, H; Murphy, L J

    1997-12-01

    The conversion of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) to the biologically more active des (1-3) IGF-I variant is catalyzed by a ubiquitous protease. This proteolytic activity is inhibited by human alpha1-antitrypsin and soy-bean trypsin inhibitor and is up-regulated in serum and tissue extracts of hypophysectomized rats. These observations lead us to investigate whether the growth hormone regulated, serine protease inhibitor, Spi 2.1 was able to inhibit the des (1-3) IGF-I generating protease. Dihydrofolate reductase deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO(dhfr-ve)) cells were transfected with a rat Spi 2.1 expression vector containing the dhfr and neomycin resistance gene. Stable transfectants were selected using G418 and amplified using methotrexate. Conditioned medium from Spi 2.1 transfected CHO cells potently inhibited proteolytic activity directed against a synthetic hexa-peptide with a sequence identical to the N-terminal of IGF-I. In contrast conditioned medium from wild-type CHO cells had little effect. Based upon these observations we suggest that our previous finding of enhanced des (1-3) IGF-I generating protease activity in growth hormone deficient rats may be, at least partly explained by reduced levels of Spi 2.1. Furthermore, we propose that the regulation of the generation of des (1-3) IGF-I may be an additional potential site of growth hormone regulation of IGF-I action.

  2. Test-retest reliability and agreement of the SPI-Questionnaire to detect symptoms of digital ischemia in elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Zacharian, Tigran; Maas, Mario; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2017-06-01

    The Shoulder posterior circumflex humeral artery Pathology and digital Ischemia - questionnaire (SPI-Q) has been developed to enable periodic surveillance of elite volleyball players, who are at risk for digital ischemia. Prior to implementation, assessing reliability is mandatory. Therefore, the test-retest reliability and agreement of the SPI-Q were evaluated among the population at risk. A questionnaire survey was performed with a 2-week interval among 65 elite male volleyball players assessing symptoms of cold, pale and blue digits in the dominant hand during or after practice or competition using a 4-point Likert scale (never, sometimes, often and always). Kappa (κ) and percentage of agreement (POA) were calculated for individual symptoms, and to distinguish symptomatic and asymptomatic players. For the individual symptoms, κ ranged from "poor" (0.25) to "good" (0.63), and POA ranged from "moderate" (78%) to "good" (97%). To classify symptomatic players, the SPI-Q showed "good" reliability (κ = 0.83; 95%CI 0.69-0.97) and "good" agreement (POA = 92%). The current study has proven the SPI-Q to be reliable for detecting elite male indoor volleyball players with symptoms of digital ischemia.

  3. Review: Thomas Bierschenk and Eva Spies (eds, 50 Jahre Unabhängigkeit in Afrika: Kontinuitäten, Brüche, Perspektiven (2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Castryck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Thomas Bierschenk and Eva Spies (eds, 50 Jahre Unabhängigkeit in Afrika: Kontinuitäten, Brüche, Perspektiven, Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag, 2012, ISBN 9783896458292, 572 pages

  4. Laboratory EXAFS Spectrometer, Principles and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Kampers, F.W.H.; Duivenvoorden, F.B.M.; Zon, J.B.A.D. van; Brinkgreve, P.; Viegers, M.P.A.

    1985-01-01

    In order to be independent of poor availability of synchrotron beamtime a laboratory EXAFS spectrometer has been developed. The X-ray source is a rotating anode generator (max. voltage 60 kV, max. current 300 mA). Monochromatisation and focusing is done with a linear spectrometer, based upon the

  5. The high momentum spectrometer drift chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, D.; Baker, O. K.; Beaufait, J.; Bennett, C.; Bryant, E.; Carlini, R.; Kross, B.; McCauley, A.; Naing, W.; Shin, T.; Vulcan, W.

    1992-12-01

    The High Momentum Spectrometer in Hall C will use planar drift chambers for charged particle track reconstruction. The chambers are constructed using well understood technology and a conventional gas mixture. Two (plus one spare) drift chambers will be constructed for this spectrometers. Each chamber will contain 6 planes of readout channels. This paper describes the chamber design and gas handling system used.

  6. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labiano, A.; Azzollini, R.; Bailey, J.; Beard, S.; Dicken, D.; García-Marín, M.; Geers, V.; Glasse, A.; Glauser, A.; Gordon, K.; Justtanont, K.; Klaassen, P.; Lahuis, F.; Law, D.; Morrison, J.; Müller, M.; Rieke, G.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wright, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments,

  7. A Mass Spectrometer Simulator in Your Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Introduced to study components of ionized gas, the mass spectrometer has evolved into a highly accurate device now used in many undergraduate and research laboratories. Unfortunately, despite their importance in the formation of future scientists, mass spectrometers remain beyond the financial reach of many high schools and colleges. As a result,…

  8. Practical Applications of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) as a Tool for Very Early Warning of Droughts and Floods in the Balkans Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Southern Europe is repeatedly identified in IPCC Reports as being particularly vulnerable to water resource impacts with risks being assessed as medium to high with current (low) levels of adaptation. Drought frequency will likely increase by the end of the 21st century under IPCC RCP8.5 (medium confidence) . The Balkans region has encountered some of its most significant ever floods and droughts since 2000, highly symptomatic of intense climate change. Foremost of these are the regional catastrophic floods in Albania (2009-10) (2010-11), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Serbia (2014), and the widespread droughts of 2007-08 and 2013-14. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness and implementation of drought and flood risk management tools in the national Ministries and National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs) of s.e. Europe generally. This paper describes the development and application of a practical user-friendly tool to calculate SPI across a range of timescales as recommended by the WMO , using a conventional 'Year Book' format to enter monthly precipitation values, coupled with some automated and relatively simple VBA code. Since the tool is spreadsheet based, it is user-friendly and graphically intuitive. The conditional formatting capability introduces a visualisation element to the SPI which is extremely helpful to NHMSs and other non-expert decision makers in understanding SPI significance. Recent practical application of the tool in relation to significant recent floods and droughts in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia has demonstrated its value as a Very Early Warning tool. However, there are some implicit dangers in simply tracking the SPI 1, 2, n value per se without taking account of the actual accumulated deficits that may generate agricultural and ultimately hydrological droughts. It is conventionally assumed that the sum of the SPI for all months within a drought event can be termed the drought's "magnitude". In fact this is not the case. In regions

  9. Modeling mini-orange electron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canzian da Silva, Nelson; Dietzsch, Olacio

    1994-01-01

    A method for calculating the transmission of mini-orange electron spectrometers is presented. The method makes use of the analytical solution for the magnetic field of a plane magnet in the calculation of the spectrometer spatial field distribution by superimposing the fields of the several magnets that compose the system. Electron trajectories through the spectrometer are integrated numerically in a Monte Carlo calculation and the transmission of the spectrometer as a function of the electron energy is evaluated. A six-magnet mini-orange spectrometer was built and its transmission functions for several distances from source to detector were measured and compared to the calculations. The overall agreement is found to be good. The method is quite general and can be applied to the design of systems composed of plane magnets, predicting their performance before assembling them. ((orig.))

  10. Identification of Trend in Spatial and Temporal Dry and Wet Periods in Northwest of Iran Based on SPI and RAI Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Montaseri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Droughts are natural extreme phenomena, which frequently occur around the world. This phenomenon can occur in any region, but its effects will be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions. Several studies have highlighted the increasing of droughts trend around the world. The majority of studies in assessing the trend of time series are based on basic Mann-Kendall or Spearman's methods and no serious attention has been paid to the impact of autocorrelation coefficient on time series. However, limited numbers of studies have included the lag-1 autocorrelation coefficient and its impacts on the time series trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the trend of dry and wet periods in northwest of Iran using Mann-Kendall trend test with removing all significant autocorrelations coefficients based on SPI and RAI drought indices. Materials and Methods: Study area has a region of 334,000 square kilometers, with wet, arid and semiarid climate, located in the northwest of Iran. The rainfall data were collected from 39 synoptic stations with average rainfall of 146 mm as the minimum of Gom station, and the highest annual rainfall of 1687 mm, in the Bandaranzali station. In this study, Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Rainfall Anomaly Index (RAI were used for trend analysis of dry and wet periods. SPI was developed by McKee et al. in 1993 to determine and monitor droughts. This index is able to determine the wet and dry situations for a specific time scale for each location using rainfall data. RAI index was developed by Van Rooy in 1965 to calculate the deviation of rainfall from the normal amount of rainfall and it evaluates monthly or annual rainfall on a linear scale resulting from a data series. Then, correlation coefficients of time series of these drought indices with different lags were determined for check the dependence or independence of the SPI and RAI values. Finally, based on dependence or independence of the time

  11. [The coding correction of slit diffraction in Hadamard transform spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Wang, Shu-Rong; Huang, Yu; Wang, Jun-Bo

    2013-08-01

    According to the principles of Hadamard transform spectrometer and the slit diffraction characteristics, the influence of spectrometer entrance slit diffraction of Hadamard transform spectrometer on the measurement result was analyzed, for the diffraction case, the Hadamard transform spectrometer instrument structure matrix was studied, and the Hadamard transform spectrometer encoding/decoding method was established. The analysis of incident spectral verified the correctness of the coding/ decoding. This method is very important for the high precision measurement of Hadamard transform spectrometer.

  12. Raman spectrometer with microprobe capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, J. T.; Jackson, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the results of this equipment grant funded as a part of the Department of Defense (DOD) University Research Instrumentation Program. This grant funded the purchase of a Raman spectrometer with microprobe capability having resolution of 1.0 micron. This report describes the equipment selecting decision, the configuration of the instrument selected, and some experimental results. The experimental results include Raman spectra used in characterization of laser recrystallized silicon and ion implanted regions in semi-insulating GaAs. The Raman microprobe can be used to characterize the effects of substrate temperature, beam power density and shape, beam scan speed and direction, deposition rate, substrate seeding, and polysilicon encapsulation schemes both near and away from grain boundaries. The frequency shift and the peak width of the Raman scattering from the triply degenerate zone center phonon in Si allow determination of the strain in the grains of laser recrystallized polysilicon. Reducing these strains will allow us to achieve large single grains of device quality.

  13. An Infrared Drill Borehole Spectrometer for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, W.; Foote, M.; Johnson, E.; Daly, J.; Loges, P.; Puscasu, I.; Gorevan, S.; Chu, P.; Granahan, J.

    2005-08-01

    The best clues to Mars past may be hidden below the surface of Mars. Long exposure to the sun, high winds and dust storms, large diurnal temperature excursions, and eons of space weathering combine to render a greatly modified surface, in many instances remarkable for its appearance of uniform composition. Drilling can provide access to the layers in the caps, to the permafrost and possibly, to pristine crustal material. The drilling process is complex with high demand on support resources. It is vital to make the drilling process as efficient as possible. A most promising approach is to instrument the drill string itself, thereby avoiding the complexity of sample handling, speeding and simplifying drill operations, and allowing examination of freshly exposed surfaces within the borehole. A solid-state IR spectrometer is being integrated with a blackbody source into a package to fit within an existing Mars drill design. The borehole IR spectrometer is used to monitor facies encountered throughout the drilling process. The spectrometer/IR combination is used in reflectance spectrometer mode to monitor H2O and CO2 content, as well as iron and carbonate mineralogies. Integration required adapting the existing spectrometer to fit within the drill -- including attaching the detectors directly to the spectrometer waveguide, developing the techniques required to seal the micro-thermopile detectors to the waveguide, implementing miniaturized digital conversion electronics, combining the spectrometer with the IR source and coupling them to a suitable window, implementing a suitable sealed package to fit within the drill, integrating and testing the package on a drill, and establishing the proper gain for both stimulus and spectrometer to permit reasonable range of Mars soil analogs. Tests have shown that both sapphire and diamond windows perform well in the drilling environment. Testing of the integrated spectrometer and drill will be completed in the coming year.

  14. Advanced, Compact, Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for Planetary Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced, Compact, Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for Planetary Systems will advance the capabilities of ultraviolet imaging spectrometers by improving the...

  15. Spectrometer for cluster ion beam induced luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryuto, H., E-mail: ryuto@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sakata, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Takaoka, G. H. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Musumeci, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Catania University, Catania 95123 (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania 95123 (Italy)

    2015-02-15

    A spectrometer to detect the ultra-weak luminescence originated by the collision of cluster ions on the surfaces of solid materials was constructed. This spectrometer consists of 11 photomultipliers with band-pass interference filters that can detect the luminescence within the wavelength ranging from 300 to 700 nm and of a photomultiplier without filter. The calibration of the detection system was performed using the photons emitted from a strontium aluminate fluorescent tape and from a high temperature tungsten filament. Preliminary measurements show the ability of this spectrometer to detect the cluster ion beam induced luminescence.

  16. In-flight radiation measurements aboard French airliners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagne, C.; Donne, J.P.; Pelcot, D.; Nguyen, V.D.; Bouisset, P.; Kerlau, G.

    1993-01-01

    Routine radiation monitoring has been carried out for more than 15 years aboard Air France airliners. Annual dose received by aircrews can be estimated in the 2-3 mSv range for subsonic long-haul aircrews. Recent dosimetric measurements, using CIRCE devices based on low-pressure TEPC microdosimetry techniques and by using new types of bubble damage detectors, seem to confirm partly these results. More investigations by these new techniques could be undertaken at other phases of the 11 year solar cycle. (author)

  17. Ovarian Tumor Cells Studied Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In August 2001, principal investigator Jeanne Becker sent human ovarian tumor cells to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard the STS-105 mission. The tumor cells were cultured in microgravity for a 14 day growth period and were analyzed for changes in the rate of cell growth and synthesis of associated proteins. In addition, they were evaluated for the expression of several proteins that are the products of oncogenes, which cause the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. This photo, which was taken by astronaut Frank Culbertson who conducted the experiment for Dr. Becker, shows two cell culture bags containing LN1 ovarian carcinoma cell cultures.

  18. Soft X-ray focusing Telescope aboard AstroSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K. P.; Dewangan, G. C.; Chandra, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT) is a moderateresolution X-ray imaging spectrometer supplementing the ultraviolet and hard X-ray payloads for broadband studies of cosmic sources with AstroSat. Well suited for observing bright X-ray sources, SXT observations of nearby active galactic nuclei...

  19. Laser Mode Behavior of the Cassini CIRS Fourier Transform Spectrometer at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.

    2012-01-01

    The CIRS Fourier transform spectrometer aboard the NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini orbiter has been acquiring spectra of the Saturnian system since 2004. The CIRS reference interferometer employs a laser diode to trigger the interferogram sampling. Although the control of laser diode drive current and operating temperature are stringent enough to restrict laser wavelength variation to a small fraction of CIRS finest resolution element, the CIRS instrument does need to be restarted every year or two, at which time it may start in a new laser mode. By monitoring the Mylar absorption features in uncalibrated spectra due to the beam splitter Mylar substrate, it can be shown that these jumps are to adjacent modes and that most of the eight-year operation so far is restricted to three adjacent modes. For a given mode, the wavelength stability appears consistent with the stability of the laser diode drive curren.t and operating temperature.

  20. Expression of OsSPY and 14-3-3 genes involved in plant height variations of ion-beam-induced KDML 105 rice mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phanchaisri, Boonrak [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Samsang, Nuananong [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, Liang Deng; Singkarat, Somsorn [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Anuntalabhochai, Somboon, E-mail: soanu.1@gmail.com [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-06-01

    The culm length of two semidwarf rice mutants (PKOS1, HyKOS1) obtained from low-energy N-ion beam bombardments of dehusked Thai jasmine rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. KDML 105) seeds showed 25.7% and 21.5% height reductions and one spindly rice mutant (TKOS4) showed 21.4% increase in comparison with that of the KDML 105 control. A cDNA-RAPD analysis identified differential gene expression in internode tissues of the rice mutants. Two genes identified from the cDNA-RAPD were OsSPY and 14-3-3, possibly associated with stem height variations of the semidwarf and spindly mutants, respectively. The OsSPY gene encoded the SPY protein which is considered to be a negative regulator of gibberellin (GA). On the other hand, the 14-3-3 encoded a signaling protein which can bind and prevent the RSG (repression of shoot growth) protein function as a transcriptional repressor of the kaurene oxidase (KO) gene in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Expression analysis of OsSPY, 14-3-3, RSG, KO, and SLR1 was confirmed in rice internode tissues during the reproductive stage of the plants by semi-quantitative RT-PCR technique. The expression analysis showed a clear increase of the levels of OsSPY transcripts in PKOS1 and HyKOS1 tissue samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and TKOS4 samples at the age of 50-60 days which were at the ages of internode elongation. The 14-3-3 expression had the highest increase in the TKOS4 samples compared to those in KDML 105, PKOS1 and HyKOS1 samples. The expression analysis of RSG and KO showed an increase in TKOS4 samples compared to that of the KDML 105 and that of the two semidwarf mutants. These results indicate that changes of OsSPY and 14-3-3 expression could affect internode elongation and cause the phenotypic changes of semidwarf and spindly rice mutants, respectively.

  1. Pre Cold War British Spy Fiction, the “albatross of self” and lines of flight in Gravity’s Rainbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Wishart Smith

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In his introduction to 'Slow Learner' Thomas Pynchon suggests that an influence in his short story ‘Under the Rose’ was the spy fiction he had read as a child.  What he takes from the form, he says, is an enjoyment of  “lurking, spying, false identities, psychological games.” I hope to show that this youthful reading has interesting things to tell us about Pynchon’s writing beyond ‘Under the Rose’ and in more complex ways than his quote suggests. To do this I want to focus on that perennial issue of spy fiction - the maintenance and manipulation of identity. Negotiating ideas of subjectivity is a core concern in Pynchon’s work and to consider it I want to use the four spy novelists he mentions in the 'Slow Learner' introduction - John Buchan, E. Phillips Oppenheim, Helen MacInnes and Geoffrey Household. This is a more disparate quartet of authors than Pynchon’s grouping suggests and I want to employ them to consider a variety of strategies used to ‘build character’ and the way Pynchon’s work approaches these strategies.  This allows a reflection on questions of disguise, doubles, animals and the nomad within the context of a variety of postcolonial theories and aspects of Deleuze and Guattari’s “nomadology”. 'V 'would appear an obvious place to see connections to spy fiction, but, though I touch on some aspects of this novel, my focus will be very much on 'Gravity’s Rainbow' because it has a much more concerted focus on the subject of Empire. Some intriguing echoes are to be found in the work of Pynchon in these authors and I hope to show how Pynchon’s attempts to formulate US “superimperialism” (Aijaz Ahmad are reflected in the imperial concerns of what I would term the pre-Cold War British Spy fiction that engaged Pynchon in his youth.

  2. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fregeau, M. O.; Brys, T.; Gamboni, T.; Geerts, W.; Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.; Borcea, R.

    2013-01-01

    The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF) technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD) show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution. (authors)

  3. Progress of the BESS Superconducting Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haino, S. E-mail: haino@icepps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Abe, K.; Anraku, K.; Fuke, H.; Hams, T.; Ikeda, N.; Itasaki, A.; Izumi, K.; Kumazawa, T.; Lee, M.H.; Maeno, T.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsui, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Mitchell, J.W.; Moiseev, A.A.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Omiya, H.; Orito, S.; Ormes, J.F.; Sanuki, T.; Sasaki, M.; Seo, E.S.; Shikaze, Y.; Streitmatter, R.E.; Suzuki, J.; Takasugi, Y.; Takeuchi, S.; Tanaka, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Tanizaki, K.; Yamagami, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamato, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimura, K

    2004-02-01

    Balloon-borne Experiment with a Superconducting Spectrometer (BESS) is a balloon-borne spectrometer to study elementary particle phenomena in the early Universe as well as the origin and the propagation of cosmic radiation. The instrument has a unique feature of a thin superconducting solenoid which enables a large acceptance with a cylindrical configuration. Nine balloon flights have been successfully carried out since 1993. In 2002, the detector was upgraded as the BESS-TeV spectrometer to extend primary cosmic-ray spectra up to 1 TeV. For further studies of low-energy antiprotons, a new spectrometer, BESS-Polar, with a ultra-thin superconducting solenoid is being developed for long duration balloon flights in Antarctica.

  4. Low Power FPGA Based Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a general purpose reconfigurable wide bandwidth spectrometer for use in NASA's passive microwave missions, deep space network and radio...

  5. Low Power Mass Spectrometer employing TOF Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A low power Mass Spectrometer employing multiple time of flight circuits for parallel processing is possible with a new innovation in design of the Time of flight...

  6. TRISP: Three axes spin echo spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Keller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available TRISP, operated by the Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, is a high-resolution neutron spectrometer combining the three axes and neutron resonance spin echo (NRSE techniques.

  7. RITA-type triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roennow, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The RITA spectrometer at Risoe National Laboratory was the first to incorporate a complete re-thinking of the neutron-path from source, through detector to analysis. Since then, other RITA-type spectrometers such as SPINS at NIST, RITA-II at PSI have been built, and several new spectrometers around the world are adapting the same philosophy. The main novelty of RITA was the introduction of a single back-end tank featuring both an analyser block with multiple individually turnable analyser blades and a 2D position sensitive detector. Several new triple-axis spectrometers are presently being built at existing and future sources, and almost all of them have learnt from the experience with RITA. (R.P.)

  8. View of the Axial Field Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The Axial Field Spectrometer, with the vertical uranium/scintillator calorimeter and the central drift chamber retracted for service. One coil of the Open Axial Field Magnet is just visible to the right.

  9. Computer control in a compton scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ningzhuo; Chen Tao; Gong Zhufang; Yang Baozhong; Mo Haiding; Hua Wei; Bian Zuhe

    1995-01-01

    The authors introduced the hardware and software of computer autocontrol of calibration and data acquisition in a Compton Scattering spectrometer which consists of a HPGe detector, Amplifiers and a MCA

  10. Electrostatic Spectrometer for Mars Rover Wheel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a simple electrostatic spectrometer that can be mounted on the wheels of a Mars rover to continuously and unobtrusively determine the mineral composition and...

  11. Low Power FPGA Based Spectrometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design a general purpose reconfigurable wide bandwidth spectrometer for use in NASA's passive microwave missions, deep space network and radio...

  12. MGS SAMPLER THERMAL EMISSION SPECTROMETER GLOBAL TEMPERATURE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive contains Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) 25-micron global surface temperature data, collected during the ANS portion of the Mars Global Surveyor...

  13. Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver to NASA an innovative, portable, and power efficient Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer...

  14. Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars CRISM Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, K.; Hayden, D.; Lecompte, D.

    2009-05-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars CRISM (CRISM) carried aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), is the first visible-infrared spectrometer to fly on a NASA Mars mission. CRISM scientists are using the instrument to look for the residue of minerals that form in the presence of water: the 'fingerprints' left by evaporated hot springs, thermal vents, lakes or ponds. With unprecedented clarity, CRISM is mapping regions on the Martian surface at scales as small as 60 feet (about 18 meters) across, when the spacecraft is 186 miles (300 kilometers) above the planet. CRISM is reading 544 'colors' in reflected sunlight to detect certain minerals on the surface, including signature traces of past water. CRISM alone will generate more than 10 terabytes of data, enough to fill more than 15,000 compact discs. Given that quantity of data being returned by MRO-CRISM, this project partners with Johns Hopkins University (JHU) Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) scientists of the CRISM team to assist in the data analysis process. The CRISM operations team has prototyped and will provide the necessary software analysis tools. In addition, the CRISM operations team will provide reduced data volume representations of the data as PNG files, accessible via a web interface without recourse to specialized user tools. The web interface allows me to recommend repeating certain of the CRISM observations as survey results indicate, and to enter notes on the features present in the images. After analysis of a small percentage of CRISM observations, APL scientists concluded that their efforts would be greatly facilitated by adding a preliminary survey to evaluate the overall characteristics and quality of the CRISM data. The first-look should increase the efficiency and speed of their data analysis efforts. This project provides first-look assessments of the data quality while noting features of interest likely to need further study or additional CRISM observations. The

  15. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Barcala-Riveira, J M; Fernandez-Marron, J L; Molero-Menendez, F; Navarrete-Marin, J J; Oller-Gonzalez, J C

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs.

  16. Design and construction of a NIR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcala Riveira, J. M.; Fernandez Marron, J. L.; Alberdi Primicia, J.; Molero Menendez, F.; Navarrete Marin, J. J.; Oller Gonzalez, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the design and construction of a NIR spectrometer based on an acoustic-optic tunable filter. The spectrometer will be used for automatic identification of plastics in domestic waste. The system works between 1200 and 1800 nm. Instrument is controlled by a personal computer. Computer receives and analyses data. A software package has been developed to do these tasks. (Author) 27 refs

  17. Silicon spectrometer with a Peltier refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcarz, E.; Chwaszczewska, J.; Hahn, G.; Nowicki, W.; Sawicka, B.; Skoczek, K.; Slapa, M.; Szymczak, M.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes a spectrometer with a Si(Li) detector cooled by a Peltier refrigerator. The spectrometer is able to analyse samples of practically all most frequently encountered emitters of alpha, beta and low energy gamma radiation. The energy resolution were about 1.3-1.5 keV for 14 keV gamma radiation. The system can also operate in field conditions in the fluorescence analysis. (author)

  18. A digital control system for neutron spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Knud Bent; Skaarup, Per

    1968-01-01

    A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer.......A description is given of the principles of a digital system used to control neutron spectrometers. The system is composed of independent functional units with the control programme stored on punched paper tape or in a computer....

  19. Fast-response personal Moessbauer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmetskij, A.L.; Mashlan, M.; Misevich, O.V.; Evdokimov, V.A.; Lopatik, A.R.; Zhak, D.; Fedorov, A.A.; Snashel, V.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrometer design to record transmission Moessbauer spectra is described. The spectrometer consists of PC/AT computer with 1 mb memory and 40 mb hard disk, of EPSON LX 850 printer, of color monitor with VGA graphical adapter, of data accumulation system, of speed generator, of motion system with minivibrator, of scintillation detector with YA10 3 :Ce scintillator, of single-channel amplitude analyzer, of measuring bench and of 57 Co(Rh) source. 1 ref.; 1 fig

  20. Muon momentum measurement in magnetized iron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, R.; Zupancic, C.

    1984-01-01

    Measuring the momentum of high-energy muons with a magnetized iron spectrometer is a conventional technique employed by numerous experiments and may appear to be an old-fashioned subject. In the TeV regime, multiple scattering errors become small compared to measurement errors achieveable with large-surface particle detectors, and there are indications that new physical effects influencing the resolution properties of a muon spectrometer may become important. (orig./HSI)

  1. The BTeV main spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    BTeV is a second generation B-factory experiment that will use a double-arm, forward spectrometer in the C0 experimental hall at the Fermilab Tevatron. I will describe the motivation and design of the 'main spectrometer', consisting of a ring-imaging Cherenkov system for charged particle identification, an electromagnetic calorimeter of lead-tungstate crystals, a proportional tube muon system with magnetized filtering steel, and a straw-tube and silicon strip charged particle tracking system

  2. Ruggedized Spectrometers Are Built for Tough Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Curiosity Chemistry and Camera instrument, or ChemCam, analyzes the elemental composition of materials on the Red Planet by using a spectrometer to measure the wavelengths of light they emit. Principal investigator Roger Wiens worked with Ocean Optics, out of Dunedin, Florida, to rework the company's spectrometer to operate in cold and rowdy conditions and also during the stresses of liftoff. Those improvements have been incorporated into the firm's commercial product line.

  3. Study of neutron spectrometers for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellne, Jan

    2005-11-15

    A review is presented of the developments in the field of neutron emission spectrometry (NES) which is of relevance for identifying the role of NES diagnostics on ITER and selecting suitable instrumentation. Neutron spectrometers will be part of the ITER neutron diagnostic complement and this study makes a special effort to examine which performance characteristics the spectrometers should possess to provide the best burning plasma diagnostic information together with neutron cameras and neutron yield monitors. The performance of NES diagnostics is coupled to how much interface space can be provided which has lead to an interest to find compact instruments and their NES capabilities. This study assesses all known spectrometer types of potential interest for ITER and makes a ranking of their performance (as demonstrated or projected), which, in turn, are compared with ITER measurement requirements as a reference; the ratio of diagnostic performance to interface cost for different spectrometers is also discussed for different spectrometer types. The overall result of the study is an assessment of which diagnostic functions neutron measurements can provide in burning plasma fusion experiments on ITER and the role that NES can play depending on the category of instrument installed. Of special note is the result that much higher quality diagnostic information can be obtained from neutron measurements with total yield monitors, profile flux cameras and spectrometers when the synergy in the data is considered in the analysis and interpretation.

  4. Ion guide quadrupole mass spectrometer at Jyvaeskylae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iivonen, A.; Saintola, R.; Valli, K.; Morita, K.; Yoshida, A.

    1991-01-01

    A new mass analyzing device consisting of an ion guide connected to a commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer is being developed at the Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae. The new spectrometer is expected to have the similar properties to the present ion guide isotope separator on-line (IGISOL): excellent stability, similar separation efficiency for all chemical elements and short separation time. This ion guide mass spectrometer (IGQMS) is schematically shown. The IGQMS differs from the IGISOL in four essential ways: a squeezer ion guide, a differential pumping section, a transport section in which an electrostatic lens system brings ions into high vacuum, and a commercial quadrupole spectrometer used in place of a magnetic separator. The entire spectrometer became operational in the summer of 1990. The tests have been done with the alpha-active Po-215 ions released from an Ac-227 source in the target chamber. The squeezer, differential pumping section, transport section and quadrupole mass spectrometer of the IGQMS are described. The results of the measured transmission yield and the total yield of Po-215 and some merits of the IGQMS are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Recent ion optics and mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hisashi

    1976-01-01

    The establishment of the third order approximation method for computing the orbit of the ion optical system for mass spectrometers and the completion of its computer program are reported. A feature of this orbit computation is in that the effect of the fringing field can be considered with the accuracy of third order approximation. Several new ion optical systems for mass spectrometers have been proposed by using such orbit computing programs. Brief explanation and the description on the future prospect and problems are made on the following items: the vertual image double focusing mass spectrometer, the second order double focusing mass spectrometer, the E x B superposed field mass spectrometer, and the apparatus with a cylindrical electric field and Q-lens. In the E x B superposed field with Matsuda plates, if the magnetic field is generated by an electromagnet instead of a permanent magnet, the dispersion of mass and energy can be changed at will. The Matsuda plates are known as the auxiliary electrodes positioned at the top and bottom of a cylindrical capacitor. Utilizing those characteristics, a zoom spectrometer can be made, with which only a necessary part of mass spectra can be investigated in detail, but the whole spectra are investigated roughly. In addition, the distribution of energy can be investigated simultaneously after the separation of ionic mass similarly to the parabola apparatus. (Iwakiri, K.)

  6. Moessbauer spectrometer MsAa-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gornicki, R.; Blachowski, A.; Ruebenbauer, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of the newly developed Moessbauer spectrometer MsAa-3. The spectrometer MsAa-3 consists of a high quality γ--ray spectrometer including either a proportional gas detector head or a scintillation detector head, a transducer driving system including the transducer, data storage system, and data communication system based on the TCP/IP protocol. Additionally, the Michelson-Morley interferometer is provided for precise calibration of the transducer velocity. The spectrometer is equipped with an integrated simple temperature controller. All the essential functions are remotely controlled over the TCP/IP link allowing for the spectrometer set-up as the stand-alone unit in the computer network, e.g. on the Internet. External γ-ray detectors or external complete nuclear blocks could be used as well. The spectrometer is equipped with software allowing for setting all the functions, to perform on-line control, and retrieve data. The Moessbauer data processing software MOSGRAF is enclosed as well. The latter software allows for the calculation of the variety of velocity reference functions. (authors)

  7. Ethnic and Regional Identity in Polish Part of Spiš Region (On the Example of Jurgów Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagín Vojtech

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In my study I am focusing on the issue of national and regional identity of Spiš region inhabitants. The researched Jurgów village belongs to territory situated on the frontier between two states and at the same time between two regions. In the study I analyze the question of stereotypes present in the locality concerning gorals from the neighbouring Podhale region and Slovak part of Spiš region. In addition to that I deal with analysis of importance and understanding of space and border for the identity of local population. On the basis of the empirical data analysis results I observe that the identity of the researched village population is shaped by the fact that it belongs to the frontier territory where crossborder cultural and social interaction occurs.

  8. THOR Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retinò, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) onboard THOR will provide the first high-time resolution measurements of mass-resolved ions in near-Earth space, focusing on hot ions in the foreshock, shock and magnetosheath turbulent regions. These measurements are required to study how kinetic-scale turbulent fluctuations heat and accelerate different ion species. IMS will measure the full three-dimensional distribution functions of main ion species (H+, He++, O+) in the energy range 10 eV/q to 30 keV/q with energy resolution DE/E down to 10% and angular resolution down to 11.25˚ . The time resolution will be 150 ms for O+, 300 ms for He++ and ˜ 1s for O+, which correspond to ion scales in the the foreshock, shock and magnetosheath regions. Such high time resolution is achieved by mounting four identical IMS units phased by 90˚ in the spacecraft spin plane. Each IMS unit combines a top-hat electrostatic analyzer with deflectors at the entrance together with a time-of-flight section to perform mass selection. Adequate mass-per-charge resolution (M/q)/(ΔM/q) (≥ 8 for He++ and ≥ 3 for O+) is obtained through a 6 cm long Time-of-Flight (TOF) section. IMS electronics includes a fast sweeping high voltage board that is required to make measurements at high cadence. Ion detection includes Micro Channel Plates (MCPs) combined with Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for charge amplification and discrimination and a discrete Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) to determine the ion time of flight. A processor board will be used to for ion events formatting and will interface with the Particle Processing Unit (PPU), which will perform data processing for THOR particle detectors. The IMS instrument is being designed and will be built and calibrated by an international consortium of scientific institutes from France, USA, Germany and Japan and Switzerland.

  9. Usefulness of cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy using SpyGlass DS for preoperative evaluation of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takahisa; Ito, Kei; Koshita, Shinsuke; Kanno, Yoshihide; Masu, Kaori; Kusunose, Hiroaki; Sakai, Toshitaka; Murabayashi, Toji; Hasegawa, Sho; Noda, Yutaka

    2018-02-01

     Evaluation of longitudinal tumor extent is indispensable for curative surgical treatment of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and feasibility of cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy using a newly developed peroral digital cholangioscope, SpyGlass DS (SpyDS), for preoperative evaluation of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.  Thirteen patients (mean age, 75 years; male 10, female 3) with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma who underwent cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy using SpyDS for preoperative evaluation were included in this study. Successful cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy was defined as the acquisition of specimens sufficient for histopathological diagnosis.  The mean number of biopsies was 5 per patient. The overall success rate for cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy was 88 % (59/67). The success rate for cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy from the confluence of the right and left hepatic ducts was 89 %, that from the B4 confluence was 93 %, that from the confluence of the right anterior and right posterior segmental ducts was 86 %, that from the intrapancreatic common bile duct was 67 %, and that from the main lesion was 100 %. The overall diagnostic accuracy of longitudinal tumor extent at the hepatic side, the duodenal side and overall by cholangioscopic findings and mapping biopsy, was 88 % (7/8), 88 % (7/8) and 88 % (7/8), respectively. Assessment according to location of the main lesion revealed that diagnostic accuracy in the patients with distal bile duct carcinoma was 100 % (5/5) and that in patients with perihilar bile duct carcinoma was 66 % (2/3). Complications after the procedure did not occur in any patients.  Cholangioscopic-guided mapping biopsy using SpyDS is thought to be feasible for preoperative evaluation of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

  10. Construction of a photoelectron spectrometer of hemispherical type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.Y.; Kim, S.K.; Lee, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    We constructed the double focusing electron spectrometer for the ultraviolet photonelectron spectroscopy(UPS). The spectrometer is hemispherical type with the high resolution power with a vaule of about 100. The efficiency of the spectrometer was examined by the thermoelectron spectroscopy and UPS of the valence band of the Pd. It is merit of the present spectrometer that is very simple and small. (Author)

  11. Subcloning plus insertion (SPI)--a novel recombineering method for the rapid construction of gene targeting vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Thimma R; Kelsall, Emma J; Fevat, Léna M S; Munson, Sarah E; Cowley, Shaun M

    2015-01-08

    Gene targeting refers to the precise modification of a genetic locus using homologous recombination. The generation of novel cell lines and transgenic mouse models using this method necessitates the construction of a 'targeting' vector, which contains homologous DNA sequences to the target gene, and has for many years been a limiting step in the process. Vector construction can be performed in vivo in Escherichia coli cells using homologous recombination mediated by phage recombinases using a technique termed recombineering. Recombineering is the preferred technique to subclone the long homology sequences (>4 kb) and various targeting elements including selection markers that are required to mediate efficient allelic exchange between a targeting vector and its cognate genomic locus. Typical recombineering protocols follow an iterative scheme of step-wise integration of the targeting elements and require intermediate purification and transformation steps. Here, we present a novel recombineering methodology of vector assembly using a multiplex approach. Plasmid gap repair is performed by the simultaneous capture of genomic sequence from mouse Bacterial Artificial Chromosome libraries and the insertion of dual bacterial and mammalian selection markers. This subcloning plus insertion method is highly efficient and yields a majority of correct recombinants. We present data for the construction of different types of conditional gene knockout, or knock-in, vectors and BAC reporter vectors that have been constructed using this method. SPI vector construction greatly extends the repertoire of the recombineering toolbox and provides a simple, rapid and cost-effective method of constructing these highly complex vectors.

  12. The LASS [Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid] spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K + and K - interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K - p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly

  13. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  14. Group 12 ASCANs Davis and Jemison during zero gravity training aboard KC-135

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Group 12, 1987 Astronaut Class, candidates (ASCANs) N. Jan Davis (left) and Mae C. Jemison freefloat during the seconds of microgravity created aboard the KC-135 NASA 930 aircraft's parabolic flight. Davis and Jemison two of the recently-named ASCANs take a familiarization flight aboard the KC-135 'zero gravity' aircraft.

  15. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 [IB Docket No. 12-376; FCC 12-161] Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit Space Stations... the Federal Register of March 8, 2013. The document proposed rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft...

  16. Structural Analysis of the QCM Aboard the ER-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Phyllis D.; Bainum, Peter M.; Xing, Guangqian

    1997-01-01

    As a result of recent supersonic transport (SST) studies on the effect they may have on the atmosphere, several experiments have been proposed to capture and evaluate samples of the stratosphere where SST's travel. One means to achieve this is to utilize the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) installed aboard the ER-2, formerly the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. The QCM is a cascade impactor designed to perform in-situ, real-time measurements of aerosols and chemical vapors at an altitude of 60,000 - 70,000 feet. The ER-2 is primarily used by NASA for Earth resources to test new sensor systems before they are placed aboard satellites. One of the main reasons the ER-2 is used for this flight experiment is its capability to fly approximately twelve miles above sea level (can reach an altitude of 78,000 feet). Because the ER-2 operates at such a high altitude, it is of special interest to scientists interested in space exploration or supersonic aircraft. Some of the experiments are designed to extract data from the atmosphere around the ER-2. For the current flight experiment, the QCM is housed in a frame that is connected to an outer pod that is attached to the fuselage of the ER-2. Due to the location of the QCM within the housing frame and the location of the pod on the ER-2, the pod and its contents are subject to structural loads. In addition to structural loads, structural vibrations are also of importance because the QCM is a frequency induced instrument. Therefore, a structural analysis of the instrument within the frame is imperative to determine if resonance and/or undesirable deformations occur.

  17. Time-of-flight isochronous spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, J.M.; Vieira, D.J.; Wollnik, H.

    1985-01-01

    This report is the second in a series of progress reports describing the design and construction of the time-of-flight isochronous (TOFI) spectrometer and its associated secondary beam line. TOFI, which is being constructed jointly by INC and MP Divisions, is designed to measure in a systematic fashion the ground-state masses of the light neutron-rich nuclei with A<70 that lie far from the valley of β stability. In the past year the authors ordered all the long-lead items necessary for construction of the spectrometer and installed the first half of the secondary beam line. Furthermore, a major portion of the control system for both the spectrometer and beam line was designed and installed. This annual report briefly summarizes the current status of the spectrometer and describes in some detail the design and installation of the first half of the transport line. For a summary of the scientific goals and overall design of the TOFI spectrometer, see the 1983 Progress at LAMPF report

  18. Recent Results From, and Future Plans for the JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, G. D.; Menzies, R.; Geier, S.; Phillips, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) is an aircraft based Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Spectrometer operating in the 2 micron wavelength range that we have been developing at JPL to evaluate the measurement of the column integrated carbon dioxide concentration beneath the aircraft. The IPDA measurement technique is based on an approach first used for the measurement of ozone in the 1970s. This past year the instrument has flown on two sets of flights aboard a Twin Otter, DH-6 aircraft. The initial pair of flights, conducted in April, were flown over the El Mirage dry lake bed in the Mojave desert as an engineering checkout flight. The second set of four flights were flown over the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Research Monitoring Site during early August and were part of a larger coordinated field experiment conducted jointly with aircraft instruments from NASA LaRC and NASA GSFC in support of the development of the ASCENDS mission as called for by the NRC Earth Science Decadal Survey. We will present a brief overview of the instrument and measurement concept, review and discuss the results of our experiments and conclude with an outline of our plans for the future.

  19. Chemical Method to Improve CO{sub 2} Flooding Sweep Efficiency for Oil Recovery Using SPI-CO{sub 2} Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Lyle D.

    2009-04-14

    The problem in CO{sub 2} flooding lies with its higher mobility causing low conformance or sweep efficiency. This is an issue in oilfield applications where an injected fluid or gas used to mobilize and produce the oil in a marginal field has substantially higher mobility (function of viscosity and density and relative permeability) relative to the crude oil promoting fingering and early breakthrough. Conformance is particularly critical in CO{sub 2} oilfield floods where the end result is less oil recovered and substantially higher costs related to the CO{sub 2}. The SPI-CO{sub 2} (here after called “SPI”) gel system is a unique silicate based gel system that offers a technically effective solution to the conformance problem with CO{sub 2} floods. This SPI gel system remains a low viscosity fluid until an external initiator (CO{sub 2}) triggers gelation. This is a clear improvement over current technologies where the gels set up as a function of time, regardless of where it is placed in the reservoir. In those current systems, the internal initiator is included in the injected fluid for water shut off applications. In this new research effort, the CO{sub 2} is an external initiator contacted after SPI gel solution placement. This concept ensures in the proper water wet reservoir environment that the SPI gel sets up in the precise high permeability path followed by the CO{sub 2}, therefore improving sweep efficiency to a greater degree than conventional systems. In addition, the final SPI product in commercial quantities is expected to be low cost over the competing systems. This Phase I research effort provided “proof of concept” that SPI gels possess strength and may be formed in a sand pack reducing the permeability to brine and CO{sub 2} flow. This SPI technology is a natural extension of prior R & D and the Phase I effort that together show a high potential for success in a Phase II follow-on project. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is a major by-product of

  20. Adaptive Tunable Laser Spectrometer for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Gregory; Keymeulen, Didier

    2010-01-01

    An architecture and process for the rapid prototyping and subsequent development of an adaptive tunable laser absorption spectrometer (TLS) are described. Our digital hardware/firmware/software platform is both reconfigurable at design time as well as autonomously adaptive in real-time for both post-integration and post-launch situations. The design expands the range of viable target environments and enhances tunable laser spectrometer performance in extreme and even unpredictable environments. Through rapid prototyping with a commercial RTOS/FPGA platform, we have implemented a fully operational tunable laser spectrometer (using a highly sensitive second harmonic technique). With this prototype, we have demonstrated autonomous real-time adaptivity in the lab with simulated extreme environments.

  1. Magnetic field measurements of the BLAST spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, Karen A.; Botto, Tancredi; Goodhue, Abigail; Hasell, Douglas; Loughnan, Dylan; Murphy, Kilian; Smith, Timothy Paul; Ziskin, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid has been built to study nuclear physics reactions using a stored, polarized electron beam and a variety of polarized targets internal to the storage ring. The spectrometer consists of eight coils surrounding the target cell. There is a requirement of nominally zero field along the centerline of the spectrometer for proper electron beam storage. In addition, the polarized internal targets require a low field gradient in the target region. Magnetic field measurements were made near the beam centerline to guide the alignment of the coils and satisfy the field magnitude and gradient requirements. After the coils were aligned, the magnetic field was measured in the detector regions to provide information for particle tracking.

  2. SPEG: An energy loss spectrometer for GANIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, L.; Fernandez, B.; Gastebois, J.; Gillibert, A.; Mittig, W.; Barrette, J.

    1989-04-01

    Since July 1985, an energy loss spectrometer (SPEG) is under operation at the National Heavy Ion Laboratory (GANIL), at Caen (France). It has been designed to allow the study of quantum states populated in reactions induced by nuclei accelerated at energies up to 100 A MeV. The spectrometer has been designed by P. Birien. The optical properties and the main magnetic features have been calculated by Birien and Valero. A detailed reported of their study is given in ref. [1]. In the first part of the present paper, after recalling the specifications of the spectrometer, we shall give an overall description of the main characteristics, together with indications about the various shimming procedures which have been used to achieve the desired resolution (sections 1-4). In the second part, we shall describe various accessories and the different kinds of detectors which are used during experiments, with several illustrations of experimental results (sections 5 and 6).

  3. Landsat-Swath Imaging Spectrometer Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis; Green, Robert O.; Van Gorp, Byron; Moore, Lori; Wilson, Daniel W.; Bender, Holly A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design of a high-throughput pushbroom imaging spectrometer and telescope system that is capable of Landsat swath and resolution while providing better than 10 nm per pixel spectral resolution. The design is based on a 3200 x 480 element x 18 µm pixel size focal plane array, two of which are utilized to cover the full swath. At an optical speed of F/1.8, the system is the fastest proposed to date to our knowledge. The utilization of only two spectrometer modules fed from the same telescope reduces system complexity while providing a solution within achievable detector technology. Predictions of complete system response are shown. Also, it is shown that detailed ghost analysis is a requirement for this type of spectrometer and forms an essential part of a complete design.

  4. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  5. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scatteringa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (˜2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ˜45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  6. Prismatic analyzer concept for neutron spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Jonas O.; Marko, M.; Freeman, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Developments in modern neutron spectroscopy have led to typical sample sizes decreasing from few cm to several mm in diameter samples. We demonstrate how small samples together with the right choice of analyser and detector components makes distance collimation an important concept in crystal...... analyser spectrometers. We further show that this opens new possibilities where neutrons with different energies are reflected by the same analyser but counted in different detectors, thus improving both energy resolution and total count rate compared to conventional spectrometers. The technique can...... inverse geometry Time-of-flight spectrometer installed at PSI, Switzerland, and shows excellent agreement with the predictions. Typical improvements will be 2.0 times finer resolution and a factor of 1.9 in flux gain compared to a focussing Rowland geometry, or of 3.3 times finer resolution and a factor...

  7. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements T{sub e} > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  8. Experimental study on microlaser fluorescence spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhaoshuo; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Shanshan; Zhang, Yanchao; Liu, Libao; Gu, Erdan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a kind of miniature handheld laser fluorescence spectrometer, which integrates a laser emission system, a spectroscopic system, and a detection system into a volume of 100×50×20 mm3. A universal serial bus interface is connected to PC for data processing and spectrum display. The emitted laser wavelength is 405 nm. A spectral range is 400 to 760 nm and 2-nm optical resolution has been achieved. This spectrometer has the advantages of compact structure, small volume, high sensitivity, and low cost.

  9. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  10. Spectrometer Baseline Control Via Spatial Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, M. R.; Richey, C. R.; Rinehart, S. A.; Quijada, M. A.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive half-moon aperture mask is experimentally explored as a broad-bandwidth means of eliminating spurious spectral features arising from reprocessed radiation in an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. In the presence of the spatial filter, an order of magnitude improvement in the fidelity of the spectrometer baseline is observed. The method is readily accommodated within the context of commonly employed instrument configurations and leads to a factor of two reduction in optical throughput. A detailed discussion of the underlying mechanism and limitations of the method are provided.

  11. Upgrade of an old Raman Spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    Improvement of a conventional Jeol Raman spectrometer with a single channel photo multiplier detector is described. New optical components (fibres, mirror, lens and CCD detector) have been chosen to design a high quality and easy-to-use instrument. Tests have shown that with this modified...... spectrometer Raman spectra can be acquired of a quality comparable to the spectra obtained previously, but the time needed to obtain a spectrum is markedly reduced. Selected test spectra and a simple calibration procedure to obtain the wavenumber values from the band CCD pixel position are presented....

  12. An efficient gravitational spectrometer for ultracold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geltenbort, P.; Goeltl, L.; Henneck, R.; Horras, M.; Kirch, K.; Knecht, A.; Lauss, B.; Meier, M.; Straumann, U.; Zsigmond, G.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the design and construction of an efficient gravitational spectrometer for ultracold neutrons. The spectrometer is suited to experiments that can greatly profit from knowledge of the neutron energy spectrum without losing available statistics, such as many of the current precision experiments that use ultracold neutrons. The description of the apparatus is complemented by the results of the first test measurements which served as a proof of principle and showed its capability of discriminating between different UCN energy ranges. The measurements showed the expected behavior and are in qualitative agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. An efficient gravitational spectrometer for ultracold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Goeltl, L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Henneck, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Horras, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Excellence Cluster ' Universe' , Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Kirch, K., E-mail: klaus.kirch@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Knecht, A., E-mail: a.knecht@psi.c [Paul Scherrer Institut, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Lauss, B.; Meier, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Straumann, U. [University of Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institut, PSI, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2010-12-01

    We report on the design and construction of an efficient gravitational spectrometer for ultracold neutrons. The spectrometer is suited to experiments that can greatly profit from knowledge of the neutron energy spectrum without losing available statistics, such as many of the current precision experiments that use ultracold neutrons. The description of the apparatus is complemented by the results of the first test measurements which served as a proof of principle and showed its capability of discriminating between different UCN energy ranges. The measurements showed the expected behavior and are in qualitative agreement with Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Large acceptance spectrometers for π0 mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awes, T.C.; Ferguson, R.L.; Obenshain, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometer composed of lead-oxide loaded glass blocks has been constructed for detection of neutral pi mesons emitted in low energy heavy ion reactions. The spectrometer detects the Cerenkov radiation emitted when the high energy photons (Eγ approx. 70 MeV) resulting from π 0 decay create electron-position pairs in the glass, initiating electromagnetic showers. A geometric acceptance of better than 5% of 4π is possible; the π 0 detection efficiency varies between this value at T/sub π/ = 0 MeV and 1% for T/sub π/ approx. 100 MeV

  15. Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (gems) Over the Korea Peninsula and Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasnik, J.; Stephens, M.; Baker, B.; Randall, C.; Ko, D. H.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, E. S.; Chang, S.; Park, J. M.; SEO, S. B.; Youk, Y.; Kong, J. P.; Lee, D.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, J.

    2014-12-01

    Introduction: The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is one of two instruments manifested aboard the South Korean Geostationary Earth Orbit KOrea Multi-Purpose SATellite-2B (GEO-KOMPSAT-2B or GK2B), which is scheduled to launch in 2018. Jointly developed/built by KARI and Ball Aerospace, GEMS is a geostationary UV-Vis hyperspectral imager designed to monitor trans-boundary tropospheric pollution events over the Korean peninsula and Asia-Pacific region. The spectrometer provides high temporal and spatial resolution (3.5 km N/S by 7.2 km E/W) measurements of ozone, its precursors, and aerosols. Over the short-term, hourly measurements by GEMS will improve early warnings for potentially dangerous pollution events and monitor population exposure. Over the 10-year mission-life, GEMS will serve to enhance our understanding of long-term climate change and broader air quality issues on both a regional and global scale. The GEMS sensor design and performance are discussed, which includes an overview of measurement capabilities and the on-orbit concept of operations. GEMS Sensor Overview: The GEMS hyperspectral imaging system consists of a telescope and Offner grating spectrometer that feeds a single CCD detector array. A spectral range of 300-500 nm and sampling of 0.2 nm enables NO2, SO2, HCHO, O3, and aerosol retrieval. The GEMS field of regard (FOR), which extends from 5°S to 45°N in latitude and 75°E to 145°E in longitude, is operationally achieved using an onboard two-axis scan mirror. On-orbit, the radiometric calibration is maintained using solar measurements, which are performed using two onboard diffusers: a working diffuser that is deployed routinely for the purpose of solar calibration, and a reference diffuser that is deployed sparingly for the purpose of monitoring working diffuser performance degradation.

  16. The Salmonella SPI2 effector SseI mediates long-term systemic infection by modulating host cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M McLaughlin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Host-adapted strains of Salmonella enterica cause systemic infections and have the ability to persist systemically for long periods of time despite the presence of a robust immune response. Chronically infected hosts are asymptomatic and transmit disease to naïve hosts via fecal shedding of bacteria, thereby serving as a critical reservoir for disease. We show that the bacterial effector protein SseI (also called SrfH, which is translocated into host cells by the Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2 type III secretion system (T3SS, is required for Salmonella typhimurium to maintain a long-term chronic systemic infection in mice. SseI inhibits normal cell migration of primary macrophages and dendritic cells (DC in vitro, and such inhibition requires the host factor IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1, an important regulator of cell migration. SseI binds directly to IQGAP1 and co-localizes with this factor at the cell periphery. The C-terminal domain of SseI is similar to PMT/ToxA, a bacterial toxin that contains a cysteine residue (C1165 that is critical for activity. Mutation of the corresponding residue in SseI (C178A eliminates SseI function in vitro and in vivo, but not binding to IQGAP1. In addition, infection with wild-type (WT S. typhimurium suppressed DC migration to the spleen in vivo in an SseI-dependent manner. Correspondingly, examination of spleens from mice infected with WT S. typhimurium revealed fewer DC and CD4(+ T lymphocytes compared to mice infected with Delta sseI S. typhimurium. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SseI inhibits normal host cell migration, which ultimately counteracts the ability of the host to clear systemic bacteria.

  17. UCD-SPI: Un-Collimated Detector Single-Photon Imaging System for Small Animal and Plant Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Katherine Leigh

    Medical imaging systems using single gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes implement collimators in order to form images. However, a tradeoff in sensitivity is inherent in the use of collimators, and modern preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems detect a very small fraction of emitted gamma-rays (imaging, while still producing images of sufficient spatial resolution for certain applications in "thin" objects such as mice, small plants, and well plates used for in vitro experiments. This flexible geometry un-collimated detector single-photon imaging (UCD-SPI) system consists of two large (5 cm x 10 cm), thin (3 mm and 5 mm), closely spaced, pixelated scintillation detectors of either NaI(Tl), CsI(Na), or BGO. The detectors are read out by two adjacent Hamamatsu H8500 multichannel photomultiplier tubes. The detector heads enable the interchange of scintillation detectors of different materials and thicknesses to optimize performance for a wide range of gamma-ray energies and imaging subjects. The detectors are horizontally oriented for animal imaging, and for plant imaging the system is rotated on its side to orient the detectors vertically. While this un-collimated detector system is unable to approach the sub-mm spatial resolution obtained by the most advanced preclinical pinhole SPECT systems, the high sensitivity could enable significant and new use in molecular imaging applications which do not require good spatial resolution- for example, screening applications for drug development (small animals), for material transport and sequestration studies for phytoremediation (plants), or for counting radiolabeled cells in vitro (well plates).

  18. Analysis of Gridded SPI in Hawai`i from 1920 to 2012 and Management Responses to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, A. G.; Lucas, M.; Giardina, C. P.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Trauernicht, C.; Miura, T.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is a prominent feature of Hawai`i's climate with severe impacts in multiple sectors. Over the last century, Hawai`i has experienced downward trends in rainfall and stream baseflow, upward trends in the number of consecutive dry days and wildfire incidents, and regional projections show that unusually severe dry seasons will become increasingly common on the leeward side of all Hawaiian Islands. Many recent studies have examined different aspects of drought in Hawai`i, however, there has not been a complete synthesis of historical drought since 1991. To assess historical drought regimes in Hawai`i, a gridded Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) product was developed and analyzed for the period 1920 to 2012 at 250 m resolution. Results show that the last decade has been the driest on record, with statewide drought conditions present 90% of the time between December 2006 and December 2012. Strong spatial variations were found between islands, with higher peak intensities found on Maui and Hawai`i Island, and shorter duration droughts on Kaua`i. The most severe droughts are typically associated with El Niño events, and in recent decades, the leeward coast of Hawai`i Island has been the most drought-prone area in the state. This study also assessed historical drought specifically for federal and state conservation lands, and examined management actions during recent events. Severe droughts have shaped management plans, affecting responses including ungulate control, fuel reductions, native plant restoration, and protection of endangered species. This spatially explicit retrospective analysis provides the historical context needed to understand future projections, and contributes to more effective policy and management of natural, cultural, hydrological and agricultural resources.

  19. Hybrid plasmon photonic crystal resonance grating for integrated spectrometer biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Guo, Junpeng

    2015-01-15

    Using nanofabricated hybrid metal-dielectric nanohole array photonic crystal gratings, a hybrid plasmonic optical resonance spectrometer biosensor is demonstrated. The new spectrometer sensor technique measures plasmonic optical resonance from the first-order diffraction rather than via the traditional method of measuring optical resonance from transmission. The resonance spectra measured with the new spectrometer technique are compared with the spectra measured using a commercial optical spectrometer. It is shown that the new optical resonance spectrometer can be used to measure plasmonic optical resonance that otherwise cannot be measured with a regular optical spectrometer.

  20. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P.

    1996-01-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs

  1. Neutron spectrometer using NE218 liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.B.; Francois, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer has been constructed using NE218 liquid scintillator. Discrimination against electron-gamma events was obtained usng a charge-comparison pulse shape discrimination system. The resolution obtained was about 0.25 MeV F.W.H.M. at 2.0 MeV

  2. L G Smith's RF mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koets, E.

    1981-01-01

    From 1948 on Lincoln G Smith developed mass spectrometers based on time and frequency measurements. With his last machine he obtained an accuracy of the order of 1 to 10 9 . After his untimely death in 1972 his unique instrument was moved to Delft, where its development is carried on. (author)

  3. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  4. Advanced Laboratory NMR Spectrometer with Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscegli, Clovis; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of an inexpensive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer suitable for use in advanced laboratory courses. Applications to the nondestructive analysis of the oil content in corn seeds and in monitoring the crystallization of polymers are presented. (SK)

  5. A 'tiny-orange' spectrometer for electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, N.C. da.

    1990-01-01

    An tiny-orange electron spectrometer was designed and constructed using flat permanent magnets and a surface barrier detector. The transmission functions of different system configurations were determined for energies in the 200-1100 KeV range. A mathematical model for the system was developed. (L.C.J.A.)

  6. Imaging mass spectrometer with mass tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, James S.; Wu, Kuang Jen; Knize, Mark G.; Kulp, Kristen S.; Gray, Joe W.

    2010-06-01

    A method of analyzing biological material by exposing the biological material to a recognition element, that is coupled to a mass tag element, directing an ion beam of a mass spectrometer to the biological material, interrogating at least one region of interest area from the biological material and producing data, and distributing the data in plots.

  7. Design of radial neutron spectrometer for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Takeo; Kasai, Satoshi; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Ebisawa, Katsuyuki; Kita, Yoshio.

    1996-09-01

    We designed the radial neutron spectrometer using a new type DT neutron spectrometer base on a recoil proton counter-telescope technique aiming ion temperature measurement for ITER. The neutron spectrometer will be installed on the well-collimated neutron beam line. A large-area recoil proton emitter is placed in parallel to the incident neutron beam and a micro-channel collimating plates are inserted between the radiator and the recoil proton detectors away from the neutron beam in order to limit the scattering angle of protons to the proton detectors. Here a very thin polyethylene film and a silicon surface barrier detector are employed as the radiator and proton detector, respectively. The energy resolution and detection efficiency are estimated to be 2.5% and 1x10 -5 counts/(n/cm 2 ), respectively for DT neutron through Monte Carlo calculations. Five units of the spectrometers will be installed just out side the bio-shield and consist a fun array using penetrations inside the bio-shield and a pre-collimator in the horizontal port. The life time of the proton detectors is estimated to be about one year in the Basic Performance Phase of ITER by neutron transport calculations using MCNP Monte Carlo code. The necessary R and D items and the design work were identified. (author)

  8. Calibration method for ion mobility spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, Valery

    2011-01-01

    The new method for the calibration of the ion mobility spectrometer has been developed. This article describes the working principle, advantages and disadvantages of the calibration method operating in the mode of explosives detection. This method is most suitable for use in portable detectors, due to the small weight, small size parameters and low power consumption.

  9. A superheterodyne spectrometer for electronic paramagnetic. Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, J.L.

    1963-12-01

    After a few generalities about electron paramagnetic resonance, a consideration of different experimental techniques authorises the choice of a particular type of apparatus. An EPR superheterodyne spectrometer built in the laboratory and having a novel circuit is described in detail. With this apparatus, many experimental results have been obtained and some of these are described as example. (author) [fr

  10. Haitian earthquake relief: disaster response aboard the USNS comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, Ryan M; Donahue, Timothy F; Stockinger, Zsolt; Knudson, M Margaret; Cubano, Miguel; Sharpe, Richard P; Safford, Shawn D

    2012-12-01

    The Haitian earthquake of January 12, 2010, was a disaster essentially unprecedented in the Western Hemisphere's recorded history. The USNS Comfort departed from Baltimore, Maryland, within 72 hours of the earthquake and arrived in Port-au-Prince harbor on January 19. During the subsequent 40 days, the ship provided one of the largest relief efforts in the US Navy's history. The data analyzed included all patients evaluated and treated by the USNS Comfort between January 19 and February 27, 2010. A medical chart with a unique identifier was created for each patient on admission. A patient database was created from these records and used for this analysis. A total of 872 patients and 185 patient escorts were processed aboard the ship. Ages ranged from younger than 1 day to 89 years: 635 were adults and 237 were children. Of those admitted, 817 of the patients were admitted for longer than 24 hours; the average length of stay was 8.0 days. The need for surgery was substantial: 454 patients went to the operating room (OR) 843 times for 927 cumulative procedures. A total of 58 patients underwent amputations. Haiti was almost completely reliant on foreign medical teams for trauma care. Analysis of the data illustrates the challenges of triage and treatment in a humanitarian mass-casualty response. The remarkable coordination and cooperation among the Haitian Ministry of Health, nongovernmental humanitarian aid organizations, and the US military highlighted the responders' respective capabilities and demonstrated the importance of collaboration in future disaster response efforts.

  11. The SAGE III's mission aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael; Thomason, Larry; Zawodny, Joseph; Flittner, David; Hill, Charles; Roell, Marilee; Vernier, Jean-Paul

    2014-05-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) is being prepared for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2015. Constructed in the early 2000s, the instrument is undergoing extensive testing and refurbishment prior to delivery to ISS. In addition, ESA is refurbishing their Hexapod which is a high-accuracy pointing system developed to support ISS external payloads, particularly SAGE III. The SAGE III instrument refurbishment also includes the replacement of the neutral density filter that has been associated with some instrument performance degradation during the SAGE III mission aboard METEOR/3M mission (2002-2005). We are also exploring options for expanding the science targets to include additional gas species including IO, BrO, and other solar, lunar, and limb-scatter species. In this presentation, we will discuss SAGE III-ISS refurbishment including results from Sun-look testing. We also will discuss potential revisions to the science measurements and the expected measurement accuracies determined in part through examination of the SAGE III-METEOR/3M measurement data quality. In addition, we will discuss potential mission science goals enabled by the mid-inclination ISS orbit. No dedicated field campaign for SAGE III validation is anticipated. Instead, validation will primarily rely on a collaborative effort with international groups making in situ and ground-based measurements of aerosol, ozone, and other SAGE III data products. A limited balloon-based effort with a yet-to-be-determined validation partner is also in the planning stages.

  12. SuperSpec: A Revolutionary New Spectrometer for Submillimeter Astronomy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SuperSpec is a new spectrometer for submm astronomy. SuperSpec stands out from other submm spectrometers in that the detectors are coupled to a series of resonant...

  13. The TRIUMF low energy pion spectrometer and channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobie, R.J.; Drake, T.E.; Barnett, B.M.; Erdman, K.L.; Gyles, W.; Johnson, R.R.; Roser, H.W.; Tacik, R.; Blackmore, E.W.; Gill, D.R.

    1983-08-01

    A low energy pion spectrometer has been developed for use with the TRIUMF M13 pion channel. The combined channel and spectrometer resolution is presently 1.1 MeV at T = 50 MeV. This is limited by the amount of gas and detector material in the spectrometer in addition to the inherent resolution of the channel. Improvements to both the spectrometer and channel are discussed

  14. Hardware of automation systems of isotope mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manojlov, V.V.; Meleshkin, A.S.; Novikov, L.V.; Kornil'ev, S.O.; Voronin, B.M.

    1997-01-01

    The modernized hardware of isotope mass spectrometers is described. The modern control systems for the mass spectrometers are fulfilled on the basis of IBM/PC AT. Versions of subsystems mass spectrometer control through a standard bus and through a digital-to-analog converter are considered. The characteristics of an electrometric amplifier and interface cards developed for modernized automation systems of the isotope mass spectrometers are presented

  15. Miniature anastigmatic spectrometer design with a concave toroidal mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianing; Chen, He; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Guo, Pan

    2016-03-01

    An advanced optical design for a low-cost and astigmatism-corrected spectrometer with a high resolution is presented. The theory and method of astigmatism correction are determined with the use of a concave toroidal mirror. The performances of a modified spectrometer and a traditional spectrometer are compared, and the analysis is verified. Experimentally, the limiting resolution of our spectrometer is 0.1 nm full width at half-maximum, as measured for 579.1 nm.

  16. Differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Benjamin C.; Kenttamaa, Hilkka I.

    2015-10-20

    The present disclosure provides a new tandem mass spectrometer and methods of using the same for analyzing charged particles. The differentially pumped dual linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer of the present disclose includes a combination of two linear quadrupole (LQIT) mass spectrometers with differentially pumped vacuum chambers.

  17. 21 CFR 862.2860 - Mass spectrometer for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mass spectrometer for clinical use. 862.2860 Section 862.2860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Instruments § 862.2860 Mass spectrometer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A mass spectrometer for...

  18. A magnetic-lens - mini-orange coincidence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargholtz, C.; Holmberg, L.; Ruus, N.; Tegner, P.E.; Weiss, G.

    1997-04-01

    A coincidence spectrometer consisting of a Gerholm type magnetic lens and a permanent magnet mini-orange spectrometer is described. Electron-electron or electron-positron coincidences may be registered in various angular settings. The spectrometer has been developed mainly to search for anomalous contributions to Bhabha scattering or positrons and is at present used for such studies. 6 refs

  19. Measured properties of an out-of-plane spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandeville, J.B.; Cardman, L.S.; Dolfini, S.M.; Kim, W.; Laszewski, R.M.; Papanicolas, C.N.; Williamson, S.E.; Alarcon, R.; Goergen, J.; Martinez, D.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.M.; Tieger, D.; Zumbro, J.; Epstein, M.; Magaziotis, D.; Bernstein, A.; Bertozzi, W.; Bhushan, V.; Gilad, S.; Holtrop, M.; Jordan, D.; McIlvain, T.; Weinstein, L.; Beck, R.; Boeglin, W.; Offermann, E.A.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    We report the results of measurements of the properties of a prototype out-of-plane magnetic spectrometer (OOPS). This spectrometer is one of four identical modules which, together with a support structure, comprise the OOPS cluster. The performance of the spectrometer was found to closely match its design characteristics. (orig.)

  20. Spying on volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Matthew

    2017-07-01

    Active volcanoes can be incredibly dangerous, especially to those who live nearby, but how do you get close enough to observe one in action? Matthew Watson explains how artificial drones are providing volcanologists with insights that could one day save human lives

  1. Spitzer Spies Spectacular Sombrero

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2 NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes on one of the most famous objects in the sky, Messier 104, also called the Sombrero galaxy. In this striking infrared picture, Spitzer sees an exciting new view of a galaxy that in visible light has been likened to a 'sombrero,' but here looks more like a 'bulls-eye.' Recent observations using Spitzer's infrared array camera uncovered the bright, smooth ring of dust circling the galaxy, seen in red. In visible light, because this galaxy is seen nearly edge-on, only the near rim of dust can be clearly seen in silhouette. Spitzer's full view shows the disk is warped, which is often the result of a gravitational encounter with another galaxy, and clumpy areas spotted in the far edges of the ring indicate young star-forming regions. Spitzer's infrared view of the starlight from this galaxy, seen in blue, can pierce through obscuring murky dust that dominates in visible light. As a result, the full extent of the bulge of stars and an otherwise hidden disk of stars within the dust ring are easily seen. The Sombrero galaxy is located some 28 million light years away. Viewed from Earth, it is just six degrees south of its equatorial plane. Spitzer detected infrared emission not only from the ring, but from the center of the galaxy too, where there is a huge black hole, believed to be a billion times more massive than our Sun. This picture is composed of four images taken at 3.6 (blue), 4.5 (green), 5.8 (orange), and 8.0 (red) microns. The contribution from starlight (measured at 3.6 microns) has been subtracted from the 5.8 and 8-micron images to enhance the visibility of the dust features. In figure 1, the new picture of Messier 104 combines a recent infrared observation from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope with a well-known visible light image from the Hubble Space Telescope. In the Hubble Space Telescope's visible light image (lower left panel), only the near rim of dust can be clearly seen in silhouette. Recent observations using Spitzer's infrared array camera (lower right panel) uncovered the bright, smooth ring of dust circling the galaxy, seen in red. Spitzer's infrared view of the starlight, pierced through the obscuring dust, is easily seen, along with the bulge of stars and an otherwise hidden disk of stars within the dust ring. Spitzer's full view shows the disk is warped, which is often the result of a gravitational encounter with another galaxy, and clumpy areas spotted in the far edges of the ring indicate young star-forming regions. In figure 2, the infrared space telescope adds new detail to the galaxy's hallmark characteristics, such as the bright, bulbous core encircled by its thick dust lanes. Since infrared light can trace the dust, the dark, murky ring glows brilliantly in infrared. The clumpy dust ring also becomes transparent to starlight in infrared, allowing a clear view of the inner disk of stars within the dust ring. Viewed from Earth, the Sombrero galaxy is seen nearly edge-on, just six degrees away from its equatorial plane. This spiral galaxy is located 28 million light years away and is 50,000 light-years across. The Sombrero is one of the most massive objects at the southern edge of the Virgo cluster of galaxies, and is equal in size to 800 billion Suns. It hosts a rich system of nearly 2,000 globular clusters, 10 times as many as orbit our Milky Way galaxy. It is also interesting that the Sombrero galaxy may harbor a super-massive black hole, accounting for the electromagnetic glow emitted from its center. The Hubble images were taken by the Hubble Heritage Team in May-June 2003 with the space telescope's advanced camera for surveys. Spitzer's images were taken in June 2004 and January 2005 as part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey, using the telescope's infrared array camera. The survey is one of the six Spitzer Legacy Science projects, designed to reveal how stars are formed in different types of galaxies, and to provide an atlas of galaxy images and spectra for future archival investigations. The Sombrero is one of 75 galaxies being observed by the survey team. In this image, blue-cyan corresponds to the Hubble visible-light view, while the Spitzer 3.6-4.5 micron light is green and 8.0 micron light is red. Starlight in this Spitzer image (measured at 3.6 microns) has been subtracted from the 8-micron image to enhance the visibility of the dust features. In figure 3, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has trained its sharp eye on one of the universe's most stately and photogenic galaxies, Messier 104. The galaxy's hallmark is a brilliant white, bulbous core encircled by the thick dust lanes comprising the spiral structure of the galaxy. As seen from Earth, the galaxy is tilted nearly edge-on. We view it from just six degrees north of its equatorial plane. This brilliant galaxy was named the Sombrero because in visible light it resembles a broad rimmed and high-topped Mexican hat. M104 is just beyond the limit of the naked eye, but is easily seen through small telescopes. It lies at the southern edge of the rich Virgo cluster of galaxies. It is one of the most massive objects in that group, equivalent to 800 billion suns. The galaxy is 50,000 light-years across and is located 28 million light-years from Earth. Hubble easily resolves M104's rich system of 2,000 globular clusters-believed to be 10 times as many as orbit our Milky Way galaxy. The ages of the clusters are similar to those of the clusters in the Milky Way, ranging from 10-13 billion years. A smaller disk is embedded in the bright core of M104, and is tilted relative to the large disk. X-ray emission hints that there is material falling into the compact core, where a black hole as massive as 1 billion suns resides. The Hubble Heritage Team took these observations in May-June 2003 with the space telescope's advanced camera for surveys. Images were taken in three filters (red, green, and blue) to yield a natural-color image. The team took six pictures of the galaxy and then stitched them together to create the final composite image. This magnificent galaxy has a diameter that is nearly one-fifth the diameter of the full Moon. The movie shifts from the well-known visible-light picture of Messier 104 taken by the Hubble Space Telescope to infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Messier (click on the browse image above for download option).

  2. Putrid gums and 'Dead Men's Cloaths': James Lind aboard the Salisbury

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton, Graham

    2003-01-01

    18th century sailors often suffered from scurvy. In 1747 James Lind conducted his classic experiments aboard the Salisbury, in which he cured scurvy with oranges and lemons. The Royal Navy did not introduce citrus rations until 1795. The original ship's papers allow the circumstances of the experiment to be reconstructed. The relevant patrol began in March 1747, and Lind's experiment began after 8 weeks at sea. The muster roll records almost no sickness aboard until the ship returned to Plymo...

  3. The SeaQuest Spectrometer at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aidala, C.A.; et al.

    2017-06-29

    The SeaQuest spectrometer at Fermilab was designed to detect oppositely-charged pairs of muons (dimuons) produced by interactions between a 120 GeV proton beam and liquid hydrogen, liquid deuterium and solid nuclear targets. The primary physics program uses the Drell-Yan process to probe antiquark distributions in the target nucleon. The spectrometer consists of a target system, two dipole magnets and four detector stations. The upstream magnet is a closed-aperture solid iron magnet which also serves as the beam dump, while the second magnet is an open aperture magnet. Each of the detector stations consists of scintillator hodoscopes and a high-resolution tracking device. The FPGA-based trigger compares the hodoscope signals to a set of pre-programmed roads to determine if the event contains oppositely-signed, high-mass muon pairs.

  4. Portable gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Myers, D.W.

    1996-06-11

    A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is described for use as a field portable organic chemical analysis instrument. The GC-MS is designed to be contained in a standard size suitcase, weighs less than 70 pounds, and requires less than 600 watts of electrical power at peak power (all systems on). The GC-MS includes: a conduction heated, forced air cooled small bore capillary gas chromatograph, a small injector assembly, a self-contained ion/sorption pump vacuum system, a hydrogen supply, a dual computer system used to control the hardware and acquire spectrum data, and operational software used to control the pumping system and the gas chromatograph. This instrument incorporates a modified commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer to achieve the instrument sensitivity and mass resolution characteristic of laboratory bench top units. 4 figs.

  5. Neutron spectrometer for improved SNM search.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Andrew L.; Aigeldinger, Georg

    2007-03-01

    With the exception of large laboratory devices with very low sensitivities, a neutron spectrometer have not been built for fission neutrons such as those emitted by special nuclear materials (SNM). The goal of this work was to use a technique known as Capture Gated Neutron Spectrometry to develop a solid-state device with this functionality. This required modifications to trans-stilbene, a known solid-state scintillator. To provide a neutron capture signal we added lithium to this material. This unique triggering signal allowed identification of neutrons that lose all of their energy in the detector, eliminating uncertainties that arise due to partial energy depositions. We successfully implemented a capture gated neutron spectrometer and were able to distinguish an SNM like fission spectrum from a spectrum stemming from a benign neutron source.

  6. PAC Spectrometer for Condensed Matter Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Brudanin, V B; Kochetov, O I; Korolev, N A; Milanov, M; Ostrovsky, I V; Pavlov, V N; Salamatin, A V; Timkin, V V; Velichkov, A I; Fomicheva, L N; Tsvyaschenko, A V; Akselrod, Z Z

    2005-01-01

    A four-detector spectrometer of perturbed angular $\\gamma \\gamma $ correlations is developed for investigation of hyperfine interactions in condensed matter. It allows measurements with practically any types of detectors. A unique circuit design involving a specially developed Master PAC unit combined with a computer allows a substantially higher efficiency, reduced setup time and simpler operation in comparison with traditional PAC spectrometers. A cryostat and a high-temperature oven allow measurements in the temperature range from 120 to 1300 K. An encased electromagnet makes it possible to generate a magnetic field up to 2 T on a sample. The measurement system includes a press with a specially designed high-pressure chamber allowing on-line PAC measurements in samples under pressure up to 60 GPa.

  7. MEMS tunable grating micro-spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormen, Maurizio; Lockhart, R.; Niedermann, P.; Overstolz, T.; Hoogerwerf, A.; Mayor, J.-M.; Pierer, J.; Bosshard, C.; Ischer, R.; Voirin, G.; Stanley, R. P.

    2017-11-01

    The interest in MEMS based Micro-Spectrometers is increasing due to their potential in terms of flexibility as well as cost, low mass, small volume and power savings. This interest, especially in the Near-Infrared and Mid- Infrared, ranges from planetary exploration missions to astronomy, e.g. the search for extra solar planets, as well as to many other terrestrial fields of application such as, industrial quality and surface control, chemical analysis of soil and water, detection of chemical pollutants, exhausted gas analysis, food quality control, process control in pharmaceuticals, to name a few. A compact MEMS-based Spectrometer for Near- Infrared and Mid-InfraRed operation have been conceived, designed and demonstrated. The design based on tunable MEMS blazed grating, developed in the past at CSEM [1], achieves state of the art results in terms of spectral resolution, operational wavelength range, light throughput, overall dimensions, and power consumption.

  8. Time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Managadze, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer comprises an ion source consisting of a grid assembly, a drift space with a focusing system, a reflector and a detector. The grid assembly has the shape of a ring with the internal diameter equal to that of the detector, whereas the focusing system consists of two cylinders coaxially mounted in the drift space whose diameters are equal, respectively, to the internal and the external diameter of the grid assembly of the ion source. The time-of-flight mass spectrometer is intended mainly for studying the mass composition of an inert gas, of a low-energy ion flux as well as of a plasma in a vacuum. (author)

  9. Interface for liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1989-01-01

    A moving belt interface for real-time, high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC)/mass spectrometer (MS) analysis which strips away the HPLC solvent as it emerges from the end of the HPLC column and leaves a residue suitable for mass-spectral analysis. The interface includes a portable, stand-alone apparatus having a plural stage vacuum station, a continuous ribbon or belt, a drive train magnetically coupled to an external drive motor, a calibrated HPLC delivery system, a heated probe tip and means located adjacent the probe tip for direct ionization of the residue on the belt. The interface is also capable of being readily adapted to fit any mass spectrometer.

  10. Feasibility studies for the Forward Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biernat, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Spectrometer designed for the P-barANDA detector will consist of many different detector systems allowing for precise track reconstruction and particle identification. Feasibility studies for Forward Spectrometer done by means of specific reactions will be presented. In the first part of the paper, results of simulations focussing on rate estimates of the tracking stations based on straw tubes will be presented. Next, the importance of the Forward Tracker will be demonstrated through the reconstruction of the ψ(4040) → DD-bar decay. Finally, results from the analysis of the experimental data collected with a straw tube prototype designed and constructed at the Research Center in Juelich will be discussed. (paper)

  11. Inelastic rotor spectrometer at the Harwell Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, B.C.

    1983-01-01

    The spectrometer is designed to measure energy transfer from 50 MeV to 400 MeV covering a range of Q values from 1 to 15 A - 1 . Particular emphasis has been placed on the low Q counter banks where measurements at low Q reduce multiphonon contributions in vibrational spectra, diffusional broadening in liquids and allow measurements to be made on magnetic excitations. All indications are that the energy resolution is as predicted and is certainly twice as good as that of any other spectrometer presently available to the UK users at these energy transfers. Backgrounds on the high angle banks 24 0 to 94 0 are excellent but at the low angles are too high at present for anything but hydrogenous samples. Tests have shown that much of this background comes from the main beam in the area of the collimation between the chopper and the sample, and steps are being taken to improve this area

  12. Superheated drop as a neutron spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mala; Chatterjee, B. K.; Roy, B.; Roy, S. C.

    2000-09-01

    Superheated drops are known to vaporise when exposed to energetic nuclear radiation since the discovery of bubble chamber. The application of superheated drops in neutron research especially in neutron dosimetry is a subject of intense research for quite sometime. As the degree of superheat increases in a given liquid, less and less energetic neutrons are required to cause nucleation. This property of superheated liquid makes it possible to use it as a neutron spectrometer. Neutron detection efficiency of superheated drops made of R12 exposed to Am-Be neutron source has been measured over a wide range of temperature -17-60°C and the results have been utilised to construct the energy spectrum of the neutron source. This paper demonstrates that a suitable neutron spectrometer may be constructed by using a single liquid and varying the temperature of the liquid suitably at a closer grid.

  13. Superheated drop as a neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Mala; Chatterjee, B.K.; Roy, B. E-mail: biva@bosemain.boseinst.ernet.in; Roy, S.C

    2000-09-21

    Superheated drops are known to vaporise when exposed to energetic nuclear radiation since the discovery of bubble chamber. The application of superheated drops in neutron research especially in neutron dosimetry is a subject of intense research for quite sometime. As the degree of superheat increases in a given liquid, less and less energetic neutrons are required to cause nucleation. This property of superheated liquid makes it possible to use it as a neutron spectrometer. Neutron detection efficiency of superheated drops made of R12 exposed to Am-Be neutron source has been measured over a wide range of temperature -17-60 deg. C and the results have been utilised to construct the energy spectrum of the neutron source. This paper demonstrates that a suitable neutron spectrometer may be constructed by using a single liquid and varying the temperature of the liquid suitably at a closer grid.

  14. Imaging spectrometer wide field catadioptric design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp,; Michael, P [Danville, CA

    2008-08-19

    A wide field catadioptric imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The catadioptric design has zero Petzval field curvature. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system with a catadioptric lens and a dioptric lens for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through the system for receiving the light to the detector array.

  15. Status of the LEP2 Spectrometer Project

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, Bernd; Bovet, Claude; Coosemans, Williame; Cornuet, D; Hidalgo, A; Hilleret, Noël; Hublin, M; Kalbreier, Willi; Leclère, P; Matheson, J; Mugnai, G; Muttoni, Y; Myers, S; Occelli, B; Palacios, J; Perret, R; Placidi, Massimo; Prochnow, J; Rühl, I; Sassowsky, M; Schmickler, Hermann; Valbuena, R; Wells, P S; Wenninger, J; Wilkinson, G R; Hildreth, M D; Roncarolo, F; Torrence, E

    2000-01-01

    The LEP spectrometer has been conceived to provide a determination of the beam energy with a relative accuracy of 10-4 in the LEP2 physics region where insufficient polarisation levels prevent the application of the resonant depolarisation method. The setup consists of a steel bending magnet flanked by a triplet of Beam Position Monitors (BPM) at each side providing a measurement of changes in the bending angle when the beams are accelerated to physics energies. The goal for a 100 ppm relative precision on the beam energy involves a ± 1 micron BPM resolution and the calibration of the dipole bending strength to a 30 ppm accuracy. This paper reports on the results of the commissioning of the Spectrometer during the 1999 LEP Run and on the experience acquired on the behaviour of the several sub-systems with circulating beams.

  16. Cryogenic system for a superconducting spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.

    1983-03-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) relies upon superconducting coils of cryostable, pool boiling design to provide a maximum particle bending field of 3 tesla. This paper describes the cryogenic facility including helium refrigeration, gas management, liquid nitrogen system, and the overall control strategy. The system normally operates with a 4 K heat load of 150 watts; the LN 2 circuits absorb an additional 4000 watts. 80K intercept control is by an LSI 11 computer. Total available refrigeration at 4K is 400 watts using reciprocating expanders at the 20K and 4K level. The minicomputer has the capability of optimizing overall utility input cost by varying operating points. A hybrid of pneumatic, analog, and digital control is successful in providing full time unattended operation. The 7m diameter magnet/cryostat assembly is rotatable through 180 degrees to provide a variety of spectrometer orientations

  17. Associated Particle Tagging (APT) in Magnetic Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Baciak, James E.; Stave, Sean C.; Chichester, David; Dale, Daniel; Kim, Yujong; Harmon, Frank

    2012-10-16

    Summary In Brief The Associated Particle Tagging (APT) project, a collaboration of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Idaho State University (ISU)/Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), has completed an exploratory study to assess the role of magnetic spectrometers as the linchpin technology in next-generation tagged-neutron and tagged-photon active interrogation (AI). The computational study considered two principle concepts: (1) the application of a solenoidal alpha-particle spectrometer to a next-generation, large-emittance neutron generator for use in the associated particle imaging technique, and (2) the application of tagged photon beams to the detection of fissile material via active interrogation. In both cases, a magnetic spectrometer momentum-analyzes charged particles (in the neutron case, alpha particles accompanying neutron generation in the D-T reaction; in the tagged photon case, post-bremsstrahlung electrons) to define kinematic properties of the relevant neutral interrogation probe particle (i.e. neutron or photon). The main conclusions of the study can be briefly summarized as follows: Neutron generator: • For the solenoidal spectrometer concept, magnetic field strengths of order 1 Tesla or greater are required to keep the transverse size of the spectrometer smaller than 1 meter. The notional magnetic spectrometer design evaluated in this feasibility study uses a 5-T magnetic field and a borehole radius of 18 cm. • The design shows a potential for 4.5 Sr tagged neutron solid angle, a factor of 4.5 larger than achievable with current API neutron-generator designs. • The potential angular resolution for such a tagged neutron beam can be less than 0.5o for modest Si-detector position resolution (3 mm). Further improvement in angular resolution can be made by using Si-detectors with better position resolution. • The report documents several features of a notional generator design incorporating the

  18. Synchronized high speed scanning infrared spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camm, J C; Taylor, R L; Lynch, R

    1967-05-01

    A spectrometer which scans a wavelength band of 0.6 micro in 30 microsec and is useful from 2-6 micro is described. The instrument can be synchronized with a pulsed source with a minimum triggering delay of 15microsec. The instrument is basically an Ebert spectrometer equipped with an indium antimonide detector at the exit slit, an aluminum scanning mirror placed 5 cm before the exit slit, and a wavelength calibration signal generator. The scanning mirror, which is supported on pivots inside a helical coil, deflects the spectrum through an angle of approximately 90 degrees onto the exit slit. When a capacitor is discharged through the coil, the resulting magnetic field spins the aluminum mirror causing the spectrum to move across the exit slit. The wavelength calibration signal generator produces a series of electrical pulses as the scanning mirror turns, permitting wavelength calibration when the pulses are displayed below the spectrometer signal on a dual beam oscilloscope. Using this instrument on a shock tube, data have bee obtained on the absolute spectral radiation intensity of air, nitrogen, neon, and argon heated by reflected shocks to equilibrium temperatures in the range of 6000 degrees K to 10,000 degrees K. In this temperature region with these gases, an important source of continuum radiation is neutral Bremsstrahlung caused by the inelastic scattering of electrons from neutral atoms and molecules. By employing the scanning ir spectrometer it has been possible to separate the continuum radiation from contributions owing to lines and bands and determine the cross section for the neutral Bremsstrahlung.

  19. Superconducting RF separator for Omega Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows an Nb-deflector for the superconducting RF separator ready for installation in its cryostat (visible at the back). Each deflector was about 3 m long. L. Husson and P. Skacel (Karlsruhe) stand on the left, A. Scharding (CERN) stands on the right. This particle separator, the result of a collaboration between the Gesellshaft für Kernforschung, Karlsruhe, and CERN was installed in the S1 beam line to Omega spectrometer. (See Annual Report 1977.)

  20. Fourier Transform Spectrometer Controller for Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Keymeulen, D.; Berisford, D.

    2013-01-01

    The current trend in spacecraft computing is to integrate applications of different criticality levels on the same platform using no separation. This approach increases the complexity of the development, verification and integration processes, with an impact on the whole system life cycle. Resear......, such as avionics and automotive. In this paper we investigate the challenges of developing and the benefits of integrating a scientific instrument, namely a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, in such a partitioned architecture....

  1. Mobile environment for an emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziak, Kamil; Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; Tyburska-Staniewska, Anna; Ramsza, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    The paper describes a mobile application to be used in a chemical analytical laboratory. The program running under the control of Android operating system allows for preview of measurements recorded by the emission spectrometer. Another part of the application monitors operational and configuration parameters of the device in real time. The first part of this paper includes an overview of the atomic spectrometry. The second part contains a description of the application and its further potential development direction.

  2. Resolution of a triple axis spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1969-01-01

    A new method for obtaining the resolution function for a triple-axis neutron spectrometer is described, involving a combination of direct measurement and analytical calculation. All factors which contribute to the finite resolution of the instrument may be taken into account, and Gaussian...... or experimentally determined probability distributions may be used. The application to the study of the dispersion relation for excitations in a crystal is outlined...

  3. Some characteristics of a miniature neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.; Oishi, K.; Hojo, K.; Hojo, T.

    1984-01-01

    Some characteristics of an NE213 miniature spherical spectrometer for in-assembly fast-neutron spectrometry were measured. As the bubbling time changed, the pulse-height did not change appreciably, but the n-γ discrimination characteristics changed considerably. As the count rate changed, the pulse-height did not change appreciably, and the change of the n-γ discrimination characteristics was acceptable. The neutron response function was measured to be almost isotropic except for the backward direction. (orig.)

  4. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    D`Silva, A.

    1996-08-06

    A device for providing equal electrical potential between two loci unconnected by solid or liquid electrical conductors is provided. The device comprises a first electrical conducting terminal, a second electrical conducting terminal connected to the first terminal by a rigid dielectric structure, and an electrically conducting gas contacting the first and second terminals. This device is particularly suitable for application in the electrospray ionization interface between a capillary zone electrophoresis apparatus and a mass spectrometer. 1 fig.

  5. The third generation of multichannel Raman spectrometers

    OpenAIRE

    Deffontaine, A.; Bridoux, M.; Delhaye, M.; Da Silva, E.; Hug, W.

    1984-01-01

    A new multichannel Raman spectrometer is described. Each component of the optical part (sample compartment, sample adjustment provisions, filters, fore-monochromator, spectrograph) have been carefully designed to build a high quality, high reliability and easy to use instrument. The detection system uses a self-scanned photodiode array and the read-out electronics and data acquisition system are based on electronic circuits and logics specially developed to give a high dynamic range with low ...

  6. Frequency-feedback cavity enhanced spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, David Christian; Gomez, Anthony

    2015-08-18

    A spectrometer comprising an optical cavity, a light source capable of producing light at one or more wavelengths transmitted by the cavity and with the light directed at the cavity, a detector and optics positioned to collect light transmitted by the cavity, feedback electronics causing oscillation of amplitude of the optical signal on the detector at a frequency that depends on cavity losses, and a sensor measuring the oscillation frequency to determine the cavity losses.

  7. One module of the ALICE photon spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The first module for the ALICE photon spectrometer has been completed. Each of the five modules will contain 3584 lead-tungstate crystals, a material as transparent as ordinary silica glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, allowing the energy of electrons, positrons and photons to be measured through the 17 920 detection channels.

  8. Imaging spectrometers developments in Italian space agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cosmo, V.

    2017-11-01

    The imaging spectroscopy is a very powerful tool for the Remote Sensing of the Solar Planets and, in particular, of the Earth. This technique permits to get not only the geometrical information but also the spectral information of the scenario under observation. The number of potential data-products obtainable in this way could be very high, useful and of benefit in several fields of Earth Observation. If these are the advantages on the other side the new dimension will increase the number of data by the number of spectral band, and for this it will increase the technical requirements, mainly, on the Instrument Optical Design, Focal Plane Array, Storage/Compressor Data Unit, Data Transmission etc. The instruments able to produce 3-dimensional data (cube image) are the imaging spectrometers, which depending on the way how the spectral contents is obtained, can be divided in two main categories: •The Fourier Imaging spectrometers •The Dispersing Imaging spectrometers Each one of the above categories of spectrometers has advantages and disadvantages and a choice between the two types can be made only performing a trade-off with the mission requirements. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) from long time is promoting and funding, to industrial and scientific levels, several activities covering almost all the aspects related to the imaging spectroscopy: from the applications to the instruments, from the data compressors to future hyperspectral missions. Purpose of this paper is to present the main results of the activities supported by ASI in this field with particular emphasis on the activities related to the studies and developments of new instruments.

  9. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  10. MERTIS: a highly integrated IR imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, I.; Hirsch, H.; Jahn, H.; Knollenberg, J.; Venus, H.

    2006-08-01

    With a background of several instrument developments in the past the German Aerospace Center in Berlin proposed for ESA's deep space mission BepiColombo an imaging spectrometer which meets the challenges of limited technical resources and a very special operational environment. An 80-channel push broom-type spectrometer has been drafted and it s development has been started under the name MERTIS (MErcury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer). The instrument is dedicated to the mineralogy surface science and thermal characteristics studies of the innermost planet. It is based on modern un-cooled micro-bolometer technology and all-reflective optics design. The operation concept principle is characterised by intermediate scanning of the planet, deep space and black bodies as calibration targets. A miniaturised radiometer is included for low level temperature measurements. Altogether the system shall fit into a CD-package sized cube and weigh less than 3 kg. The paper will present the instrument architecture of MERTIS, its design status and will show the results of first components being built.

  11. Silicon Microleaks for Inlets of Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, Dan; Hasso, Niemann; Jamieson, Brian G.; Lynch, Bernard A.

    2009-01-01

    Microleaks for inlets of mass spectrometers used to analyze atmospheric gases can be fabricated in silicon wafers by means of photolithography, etching, and other techniques that are commonly used in the manufacture of integrated circuits and microelectromechanical systems. The microleaks serve to limit the flows of the gases into the mass-spectrometer vacuums to specified very small flow rates consistent with the capacities of the spectrometer vacuum pumps. There is a need to be able to precisely tailor the dimensions of each microleak so as to tailor its conductance to a precise low value. (As used here, "conductance" signifies the ratio between the rate of flow in the leak and the pressure drop from the upstream to the downstream end of the leak.) To date, microleaks have been made, variously, of crimped metal tubes, pulled glass tubes, or frits. Crimped-metal and pulled-glass-tube microleaks cannot readily be fabricated repeatably to precise dimensions and are susceptible to clogging with droplets or particles. Frits tend to be differentially chemically reactive with various gas constituents and, hence, to distort the gas mixtures to be analyzed. The present approach involving microfabrication in silicon largely overcomes the disadvantages of the prior approaches.

  12. Sensing systems using chip-based spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Arthur; Preston, Kyle J.; Sherwood-Droz, Nicolás.; Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Schmidt, Bradley S.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-06-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems has developed a new chip-based spectrometer called OCTANE, the Optical Coherence Tomography Advanced Nanophotonic Engine, built using a planar lightwave circuit with integrated waveguides fabricated on a silicon wafer. While designed for spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) systems, the same miniaturized technology can be applied to many other spectroscopic applications. The field of integrated optics enables the design of complex optical systems which are monolithically integrated on silicon chips. The form factors of these systems can be significantly smaller, more robust and less expensive than their equivalent free-space counterparts. Fabrication techniques and material systems developed for microelectronics have previously been adapted for integrated optics in the telecom industry, where millions of chip-based components are used to power the optical backbone of the internet. We have further adapted the photonic technology platform for spectroscopy applications, allowing unheard-of economies of scale for these types of optical devices. Instead of changing lenses and aligning systems, these devices are accurately designed programmatically and are easily customized for specific applications. Spectrometers using integrated optics have large advantages in systems where size, robustness and cost matter: field-deployable devices, UAVs, UUVs, satellites, handheld scanning and more. We will discuss the performance characteristics of our chip-based spectrometers and the type of spectral sensing applications enabled by this technology.

  13. Various experiments with the omicron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Allardyce, Brian W; Bailey, J; Bos, K; Bressani, Tullio; Chiavassa, E; Costa, S; Davies, J D; Dellacasa, G; Frame, D; Gallio, M; Kernel, G; Michaelis, E G; Musso, A; Panighini, M; Stanovnik, A; Tanner, N W; Van Dantzig, R; Van Doesburg, W

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments are to be performed using a spectrometer with both a large solid angle and a large momentum acceptance; it will have an energy resolution of about 1 MeV for particles with momenta up to about 400 MeV/c. Pion scattering from light nuclei will be the prime use of the spectrometer. The spectrometer consists of a large magnet with a usable field volume of 1 m*2 m*0.85 m. The magnetic field is homogeneous to within about 10% over this volume, in which it is intended to place planes of multiwire chambers in front of a target, followed by arrays of multiwire and draft chambers and thin scintillators. Various geometries are possible, but the intention is to detect inside the magnet both the incident particle and the one(s) leaving the target over a large angular range. The information from the various detectors will be handled on-line by an HP computer system, which also performs some preliminary analysis.

  14. What Happened with Spectrometer Magnet 2B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A

    2010-05-27

    The spectrometer solenoid is supposed to be the first magnets installed in MICE [1]-[4]. This report described what happened during the test of the MICE spectrometer solenoid 2B. First, the report describes the temperatures in the magnet, the cooler top plate and the shield during the run where the magnet quenched at 258 A. During this quench, a lead between the bottom of the HTS leads and the diode bank burned out causing the magnet to quench. Second, three methods for measuring the net heat flow into the cold mass are described. Third, there is a discussion of possible resistive heating in the HTS leads between liquid helium temperature and the copper plate, which is at about 50 K. Fourth, there is a discussion of the measured first stage heat loads in the magnet, when there is no current in the magnet. The first stage heat load calculations are based on knowing the first stage temperatures of the three two-stage pulse tube coolers and the single stage GM cooler. Fifth, the estimated heat load to the first stage when the magnet has current in it is discussed. Sixth, there is a comparison of the stage 1 heat loads in magnet 1A [5], magnet 2A [6], and magnet 2B [7]. Finally there is a discussion of recommended changes for improving the spectrometer solenoids so that the coolers can keep them cold.

  15. The GRANIT spectrometer; Le spectrometre GRANIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baessler, St. [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Beau, M.; Kreuz, M.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V. [ILL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Grenoble, F-3804(France); Kurlov, V.N. [ISSP, 2 Institutskaia, Chernogolovka, RU-142432 (Russian Federation); Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Vezzu, F. [LPSC/IN2P3-UJF-INPG, 53 rue des Martyrs, Grenoble, F-38026 (France); Voronin, A.Y. [Lebedev Institute, 53 Leninskii pr., Moscow, RU-119991 (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15

    The existence of quantum states of matter in a gravitational field was demonstrated recently in the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, in a series of experiments with ultra cold neutrons (UCN). UCN in low quantum states is an excellent probe for fundamental physics, in particular for constraining extra short-range forces; as well as a tool in quantum optics and surface physics. The GRANIT is a follow-up project based on a second-generation spectrometer with ultra-high energy resolution, permanently installed in ILL. It will become operational in 2011. The spectrometer consists of several neutron-optics elements and UCN detectors installed on a massive granite table in an aluminium vacuum chamber with a volume of about 1.5 m{sup 3}. 3 types of detectors will be used at the first stage of the GRANIT experiment: {sup 3}He gaseous proportional counters with extremely low background, position-sensitive nuclear-track UCN detectors will be used to study the spatial distribution in quantum states, and real-time position-sensitive detectors with a resolution of a few hundred microns to measure velocity distributions of neutrons in quantum states. The key elements of the GRANIT spectrometer is a set of mirrors to shape/analyze neutron spectra and to store neutrons in quantum states

  16. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, {approx} 5 m Curved Guide, {approx} 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, {approx} 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world.

  17. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, ∼ 5 m Curved Guide, ∼ 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, ∼ 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world

  18. Method of multiplexed analysis using ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Mikhail E [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2009-06-02

    A method for analyzing analytes from a sample introduced into a Spectrometer by generating a pseudo random sequence of a modulation bins, organizing each modulation bin as a series of submodulation bins, thereby forming an extended pseudo random sequence of submodulation bins, releasing the analytes in a series of analyte packets into a Spectrometer, thereby generating an unknown original ion signal vector, detecting the analytes at a detector, and characterizing the sample using the plurality of analyte signal subvectors. The method is advantageously applied to an Ion Mobility Spectrometer, and an Ion Mobility Spectrometer interfaced with a Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer.

  19. Giovanni Paolo Marana’s Turkish Spy and the Police of Louis XIV: the Fear of Being Secretly Observed by Trained Agents in Early Modern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Porada

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Paolo Marana’s epistolary novel, entitled l’Espion du Grand-Seigneur and published for the first time in the 1680s, was a pioneering work of a genre that was to flourish much later, namely spy story. The story features an Arab who comes to Paris in 1637 and spends the next 45 years collecting information about French government’s activity without being ever identified by French counter-intelligence. The main character was an undercover agent of a Muslim empire, who watched Christians with contempt - and yet the book that pretended to be just a bunch of his letters, accidentally found and translated from Arabic by Marana, was a bestseller in late seventeenth- and then eighteenth-century Western Europe. The paper presents the fates of the work and discusses the reasons of its huge success. Apart from the fact that the novel was written in a brilliant style, and published at the time when the ongoing Habsburg-Turkish war had triggered intensive interest in the Muslim East, one of these reasons was the fact that it was published in the time when in France a modern police force was created. Its tasks included collecting information about political opinions, religious practices and intimate lives of the Sun King’s subjects. The new feeling of being observed by the government’s men and informers certainly prepared the ground for the success of the first spy story of the West.

  20. Fast in situ airborne measurement of ammonia using a mid-infrared off-axis ICOS spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leen, J Brian; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas S; Hubbe, John M; Kluzek, Celine D; Tomlinson, Jason M; Hubbell, Mike R

    2013-09-17

    A new ammonia (NH3) analyzer was developed based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy. Its feasibility was demonstrated by making tropospheric measurements in flights aboard the Department of Energy Gulfstream-1 aircraft. The ammonia analyzer consists of an optical cell, quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data acquisition electronics, and analysis software. The NH3 mixing ratio is determined from high-resolution absorption spectra obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the NH3 fundamental vibration band near 9.67 μm. Excellent linearity is obtained over a wide dynamic range (0-101 ppbv) with a response rate (1/e) of 2 Hz and a precision of ±90 pptv (1σ in 1 s). Two research flights were conducted over the Yakima Valley in Washington State. In the first flight, the ammonia analyzer was used to identify signatures of livestock from local dairy farms with high vertical and spatial resolution under low wind and calm atmospheric conditions. In the second flight, the analyzer captured livestock emission signals under windy conditions. Our results demonstrate that this new ammonia spectrometer is capable of providing fast, precise, and accurate in situ observations of ammonia aboard airborne platforms to advance our understanding of atmospheric compositions and aerosol formation.

  1. [Design of Dual-Beam Spectrometer in Spectrophotometer for Colorimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-xuan; Yan, Chang-xiang

    2015-07-01

    Spectrophotometers for colorimetry are usually composed of two independent and identical spectrometers. In order to reduce the volume of spectrophotometer for colorimetry, a design method of double-beam spectrometer is put forward. A traditional spectrometer is modified so that a new spectrometer can realize the function of double spectrometers, which is especially suitable for portable instruments. One slit is replaced by the double-slit, than two beams of spectrum can be detected. The working principle and design requirement of double-beam spectrometer are described. A spectrometer of portable spectrophotometer is designed by this method. A toroidal imaging mirror is used for the Czerny-Turner double-beam spectrometer in this paper, which can better correct astigmatism, and prevent the dual-beam spectral crosstalk. The results demonstrate that the double-beam spectrometer designed by this method meets the design specifications, with the spectral resolution less than 10 nm, the spectral length of 9.12 mm, and the volume of 57 mm x 54 mm x 23 mm, and without the dual-beam spectral overlap in the detector either. Comparing with a traditional spectrophotometer, the modified spectrophotometer uses a set of double-beam spectrometer instead of two sets of spectrometers, which can greatly reduce the volume. This design method can be specially applied in portable spectrophotometers, also can be widely applied in other double-beam spectrophotometers, which offers a new idea for the design of dual-beam spectrophotometers.

  2. Mathematical Simulation for Integrated Linear Fresnel Spectrometer Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon; Yoon, Hargoon; Lee, Uhn; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.

    2012-01-01

    A miniaturized solid-state optical spectrometer chip was designed with a linear gradient-gap Fresnel grating which was mounted perpendicularly to a sensor array surface and simulated for its performance and functionality. Unlike common spectrometers which are based on Fraunhoffer diffraction with a regular periodic line grating, the new linear gradient grating Fresnel spectrometer chip can be miniaturized to a much smaller form-factor into the Fresnel regime exceeding the limit of conventional spectrometers. This mathematical calculation shows that building a tiny motionless multi-pixel microspectrometer chip which is smaller than 1 cubic millimter of optical path volume is possible. The new Fresnel spectrometer chip is proportional to the energy scale (hc/lambda), while the conventional spectrometers are proportional to the wavelength scale (lambda). We report the theoretical optical working principle and new data collection algorithm of the new Fresnel spectrometer to build a compact integrated optical chip.

  3. Recoil mass spectrometers in low-energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    By the ion-optical standards of modern spectrometers in nuclear physics the recoil mass spectrometer is a rather inelegant device. Satisfactory correction of the dominant second-order aberrations have expanded the useful mass range and solid angle of the new spectrometers but not without real loss of mass-resolving power. The new spectrometers will involve compromises between resolution and efficiency. Despite their ion-optical inelegance, existing recoil mass spectrometers have opened important new approaches in low-energy nuclear physics, and the new spectrometers promise similar developments. The authors considered a very limited sample of the potential applications of these instruments. Many new applications will follow the development of the new, higher efficiency spectrometers

  4. Book review: The Sympathizer. A Vietnamese spy novel and the attempt to de-americanize our view on the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Britta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 1975, the Vietnam War has just ended, but the cold war and the clash of ideologies are still going on. This would of course be the perfect background for some run-of-the-mill thriller written by a white American for a Western audience. And without knowing anything further, we might first think that The Sympathizer, which was recently translated into German and marketed as a “thriller” and “spy novel”, would be just one of those. However, things and people are all too often not what they seem to be – an adage which has never been more true than in this story. Far more than simply a thriller, it is also a political novel, a satirical story, refugee literature and a critique of modern mass media, all interspersed with discursive passages and spiced with literary references and aphorisms. Furthermore, the author is not a white American. The Sympathizer is the debut novel of Vietnamese-American Viet Thanh Nguyen, which won him the Pulitzer Prize in 2016 along with a great many other awards. Nguyen was born in Vietnam and grew up in the USA from where he experienced both cultures and had insight to both perspectives on the Vietnam War. He is a Professor of English and American Studies and Ethnicity primarily focused on “Americanization”, how the American perspective continues to dominate film, literature and pop culture. His book is a critique of this prevailing view and includes the issues of acculturation and identity crisis of immigrants, along with the importance of loyalty and relationships (or the lack of those. The narrator and protagonist of the story is a man who has no name and is only referred to as “the captain” throughout the book. We encounter him fleeing Saigon, accompanying a general of the South Vietnamese army, we know already that he has a secret. In the very first lines he reveals that he is a sleeper agent and actually working for the Viet Cong and spying on the South Vietnamese military and the CIA. The captain

  5. Development of a Gas Filled Magnet spectrometer coupled with the Lohengrin spectrometer for fission study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessedjian, G.; Chebboubi, A.; Faust, H.; Köster, U.; Materna, T.; Sage, C.; Serot, O.

    2013-03-01

    The accurate knowledge of the fission of actinides is necessary for studies of innovative nuclear reactor concepts. The fission yields have a direct influence on the evaluation of the fuel inventory or the reactor residual power after shutdown. A collaboration between the ILL, LPSC and CEA has developed a measurement program on fission fragment distributions at ILL in order to measure the isotopic and isomeric yields. The method is illustrated using the 233U(n,f)98Y reaction. However, the extracted beam from the Lohengrin spectrometer is not isobaric ions which limits the low yield measurements. Presently, the coupling of the Lohengrin spectrometer with a Gas Filled Magnet (GFM) is studied at the ILL in order to define and validate the enhanced purification of the extracted beam. This work will present the results of the spectrometer characterisation, along with a comparison with a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation especially developed for this purpose.

  6. Development of a Gas Filled Magnet spectrometer coupled with the Lohengrin spectrometer for fission study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Materna T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The accurate knowledge of the fission of actinides is necessary for studies of innovative nuclear reactor concepts. The fission yields have a direct influence on the evaluation of the fuel inventory or the reactor residual power after shutdown. A collaboration between the ILL, LPSC and CEA has developed a measurement program on fission fragment distributions at ILL in order to measure the isotopic and isomeric yields. The method is illustrated using the 233U(n,f98Y reaction. However, the extracted beam from the Lohengrin spectrometer is not isobaric ions which limits the low yield measurements. Presently, the coupling of the Lohengrin spectrometer with a Gas Filled Magnet (GFM is studied at the ILL in order to define and validate the enhanced purification of the extracted beam. This work will present the results of the spectrometer characterisation, along with a comparison with a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation especially developed for this purpose.

  7. Passive dosimetry aboard the Mir Orbital Station: internal measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Passive radiation dosimeters were exposed aboard the Mir Orbital Station over a substantial portion of the solar cycle in order to measure the change in dose and dose equivalent rates as a function of time. During solar minimum, simultaneous measurements of the radiation environment throughout the habitable volume of the Mir were made using passive dosimeters in order to investigate the effect of localized shielding on dose and dose equivalent. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of thermoluminescent detectors to measure absorbed dose and CR-39 PNTDs to measure the linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum from charged particles of LET ∞ H 2 O≥5 keV/μm. Results from the two detector types were then combined to yield mean total dose rate, mean dose equivalent rate, and average quality factor. Contrary to expectations, both dose and dose equivalent rates measured during May-October 1991 near solar maximum were higher than similar measurements carried out in 1996-1997 during solar minimum. The elevated dose and dose equivalent rates measured in 1991 were probably due to a combination of intense solar activity, including a large solar particle event on 9 June 1991, and the temporary trapped radiation belt created in the slot region by the solar particle event and ensuing magnetic storm of 24 March 1991. During solar minimum, mean dose and dose equivalent rates were found to vary by factors of 1.55 and 1.37, respectively, between different locations through the interior of Mir. More heavily shielded locations tended to yield lower total dose and dose equivalent rates, but higher average quality factor than did more lightly shielding locations. However, other factors such as changes in the immediate shielding environment surrounding a given detector location, changes in the orientation of the Mir relative to its velocity vector, and changes in the altitude of the station also contributed to the variation. Proton and neutron-induced target fragment

  8. Tunable diode laser in-situ CH4 measurements aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft: instrument performance assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyroff, C.; Zahn, A.; Sanati, S.; Christner, E.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schuck, T. J.

    2014-03-01

    A laser spectrometer for automated monthly measurements of methane (CH4) mixing ratios aboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft is presented. The instrument is based on a commercial Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA, Los Gatos Res.), which was adapted to meet the requirements imposed by unattended airborne operation. It was characterised in the laboratory with respect to instrument stability, precision, cross sensitivity to H2O, and accuracy. For airborne operation, a calibration strategy is described that utilises CH4 measurements obtained from flask samples taken during the same flights. The precision of airborne measurements is 2 ppb for 10 s averages. The accuracy at aircraft cruising altitude is 3.85 ppb. During aircraft ascent and descent, where no flask samples were obtained, instrumental drifts can be less accurately determined and the uncertainty is estimated to be 12.4 ppb. A linear humidity bias correction was applied to the CH4 measurements, which was most important in the lower troposphere. On average, the correction bias was around 6.5 ppb at an altitude of 2 km, and negligible at cruising flight level. Observations from 103 long-distance flights are presented that span a large part of the northern hemispheric upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LMS), with occasional crossing of the tropics on flights to southern Africa. These accurate data mark the largest UT/LMS in-situ CH4 dataset worldwide. An example of a tracer-tracer correlation study with ozone is given, highlighting the possibility for accurate cross-tropopause transport analyses.

  9. Ultra-compact MEMS FTIR spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Yasser M.; Hassan, Khaled; Anwar, Momen; Alharon, Mohamed H.; Medhat, Mostafa; Adib, George A.; Dumont, Rich; Saadany, Bassam; Khalil, Diaa

    2017-05-01

    Portable and handheld spectrometers are being developed and commercialized in the late few years leveraging the rapidly-progressing technology and triggering new markets in the field of on-site spectroscopic analysis. Although handheld devices were commercialized for the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), their size and cost stand as an obstacle against the deployment of the spectrometer as spectral sensing components needed for the smart phone industry and the IoT applications. In this work we report a chip-sized microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based FTIR spectrometer. The core optical engine of the solution is built using a passive-alignment integration technique for a selfaligned MEMS chip; self-aligned microoptics and a single detector in a tiny package sized about 1 cm3. The MEMS chip is a monolithic, high-throughput scanning Michelson interferometer fabricated using deep reactive ion etching technology of silicon-on-insulator substrate. The micro-optical part is used for conditioning the input/output light to/from the MEMS and for further light direction to the detector. Thanks to the all-reflective design of the conditioning microoptics, the performance is free of chromatic aberration. Complemented by the excellent transmission properties of the silicon in the infrared region, the integrated solution allows very wide spectral range of operation. The reported sensor's spectral resolution is about 33 cm-1 and working in the range of 1270 nm to 2700 nm; upper limited by the extended InGaAs detector. The presented solution provides a low cost, low power, tiny size, wide wavelength range NIR spectral sensor that can be manufactured with extremely high volumes. All these features promise the compatibility of this technology with the forthcoming demand of smart portable and IoT devices.

  10. Metrology for terahertz time-domain spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John F.; Naftaly, Mira

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the terahertz time-domain spectrometer (THz TDS) [1] has emerged as a key measurement device for spectroscopic investigations in the frequency range of 0.1-5 THz. To date, almost every type of material has been studied using THz TDS, including semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, metal films, liquid crystals, glasses, pharmaceuticals, DNA molecules, proteins, gases, composites, foams, oils, and many others. Measurements with a TDS are made in the time domain; conversion from the time domain data to a frequency spectrum is achieved by applying the Fourier Transform, calculated numerically using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. As in many other types of spectrometer, THz TDS requires that the sample data be referenced to similarly acquired data with no sample present. Unlike frequency-domain spectrometers which detect light intensity and measure absorption spectra, a TDS records both amplitude and phase information, and therefore yields both the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of the sample material. The analysis of the data from THz TDS relies on the assumptions that: a) the frequency scale is accurate; b) the measurement of THz field amplitude is linear; and c) that the presence of the sample does not affect the performance characteristics of the instrument. The frequency scale of a THz TDS is derived from the displacement of the delay line; via FFT, positioning errors may give rise to frequency errors that are difficult to quantify. The measurement of the field amplitude in a THz TDS is required to be linear with a dynamic range of the order of 10 000. And attention must be given to the sample positioning and handling in order to avoid sample-related errors.

  11. Progress in commercial TXRF spectrometer for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihagi, K.

    2000-01-01

    In the scale down of ULSI devices, it is required to reduce contamination of metal or particle due to get higher yield. For the metallic contamination, we are trying to develop to get higher sensitivity in direct-TXRF method, however, VPD-TXRF is the most important method to get 10 7 to 10 8 atoms/cm 2 sensitivity. For the particle contamination, we have developed software to link TXRF spectrometer with particle counter because not only position or size but also composition analysis have got required. In semiconductor industries, there are two important changing for improvement on production management system as COO (Cost Of Ownership) or standardization. One is the size of wafer has changed from 200 mm to 300 mm. Against this, we have redesigned TXRF spectrometer for 300 mm wafer without down of sensitivity. The other is the production system has become completely automated. On this point, we have also redesigned to link TXRF spectrometer with SMIF (Standard Mechanical Interface) or FOUP (Front Opening Unified Pod) as mini-environment, and with SECS 2 (SEMI Equipment Communications Standard 2) or GEM 300 (Generic Equipment Model) as automatically standardization. We shall also introduce some applications about new materials using TXRF such as Ta 2 O 5 , ZrO 2 and HfO 2 for high-k materials, and also Ru, SRO and IrO 2 for electrode materials. Furthermore, we shall introduce our new equipment for thickness and composition analysis such as PZT, BST and MOCVD TiN thin films. (author)

  12. Low energy x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    A subkilovolt spectrometer has been produced to permit high-energy-resolution, time-dependent x-ray intensity measurements. The diffracting element is a curved mica (d = 9.95A) crystal. To preclude higher order (n > 1) diffractions, a carbon x-ray mirror that reflects only photons with energies less than approx. 1.1 keV is utilized ahead of the diffracting element. The nominal energy range of interest is 800 to 900 eV. The diffracted photons are detected by a gold-surface photoelectric diode designed to have a very good frequency response, and whose current is recorded on an oscilloscope. A thin, aluminium light barrier is placed between the diffracting crystal and the photoelectric diode detector to keep any uv generated on or scattered by the crystal from illuminating the detector. High spectral energy resolution is provided by many photocathodes between 8- and 50-eV wide placed serially along the diffracted x-ray beam at the detector position. The spectrometer was calibrated for energy and energy dispersion using the Ni Lα 1 2 lines produced in the LLNL IONAC accelerator and in third order using a molybdenum target x-ray tube. For the latter calibration the carbon mirror was replaced by one surfaced with rhodium to raise the cut-off energy to about 3 keV. The carbon mirror reflection dependence on energy was measured using one of our Henke x-ray sources. The curved mica crystal diffraction efficiency was measured on our Low-Energy x-ray (LEX) machine. The spectrometer performs well although some changes in the way the x-ray mirror is held are desirable. 16 figures

  13. Fast neutron spectrometer with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitsky, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    A fast neutron spectrometer with a stilbene single crystal designed to operate at high pulsed count rate has been described. Making use of identification and rejection of events, accompanied by pile-up, allowed to increase permissible count rates by an order of magnitude. The results of energy dependence of signal amplitude and shape relative anisotropy in stilbene in the range 4-10 and 2-8 MeV respectively have been presented. Taking into account anisotropy of the detector-scintillation properties allowed to improve particle discrimination. (Auth.)

  14. Computerized mass spectrometer data system at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.; Dupzyk, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The data systems on the three mass spectrometers at LLL are computer-controlled, pulse-counting systems synchronized to a repeatedly swept magnetic field. The data are accumulated in the memory of the computer or in a Nuclear Data ND 180 in a multi-scaler mode of operation. This mode of data acquisition allows a continuous check of the background stability and makes tune-up easier. But the main benefit is a reduction in the required ion emission rate stability. By the use of standards to set the system dead time, we have been able to utilize the sensitivity of a pulse counting system without the expense of exotic equipment

  15. Mass spectrometer data system at LLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    The data systems on the three mass spectrometers at LLL are computer-controlled, pulse-counting systems synchronized to a repeatedly-swept magnetic field. The data are accumulated in the memory of the computer or in a Nuclear Data ND 180 in a multi-scaler mode of operation. This mode of sweeping allows a continuous check of the background stability and makes tune-up easier. But the main benefit is a reduction in the required ion emission rate stability. By the use of standards to set the system dead time, we have been able to utilize the sensitivity of a pulse counting system without the expense of exotic equipment

  16. The Omega spectrometer in the West Hall.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    Inside the hut which sits on top of the superconducting magnet are the TV cameras that observe the particle events occurring in the spark chambers in the magnet gap below. On the background the two beam lines feeding the spectrometer target, for separated hadrons up to 40 GeV, on the right, for 80 GeV electrons, on the left, respectively. The latter strikes a radiator thus sending into Omega tagged photons up to 80 GeV. On the foreground, the two sections of the large gas Cerenkov counter working at atmospheric pressure, used for trigger purpose.

  17. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  18. Microprocessor-controlled portable neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.F.; Kaifer, R.C.; Slaughter, D.R.; Strout, R.E. II; Rueppel, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer that acquires and unfolds data in the field has been developed for use in the energy range from 1 to 20 MeV. The system includes an NE213 organic scintillation detector, automatic gain stabilization, automatically stabilized pulseshape discrimination, an LSl-11 microprocessor for control and data reduction, and a multichannel analyzer for data acquisition. The system, with the exception of the multichannel analyzer, is mounted in a suitcase 47 by 66 by 23.5 cm. The mass is 23.5 kg

  19. The Triple Axis and SPINS Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, S F

    1993-01-01

    In this paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, this work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments.

  20. Time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Kozlov, B.N.; Mamyrin, B.A.; Shmikk, D.V.; Shebelin, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer containing a pulsed ion source with an electron gun and two electrodes limiting ionization range, drift space and ion acceptor, is described. To expand functional possibilities, a slot collimator of the gas stream, two quantum generators and two diaphragms for the inlet of quantum generator radiation located on both sides of the ion source, are introduced in the ion source. The above invention enables to study details of the complex interaction process of laser radiation with molecules of the gas stream, which is actual for laser isotope separation

  1. Dual waveband compact catadioptric imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2012-12-25

    A catadioptric dual waveband imaging spectrometer that covers the visible through short-wave infrared, and the midwave infrared spectral regions, dispersing the visible through shortwave infrared with a zinc selenide grating and midwave infrared with a sapphire prism. The grating and prism are at the cold stop position, enabling the pupil to be split between them. The spectra for both wavebands are focused onto the relevant sections of a single dual waveband detector. Spatial keystone distortion is controlled to less than one tenth of a pixel over the full wavelength range, facilitating the matching of the spectra in the midwave infrared with the shorter wavelength region.

  2. The H1 forward muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.; Phillips, H.; Cronstroem, H.I.; Hedberg, V.; Jacobsson, C.; Joensson, L.; Lohmander, H.; Nyberg, M.; Biddulph, P.; Finnegan, P.; Foster, J.; Gilbert, S.; Hilton, C.; Ibbotson, M.; Mehta, A.; Sutton, P.; Stephens, K.; Thompson, R.

    1993-02-01

    The H1 detector started taking data at the electron- proton collider HERA in the beginning of 1992. In HERA 30 GeV electrons collide with 820 GeV protons giving a strong boost of the centre-of-mass system in the direction of the proton, also called the forward region. For the detection of high momentum muons in this region a muon spectrometer has been constructed, consisting of six drift chamber planes, three either side of a toroidal magnet. A first brief description of the system and its main parameters as well as the principles for track reconstruction and Τ 0 determination is given. (orig.)

  3. A novel spectrometer for neutrino experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pasqualini, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The WA104-NESSiE program developed in the context of the CERN Neutrino Platform, includes an innovative spectrometer to measure the charge and the momentum of muons in 0.5-5 GeV/c range. A tracking apparatus with a spatial resolution of 1 mm was designed, to be placed in a magnetized air volume in order to achieve a charge resolution and mis-identification of better than 1% at 1 GeV/c. Preliminary results obtained by detecting cosmic ray muons are reported.

  4. Micro-optical-mechanical system photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack; Benett, William J.; Tooker, Angela C.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    All-optical photoacoustic spectrometer sensing systems (PASS system) and methods include all the hardware needed to analyze the presence of a large variety of materials (solid, liquid and gas). Some of the all-optical PASS systems require only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the material environment. Methods for improving the signal-to-noise are provided and enable mirco-scale systems and methods for operating such systems.

  5. Full-absorption scintillation spectrometer for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhelepov, V.P.; Filchenkov, V.V.; Konin, A.D.; Rudenko, A.I.; Solovieva, G.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    A full-absorption scintillation spectrometer for neutrons (volume of scintillator = 24 l) has been developed and employed in investigations of muon catalysed processes. Its application allows: (a) Considerably increasing the rate of accummulation of events; (b) efficiently using muon catalysis multiplicity for fuller and more reliable determination of its parameters; (c) significantly reducing uncertainty in the calculated and experimentally found values of neutron detection efficiency. The device combines good spectrometric properties for neutron energies E n = 1-6 MeV and reliable n-γ separation (the degree of separation for a Pu-Be source 3 starting from an electron energy of 50 keV). (orig.)

  6. MPS [Multiparticle Spectrometer] data acquisition software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulys, A.C.; Etkin, A.; Foley, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    A description of the software for a FASTBUS based data acquisition system in use at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Multiparticle Spectrometer is presented. Data reading and formatting is done by the SLAC Scanner Processors (SSP's) resident in the FASTBUS system. A multiprocess software system on VAX computers is used to communicate with the SSP's, record the data, and monitor on-line the progress of high energy and heavy ion experiments. The structure and the performance of this system are discussed. 4 refs., 1 fig

  7. Recent progress in the chopper spectrometer, INC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Arai, Masatoshi; Kawai, Masayoshi

    2001-01-01

    A guide tube comprising supermirrors, of which the critical wavenumber is three times as large as that of natural nickel, was installed in the primary flight path of the chopper spectrometer, INC, at KENS. Also, the characteristics of the ambient-temperature H 2 O moderator, which INC is facing, was changed by renewal construction of the neutron source at KENS. We discuss here an improvement in the performance of INC by a comparison with the previous performance. We also report on the development on a goniometer for single-crystal experiments at low temperatures. (author)

  8. The triple axis and SPINS spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevino, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper are described the triple axis and spin polarized inelastic neutron scattering (SPINS) spectrometers which are installed at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility (CNRF). The general principle of operation of these two instruments is described in sufficient detail to allow the reader to make an informed decision as to their usefulness for his needs. However, it is the intention of the staff at the CNRF to provide the expert resources for their efficient use in any given situation. Thus, this work is not intended as a user manual but rather as a guide into the range of applicability of the two instruments

  9. Ion mobility spectrometer with virtual aperture grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Kent B.; Rumpf, Arthur N.

    2010-11-23

    An ion mobility spectrometer does not require a physical aperture grid to prevent premature ion detector response. The last electrodes adjacent to the ion collector (typically the last four or five) have an electrode pitch that is less than the width of the ion swarm and each of the adjacent electrodes is connected to a source of free charge, thereby providing a virtual aperture grid at the end of the drift region that shields the ion collector from the mirror current of the approaching ion swarm. The virtual aperture grid is less complex in assembly and function and is less sensitive to vibrations than the physical aperture grid.

  10. Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Bonebrake, Eric; Casella, Andrew M.; Danon, Yaron; Devlin, M.; Gavron, Victor A.; Haight, R.C.; Imel, G.R.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Weltz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This report documents the progress that has been completed in the first half of FY2012 in the MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer project. Significant progress has been made on the algorithm development. We have an improve understanding of the experimental responses in LSDS for fuel-related material. The calibration of the ultra-depleted uranium foils was completed, but the results are inconsistent from measurement to measurement. Future work includes developing a conceptual model of an LSDS system to assay plutonium in used fuel, improving agreement between simulations and measurement, design of a thorium fission chamber, and evaluation of additional detector techniques.

  11. General study of asymmetrical crossed Czerny-Turner spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; Fan, Xianguang; Wang, Xin; Xu, Yingjie; Que, Jing; He, Jian

    2015-11-20

    A study of the spectrum resolution, wavelength range, and primary aberration of the asymmetrical crossed Czerny-Turner spectrometer is presented by deducing the relationship between them and structural parameters of the spectrometer in a new way of thinking based on simple but effective geometric models. The analysis was verified in an experiment and simulation performed on the optical design program ZEMAX, and the obtained results agree with the analysis. Owing to the analysis, initial designed parameters of the spectrometer were given and then optimized by ZEMAX; with the instruction of the study, a small adjustment was made in the actual alignment to obtain the desired final spectrometer. The spectrometer successfully measured the last four characteristic peaks of the Raman spectrum of CCL4, which demonstrates that the research provides important guidance to the design and alignment of an asymmetrical crossed Czerny-Turner spectrometer.

  12. Development of triple axis neutron spectrometer (Paper No. 24)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, B.C.; Wadhwa, N.R.; Goveas, S.H.

    1987-02-01

    The triple axis neutron spectrometers are the basic instruments intended for use with neutron beams from reactors. Various types of spectrometers, each devoted to different kinds of measurement can be designed and manufactured, once a prototype having all the attributes of a versatile instrument is designed and developed. With the view to achieving self reliance in this field, Central Workshops of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay designed and developed a prototype of triple axis spectrometer meeting the specifications prepared by Nuclear Physics Division of BARC . This spectrometer, with a moving wedge system was successfully manufactured and installed at 'DHRUVA'. Another version of this spectrometer, called the 'Polarised Neutron Spectrometer' was also built and exported to South Korea and installed at Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute, Seoul. This paper deals with basic concept, development of design, engineering of mechanical assemblies, the manufacturing approach and problems encountered during manufacture. (author). 3 figs

  13. Chirped Pulse Spectrometer Operating at 200 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Bray, Cédric; Hickson, Kevin; Fontanari, Daniele; Mouelhi, Meriem; Cuisset, Arnaud; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin

    2018-01-01

    The combination of electronic sources operating at high frequencies and modern microwave instrumentation has enabled the recent development of chirped pulse spectrometers for the millimetre and THz bands. This type of instrument can operate at high resolution which is particularly suited to gas-phase rotational spectroscopy. The construction of a chirped pulse spectrometer operating at 200 GHz is described in detail while attention is paid to the phase stability and the data accumulation over many cycles. Validation using carbonyl sulphide has allowed the detection limit of the instrument to be established as function of the accumulation. A large number of OCS transitions were identified using a 10-GHz chirped pulse and include the six most abundant isotopologues, the weakest line corresponding to the fundamental R(17) transition of 16O13C33S with a line strength of 4.3 × 10-26 cm-1/(molecule cm-2). The linearity of the system response for different degrees of data accumulation and transition line strength was confirmed over four orders of magnitudes. A simple analysis of the time-domain data was demonstrated to provide the line-broadening coefficient without the need for conversion by a Fourier transform. Finally, the pulse duration is discussed and optimal values are given for both Doppler-limited and collisional regimes.

  14. Imaging spectrometer - An advanced multispectral imaging concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, J. B.; Breckinridge, J. B.; Kupferman, P. N.; Salazar, R.

    1982-01-01

    The concept of an imaging spectrometer, which is being studied as a potential Space Shuttle experiment, is evaluated as a 'push-broom' imager that includes a spectrometer to disperse each line of imaging information into its spectral components. Using this instrument, the dispersed energy falls upon a two-dimensional focal plane array that detects both spatial and spectral information. As the line field of view is advanced over the earth by the motion of the spacecraft, the focal plane is read out constantly, which produces 'push-broom' images at multiple wavelengths. Ground instantaneous fields of view of 10 m in the visual and 20 m in the infrared are provided by the system, at a spectral resolution of 20 nm over the range from 0.4-2.5 microns. The system utilizes a triple-pass Schmidt optical system with a mosaic focal plane. A subset of the data stream is selected and encoded for transmission by the use of onboard processing.

  15. The Calibration Home Base for Imaging Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Felix Simon Brachmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Calibration Home Base (CHB is an optical laboratory designed for the calibration of imaging spectrometers for the VNIR/SWIR wavelength range. Radiometric, spectral and geometric calibration as well as the characterization of sensor signal dependency on polarization are realized in a precise and highly automated fashion. This allows to carry out a wide range of time consuming measurements in an ecient way. The implementation of ISO 9001 standards in all procedures ensures a traceable quality of results. Spectral measurements in the wavelength range 380–1000 nm are performed to a wavelength uncertainty of +- 0.1 nm, while an uncertainty of +-0.2 nm is reached in the wavelength range 1000 – 2500 nm. Geometric measurements are performed at increments of 1.7 µrad across track and 7.6 µrad along track. Radiometric measurements reach an absolute uncertainty of +-3% (k=1. Sensor artifacts, such as caused by stray light will be characterizable and correctable in the near future. For now, the CHB is suitable for the characterization of pushbroom sensors, spectrometers and cameras. However, it is planned to extend the CHBs capabilities in the near future such that snapshot hyperspectral imagers can be characterized as well. The calibration services of the CHB are open to third party customers from research institutes as well as industry.

  16. Performance Validation of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Mair, Katharina

    ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is a general-purpose experiment for the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which is scheduled to begin operation in the year 2007, providing experiments with proton-proton collisions. The center-of-mass energy of 14TeV and the design luminosity of 1034 cm−2s−1 will allow to explore many new aspects of fundamental physics. The ATLAS Muon Spectrometer aims at a momentum resolution better than 10% for transverse momentum values ranging from pT = 6 GeV to pT = 1TeV. Precision tracking will be performed by Ar-CO2-gas filled Monitored Drift Tube chambers (MDTs), with a single wire resolution of < 100 μm. In total, about 1 200 chambers, arranged in a large structure, will allow muon track measurements over distances up to 15m in a magnetic field of 0.5 T. Given the large size of the spectrometer it is impossible to keep the shape of the muon chambers and their positions stable within the requested tracking accuracy of 50 μm. Therefore the concept of an optical alig...

  17. New imaging spectrometer for auroral research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rairden, R.; Swenson, G.

    1994-01-01

    A Loral 1024 x 1024 CCD array with 15-micron pixels has been incorporated as the focal plane detector in a new imaging spectrometer for auroral research. The large format low-noise CCD provides excellent dynamic range and signal to noise characteristics with image integration times on the order of 60 seconds using f/1.4 camera optics. Further signal enhancement is achieved through on-CCD pixel binning. In the nominal binned mode the instrument wavelength resolution varies from 15 to 30 angstrom across the 5000 to 8600 angstrom spectral range. Images are acquired and stored digitally on a Macintosh computer. This instrument was operated at a field site in Godhavn, Greenland during the past two winters (1993, 1994) to measure the altitude distribution of the various spectral emissions within auroral arcs. The height resolution on an auroral feature 300 km distant is ∼1 km. Examples of these measurements are presented here in snapshot and summary image formats illustrating the wealth of quantitative information provided by this new imaging spectrometer

  18. The optical frequency comb fibre spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-10-03

    Optical frequency comb sources provide thousands of precise and accurate optical lines in a single device enabling the broadband and high-speed detection required in many applications. A main challenge is to parallelize the detection over the widest possible band while bringing the resolution to the single comb-line level. Here we propose a solution based on the combination of a frequency comb source and a fibre spectrometer, exploiting all-fibre technology. Our system allows for simultaneous measurement of 500 isolated comb lines over a span of 0.12 THz in a single acquisition; arbitrarily larger span are demonstrated (3,500 comb lines over 0.85 THz) by doing sequential acquisitions. The potential for precision measurements is proved by spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.53 μm. Being based on all-fibre technology, our system is inherently low-cost, lightweight and may lead to the development of a new class of broadband high-resolution spectrometers.

  19. The optical frequency comb fibre spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Cassinerio, Marco; Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui; Laporta, Paolo; Galzerano, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Optical frequency comb sources provide thousands of precise and accurate optical lines in a single device enabling the broadband and high-speed detection required in many applications. A main challenge is to parallelize the detection over the widest possible band while bringing the resolution to the single comb-line level. Here we propose a solution based on the combination of a frequency comb source and a fibre spectrometer, exploiting all-fibre technology. Our system allows for simultaneous measurement of 500 isolated comb lines over a span of 0.12 THz in a single acquisition; arbitrarily larger span are demonstrated (3,500 comb lines over 0.85 THz) by doing sequential acquisitions. The potential for precision measurements is proved by spectroscopy of acetylene at 1.53 μm. Being based on all-fibre technology, our system is inherently low-cost, lightweight and may lead to the development of a new class of broadband high-resolution spectrometers. PMID:27694981

  20. Local tracking in the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Primor, David; Mikenberg, Giora

    2007-01-01

    The LHC, the largest hadron collider accelerator ever built, presents new challenges for scientists and engineers. With the anticipated luminosity of the LHC, it is expected to have as many as one billion total collisions per second, of which at most 10 to 100 per second might be of potential scientific interest. One of the two major, general-purpose experiments at LHC is called ATLAS. Since muons are one of the important signs of new physics, the need of their detection has lead to the construction of a stand- alone Muon Spectrometer. This system is located in a high radiation background environment (mostly neutrons and photons) which makes the muon tracking a very challenging task. The Muon Spectrometer consists of two types of precision chambers, the Monitor Drift Tube (MDT) chambers, and the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC). In order to detect the muon and estimate its track parameters, it is very important to detect and precisely estimate its local tracks within the CSC and MDT chambers. Using advanced signa...

  1. A wide field of view plasma spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Möbius, E.; Harper, R. W.; Kihara, K. H.; Bower, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    We present a fundamentally new type of space plasma spectrometer, the wide field of view plasma spectrometer, whose field of view is > 1.25π ster using fewer resources than traditional methods. The enabling component is analogous to a pinhole camera with an electrostatic energy-angle filter at the image plane. Particle energy-per-charge is selected with a tunable bias voltage applied to the filter plate relative to the pinhole aperture plate. For a given bias voltage, charged particles from different directions are focused by different angles to different locations. Particles with appropriate locations and angles can transit the filter plate and are measured using a microchannel plate detector with a position-sensitive anode. Full energy and angle coverage are obtained using a single high-voltage power supply, resulting in considerable resource savings and allowing measurements at fast timescales. We present laboratory prototype measurements and simulations demonstrating the instrument concept and discuss optimizations of the instrument design for application to space measurements.

  2. Analog and digital dividers for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Errors of four different types of stress dividers used in statical mass-spectrometers for determination of mass number by accelerating stress are analyzed. The simplest flowsheet of the analog divider comprises operation amplifier, in the chain of the negative feedback of which a multiplication device on differential cascade is switched- in. This analog divider has high sensitivity to temperature and high error approximately 5%. Application of the multiplier on differential cascade with normalization permits to increase temperature stability and decrease the error up to 1%. Another type of the analog divider is a logarithmic divider the error of which is constant within the whole operation range and it constitutes 1-5%. The digital divider with a digital-analog transformer (DAT) has the error of +-0.015% which is determined by the error of detectors and resistance of keys in the locked state. Considered is the design of a divider based on transformation of the inlet stress into the time period. The error of the divider is determined in this case mainly by stress of the zero shift of the operation amplifier (it should be compensated) and relative threshold stability of the comparator triggering which equals (2-3)x10 -4 . It is noted that the divider with DAT application and the divider with the use of stress transformation within the time period are most perspective ones for statical mass-spectrometers [ru

  3. The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, B; Cicalo, Corrado; Das, Indranil; de Vaux, Gareth; Fearick, Roger; Lindenstruth, Volker; Marras, Davide; Sanyal, Abhijit; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Staley, Florent; Steinbeck, Timm; Szostak, Artur; Usai, Gianluca; Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2009-01-01

    The ALICE Dimuon Spectrometer High Level Trigger (dHLT) is an on-line processing stage whose primary function is to select interesting events that contain distinct physics signals from heavy resonance decays such as J/psi and Gamma particles, amidst unwanted background events. It forms part of the High Level Trigger of the ALICE experiment, whose goal is to reduce the large data rate of about 25 GB/s from the ALICE detectors by an order of magnitude, without loosing interesting physics events. The dHLT has been implemented as a software trigger within a high performance and fault tolerant data transportation framework, which is run on a large cluster of commodity compute nodes. To reach the required processing speeds, the system is built as a concurrent system with a hierarchy of processing steps. The main algorithms perform partial event reconstruction, starting with hit reconstruction on the level of the raw data received from the spectrometer. Then a tracking algorithm finds track candidates from the recon...

  4. An aircraft-borne chemical ionization – ion trap mass spectrometer (CI-ITMS for fast PAN and PPN measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schlager

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An airborne chemical ionization ion trap mass spectrometer instrument (CI-ITMS has been developed for tropospheric and stratospheric fast in-situ measurements of PAN (peroxyacetyl nitrate and PPN (peroxypropionyl nitrate. The first scientific deployment of the FASTPEX instrument (FASTPEX = Fast Measurement of Peroxyacyl nitrates took place in the Arctic during 18 missions aboard the DLR research aircraft Falcon, within the framework of the POLARCAT-GRACE campaign in the summer of 2008. The FASTPEX instrument is described and characteristic properties of the employed ion trap mass spectrometer are discussed. Atmospheric data obtained at altitudes of up to ~12 km are presented, from the boundary layer to the lowermost stratosphere. Data were sampled with a time resolution of 2 s and a 2σ detection limit of 25 pmol mol−1. An isotopically labelled standard was used for a permanent on-line calibration. For this reason the accuracy of the PAN measurements is better than ±10% for mixing ratios greater than 200 pmol mol−1. PAN mixing ratios in the summer Arctic troposphere were in the order of a few hundred pmol mol−1 and generally correlated well with CO. In the Arctic boundary layer and lowermost stratosphere smaller PAN mixing ratios were observed due to a combination of missing local sources of PAN precursor gases and efficient removal processes (thermolysis/photolysis. PPN, the second most abundant PAN homologue, was measured simultaneously. Observed PPN/PAN ratios range between ~0.03 and 0.3.

  5. Relação Entre o Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI e os Relatórios de Ocorrência de Incêndios (ROI no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Oliveira Júnior

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Dados de focos de calor via satélites ambientais, de Sistemas Frontais (SF e Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS, juntamente com o Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI e os Relatórios de Ocorrência de Incêndios (ROI no Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (PNI foram avaliados. O SPI foi calculado com dados pluviométricos de três estações no PNI. Os dados dos SF e ZCAS foram obtidos via Climanálise. A regressão múltipla foi aplicada a ROI, SPI, SF e ZCAS de forma independente. A maior categoria do ROI ocorreu na classe C (81%, sendo os maiores percentuais no inverno (57,2% e primavera (35,1%. Os meses críticos de focos de calor foram julho (17%, setembro (23,2% e agosto (31,9%. Independente da estação, o SF (R2 = 0,75 se sobressaiu em relação a ZCAS (R2 = 0,43. O SF condiciona 80% das variações entre ROI e índice SPI anual, enquanto a ZCAS em apenas 40%.

  6. A comparison of NO2 absorption measurements from an FTIR spectrometer and the OSIRIS spectrograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckrin, E.; Evans, W.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    The optical spectrograph and infrared imager system (OSIRIS) aboard the Odin satellite was part of Canada's contribution to the international joint venture of this satellite project. OSIRIS is used for aeronomic studies, including the study of stratospheric ozone (O 3 ) depletion and transport dynamics. It collects limb-view spectra of the scattered sunlight in the ultraviolet-visible region and measures the column abundance of ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and other trace constituents in the atmosphere. Vertical concentration profiles are then generated for these gases. In this study, spectral measurements of the transmission of a gas cell filled with various amounts of NO 2 were obtained with two instruments, a Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer and the OSIRIS spectrograph of the grating type. Five different gas-cell concentrations were examined in an effort to calibrate the OSIRIS instrument in the 400 to 700 nm region where NO 2 absorbs visible radiation. The NO 2 column amounts derived from the OSIRIS measurements ranged from 6.05 x 10 17 to 1.17 x 10 16 molecules/cm 2 , and agreed within 10 per cent of the values determined from the FTIR measurements. It was concluded that the OSIRIS spectrograph is well suited for the remote sensing of atmospheric NO 2 . 13 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Carbon Dioxide Removal Troubleshooting aboard the International Space Station (ISS) during Space Shuttle (STS) Docked Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matty, Christopher M.; Cover, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a largely closed-system habitable volume which requires active control of atmospheric constituents, including removal of exhaled Carbon Dioxide (CO2). The ISS provides a unique opportunity to observe system requirements for (CO2) removal. CO2 removal is managed by the Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) aboard the US segment of ISS and by Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) aboard the Space Shuttle (STS). While the ISS and STS are docked, various methods are used to balance the CO2 levels between the two vehicles, including mechanical air handling and management of general crew locations. Over the course of ISS operation, several unexpected anomalies have occurred which have required troubleshooting, including possible compromised performance of the CDRA and LiOH systems, and possible imbalance in CO2 levels between the ISS and STS while docked. This paper will cover efforts to troubleshoot the CO2 removal systems aboard the ISS and docked STS.

  8. Study and operation of a mini portable germanium spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasri, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    The study allowed us to master a technique for analysis of radioactive element: this is the gamma ray spectrometry. The Gamma ray spectrometry allows us to determine the activities of gamma emitters. In this study we used a portable gamma spectrometer for measurements on site. The spectrometer requires two types of calibration. We conducted a comparative study of activity of soil samples obtained in the laboratory and the results made by the portable spectrometer.

  9. Design, calibration and assembly of an Offner imaging spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Nunez, Hector; Vazquez-Vazquez, Carmen; Lopez Lago, Elena; Mouriz, M Dolores; Montero-Orille, Carlos; Prieto-Blanco, Xesus; De la Fuente, Raul

    2011-01-01

    We present a rapid and efficient method of design, assembly and calibration of an Offner dispersive imaging spectrometer. Experimental results are described from a laboratory prototype that was built adapting an analytic model to an experimental design. This imaging spectrometer has a spectral range from 400 nm to 1000 nm, 245 spectral bands and an f number of 2.4. Therefore, this work allows high optical quality and low cost imaging spectrometers to be built.

  10. A high Luminosity electrostatic spectrometer for conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeverstam, U.; Bodlund-Ringstroem, B.; Bohm, C.; Ekdahl, T.; Liljeqvist, D.

    1977-10-01

    The properties of the electrostatic mirror spectrometer, especially its luminosity at modest resolution, are investigated by means of computer simulation. On the basis of the results of the simulations a spectrometer is built, which has figures of merit in very good agreement with the computed results. For a circular source having a radius equal to one tenth of the radius of the inner cylinder of the spectrometer a resolution (fwhm) of 2.5 precent is reached. (author)

  11. Wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing a multi-modular design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2010-10-05

    A wide swath imaging spectrometer utilizing an array of individual spectrometer modules in the telescope focal plane to provide an extended field of view. The spectrometer modules with their individual detectors are arranged so that their slits overlap with motion on the scene providing contiguous spatial coverage. The number of modules can be varied to take full advantage of the field of view available from the telescope.

  12. Basics of spectroscopic instruments. Hardware of NMR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    NMR is a powerful tool for structure analysis of small molecules, natural products, biological macromolecules, synthesized polymers, samples from material science and so on. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is applicable to plants and animals Because most of NMR experiments can be done by an automation mode, one can forget hardware of NMR spectrometers. It would be good to understand features and performance of NMR spectrometers. Here I present hardware of a modern NMR spectrometer which is fully equipped with digital technology. (author)

  13. A refined model of the prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 T3SS basal body reveals the molecular basis for its assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Julien R C; Worrall, Liam J; Sgourakis, Nikolaos G; DiMaio, Frank; Pfuetzner, Richard A; Felise, Heather B; Vuckovic, Marija; Yu, Angel C; Miller, Samuel I; Baker, David; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2013-01-01

    The T3SS injectisome is a syringe-shaped macromolecular assembly found in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria that allows for the direct delivery of virulence effectors into host cells. It is composed of a "basal body", a lock-nut structure spanning both bacterial membranes, and a "needle" that protrudes away from the bacterial surface. A hollow channel spans throughout the apparatus, permitting the translocation of effector proteins from the bacterial cytosol to the host plasma membrane. The basal body is composed largely of three membrane-embedded proteins that form oligomerized concentric rings. Here, we report the crystal structures of three domains of the prototypical Salmonella SPI-1 basal body, and use a new approach incorporating symmetric flexible backbone docking and EM data to produce a model for their oligomeric assembly. The obtained models, validated by biochemical and in vivo assays, reveal the molecular details of the interactions driving basal body assembly, and notably demonstrate a conserved oligomerization mechanism.

  14. Comparison of methods for localizing the source position of deauthentication attacks on WAP 802.11n using Chanalyzer and Wi-Spy 2.4x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaweres, R. B.; Mokoginta, S.; Alaydrus, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper descnbes a comparison of three methods used to locate the position of the source of deauthentication attacks on Wi-Fi using Chanalyzer, and Wi-Spy 2.4x adapter. The three methods are wardriving, absorption and trilateration. The position of constant deauthentication attacks is more easily analyzed compared to that of random attacks. Signal propagation may provide a comparison between signal strength and distance which makes the position of attackers more easily located. The results are shown on the chart patterns generated from the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSS). And it is proven that these three methods can be used to localize the position of attackers, and can be recommended for use in the environment of organizations using Wi-Fi.

  15. Optimization of time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiufeng; Du Haiying; Sun Jinsheng

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes a performance improving scheme for the conventional time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer and develops a high speed data acquisition card based on PCI bus and FPGA technologies. The card is used to replace the multi-channel analyzer to improve the capability and decrease the volume of the spectrometer. The process of operation is introduced along with the integration of the spectrometer system. Many standard samples are measured. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the spectrometer is single photon counting, and the time resolution of fluorescence lifetime measurement can be picosecond level. The instrument could measure the time-resolved spectroscopy. (authors)

  16. Optical spectrometer for an electron-probe microanalyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamoryanskaya, M.V.; Zamoryanskij, A.N.; Vajnshenker, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Optical spectrometer for the ''Kamebax'' electron-probe microanalyzer permitting to carry out cathodoluminescence analysis together with X-ray diffraction analysis of a sample microvolume, is described. The use of the optical spectrometer in certain cases permits to increase the sensitivity of microanalysis by 2-3 orders, to determine the valency of luminescenting impurities, to study structural defects of microvolumes. The optical spectrometer has the resolution not worse than 0.1 nm over the whole visible region of spectrum (35-750 nm). The spectrometer is used for the study of cathodoluminescence spectra of mineral microvolumes when solving certain problems of technological mineralogy

  17. Uncooled near- and mid-IR spectrometer engine., Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Agiltron proposes to develop an extremely compact and high sensitivity uncooled near- and mid-infrared (NMIR) spectrometer engine for planetary compositional...

  18. The type VI secretion system encoded in SPI-6 plays a role in gastrointestinal colonization and systemic spread of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pezoa

    Full Text Available The role of the Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs in pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium infection in the chicken is poorly studied, while many studies have been completed in murine models. The Type VI Secretion System (T6SS is a recently described protein secretion system in Gram-negative bacteria. The genus Salmonella contains five phylogenetically distinct T6SS encoded in differentially distributed genomic islands. S. Typhimurium harbors a T6SS encoded in SPI-6 (T6SSSPI-6, which contributes to the ability of Salmonella to colonize mice. On the other hand, serotype Gallinarum harbors a T6SS encoded in SPI-19 (T6SSSPI-19 that is required for colonization of chicks. In this work, we investigated the role of T6SSSPI-6 in infection of chicks by S. Typhimurium. Oral infection of White Leghorn chicks showed that a ΔT6SSSPI-6 mutant had reduced colonization of the gut and internal organs, compared with the wild-type strain. Transfer of the intact T6SSSPI-6 gene cluster into the T6SS mutant restored bacterial colonization. In addition, our results showed that transfer of T6SSSPI-19 from S. Gallinarum to the ΔT6SSSPI-6 mutant of S. Typhimurium not only complemented the colonization defect but also resulted in a transient increase in the colonization of the cecum and ileum of chicks at days 1 and 3 post-infection. Our data indicates that T6SSSPI-6 contributes to chicken colonization and suggests that both T6SSSPI-6 and T6SSSPI-19 perform similar functions in vivo despite belonging to different phylogenetic families.

  19. Multicenter preoperative stroke risk index for patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia (McSPI) Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M F; Wolman, R; Kanchuger, M; Marschall, K; Mora-Mangano, C; Roach, G; Smith, L R; Aggarwal, A; Nussmeier, N; Herskowitz, A; Mangano, D T

    1996-11-01

    The paradox of present cardiac surgery is that the more elderly and debilitated patients benefit most from cardiac surgery compared with medical therapy, yet they sustain greater overall risk for morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. The goal of the present study was to develop a preoperative index predicting major perioperative neurological events in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. As part of a prospective, multicenter, observational study (McSPI Research Group), we enrolled 2417 patients at 24 academic medical centers in the United States. Patients who died intraoperatively or had concomitant open-heart procedures were excluded from analysis, resulting in a total of 2107 for analysis. Sixty-eight patients (3.2%) developed adverse neurological events, defined as cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or persistent coma. Bivariate analysis was applied to determine associations between preoperative variables and neurological events. Significant bivariate predictors were identified then logically grouped, and for each cluster, a score was calculated based on principal components. Key predictor variables were age, history of previous neurological disease, diabetes, history of vascular disease, previous coronary artery surgery, unstable angina, and history of pulmonary disease, the coefficients for which were used to develop a preoperative stroke risk index that was validated by bootstrap (c-index = 0.778). Stroke risk could then be determined for each patient, calculating a patient's risk for stroke within 95% confidence intervals. With the McSPI stroke risk index developed in this study, neurological risk can be estimated, and the most appropriate group for perioperative therapy can be identified. Further refinement and validation of this index, however, are necessary and are under way in current studies.

  20. Putrid gums and 'dead men's cloaths': James Lind aboard the Salisbury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Graham

    2003-12-01

    18th century sailors often suffered from scurvy. In 1747 James Lind conducted his classic experiments aboard the Salisbury, in which he cured scurvy with oranges and lemons. The Royal Navy did not introduce citrus rations until 1795. The original ship's papers allow the circumstances of the experiment to be reconstructed. The relevant patrol began in March 1747, and Lind's experiment began after 8 weeks at sea. The muster roll records almost no sickness aboard until the ship returned to Plymouth in June. This is at odds with Lind's account and suggests an antisickness official culture, which may have contributed to the neglect of his work.

  1. Microbolometer spectrometer opens hoist of new applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, J.; Smorenburg, C.; Escudero, I.; Boslooper, E.; Visser, H.; Helden, W. v.; Breussin, F.

    2017-11-01

    Current Thermal infra red ( 7..14μm) multispectral imager instruments use cryogenically cooled Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT or HgCdTe) detectors. This causes the instruments to be bulky, power hungry and expensive. For systems that have medium NETD (Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference) requirements and can operate with high speed optics (system, and using the latest improvements in detector performance, TNO TPD has been able to design a spectrometer that is able to provide co-registered measurements in the 7 to 12 μm wavelength region yielding acceptable NETD performance. Apart from the usual multispectral imaging, the concept can be used for several other applications, among which imaging in both the 3 to 5 and 7 to 12 μm atmospheric windows at the same time (forest fire detection and military recognisance) or wideband flame analysis (Nox detection in industrial ovens).

  2. An electrostatic autoresonant ion trap mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermakov, A. V.; Hinch, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    A new method for ion extraction from an anharmonic electrostatic trap is introduced. Anharmonicity is a common feature of electrostatic traps which can be used for small scale spatial confinement of ions, and this feature is also necessary for autoresonant ion extraction. With the aid of ion trajectory simulations, novel autoresonant trap mass spectrometers (ART-MSs) have been designed based on these very simple principles. A mass resolution ∼60 is demonstrated for the prototypes discussed here. We report also on the pressure dependencies, and the (mV) rf field strength dependencies of the ART-MS sensitivity. Importantly the new MS designs do not require heavy magnets, tight manufacturing tolerances, introduction of buffer gases, high power rf sources, nor complicated electronics. The designs described here are very inexpensive to implement relative to other instruments, and can be easily miniaturized. Possible applications are discussed.

  3. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J

    1999-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  4. Background characterization in a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Jimenez de Mingo, A.

    1995-01-01

    An alternate procedure for background count rate estimation in a liquid scintillation spectrometer is presented, which does not require to measure a blank with similar composition, volume and quench, to the problem sample. The procedure is based on a double linear parameterization which was obtained from a systematic study of the background observed with glass vials, in three different windows, 0 - 20 KeV, 0 - 800 KeV and 0 - 2 MeV, for volume between 2 and 20 mi of three commercial scintillators, Hisafe II, Ultima-Gold and Instagel, and quenching degree in the interval equivalent to 50% - 3% tritium efficiency. This procedure was tested with standard samples of 3H, and led to average discrepancies less than 10% for activity ≥0,6 Bq, against conventional methods for which the discrepancies are twice on average. (Author) 10 refs

  5. Background characterization in a liquid scintillation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los arcos, J.M.; Jimenez de Mingo, A.

    1995-01-01

    An alternate procedure for background count rate estimation in a liquid scintillation spectrometer is presented, which does not require to measure a blank with similar composition, volume and quench, to the problem sample. The procedure is based on a double linear parameterization which was obtained from a systematic study of the background observed with glass vials, in three different windows, 0-20 KeV, 0-800 KeV and 0-2 MeV, for volume between 2 and 20 ml of three commercial scintillators, Hisafe II, Ultima-gold and Instagel, and quenching degree in the interval equivalent to 50%-3% tritium efficiency. This procedure was tested with standard samples of ''3 H, and led to average discrepancies less than 10% for activity => 0,6 Bq, against conventional methods for which the discrepancies are twice on average

  6. A summation free β+-endpoint spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, H.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Roeckl, E.; Schardt, D.; Simon, R.S.; Kleinheinz, P.; Liang, C.F.; Paris, P.

    1990-08-01

    A β + -endpoint spectrometer is described, where positrons are observed in an 11-mm thick silicon detector in coincidence with subsequent γ-rays meausred in a germanium detector, and where the summing of the positron energy with the annihilation radiation is prevented by detecting both 511-keV quanta in opposite segments of a BGO ring surrounding the silicon detector. The procedure of measuring and analyzing the data is outlined for the decay of the 11/2 - -isomer of 149 Tb; its endpoint energy is determined to be 1853(10) keV, in agreement with the literature. The accuracy and reliability of β + -endpoint measurements is discussed in comparison to the EC/β + -ratio method. (orig.)

  7. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  8. J-NSE: Neutron spin echo spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Holderer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Neutron Spin-Echo (NSE spectroscopy is well known as the only neutron scattering technique that achieves energy resolution of several neV. By using the spin precession of polarized neutrons in magnetic field one can measure tiny velocity changes of the individual neutron during the scattering process. Contrary to other inelastic neutron scattering techniques, NSE measures the intermediate scattering function S(Q,t in reciprocal space and time directly. The Neutron Spin-Echo spectrometer J-NSE, operated by JCNS, Forschungszentrum Jülich at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ in Garching, covers a time range (2 ps to 200 ns on length scales accessible by small angle scattering technique. Along with conventional NSE spectroscopy that allows bulk measurements in transmission mode, J-NSE offers a new possibility - gracing incidence spin echo spectroscopy (GINSENS, developed to be used as "push-button" option in order to resolve the depth dependent near surface dynamics.

  9. New spectrometers for diffuse scattering of neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, W.; Schmatz, W.; Bauer, G.

    1975-01-01

    The study of defects in solids can be complemented in many cases by the diffuse scattering of X-rays, neutrons or electrons to draw information about size, symmetry and position of defects. Since defect concentrations are usually very low in order to avoid interactions, the intensity problem is of major concern as well as the distinction between the interesting signal and other sources of scattering. Two neutron spectrometers are described which were specially designed to tackle these problems, one of them operating in Juelich, the other one on the HFR in Grenoble. The second one, also offering the possibility of employing polarized neutrons, is specially suited to the study of diffuse magnetic scattering

  10. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P.

    1996-01-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  11. Miniaturisation of imaging spectrometer for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossart, Pierre; Sémery, Alain; Réess, Jean-Michel; Combes, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Future planetary exploration on telluric or giant planets will need a new kind of instrumentation combining imaging and spectroscopy at high spectral resolution to achieve new scientific measurements, in particular for atmospheric studies in nadir configuration. We present here a study of a Fourier Transform heterodyne spectrometer, which can achieve these objectives, in the visible or infrared. The system is composed of a Michelson interferometer, whose mirrors have been replaced by gratings, a configuration studied in the early days of Fourier Transform spectroscopy, but only recently reused for space instrumentation, with the availability of large infrared mosaics. A complete study of an instrument is underway, with optical and electronic tests, as well as data processing analysis. This instrument will be proposed for future planetary missions, including ESA/Bepi Colombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter or Earth orbiting platforms.

  12. 77 FR 27855 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Travel, Inc., Hotard Coaches, Inc., and Industrial Bus Lines, Inc., d/b/a All Aboard America AGENCY.... (Coaches), and Industrial Bus Lines, Inc., d/b/a All Aboard America! (Industrial) (collectively, the Three... from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) as motor carriers of passengers (license...

  13. LANL/Green Star spectrometer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.; Vo, D.T.; Seldiakov, Y.P.; Dorin, A.B.; Kondrashov, M.V.; Timoshin, V.I.

    1997-12-01

    The US and Russia have agreed to the joint development of a nondestructive assay system for use to support the dismantlement of nuclear weapons in Russia. This nondestructive assay system will be used to measure plutonium produced by the conversion of Russian nuclear weapons. The NDA system for Russia will be patterned after the ARIES NDA system being constructed at Los Alamos. One goal of the program is to produce an NDA system for use in Russia that maximizes the use of Russian resources to facilitate maintenance and future upgrades. The Green Star SBS50 Single Board Spectrometer system (Green Star Ltd., Moscow, Russia) has been suggested for use as the data acquisition component for gamma ray instruments in the system. Possible uses are for plutonium isotopic analysis and also segmented gamma scanning. Green Star has also developed analysis software for the SBS50. This software, both plutonium isotopic analysis and uranium enrichment analysis, was developed specifically for customs/border inspection applications (low counting rate applications and identification as opposed to quantification) and was not intended for MC and A applications. Because of the relative immaturity of the Green Star plutonium isotopic analysis software (it has been under development for only one year and is patterned after US development circa 1980), it was tentatively agreed, before the tests, that the Russian NDA system would use the Los Alamos PC/FRAM software for plutonium isotopic analysis. However, it was also decided to include the Green Star plutonium isotopic software in the testing, both to quantify its performance for MC and A applications and also to provide additional data to Green Star for further development of their software. The main purpose of the testing was to evaluate the SBS-50 spectrometer as a data acquisition device for use with LANL software

  14. Compact imaging Bragg spectrometer for fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, G.; Biel, W.; Jaegers, H.; Marchuk, O.

    2004-01-01

    A compact imaging x-ray spectrometer has been designed for tokamaks and stellarators to measure the plasma parameters at different spatial chords. It has been optimized for high spectral resolution and high sensitivity. High spectral resolution is obtained by using solid state detectors and minimizing the imaging errors of the spherical crystals. It is shown, that using spherical crystals the solid angle and hence the throughput can be increased significantly, without compromising the spectral resolution. The design is useful for the measurement of the spectra of He- and H-like ions from Si to Kr. The spectral resolution is sufficient for the measurement of plasma parameters. The temporal resolution is high enough for transport studies by gas puff and laser ablation experiments. The design is based on a modified Johann spectrometer mount, utilizing a spherically bent crystal instead of the cylindrically bent crystal in the traditional Johann mount. The astigmatism of the wavelength selective reflection on the spherical crystal is applied to obtain imaging of an extended plasma source on a two-dimensional detector. For each element, a separate crystal is required, only in few cases, a crystal can be used for the spectra of two elements. For the spectra of most of the He-like ions from Si up to Kr, suitable crystal cuts have been found on quartz, silicon and germanium crystals with Bragg angles in a small interval around the design value of 53.5 deg. All of the crystals have the same radius. They are fixed on a rotational table. The distance to the detector is adjusted by an x-y table to fit to the Rowland circle

  15. An improved computer controlled triple-axis neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.J.; Hall, J.W.; Hutchings, M.T.

    1975-07-01

    A description is given of the computer-controlled triple-axis neutron spectrometer installed at the PLUTO reactor at Harwell. The reasons for an nature of recent major improvements are discussed. Following a general description of the spectrometer, details are then given of the new computerised control system, including the functions of the various programs which are now available to the user. (author)

  16. Portable triple silicon detector telescope spectrometer for skin dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, J.; Larsen, H.E.; Christensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    detectors. The LabVIEW(TM) software distributed by National Instruments was used for all program developments for the spectrometer, comprising also the capability of evaluating the absorbed dose rates from the measured beta spectra. The report describes the capability of the telescope spectrometer...

  17. Automation, development and performance of a photoacoustic spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalheiro, F.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This work consists in the development of a circuit to interface a photoacoustic spectrometer with a microcomputer. The obtained spectra are identical to those obtained in commercial photoacoustic spectrometers. The system permits a great versatility and it has possibilities to automatize other types of experiments. The system can be duplicated from national components and at a relatively low coast. (author)

  18. Repeatable intensity calibration of an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seah, M.P.; Spencer, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, NPL developed an infrastructure for calibrating the intensity response functions of electron spectrometers for Auger electron and for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Two software systems were developed: one for Auger electron spectrometers or for Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers combined, and one for X-ray photoelectron spectrometers on their own; the latter being applied if no suitable electron gun is available. The system for Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers combined has been used regularly to calibrate the Metrology Spectrometer II at NPL and experience shows that this gives an instrumental intensity consistency of 0.4% over 10 years. Evaluations have not previously been reported at this level. The system for Auger electron and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers combined is used here in preference to the system solely for X-ray photoelectron spectrometers since it is more robust to the sample condition and can be used over a wider energy range. These issues, and how observed variations in the instrument intensity response may arise, are explained

  19. Evaluation of HOPG mounting possibilities for multiplexing spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groitl, Felix; Bartkowiak, Marek; Bergmann, Ryan M.

    2017-01-01

    Four different methods for mounting HOPG analyzer crystals on Si holders have been evaluated in the design process of the new multiplexing spectrometer CAMEA. Contrary to neutron optics used in standard spectrometers, the new instrument concept employs a series of analyzer segments behind each ot...

  20. Status of the OCS Bragg-Spectrometer for SODART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiebicke, H.J.; Halm, I.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1998-01-01

    OCS, the Bragg spectrometer for the SODART X-ray telescope onboard the SPECTRUM-RONTGEN-GAMMA (SRG) satellite has been completed. Preliminary results of his performance are presented.......OCS, the Bragg spectrometer for the SODART X-ray telescope onboard the SPECTRUM-RONTGEN-GAMMA (SRG) satellite has been completed. Preliminary results of his performance are presented....

  1. High Resolution Stellar Spectroscopy with VBT Echelle Spectrometer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High Resolution Stellar Spectroscopy with VBT Echelle Spectrometer. N. Kameswara Rao, S. Sriram, K. Jayakumar & F. Gabriel. Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore 560 034, India. Abstract. The optical design and performance of the recently commis- sioned fiber fed echelle spectrometer of 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu ...

  2. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results suggest that the SEM-EDX is one of the potential tools for rapid detection of metals, namely, As and Cd in himematsutake. Key words: Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX), coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), himematsutake.

  3. SMARTS - a spectrometer for strain measurement in engineering materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bourke, M A M; Ustundag, E

    2002-01-01

    A new spectrometer called SMARTS (Spectrometer for Materials Research at Temperature and Stress) has been commissioned at the Los Alamos neutron science center and entered the user program in August of 2002. Its design maximizes capability and throughput for measurements of (a) residual macrostrain in engineering components and (b) in situ loading. This paper describes some aspects of the instrument. (orig.)

  4. Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

  5. A GE + BAF2 COMPOSITE GAMMA-RAY SPECTROMETER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRASZNAHORKAY, A; BACELAR, J; BALANDA, A; BUDA, A

    1992-01-01

    The design of a new gamma-ray spectrometer for detection of high energy photons in the 10-20 MeV region with high resolution and efficiency is presented. Tests with a prototype of the Ge + BaF2 composite gamma-ray spectrometer are discussed. The measured energy resolution and efficiency of the

  6. Determination of the shielding factors for gamma-ray spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korun, M.; Vodenik, B.; Zorko, B.

    2014-01-01

    A method for determining the shielding factors for gamma-ray spectrometers is described. The shielding factors are expressed by decomposing the peaked background of the spectrometer into contributions of the detector, spectrometer shield and ambient radiation to the spectrometer background. The dimensions of the sample and its mass-attenuation coefficient are taken into account using a simple model. For six spectrometers, with contributions to the background quantified, the shielding factors were determined for the background based on the thorium decay series and the radon daughters. For a water sample with a diameter of 9 cm and a thickness of 4 cm and the nuclides of the thorium decay series that are in the spectrometer shields, the values of the shielding factors lie in the interval 0.95–1.00. For a spectrometer exhibiting the diffusion of radon into the shielding material, the values of the shielding factors for the same sample for gamma-rays from the radon daughters lie in the interval 0.88–1.00. - Highlights: • A model is described to assess shielding factors for gamma-ray spectrometers. • The background due to the detector, shield and ambient radiation must be known. • The sample attenuation, its dimensions and distance from the crystal are considered. • Shielding factors for gamma-rays from the 232 Th and 226 Ra decay chains are assessed. • For a water sample with a mass of 0.25 kg, shielding factors above 0.88 are obtained

  7. Infrared upconversion spectrometer for the mid-ir range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    The invention provides an infrared upconversion spectrometer for determining a mid-IR spectrum of received infrared light with a high resolution. The spectrometer applies upconversion to transform light in the mid-IR to the near-IR range where efficient detectors are available. The upconversion...

  8. Inexpensive Raman Spectrometer for Undergraduate and Graduate Experiments and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christian; Spencer, Claire L.; Hippler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We describe the construction and performance of an inexpensive modular Raman spectrometer that has been assembled in the framework of a fourth-year undergraduate project (costs below $5000). The spectrometer is based on a 4 mW 532 nm green laser pointer and a compact monochromator equipped with glass fiber optical connections, linear detector…

  9. Development of the Fabry-Perot Spectrometer Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Methane is a greenhouse gas with global warming effects 20 times more detrimental than carbon dioxide. Currently, only aircraft missions measure methane and do not provide continuous monitoring, This presentation will cover the Fabry-Perot spectrometer which will provide continuous monitoring of methane. It will also cover the development of the software used to extract and process the data the spectrometer collects.

  10. Dye laser spectrometer for the analysis of pulsed vacuum arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Robertson, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    A pulsed dye laser spectrometer which is used to obtain detailed single shot spectroscopic measurements of the plasma in a pulsed vacuum arc was developed. The capabilities of this spectrometer are indicated by the detection of laser induced fluorescence signals from 10 6 neutral Ti atoms in the plasma of a pulsed vacuum arc with a Ti anode. (U.S.)

  11. Linear Fresnel Spectrometer Chip with Gradient Line Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Hyouk (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A spectrometer that includes a grating that disperses light via Fresnel diffraction according to wavelength onto a sensing area that coincides with an optical axis plane of the grating. The sensing area detects the dispersed light and measures the light intensity associated with each wavelength of the light. Because the spectrometer utilizes Fresnel diffraction, it can be miniaturized and packaged as an integrated circuit.

  12. A perturbed angular correlation spectrometer for material science ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A four-detector perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectrometer has been developed with ultra-fast BaF2 detectors to acquire four coincidence spectra simultane- ously, two at 180° and two at 90°. This spectrometer has double efficiency compared to that of a three-detector set-up. Higher efficiency is desirable for ...

  13. On a low intensity 241Am Compton spectrometer for measurement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a new design and construction of a low intensity (100 mCi) 241Am -ray Compton spectrometer is presented. The planar spectrometer is based on a small disc source with the shortest geometry. Measurement of the momentum density of polycrystalline Al is used to evaluate the performance of the new design.

  14. Spectrometer for external detection of magnetic and related double resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagalyn, P.L.; Alexander, M.N.

    1977-01-01

    The patent relates to an improvement in nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer apparatus. It consists of a spectrometer which utilizes separate materials containing, respectively, sample and detector spin systems as opposed to one in which the sample and detector spins are contained in the same single material

  15. A perturbed angular correlation spectrometer for material science ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A four-detector perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectrometer has been developed with ultra-fast BaF2 detectors to acquire four coincidence spectra simultaneously, two at 180° and two at 90°. This spectrometer has double efficiency compared to that of a three-detector set-up. Higher efficiency is desirable for PAC ...

  16. On a low intensity 241 Am Compton spectrometer for measurement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a new design and construction of a low intensity (100 mCi) 241Am -ray Compton spectrometer is presented. The planar spectrometer is based on a small disc source with the shortest geometry. Measurement of the momentum density of polycrystalline Al is used to evaluate the performance of the new design.

  17. Quadrupole mass spectrometer driver with higher signal levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Aalami, Dean (Inventor); Darrach, Murray (Inventor); Orient, Otto (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Driving a quadrapole mass spectrometer includes obtaining an air core transformer with a primary and a secondary, matching the secondary to the mass spectrometer, and driving the primary based on first and second voltage levels. Driving of the primary is via an isolating stage that minimizes low level drive signal coupling.

  18. Workshop on high-resolution, large-acceptance spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidman, B. (ed.)

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the Workshop on High-Resolution, Large-Acceptance Spectrometers was to provide a means for exchange of information among those actively engaged in the design and construction of these new spectrometers. Thirty-seven papers were prepared for the data base.

  19. Use of UAV-Borne Spectrometer for Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Natesan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV are being used for low altitude remote sensing for thematic land classification using visible light and multi-spectral sensors. The objective of this work was to investigate the use of UAV equipped with a compact spectrometer for land cover classification. The UAV platform used was a DJI Flamewheel F550 hexacopter equipped with GPS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU navigation sensors, and a Raspberry Pi processor and camera module. The spectrometer used was the FLAME-NIR, a near-infrared spectrometer for hyperspectral measurements. RGB images and spectrometer data were captured simultaneously. As spectrometer data do not provide continuous terrain coverage, the locations of their ground elliptical footprints were determined from the bundle adjustment solution of the captured images. For each of the spectrometer ground ellipses, the land cover signature at the footprint location was determined to enable the characterization, identification, and classification of land cover elements. To attain a continuous land cover classification map, spatial interpolation was carried out from the irregularly distributed labeled spectrometer points. The accuracy of the classification was assessed using spatial intersection with the object-based image classification performed using the RGB images. Results show that in homogeneous land cover, like water, the accuracy of classification is 78% and in mixed classes, like grass, trees and manmade features, the average accuracy is 50%, thus, indicating the contribution of hyperspectral measurements of low altitude UAV-borne spectrometers to improve land cover classification.

  20. Combined Raman/LIBS spectrometer elegant breadboard: built and tested - and flight model spectrometer unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, B.; Hutchinson, I.; Ingley, R.

    2017-11-01

    A spectrometer for combined Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is amongst the different instruments that have been pre-selected for the Pasteur payload of the ExoMars rover. It is regarded as a fundamental, next-generation instrument for organic, mineralogical and elemental characterisation of Martian soil, rock samples and organic molecules. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities [1]. The combined Raman / LIBS instrument has been recommended as the highest priority mineralogy instrument to be included in the rover's analytical laboratory for the following tasks: Analyse surface and sub-surface soil and rocks on Mars, identify organics in the search for life and determine soil origin & toxicity. The synergy of the system is evident: the Raman spectrometer is dedicated to molecular analysis of organics and minerals; the LIBS provides information on the sample's elemental composition. An international team, under ESA contract and with the leadership of TNO Science and Industry, has built and tested an Elegant Bread Board (EBB) of the combined Raman / LIBS instrument. The EBB comprises a specifically designed, extremely compact, spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. The EBB also includes lasers, illumination and imaging optics as well as fibre optics for light transfer. A summary of the functional and environmental requirements together with a description of the optical design and its expected performance are described in [2]. The EBB was developed and constructed to verify the instruments' end-to-end functional performance with natural samples. The combined Raman / LIBS EBB realisation and test results of natural samples will be presented. For the Flight Model (FM) instrument, currently in the design phase, the Netherlands will be responsible for the design, development and verification of the

  1. Soft X-ray Focusing Telescope Aboard AstroSat: Design ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. P. Singh

    2017-06-19

    Jun 19, 2017 ... The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT), India's first X-ray telescope based on the principle of grazing incidence, was launched aboard ... overall instrument configuration and the optics respec- tively. The detectors and .... ics radioactive fluorescent sources (at the 4 corners of the detector and on the FPCA ...

  2. STS-47 MS Davis and MS Jemison with LBNP device in SLJ module aboard OV-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis (left) and MS Mae C. Jemison prepare the lower body negative pressure (LBNP) device for the LBNP experiment in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Displayed on the aft end cone in the background is an Auburn University banner.

  3. President Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. Already confined to the Mobile Quarantine Facility are (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.

  4. 29 CFR 1918.65 - Mechanically powered vehicles used aboard vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment Other Than Ship's Gear § 1918.65 Mechanically powered vehicles used aboard vessels. (a... operator's view, and openings in the top of the guard shall not exceed six inches (15.24 cm) in one of the...

  5. Keys to the Common Genera of Marine Plants Taken Aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H. R.

    Provided is a dichotomous key to the common genera of marine algae and angiosperms which are taken aboard the Orange County Floating Marine Laboratory. It is designed primarily for use by junior and senior high school students. Drawings of representative members of the various genera are included. This work was prepared under an ESEA Title III…

  6. Living at Sea: Learning from Communal Life Aboard Sail Training Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Ken

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers features of domestic and social life aboard sail training vessels, exploring the particular character of life at sea, and how these features contribute to the distinctive character of sail training experience as a context for learning. Methodologically, the study lies in the sociological tradition of ethnography, focusing on…

  7. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 [IB Docket No. 12-376; FCC 12-161] Earth... Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA), i.e., earth stations on aircraft communicating with Fixed... GHz, 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth or downlink) and 14.0-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space or uplink) frequency...

  8. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 [IB Docket No. 12-376; FCC 12-161] Earth Stations... (NPRM) seeks comment on a proposal to elevate the allocation status of Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft... with GSO space stations of the FSS on a primary basis in the 11.7-12.2 GHz band (space-to-Earth), on an...

  9. Artificial intelligence for geologic mapping with imaging spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    This project was a three year study at the Center for the Study of Earth from Space (CSES) within the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder. The goal of this research was to develop an expert system to allow automated identification of geologic materials based on their spectral characteristics in imaging spectrometer data such as the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). This requirement was dictated by the volume of data produced by imaging spectrometers, which prohibits manual analysis. The research described is based on the development of automated techniques for analysis of imaging spectrometer data that emulate the analytical processes used by a human observer. The research tested the feasibility of such an approach, implemented an operational system, and tested the validity of the results for selected imaging spectrometer data sets.

  10. Large Solid Angle Spectrometer for Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelebart, F.; Morand, M.; Dermigny, Q.; Giura, P.; Shukla, A.; Rueff, J.-P.

    2007-01-01

    We have designed a large solid angle spectrometer mostly devoted to inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) studies of materials under extreme conditions (high pressure / temperature) in the hard x-ray range. The new IXS spectrometer is designed to optimize the photon throughput while preserving an excellent resolving power of ∼10000 in the considered energy range. The spectrometer consists of an array of up to 4 spherically bent 0.5 m radius analyzer crystals and a solid-state detector positioned on the Rowland circle. The four analyzers can cover a solid angle more than one order of magnitude larger than conventional spectrometers. The spectrometer is to be installed on the GALAXIES beamline at SOLEIL in the near future

  11. Calibration of a mass spectrometer in steady-state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, E.V.; Kupryazhkin, A.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The mass spectrometer calibration technique by 4 He in steady-state operation conditions by the method of gas expansion from the small volume into the large one using a capacitance micromanometer is described. For realizing steady-state operation of the mass-spectrometer one of the steam-mercury diffusion pumps has been replaced for an adsorption pump. Using adsorption pump permits to maintain working vacuum in the system for more than 3 h. The mass spectrometer calibration has been performed by comparing calibrated volume and mass spectrometer chamber volume. The mass spectrometer sensitivity value by 4 He in the steady-state operation ν=(4.1+-0.1)x10 - 7 Pa/mV is obtained

  12. Small-sized time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A time-of-flight mass spectrometer with beam particle ionization by electron impact developed for the measurement of pulsed hydrogen beam parameters, is described. Duration of electron beam current pulses in the mass-spectrometer ionizer is varied within the 2-20 μs, interval electron pulse current is 0.6 mA, electron energy is 250 eV. Time resolution of the mass spectrometer is determined by the period of electron beam current pulse repetition and equals 40 μs. The ion drift range is 16 cm. Mass resolution ΔM/M=1/5 is sufficient for the determination of hydrogen beam composition. The mass spectrometer has 100% transparency in the direction of molecular beam particle movement. In this direction the mass spectrometer size is 7 cm

  13. Portable, low-power, mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.A.; Cork, C.P.; Fabris, L.; Madden, N.W.

    2003-01-01

    A light-weight portable mechanically cooled γ-ray spectrometer has been constructed and tested. The spectrometer is based on a high-purity n-type Ge coaxial crystal, ∼5 cm longx5 cm diameter, a small, low-power Stirling cycle microcooler, and a low-power custom electronics package. The energy resolution of the spectrometer is ∼3.5 keV at E γ =662 keV, the power requirements are ∼15 W DC, and the combined weight of the Ge, housing, and controller is approximately 10 pounds. The spectrometer qualifies therefore as ''hand held''. It is suitable for field operations, because of its light-weight, low-power draw, and operational lifetime. The microcooler itself has a MTBF >30,000 h, and the spectrometer runs for several months (at least 6) before a 2 day recycle is required

  14. Comprehensive investigation of the angular transmission in magnetic spectrometers

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira-Conca, J; Schmidt, K H

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic spectrometers are largely used in experimental nuclear physics. These devices allow one to perform precise measurements of the reaction kinematics or to separate and fully identify the reaction residues for nuclear-dynamics and structure studies. They can also be used as separators to produce radioactive nuclear beams. However, all these applications are affected by the limited transmission of the reaction residues through the spectrometer. The final transmission depends on the ion-optical characteristics and the mechanical constraints of the spectrometer but also on the kinematic properties of the considered nuclei. The ion optics are characterised by the bending and focusing powers of the magnetic elements which constitute the spectrometer. The reaction mechanism determines the kinematics of the particles. The transmission losses in any magnetic spectrometer can be attributed to its limited acceptance in longitudinal momentum and angle. The limitation in longitudinal momentum can be overcome by com...

  15. Gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Kane, W.R.; Markey, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon gas near the critical point (166 degrees C, 58 atm) is under development. The spectrometer will function as a room-temperature ionization chamber detecting gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. The energy resolution is superior to that of a NaI scintillation spectrometer by a substantial margin (approximately a factor 5), and accordingly, much more information can be extracted from a given gamma-ray spectrum. Unlike germanium detectors, the spectrometer possesses the capability for sustained operation under ambient temperature conditions without a requirement for liquid nitrogen

  16. Stability of Dosage Forms in the Pharmaceutical Payload Aboard Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Brian J.; Daniels, Vernie; Boyd, Jason L.; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Younker, Diane R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Efficacious pharmaceuticals with adequate shelf lives are essential for successful space medical operations. Stability of pharmaceuticals, therefore, is of paramount importance for assuring the health and wellness of astronauts on future space exploration missions. Unique physical and environmental factors of space missions may contribute to the instability of pharmaceuticals, e.g., radiation, humidity and temperature variations. Degradation of pharmaceutical formulations can result in inadequate efficacy and/or untoward toxic effects, which could compromise astronaut safety and health. Methods: Four identical pharmaceutical payload kits containing 31 medications in different dosage forms (liquid, tablet, capsule, ointment and suppository) were transported to the International Space Station aboard the Space Shuttle (STS-121). One of the 4 kits was stored on the Shuttle and the other 3 were stored on the International Space Station (ISS) for return to Earth at 6-month interval aboard a pre-designated Shuttle flight for each kit. The kit stored on the Shuttle was returned to Earth aboard STS-121 and 2 kits from ISS were returned on STS 117 and STS-122. Results: Analysis of standard physical and chemical parameters of degradation was completed for pharmaceuticals returned by STS-121 after14 days, STS - 117 after11 months and STS 122 after 19 months storage aboard ISS. Analysis of all flight samples along with ground-based matching controls was completed and results were compiled. Conclusion: Evaluation of results from the shuttle (1) and ISS increments (2) indicate that the number of formulations degraded in space increased with duration of storage in space and was higher in space compared to their ground-based counterparts. Rate of degradation for some of the formulations tested was faster in space than on Earth. Additionally, some of the formulations included in the medical kits were unstable, more so in space than on the ground. These results indicate that the

  17. Performance of the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksa, M.

    1999-09-01

    ATLAS is a general-purpose experiment for the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. Its Muon Spectrometer will require ∼5500 m 2 of precision tracking chambers to measure the muon tracks along a spectrometer arm of 5 m to 15 m length, embedded in a magnetic field of ∼0.5 T. The precision tracking devices in the Muon System will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs). Approximately 370,000 MDTs will be assembled into ∼1200 drift chambers. The LHC physics discovery range indicates the need for a momentum resolution of ∼10 % for muons with a transverse momentum of p T =1 TeV/c. Following a detailed engineering optimisation of the magnetic-field strength versus the chamber resolution, the ATLAS collaboration opted for a drift-chamber system with very high spatial resolution, σ 2 93/7). Measurements performed in a high-background environment - similar to the ATLAS operational environment - gave us a complete understanding of the individual effects which deteriorate the spatial resolution at high rates. Four effects responsible for a resolution deterioration have been identified: two electronics effects which depend on the count rate of a tube (baseline shift and baseline fluctuations), and two space-charge effects that depend on the local count rate (gain drop and field fluctuations). The understanding of these effects had a major impact on the choice of the drift gas and the front-end electronics. The strong dependence of the drift velocity on the drift field is one major disadvantage of the baseline gas. In this work the full set of effects which lead to systematic errors to the track-position measurement in one tube (e.g. variations of the background rate) was investigated and quantified for realistic LHC operating conditions. For the biggest effects analytical corrections are presented. Finally, the muon-system performance was investigated and a calibration method for the absolute mass scale developed. By means of simulation it was shown that the energy

  18. Systematic resolution study of the CEBAF Hall C spectrometers - HMS and SOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, L.; Hungerford, E.V.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study of the momentum resolution of the CEBAF Hall C spectrometers. These are the High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) and Short Orbit Spectrometer (SOS). This systematic study enables us to point out the dominating sources of the spectrometer resolutions. It demonstrates that such a systematic analysis can provide the information required to optimize the performance of an existing spectrometer system or the design of a new spectrometer system. (orig.)

  19. The high-acceptance dielectron spectrometer HADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakichiev, G.; Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kirschner, D.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Lehnert, J.; Lichtblau, C.; Lins, E.; Metag, V.; Mishra, D.; Novotny, R.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Petri, M.; Ritman, J.; Salz, C.; Schaefer, D.; Skoda, M.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Toia, A.; Agodi, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cosentino, L.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Vassiliev, D.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Duran, I.; Fernandez, C.; Fuentes, B.; Garzon, J.A.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Rodriguez-Prieto, G.; Sabin-Fernandez, J.; Sanchez, M.; Vazquez, A.; Atkin, E.; Volkov, Y.; Badura, E.; Bertini, D.; Bielcik, J.; Bokemeyer, H.; Dahlinger, M.; Daues, H.W.; Galatyuk, T.; Garabatos, C.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D.; Hehner, J.; Heinz, T.; Hoffmann, J.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Kopf, U.; Lang, S.; Leinberger, U.; Magestro, D.; Muench, M.; Niebur, W.; Ott, W.; Pietraszko, J.; Rustamov, A.; Schicker, R.M.; Schoen, H.; Schoen, W.; Schroeder, C.; Schwab, E.; Senger, P.; Simon, R.S.; Stelzer, H.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S.; Zovinec, D.; Zumbruch, P.; Balanda, A.; Kozuch, A.; Przygoda, W.; Bassi, A.; Bassini, R.; Boiano, C.; Bartolotti, A.; Brambilla, S.; Bellia, G.; Migneco, E.; Belyaev, A.V.; Chepurnov, V.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.V.; Ierusalimov, A.P.; Smykov, L.; Troyan, A.Yu.; Zanevsky, Y.V.; Benovic, M.; Hlavac, S.; Turzo, I.; Boehmer, M.; Christ, T.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Gilg, H.; Homolka, J.; Jurkovic, M.; Kastenmueller, A.; Kienle, P.; Koerner, H.J.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Maier-Komor, P.; Sailer, B.; Schroeder, S.; Ulrich, A.; Wallner, C.; Weber, M.; Wieser, J.; Winkler, S.; Zeitelhack, K.; Boyard, J.L.; Genolini, B.; Hennino, T.; Jourdain, J.C.; Moriniere, E.; Pouthas, J.; Ramstein, B.; Rosier, P.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Sudol, M.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Diaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dressler, R.; Enghardt, W.; Heidel, K.; Hutsch, J.; Kanaki, K.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Sobiella, M.; Wuestenfeld, J.; Zhou, P.; Dybczak, A.; Jaskula, M.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Kidon, L.; Korcyl, K.; Kulessa, R.; Malarz, A.; Michalska, B.; Otwinowski, J.; Ploskon, M.; Prokopowicz, W.; Salabura, P.; Szczybura, M.; Trebacz, R.; Walus, W.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Froehlich, I.; Lippmann, C.; Lorenz, M.; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Rosenkranz, K.; Stroebele, H.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Wang, Y.; Zentek, A.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Karavicheva, T.; Kurepin, A.; Lapidus, K.; Reshetin, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Shileev, K.; Tiflov, V.; Grosse, E.; Kaempfer, B.; Iori, I.; Krizek, F.; Kugler, A.; Marek, T.; Novotny, J.; Pleskac, R.; Pospisil, V.; Sobolev, Yu.G.; Suk, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tikhonov, A.; Tlusty, P.; Wagner, V.; Mousa, J.; Parpottas, Y.; Tsertos, H.; Nekhaev, A.; Smolyankin, V.; Palka, M.; Roche, G.; Schmah, A.; Stroth, J.

    2009-01-01

    HADES is a versatile magnetic spectrometer aimed at studying dielectron production in pion, proton and heavy-ion-induced collisions. Its main features include a ring imaging gas Cherenkov detector for electron-hadron discrimination, a tracking system consisting of a set of 6 superconducting coils producing a toroidal field and drift chambers and a multiplicity and electron trigger array for additional electron-hadron discrimination and event characterization. A two-stage trigger system enhances events containing electrons. The physics program is focused on the investigation of hadron properties in nuclei and in the hot and dense hadronic matter. The detector system is characterized by an 85% azimuthal coverage over a polar angle interval from 18 to 85 , a single electron efficiency of 50% and a vector meson mass resolution of 2.5%. Identification of pions, kaons and protons is achieved combining time-of-flight and energy loss measurements over a large momentum range (0.1< p< 1.0 GeV/c). This paper describes the main features and the performance of the detector system. (orig.)

  20. Combined "dual" absorption and fluorescence smartphone spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafat Hossain, Md; Canning, John; Ast, Sandra; Cook, Kevin; Rutledge, Peter J; Jamalipour, Abbas

    2015-04-15

    A combined "dual" absorption and fluorescence smartphone spectrometer is demonstrated. The optical sources used in the system are the white flash LED of the smartphone and an orthogonally positioned and interchangeable UV (λex=370  nm) and blue (λex=450  nm) LED. The dispersive element is a low-cost, nano-imprinted diffraction grating coated with Au. Detection over a 300 nm span with 0.42 nm/pixel resolution was carried out with the camera CMOS chip. By integrating the blue and UV excitation sources into the white LED circuitry, the entire system is self-contained within a 3D printed case and powered from the smartphone battery; the design can be scaled to add further excitation sources. Using a customized app, acquisition of absorption and fluorescence spectra are demonstrated using a blue-absorbing and green-emitting pH-sensitive amino-naphthalimide-based fluorescent probe and a UV-absorbing and blue-emitting Zn2+-sensitive fluoro-ionophore.