Sample records for spermatic vein embolization

  1. Phlebographic classification of anatomic variants in the right internal spermatic vein confluence. (United States)

    Pieri, S; Agresti, P; Fiocca, G; Regine, G


    Male varicocele is a clinical dysfunction caused by a pathological venous reflux. Knowledge of anatomic variants of the internal spermatic vein confluence is fundamental for the technical success of percutaneous treatment. While numerous studies have analysed the phlebographic anatomy of the left internal spermatic vein, no exhaustive description exists for the right internal spermatic vein. From a retrospective review of 3229 patients treated percutaneously between 1988 and 2003, we extrapolated the phlebographic images of patients with incontinence of the right internal spermatic vein only. Mean patient age was 24.6 (range 14-46) years. Indication for treatment was presence of pain in the right inguinal region and absence of a history of trauma and/or seminal-fluid alterations. Phlebography had been performed with transbrachial access using a tilt table and a multipurpose angiographic catheter. Contrast medium was injected into both the inferior vena cava and the renal vein. Selective catheterisation of the internal spermatic vein was then performed to assess the radiological characteristics of the vessels prior to sclerosis. There were 93 cases of incontinence of the right internal spermatic vein only (2.8%). In the first group of patients (seven cases, 7.5%), the right internal spermatic vein drained exclusively into the renal vein; the injection of contrast medium during a Valsalva manoeuvre allowed visualisation of the vein almost as far as the iliac level. In most cases, the vein appeared uniformly dilatated and without valvular systems along its course. In the second group (21 cases, 22.5%), the vein drained into both the renal vein and the inferior vena cava, with one branch showing functional predominance over the other: selective catheterisation was easier to perform on the first branch. Selective catheterisation confirmed dilatation of the vein as well as the absence of valvular systems. In most patients, (65 cases, 69.8%), the internal spermatic vein

  2. Percutaneous Antegrade Varicocele Embolization Via the Testicular Vein in a Patient with Recurrent Varicocele After Surgical Repair

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    Guevara, Carlos J., E-mail:; El-Hilal, Alexander H., E-mail:; Darcy, Michael D., E-mail: [Washington University in St. Louis, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (United States)


    This is a case report of an adolescent male who underwent surgical ligation for a left-sided varicocele that recurred 2 years later. Standard retrograde embolization via the left renal vein was not possible, because there was no connection from the renal vein to the gonadal vein following surgical ligation. The patient was treated via antegrade access of the spermatic vein at the inguinal level with subsequent coil embolization.

  3. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; van Es, Nick; Büller, Harry R.


    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer

  4. [Portal vein embolization: Present and future]. (United States)

    Piron, Lauranne; Deshayes, Emmanuel; Escal, Laure; Souche, Regis; Herrero, Astrid; Pierredon-Foulongne, Marie-Ange; Assenat, Eric; le Lam, Ngo; Quenet, François; Guiu, Boris


    Portal vein embolization consists of occluding a part of the portal venous system in order to achieve the hypertrophy of the non-embolized liver segments. This technique is used during the preoperative period of major liver resection when the future remnant liver (FRL) volume is insufficient, exposing to postoperative liver failure, main cause of death after major hepatectomy. Portal vein embolization indication depends on the FRL, commonly assessed by its volume. Nowadays, FRL function evaluation seems more relevant and can be measured by 99mTc labelled mebrofenin scintigraphy. Portal vein embolization procedure is mostly performed with percutaneous trans-hepatic access by using ultrasonography guidance and consists of embolic agent injection, such as cyanoacrylate, in the targeted portal vein branches with fluoroscopic guidance. It is a safe and well-tolerated technique, with extremely low morbi-mortality. Portal vein embolization leads to sufficient FRL hypertrophy in about 80% of patients, allowing them to undergo surgery from which they were initially rejected. The two main reasons of non-resection are tumor progression (≈15% of cases) and FRL insufficient hypertrophy (≈5% of cases). When portal vein embolization is not enough to obtain adequate FRL regeneration, hepatic vein embolization may potentiate its effect (liver venous deprivation technique). Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Liver Regeneration After Portal Vein Embolization Using Absorbable and Permanent Embolization Materials in a Rabbit Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Esschert, Jacomina W.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Alles, Lindy K.; van Wijk, Albert C.; Heger, Michal; Roelofs, Joris J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.


    Objective: To compare the safety and hypertrophy response after portal vein embolization (PVE) using 2 absorbable and 3 permanent embolization materials. Background: Portal vein embolization is used to increase future remnant liver volume preoperatively. Application of temporary, absorbable

  6. Endovenous laser ablation of spermatic vein for the treatment of varicocele

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    Antonio Basile

    Full Text Available Introduction: Varicocele is a relatively complex pathology of the scrotum veins', known to be one of the easiest to treat. Modern treatment involves both surgical (open, laparoscopic and microsurgery and interventional approach (either with coils and/or sclerosant injection. Our aim is to demonstrate the feasibility and the reliability of endovenous laser ablation (EVLA of the spermatic vein for the treatment of varicocele. Materials and methods: We consecutively and prospectively treated 11 patients (age range 24–45 years old, mean 31y with left varicocele, phlebografically classified as Bahren type I and with indication for percutaneous treatment. Clinical success was evaluated by color doppler ultrasound (CDUS one week, one months and three months after the procedures. We also evaluated the pain feeling for 48 h after the procedure on the basis of the visual analogue score (VAS obtained through telephonic interview. Results: Technical success was achieved in all cases. In all cases varicocele disappeared at CDUS at 1 and three months with reflux abolition. Two cases of small vein laceration were noted without sequelae, no other complication has been described. All patients reported improvements either regarding symptoms and/or spermiographic parameters. Conclusions: In our experience, EVLA of spermatic vein is a feasible and safe treatment in patients with Bahren type I varicocele. The key advantage of this technique is the adoption of a standardized protocol, which remains one of the main problems in gaining scientific evidence in case of coil or sclerosant embolisation (type and number of coils, amount of sclerosant agent etc. Keywords: Varicocele, Laser, Therapy, Treatment, Evla, Endovenous, Ablation, Minimal invasive

  7. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Di Nisio, Marcello; van Es, Nick; Büller, Harry R


    Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism, constitute a major global burden of disease. The diagnostic work-up of suspected deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism includes the sequential application of a clinical decision rule and D-dimer testing. Imaging and anticoagulation can be safely withheld in patients who are unlikely to have venous thromboembolism and have a normal D-dimer. All other patients should undergo ultrasonography in case of suspected deep vein thrombosis and CT in case of suspected pulmonary embolism. Direct oral anticoagulants are first-line treatment options for venous thromboembolism because they are associated with a lower risk of bleeding than vitamin K antagonists and are easier to use. Use of thrombolysis should be limited to pulmonary embolism associated with haemodynamic instability. Anticoagulant treatment should be continued for at least 3 months to prevent early recurrences. When venous thromboembolism is unprovoked or secondary to persistent risk factors, extended treatment beyond this period should be considered when the risk of recurrence outweighs the risk of major bleeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) - Blood Clot Forming in a Vein (United States)

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (DVT/PE) are often underdiagnosed and serious, but ... bloodstream to the lungs, causing a blockage called pulmonary embolism (PE). If the clot is small, and with ...

  9. Efficacy of spermatic vein ligation in patients affected by high grade left varicocele

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    Marco Grasso


    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the effect of high grade varicocele treatment in infertile patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients were selected by the following criteria: infertility persisting for more than 1 year; abnormal semen parameters; no other infertility-related disease; no obvious causes of infertility in the subject’s partner; basal eco-color Doppler ultrasound demonstrating continuous reflux in the spermatic vein. All patients considered for the study had at least a six months period from the diagnosis to the surgery due to waiting list, choice of the patient or time needed to complete diagnostic evaluation of the couple. The surgical procedure was performed through an inguinal approach. All enrolled patients were counseled to have unprotected intercourse during the ovulation period in order to maximize the probability of pregnancy within the 6-month preoperative period. The achievement of pregnancy and semen parameters were recorded during the preoperative and postoperative period. Results: Two of the seventy-five patients were excluded because of persistent varicocele after surgery. The preoperative pregnancy rate was 1.3% (1 couple. The postoperative pregnancy rate was 42.5%. The stratification of pregnancies by semester showed a significantly higher rate in the first postoperative period (p = 0.0012. Mean time to conception was 13.5 months. Mean preoperative sperm count was 17.6x10 6 /mL compared to 19.7x10 6 /mL in the postoperative period (p < 0.0001. Mean percentage of progressive sperm motility was 13.7%, compared to 17.6% in the postoperative period (p < 0.0001. Mean percentage of normal sperm morphology was 7.6%, compared to 15.2% postoperatively (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of high grade varicocele proved to effectively treat associated infertility by improving seminal parameters and pregnancy rate in our patient cohort.

  10. A review of animal models for portal vein embolization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Floor; van Lienden, Krijn P.; Damude, Samantha; Hoekstra, Lisette T.; van Gulik, Thomas M.


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a preoperative intervention to increase the future remnant liver (FRL) through regeneration of the non-embolized liver lobes. This review assesses all the relevant animal models of PVE available, to guide researchers who intend to study PVE. We performed a

  11. Comparison of four embolic materials for portal vein embolization: experimental study in pigs

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    Baere, Thierry de [Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology, Villejuif (France); Denys, Alban [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Paradis, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon-Inserm U773, Department of Anatomie Pathologique, Clichy (France)


    Different embolic materials for portal vein embolization (PVE) were evaluated. Twenty pigs received left and median PVE. Hydrophilic phosphorylcholine, N-butyl cyanoacrylate, hydrophilic gel, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles measuring either 50-150 {mu}m or 700-900 {mu}m were used in five pigs each. Portography and portal vein pressure measurement were performed before, immediately after PVE, and before being euthanized at day 7. Tissue wedges from embolized, and non-embolized liver were obtained for pathology. After complete embolization, recanalization occurred at 7 days in one gel and one 700-900 PVA embolization. Post-PVE increase in portal pressure was found in all groups (p = 0.01). The area of the hepatic lobules in non-embolized liver was larger than in the embolized liver in all groups (p = 0.001). The ratios of the areas between non-embolized/embolized livers were 1.65, 2.19, 1.57, and 1.32 for gel, NBCA, 50-150 PVA and 700-900 PVA, respectively; the ratios of fibrosis between the embolized and non-embolized livers were 1.37, 3.01, 3.49, and 2.11 for gel, NBCA, 50-150 PVA and 700-900 PVA, respectively. Hepatic lobules in non-embolized liver were significantly larger with NBCA than in other groups (p = 0.01). Fibrosis in embolized liver was significantly higher for NBCA and 50-150 PVA (p = 0.002). The most severe changes in embolized and non-embolized liver were induced by 50-150 PVA and NCBA PVE. (orig.)

  12. Greater saphenous vein anomaly and aneurysm with subsequent pulmonary embolism


    Ma, Truong; Kornbau, Craig


    Abstract Venous aneurysms often present as painful masses. They can present either in the deep or superficial venous system. Deep venous system aneurysms have a greater risk of thromboembolism. Though rare, there have been case reports of superficial aneurysms and thrombus causing significant morbidity such as pulmonary embolism. We present a case of an anomalous greater saphenous vein connection with an aneurysm and thrombus resulting in a pulmonary embolism. This is the only reported case o...


    STEINBRÜCK, Klaus; ALVES, Jefferson; FERNANDES, Reinaldo; ENNE, Marcelo; PACHECO-MOREIRA, Lúcio Filgueiras


    Background Portal vein embolization is an accepted procedure that provides hypertrophy of the future remnant liver in order to reduce post-hepatectomy complications. Aim To present a series submitted to portal vein embolization using an adapted hysterosalpingography catheter via transileocolic route. Methods Were performed right portal branch embolization in 19 patients using hysterosalpingography catheter. For embolizing the vessel, was used Gelfoam® powder with absolute alcohol solution. Indications for hepatectomy were colorectal liver metastases in all cases. Results An adequate growth of the future remnant liver was achieved in 15 patients (78.9%) and second time hepatectomy could be done in 14 (73.7%). In one patient (5.2%), tumor progression prevented surgery. One patient presented acute renal failure after portal embolization. Conclusions The hysterosalpingography catheter is easy to handle and can be introduced into the portal vein with a wire guide. There were no major post-embolization complication. Its use is safe, cheap and effective. PMID:25184773

  14. Anatomic Variation of Facial Vein in Carotid-Cavernous Fistula and Trans-Facial Vein Embolization. (United States)

    Luo, Chao-Bao; Chang, Feng-Chi; Teng, Michael Mu-Huo; Ting, Ta-Wei


    Trans-facial vein (FV) embolization via the internal jugular vein is an alternative approach to embolization of carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs). The purpose of this study is to report the anatomic variation of FVs and our experience of trans-FV embolization of CCFs. Over 6 years, 26 patients (12 men and 14 women; age range 27-72 years old) with CCFs underwent trans-FV embolization because of anterior drainage of fistulas. We retrospectively analyzed angioarchitecture of the CCFs focusing on the anatomic variations of FVs and angiographic and clinical outcomes after embolization. FVs drained to the internal jugular vein in 10 (38%) cases; FVs unexpectedly emptied into the external jugular vein in 16 (62%) cases. All FVs entered into the internal jugular vein at the level of the hyoid bone. In cases with fistulas to the FV and EJV, the termination of FVs was variable including superior (n = 5), inferior (n = 1), or at the level of the hyoid bone (n = 10). Successful microcatheterization via different insertions of FVs to jugular veins was achieved in all cases. One patient had a small residual fistula, and 2 patients had fistula recurrence. Temporary impairment of cranial nerve III or VI occurred in 4 patients. The mean clinical follow-up time was 18 months. Trans-FV embolization is an effective and safe method to manage CCFs with anterior drainage. However, anatomic variations of the FV exist, and a careful work-up of fistula venous drainage before trans-FV embolization is essential to reduce erroneous attempts, procedure time, and periprocedural risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, Iris M.; Di Nisio, Marcello; Büller, Harry R.; Middeldorp, Saskia


    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) concerning the efficacy and safety of medical or surgical treatments of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). A

  16. Portal vein embolization: rationale, outcomes, controversies and future directions. (United States)

    Avritscher, Rony; Duke, Eugene; Madoff, David C


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is now considered the standard of care to improve safety for patients undergoing extensive hepatectomy with an anticipated small future liver remnant (FLR). PVE is used to induce contralateral liver hypertrophy in preparation for major liver resection. Optimal patient selection is essential to maximize the clinical benefits of PVE. Computed tomography volumetry is used to calculate a standardized FLR and determine the need for preoperative PVE. Percutaneous PVE can be performed via the transhepatic ipsilateral or contralateral approaches, depending on operator preference. Several different embolic agents are available to the interventional radiologist, all with similar effectiveness in inducing hypertrophy. When an extended hepatectomy is planned, right PVE should include segment 4, in order to maximize FLR hypertrophy. Multiple studies have demonstrated the beneficial outcomes of PVE in both patients with healthy livers and with underlying liver diseases. Novel improvements to PVE should expand its scope to patients who were previously not candidates for the procedure.

  17. Preoperative portal vein embolization: indications and technical considerations. (United States)

    de Baere, Thierry; Denys, Alban; Madoff, David C


    Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) has become an important tool in the management of select patients before major hepatic resection. PVE redirects portal flow to the intended future remnant liver (FRL) to induce hypertrophy of the nondiseased portion of the liver and thereby may reduce complications and shorten hospital stays after surgery. This article reviews the technical considerations for performing PVE including the use of the ipsilateral or contralateral approaches, how to choose a particular embolic agent for PVE, the importance of liver volumetric measurements to estimate functional hepatic reserve, the pathophysiology of PVE, and some of the results showing the benefit of the procedure. In addition, the indications and contraindications for performing PVE in patients with and without chronic liver disease, the use of combination therapies, and the concern for tumor growth after PVE will be discussed.

  18. Acute Thrombosis of Left Portal Vein during Right Portal Vein Embolization Extended to Segment 4. (United States)

    Shaw, Colette M; Madoff, David C


    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is an uncommon, but potentially devastating complication of portal vein embolization (PVE). Its occurrence relates to both local and systemic risk factors. In the setting of PVE, precipitating factors include injury to the vessel wall and reduced portal flow. Contributory factors include portal hypertension, hypercoagulopathy, inflammatory processes, malignancy, pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, and asplenia. The goal of therapy is to prevent thrombus progression and lyse existing clot. Hepatectomy is impossible if adequate recanalization has not occurred and/or overt portal hypertension develops. The mechanisms for thrombus development, its diagnosis, management, and prognosis are discussed.

  19. Embolization of Incompetent Pelvic Veins for the Treatment of Recurrent Varicose Veins in Lower Limbs and Pelvic Congestion Syndrome

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    Meneses, Luis, E-mail:; Fava, Mario; Diaz, Pia; Andia, Marcelo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Tejos, Cristian; Irarrazabal, Pablo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile); Uribe, Sergio, E-mail: [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Radiology Department and Biomedical Imaging Center (Chile)


    We present our experience with embolization of incompetent pelvic veins (IPV) in women with recurrence of varicose veins (VV) in lower limbs, as well as symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), after first surgery. In addition, we evaluated the effects of embolization in decreasing the symptoms of VV before surgery as well as its effects on PCS symptoms. We included 10 women who had consulted a vascular surgeon because of recurrent VV in lower limbs after surgery. All of these patients were included in the study because they also had symptoms of PCS, probably due to IPV. In patients who had confirmed IPV, we performed embolization before a second surgery. VV and PCS were assessed before and at 3 months after embolization (before the second surgery) using a venous clinical severity score (VCSS) and a visual analog pain scale (VAS), respectively. Patients were controlled between 3 and 6 months after embolization. Paired Student t test analysis was used for comparing data before and after embolization. Fifteen vein segments in 10 women were suitable for embolization. There was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of VCSS after embolization, and recurrence of VV was not detected within a period of 6 months. There was also significant (p < 0.01) relief of chronic pelvic pain related to PCS evaluated using VAS at 3 months after embolization. Embolization decreases the risk of VV recurrence after surgery and also improves PCS symptoms in women with VV in lower limbs and IPV.

  20. Catheter-Directed Fibrinolysis of Submassive Pulmonary Embolism After IVC Filter Migration to Renal Veins. (United States)

    Patel, Kershaw V; Leef, Jeffrey A; Blair, John E; Shah, Atman P; Nathan, Sandeep; Paul, Jonathan D


    A 76-year-old male presented with a submassive pulmonary embolism despite having an inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Imaging demonstrated pulmonary artery emboli and a deep vein thrombosis in the left common femoral vein. Venography revealed the IVC filter with struts extending into the left and right renal veins. A new IVC filter was deployed below the prior filter. This case demonstrates IVC filter migration complicated by a submassive pulmonary embolism.

  1. Portal vein embolization: rationale, technique, and current application. (United States)

    May, Benjamin J; Madoff, David C


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is a technique used before hepatic resection to increase the size of liver segments that will remain after surgery. This therapy redirects portal blood to segments of the future liver remnant (FLR), resulting in hypertrophy. PVE is indicated when the FLR is either too small to support essential function or marginal in size and associated with a complicated postoperative course. When appropriately applied, PVE has been shown to reduce postoperative morbidity and increase the number of patients eligible for curative intent resection. PVE is also being combined with other therapies in novel ways to improve surgical outcomes. This article reviews the rationale, technical considerations, and current use of preoperative PVE.

  2. Percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization: rationale, technique, and outcomes. (United States)

    Avritscher, Rony; de Baere, Thierry; Murthy, Ravi; Deschamps, Frederic; Madoff, David C


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is used to induce preoperative liver hypertrophy in patients with anticipated marginal future liver remnant (FLR) volumes who are otherwise potential candidates for resection. PVE can be performed utilizing the transhepatic contralateral and ipsilateral approaches. The transhepatic contralateral approach is the most commonly used technique worldwide, largely owing to its technical ease. However, the contralateral approach risks injuring the FLR, thereby compromising the planned surgical resection. The transhepatic ipsilateral approach offers a potentially safer alternative because the complications associated with this approach affect only the hepatic lobe that will be resected and are usually not serious enough to preclude surgery. This article discusses PVE using the transhepatic ipsilateral and contralateral approaches, including patient selection criteria, anatomical and technical considerations, and patient complications and outcomes.

  3. Portal Vein Embolization Before Liver Resection: A Systematic Review

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    Lienden, K. P. van, E-mail: [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Esschert, J. W. van den; Graaf, W. de [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Bipat, S.; Lameris, J. S. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Gulik, T. M. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Delden, O. M. van [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)


    This is a review of literature on the indications, technique, and outcome of portal vein embolization (PVE). A systematic literature search on outcome of PVE from 1990 to 2011 was performed in Medline, Cochrane, and Embase databases. Forty-four articles were selected, including 1,791 patients with a mean age of 61 {+-} 4.1 years. Overall technical success rate was 99.3 %. The mean hypertrophy rate of the FRL after PVE was 37.9 {+-} 0.1 %. In 70 patients (3.9 %), surgery was not performed because of failure of PVE (clinical success rate 96.1 %). In 51 patients (2.8 %), the hypertrophy response was insufficient to perform liver resection. In the other 17 cases, 12 did not technically succeed (0.7 %) and 7 caused a complication leading to unresectability (0.4 %). In 6.1 %, resection was cancelled because of local tumor progression after PVE. Major complications were seen in 2.5 %, and the mortality rate was 0.1 %. A head-to-head comparison shows a negative effect of liver cirrhosis on hypertrophy response. The use of n-butyl cyanoacrylate seems to have a greater effect on hypertrophy, but the difference with other embolization materials did not reach statistical significance. No difference in regeneration is seen in patients with cholestasis or chemotherapy. Preoperative PVE has a high technical and clinical success rate. Liver cirrhosis has a negative effect on regeneration, but cholestasis and chemotherapy do not seem to have an influence on the hypertrophy response. The use of n-butyl cyanoacrylate may result in a greater hypertrophy response compared with other embolization materials used.

  4. Trans-Splenic Portal Vein Embolization: A Technique to Avoid Damage to the Future Liver Remnant

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    Sarwar, Ammar, E-mail:; Brook, Olga R.; Weinstein, Jeffrey L. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Khwaja, Khalid [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery (United States); Ahmed, Muneeb [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) induces hypertrophy of the future liver remnant (FLR) in patients undergoing extensive hepatic resection. Portal vein access for PVE via the ipsilateral hepatic lobe (designated for resection) places veins targeted for embolization at acute angles to the access site requiring reverse curve catheters for access. This approach also involves access close to tumors in the ipsilateral lobe and requires care to avoid traversing tumor. Alternatively, a contralateral approach (through the FLR) risks damage to the FLR due to iatrogenic trauma or non-target embolization. Two patients successfully underwent PVE via trans-splenic portal vein access, allowing easy access to the ipsilateral portal veins and eliminating risk of damage to FLR. Technique and advantages of trans-splenic portal vein access to perform PVE are described.

  5. Transsinusoidal Portal Vein Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx): A Feasibility Study in Pigs

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    Smits, Maarten L. J., E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Vanlangenhove, Peter, E-mail:; Sturm, Emiel J. C., E-mail: [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (Belgium); Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den, E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Hav, Monirath, E-mail:; Praet, Marleen, E-mail: [Ghent University Hospital, N. Goormaghtigh Institute of Pathology (Belgium); Vente, Maarten A. D., E-mail: [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Snaps, Frederic R., E-mail: [University of Liege, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Belgium); Defreyne, Luc, E-mail: [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (Belgium)


    Purpose: Portal vein embolization is performed to increase the future liver remnant before liver surgery in patients with liver malignancies. This study assesses the feasibility of a transsinusoidal approach for portal vein embolization (PVE) with the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx. Methods: Indirect portography through contrast injection in the cranial mesenteric artery was performed in eight healthy pigs. Onyx was slowly injected through a microcatheter from a wedged position in the hepatic vein and advanced through the liver lobules into the portal system. The progression of Onyx was followed under fluoroscopy, and the extent of embolization was monitored by indirect portography. The pigs were euthanized immediately (n = 2), at 7 days (n = 4), or at 21 days postprocedure (n = 2). All pigs underwent necropsy and the ex vivo livers were grossly and histopathologically analyzed. Results: Transsinusoidal PVE was successfully performed in five of eight pigs (63%). In 14 of 21 injections (67%), a segmental portal vein could be filled completely. A mean of 1.6 liver lobes per pig was embolized (range 1-2 lobes). There were no periprocedural adverse events. Focal capsular scarring was visible on the surface of two resected livers, yet the capsules remained intact. Histopathological examination showed no signs of recanalization or abscess formation. Mild inflammatory reaction to Onyx was observed in the perivascular parenchyma. Conclusions: The porcine portal vein can be embolized through injection of Onyx from a wedged position in the hepatic vein. Possible complications of transsinusoidal PVE and the effect on contralateral hypertrophy need further study.

  6. Percutaneous embolization of varicocele: technique, indications, relative contraindications, and complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Halpern


    Full Text Available There are several options for the treatment of varicocele, including surgical repair either by open or microsurgical approach, laparoscopy, or through percutaneous embolization of the internal spermatic vein. The ultimate goal of varicocele treatment relies on the occlusion of the dilated veins that drain the testis. Percutaneous embolization offers a rapid recovery and can be successfully accomplished in approximately 90% of attempts. However, the technique demands interventional radiologic expertise and has potential serious complications, including vascular perforation, coil migration, and thrombosis of pampiniform plexus. This review discusses the common indications, relative contraindications, technical details, and risks associated with percutaneous embolization of varicocele.

  7. Effectiveness of Embolization or Sclerotherapy of Pelvic Veins for Reducing Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Daniels, Jane P; Champaneria, Rita; Shah, Laila; Gupta, Janesh K; Birch, Judy; Moss, Jonathan G


    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in the presence of dilated and refluxing pelvic veins is often described as pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), although the causal relationship between pelvic vein incompetence and CPP has not been established. Percutaneous embolization is the principal treatment for PCS, with high success rates cited. This study was undertaken to systematically and critically review the effectiveness of embolization of incompetent pelvic veins. A comprehensive search strategy encompassing various terms for pelvic congestion, pelvic pain, and embolization was deployed in 17 bibliographic databases, with no restriction on study design. Methodologic quality was assessed. The quality and heterogeneity generally precluded meta-analysis. Results were tabulated and described narratively. Twenty-one prospective case series and one poor-quality randomized trial of embolization (involving a total of 1,308 women) were identified. Early substantial relief from pain was observed in approximately 75% of women undergoing embolization, and generally increased over time and was sustained. Significant pain reductions following treatment were observed in all studies that measured pain on a visual analog scale. Repeat intervention rates were generally low. There were few data on the impact on menstruation, ovarian reserve, or fertility, but no concerns were noted. Transient pain was common following foam embolization, and there was a < 2% risk of coil migration. Embolization appears to provide symptomatic relief of CPP in the majority of women and is safe, although the quality of the evidence is low. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Improvement of semen and pregnancy rate after ligation and division of the internal spermatic vein: fact or fiction? (United States)

    Nilsson, S; Edvinsson, A; Nilsson, B


    Male partners with left-sided varicoceles of 96 infertile couples were studied. Fifty-one patients were submitted to ligation of the testicular veins and 45 individuals were randomised as controls. During an observation period of 53 months (range 36 to 74 months) we found no statiscally significant improvement in the semen crude variables, the morphology or the progressive motility in the series of men submitted to surgery. The pregnancy rate was lower in those who had an excision of varicocelle.

  9. Is the prevalence of the factor V Leiden mutation in patients with pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis really different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, F.; Karemaker, R.; Kuijer, P. M.; Prins, M. H.; Büller, H. R.


    Previous investigations have suggested a lower prevalence of the factor V Leiden mutation in patients with pulmonary embolism, as compared to patients with deep leg vein thrombosis. We studied unselected patients with pulmonary embolism, in whom we also assessed the presence of deep vein thrombosis

  10. Liver regeneration and recanalization time course following reversible portal vein embolization. (United States)

    Lainas, Panagiotis; Boudechiche, Lyes; Osorio, Angel; Coulomb, Aurore; Weber, Anne; Pariente, Danièle; Franco, Dominique; Dagher, Ibrahim


    Permanent portal vein embolization (PVE) is a widely practised technique. The use of an absorbable material would be safer in clinical situations in which the embolized liver is not resected. We evaluated the efficiency of reversible PVE in terms of liver regeneration and analyzed the precise time course of portal recanalization. Nine monkeys underwent PVE of the left and right anterior portal branches using powdered absorbable material. Repeated portograms were carried out until complete revascularization of the embolized liver. Hepatocyte proliferation rates were assessed by BrdU incorporation. Liver segment volumes were determined by CT scans performed before embolization, then 1 month and 1 year after embolization. Reversible PVE induced significant hepatocyte proliferation in the non-embolized segments (13.5+/-1.0%, 10.5+/-0.8% and 9.1+/-2.0% of cells on days 3, 5 and 7, respectively). One month after the embolization, the non-embolized liver volume had increased from 38.4+/-1.3% to 54.8+/-0.5% of total liver volume. Proximal and complete revascularization occurred 6-8 and 12-16 days, respectively. Reversible PVE efficiently induces liver regeneration. The use of absorbable material avoids long-term liver scarring. Such material may be suitable for several clinical indications, including cell transplantation.

  11. Coil embolization of internal mammary artery injured during central vein catheter and cardiac pacemaker lead insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemelli, A.P. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail:; Chemelli-Steingruber, I.E. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bonaros, N. [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Luckner, G. [Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Millonig, G. [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Seppi, K. [Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University (Austria); Lottersberger, C.; Jaschke, W. [Department of Radiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Anichstrasse 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)


    Purpose: This study describes several cases of endovascular coil embolization of the proximal internal mammary artery injured by blind approach to the subclavian vein for central venous catheter or pacemaker lead insertion. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of five patients with iatrogenic arterial lesions of the internal mammary artery (IMA). The lesions occurred in three patients from a puncture of the subclavian vein during insertion of a central venous catheter and in two patients from a puncture of the subclavian vein for insertion of a pacemaker lead. Four patients had acute symptoms of bleeding with mediastinal hematoma and hematothorax and one patient was investigated in a chronic stage. A pseudoaneurysm was detected in all five patients. All four acute and hemodynamic unstable patients required hemodynamic support. Results: In all patients, embolization was performed using a coaxial catheter technique, and a long segment of the IMA adjacent distally and proximally to the source of bleeding was occluded with pushable microcoils. In one patient, additional mechanically detachable microcoils were used at the very proximal part of the IMA. Microcoil embolization of the IMA was successful in all patients, and the source of bleeding was eliminated in all patients. Conclusion: Transarterial coil embolization is a feasible and efficient method in treating acute bleeding and pseudoaneurysm of the IMA and should be considered if mediastinal hematoma or hemathorax occurs after blind puncture of the subclavian vein.

  12. Chemoembolization of the liver after portal vein embolization: report of three cases. (United States)

    Wallace, Michael J; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C


    Patients with hepatic malignancies who undergo portal vein embolization (PVE) in anticipation of major hepatectomy may not ultimately undergo resection for various reasons. For patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, the next viable treatment option is often chemoembolization, but the safety of chemoembolization after PVE is not well documented. The present report describes the authors' experience with chemoembolization after PVE in three patients.

  13. Patient's Guide to Recovery After Deep Vein Thrombosis or Pulmonary Embolism (United States)

    ... the following A Patient’s Guide to Recovery After Deep Vein Thrombosis or Pulmonary Embolism Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Circulation Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Circulation web site. Your Personal Message Send Message Share on ...

  14. An unusual case of symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after arthroscopic meniscus surgery. (United States)

    Fang, Chao-Hua; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yan, Shi-Gui


    Although thrombosis complication is rare after arthroscopic meniscus surgery, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism can be fatal. The associated risk factors and whether anticoagulant prevention after arthroscopic knee surgery is necessary have not reach consensus. Here we present a case of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after a common arthroscopic meniscectomy. The patient had no risk factors except ipsilateral leg varicose veins. She present swell at knee and calf from postoperative 3 weeks, and developed dyspnea, palpitation, and nausea on 33th day, pulmonary embolism was confirmed with CT angiography at emergency department. After thrombolysis and anticoagulation therapy were administered, the patient improved well and discharged. And the intravenous ultrasound confirmed thrombosis of popliteal vein and small saphenous vein. Who don't have common risk factors for venous thromboembolism. Despite the low incidence of thromboembolic complications after simple arthroscopy surgery, its life-threatening and devastating property make clinicians rethink the necessity of thromboprophylaxis and importance of preoperative relative risk factors screening.

  15. Travelers' Health: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (United States)

    ... Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 2 (19) Deep Vein ... recommended. For long-distance travelers, the use of aspirin or anticoagulants to prevent VTE is not recommended. ...

  16. Bilateral external and internal pudendal veins embolization treatment for venogenic erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lee, BBA, BS


    Full Text Available Erectile dysfunction (ED or impotence is estimated to affect around 20-30 million men in the United States (Rhoden et al, 2002. Vascular etiology is purported to be the most prevalent cause of ED in the elderly population, with venogenic ED being the most common subtype (Shafik et al, 2007; Rebonato et al, 2014. A patient, who developed severe venogenic ED, was referred to interventional radiology after ineffective pharmaceutical treatments. Selective embolization of bilateral external and internal pudendal veins was performed through accessing the deep dorsal vein of penis. Subsequent venogram verified successful embolization with stasis within the outflow of the deep dorsal vein of penis. Close to 6 weeks after the procedure, the patient purports to be able to achieve approximately 65% of full penile erection and complete penile erection with penile stimulation and 0.25 mL injection of alprostadil after 25 minutes.

  17. Transcatheter ovarian vein embolization for pelvic congestion syndrome: short-term outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Seon; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Huh, Joo Yup [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yu Mee [College of Medicine, Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the short-term therapeutic effectiveness of ovarian vein embolization using coils for pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), a common cause of chronic pelvic pain, and to determine patient satisfaction. Forty-four multiparous women aged 26-73 (mean, 39.9) years in whom chronic pelvic pain due to unknown causes had lasted for more than six months, and whose gynecologic findings and laboratory data suggested PCS, underwent transabdominal or transvaginal ultrasonography and selective ovarian venography. PSC was finally diagnosed in 21 of th 44, who underwent 22 ovarian vein embolizations (in one case, bilaterally). The simple pain rating system was used at admission, with a 'minimal' or 'moderate' grade representing discomfort in daily life, and 'severe; indicating the need for medication. Indications for coil embolization included dilatation of the ovarian vein to a diameter of more than 6 mm, reflux involving an incompetent valve, congestion of the pelvic venous plexus (involving the stasis of contrast media), and /or opacification of the ipsilateral internal iliac vein (or contralateral filling). Embolizations were undertaken using coils of optimal size and number, and the mean follow-up period was 217 (31-267) days. By means of a telephone questionnaire, the outcome was classified as a cure, pain reduction, or 'no change, or aggravation', and on the basis of whether or not they would opt for the same treatment, or recommend embolization to others, patient satisfaction was graded as 'substantial', 'moderate', or 'absent'. Venous occlusion was confirmed at postembolization venography in all 22 cases. Clinical treatment led to symptomatic relief in 76.2% of patients a cure in 33.3%(7/21), pain reduction in 42.9%(9/21) and no imchage, or aggravation, in 23.8%(5/21). Eighteen patients (85.5%) were very (9/21, 42.9%) or moderately (9/21, 42.9%) satisfied with coil embolization. In two, the coil

  18. Clinical outcome of ovarian vein embolization in pelvic congestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS), is a condition associated with ovarian vein (OV) incompetence among other causes. It is manifested by chronic pelvic pain with associated dyspareunia and dysmenorrhea. The diagnosis of PCS is often overlooked and the management can be difficult. Traditional therapy for ...

  19. Portal vein stent placement with or without varix embolization of jejunal variceal bleeding after hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. (United States)

    Shim, Dong Jae; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Yook; Han, Kichang; Gwon, Dong-Il; Ko, Heung-Kyu


    Background Extrahepatic portal hypertension after surgery involving the duodenum or jejunum might result in massive ectopic variceal bleeding. Purpose To report the results of portal vein stent placement with the addition of variceal embolization. Material and Methods Between January 2000 and June 2015, portal vein stent placement was attempted in 477 patients. Of these, 22 patients (age, 63 ± 10 years) with jejunal variceal bleeding caused by portal vein obstruction after surgery were included in this study. Computed tomography (CT) findings before and after treatment and the rates of technical and clinical success, complications, and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results Stent placement was successful in 19 of 22 patients. Additional variceal embolization was performed in five cases. Clinical success, defined as the cessation of bleeding without recurrence within 1 month, was achieved in 18 of 19 patients with technical success. One patient developed recurrent bleeding 4 days after stent placement and was successfully treated with additional variceal embolization. There were no procedure-related complications. A regression of the jejunal varices was noted in 14 of 19 patients on follow-up CT scans. During the follow-up period (258 days; range, 7-1196 days), stent occlusion and recurrent bleeding occurred in six and four patients, respectively, of the 19 patients who achieved technical success. Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences regarding stent patency between benign and malignant strictures. Conclusion Percutaneous, transhepatic, portal vein stent placement with or without jejunal variceal embolization appears to be a safe and effective treatment for jejunal variceal bleeding after surgery.

  20. Superior Ophthalmic Vein Access for Embolization of an Indirect Carotid Cavernous Fistula. (United States)

    Haider, Ali S; Garg, Prabhat; Leonard, Dean; Osumah, Tijani; Khan, Umair; Vayalumkal, Steven; Lee, Lyndon K; Nguyen, Phu; Gilliland, Grant; Layton, Kennith F


    Carotid cavernous fistulae (CCF) are defined as abnormal connections between the carotid circulation and cavernous sinus. CCFs can be categorized as being direct or indirect. Direct CCFs are usually associated with trauma, whereas indirect CCFs are associated with revascularization following cavernous sinus thrombosis. We present a case of a 53-year-old male who presented with tinnitus, proptosis, conjunctivitis, and blurry vision. The patient had a recent endovascular transvenous embolization that was only partially successful, with a residual carotid cavernous fistula draining to the left superior ophthalmic vein and multiple cortical veins. A physical examination of the patient showed elevated intraocular pressures bilaterally. The patient had a high-flow indirect carotid cavernous fistula with bilateral superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) and retrograde cortical vein drainage. The SOV was punctured with a micropuncture needle and was used to successfully gain access to the cavernous sinus. Multiple coils were placed in the posterior aspect of the sinus until there was complete occlusion of venous flow. Coils were packed up to the posterior aspect of the orbit near the junction of the cavernous sinus with the SOV, and the embolization was successful. Indirect CCFs have gradual onset and are usually low-flow. Low-flow CCFs might improve with medical management.Some CCFs may cause ocular manifestations and can be symptomatically managed with prism therapy or ocular patching for diplopia, lubrication for keratopathy, or topical agents for elevated intraocular pressures. However, patients presenting with persistent ocular morbidity may require surgical or endovascular intervention.

  1. Anuria due to acute bilateral renal vein occlusion after thrombolysis for pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Zakynthinos, Epaminondas; Douka, Evangelia; Daniil, Zoi; Konstantinidis, Kosmas; Markaki, Vassiliki; Zakynthinos, Spyros


    Severe hemorrhage is the more frequent complication of thrombolysis, with intracranial bleeding the most critical one. We report a 73-year-old woman with major pulmonary embolism (PE), yet haemodynamically stable, in whom thrombolysis resulted in severe complications with acute renal failure (ARF) due to bilateral renal vein occlusion, quite unexpected; this complication has never been reported, as yet. We believe that disrupture of peripheral vein clots by thrombolysis led to migration of thrombi particles upwards to the inferior vena cava (IVC) and bilateral renal vein occlusion. However, the large thrombus straddled to the bifurcation of the main pulmonary trunk and extending to the right pulmonary artery, as visualized by transthoracic (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), was not affected by thrombolysis. Finally, endogenous fibrinolytic activity, under low molecular weight heparin, resulted in a slow dissolution of the pulmonary thrombus and restoration of kidney function.

  2. Efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates for the embolization of varicoceles: a prospective, randomized, blinded study. (United States)

    Vanlangenhove, Peter; De Keukeleire, Katrien; Everaert, Karel; Van Maele, Georges; Defreyne, Luc


    This was a prospective, randomized, blinded comparative study of the efficacy and safety of two different n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylates (NBCAs) for embolization of varicoceles. A total of 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left-sided, n=84; right-sided, n=28) that were diagnosed in 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with NBCA (n=54; Histoacryl, Braun, Germany) or NBCA-MS (n=58; Glubran2, General Enterprise Marketing, Viareggio, Lucca, Italy). Handling, embolic efficacy, and safety of both NBCAs were compared according the fulfillment of a standardized embolization plan, the occlusive effect on the spermatic vein, and the sticking to the microcatheter. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test and the Fisher's exact test. Patients of both study arms were comparable for age and clinical indication. Spermatic vein characteristics were comparable for varicocele classification and embolization side. Both NBCAs were equally efficient in occluding the spermatic vein and blocking reflux (NBCA, n=54/54, 100% vs. NBCA-MS, n=54/57, 94.7%; P=0.244). The embolization plan could be accomplished in an equal number of veins for both groups (NBCA, n=45/54, 83.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n=41/58, 70.7%; P=0.124). Adhesiveness of the glue to the microcatheter was the same in both NBCA groups (NBCA, n=25/54, 46.3% vs. NBCA-MS, n=29/58, 50%; P=0.71). No glue-related complications were noted. NBCA and NBCA-MS are equally efficient and safe glues for embolization of varicoceles.

  3. Transarterial versus transhepatic portal vein embolization to induce selective hepatic hypertrophy: a comparative study in swine. (United States)

    Madoff, David C; Gupta, Sanjay; Pillsbury, Edmund P; Kan, Zuxing; Tinkey, Peggy T; Stephens, L Clifton; Ensor, Joe E; Hicks, Marshall E; Wright, Kenneth C


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is used to induce liver hypertrophy for surgical candidates with marginal future liver remnant (FLR) volumes. We compared the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of a transarterial approach for PVE (TA-PVE) with those of a transhepatic approach for PVE (TH-PVE) in a swine model. Ten experimental pigs (TA-PVE, n = 5; TH-PVE, n = 5) and six controls (TA, n = 3; TH, n = 3) were studied. For TA-PVE, a microcatheter was advanced into arteries supplying the left and left middle hepatic lobes. A 3 to 1 Ethiodol-ethanol mixture was infused into selected arteries to cross the arterioportal peribiliary plexus and remain within the portal veins (PVs). For TH-PVE, PVs in the same lobar distribution were embolized with 355- to 500-micro m polyvinyl alcohol particles and coils. Controls were similarly catheterized for saline infusion. Computed tomography with volumetry was performed before and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after PVE to assess FLR hypertrophy (absolute FLR volume change and FLR/total liver volume [TLV]). Computed tomographic volumetry, laboratory data, and histopathology were compared between groups. All procedures were technically successful. The increases in mean absolute FLR volume (TA-PVE, 148 +/- 84 cm(3); TH-PVE, 62 +/- 19 cm(3); P = .082), mean FLR hypertrophy (TA-PVE, 93.2%; TH-PVE, 48.4%; P = .178), and mean FLR/TLV (TA-PVE, 31.0%; TH-PVE, 16.2%; P = .130) from day 0 to day 28 between experimental groups were better for TA-PVE. Changes in laboratory data among all groups were minimal. Two complications occurred from TA-PVE (right gastric artery embolization [n = 2] without sequela) and two from TH-PVE (acute segmental right PV thrombosis [n = 1]; death 3 weeks after PVE of unknown cause [n = 1]). Transarterial portal vein embolization is feasible, safe, and effective for inducing future liver remnant hypertrophy in swine and may represent an improvement over previously reported transhepatic portal vein embolization methods.

  4. Prominent cerebral veins on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeztoprak, Bilge [Cumhuriyet University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Sivas (Turkey)


    Clinical applications of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) are increasing steadily. The aim of this study is to investigate the appearance of cerebral veins on SWI, which is very sensitive to the deoxyhaemoglobin level in vessels, in pulmonary embolism (PE). The cranial SWI images of 19 patients with PE and 22 controls from September 2013 through March 2016 were retrospectively examined for the presence of prominent cerebral veins. MRI findings were correlated with blood oxygen levels. 12 of 19 patients with PE had hypoxemia and SWI images of 11 of these hypoxemic patients depicted prominent cerebral veins in the form of increased number, diameter, and elongation. The mean PaO{sub 2} and SaO{sub 2} in these patients were 48.5 ± 9.1 mmHg and 75.2 ± 8.0 %, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the presence of prominent veins on SWI and hypoxemia (p < 0.05). Of the 7 patients with normal blood oxygen pressure and saturation, 1 also showed an augmented appearance of cerebral veins on SWI. In the presence of neurological symptoms suggestive of an intracranial pathology in patients with PE, a SWI added to the conventional MRI sequences may predict hypoxemia and exclude other intracranial pathologies. (orig.)

  5. A traumatic dural arteriovenous fistula between the inferolateral trunk of the internal carotid artery and the ophthalmic vein: A case of transvenous coil embolization via the facial vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Young; Hong, Chang Ki; Suh, Sang Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Ik [Dept. of of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    A 31-year-old man was admitted with exophthalmos. He suffered from progressive exophthalmos, bruit and conjunctival chemosis 7 days after head trauma caused by falling down. Cerebral angiography showed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) draining into the ophthalmic vein caused by tear in the inferolateral trunk, which is a rare presentation of traumatic DAVF. Selective transvenous coil embolization was performed via the facial vein without neurologic complications.

  6. Update on portal vein embolization: evidence-based outcomes, controversies, and novel strategies. (United States)

    May, Benjamin J; Talenfeld, Adam D; Madoff, David C


    Portal vein embolization (PVE) is an established therapy used to redirect portal blood flow away from the tumor-bearing liver to the anticipated future liver remnant (FLR) and usually results in FLR hypertrophy. PVE is indicated when the FLR is considered too small before surgery to support essential function after surgery. When appropriately applied, PVE reduces postoperative morbidity and increases the number of patients eligible for curative hepatic resection. PVE also has been combined with other therapies to improve patient outcomes. This article assesses more recent outcomes data regarding PVE, reviews the existing controversies, and reports on novel strategies currently being investigated. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. "Pulmonary Vein Sign" for Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis in Computed Tomography Angiography. (United States)

    Souza, Luciana Volpon Soares; Zanon, Matheus; Souza, Arthur Soares; Irion, Klaus; Penha, Diana; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Marchiori, Edson; Hochhegger, Bruno


    Considering that pulmonary arterial obstruction decreases venous flow, we hypothesized that filling defects in pulmonary veins can be identified in areas adjacent to pulmonary embolism (PE). This sign was named the "pulmonary vein sign" (PVS), and we evaluated its prevalence and performance for PE diagnosis in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). This retrospective study enrolled consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of PE who underwent CTPA scan. The PVS was defined by the following criteria: (a) presence of a homogeneous filling defect of at least 2 cm in a pulmonary vein; (b) attenuation of the left atrium > 160 Hounsfield units. Using the cases that presented PE on CTPA as reference, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated for PVS. In total, 119 patients (73 female; mean age, 62 years) were included in this study. PE was diagnosed in 44 (35.8%) patients. The PVS was present in 16 out of 44 patients with PE. Sensitivity was 36.36% (95% confidence interval (CI) 22.83-52.26%); specificity, 98.67% (95% CI 91.79-99.93%); positive predictive value, 94.12% (95% CI 69.24-99.69%); negative predictive value, 72.55% (95% CI 62.67-80.70%). The Kappa index for the PVS was good (0.801; 95% CI 0.645-0.957). PVS was correlated with lobar and segmental pulmonary embolism (p < 0.01). Despite a low sensitivity, presence of the pulmonary vein sign was highly specific for PE, with a good agreement between readers. This sign could contribute for PE diagnosis on CTPA studies.

  8. Biliary-Pleural Fistula following Portal Vein Embolization for Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujtaba Mohammed


    Full Text Available Biliary-pleural fistula (BPF, an abnormal communication between the biliary tract and pleural space, is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication following percutaneous biliary intervention. We report a case of BPF following portal vein embolization (PVE in a 79-year-old woman with obstructive jaundice secondary to perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. The patient successfully underwent right-sided PVE; however, the patient developed a symptomatic right-sided bilious pleural effusion the following day. Despite aggressive drainage of the pleural effusion with a large-bore chest tube and maximal medical management, the patient died from respiratory failure and pneumonia. Although rare, knowledge of this complication is important when performing PVE in patients with biliary obstruction because it can be life-threatening. Early recognition and management of this complication are crucial to avoid a poor outcome.

  9. Compression ultrasonography of the leg veins in patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism: is a more extensive assessment of compressibility useful?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mac Gillavry, M. R.; Sanson, B. J.; Büller, H. R.; Brandjes, D. P.


    We performed a multi-center study in consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a two-point compression ultrasonography (only the common femoral vein and popliteal vein) with an extensive examination of compressibility (from the common femoral vein

  10. Predictive value of insufficient contrast medium filling in pulmonary veins in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Ma, Yanhe; Song, Zhenchun; Lv, Jun; Yang, Yapeng


    Abstract This study is to investigate the predictive value of insufficient contrast medium filling (ICMF) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE). A total of 108 PE patients were enrolled and divided into group A and group B according to the presence of ICMF. PE index and ventricul araxial lengths were measured. Heart cavity volumes were examined and right ventricle (RV) to left ventricle (LV) diameter ratio (RV/LV(d)) and volume ratio (RV/LV(V)) and right atrium (RA) to left atrium (LA) volume ratio (RA/LA(V)) were calculated and compared. Group A was further divided into A1 and A2 based upon the pulmonary vein filling degree and each index was compared. There were no significant differences between group A and B in general condition. PE index of group A was higher than that of group B. LA and LV in group A were smaller than that of group B, whereas RA in group A was larger than that of group B. RV/LV(d), RV/LV(V), and RA/LA(V) in group A were significantly larger than that of group B. Embolism index of group A2 was higher than that of groupA1, but without statistical significant difference. LA in group A2 was smaller than that of group A1, whereas RA, RV/LV(d), and RV/LV(V) were larger than that of group A1, all with significant differences. PE increased with serious ICMF in pulmonary veins could be used as an indicator for risk stratification in patients with acute PE. PMID:28906373

  11. Phase contrast imaging of preclinical portal vein embolization with CO2 microbubbles. (United States)

    Tang, Rongbiao; Yan, Fuhua; Yang, Guo Yuan; Chen, Ke Min


    Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) is employed clinically to avoid postoperative liver insufficiency. Animal models are usually used to study PVE in terms of mechanisms and pathophysiological changes. PVE is formerly monitored by conventional absorption contrast imaging (ACI) with iodine contrast agent. However, the side effects induced by iodine can give rise to animal damage and death. In this study, the feasibility of using phase contrast imaging (PCI) to show PVE using homemade CO2 microbubbles in living rats has been investigated. CO2 gas was first formed from the reaction between citric acid and sodium bicarbonate. The CO2 gas was then encapsulated by egg white to fabricate CO2 microbubbles. ACI and PCI of CO2 microbubbles were performed and compared in vitro. An additional increase in contrast was detected in PCI. PCI showed that CO2 microbubbles gradually dissolved over time, and the remaining CO2 microbubbles became larger. By PCI, the CO2 microbubbles were found to have certain stability, suggesting their potential use as embolic agents. CO2 microbubbles were injected into the main portal trunk to perform PVE in living rats. PCI exploited the differences in the refractive index and facilitated clear visualization of the PVE after the injection of CO2 microbubbles. Findings from this study suggest that homemade CO2 microbubbles-based PCI is a novel modality for preclinical PVE research.

  12. Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula of the Cavernous Sinus Through Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Puncture of the Facial Vein. (United States)

    Alexandre, Andrea M; Visconti, Emiliano; Lozupone, Emilio; D'Argento, Francesco; Pedicelli, Alessandro


    The goal of dural arteriovenous fistula of the cavernous sinus treated with coils through ultrasound-guided access to the facial vein is to interrupt the fistulous communications and decrease the pressure in the cavernous sinus and consequently in the ophthalmic veins. The traditional approach in the treatment of these fistulae is transvenous endovascular occlusion of the cavernous sinus. Transvenous embolization has been proven to be safe and can provide complete and permanent occlusion of the fistula in a single session. The most commonly used venous pathway is the inferior petrosal sinus, but, if it is inaccessible, then, the superior ophthalmic vein is considered; nonetheless, it can require a surgical exposure. Other pathways include the transfemoral transfacial vein. An arterial approach is considered usually when venous approach pathways fail. Arterial occlusion of feeders supplying the fistula is associated with a greater risk of embolic complications. We report a case of dural arteriovenous fistula of the cavernous sinus treated with coils through ultrasound-guided access to the facial vein. We propose an alternative pathway when the conventional transvenous approach through the inferior petrosal sinus is excluded. An ultrasound-guided facial vein approach can be considered as a direct and safe alternative to reach the cavernous sinus and obtain exclusion of the fistula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Portal Vein Embolization as an Oncosurgical Strategy Prior to Major Hepatic Resection: Anatomic, Surgical and Technical Considerations for Successful Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Tewani Orcutt


    Full Text Available Preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE is used to extend the indications for major hepatic resection, and it has become the standard of care for selected patients with hepatic malignancies treated at major hepatobiliary centers. To date, various techniques with different embolic materials have been used with similar results in the degree of liver hypertrophy. Regardless of the specific strategy used, both surgeons and interventional radiologists must be familiar with each other’s techniques to be able to create the optimal plan for each individual patient. Knowledge of the segmental anatomy of the liver is paramount to fully understand the liver segments that need to be embolized and resected. Understanding the portal vein anatomy and the branching variations, along with the techniques used to transect the portal vein during hepatic resection, is important because these variables can affect the PVE procedure and the eventual surgical resection. Comprehension of the advantages and disadvantages of approaches to the portal venous system and the various embolic materials used for PVE is essential to best tailor the procedures for each patient and to avoid complications. Before PVE, meticulous assessment of the portal vein branching anatomy is performed with cross-sectional imaging, and embolization strategies are developed based on the patient’s anatomy. The PVE procedure consists of several technical steps, and knowledge of these technical tips, potential complications and how to avoid the complications in each step is of great importance for safe and successful PVE, and ultimately successful hepatectomy. Because PVE is used as an adjunct to planned hepatic resection, priority must always be placed on safety, without compromising the integrity of the future liver remnant, and close collaboration between interventional radiologists and hepatobiliary surgeons is essential to achieve successful outcomes.

  14. Concurrent biliary drainage and portal vein embolization in preparation for extended hepatectomy in patients with biliary cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Sam; Nørgaard Larsen, Peter


    BACKGROUND: Patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer extending into the hilum often present with jaundice and a small future liver remnant (FLR). If resectable, preoperative biliary drainage and portal vein embolization (PVE) are indicated. Classically, these measures have...... been performed sequentially, separated by 4-6 weeks. PURPOSE: To report on a new regime where percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and PVE are performed simultaneously, shortening the preoperative process. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six patients were treated with concurrent PTBD and PVE under...

  15. Anticoagulant Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: The Present State of the Art. (United States)

    Thaler, Johannes; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan


    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), a disease entity comprising deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is a frequent and potentially life-threatening event. To date different agents are available for the effective treatment of acute VTE and the prevention of recurrence. For several years, the standard of care was the subcutaneous application of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux, followed by a vitamin K antagonist (VKA). The so-called direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) were introduced rather recently in clinical practice for the treatment of VTE. DOAC seem to have a favorable risk-benefit profile compared to VKA. Moreover, DOAC significantly simplify VTE treatment because they are administered in fixed doses and no routine monitoring is needed. Patients with objectively diagnosed DVT or PE should receive therapeutic anticoagulation for a minimum of 3 months. Whether a patient ought to receive extended treatment needs to be evaluated on an individual basis, depending mainly on risk factors determined by characteristics of the thrombotic event and patient-related factors. In specific patient groups (e.g., pregnant women, cancer patients, and elderly patients), treatment of VTE is more challenging than that in the general population and additional issues need to be considered in those patients. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the currently available treatment modalities of acute VTE and secondary prophylaxis. In particular, specific aspects regarding the initiation of VTE treatment, duration of anticoagulation, and specific patient groups will be discussed.

  16. Selective use of embolic protection devices during saphenous vein grafts interventions: a single-center experience. (United States)

    Lavi, Shahar; Ivanov, Joan; Appleby, Clare E; Seidelin, Peter H; Mackie, Karen; Schwartz, Leonard; Dzavík, Vladimír


    To report on outcomes with selective use of embolic protection devices (EPD) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to saphenous vein grafts (SVG). PCI to SVG is associated with increased risk and the use of EPD is recommended in this setting. Angiographic and clinical outcomes were prospectively obtained from 534 consecutive patients who underwent PCI to SVG with or without EPD at a tertiary cardiac centre. Long-term outcomes were obtained by linkage to a provincial registry. EPD, deployed in 198 of 373 SVGs (53%) suitable for deployment of a distal EPD, were used more often in ectatic (33% vs. 19%, P = 0.003), ulcerated (17% vs. 9%, P = 0.03), thrombotic (26% vs. 10%, P EPD tended to be more likely to have a periprocedural myocardial infarction. During 3 years of follow-up, 49% of the patients had a cardiovascular event. Cumulative mortality was 8.4%, 18.8% and 14.7% in patients unsuitable for distal EPD, suitable but without EPD, and with EPD (p = 0.11). Nonuse of EPD was an independent predictor of MACE at 3 years. (P = 0.02). Selective use of EPD is associated with low in-hospital cardiovascular event rates. Long-term outcomes are manifested by a high rate of events, especially in patients with SVG's suitable for but not receiving EPD. This suggests that routine use of distal EPD may be warranted in unselected patients with suitable SVG anatomy.

  17. Attitude of Iranian physicians and nurses toward a clinical decision support system for pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Agharezaei, Zhila; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz; Tofighi, Shahram; Agharezaei, Laleh; Nemati, Ali


    This research project sought to design and implement a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS) that was able to identify patients who were at risk of pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), as well as produce reminders for prophylactic action for these diseases. The main purpose of the CDSS was to attempt to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by embolism and thrombosis in patients admitted to hospitals. After implementation of this system in one of the large educational hospitals of Iran, a standard questionnaire was used, and interviews were conducted with physicians and nurses to evaluate the performance of the designed system for reducing the incidence of pulmonary embolism and thrombosis. From physicians and nurses' point of view, a system which assists the medical staff in making better decisions regarding patient care, and also reminds pulmonary embolism and thrombosis preventive procedures with timely warnings, can influence patient care quality improvement and lead to the improved performance of the medical staff in preventing the incidence of pulmonary embolism and thrombosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Portal vein embolization for induction of selective hepatic hypertrophy prior to major hepatectomy: rationale, techniques, outcomes and future directions. (United States)

    Li, David; Madoff, David C


    The ability to modulate the future liver remnant (FLR) is a key component of modern oncologic hepatobiliary surgery practice and has extended surgical candidacy for patients who may have been previously thought unable to survive liver resection. Multiple techniques have been developed to augment the FLR including portal vein embolization (PVE), associating liver partition and portal vein ligation (ALPPS), and the recently reported transhepatic liver venous deprivation (LVD). PVE is a well-established means to improve the safety of liver resection by redirecting blood flow to the FLR in an effort to selectively hypertrophy and ultimately improve functional reserve of the FLR. This article discusses the current practice of PVE with focus on summarizing the large number of published reports from which outcomes based practices have been developed. Both technical aspects of PVE including volumetry, approaches, and embolization agents; and clinical aspects of PVE including data supporting indications, and its role in conjunction with chemotherapy and transarterial embolization will be highlighted. PVE remains an important aspect of oncologic care; in large part due to the substantial foundation of information available demonstrating its clear clinical benefit for hepatic resection candidates with small anticipated FLRs.

  19. [Clinical effect of terminal branches portal vein embolization combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization on liver neoplasms]. (United States)

    Peng, S Y; Huang, C Y; Wang, X A; Wang, Y F; Zhang, Y Y; Li, J T; Xu, B; Liang, X; Wang, J W; Hong, D F; Cai, X J


    Objective: To analyze the efficacy of branches portal vein embolization (TBPVE) combined with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) on liver neoplasms. Methods: From August 2016 to May 2017, there were 13 patients including 11 males and 2 females with primary hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent TBPVE+ TACE , among whom there were 11 cases with a history of HBV infection.Average age of the 13 patients was (60.8±6.2)years. The live function of all patients were Child-Pugh A classification.The CT or MRI images of each patient was reconstructed and the standard liver volume(SLV) before TBPVE+ TACE was (1 181.2±49.3)ml, estimated future liver remnant(FLR) was (326.1±72.1)ml and FLR/SLV was (27.6±6.0)%.The puncture site for TBPVE was determined by the three-dimensional reconstruction of portal vein.CT scan or MRI, AFP and liver function test were repeated after one and two weeks after TBPVE+ TACE.FLR and FLR/SLV were calculated respectively.Hepatectomy would be performed if the patients agreed.The postoperative complications were analyzed. Results: On the 7thday after TBPVE+ TACE, the FLR/SLV was(42.6±8.0)% and the FLR increasement was(56.0±24.6)%.The level of AFP decreased from(87.9±81.8)μg/L to (29.7±20.9)μg/L.On the 14thday after TBPVE+ TACE, the FLR/SLV was(45.8±6.2)% and the FLR increasement was(71.8±29.0)%.Four patients underwent surgery which including 2 right hepatectomies and 2 right trisegmentectomies in 2 weeks after TBPVE+ TACE.Nine patients were performed with targeting intratumoral lactic acidosis TACE (TILA-TACE). No severe complication occurred in all patients. Conclusions: TBPVE could induce a rapid growth of the liver remnant but still with the concern of inducing the growth of neoplasms at the same time.To combine TACE in TBPVE therapy not also can the growth of neoplasms be prevented but also inducing its shrinking.This method might be a new mode for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism after traumatic injury: A competing risks analysis. (United States)

    Van Gent, Jan-Michael; Calvo, Richard Yee; Zander, Ashley L; Olson, Erik J; Sise, C Beth; Sise, Michael J; Shackford, Steven R


    Venous thromboembolism, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is typically reported as a composite measure of the quality of trauma center care. Given that recent data suggesting postinjury DVT and PE are distinct clinical processes, a better understanding may result from analyzing them as independent, competing events. Using competing risks analysis, we evaluated our hypothesis that the risk factors and timing of postinjury DVT and PE are different. We examined all adult trauma patients admitted to our Level I trauma center from July 2006 to December 2011 who received at least one surveillance duplex ultrasound of the lower extremities and who were at high risk or greater for DVT. Outcomes included DVT and PE events, and time-to-event from admission. We used competing risks analysis to evaluate risk factors for DVT while accounting for PE as a competing event, and vice versa. Of 2,370 patients, 265 (11.2%) had at least one venous thromboembolism event, 235 DVT only, 19 PE only, 11 DVT and PE. Within 2 days of admission, 38% of DVT cases had occurred compared with 26% of PE. Competing risks modeling of DVT as primary event identified older age, severe injury (Injury Severity Score, ≥ 15), mechanical ventilation longer than 4 days, active cancer, history of DVT or PE, major venous repair, male sex, and prophylactic enoxaparin and prophylactic heparin as associated risk factors. Modeling of PE as the primary event showed younger age, nonsevere injury (Injury Severity Score, < 15), central line placement, and prophylactic heparin as relevant factors. The risk factors for PE and DVT after injury were different, suggesting that they are clinically distinct events that merit independent consideration. Many DVT events occurred early despite prophylaxis, bringing into question the preventability of postinjury DVT. We recommend trauma center quality reporting program measures be revised to account for DVT and PE as unique events. Epidemiologic

  1. An Independent Risk of Gout on the Development of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Huang, Po-Hao; Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Lan, Joung-Liang; Tsay, Gregory J.; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Hsu, Chung-Yi


    Abstract Previous studies indicated that gout is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to determine if patients with gout have an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). We used the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database, a subset of the national insurance claim dataset, which enrolled 1 million Taiwanese to identify 57,981 patients with gout and 115,961 reference subjects matched by sex, age, and entry date of diagnosis. The risk of DVT and PE was analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. In this Taiwanese dataset observed from 2000 to 2010, we found the incidence of DVT was 5.26 per 104 person-years in the gout cohort, which was twofold higher than the incidence of 2.63 per 104 person-years in the reference cohort. After adjusting for age, sex, and 9 comorbidities, the hazard ratio (HR) of developing DVT was 1.66 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37–2.01). Among patients with gout, the youngest age group had the highest increase in the risk of developing DVT (HR [95% CI] = 2.04 [1.24–3.37] for ages 20 to 49 years, 1.80 [1.28–2.51] for ages 50 to 64 years, and 1.45 [1.11–1.91] for ages ≥65 years). The incidence of PE was about one-fifth that of DVT in gout patients, but the effect of gout on the risk was similar (HR [95% CI] = 1.53 [1.01–2.29]). Our analysis confirmed that gout increased the risk of DVT and PE. Further exploration is needed in the future. PMID:26705202

  2. A comparison of portal vein embolization with poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) and a histoacryl/lipiodol mixture in patients scheduled for extended right hepatectomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peregrin, J. H.; Janoušek, R.; Kautznerová, D.; Oliverius, M.; Sticová, E.; Přádný, Martin; Michálek, Jiří


    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2015), s. 841-848 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00939S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : extended right hepatectomy * portal vein embolization * embolization-induced left liver lobe hypertrophy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  3. Detection of Deep Vein Thrombosis by Follow-up Indirect Computed Tomography Venography after Pulmonary Embolism. (United States)

    Lee, Hye Jin; Cha, Seung Ick; Shin, Kyung Min; Lim, Jae Kwang; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Lee, Jaehee; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Jae Yong


    Information regarding the incidence and risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) detected by follow-up computed tomographic (CT) venography after pulmonary embolism (PE) is sparse. The aim of the present study was to identify the predictors of DVT in follow-up CT images, and to elucidate their clinical significance. Patients with PE were classified into the following three cohorts based on the time of indirect CT venography follow-up: within 1 month, 1 to 3 months, and 3 to 9 months after the initial CT scan. Each cohort was subdivided into patients with or without DVT detected by follow-up CT. Clinical variables were compared between the two groups. Follow-up CT revealed DVT in 61% of patients with PE within 1 month, in 15% of patients with PE at 1 to 3 months, and in 9% of patients with PE at 3 to 9 months after the initial CT scan. Right ventricular (RV) dilation on the initial CT (odds ratio [OR], 8.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.89-36.40; p=0.005) and proximal DVT at the initial presentation (OR, 6.93; 95% CI, 1.90-25.20; p=0.003) were found to independently predict DVT in follow-up CT images within 1 month, proximal DVT at the initial presentation was found to independently predict DVT in follow-up CT images at 1 to 3 months (OR, 6.69; 95% CI, 1.53-29.23; p=0.012), and central PE was found to independently predict DVT in follow-up CT images at 3 to 9 months (OR, 4.25; 95% CI, 1.22-4.83; p=0.023) after the initial CT scan. Furthermore, the detection of DVT by follow-up CT independently predicted the recurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) (OR, 4.67; 95% CI, 2.24-9.74; p<0.001). Three months after PE, DVT was not detected by follow-up CT in most patients with PE. RV dilation on the initial CT, central PE, and proximal DVT at the initial presentation were found to predict DVT on follow-up CT, which might predict VTE recurrence.

  4. Different risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in carriers with factor V Leiden compared with non-carriers, but not in other thrombophilic defects. Results from a large retrospective family cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makelburg, Anja B. U.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Hamulyak, Karly; Prins, Martin H.; Buller, Harry R.; Lijfering, Willem M.

    The term factor V Leiden (FVL) paradox is used to describe the different risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism that has been found in carriers of FVL. In a thrombophilic family-cohort, we estimated differences in absolute risks of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism for various

  5. Tolerance of glue embolization under local anesthesia in varicoceles: A comparative study of two different cyanoacrylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanlangenhove, Peter, E-mail: [Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Everaert, Karel [Department of Urology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Maele, Georges [Department of Statistics, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Defreyne, Luc [Department of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)


    Purpose: To find out whether in varicocele embolization the copolymer cyanoacrylate glue (NBCA-MS) has a better patient tolerance compared to the monomer n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). Materials and methods: N = 112 insufficient spermatic veins (left sided N = 84, right sided N = 28) diagnosed in N = 83 adult males were prospectively randomized for blinded embolization with either NBCA N = 54 (Histoacryl) or with NBCA-MS N = 58 (Glubran2). Before, during and up to one week after embolization, patient discomfort was assessed by a standardized pain scale. Type, location and side of discomfort were noted. Statistical analysis was performed with the Mann–Whitney U-test, the McNemar test and the Fisher's exact test. Results: Embolization caused discomfort in N = 48/112 (43%) spermatic veins, comprising N = 26/54 (48%) in the NBCA group and N = 22/58 (38%) in the NBCA-MS group. During the week after embolization, the overall number of discomfort reports rose to N = 62/106 (59%), with an increase to N = 30/53 (57%) in the NBCA group and to N = 32/53 (60%) in the NBCA-MS group. The number of immediate grade 2 to 4 pain reactions was N = 22/112 (20%), and rose to N = 37/106 (35%) after one week. No difference in discomfort during embolization and at 1 week after treatment was noted. Characteristics, severity grading, and location of discomfort were similar in both NBCA groups, regardless the time point of observation. Conclusion: Discomfort after glue embolization of varicocele is a common side effect, which might evolve to pain. The assumed lower inflammatory reaction on NBCA-MS was not translated in an improved tolerance.

  6. Trashepatic left gastric vein embolization in the treatment of recurrent hemorrhaging in patients with schistosomiasis previously submitted to non-derivative surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernandes Saad


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Non-derivative surgical techniques are the treatment of choice for the control of upper digestive tract hemorrhages after schistosomotic portal hypertension. However, recurrent hemorrhaging due to gastroesophagic varices is frequent. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment based on embolization of the left gastric vein to control the reoccurrence of hemorrhages caused by gastroesophagic varices in patients with schistosomiasis previously submitted to non-derivative surgery. METHODS: Rates of reoccurrence of hemorrhages and the qualitative and quantitative reduction of gastroesophagic varices in patients undergoing transhepatic embolization of the left gastric vein between December 1999 and January 2009 were studied based on medical charts and follow-up reports. RESULTS: Seven patients with a mean age of 39.3 years underwent percutaneous transhepatic embolization of the left gastric vein. The mean time between azigoportal disconnections employed in combination with splenectomy and the percutaneous approach was 8.4 ± 7.3 years, and the number of episodes of digestive hemorrhaging ranged from 1 to 7 years. No episodes of reoccurrence of hemorrhaging were found during a follow-up period which ranged from 6 months to 7 years. Endoscopic postembolization studies revealed reductions in gastroesophagic varices in all patients compared to preembolization endoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous transhepatic embolization of the left gastric vein in patients with schistosomiasis previously submitted to surgery resulted in a decrease in gastroesophagic varices and was shown to be effective in controlling hemorrhage reoccurrence.

  7. Endovascular management of a case of spontaneous retroperitoneal haematoma complicated with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Singh, Balbir; Bharadwaj, Prashant; Bajaj, Nitin; Chadha, Davinder


    Spontaneous retroperitoneal haematoma (SRH) can be a life-threatening emergency presenting with hypovolaemic shock. SRH has been rarely reported with May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) where it occurs due to rupture of the iliac vein or venous collaterals. We report a case of MTS that presented with deep venous thrombosis of the left lower limb complicated by bilateral pulmonary embolism (PE) and a large pelvic haematoma. The simultaneous occurrence of a large pelvic haematoma and PE offered a therapeutic challenge. Successful endovascular management of the case is discussed in this report. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Bilateral external and internal pudendal veins embolization treatment for venogenic erectile dysfunction


    Lee, Daniel; Rotem, Eran; Lewis, Ronald; Veean, Satyam; Rao, Ashwin; Ulbrandt, Alison


    Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is estimated to affect around 20-30 million men in the United States (Rhoden et?al, 2002). Vascular etiology is purported to be the most prevalent cause of ED in the elderly population, with venogenic ED being the most common subtype (Shafik et?al, 2007; Rebonato et?al, 2014). A patient, who developed severe venogenic ED, was referred to interventional radiology after ineffective pharmaceutical treatments. Selective embolization of bilateral external and...

  9. Prothrombotic Fibrin Clot Phenotype in Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism: A New Risk Factor for Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anetta Undas


    Full Text Available Prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype, involving faster formation of dense meshwork composed of thinner and highly branched fibers that are relatively resistant to plasmin-induced lysis, has been reported in patients with not only myocardial infarction or stroke, but also venous thromboembolism (VTE, encompassing deep vein thrombosis (DVT, and/or pulmonary embolism (PE. Prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype, in particular prolonged clot lysis time, is considered a novel risk factor for VTE as well as venous thrombosis at unusual location, for example, cerebral sinus venous thrombosis, retinal vein obstruction, and Budd-Chiari syndrome. Growing evidence from observational studies indicates that abnormal fibrin clot properties can predict recurrent DVT and PE and they are involved in serious complications of VTE, for example, thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension and postthrombotic syndrome. The purpose of this article is to review our current understanding of the role of fibrin clot structure and function in venous thrombosis with emphasis on clinical issues ranging from prognosis to therapy.

  10. Portomesenteric Vein Thrombosis, Bowel Gangrene, and Bilateral Pulmonary Artery Embolism Two Weeks after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Darcy


    Full Text Available Sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass surgery are popular and effective options for weight loss surgery. Portomesenteric vein thrombosis (PMVT is a documented but rare complication of bariatric surgery. Proper surgical technique, careful postoperative prophylaxis, and early mobilization are essential to prevent this event. The diagnosis of PMVT in the postoperative period requires a high index of suspicion and early directed intervention to prevent a possibly fatal outcome. We present a case of PMVT complicated by small bowel ischemia resulting in gangrene that necessitated resection.

  11. Comparison of the effectiveness of preoperative portal vein embolization in patients with chronic liver disease: Gelfoam versus gelfoam coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Wook; Chang, Il Soo; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Cho, Sung Ki; Choo, In Wook [Dept. of Radiology, and Cardiac and Vascular Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Sung Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare the effectiveness of portal vein embolization (PVE) performed using gelfoam or a gelfoam-coil combination before major hepatic resection in patients with chronic liver disease. PVE using gelfoam or a gelfoam-coil combination was performed in 37 patients. From April 2003 to September 2007, PVE was performed using gelfoam (n = 17) and a gelfoam-coil combination (n = 20) to induce hypertrophy. Computed tomography volumetry was performed 2-4 weeks after PVE to assess the changes in liver volume. The mean percentage increase in future liver remnant volume was 23.7 +/- 23.7% in the gelfoam group and 36.7 +/- 18.5% in the gelfoam-coil group (p = 0.02). Recanalization was found in 15 gelfoam group patients and 8 gelfoam-coil group patients (p = 0.003). The mean tumor size increased from 4.5 +/- 2.9 cm before PVE to 5.0 +/- 3.5 cm after PVE in the gelfoam group and from 4.3 +/- 2.2 cm before PVE to 4.7 +/- 2.5 cm after PVE in the gelfoam-coil group (p = 0.80). The gelfoam-coil combination was more effective than gelfoam alone for induction of compensatory hypertrophy by PVE in patients with chronic liver disease.

  12. Persistent or recurrent varicocoele after failed varicocoelectomy: Outcome in patients treated using percutaneous transcatheter embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. [Department of Radiology, Hanyang University, College of Medicine, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Shin, J.H., E-mail: [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, H.K.; Ko, G.Y.; Gwon, D.I.; Kim, E.Y.; Sung, K.B. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Aim: To determine the efficacy of percutaneous transcatheter embolization in the management of patients with spermatic varicocoeles persisting or recurring after surgery. Materials and methods: Over a period of 10 years, 28 patients (age range 13-55 years) were referred for percutaneous transcatheter embolization of postsurgical, recurrent varicocoeles. Medical documents were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate past surgical history, subjective symptoms, and results of scrotal examination, ultrasound, and semen parameters. Pre-embolization venograms were analysed to assess the anatomy of the testicular vein. The technical and clinical outcomes of embolization were then determined. Results: The 28 patients included in the study had undergone laparoscopic varicocoelectomy (39.3%), high retroperitoneal ligation (25%), or inguinal ligation (25%). Subjective symptoms were scrotal pain (60.7%) and a palpable scrotal mass (50%) exclusively on the left side. Venograms revealed abnormalities of the left testicular vein in all cases. Embolization was technically successful in all but two cases, thus yielding an occlusion rate of 93%; a single case of suspected thrombophlebitis was the only complication. After excluding two, technically unsuccessful cases and one patient who was lost to follow-up, 25 patients underwent scrotal examination after embolization, which revealed complete resolution in 20 cases (80%), partial improvement in four cases (16%), and no improvement in a single case (4%). Among the follow-up group of patients, of the 12 who initially presented with scrotal pain, six (50%) were symptom-free and four (33.3%) had partial improvement. Conclusion: Percutaneous transcatheter embolization of the testicular vein is technically feasible and effective for managing postsurgical recurrent varicocoeles.

  13. Effects of age on the risk of dying from pulmonary embolism or bleeding during treatment of deep vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Muñoz-Torrero, Juan Francisco Sanchez; Bounameaux, Henri; Pedrajas, José María; Lorenzo, Alicia; Rubio, Silvino; Kearon, Clive; Hernández, Luís; Monreal, Manuel


    The risk of patients dying of pulmonary embolism (PE) or bleeding during the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and whether these risks are influenced by patient age, has not been thoroughly studied. We used data from the Registro Informatizado de la Enfermedad TromboEmbólica (RIETE) to assess the risk of fatal PE and fatal bleeding in 16,199 patients with lower limb DVT (without symptomatic PE at the time of inclusion) during the 3 months after diagnosis, with patients categorized according to age. During the 3 months of anticoagulant treatment, there were 31 fatal PEs (0.19%) and 83 fatal hemorrhages (0.51%). During the first 7 days of therapy, the frequency of fatal PEs was similar to that of fatal bleeding (12 vs 14 deaths, respectively; odds ratio [OR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.87). However, from days 8 to 90, the frequency of fatal bleeding was greater than that of fatal PE (69 vs 19 deaths; OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 2.22-6.20). The higher frequency of fatal bleeding compared with fatal PE from days 8 to 90 appeared to be confined to patients who were aged ≥ 60 years. Multivariate analysis showed that patient age was independently associated with an increased risk of death from bleeding during the first 3 months: every 10 years the OR increased by 1.37 (95% CI, 1.12-1.67). During the first week of treatment, the risk of fatal bleeding and fatal PE were similar. Then, particularly in patients who were aged ≥ 60 years, the risk of dying from bleeding exceeded the risk of dying from PE. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon monoxide poisoning and risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a nationwide retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung


    Few studies have investigated the relationship between carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Therefore, we conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study in Taiwan to determine whether patients with CO poisoning are associated with increased risk of developing DVT and PE. This study investigated the incidence and risk factors for DVT and PE in 8316 patients newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2000 and 2011. The comparison cohort contained 33 264 controls without CO poisoning from the general population. Follow-up was initiated on the date of initial diagnosis of CO poisoning and continued until the date of a DVT or PE event, censoring or December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyse the risk of DVT and PE according to sex, age and comorbidities. The incidences of DVT and PE were higher in the patients with CO poisoning than in the controls (5.67 vs 1.47/10 000 person-years and 1.97 vs 1.02/10 000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities, the patients with CO poisoning were associated with a 3.85-fold higher risk of DVT compared with the comparison cohort, and non-significantly associated with risk of PE. CO poisoning patients with a coexisting comorbidity or acute respiratory failure were associated with significantly and substantially increased risk of DVT. Risk of DVT is significantly higher in patients with CO poisoning than in the general population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  15. Outcomes of Saphenous Vein Graft Intervention With and Without Embolic Protection Device: A Comprehensive Review and Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Paul, Timir K; Bhatheja, Samit; Panchal, Hemang B; Zheng, Shimin; Banerjee, Subhash; Rao, Sunil V; Guzman, Luis; Beohar, Nirat; Zhao, David; Mehran, Roxana; Mukherjee, Debabrata


    Current guidelines give a class I recommendation to use of embolic protection devices (EPD) for saphenous vein graft (SVG) intervention; however, studies have shown conflicting results. The objective of this meta-analysis is to compare all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction (MI), or target vessel revascularization in SVG intervention with and without EPD. Literature was searched through October 2016. Eight studies (n=52 893) comparing SVG intervention performed with EPD (n=11 506) and without EPD (n=41 387) were included. There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.79; confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.12; P=0.19), major adverse cardiovascular events (OR, 0.73, CI, 0.51-1.05; P=0.09), target vessel revascularization (OR, 1.0; CI, 0.95-1.05; P=0.94), periprocedural MI (OR, 1.12; CI, 0.65-1.90, P=0.69), and late MI (OR, 0.80; CI, 0.52-1.23; P=0.30) between the 2 groups. Sensitivity analysis excluding CathPCI Registry study showed no difference in periprocedural MI, late MI, and target vessel revascularization; however, it favored EPD use in all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events. Further sensitivity analysis including only observational studies revealed no difference in all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, target vessel revascularization, and late MI. Additional analysis after excluding CathPCI Registry study revealed no difference in outcomes. This study including 52 893 patients suggests no apparent benefit in routine use of EPD during SVG intervention in the contemporary real-world practice. Further randomized clinical trials are needed in current era to evaluate long-term outcomes in routine use of EPD, and meanwhile, current guideline recommendations on EPD use should be revisited. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Tuberculosis of the Spermatic Cord: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Benjelloun


    Full Text Available The spermatic cord tuberculoma is uncommon, especially in its lower portion. Most cases were described in Japanese literature. We report a case of tuberculosis of the spermatic cord in a sexually active young man, revealed by a scrotal mass mimicking a tumor of the testicle and discuss the suitable diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, with preservation of the testes and the other sexual organs.

  17. Post-Operative Multiple Thrombosis Associated with Patent Foramen Ovale: Embolic Stroke, Right Atrial Thrombi, Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Vein Thrombosis. (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Young; Youn, Ho-Joong; Park, Mi-Youn; Shim, Byung-Ju; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Park, Jung-Ku; Oh, Chang-Yul; Ahn, So-Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun


    Patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty frequently develop post-operative complication, such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism. However, it is not common coexisting deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary thromboembolisms, right atrial thrombus and acute cerebral infarction raised by thrombus through patent foramen ovale. We reported the patient who had multiple thrombi which were accompanied with a cryptogenic ischemic stroke and associated with patent foramen ovale after operation.

  18. The Place of Spermatic Fascia Closure During Open Herniotomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spermatic fascia is the three layered covering of the contents of the spermatic cord.[1‑3] It is therefore closely applied to the sac in indirect inguinal hernias. In all cases of open herniotomy, the spermatic fascia is split open during the procedure. Various techniques have been described for herniotomy in children.

  19. Portal vein embolization with n-butyl-cyanoacrylate through an ipsilateral approach before major hepatectomy: single center analysis of 50 consecutive patients. (United States)

    Luz, José Hugo Mendes; Luz, Paula Mendes; Bilhim, Tiago; Martin, Henrique Salas; Gouveia, Hugo Rodrigues; Coimbra, Élia; Gomes, Filipe Veloso; Souza, Roberto Romulo; Faria, Igor Murad; de Miranda, Tiago Nepomuceno


    To evaluate the efficacy of portal vein embolization (PVE) with n-Butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) through an ipsilateral approach before major hepatectomy. Secondary end-points were PVE safety, liver resection and patient outcome. Over a 5-year period 50 non-cirrhotic consecutive patients were included with primary or secondary liver cancer treatable by hepatectomy with a liver remnant (FLR) volume less than 25% or less than 40% in diseased livers. There were 37 men and 13 women with a mean age of 57 years. Colorectal liver metastases were the most frequent tumor and patients were previously exposed to chemotherapy. FLR increased from 422 ml to 629 ml (P < 0.001) after PVE, corresponding to anincrease of 52%. The FLR ratio increased from 29.6% to 42.3% (P < 0.001). Kinetic growth rate was 2.98%/week. A negative association was observed between increase in the FLR and FLR ratio and FLR volume before PVE (P = 0.002). In 31 patients hepatectomy was accomplished and only one patient presented with liver insufficiency within 30 days after surgery. PVE with NBCA through an ipsilateral puncture is effective before major hepatectomy. Meticulous attention is needed especially near the end of the embolization procedure to avoid complications. Clinical Study ISRCTN registration number: ISRCTN39855523 . Registered March 13th 2017.

  20. Hemangioma of the spermatic cord: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mazdak


    Full Text Available Hemangioma of the spermatic cord is a benign, extremely rare tumor. We report a case of spermatic cord hemangioma presenting with a painless mass in the left hemiscrotum. Physical examination revealed a non-tender non-transilluminating irregular mass in the left hemiscrotum, above and clearly separate from the left testis. After surgical removal of the mass arising from the spermatic cord, histologic examination showed a benign vascular tumor consistent with cavernous hemangioma. To our knowledge, only a few cases of spermatic cord hemangioma have been previously reported in the literature. KEY WORDS: Hemangioma, spermatic cord, scrotal mass.

  1. Spermatic Cord Liposarcoma and Prostate Adenocarcinoma: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    primary malignant neoplasms of dissimilar histogenesis including a malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the bladder. Int.Urol.Nephrol. 1995;27(2):157-66. Yoshino T, Yoneda K, Shirane T. First report. 10. of liposarcoma of the spermatic cord after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Anticancer Res. 2009;29(2):677-80.

  2. Hydrocele of the spermatic cord; Ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Byoung Hee; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Cho, Byung Jae [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ki, Won Woo [Samsung Cheil Hospital, CL women' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of hydrocele of the spermatic cord. Ultrasonographic findings of twenty patients with surgically (n=7), clinically and ultrasonographically (n=13) proven hydrocele of the spermatic cord were retrospectively analyzed from April 1998 to February 2000. The location size, shape, thickness and regularity of the outer wall, and internal echo of the hydroceles were evaluated. Hydroceles were located on the left side in eleven cases and on the right side in nine cases. Fourteen of 20 hydroceles were situated superior to the testis while the remaining six cases were in the inguinal area. Shapes included oval (n=13) or elongated shape (n=7) with the tapered end toward the inguinal area. The thickness of walls of hydroceles was thin in all cases, but two of 20 hydroceles had irregular walls. Internal echo was anechoic in twelve cases while there were internal echoes in the remaining eight cases, showing septa like echoes in five cases, diffusely hypoechoic in two cases and debris with linear echoes in one case. All hydroceles showed separation from the testis and epididymis. In three cases, change in size during palpation was noted, but there was no ultrasonographic evidence of connection with the peritoneal cavity. There was one other case which showed change in size during ultrasonographic examination. Spermatic cord hydrocele can be effectively diagnosed by ultrasonography based on its specific location and shape. Furthermore, ultrasonography can be useful to exclude hernia, enlargement of the lymph node, or other solid masses.

  3. Percutaneous microwave ablation liver partition and portal vein embolization for planned hepatectomy due to large gastrointestinal stromal tumor metastases: A case report. (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Chengwu; Hong, Defei; Shang, Minjie; Yao, Weifeng; Chen, Yuan


    The liver is the most frequent site of relapse of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Surgery is always considered to be unsuitable because of the multiple metastases. In this report, we describe a case of large, multiple GIST liver metastases that were treated with percutaneous microwave ablation liver partition and portal vein embolization for planned hepatectomy (PALPP). A 44-year-old woman had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy 4 years previously because of the diagnosis of a large duodenal GIST. Large, multiple liver metastases were observed 2 years later. GIST liver metastasis was diagnosed using percutaneous ultrasound-guided biopsy. After 6 months of treatment with imatinib, the liver metastasis was stable. PALPP was performed because of insufficient future liver remnant (FLR) and right trisegmentectomy was successfully completed 10 days later. The patient has had no signs of local or systemic disease during 17 months of postsurgical follow-up. PALPP provides a new methodology for treatment of GIST liver metastasis in patients with insufficient FLR, and may have benefit in prolonging a durable remission.

  4. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav, E-mail:; Duras, Petr [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Třeška, Vladislav [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Matoušková, Táňa [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Lysák, Daniel [Charles University, Department of Haemato-Oncology, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic)


    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  5. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for monitoring future liver remnant function after portal vein embolization and extended hemihepatectomy: A prospective trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, Dominik; Raabe, Philip; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Luedemann, Lutz [Essen University Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Essen (Germany); Malinowski, Maciej; Stockmann, Martin; Seehofer, Daniel; Pratschke, Johann [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Berlin (Germany)


    To evaluate changes in liver function after right portal vein embolization (PVE) and extended right hemihepatectomy using gadolinium ethoxybenzyl-DTPA-enhanced (Gd-EOB-DTPA) MRI. In this prospective trial, 37 patients undergoing PVE were examined before and 14 and 28 days after PVE and 10 days after extended hemihepatectomy using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. Lobar volume, kinetic growth rate (KGR), relative enhancement (RE) as well as hepatocellular uptake index (HUI) and fat signal fraction (FSF) were calculated for each lobe. RE of the left liver lobe (LLL) was steadily increasing after PVE and decreased to 0.48 ± 0.19 10 days after surgery, which is significantly lower than 14 days and 28 days post PVE (P < 0.05). KGR was 14.06 ± 9.82%/week for the period from PVE to 14 days after PVE. HUI of the LLL increased steadily after PVE and was significantly higher at both 14 and 28 days after PVE compared to pre PVE (P < 0.05). HUI of the residual liver after surgery was lower than before. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may be used to monitor the functional increase in the FLR after PVE and to depict the intraoperative liver injury leading to a decrease in liver remnant function. (orig.)

  6. Coltsfoot as a potential cause of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a patient also consuming kava and blue vervain. (United States)

    Freshour, Jessica E; Odle, Brian; Rikhye, Somi; Stewart, David W


    To report a case of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) possibly associated with the use of coltsfoot, kava, or blue vervain. A 27-year-old white male presented with leg pain and swelling, tachycardia, and pleuritic chest pain. He had no significant medical history. A medication history revealed extensive herbal medication use including: coltsfoot, passionflower, red poppy flower petals, wild lettuce, blue lily flowers, wild dagga flowers, Diviners Three Burning Blend® (comprised of salvia divinorum, blue lily, and wild dagga), kava-kava, St. John's Wort, blue vervain, and Dreamer's Blend® (comprised of Calea zacatechichi, vervain, Entada rheedii, wild lettuce, and Eschscholzia californica). Lower extremity Doppler ultrasound and computed topography (CT) of the chest revealed DVT and PE. A hypercoagulable work-up was negative. The patient was treated with enoxaparin and warfarin and was discharged home. While no distinct agent can be identified as a sole cause of this venous thromboembolic event, coltsfoot could potentially affect coagulation through its effect on vascular endothelial cells as they regulate nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is a known mediator of platelet activity and coagulation, particularly in the pulmonary vasculature. Kava and vervain have estrogenic properties. Of the medications consumed by this self-proclaimed "herbalist," coltsfoot is a potential cause of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE).

  7. The Prediction of the Risk Level of Pulmonary Embolism and Deep Vein Thrombosis through Artificial Neural Network. (United States)

    Agharezaei, Laleh; Agharezaei, Zhila; Nemati, Ali; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz; Keynia, Farshid; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Iranpour, Abedin; Agharezaei, Moslem


    Venous thromboembolism is a common cause of mortality among hospitalized patients and yet it is preventable through detecting the precipitating factors and a prompt diagnosis by specialists. The present study has been carried out in order to assist specialists in the diagnosis and prediction of the risk level of pulmonary embolism in patients, by means of artificial neural network. A number of 31 risk factors have been used in this study in order to evaluate the conditions of 294 patients hospitalized in 3 educational hospitals affiliated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Two types of artificial neural networks, namely Feed-Forward Back Propagation and Elman Back Propagation, were compared in this study. Through an optimized artificial neural network model, an accuracy and risk level index of 93.23 percent was achieved and, subsequently, the results have been compared with those obtained from the perfusion scan of the patients. 86.61 percent of high risk patients diagnosed through perfusion scan diagnostic method were also diagnosed correctly through the method proposed in the present study. The results of this study can be a good resource for physicians, medical assistants, and healthcare staff to diagnose high risk patients more precisely and prevent the mortalities. Additionally, expenses and other unnecessary diagnostic methods such as perfusion scans can be efficiently reduced.

  8. Rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in Chinese patients: a subgroup analysis of the EINSTEIN DVT and PE studies. (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; Wang, Chen; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Jiwei; Liu, Zhihong; Jin, Bi; Ying, Kejing; Liu, Changwei; Shao, Yuxia; Jing, Zhicheng; Meng, Isabelle Ling; Prins, Martin H; Pap, Akos F; Müller, Katharina; Lensing, Anthonie Wa


    The worldwide EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE studies randomized 8282 patients with acute symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) and, for the first time in trials in this setting, included patients in China. This analysis evaluates the results of these studies in this subgroup of patients. A total of 439 Chinese patients who had acute symptomatic DVT (n=211), or PE with or without DVT (n=228), were randomized to receive rivaroxaban (15 mg twice daily for 21 days, followed by 20 mg once daily) or standard therapy of enoxaparin overlapping with and followed by an adjusted-dose vitamin K antagonist, for 3, 6, or 12 months. The primary efficacy outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism. The principal safety outcome was major or non-major clinically relevant bleeding. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in seven (3.2%) of the 220 patients in the rivaroxaban group and in seven (3.2%) of the 219 patients in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval 0.36-3.0; p=0.94). The principal safety outcome occurred in 13 (5.9%) patients in the rivaroxaban group and in 20 (9.2%) patients in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.31-1.26; p=0.19). Major bleeding was observed in no patients in the rivaroxaban group and in five (2.3%) patients in the standard-therapy group. In fragile patients (defined as age >75 years, creatinine clearance EINSTEIN PE, NCT00439777; EINSTEIN DVT, NCT00440193.

  9. Differential haemostatic risk factors for pregnancy-related deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based case-control study. (United States)

    Bergrem, Astrid; Dahm, Anders E A; Jacobsen, Anne Flem; Sandvik, Leiv; Sandset, Per Morten


    Limited data exist on thrombophilia and the risk of venous thrombosis (VT) during pregnancy and postpartum. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the role of haemostatic risk factors for pregnancy-related VT and their phenotypic expression in deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Total 313 cases with objectively verified first time VT and 353 controls were selected from a source population of 377,155 women with 613,232 pregnancies. The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for pregnancy-related VT was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.8) for women with factor VIII >90th percentile. The aOR for VT for endogenous thrombin potential and D-dimer values >90th percentiles were 1.8 (95% CI 1.1-3.0) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.3), respectively. Factor IX >90th percentile or free protein S ≤the 5th percentile increased the risk for PE, and the aORs were 2.4 (95% CI 1.1-5.0) and 3.1 (95% CI 1.3-7.2), respectively. Women carrying the factor V Leiden (F5 rs6025) polymorphism, or who had reduced sensitivity to activated protein C (aPC) in the absence of F5 rs6025, had increased risk for DVT, with unadjusted ORs 7.7 (95% CI 4.7-12.7) and 3.5 (95% CI 2.2-5.4), respectively. Women with a history of pregnancy-related VT showed activation of coagulation and had elevated factor VIII. Furthermore, high levels of factor IX and low levels of free protein S were associated with increased risk for PE, whereas aPC resistance and F5 rs6025 were risk factors for DVT and not PE.

  10. Preoperative Estimation of Future Remnant Liver Function Following Portal Vein Embolization Using Relative Enhancement on Gadoxetic Acid Disodium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yozo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Matsushima, Shigeru; Inaba, Yoshitaka [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Sano, Tsuyoshi [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Yamaura, Hidekazu; Kato, Mina [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Senda, Yoshiki [Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Ishiguchi, Tsuneo [Department of Radiology, Aichi Medical University, Aichi 480-1195 (Japan)


    To retrospectively evaluate relative enhancement (RE) in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as a preoperative estimation of future remnant liver (FRL) function in a patients who underwent portal vein embolization (PVE). In 53 patients, the correlation between the indocyanine green clearance (ICG-K) and RE imaging was analyzed before hepatectomy (first analysis). Twenty-three of the 53 patients underwent PVE followed by a repeat RE imaging and ICG test before an extended hepatectomy and their results were further analyzed (second analysis). Whole liver function and FRL function were calculated on the MR imaging as follows: RE x total liver volume (RE Index) and FRL-RE x FRL volume (Rem RE Index), respectively. Regarding clinical outcome, posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) was evaluated in patients undergoing PVE. Indocyanine green clearance correlated with the RE Index (r = 0.365, p = 0.007), and ICG-K of FRL (ICG-Krem) strongly correlated with the Rem RE Index (r = 0.738, p < 0.001) in the first analysis. Both the ICG-Krem and the Rem RE Index were significantly correlated after PVE (r = 0.508, p = 0.013) at the second analysis. The rate of improvement of the Rem RE Index from before PVE to after PVE was significantly higher than that of ICG-Krem (p = 0.014). Patients with PHLF had a significantly lower Rem RE Index than patients without PHLF (p = 0.023). Relative enhancement imaging can be used to estimate FRL function after PVE.

  11. Bilateral anomalous drainage of the posterior divisions of renal veins into the azygos venous system in a 20-year-old woman: a case report. (United States)

    Pallangyo, Pedro; Lyimo, Frederick; Nicholaus, Paulina; Masatu, Stephano; Janabi, Mohamed


    Renal vein anomalies are relatively infrequent and generally asymptomatic. Preoperative knowledge of such variants is, however, of paramount importance in several angiographic and surgical procedures including renal venography, renal vein sampling, spermatic embolization, and renal transplantation. Inadequate knowledge and failure to recognize such anatomic variations may lead to several operative hazards including hemorrhage, nephrectomy, and even death. We report a case of bilateral anomalous drainage of the posterior divisions of renal veins into the azygos venous system in a 20-year-old woman of African descent from Tanzania who presented to us with a 12-year history of recurrent anemia. She had anemia, a positive sickling test, and hemoglobin electrophoresis revealed a sickle cell trait (AS). She underwent computed tomography angiography of her chest and abdomen to rule out the presence of arteriovenous malformations. Aortography findings were normal but venography results revealed features of tortuously dilated azygos and hemiazygos veins each receiving blood from its respective posterior division of renal vein. Although venous anomalies are relatively infrequent and generally lack a clinical significance, a thorough understanding of embryologic development and its associated errors is of immense importance in equipping angiographers and surgeons to select appropriate interventional/operative techniques, anticipate risks, and prevent intervention-related complications.

  12. Thrombolytic therapy in pulmonary embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagi, D


    Massive pulmonary embolism carries a high mortality. Potential treatment includes anticoagulation, thrombolytic therapy and embolectomy. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis leading to progressive massive pulmonary embolism despite appropriate anticoagulation, where thrombolysis with IVC filter placement resulted in a successful outcome.

  13. Stepwise approach to curative surgery using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage and portal vein embolization for severe bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a case report. (United States)

    Honmyo, Naruhiko; Kuroda, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Ishiyama, Kohei; Ide, Kentaro; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Ohira, Masahiro; Ohdan, Hideki


    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been recently adapted to acute cholecystitis. Major bile duct injury during LC, especially Strasberg-Bismuth classification type E, can be a critical problem sometimes requiring hepatectomy. Safety and definitive treatment without further morbidities, such as posthepatectomy liver failure, is required. Here, we report a case of severe bile duct injury treated with a stepwise approach using (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT fusion imaging to accurately estimate liver function.A 52-year-old woman diagnosed with acute cholecystitis underwent LC at another hospital and was transferred to our university hospital for persistent bile leakage on postoperative day 20. She had no jaundice or infection, although an intraperitoneal drainage tube discharged approximately 500 ml of bile per day. Recorded operation procedure showed removal of the gallbladder with a part of the common bile duct due to its misidentification, and each of the hepatic ducts and right hepatic artery was injured. Abdominal enhanced CT revealed obstructive jaundice of the left liver and arterial shunt through the hilar plate to the right liver. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed type E4 or more advanced bile duct injury according to the Bismuth-Strasberg classification. We planned a stepwise approach using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and portal vein embolization (PVE) for secure right hemihepatectomy and biliary-jejunum reconstruction and employed (99m)Tc-GSA SPECT/CT fusion imaging to estimate future remnant liver function. The left liver function rate had changed from 26.2 % on admission to 26.3 % after PTCD and 54.5 % after PVE, while the left liver volume rate was 33.8, 33.3, and 49.6 %, respectively. The increase of liver function was higher than that of volume (28.3 vs. 15.8 %). On postoperative day 63, the curative operation, right

  14. Sonographic Imaging of a Hydrocele of the Spermatic Cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hae Jeong; Hwang, Jin Ho; Kim, Young Jun; Jung, Sung Il; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Sang Woo; Koh, Sung Min; Shin, Hyun Joon; Choi, Young Chil [Konkuk University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The US examination has been used to evaluate the infant and child having an inguino-scrotal bulge or mass for the non-invasive diagnostic work up to exclude neoplasm, cryptorchidism, lymphadenopathy, hydrocele of spermatic cord, etc. We performed this study to determine the characteristic ultrasound features of hydrocele of spermatic cord in children. From February 2002 to March 2007, 213 pediatric patients with swelling or palpable mass of the inguino-scrotal area, or suspected cryptorchidism underwent ultrasonography for evaluation of accurate diagnosis. Ninety three of 213 patients had a cystic lesion of the inguino-scrotal area. Among 93 patients, the sonographic images of 28 patients, who were confirmed as having hydrocele of the spermatic cord, were collected on a retrospective basis. The age of the patients ranged from 15 days to 11 years. The ultrasound images of the patients were subsequently reviewed to analyze the typical features in the diagnostic workup of hydrocele of spermatic cord. Eight patients were confirmed by surgery. Twenty patients who were less than one year old were clinically followed up. The most common finding was testicular hydrocele, which was found in 44 patients of the 93 patients that had a cystic lesion of the inguino-scrotal area. Of the 28 patients who had a hydrocele of spermatic cord, 10 patients had the lesions on the left side and 17 patients on the right side. One patient has bilateral hydrocele of spermatic cord. Well-defined elongated or elliptical-shaped cystic lesions were noted in the 24 of 29 cases (one patient had bilateral hydrocele of the spermatic cord). One patient had septations within elongated cystic lesion was seen and round shape in one case: tear drop shape was found in three cases. The most common ultrasound imaging of spermatic cord hydrocele is well-defined, elongated cystic mass separating the testes

  15. [Fibrosarcoma of the spermatic cord detected with an inguinal tumor : a case report]. (United States)

    Itami, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Yukinari; Iida, Kouta; Shinohara, Masatake; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Takenaga, Maho; Fujimoto, Kiyohide


    We report a case of fibrosarcoma of the spermatic cord detected with an inguinal tumor. A 45-year old man was admitted to our hospital for further examination of a right inguinal tumor. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right spermatic cord tumor,45 mm in size, and a retroperitoneal tumor in proximity to the right external iliac artery,55 mm in size. He was clinically suspected as having malignant lymphoma. As the differential diagnosis, liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma were considered. High orchidectomy was performed for the purpose of diagnosis. The histopathological examination suggested fibrosarcoma, with a positive surgical margin. Six days after high orchidectomy, retroperitoneal tumor extirpation was performed. Total resection was difficult because the adhesion with the external iliac vein was strong. The tumor was extirpated as much as possible. The result of the histopathological examination showed fibrosarcoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy (54 Gy) was performed. After radiotherapy, local recurrence was detected by CT. He underwent systemic chemotherapy with adriamycin (60 mg/m2). After 3 courses, there was a slight reduction in tumor size. However, his general condition rapidly deteriorated with marked cachexy and he died six months from the first medical examination.

  16. Embolia atrial de trombo flutuante da veia safena magna após escleroterapia com microespuma ecoguiada Atrial embolism of floating thrombus of the great saphenous vein after microfoam ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Pierry Ferreira Lopes


    Full Text Available A escleroterapia com microespuma vem sendo utilizada amplamente no tratamento da doença venosa varicosa. No entanto, a despeito da sua pouca invasividade e segurança, complicações potencialmente graves e letais já foram descritas, como o acidente vascular cerebral e parada cardiorrespiratória. Descrevemos um caso de embolia atrial tardia de trombo flutuante da junção safeno-femoral de veia safena magna varicosa, após escleroterapia com microespuma de polidocanol guiada por ultrassom, e o tratamento dessa complicação.Microfoam sclerotherapy has been widely used in the treatment of varicose vein disease. However, despite its low invasiveness and safety, potentially serious and lethal complications have been described, such as stroke and cardiorespiratory arrest. We describe a case of delayed atrial embolism of floating thrombus in the saphenofemoral junction of a great saphenous varicose vein after microfoam ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy, as well as the treatment of this complication.

  17. Multiple Echinococcosis with an unusual location in the spermatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Ksia · Case report. Multiple Echinococcosis with an unusual location in the spermatic cord treated successfully by Albendazole: A case report. A. Ksiaa,∗. , S. Mosbahia, S. Belhassena, A. Alayab, L. Sahnouna,. S. Sfara, K. Maazouna, R. Laamiria, J. Chaheda, I. Krichenea,.

  18. Torsion of the Spermatic Cord: An Exemplary Early Presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, in many series, late presentation is still the norm. In the index patient, the presentation time was very short. In our environment, patients with torsion of the spermatic cord can present early and be operated promptly if we can provide public health education, mobile phones, commercial taxis, and good road ...

  19. Paratesticular Liposarcoma of the Spermatic Cord: A Case Report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To report a case of paratesticular liposarcoma, a rare tumour and to review the literature on paratesticular liposarcoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 77-years old man with paratesticular liposarcoma originating from the left spermatic cord is reported. This patient noticed the lump eight years prior to its excision ...

  20. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the spermatic cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe


    Primary lymphomas of the spermatic cord (LSC) are rare and have only been described in 10 cases in the literature. The present study is a review of the clinicopathological features of LSC described in the cases reported in the literature and presents a new case. LSC is a tumour affecting middle...

  1. Torsion of the Spermatic Cord: An Exemplary Early Presentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 26, 2017 ... How to cite this article: Oluyemi OY. Torsion of the spermatic cord: an exemplary early presentation. Niger J Clin Pract 2017;XX;000-000. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix,.

  2. Numerical modeling process of embolization arteriovenous malformation (United States)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Gologush, T. S.; Petrenko, I. A.; Ostapenko, V. V.


    Cerebral arteriovenous malformation is a difficult, dangerous, and most frequently encountered vascular failure of development. It consists of vessels of very small diameter, which perform a discharge of blood from the artery to the vein. In this regard it can be adequately modeled using porous medium. Endovascular embolization of arteriovenous malformation is effective treatment of such pathologies. However, the danger of intraoperative rupture during embolization still exists. The purpose is to model this process and build an optimization algorithm for arteriovenous malformation embolization. To study the different embolization variants, the initial-boundary value problems, describing the process of embolization, were solved numerically by using a new modification of CABARET scheme. The essential moments of embolization process were modeled in our numerical experiments. This approach well reproduces the essential features of discontinuous two-phase flows, arising in the embolization problems. It can be used for further study on the process of embolization.

  3. Pulmonary Embolism (United States)

    A pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the ... and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can cause Permanent ...

  4. [Transhepatic embolization of oesophageal varices (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Doyon, D; Mouzon, A; Vadrot, D; Franco, D; Bismuth, H


    Embolization of the aeso-cardiotuberositary varices, by selective catheterization of the coronary vein of the stomach and the posterior gastrics, seems to be valuable palliative treatment in portal hypertension, owing to its relative innocuousness, inspite of a certain number of failures. It is carried out by transhepatic puncture of the portal system or catheterization of the umbilical vein.

  5. Fat Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yakovlev


    Full Text Available The incidence of fat embolism ranges from 0.5 to 30% in injuries with long and pelvic bone fractures; it also occurs in other diseases and conditions. Moreover, mortality accounts for 3 to 67%. There is still no clear idea on the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of fat embolism. This review gives current views on this problem. Key words: fat embolism, poly-trauma.

  6. Leiomyosarcoma of the Spermatic Cord in a Seventy-Five-Year-Old man. (United States)

    Dehghan, Arash; Sami, Ghazal; Eskandari, Nika


    Leiomyosarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor that can arise from any tissue containing smooth muscle. Leiomyosarcomas of the spermatic cord are rare tumors of non-testicular origin, which drain into the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and have been reported in less than 150 cases in the literature until now. Radical inguinal orchiectomy and high ligation of the cord is the standard primary surgical procedure in spermatic cord leiomyosarcoma. Here we reported a 75-year-old man who presented with a painless lump in the right hemiscrotum. A right radical orchiectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed a neoplastic tissue with mesenchymal origin in spermatic cord; further evaluation revealed a leiomyosarcoma of the spermatic cord. The patient was followed up for 1-year and shows no signs of recurrence. Preoperative diagnosis of spermatic cord leiomyosarcma is difficult and commonly made by histological examination and immunochemical staining.

  7. Anomalous branching pattern of the portal vein: right posterior portal vein originating from the left portal vein. (United States)

    Yasaka, Koichiro; Akai, Hiroyuki; Kiryu, Shigeru


    To introduce a rare variant branching pattern of the portal vein with clinical relevance. A 55-year-old man was examined by contrast-enhanced computed tomography to investigate the cause of fever and mildly elevated hepatic enzyme levels. Based on computed tomography, liver abscesses were identified which may have caused the fever and elevated hepatic enzyme levels. And a variation in the branching pattern of the portal vein was also detected in this patient, which has not been reported previously; the right posterior portal vein originated from the end of the horizontal part of the left portal vein. Identification of this rare branching pattern of the portal vein prior to hepatectomy, liver transplantation, and portal vein embolization is considered important to prevent complications. A rare variant in which the right posterior portal vein originated from the left portal vein was identified. Recognition of this variant may be important prior to surgical or interventional radiological strategies.

  8. Spermatic and ultrasound characterization of young diabetic patients. (United States)

    La Vignera, Sandro; Lanzafame, Francesco; Di Mauro, Maurizio; Condorelli, Rosita; Vicari, Enzo


    Different authors showed clear correlations between diabetic disease and male reproductive damage (es. rate of nuclear DNA fragmentation, mithocondrial DNA mutations, increased of enzymatic glication products, etc...). The aim of this observational study carried out on a selected group of diabetic patients (average age 36) with primary infertility was to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in sperm in connection with duration of disease, glicemic control and seminal vescicular emptying in the post ejaculatory. All diabetic patients enrolled (20) were submitted to two consecutive spermiograms, ROS sperm analysis and transrectal ultrasound evaluation before and after ejaculation, performed according to standard conventional methods. Diabetic patients with better glicometabolic compensation (HBAI C < 7%) and duration of disease <5 years showed spermatic rate of ROS production significantly lower regarding the group with worse glicemic control and greater duration of disease. Diabetic patients with altered vescicular emptying in the post ejaculatory showed spermatic rate of ROS production significantly higher regarding patients with normal vescicular emptying. The degree of oxidative stress in sperm of diabetic patients follows the course of the other chronic complications, getting worse in connection with duration of disease and glicemic control. Altered vescicular emptying in the post ejaculatory could be an important mechanism for initiation of this higher response.

  9. [Pulmonary embolism]. (United States)

    Hecker, M; Sommer, N; Hecker, A; Bandorski, D; Weigand, M A; Krombach, G A; Mayer, E; Walmrath, D


    Pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal disorder and frequently seen in critical care and emergency medicine. Due to a high mortality rate within the first few hours, the accurate initiation of rational diagnostic pathways in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism and timely consecutive treatment is essential. In this review, the current European guidelines on the diagnosis and therapy of acute pulmonary embolism are presented. Special focus is put on a structured patient management based on the individual risk of early mortality. In particular risk assessment and new risk-adjusted treatment recommendations are presented and discussed in this article.

  10. Varicocele Embolization (United States)

    ... and devices that monitor your heart beat and blood pressure. top of page How is the procedure performed? Image-guided, minimally invasive procedures such as varicocele embolization are most often ...

  11. Assessment of risk and prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in medically ill patients during their early days of hospital stay at a tertiary care center in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Pandey


    Full Text Available Ambarish Pandey, Nivedita Patni, Mansher Singh, Randeep GuleriaDepartment of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaAim: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary thromboembolism (PE are important causes of morbidity and mortality in medically ill patients. This study was done to assess risk factors and prophylaxis given for DVT and PE in newly admitted medically ill patients during the first two weeks of their hospital stay at a tertiary care center hospital in India.Methods: All patients within one week of their admission in intensive care unit (ICU and wards were enrolled in the study after an informed written consent. Patients who had DVT prophylaxis within the past month or any contraindications for DVT prophylaxis were excluded. A structured proforma was designed and effective risk stratification for DVT was done. Patients were followed for up to two weeks to record any changes in the risk categories and document any signs of PE or DVT if present. Any prophylaxis given for DVT or PE was noted.Results: Seventy-five percent of patients had the highest risk for DVT and PE. Only 12.5% had DVT prophylaxis within the first two days of admission. Within two weeks of admission, 30.8% of patients were discharged, and 16.2% died. 72.6% of the patients still in the wards belonged to the highest risk category. Clinical signs and symptoms of DVT and PE were present in 25.8% and 9.8% of patients, respectively after the second week of admission. 86% of symptomatic patients belonged to the highest risk category initially and none of them received any prophylaxis. 21.6% of the highest risk category patients died within two weeks of their admission. A statistically significant correlation was found between mortality and risk score of the patients for DVT and between lack of prophylaxis and mortality (p < 0.05.Conclusion: A significant risk for DVT and PE exists in medically ill patients, but only a small proportion of the patients

  12. Prevalence of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Associated Factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism (VTE) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. DVT is common in hospitalized patients with acute medical illness. Routine use of thromboprophylaxis has.

  13. Endovascular management for significant iatrogenic portal vein bleeding. (United States)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Park, Jonathan K; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu-Bo


    Background Despite conservative treatment, hemorrhage from an intrahepatic branch of the portal vein can cause hemodynamic instability requiring urgent intervention. Purpose To retrospectively report the outcomes of hemodynamically significant portal vein bleeding after endovascular management. Material and Methods During a period of 15 years, four patients (2 men, 2 women; median age, 70.5 years) underwent angiography and embolization for iatrogenic portal vein bleeding. Causes of hemorrhage, angiographic findings, endovascular treatment, and complications were reported. Results Portal vein bleeding occurred after percutaneous liver biopsy (n = 2), percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (n = 1), and percutaneous cholecystostomy (n = 1). The median time interval between angiography and percutaneous procedure was 5 h (range, 4-240 h). Common hepatic angiograms including indirect mesenteric portograms showed active portal vein bleeding into the peritoneal cavity with (n = 1) or without (n = 2) an arterioportal (AP) fistula, and portal vein pseudoaneurysm alone with an AP fistula (n = 1). Successful transcatheter arterial embolization (n = 2) or percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (n = 2) was performed. Embolic materials were n-butyl cyanoacrylate alone (n = 2) or in combination with gelatin sponge particles and coils (n = 2). There were no major treatment-related complications or patient mortality within 30 days. Conclusion Patients with symptomatic or life-threatening portal vein bleeding following liver-penetrating procedures can successfully be managed with embolization.

  14. Dysregulated Apoptosis Through the Intrinsic Pathway in the Internal Spermatic Vein of Patients With Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane-Dar Lee


    Conclusion: We showed overexpression of Bcl-2 and downregulation of caspase-9 expression in the ISV under hypoxic stress. This indicated dysregulated apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway in the ISV of patients with varicocele. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the apoptotic pathway in the human ISV. Additional studies are needed to establish whether adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy reduces the recurrence rate after varicocelectomy.

  15. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy of internal spermatic veins for varicocele treatment: technique, complications, and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Crestani


    Full Text Available Varicocele repair is mainly indicated in young adult patients with clinical palpable varicocele and abnormal semen parameters. Varicocele treatment is associated with a significant improvement in sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and pregnancy rate. Antegrade scrotal sclerotherapy (ASS represented one of the main alternatives to the traditional inguinal or suprainguinal surgical ligation. This article reviews the use of ASS for varicocele treatment. We provide a brief overview of the history of the procedure and present our methods used in ASS. In addition, we review complication and success of ASS, including our own retrospective data of treating 674 patients over the last 17 years. Herein, we analyzed step by step the ASS technique and described our results with an original modified technique with a long follow-up. Between December 1997 and December 2014, we performed 674 ASS. Mean operative time was 14 min (range 9 to 50 min. No significant intraoperative complications were reported. Within 90 days from the procedure, postoperative complications were recorded in overall 49 (7.2% patients. No major complications were recorded. A persistent/recurrent varicocele was detected in 40 (5.9% cases. In 32/40 (80% cases, patients showed preoperative grade III varicoceles. In patients with a low sperm number before surgery, sperm count improved from 13 × 10 6 to 21 × 10 6 ml−1 (P < 0.001. The median value of the percentage of progressive motile forms at 1 h improved from 25% to 45% (P < 0.001. Percentage of normal forms increased from 17% before surgery to 35% 1 year after the procedure (P < 0.001. In the subgroup of the 168 infertile patients, 52 (31% fathered offspring at a 12-month-minimum follow-up. Therefore, ASS is an effective minimal invasive treatment for varicocele with low recurrence/persistence rate.

  16. Sertoli cell tumors associated with feminizing syndrome and spermatic cord torsion in two cryptorchid dogs


    QUARTUCCIO, Marco; MARINO*, Gabriele; Garufi, Giuseppe; Cristarella, Santo; Zanghì, Antonina


    The association of cryptorchidism, functional Sertoli cell tumors, and spermatic cord torsion has been rarely reported in the literature. Two dogs were admitted for bilateral skin alopecia and weight loss. Both animals were cryptorchid and displayed a pendulous preputial sheath, prostate hypertrophy, and increased levels of circulating oestrogen. Transabdominal palpation and ultrasonography revealed the presence of neoplastic retained gonads. During surgery, spermatic cord torsion was also de...

  17. Surgery or embolization for varicoceles in subfertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja C. J. Kroese

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDA varicocele is a meshwork of distended blood vessels in the scrotum, usually left-sided, due to dilatation of the spermatic vein. Although the concept that a varicocele causes male subfertility has been around for more than 50 years now, the mechanisms by which a varicocele would affect fertility have not yet been satisfactorily explained. Neither is there sufficient evidence to explain the mechanisms by which varicocelectomy would restore fertility. Furthermore, it has been questioned whether a causal relation exists at all between the distension of the pampiniform plexus (a network of many small veins found in the human male spermatic cord and impairment of fertility.OBJECTIVESTo evaluate the effect of varicocele treatment on live birth and pregnancy rate in subfertile couples where the male has a varicocele.METHODSSearchWe searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Trials Register (12 September 2003 to January 2012, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2012, Medline (January 1966 to January 2012, Embase (January 1985 to January 2012, PsycINFO (to Week 1 2012 and reference lists of articles. In addition, we handsearched specialist journals in the field from their first issue until 2012. We also checked cross-references, references from review articles and contacted researchers in the field.Selection criteriaRandomized controlled trials (RCTs were included if they were relevant to the clinical question posed. If they reported pregnancy rates or live birth rates as an outcome measure, and if they reported data in treated (surgical ligation or radiological embolization of the internal spermatic vein compared to untreated or placebo groups. Two authors independently screened potentially relevant trials. Any differences of opinion were resolved by consensus (none occurred for this review.Data collection and analysisTen studies met the inclusion criteria for the

  18. Liposarcoma of the Spermatic Cord Masquerading as an Inguinal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Londeree


    Full Text Available This is a case of a 70-year-old male who presented with a mass in his right testicle. He was treated with antibiotics for epididymitis while undergoing serial ultrasounds for one year due to testicular swelling and pain. His fourth ultrasound revealed a mild hydrocele with a large paratesticular mass of undescribed size, superior to the right testicle, thought to be an inguinal hernia. Preoperative CT scan demonstrated a large fat-containing inguinal hernia extending into the scrotal sac. An inguinal hernia repair was complicated by fatty tissue surrounding the testicle requiring a right orchiectomy. Pathology review of the tissue demonstrated well-differentiated liposarcoma with a small focus of dedifferentiation grade 2 tumor. Tumor was identified at the inked margins indicating an incomplete resection. It was decided that no further surgical intervention was needed and the patient would undergo surveillance for local tumor recurrence. Six-month follow-up MRI scan was negative for any recurrence of disease. A liposarcoma presenting as a paratesticular mass with spermatic cord involvement is rare, and imaging studies may fail to distinguish a liposarcoma from normal adipose tissue.

  19. Early Diagnosis of Posttraumatic Deep Vein Thrombosis - A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The importance of early diagnosis and treatment of deep vein thrombosis in patients with fractures of long bones. INTRODUCTION: Associated injury to deep-veins in limb fractures presents a serious pathology. It results not only to localized venous occlusion but also to death from pulmonary embolism.

  20. A Tight Spot After Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amir, Rabia; Yeh, Lu; Montealegre-Gallegos, Mario; Saraf, Rabya; Matyal, Robina; Mahmood, Feroze


    A 52-YEAR-OLD woman with a history of embolic stroke due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was referred to the authors’ institution for epicardial surgical pulmonary vein isolation with left atrial appendage resection. The patient had 2 previous failed pulmonary vein catheter ablations. Dense

  1. Carbon Dioxide Embolism during Laparoscopic Surgery (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Kwon, Ja-Young


    Clinically significant carbon dioxide embolism is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia administered during laparoscopic surgery. Its most common cause is inadvertent injection of carbon dioxide into a large vein, artery or solid organ. This error usually occurs during or shortly after insufflation of carbon dioxide into the body cavity, but may result from direct intravascular insufflation of carbon dioxide during surgery. Clinical presentation of carbon dioxide embolism ranges from asymptomatic to neurologic injury, cardiovascular collapse or even death, which is dependent on the rate and volume of carbon dioxide entrapment and the patient's condition. We reviewed extensive literature regarding carbon dioxide embolism in detail and set out to describe the complication from background to treatment. We hope that the present work will improve our understanding of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic surgery. PMID:22476987

  2. The effectiveness of percutaneous transarterial embolization for arteriovenous malformation

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    Jung, Won Sang; Hahn, Seong Tai; Lee, Sang Hoon [The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, Hyung Min [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the effectiveness of percutaneous transarterial embolization for the treatment of arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Seven patients with AVMs located in the kidney, liver, lung, chest wall, uterus and paraspinal region underwent angiography and percutaneous transarterial embolization. The embolic materials used were steel coil, gelfoam, contour emboli, and absolute alcohol; in some cases, more than one of these were employed. The analysed the angiographic findings and clinical status following embolization were assessed and analysed. The AVMs had tortuous, dilated feeding arteries (n=7) and veins with early venous drainage (n=6). In the hepatic AVM, a grape-like dilated vessel arose from the hepatic artery and was connected to the portal vein. In the uterine AVM, numerous dilated feeding arteries formed a honeycomb. In the feeding arteries of the chest wall AVM and in the nidus of the pulmonary AVM, aneurysms were present. In simple AVMs, the patient's symptoms were relieved by first embolization. Complex AVMs, however, required repeated embolizations for symptomatic relief. Although extensive, complex AVMs of the chest wall and uterus recurred after initial embolization, repeated treatment successfully improved the clinical status of such patients. The complications developing after emboliation were fever (n=3) and pain (n=3), but these were relieved by conservative care. Percutaneous transarterial embolization is a safe and effective therapeutic method for the treatment of AVM. In a case of inoperable complex AVM, repeated embolization is the only method for symptomatic relief and the maintenance of life.

  3. [A case of spermatic granuloma difficult to differentiate from malignant tumor]. (United States)

    Wada, Naoki; Kato, Yuji; Iwata, Tatsuya; Numata, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Yachiku, Sunao


    A 33-year-old man visited our hospital with complaint of painless left intrascrotal mass. A hard and rough induration in contact with the left testis was palpable. The laboratory data including beta-human churionic gonadotropin, alpha fetoprotein and lactate dehydrogenase were normal. Ultrasound sonography showed a large hypoechoic lesion at the left epididymis. Surgical exploration of this lesion indicated a malignant tumor of the epididymis or spermatic cord, and left high orchiectomy was performed. A milk-white nodule 6 cm in diameter was found in the resected specimen. Pathological diagnosis was spermatic granuloma. Fourteen cases of spermatic granuloma have been reported in the last twenty years in Japan. All of them were relatively small nodules and epididymectomy was performed for most of them. We selected radical orchiectomy because of a large nodule with suspicion of malignant lesion.

  4. Radiological features of azygous vein aneurysm. (United States)

    Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Moore, Michael


    Mediastinal masses are most commonly associated with malignancy. Azygous vein aneurysm is a very rare differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass. We report here three cases of azygous vein aneurysm including children and adult patients. In the pediatric patient it was further complicated by thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism. We describe the radiological features on CXR, MRI, CT, PET-CT, US and angiogram and their differential diagnosis. Imaging findings of continuity with azygous vein, layering of contrast medium on enhanced CT and dynamic MRA showing filling of the mass at the same time as the azygous vein without prior enhancement will be strongly suggestive of azygous vein aneurysm with transtracheal ultrasound being the definitive test in these patients. It is important to keep a vascular origin mass in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses. Also, in young healthy patients with pulmonary embolism, a vascular etiology such as azygous vein aneurysm should be carefully evaluated. This article will help the clinicians to learn about the imaging features of azygous vein aneurysm on different imaging modalities.

  5. Sertoli cell tumors associated with feminizing syndrome and spermatic cord torsion in two cryptorchid dogs (United States)

    Quartuccio, Marco; Garufi, Giuseppe; Cristarella, Santo; Zanghì, Antonina


    The association of cryptorchidism, functional Sertoli cell tumors, and spermatic cord torsion has been rarely reported in the literature. Two dogs were admitted for bilateral skin alopecia and weight loss. Both animals were cryptorchid and displayed a pendulous preputial sheath, prostate hypertrophy, and increased levels of circulating oestrogen. Transabdominal palpation and ultrasonography revealed the presence of neoplastic retained gonads. During surgery, spermatic cord torsion was also detected in the enlarged neoplastic testes of both dogs. Histologic examination confirmed the presence of Sertoli cell tumors that were primarily responsible for the feminizing syndrome. Complete remission of all symptoms occurred within 3 months after orchiectomy. PMID:22705745

  6. Mortality from pulmonary embolism is decreasing in hospital patients (United States)

    Kopcke, Douglas; Harryman, Ondina; Benbow, Emyr W; Hay, Charles; Chalmers, Nicholas


    Objectives Pulmonary embolism is believed to be a common cause of death of hospital inpatients. The aims of this study were to estimate the number of deaths caused by pulmonary embolism and the potential to reduce this by the use of caval filters according to accepted indications. Design Review of autopsy reports and death notification records from 2007 and 2008. When pulmonary embolism was given as cause of death (in the autopsy report or in section 1 a-c or part 2 of the Medical Certificate of the Cause of Death), hospital records were reviewed for evidence of pre-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and for evidence of accepted indications for caval filter placement. Setting Large UK teaching hospital. Participants Hospital inpatients whose deaths were attributed to pulmonary embolism. Main outcome measures Proportion of deaths adjudged at autopsy to be due to pulmonary embolism; evidence of pre-mortem diagnosis of DVT or pulmonary embolism; total number of hospital admission and deaths. Results From a total of 186,517 adult inpatient admissions there were 2583 (1.4%) adult inpatient deaths of which 696 (27%) underwent autopsy. Of those undergoing autopsy, 14 (2.0%, 95% CI 1.2–3.3%) deaths were caused by pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary embolism was recorded as a cause of death in a further 12 (0.7%) of 1773 patients who did not undergo autopsy. Of these, five had a pre-mortem diagnosis of DVT or pulmonary embolism. Conclusions The proportion of deaths caused by pulmonary embolism appears to be considerably lower than the widely published rate, and of this small number, few have a pre-mortem diagnosis of DVT or pulmonary embolism. There is little scope for further reduction of pulmonary embolism mortality through use of caval filters according to guidelines. Current policy on pulmonary embolism risk prevention appears to be based on an over-estimate of the level of risk. PMID:21816931

  7. Testicular torsion and acute epididymitis; procaine infiltration of the spermatic cord as an aid in differentiation. (United States)

    SMITH, G I


    Infiltration of the spermatic cord with procaine was used in two cases in differentiating torsion of the testis from acute epididymitis. Detorsion was accomplished by manipulation during anesthesia, making it possible to do a corrective operation at a convenient time rather than carry it out as an emergency measure.

  8. Spindle cell lipoma of the spermatic cord – a report with review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of spindle cell lipoma of the spermatic cord is reported in a 60-year old Saudi male who presented with a one-year history of painless, firm, right testicular mass provisionally diagnosed as a testicular tumour. The final diagnosis of spindle cell lipoma of the cord was made following histopathology of the excised ...

  9. Varicose vein - noninvasive treatment (United States)

    Sclerotherapy; Laser therapy - varicose veins; Radiofrequency vein ablation; Endovenous thermal ablation; Ambulatory phlebectomy; Transilluminated power phlebotomy; Endovenous laser ablation; Varicose vein ...

  10. Cement pulmonary embolism after vertebroplasty. (United States)

    Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Lamúa Riazuelo, José Ramón; Gallego Rivera, José Ignacio; Vázquez Díaz, Mónica


    In recent years, the use of vertebral cementing techniques for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty has spread for the treatment of pain associated with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This is also associated with the increased incidence of complications related with these procedures, the most frequent being originated by leakage of cementation material. Cement can escape into the vertebral venous system and reach the pulmonary circulation through the azygous system and cava vein, producing a cement embolism. This is a frequent complication, occurring in up to 26% of patients undergoing vertebroplasty but, since most patients have no clinical or hemodynamical repercussion, this event usually goes unnoticed. However, some serious, and even fatal cases, have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient who underwent vertebroplasty for persistent pain associated with osteoporotic L3 vertebral fracture and who developed a cement leak into the cava vein and right pulmonary artery during the procedure. Although he developed a pulmonary cement embolism, the patient remained asymptomatic and did not present complications during follow-up. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Transjugular preoperative portal embolization (TJPE) a pilot study. (United States)

    Perarnau, Jean-Marc; Daradkeh, Salam; Johann, Marc; Deneuville, Michele; Weinling, Pierre; Coniel, Claudine


    Because of our previous experience with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, we decided to apply the transjugular approach to preoperative portal embolization. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility and the potential advantages and disadvantages of this new method. Under ultrasound guidance the right or left portal branch was punctured from the right, median or left hepatic vein. Then, a catheter was placed near the portal bifurcation and used to perform right portal branch embolization with a mixture of Histoacryl and Lipiodol. Pre- and post-transjugular preoperative portal embolization duplex ultrasound and CT scan were performed to assess portal flow and liver tissue growth. Hospital stay, pain and hepatic enzymes were monitored. Fifteen patients underwent a transjugular preoperative portal embolization without any serious complication. Mean of hospital stay was 3.3 +/- 0.6 days. (2-5 days). Portal embolization was successful in all cases; left portal branch velocity increased from 11.8 +/- 7.5 cm/s before, to 16.5 +/- 3.5 cm/s on day one, and 14.8 +/- 3.3 cm/s on day 28 after transjugular preoperative portal embolization; volume of non-embolized segments increased by 10% within the 4 weeks after transjugular preoperative portal embolization. Right hepatectomy was possible in 12 patients This method is safe, painless, and can be proposed in cases of impossibility to perform the standard percutaneous transhepatic portal embolization (tumor interposition, impaired hemostasis).

  12. Massive Pulmonary Embolism after Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Akar


    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE is a rare complication that may result in death after lumbar spinal fusion surgery. Although pulmonary embolism mortality rates decreased with early diagnosis and treatment, delays in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is commonly seen even with advanced diagnostic methods. Even though it is rare, the risk of pulmonary embolism as well as thrombophlebitis and deep vein thrombosis are encountered in patients undergoing spinal surgery. In this case presentation, we discussed the case of pulmonary embolism determined in a young patient developing unconsciousness and then cardiopulmonary arrest following mobilization at the postoperative 12th hour after a lumbar spinal fusion surgery and determined to have severe right ventricular enlargement, leftward deviation of the interatrial septum, severe tricuspid failure at the bedside echocardiography and who was discharged after thrombolytic therapy.

  13. Adjustments in the diagnostic work-up, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, J.


    Pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal condition, in which an embolus, usually a thrombus originating from one of the deep veins of the legs, blocks one or more pulmonary arteries. This leads to impaired blood flow through the lungs. Pulmonary embolism is the third most common cardiovascular

  14. Update on Embolization Therapies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma. (United States)

    Kishore, Sirish; Friedman, Tamir; Madoff, David C


    The purpose of the review is to summarize the latest applications for embolotherapy in the management of patients with HCC according to BCLC stage. While traditionally reserved for patients with unresectable HCC and stage B disease, there is an important role for embolization therapies in earlier stage patients as an adjunct to ablation, bridging, or downstaging therapy, as a means to improve safety of resection, and potentially as an arterial ablative option in the case of radioembolization. Newer applications of radioembolization such as radiation segmentectomy have the potential to provide cure in localized unifocal disease, and transarterial chemoembolization-portal vein embolization and radiation lobectomy may provide a combination of treatment and future liver remnant hypertrophy for planned hepatic resection. There is also an increasing role for embolization in the treatment of stage C disease, and recent data suggest it can be used in combination with sorafenib with the potential for survival benefit over sorafenib alone, even in the case of portal vein tumor thrombus. Embolization therapies play an increasingly important role in patients with BCLC stage A-C hepatocellular carcinoma. While different therapies may be offered on a patient-specific basis, there are limited prospective RCT data to support superiority of one technique over another.

  15. First report of a spermatic granuloma and varicocele in a marsupial: A Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) Case Study. (United States)

    Schultz, B K; Palmieri, C; Nicolson, V; Larkin, R; Keeley, T; McGowan, M; Johnston, S D


    This study reports the first documented clinical case of a spermatic granuloma and varicocele in a marsupial. Initial clinical presentation included gross morphological changes in the left scrotal cord, epididymis and testis. Ultrasonography of the scrotum and spermatic cord, and gross and histopathological examination after hemicastration, confirmed the condition as a spermatic granuloma affecting the left caput epididymis, with a varicocele in the left proximal spermatic cord, which was causing azoospermia and infertility. Semen quality and serum testosterone secretion following a GnRH challenge was assessed prior to, and following surgery. After hemi-castration, an increase in androgen secretion to within normal reference ranges for the koala was observed with a subsequent increase in semen production and sperm quality resulting in the sire of a pouch young, 12months later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ipsilateral testicular necrosis and atrophy after 1,080-degree torsion of the spermatic cord in rats. (United States)

    Romero, Frederico Ramalho; Gomes, Regina Paula Xavier; Lorenzini, Fernando; Erdmann, Thomas Rolf; Tambara Filho, Renato


    To assess the incidence of testicular necrosis/atrophy immediately after 1 to 4 hours of 1,080-degree torsion of the spermatic cord, and 60 days after detorsion of the spermatic cord. 42 rats were divided in 7 groups. Except for the control group, surgical torsion of the right spermatic cord was performed in all groups (T0). After 1, 2, or 4 hours of torsion, each group underwent either ipsilateral orchiectomy (groups OT1, OT2, and OT4), or detorsion of the spermatic cord and observation for 60 days (groups DT1, DT2, and DT4), before they were evaluated for the presence of testicular necrosis/atrophy. Only one rat (5.5%) in groups OT1, OT2, and OT4 had testicular necrosis, in comparison with six rats (33.3%) in groups DT1, DT2, and DT4 (p=0.04). The incidence of testicular necrosis/atrophy was not different between subgroups T1, T2, and T4, and the control group (p>0.05). There was, however, a tendency toward greater incidence of necrosis/atrophy in the rats in group DT4. The incidence of testicular necrosis/atrophy immediately after 1 to 4 hours of 1,080-degree torsion of the spermatic cord is 5.5%, in comparison with 33.3% sixty days after detorsion of the spermatic cord.

  17. Totally implantable catheter embolism: two related cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Chaves Ribeiro

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Long-term totally implantable catheters (e.g. Port-a-Cath® are frequently used for long-term venous access in children with cancer. The use of this type of catheter is associated with complications such as infection, extrusion, extravasation and thrombosis. Embolism of catheter fragments is a rare complication, but has potential for morbidity. The aim here was to report on two cases in which embolism of fragments of a long-term totally implantable catheter occurred. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case series study at Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual, São Paulo. METHODS: Retrospective review of catheter embolism in oncological pediatric patients with long-term totally implantable catheters. RESULTS: The first patient was a 3-year-old girl diagnosed with stage IV Wilms' tumor. Treatment was started with the introduction of a totally implantable catheter through the subclavian vein. At the time of removal, it was realized that the catheter had fractured inside the heart. An endovascular procedure was necessary to remove the fragment. The second case was a boy diagnosed with stage II Wilms' tumor at the age of two years. At the time of removal, it was noticed that the catheter had disconnected from the reservoir and an endovascular procedure was also necessary to remove the embolized catheter. CONCLUSION: Embolism of fragments of totally implantable catheters is a rare complication that needs to be recognized even in asymptomatic patients.

  18. Imaging Findings of Angiomyxolipoma of the Spermatic Cord Mimicking Inguinal Hernia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Suk; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye-Suk; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Jung, Ah Young [Department of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul 150-950 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dae Hyun; Kim, Ji Won [Department of General Surgery, Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul 150-950 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Won [Department of Pathology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul 150-950 (Korea, Republic of)


    We report the case in a 72-year-old man who presented with a right inguinal mass and with a one month history that was initially interpreted as an inguinal hernia. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a right inguinal mass, including myxoid and fat component, extending from the right spermatic cord to the right inguinal subcutaneous layer. Mass excision was performed, and the diagnosis turned out to be angiomyxolipoma. Angiomyxolipoma is a rare tumor and the preoperative diagnosis of this disease is very difficult. However, angiomyxolipoma of the spermatic cord should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with an irreducible inguinal mass. Imaging diagnosis, such as US and CT may help to make a preoperative diagnosis.

  19. A case of descending colon carcinoma metastasized to left spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis (United States)

    Augustin, Herbert; Popper, Helmut; Pummer, Karl


    We report a case of descending colon carcinoma metastasized to the left spermatic cord, testis, and epididymis. A 77-year old male patient underwent a left hemicolectomy for a descending colon cancer. He was referred to our department because of swelling and pain of the left scrotum two years and six months after surgery. High left orchiectomy was performed. Histological examination revealed a metastasis of the colon carcinoma within the spermatic cord and epididymis approaching the testicle. Reports on metastatic cancer of the testis are scarce, because this metastatic cancer is extremely rare. In general, testicular pain is rare in the elderly. We suggest that any elder presenting with testicular pain deserves a complete clinical and diagnostic evaluation. PMID:24578939

  20. Torsion of the spermatic cord - a review. | Obi | Ebonyi Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Torsion of the spermatic cord - a review. A.O Obi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  1. Novel Rat Model of Repetitive Portal Venous Embolization Mimicking Human Non-Cirrhotic Idiopathic Portal Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Sabine; Hinüber, Christian; Hittatiya, Kanishka


    BACKGROUND: Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is characterized by splenomegaly, anemia and portal hypertension, while liver function is preserved. However, no animal models have been established yet. This study assessed a rat model of NCIPH and characterized the hemodynamics......, and compared it to human NCIPH. METHODS: Portal pressure (PP) was measured invasively and coloured microspheres were injected in the ileocecal vein in rats. This procedure was performed weekly for 3 weeks (weekly embolization). Rats without and with single embolization served as controls. After four weeks (one...... in the weekly embolization group. Fibrotic markers αSMA and Desmin were upregulated in weekly embolized rats. DISCUSSION: This study establishes a model using repetitive embolization via portal veins, comparable with human NCIPH and may serve to test new therapies....

  2. Recurrence of superficial vein thrombosis in patients with varicose veins. (United States)

    Karathanos, Christos; Spanos, Konstantinos; Saleptsis, Vassileios; Tsezou, Aspasia; Kyriakou, Despina; Giannoukas, Athanasios D


    To investigate which factors other than history of superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) are associated with recurrent spontaneous SVT episodes in patients with varicose veins (VVs). Patients with a history of spontaneous SVT and VVs were followed up for a mean period of 55 months. Demographics, comorbidities, and thrombophilia screening test were analyzed. Patients were grouped according to the clinical-etiology-anatomy-pathophysiology classification. A multiple logistic regression analysis with the forward likelihood ratio method was undertaken. Thirteen patients out of 97 had a recurrence SVT episode during the follow-up period. All those patients were identified to have a thrombophilia defect. Protein C and S, antithrombin, and plasminogen deficiencies were more frequently present in patients without recurrence. Gene mutations were present in 38% in the nonrecurrence group and 77% in the recurrence group. After logistic regression analysis, patients with dislipidemia and mutation in prothrombin G20210A (FII) had an increased risk for recurrence by 5.4-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively. No deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism occurred. Dislipidemia and gene mutations of F II are associated with SVT recurrence in patients with VVs. A selection of patients may benefit from anticoagulation in the short term and from VVs intervention in the long term. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A retrospective analysis of patients treated for superficial vein thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, I. M.; Haighton, M.; Büller, H. R.; Middeldorp, S.


    Introduction: The absolute risk of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) as well as extension and/or recurrence in superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) of the leg is considerable and underestimated. We retrospectively evaluated therapeutic management, thrombophilic risk factors and

  4. Popliteal vein aneurysm | Ibirogba | South African Journal of Surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most patients are asymptomatic, but the condition can present as an unusual source of fatal pulmonary embolism.2,3 Other symptomatic presentations include swelling in the popliteal fossa, local pain and the post-phlebitic syndrome. We present a case of an asymptomatic popliteal vein aneurysm detected on routine ...

  5. Prevalence of deep vein thrombosis and associated factors in adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) collectively referred to as venous thromboembolism (VTE) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. DVT is common in hospitalized patients with acute medical illness. Routine use of thromboprophylaxis has been shown to ...

  6. Effect of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin on spermatic parameters and testicular histopathology in male wistar rats (United States)

    Bagheri, Seyyed Majid; Yadegari, Maryam; Porentezari, Majid; Mirjalili, Aghdas; Hasanpor, Ashraf; Dashti, R. Mohammad Hossein; Anvari, Morteza


    Background: In Ayurveda and traditional medicines of different countries such as Iran, America and Brazil, asafoetida has been used as an aphrodisiac agent. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of asafoetida on spermatic and testicular parameters in treated rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats divided equally to five groups (one control and four test groups receiving 25, 50,100 and 200 mg/kg asafoetida respectively). After 6 weeks, a small part of the cauda epididymis of each rat was dissected, and the spermatic parameters were evaluated for at least 200 spermatozoa of each animal. Testis of all rats was harvested for pathologic examination. The testosterone concentration of serum was also determined. Data were statistically assessed by one-way ANOVA and value of P 0.05). Conclusion: Asafoetida showed a positive effect on spermatic parameters although the histopathological effects on the testis were observed, particularly at high doses. PMID:26604552

  7. Effect of Ferula assa-foetida oleo gum resin on spermatic parameters and testicular histopathology in male wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Majid Bagheri


    Full Text Available Background: In Ayurveda and traditional medicines of different countries such as Iran, America and Brazil, asafoetida has been used as an aphrodisiac agent. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of asafoetida on spermatic and testicular parameters in treated rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats divided equally to five groups (one control and four test groups receiving 25, 50,100 and 200 mg/kg asafoetida respectively. After 6 weeks, a small part of the cauda epididymis of each rat was dissected, and the spermatic parameters were evaluated for at least 200 spermatozoa of each animal. Testis of all rats was harvested for pathologic examination. The testosterone concentration of serum was also determined. Data were statistically assessed by one-way ANOVA and value of P 0.05. Conclusion: Asafoetida showed a positive effect on spermatic parameters although the histopathological effects on the testis were observed, particularly at high doses.

  8. Ectopic adrenal tissue of spermatic cord in a 3- year- old boy, an incidental finding during orchidopexy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka Pigac


    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenal tissue is usually found in kidney and retroperitoneum, yet other locations are considered uncommon. Spermatic cord remains one of the sites where this entity is mostly incidentally found during surgical procedure in childhood. Macroscopically, it represents as yellowish, lipomatous nodule. We present a case of ectopic adrenal tissue of spermatic cord in a 3- year- old boy, found during orchidopexy of the right testicle. Histopathological analysis of the spermatic cord nodule revealed adrenal cortical tissue composed of zona fasciculata cells. Although usually being benign and asymptomatic, cases of hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma arising from ectopic adrenal tissue have been reported. Therefore, removal of this tissue, when detected, is recommended.

  9. Portal vein stent placement for the treatment of postoperative portal vein stenosis: long-term success and factor associated with stent failure. (United States)

    Kato, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Ohtsuka, Masayuki; Yoshitomi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Masaru


    Portal vein stenosis develops due to different causes including postoperative inflammation and oncological processes. However, limited effective therapy is available for portal vein stenosis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of a portal vein stent for portal vein stenosis after hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery and to determine the factors associated with stent patency. From December 2003 to December 2015, portal vein stents were implanted in 29 patients who had portal vein stenosis after hepatobiliary pancreatic surgery. We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of portal vein stent placement. Twelve clinical variables were analyzed for their role in stent patency. The symptoms before portal vein stent placements included nine patients with hepatic encephalopathy, six patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, four patients with ascites, and four patients with hyperbilirubinemia. Portal vein thrombosis due to postoperative portal stenosis was found in four patients. Portal vein stent were successfully implanted without any major complications. Of the 21 patients with symptoms, 17 showed improvement, and stent patency was maintained in 22 (76%) patients. The presence of a collateral vein is the only variable related to the development of an occlusion after portal stenting. Portal vein stent were implanted safely and had good long-term patency. This procedure is useful to relieve portal hypertension-related symptoms and to improve the quality of life. Our data strongly suggest that embolization to block blood flow in a collateral vein during portal vein stent placement will improve the patency of the stent.

  10. Thrombolysis for acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinberg, Joshua; Nielsen, Emil Eik; Jakobsen, Janus C


    BACKGROUND: About 5% to 10% of all deep vein thromboses occur in the upper extremities. Serious complications of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis, such as post-thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism, may in theory be avoided using thrombolysis. No systematic review has assessed the effects...... of thrombolysis for the treatment of individuals with acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of thrombolysis for the treatment of individuals with acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist...... of thrombolytics added to anticoagulation, thrombolysis versus anticoagulation, or thrombolysis versus any other type of medical intervention for the treatment of acute upper extremity deep vein thrombosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened all records to identify those...

  11. High-Flow Vascular Malformation in the Sigmoid Mesentery Successfully Treated with a Combination of Transarterial and Transvenous Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamo, Minobu, E-mail:; Yagihashi, Kunihiro [St. Luke’s International Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Okamoto, Takeshi; Nakamura, Kenji; Fujita, Yoshiyuki [St. Luke’s International Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology (Japan); Kurihara, Yasuyuki [St. Luke’s International Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)


    Mesenteric high-flow vascular malformation can cause various clinical symptoms and demand specific therapeutic interventions owing to its peculiar hemodynamics. We report a case of high-flow vascular malformation in the sigmoid mesentery which presented with ischemic colitis. The main trunk of the inferior mesenteric vein was occluded. After partially effective transarterial embolization, transvenous embolization was performed using a microballoon catheter advanced to the venous component of the lesion via the marginal vein. Complete occlusion of the lesion was achieved. Combination of transarterial and transvenous embolization may allow us to apply endovascular treatment to a wider variety of high-flow lesions in the area and possibly avoid the bowel resection.

  12. Direct observation of local xylem embolisms induced by soil drying in intact Zea mays leaves. (United States)

    Ryu, Jeongeun; Hwang, Bae Geun; Kim, Yangmin X; Lee, Sang Joon


    The vulnerability of vascular plants to xylem embolism is closely related to their stable long-distance water transport, growth, and survival. Direct measurements of xylem embolism are required to understand what causes embolism and what strategies plants employ against it. In this study, synchrotron X-ray microscopy was used to non-destructively investigate both the anatomical structures of xylem vessels and embolism occurrence in the leaves of intact Zea mays (maize) plants. Xylem embolism was induced by water stress at various soil drying periods and soil water contents. X-ray images of dehydrated maize leaves showed that the ratio of gas-filled vessels to all xylem vessels increased with decreased soil water content and reached approximately 30% under severe water stress. Embolism occurred in some but not all vessels. Embolism in maize leaves was not strongly correlated with xylem diameter but was more likely to occur in the peripheral veins. The rate of embolism formation in metaxylem vessels was higher than in protoxylem vessels. This work has demonstrated that xylem embolism remains low in maize leaves under water stress and that there xylem has characteristic spatial traits of vulnerability to embolism. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Primary mucinous cystadenoma of the spermatic cord within the inguinal canal. (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Yeon; Lee, Young-Taek; Kang, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, Chang-Hun


    We report a hitherto not documented case of primary mucinous cystadenoma arising in the spermatic cord within the right inguinal canal of a78-year-old man. The tumor was painless, hard and mobile. A computed tomography scan on the pelvis revealed an oval shaped, low attenuation mass, measuring 5.0x2.5x2.1 cm, that was present adjacent to the vas deferens. Grossly, the excised mass was multicystic mucinous tumor, filled with thick mucoid materials. Microscopically, the cystic wall was irregularly thickened. The cystic epithelium commonly showed short papillae lined by a single layer of columnar to cuboidal mucinous epithelial cells without significant stratification or cytologic atypia. Goblet cells were also frequently present. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells showed positive reaction to carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 20, CDX2, epithelial membrane antigen, and CD15. However, they were negative for PAX8 and Wilms' tumor 1 protein. Pathological diagnosis was a papillary mucinous cystadenoma of the spermatic cord. Although mucinous cystadenoma in this area is extremely rare, it is important that these lesions be recognized clinically and pathologically in order to avoid unnecessary radical surgery. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:

  14. Endovascular Treatment of an Iatrogenic Right Internal Jugular Vein- Right Subclavian Artery Fistula and Pseudoaneurysm During the Attempt of a Hemodialysis Catheter Insertion: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eui Min; Kim, Hyun Lee; Kim, Dong Hyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Complications during the placement of a central venous catheter, via the right internal jugular vein puncture include local hematoma, hemothorax, pneumothorax, central vein thrombosis, and hemopericardium. Iatrogenic right internal jugular vein-right subclavian artery fistula with the formation of right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysms is an extremely rare complication in patients undergoing a central vein puncture. We report the case of a patient who developed a local hematoma at the vein puncture site and dyspnea due to a right internal jugular vein-subclavian artery fistula and a right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm at the mediastinum after puncture of right internal jugular vein. The patient was successfully treated by embolization using microcoils.

  15. Catheter Fracture and Embolization Related to an Arm Venous Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent E. Burbridge


    Full Text Available This 55-year-old female had a chest X-ray during a follow-up visit for the management of her breast cancer. The chest X-ray demonstrated an embolized venous catheter superimposed upon the mediastinum. It was determined that the catheter of the patient's arm port had fractured and embolized to the pulmonary circulation. The catheter was retrieved, in the interventional radiology suite, under fluoroscopic guidance. The patient suffered no ill effects. Subsequently, one day later, the old vein port was removed and a new arm port and associated catheter were implanted to facilitate the delivery of the patient's ongoing chemotherapy.

  16. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Demirci


    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of presinusoidal portal hypertension. Portal vein thrombosis commonly occurs in patient with cirrhosis, malignancy and prothrombotic states. Patients with acute portal vein thrombosis have immediate onset. Patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis have developed portal hypertension and cavernous portal transformation. Portal vein thrombosis is diagnosed with doppler ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Therapy with low molecular weight heparin achieves recanalization in more than half of acute cases.

  17. [Massive pulmonary embolism]. (United States)

    Sanchez, Olivier; Planquette, Benjamin; Wermert, Delphine; Marié, Elisabeth; Meyer, Guy


    Massive pulmonary embolism is defined by systemic hypotension or cardiogenic shock. Clinically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography, elevated brain natriuretic peptide or troponin are usually considered as having sub-massive pulmonary embolism, but this definition is not universally accepted. The time-lag to confirm massive pulmonary embolism should be kept as short as possible and every effort should be done to rely on bedside tests and to avoid patient transfer to the radiology department. D-dimer tests are useless in this setting and the diagnosis is mainly based on clinical probability and bedside echocardiography. When clinical probability is high, right ventricular dilatation assessed by echocardiography allows confirming the diagnosis without additional testing. On the other hand a normal echocardiography does not allow excluding pulmonary embolism. In this setting, a spiral computed tomography is mandatory after the patient has been stabilized. Anticoagulant treatment should be started as soon as pulmonary embolism has been suspected. Supportive care includes oxygen, fluid loading and inotropes. There is little doubt that thrombolytic treatment is of value in patients with massive pulmonary embolism. Conversely, the use of thrombolytic therapy in patients with so-called sub-massive pulmonary embolism remains controversial. Current data do not confirm that thrombolytic therapy decreases mortality in those patients but cannot exclude a clinically significant benefit. A large randomised comparison of heparin and thrombolysis in patients with sub-massive pulmonary embolism is underway to answer this question. Surgical or catheter embolectomy is nowadays only rarely performed in patients with pulmonary embolism. This method can be undertaken in the few patients with persisting shock despite supportive care and who have an absolute contraindication for thrombolytic therapy. Before new data are available there is no special

  18. Computed tomographic evaluation of the portal vein in the hepatomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kee Hyung; Lee, Seung Chul; Bae, Man Gil; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong; Lee, Min Ho; Kee, Choon Suhk; Park, Kyung Nam [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Computed tomography and pornographic findings of 63 patients with hepatoma, undergone hepatic angiography and superior mesenteric pornography for evaluation of tumor and thrombosis of portal vein and determination of indication of transcatheter arterial embolization for palliative treatment of hepatoma from April, 85 to June, 86 in Hanyang university hospital, were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. In 36 cases, portal vein thrombosis was detected during photography. Nineteen of 37 cases which revealed localized hepatoma in the right lobe of the liver showed portal vein thrombosis; 9 of 11 cases of the left lobe; 8 of 14 cases which were involved in entire liver revealed thrombosis. One case localized in the caudate lobe showed no evidence of invasion to portal vein. 2. Twenty-four of 34 cases with diffuse infiltrative hepatoma revealed portal vein thrombosis and the incidence of portal vein thrombosis in this type were higher than in the cases of the nodular type. 3. The portal vein thrombosis appeared as filling defects of low density in the lumen of the portal veins in CT and they did not reveal contrast enhancement. 4. CT revealed well the evidence of obstructions in the cases of portal vein thrombosis and the findings were well-corresponded to the findings of the superior mesenteric photography. 5. Five of the cases of the portal vein thrombosis were missed in the CT and the causes were considered as due to partial volume effect of enhanced portal vein with partial occlusion or arterioportal shunts. 6. Six of 13 cases with occlusion of main portal vein showed cavernous transformation and they were noted as multiple small enhanced vascularities around the porta hepatis in the CT. According to the results, we conclude that CT is a useful modality to detect the changes of the portal veins in the patients of the hepatoma.

  19. Deep vein thrombosis: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesieme EB


    Full Text Available Emeka Kesieme1, Chinenye Kesieme2, Nze Jebbin3, Eshiobo Irekpita1, Andrew Dongo11Department of Surgery, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 2Department of Paediatrics, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria; 3Department of Surgery, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port-Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is the formation of blood clots (thrombi in the deep veins. It commonly affects the deep leg veins (such as the calf veins, femoral vein, or popliteal vein or the deep veins of the pelvis. It is a potentially dangerous condition that can lead to preventable morbidity and mortality.Aim: To present an update on the causes and management of DVT.Methods: A review of publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google.Results: DVT affects 0.1% of persons per year. It is predominantly a disease of the elderly and has a slight male preponderance. The approach to making a diagnosis currently involves an algorithm combining pretest probability, D-dimer testing, and compression ultrasonography. This will guide further investigations if necessary. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological. The goals of treatment are to prevent extension of thrombi, pulmonary embolism, recurrence of thrombi, and the development of complications such as pulmonary hypertension and post-thrombotic syndrome.Conclusion: DVT is a potentially dangerous condition with a myriad of risk factors. Prophylaxis is very important and can be mechanical and pharmacological. The mainstay of treatment is anticoagulant therapy. Low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin, and vitamin K antagonists have been the treatment of choice. Currently anticoagulants specifically targeting components of the common pathway have been recommended for prophylaxis. These include fondaparinux, a selective indirect factor Xa inhibitor and the new oral selective direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran and selective

  20. Germ cells may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels in surgery for intra-abdominal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, J M; Cortes, Dina; Visfeldt, J


    Laparoscopy is a well described modality that provides an accurate visual diagnosis upon which further management of intra-abdominal testes may be based. Laparoscopic ligation of spermatic vessels as stage 1 of the procedure is a natural extension of laparoscopy. A staged approach provides adequate...

  1. TESTICULAR TORSION AND ACUTE EPIDIDYMITIS—Procaine Infiltration of the Spermatic Cord as an Aid in Differentiation (United States)

    Smith, Gilbert I.


    Infiltration of the spermatic cord with procaine was used in two cases in differentiating torsion of the testis from acute epididymitis. Detorsion was accomplished by manipulation during anesthesia, making it possible to do a corrective operation at a convenient time rather than carry it out as an emergency measure. PMID:13059627

  2. Pulmonary Embolism following Cessation of Infliximab for Treatment of Miliary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Lee


    Full Text Available We report a case of a 41-year-old male who presented with tachycardia and swelling of his left arm six weeks after he started antituberculosis treatment and stopped his rheumatoid arthritis infliximab treatment. He was diagnosed with pulmonary embolism by chest CT and initially treated with warfarin, which interacted with his antituberculosis treatment. This presentation of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism as part of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has not been previously reported for infliximab treated patients.

  3. Effects of the polypropylene mesh implanted through inguinotomy in the spermatic funiculus, epididium and testis of dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Alberto


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of polypropylene mesh, implanted by inguinotomy, in the spermatic funiculus, epididium and testis of dogs. METHODS: Eighteen dogs were considered (12-23 Kg, separated in three groups. Group A (n=7: left side (with mesh versus right side (without mesh; Group B (n=7: left side (without mesh versus right side (with mesh and Group C (n=4: without any surgical manipulation (control group. After being observed for 60 days, the animals were subjected to bilateral removal of the spermatic funiculus, epididium and testis that were submitted to histological analysis. During the re-operation, a macroscopic evaluation was performed. RESULTS: On the mesh side, we noted 100% of mesh adherence to the posterior wall of the inguinal canal, as well as the adherence of the spermatic funiculus to the mesh. A congestion of the pampiniform plexus was noted in three animals. Chronic inflammation reaction and foreign body reaction in the spermatic funiculus was observed in 100% of the animals. On the side that did not carry a mesh, chronic inflammatory reaction was observed in 71% of the animals. All the animals presented chronic inflammatory reaction in the deferent duct in the mesh side and in eleven animals in the side without the mesh. These alterations were not found in Group C. There was a considerable statistical reduction in the average difference of the diameter of the lumen of the deferent duct in the mesh side. In the epididium and testis, macro and microscopic alterations were not significant, although one animal presented a marked reduction of spermatogenesis on the mesh side. CONCLUSION: The polypropylene mesh, when in contact with the spermatic funiculus of dogs, causes a more intense chronic inflammatory reaction and a significant reduction in the diameter of the lumen of the deferent duct.

  4. Effects of air embolism size and location on porcine hepatic microcirculation in machine perfusion. (United States)

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Efstathiades, Andreas; Keravnou, Christina; Georgiadou, Soteria; Martins, Paulo N; Averkiou, Michalakis A


    The handling of donor organs frequently introduces air into the microvasculature, but little is known about the extent of the damage caused as a function of the embolism size and distribution. Here we introduced embolisms of different sizes into the portal vein, the hepatic artery, or both during the flushing stage of porcine liver procurement. The outcomes were evaluated during 3 hours of machine perfusion and were compared to the outcomes of livers with no embolisms. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCEUS) was used to assess the perfusion quality, and it demonstrated that embolisms tended to flow mostly into the left lobe, occasionally into the right lobe, and rarely into the caudate lobe. Major embolisms could disrupt the flow entirely, whereas minor embolisms resulted in reduced or heterogeneous flow. Embolisms occasionally migrated to different regions of the same lobe and, regardless of their size, caused a general deterioration in the flow over time. Histological damage resulted primarily when both vessels of the liver were compromised, whereas bile production was diminished in livers that had arterial embolisms. Air embolisms produced a dose-dependent increase in vascular resistance and a decline in oxygen consumption. This is the first article to quantify the impact of air embolisms on microcirculation in an experimental model, and it demonstrates that air embolisms have the capacity to degrade the integrity of donor organs. The extent of organ damage is strongly dependent on the size and distribution of air embolisms. The diagnosis of embolism severity can be safely and easily made with DCEUS. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  5. Evaluation of Protein C Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Ceviz


    Full Text Available Objective: Pulmonary embolism is usually a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and develops as a result of obstruction of pulmonary artery and/or branches with pieces that ruptured from the DVT of the leg. Pulmonary embolism and DVT is also referred as venous thrombo-embolism (VTE, because two events often remain together. In the studies, it was found that protein C (PROC deficiency is a risk factor for pulmonary embolism. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between pulmonary embolism and PROC gene -1654C>T polymorphism in Turkish population. Methods: The DNAs of 114 pulmonary embolism cases and 120 healthy controls have been analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP to evaluate the relation between PROC gene -1654C>T polymorphism and pulmonary embolism in our study. Statistical analyses were performed by using chisquare and analysis of variance tests. Results: The proportion of individuals with CT genotype carrying polymorphic T allele as heterozygous form was 38.7% in the control group and 21.9% in the pulmonary embolism cases (p=0.047. When demographic and clinical characteristics of cases compared with PROC gene -1654C>T polymorphism, it was observed that the changes in chest CT ratios could be associated with -1654C>T polymorphism (p=0.017. Conclusion: As a result, individuals with CT genotypes carrying the polymorphic T allele as heterozygous form have a lower risk of developing pulmonary embolism.

  6. Amniotic fluid embolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla


    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse...

  7. Amniotic Fluid Embolism (United States)

    ... type, as well as a complete blood count (CBC) Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) to evaluate your heart's ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  8. Pulmonary embolism and stroke associated with mechanical thrombectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Bastianetto


    Full Text Available Mechanical thrombectomy offers the advantage of rapid removal of venous thrombi. It allows venous obstructions to be removed and requires shorter duration of infusion of thrombolytic agents. However, aspiration of thrombi can lead to complications, particularly pulmonary embolism and hemolysis. The validity of using vena cava filters during thrombectomy in order to avoid embolism has not yet been established. The authors report a case of massive pulmonary embolism associated with ischemic stroke in a patient with a hitherto undiagnosed patent foramen ovale. The patient developed respiratory failure and neurological deficit after thrombectomy. This case raise questions about the value of the thrombectomy for the treatment of proximal vein thrombosis due to the risks of this procedure. The authors also discuss the need for vena cava filters and ruling out a patent foramen ovale in patients undergoing thrombectomy.

  9. Focus on Varicose Veins (United States)

    ... plethysmography. These diagnostic tests are non-invasive and painless. How are varicose veins treated? Varicose veins are ... and mid-term results. • RF treatment involves controlled delivery of radio- frequency (RF) energy directly to a ...

  10. Portal Vein Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronny Cohen


    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is the blockage or narrowing of the portal vein by a thrombus. It is relatively rare and has been linked with the presence of an underlying liver disease or prothrombotic disorders. We present a case of a young male who presented with vague abdominal symptoms for approximately one week. Imaging revealed the presence of multiple nonocclusive thrombi involving the right portal vein, the splenic vein, and the left renal vein, as well as complete occlusion of the left portal vein and the superior mesenteric vein. We discuss pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management of both acute and chronic thrombosis. The presence of PVT should be considered as a clue for prothrombotic disorders, liver disease, and other local and general factors that must be carefully investigated. It is hoped that this case report will help increase awareness of the complexity associated with portal vein thrombosis among the medical community.

  11. Decrease in spermatic parameters of mice treated with hydroalcoholic extract Tropaeolum tuberosum “mashua”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Vásquez


    Full Text Available In this work, we provided a Tropaeolum tuberosum hydroalcoholic extract to male mice (780 mg kg-1 for 7, 14 and 21 days treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight gain, testes, epididymides and prostate weight (p> 0.05, nevertheless progressive motility decreased and immobile sperm count increased significantly after 21 days treatment (p <0.05. The sperm count in the epididymis cauda decreased in the 3 three assessments, concentration on 21 days treatment was significantly lower than those of 7 and 14 days treatments (p <0.05. Our results suggest, that T. tuberosum has a direct action on the male reproductive system decreasing spermatic parameters without exerting toxic effects on mice.

  12. Epicardially Based Pulmonary Vein Isolation for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation Utilizing Laser Energy in the Pig Model


    Li Poa, M.D; Jane Olin, DVM; Lester Wong, M.D; Philip Poa, CP; Pablo Zubiate, M.D, C.C.P; Christina Poa, CP


    Purpose Atrial fibrillation is a common disease that increases the incidence of cerebrovascular embolic events and cardiac dysfunction. Foci for atrial fibrillation have been mapped and found to be for the most part located within the ostia of the pulmonary veins. Since 2002 microwave and radiofrequency energy sources have been used to create pulmonary vein isolation lesions. This abstract summarizes the safety and efficacy of performing vein isolation lesions with laser as the energy sour...

  13. Epicardially Based Pulmonary Vein Isolation for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation Utilizing Laser Energy in the Pig Model


    Li Poa; Jane Olin; Lester Wong; Philip Poa; Pablo Zubiate; Christina Poa


    Purpose - Atrial fibrillation is a common disease that increases the incidence of cerebrovascular embolic events and cardiac dysfunction. Foci for atrial fibrillation have been mapped and found to be for the most part located within the ostia of the pulmonary veins. Since 2002 microwave and radiofrequency energy sources have been used to create pulmonary vein isolation lesions. This abstract summarizes the safety and efficacy of performing vein isolation lesions with laser as the energy sourc...

  14. What Are Varicose Veins? (United States)

    ... often they develop in people who have certain genetic disorders, viral infections, or other conditions, such as ... all people who have varicose veins have a family history of them. Older ... or blue veins in a web or tree branch pattern. Often, these veins appear on the ...

  15. Strategies for Resection Using Portal Vein Embolization: Metastatic Liver Cancer


    Elias, Dominique; Goere, Diane; Kohneh-Sahrhi, Niaz; De Baere, Thierry


    The oncological landscape is constantly changing with the development of new curatively intended therapeutic strategies. More and more, liver metastases are amenable to resection following the progress achieved as a result of new oncological concepts (i.e., treat detectable disease with surgery and ablative therapies and treat the remaining nondetectable disease with efficient chemotherapy) as well as improved chemotherapeutic and ablation techniques. One of the major limitations to extending...

  16. Clinical outcome of ovarian vein embolization in pelvic congestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hassan Abdelsalam


    Feb 20, 2016 ... women particularly during childbearing age and may account for 10% of outpatient gynecologic visits.1,2 Etiology of chronic pelvic pain includes irritable bowel syndrome, endometriosis, adenomyosis, pelvic congestion syndrome, atypical menstrual pain, urologic disorders, and psychosocial issues.3,4.

  17. Feasibility of laparoscopic portal vein ligation prior to major hepatectomy. (United States)

    Are, C; Iacovitti, S; Prete, F; Crafa, F M


    Patients noted to have an inadequate future liver remnant on pre operative volumetric assessment are considered to be candidates for portal vein embolization (PVE). A subset of patients undergo laparoscopic intervention prior to PVE for staging purposes or to address the primary in Stage IV colon cancer. These patients usually undergo PVE as a subsequent additional procedure by the transhepatic route. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of portal vein ligation by the laparoscopic approach in suitable patients. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed to identify patients that underwent laparoscopic portal vein ligation (LPVL). The demographic, clinical, radiographic, operative and volumetric details were collected to determine the feasibility of portal vein ligation. A total of nine patients underwent LPVL as part of a two stage procedure in preparation for subsequent major hepatectomy. With a median age of 67 yrs, the diagnoses included: colorectal metastasis (five patients), cholangiocarcinoma (three patients) and hepatocellular carcinoma (one patient). The ligation involved the right portal vein in all and was performed with silk ligature (seven patients) and clips (two patients). Volumetric data was available in six patients which showed a mean increase from 209.1 cc+/-97.76 to 495.83 cc+/-310.91 (increase by 181.5%) In two patients, inadequate hypertrophy mandated later embolization by percutaneous technique. Five patients underwent subsequent major hepatic resection as planned. The remaining four patients were noted to have progression of disease that precluded the planned procedure. There were no complications associated with LPVL. LPVL is feasible and can be safely performed. In a select group of patients, it may be considered as an alternative to subsequent embolization and thereby potentially absolve the need for an additional procedure with its attendant complications.

  18. Embolia gasosa Gas embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fagionato Locali


    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A embolia gasosa é uma lesão iatrogênica que possui alta morbimortalidade. É uma complicação decorrente de procedimentos clínico-cirúrgicos, sendo necessário o conhecimento dessa entidade pelos profissionais de saúde. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão dessa entidade, abrangendo seus aspectos fisiopatológicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos. CONTEÚDO: Este artigo revisa conceitualmente a embolia gasosa, separando-a em arterial e venosa. Relata as principais características fisiopatológicas, diagnósticas e terapêuticas das embolias arterial e venosa. Além disso, aborda-se a embolia paradoxal, evento advindo da conversão de embolia venosa em arterial. CONCLUSÕES: A embolia gasosa é uma complicação relevante e presente em muitas especialidades médicas. Uma compreensão acerca da sua fisiopatologia e dos métodos diagnósticos e terapêuticos é essencial para garantir maior segurança aos pacientes.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Gas embolism is an iatrogenic injury that has high morbidity and mortality. It's a complication of clinical-surgical procedures, and it's necessary that the health professionals know this entity. The aim of this study was to realize a review of the gas embolism, considering its pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics aspects. CONTENTS: This article revises conceptually the gas embolism, dividing it in arterial and venous. Relate the mains physiopathology, diagnosis and therapeutics characteristics of the arterial and venous embolism. In addition, it's also approach the paradoxical embolism, event that occurs by conversion of a venous embolism to an arterial embolism. CONCLUSIONS: Gas embolism is an important complication, and it's present in many medical specialties. Knowledge about its physiopathology, and its diagnosis and therapeutic methods is essential to guarantee higher safety to the patients.

  19. Pulmonary Embolism Caused by Intravenous Leiomyosarcoma of the Lower Limb. (United States)

    Kado, Soichiro; Goto, Masahide; Yamao, Hidetsugu; Tsukada, Toru; Sato, Masataka; Uekusa, Yoshifumi


    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is usually caused by thrombosis or tumor. We report the long-term survival of a patient with PE due to a leiomyosarcoma in the deep vein. A 71-year-old woman complained of dyspnea and swelling of the left lower limb. Computed tomography revealed filling defects in the pulmonary arteries and deep vein. She was diagnosed with PE caused by venous thrombosis and treated with anticoagulant therapy. Her symptoms were prolonged, and D-dimer tests remained negative. Biopsy of the substance in the deep vein revealed leiomyosarcoma. The possibility of PE caused by extravascular or intravascular tumors should be considered when a patient is negative for D-dimer.

  20. Spermatic Viability of Cryopreserved Semen of Piau swine breed analyzed by Thermo Resistant Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Hoshino da Costa Barros


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Barros M.H.C., Shiomi H.H., Amorim L.S., Guimarães S.E.F., Lopes P.S., Siqueira J.B., Pinho R.O. & Guimarães J.D. [Spermatic Viability of Cryopreserved Semen of Piau swine breed analyzed by Thermo Resistant Test.] Viabilidade espermática de sêmen congelado de suínos da raça Piau avaliada pelo Teste de Termorresistência. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária 36(2:131-136, 2014. Departamento de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, MG 36571-000, Brasil. E-mail: The objective of this study was to verify three protocols of semen cryopreservation on spermatic viability after thawing from Piau swine breed (Sus scrofa, by thermo resistant test (TTR. Twenty two ejaculates from 5 Piau mature boars were collected by glove hand technique. To freezing, the ejaculates was split and submitted to three protocols (P: (P1 freezing method proposed by Furst et al. (2005, altered by diluent media, (P2 freezing method proposed by Furst et al. (2005, altered by cooled curve; and (P3 freezing method proposed by Ohata et al. (2001. After thawing, semen was submitted to TTR, been incubated at 37o C by 2 hours, motility sperm (MOT and vigor (VIG was analyzed at 30 minutes of interval. MOT and VIG after thawing was 20.9±12.4, 29.5±10.9 and 49.5±12.1%; 2.5±0.5, 2.9±0.4 and 3.4±0.4, respectively to P1, P2 and P3. The TTR results show gradually decrease of motility and vigor along 2 hours of test procedure utilized, with best average to protocol 3 at all time of analyze. The protocol 3 tested by Piau boars shows highest values in cellular semen cryopreservation.

  1. A Case of Asymptomatic Venous Air Embolism Demonstrated on 18F FDG PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejanovic, Danijela; Alslev, Louise; Abrahamsson, Elisabeth


    We present the findings on F FDG PET/CT in connection with iatrogenic venous air embolism. The patient was referred for a posttreatment evaluation PET/CT for peripheral T-cell lymphoma. On the PET images, an intense FDG-uptake was seen in the injected vein. Simultaneous non-contrast-enhanced CT s...

  2. Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE) (United States)

    ... hysterectomy , which is the operation to remove the uterus. top of page What are some common uses of the UAE procedure? Uterine artery embolization has been used for decades to stop severe pelvic bleeding caused by: trauma malignant gynecological tumors hemorrhage after childbirth Uterine fibroid ...

  3. High-grade myxofibrosarcoma presenting at the spermatic cord after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. (United States)

    Tearada, Hiroshi; Nagata, Masao; Mugiya, Soichi; Ozono, Seiichiro


    A 72-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer presented 7 years postradiotherapy with a painless, egg-sized, rapidly growing nodule on the left groin at the radiation site. He underwent left high orchiectomy under a diagnosis of groin lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer. The tumour had penetrated deep into the internal inguinal ring and was resected as proximally as possible to the internal ring with a positive surgical margin. Macroscopically, the left testis was intact in the resected specimen. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumour consisted of myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) with spindle cells; and was positive for vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), MIB-1 and CD68, and negative for α-SMA, S-100, CD34 and myogenin. Thus, the tumour was diagnosed as high-grade MFS of the spermatic cord. Postoperative CT revealed a right renal tumour and adrenal tumour. Right radial nephrectomy was performed and the patient was doing well at 10-month follow-up.

  4. Bilateral Testicular Infarction from IgA Vasculitis of the Spermatic Cords

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    Mazen Toushan


    Full Text Available A 51-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented to the emergency room with increasing bilateral leg pain, rash, and scrotal swelling with pain. Skin biopsy from his thigh revealed IgA-associated vasculitis. Due to hematuria, a renal biopsy was performed and showed an IgA glomerulonephritis with focal fibrinoid necrosis and neutrophil accumulation. Bilateral orchiectomies were performed in two separate procedures ten and thirteen days after the renal biopsy, as a result of uncontrolled abscess formation in testicles. Microscopically, both testicles revealed large abscess formation destroying almost the entire testicular parenchyma without tumor cells. Spermatic cord margins were further scrutinized microscopically to show bilateral vasculitis in many small size vessels, confirmed by positive endothelial staining for IgA. Some of the affected arteries revealed central organizing thrombi with recanalization features, highly suggestive of vasculitis-associated thrombi formation, resulting in testicular ischemic infarction and abscess formation. We conclude that this adult patient developed a severe form of Henoch-Schönlein purpura, with vasculitis affecting multiple organs, including the most serious and unusual complication of bilateral testicular infarction.

  5. Elective orchidopexy in the paediatric population: a trial of intra-operative spermatic cord block. (United States)

    Blatt, A H; Cassey, J G


    It is well established that pre-emptive and multimodal analgesia improve pain control and decrease narcotic use as well as the length of stay. Whilst some form of local anaesthetic (LA) block is almost routine for most inguinal procedures in children, the best modality is uncertain for orchidopexy. We sought to explore as to whether the addition of spermatic cord block (SCB) to our standard ilio-inguinal block (IIB) in this situation had any impact on analgesic requirements post-operatively. A retrospective review of a single surgeon and single centre experience of LA block for elective orchidopexy is described for a 9-year period. In the first half of the study, the LA technique was an IIB. An SCB was added to the IIB in the second half using the same total dose of 0.8 ml/kg bupivacaine. In the entire group, 35% of the SCB + IIB boys required narcotics as compared to 56% with IIB alone (p > 0.05). On subgroup analysis of a "medium risk" procedure (i.e. inguinal approach for a superficial pouch testis) only 35% required narcotics in the SCB + IIB group as compared to 70% in the IIB (p < 0.05). Use of a SCB + IIB in elective orchidopexy in a paediatric population has additional benefit to IIB alone.

  6. Metastatic Tumor of the Spermatic Cord in Adults: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisaku Hirano


    Full Text Available Metastatic spermatic cord (SC tumor is extremely rare. Recently, we experienced a case of late-onset metastatic SC tumor from cecal cancer. This case is a 68-year-old man presenting with a painless right SC mass. He had undergone a right hemicolectomy for cecal cancer 6 years ago. Radical orchiectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 were performed. No recurrence was found after one year of follow-up. We identified a total of 25 cases, including our case, on a literature search via PubMed from January 2000 to April 2015. The most frequent primary sites of the tumors metastasizing to the SC were the stomach (8 cases, 32% and the colon (8 cases, 32%, next the liver (2 cases, 8%, and kidney (2 cases, 8%. The majority of the cases underwent radical orchiectomy for the metastatic tumors of the SC. Over half of the cases received adjuvant interventions based on the regimens for the primary tumors. Prognosis in the patients with metastatic tumor of the SC was unfavorable except for late-onset metastasis. In patients with a mass in the SC and a history of neoplasm, especially in gastrointestinal tract, the possibility of metastasis from the primary cancer should be considered.

  7. Marginal vein is not a varicose vein; it is a venous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Boong Lee


    Full Text Available Marginal vein (MV is one form of venous malformation (VM; MV is not a varicose vein. MV is the outcome of defective development during the later stage of embryogenesis while the vein trunk is formed. It is an embryonic vein tissue remnant remaining on birth following the failure of normal involutional process. MV is the most common VM involved to Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS; together with the lymphatic malformation, MV is one of two clinically most important congenital vascular malformation components among KTS. MV causes chronic venous insufficiency (CVI due to a unique condition of avalvulosis (lack of venous valve development it accompanies with. Besides, it accompanies a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE due to its structural defect with a lack of smooth muscle cell to form the media properly as a truncular VM infrequently causing fatal pulmonary embolism. Therefore, the MV is indicated for the surgical excision whenever feasible not only for the prevention of VTE and CVI but also for abnormal long bone growth known as vascular bone syndrome as well as lymphatic complication precipitated by MV.

  8. Vein mechanism simulation study for deep vein thrombosis early diagnosis using cfd (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nabilah; Aziz, Nur Shazilah Abd; Manap, Abreeza Noorlina Abd


    Using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique, this work focus on the analysis of pressure, velocity, and vorticity of blood flow along the popliteal vein. Since the study of early stage of Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) becomes essential to prevent the pulmonary embolism (PE), those three parameters are analysed to assess the effect of different opening between two valves of a normal popliteal vein. When only one valve is simulated, the result of pressure shows that the highest and lowest velocities are 15.45 cm/s and 0.73 cm/s, respectively. From the visualization of observed data, however, the different size of orifice between the first and second valves influencing the velocity and vorticity of the blood flow. The rotational motion of blood particle at the same region increases the probability of blood accumulating which is associated with the development of thrombus. Thus, a series of experiment has been conducted by changing the size of valve orifice for the first and second valves along the vein distribution. The result of the CFD simulation shows a significant variation in blood flow in terms of velocity and vorticity.

  9. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    CONCLUSION: Deep Venous Thrombosis is a common disease with fatal and serious long term burdensome complications. ... WAJM 2009; 28(2): 77–82. Keywords: Deep Vein Thrombosis, Venous Thrombosis,. Phlebothrombosis. ... phlebitic syndrome, ulcers and varicose veins. In surgical patients with malignant disease ...

  10. A re-appraisal of Warfarin control in the treatment of Deep Vein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Warfarin is commonly used for management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), controlling therapy by means of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Objectives: To identify differences in INR results between patients with thromboembolic and haemorrhagic complications and ...

  11. Duplex scanning in the diagnosis of acute deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramshorst, B.; Legemate, D. A.; Verzijlbergen, J. F.; Hoeneveld, H.; Eikelboom, B. C.; de Valois, J. C.; Meuwissen, O. J.


    In a prospective study the value of duplex scanning in the diagnosis of acute femoro-popliteal thrombosis was compared to conventional contrast venography (CV) as a gold standard. A total of 126 legs in 117 patients suspected of having deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) were

  12. Biocompatibility of Bletilla striata Microspheres as a Novel Embolic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShiHua Luo


    Full Text Available We have prepared Chinese traditional herb Bletilla striata into microspheres as a novel embolic agent for decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of Bletilla striata microspheres (BSMs. After a thermal test of BSMs in vitro, the cell biocompatibility of BSMs was investigated in mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells using the methyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. In addition, blood biocompatibility was evaluated. In vivo intramuscular implantation and renal artery embolization in rabbits with BSMs were used to examine the inflammatory response. The experimental rabbits did not develop any fever symptoms after injection of BSMs, and BSMs exhibited no cytotoxicity in cultured mouse fibroblasts and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Additionally, BSMs exhibited high compatibility with red blood cells and no hemolysis activity. Intramuscular implantation with BSMs resulted in a gradually lessened mild inflammatory reaction that disappeared after eight weeks. The occlusion of small renal vessels was associated with a mild perivascular inflammatory reaction without significant renal and liver function damage. In conclusion, we believe that BSMs exhibit high biocompatibility and are a promising embolic agent.

  13. Vein Problems Related to Varicose Veins (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  14. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT imaging of cardiovascular effects of pulmonary embolism: What the radiologists need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Aboul-fotouh E. Mourad


    Full Text Available Background: Patients with pulmonary embolism have high mortality and morbidity rate due to right heart failure and circulatory collapse leading to sudden death. Multi-detector computed tomography MDCT can efficiently evaluate the cardiovascular factors related to pulmonary embolism. Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT in differentiation of between sever and non-severe pulmonary embolism groups depending on the associated cardiovascular parameters and create a simple reporting system. Patients & methods: Prospective study contained 145 patients diagnosed clinically pulmonary embolism. All patients were examined by combined electrocardiographically gated computed tomography pulmonary angiography-computed tomography venography (ECG-CTPA-CTV using certain imaging criteria in a systematic manner. Results: Our study revealed 95 and 55 non-severe and severe pulmonary embolism groups respectively. Many cardiovascular parameters related to pulmonary embolism shows significant p value and can differentiate between sever and non-severe pulmonary embolism patients include pulmonary artery diameter, intraventricular septum flattening, bowing, superior vena cava and Azygos vein diameters, right and left ventricular diameters. Conclusion: Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT can be valuable to assess the severity of pulmonary embolism using the related cardiovascular parameters and leading the management strategy aim for best outcome. Keywords: Pulmonary embolism, MDCT, Cardiovascular, Computed tomography venography

  15. A Retrograde Transvenous Embolization Technique with Balloon-Assisted Arterial Aspiration for a Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformation with a Venous Pouch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhara, Asako, E-mail:; Tanaka, Norimitsu; Koganemaru, Masamichi; Kugiyama, Tomoko [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kiyokawa, Kensuke [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery and Maxillofacial Surgery (Japan); Abe, Toshi [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)


    Management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is challenging, and there is no consensus regarding either the ideal approach or the treatment timing. Percutaneous embolization is the most frequent approach currently used and is considered the first-line technique for AVMs. There is an ongoing discussion about the best technical approach to embolize AVMs. AVMs associated with a dominant outflow vein (DOV) are rare. Embolization of both the DOV and the nidus is considered more effective. Herein, we report a novel technique of transvenous embolization of a DOV under negative pressure from an arterial balloon catheter in a case of a peripheral AVM. This technique allows the embolization of the DOV and the nidus retrogradely.

  16. Evaluation of embolization for periuterine varices involving chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome. (United States)

    Siqueira, Flavio Meirelles; Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Rosa-E-Silva, Julio Cesar; Poli-Neto, Omero Benedicto; Castro-Afonso, Luis Henrique de; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Abud, Daniel Giansante


    To evaluate the clinical response and success rate after periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome and to report the safety of endovascular treatment and its rate of complications. Retrospective cohort of patients undergoing endovascular treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome in our department from January 2012 to November 2015. Data were analyzed based on patient background, imaging findings, embolized veins, rate of complications, and clinical response as indicated by the visual analog pain scale. We performed periuterine varices embolization in 22 patients during the study, four of which required a second embolization. Seventeen patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the first embolization and three patients reported a reduction in pelvic pain after the second embolization. Minor complications were observed in our patients, such as postural hypotension, postoperative pain, and venous perforation during the procedure, without clinical repercussion. Periuterine varices embolization in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to pelvic congestion syndrome appears to be an effective and safe technique.

  17. Embolism in retinal circulation after invasive cardiovascular procedures. (United States)

    Samardzic, Kristian; Samardzic, Pejo; Vujeva, Bozo; Prvulovic, Djeiti; Latic-Hodzic, Leila


    To determine the occurence of embolism in retinal circulation after invasive cardiovascular procedures and the risk of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). During a 3 month period 153 patients (303 eyes)--101 male/52 female--who had undergone coronarography or stent implantation were examined before and 24 hours after the procedure. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was taken, visual field examination was done and fundoscopy was performed. Eyes with the opacities in the anterior segment (corneal leucoma, dense cataracts) were excluded from the study. Prior to invasive procedure none of the patients had embolism in the retinal circulation. Embolism was found in 3 patients (male) who all had hyperlipidemia with normal blood pressure. Two of them had coronarography and one patient had stent implantation. One of the patients had a previous branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) that was treated with photocoagulation. They did not report any symptoms. BCVA was the same before and after the procedure. Two of the emboli were located in the first branch of the central retinal artery and one was located in the branch of cillioretinal artery. All of the emboli were transient after 48 hours. The study showed that invasive cardiovascular procedures do have the risk of developing transient embolism in retinal circulation. However, there have been reports of CRAO and BRAO after diagnostic cardiac procedures, therefore clinicians should be aware of this potential complication.

  18. An interesting septic embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Uluorman


    Full Text Available Septic pulmonary embolism is a rare disease but mortality and morbidity of it is high. Septic pulmonary emboli comes from infected heart valves, thrombophlebitis, and pulmonary artery catheter or infected pacemaker wires as many sources [1,2]. In recent years, pacemaker is a common treatment of the bradiarrhythmia that is persisted in the etiology of septic embolism, its applications has started to pick up [3]. There is the growing number of patients with pacemaker, according to this the frequency of pacemaker lead infection and the number of patients at risk for right-sided endocarditis increase [4]. The patients don't have specific clinical and radiological features because of this it is very difficult to define, so the diagnosis is often delayed [5]. A detailed medical history, a detailed physical examination in diagnosis and evaluation of good additional imaging methods is very important. Early diagnosis and proper treatment, the implementation of the management, can provide good results.

  19. Surgical Implications of Portal Vein Variations and Liver Segmentations: A Recent Update. (United States)

    Iqbal, Showkathali; Iqbal, Raiz; Iqbal, Faiz


    The Couinaud's liver segmentation is based on the identification of portal vein bifurcation and origin of hepatic veins. It is widely used clinically, because it is better suited for surgery and is more accurate in localizing and monitoring various intra parenchymal lesions. According to standard anatomy, the portal vein bifurcates into right and left branches; the left vein drains segment II, III and IV and the right vein divides into two secondary branches - the anterior portal vein drains segments V and VIII, and the posterior drains segments VI and VII. The portal vein variants such as portal trifurcation, with division of the main portal vein into the left, right anterior, and posterior branches, and the early origin of the right posterior branch directly from the main portal vein were found to be more frequent and was seen in about 20 - 35% of the population. Accurate knowledge of the portal variants and consequent variations in vascular segments are essential for intervention radiologists and transplant surgeons in the proper diagnosis during radiological investigations and in therapeutic applications such as preparation for biopsy, Portal Vein Embolization (PVE), Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-Systemic Shunt (TIPS), tumour resection and partial hepatectomy for split or living donor transplantations. The advances in the knowledge will reduce intra and postoperative complications and avoid major catastrophic events. The purpose of the present review is to update the normal and variant portal venous anatomy and their implications in the liver segmentations, complex liver surgeries and various radiological intervention procedures.

  20. Congenital preduodenal portal vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Hwang, Mi Soo; Huh, Young Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [College of Medicine, Youngnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)


    Congenital preduodenal portal vein, first reported by Knight in 1921, is an extremely rare congenital anomaly in which the portal vein passes anteriorly to the duodenum rather than posteriorly in its normal location. It is of surgical significance because it may cause difficulties in operations involving the gall bladder, biliary duct, or duodenum. Recently, we experienced 2 cases of preduodenal portal vein. One was found during surgical exploration for the diagnosis and correction of malrotation of the bowels and the other in a 3 day-old male newborn associated with dextrocardia, situs inversus, and duodenal obstruction by diaphragm. We report these 2 cases with a review of the literature.

  1. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur


    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  2. Germ cells may survive clipping and division of the spermatic vessels in surgery for intra-abdominal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, J M; Cortes, D; Visfeldt, J


    PURPOSE: Laparoscopy is a well described modality that provides an accurate visual diagnosis upon which further management of intra-abdominal testes may be based. Laparoscopic ligation of spermatic vessels as stage 1 of the procedure is a natural extension of laparoscopy. A staged approach provides...... studied 17 nonpalpable testes in 10 patients 1 year and 7 months to 13(1/2) years old. Results of testicular biopsies of 13 intra-abdominal testes taken at stages 1 and 2 of surgery were available for histological comparison. RESULTS: Median number of spermatogonia per tubular cross section...

  3. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato


    Full Text Available A 56-year-old male patient presented with a complaint of two painful, hard, palpable nodules in the right lower limb. A Doppler ultrasound scan revealed the presence of nodules, likely to be neoplastic. Computed angiography showed two solid hypervascular nodules in the right great saphenous vein, fed by branches of the posterior tibial artery. Embolization of the nodules using surgical cyanoacrylate was performed, followed by an excisional biopsy. Anatomical pathology and immunohistochemical analysis identified the nodule as a high-grade leiomyosarcoma, characterized by ten mitotic figures per ten high-power fields, necrosis and cell pleomorphism. Immunohistochemical analysis results were positive for caldesmon and desmin labeling. A second surgical procedure was performed to enlarge the free margins.

  4. Traversing boundaries: thrombus in transit with paradoxical embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Miriyala


    Full Text Available A 72-year-old male is diagnosed with paradoxical embolus after he presented with concurrent deep vein thrombosis, stroke, and multiple arterial emboli in the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO. Paradoxical embolus requires the passage of a thrombus from the venous into the arterial circulation through a right-to-left shunt leading to systemic embolism. But, despite the high incidence of PFO (27.3% across all age groups by autopsy, paradoxical embolism (PDE is uncommon, representing <2% of all arterial emboli. We present a case report where a thrombus has been directly observed passing through the PFO during an echocardiogram study; thus, clearly delineating the true cause of multiple thromboemboli and stoke in our patient. Subsequent Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE also interestingly showed the thrombus in transit in the aorta and pulmonary artery.

  5. Isolated Pulmonary Embolism following Shoulder Arthroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole H. Goldhaber


    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism (PE following shoulder arthroscopy is a rare complication. We present a unique case report of a 43-year-old right-hand dominant female who developed a PE 41 days postoperatively with no associated upper or lower extremity DVT. The patient had minimal preoperative and intraoperative risk factors. Additionally, she had no thromboembolic symptoms postoperatively until 41 days following surgery when she developed sudden right-hand swelling, labored breathing, and abdominal pain. A stat pulmonary computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest revealed an acute PE in the right lower lobe, and subsequent extremity ultrasounds showed no upper or lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. After a thorough review of the literature, we present the first documented isolated PE following shoulder arthroscopy. Although rare, sudden development of an isolated PE is possible, and symptoms such as sudden hand swelling, trouble breathing, and systemic symptoms should be evaluated aggressively with a pulmonary CT angiogram given the fact that an extremity ultrasound may be negative for deep vein thrombosis.

  6. What Are Varicose Veins? (United States)

    ... these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment ...

  7. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis (United States)

    ... methods that contain estrogen or hormone therapy for menopause symptoms Certain illnesses, including heart failure, inflammatory bowel disease, and some kidney disorders Obesity Smoking Varicose veins Having a tube in a ...

  8. Popliteal vein aneurysm. (United States)

    Falkowski, A; Poncyljusz, W; Zawierucha, D; Kuczmik, W


    The incidence of a popliteal vein aneurysm is extremely low. Two cases of this rare venous anomaly are described. The epidemiology, morphology, and diagnostic methods are discussed and the potentially dangerous complications and treatment methods are presented.

  9. Pulmonary thrombo-embolic disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, a number of new and exciting anticoagulant therapies are being developed for this disease. Definition. Pulmonary thrombo-embolic diseases can be either acute or chronic. Pulmonary embolism (PE) occurs with partial or complete obstruction of the central or peripheral pulmonary arteries by emboli. Incidence.

  10. Acute pulmonary embolism in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommen, C. Heleen; Peters, Marjolein


    Pulmonary embolism is an uncommon, but potentially fatal disease in children. Most children with pulmonary embolism have underlying clinical conditions, of which the presence of a central venous catheter is the most frequent. The clinical presentation is often subtle, or masked by the underlying

  11. Gas embolism: pathophysiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Robert A.; Klein, Jan; Lachmann, Burkhard


    Based on a literature search, an overview is presented of the pathophysiology of venous and arterial gas embolism in the experimental and clinical environment, as well as the relevance and aims of diagnostics and treatment of gas embolism. The review starts with a few historical observations and

  12. Twisting of the spermatic cord: ischemia and reperfusion, toxicogenetic evaluation, and the effects of phosphatidylcholine in pre-clinical trials. (United States)

    Coelho, H R S; Berno, C R; Falcão, G R; Hildebrand, C R; Oliveira, R J; Antoniolli-Silva, A C M B


    Phosphatidylcholine is the main phospholipid present in cell membranes and in lipoproteins, and can interfere with various biological processes. This lipid also has antioxidant activity, and protects against damage caused by free radicals under conditions of ischemia/reperfusion. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate toxicogenetic damage caused by twisting of the spermatic cord in ischemia/reperfusion, and whether phosphatidylcholine plays a role in conditions of ischemia/reperfusion in preclinical trials. The results indicate that spermatic cord torsion does not cause genotoxic damage or mutagenesis. A dose of 300 mg/kg of phosphatidylcholine is toxic and is thus not recommended. However, a dose of 150 mg/kg does not promote toxicogenetic damage, and though it does not statistically prevent tissue damage occurring from lack of oxygenation and nutrition of testicular cells, it has a tendency to reduce this damage. Therefore, this research suggests that further studies should be conducted to clarify this tendency and to provide a better explanation of the possible therapeutic effects of phosphatidylcholine in cytoprotection of germ cells affected by ischemia/reperfusion.

  13. Extensive uterine arteriovenous malformation with hemodynamic instability: Embolization for whole myometrium affection. (United States)

    El Agwany, Ahmed Samy; Elshafei, Mohamed


    Uterine arteriovenous malformation is abnormal and nonfunctional connections between the uterine arteries and veins. Patients typically present with vaginal bleeding which may be life-threatening. Treatment depends on the symptoms, age, desire for future fertility, localization and size of the lesion. Embolization of the uterine artery is the first choice in symptomatic AVM in patients in the reproductive age. We report a case of acquired AVM with an extensive lesion on ultrasound and MRI, which was successfully treated with uterine artery embolization for severe bleeding (UAE). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling process of embolization arteriovenous malformation on the basis of two-phase filtration model (United States)

    Cherevko, A. A.; Gologush, T. S.; Ostapenko, V. V.; Petrenko, I. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.


    Arteriovenous malformation is a chaotic disordered interlacement of very small diameter vessels, performing reset of blood from the artery into the vein. In this regard it can be adequately modeled using porous medium. In this model process of embolization described as penetration of non-adhesive substance ONYX into the porous medium, filled with blood, both of these fluids are not mixed with each other. In one-dimensional approximation such processes are well described by Buckley-Leverett equation. In this paper Buckley-Leverett equation is solved numerically by using a new modification of Cabaret scheme. The results of numerical modeling process of embolization of AVM are shown.

  15. Splenic Infarct and Pulmonary Embolism as a Rare Manifestation of Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Rawla


    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a type of herpes infection that has a characteristic feature of maintaining lifelong latency within the host cell. CMV manifestations can cover a broad spectrum from fever to as severe as pancytopenia, hepatitis, retinitis, meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, pneumonia, and thrombosis. Multiple case reports of thrombosis associated with CMV have been reported. Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism is more common in immunocompetent patients while splenic infarct is more common in immunocompromised patients. However, here we report a female patient on low-dose methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis who presented with both pulmonary embolism and splenic infarct.

  16. Isolated Subclavian Vein Injury: A Rare and High Mortality Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Iscan


    Full Text Available Isolated subclavian vein injuries are rarely seen without concomitant arterial injury, bone fracture, damage to brachial plexus, and thoracal traumas. Our case was brought to the emergency service 6 hours after he had been shot at the shoulder with a firearm. After detection of extravasation from the left axillary and subclavian vein on arteriographic and venographic examinations, he was operated on. An autogenous saphenous vein graft was interposed between subclavian and axillary veins. Cardiac arrest developed twice because of hypovolemia, which was resolved with medical therapy. Subclavian vein injuries have a more mortal course when compared with the injuries to the subclavian arteries. Its most important reason is excessive blood loss and air embolism because of delayed arrival to hospital. As is the case in all vascular injuries, angiography is the most important diagnostic examination. If the general health state of the patient permits, arteriography and venography should be performed in patients potentially exposed to vascular injuries. In patients with extreme blood loss and deteriorated health state, direct surgical exploration of the injury site, containment of the bleeding, and venous repair are life-saving approaches.

  17. Venous Fragment Embolism to the Pulmonary Artery: A Rare Occurrence - Case Report and Literature Review of Venous Fragment Embolization to the Pulmonary Artery (United States)


    approx 8x9mm. Angiography revealed a left popliteal artery aneurysm and left popliteal vein disruption. Whether the fragment originated from the...complications such as hemorrhage at insertion site, cardiac dysrhythmias, and ruptured aortic aneurysm . Technique failure requiring venotomy can occur...embolization in childhood: report of a case, literature review, and recommendations for management. J Pediatr Surg. 1990 Dec;25(12):1292-4. 28 Shannon FL

  18. Impending paradoxical embolism presenting as a pulmonary embolism, transient ischemic attack, and myocardial infarction. (United States)

    Willis, Scott L; Welch, Timothy S; Scally, John P; Bartoszek, Michael W; Sullenberger, Lance E; Pamplin, Jeremy C; Hnatiuk, Oleh W


    A 25-year-old man presented with complaints of nonpleuritic, substernal chest pain, dyspnea, and decreasing exercise tolerance. His vital signs were normal, with the exception of an oxygen saturation level of 93% while breathing room air. During his assessment, he developed transient left facial droop, left arm and leg weakness, and an ataxic gait, which lasted 15 min then resolved spontaneously. Cardiac enzyme levels were elevated, and an ECG revealed T-wave inversion in leads III, aVF, V1, and V2 with evolving ST-segment elevation in leads V3 through V5. The findings of a CT scan and MRI of the head were negative; a Doppler ultrasound of the right lower extremity revealed a thrombus extending from the common femoral vein to the popliteal vein. Cardiac catheterization revealed no evidence of epicardial coronary artery disease. CT pulmonary angiography revealed bilateral pulmonary emboli. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) showed a 4-cm, dumbbell-shaped mass lodged in a patent foramen ovale, confirming the diagnosis of an impending paradoxical embolism. The patient was started on therapy with unfractionated heparin, and his thrombus resolved spontaneously by hospital day 5. An impending paradoxical embolism is rare but should be suspected in anyone presenting with evidence of both venous and arterial emboli. The therapeutic options include anticoagulation, thrombolysis, and surgical embolectomy. We would propose that initial treatment with anticoagulation therapy and following with serial TEEs may be appropriate therapy in an otherwise stable patient, with surgical embolectomy or thrombolysis reserved for the treatment of thrombi that do not resolve with anticoagulation therapy or for patients with clinical deterioration.

  19. Bullet embolism of pulmonary artery: a case report; Embolia pulmonar por projetil de arma de fogo: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanari, Mauricio Gustavo Ieiri; Mansur, Maria Clara Dias; Kay, Fernando Uliana; Silverio, Paulo Rogerio Barboza; Jayanthi, Shri Krishna; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IHC-FMUSP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas


    The authors report the case of a patient victim of gunshots, with a very rare complication: venous bullet embolism from the left external iliac vein to the lingular segment of the left pulmonary artery. Diagnosis is made with whole-body radiography or computed tomography. Digital angiography is reserved for supplementary diagnosis or to be used as a therapeutic procedure. (author)

  20. Transcatheter embolization for splanchnic pseudoaneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, In Ku; Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Young Ju; Youm, Dong Ho; Chang, Young Sim; Park, Si Kyun; Kwack, Kyu Seung; Kwon, Taek Sang; Hong, In Soo [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the therapeutic effect of transcatheter embolization in the treatment of splanchnic pseudoaneurysm. This study involved eleven patients who underwent embolization for the treatment of splanchnic pseudoaneurysm. Nine were men and two were women; their ages ranged from 8 to 74 (mean, 51) years. The etiology of these cases included postoperative pseudoaneurysm(n=3D4), pancreatitis(n=3D3), stab injury(n=3D1), and suspected infection(n=3D1), while two cases were uncertain. The locations of the pseudoaneurysm were the splenic artery(n=3D4), the gastroduodenal artery(n=3D3), the hepatic artery(n=3D2), the celiac artery(n=3D1), and both the right renal and lumbar artery(n=3D1). All patients underwent angiography prior to embolization. The materials used during embolization were a microcoil, a 5-cm metallic guide wire, and a detachable balloon. Embolization was successful in all eleven cases. Among nine cases in which follow-up was possible, angiography was performed in four, and five cases of thrombus were confirmed by abdominal CT. Three of these nine patients underwent re-embolization. One patient underwent elective surgery for a pseudocyst due to pancreatitis. Transcatheter embolization is a safe and convenient modality for the treatment of splanchnic pseudoaneurysm.=20.

  1. Ambulatory management of pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Abusibah, Houssam; Abdelaziz, Muntasir M; Standen, Peter; Bhatia, Praveen; Hamad, Mahir Ma


    The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism can be very difficult and elusive. It depends greatly on the use of diagnostic tests, which are in turn interpreted according to a pre-test clinical probability. These include non-specific tests such as the chest X-ray and electrocardiograph, which help exclude other conditions such as pneumonia or myocardial infarction. On the other hand, more specific tests such as computed tomography or ventilation/perfusion scanning are used to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. The condition is potentially fatal, and in the past patients with suspected pulmonary embolism constituted a significant number of hospital admissions. Despite this, the majority were found not to have pulmonary embolism. More recently, studies have suggested that most patients with suspected pulmonary embolism who are haemodynamically stable can be safely managed on an ambulatory pathway. Therefore, there is a paradigm shift towards investigating and treating pulmonary embolism in the outpatient setting. This article discusses the ambulatory pathway of the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism.

  2. "Air embolism during fontan operation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Maddali


    Full Text Available In patients with a right to left intracardiac shunt, air embolism results in an obligatory systemic embolization. Nonembolization of entrained air is described in a child with a single ventricle physiology who had earlier undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt construction and Damus-Kaye-Stansel anastomosis. The air entrainment was detected by intra-operative transesophageal echocardiography. The combined effect of a "diving bell" phenomenon and mild aortic valve regurgitation are suggested as the reasons for the confinement of air into the ventricle preventing catastrophic systemic embolization.

  3. Age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in the diagnostic strategy for deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hvas, Anne-Mette


    Background. Studies have indicated that use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for patients above 50 years increases utility of the diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism. Evidence for the same approach regarding diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is, however, unclear. Materials...

  4. [Management of deep-vein thrombosis: A 2015 update]. (United States)

    Messas, E; Wahl, D; Pernod, G


    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a frequent and multifactor disease, with two major complications, post thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism. Both transient (surgery, plaster immobilization, bed rest/hospitalization) and chronic/persistent (age, cancer, clinical or biological thrombophilia…) risk factors modulate treatment duration. Diagnostic management relies on clinical evaluations, probability followed by laboratory tests or imaging. So far, compression ultrasound is the diagnostic test of choice to make a positive diagnosis of DVT. Anticoagulants at therapeutic dose for at least 3 months constitute the cornerstones of proximal (i.e. involving popliteal or more proximal veins) DVT therapeutic management. The arrival of new oral anticoagulants should optimize ambulatory management of DVT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Postpartum ovarian vein thrombosis presenting as ureteral obstruction. (United States)

    Kolluru, Anuradha; Lattupalli, Rakesh; Kanwar, Manreet; Behera, Deepak; Kamalakannan, Desikan; Beeai, Muhammed K


    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is a relatively uncommon but serious postpartum complication. Although infrequent, OVT may progress to involve the inferior vena cava, the renal vein or may cause sepsis and septic pulmonary embolism, all of which are potentially life-threatening. Clinical misdiagnosis is common, and, unfortunately, most affected women undergo laparotomy for possible appendicitis. We present an interesting case of OVT presenting as ureteral obstruction in a postpartum woman who was in her early 20s. Knowledge of this entity and clinical suspicion for its occurrence, in a puerperal patient with fever and abdominal pain not responding to antibiotics, should guide clinicians to appropriate diagnosis and treatment, avoiding misdiagnosis, unnecessary laparotomy and potential complications.

  6. Portal Vein Thrombosis (United States)

    Chawla, Yogesh K.; Bodh, Vijay


    Portal vein thrombosis is an important cause of portal hypertension. PVT occurs in association with cirrhosis or as a result of malignant invasion by hepatocellular carcinoma or even in the absence of associated liver disease. With the current research into its genesis, majority now have an underlying prothrombotic state detectable. Endothelial activation and stagnant portal blood flow also contribute to formation of the thrombus. Acute non-cirrhotic PVT, chronic PVT (EHPVO), and portal vein thrombosis in cirrhosis are the three main variants of portal vein thrombosis with varying etiological factors and variability in presentation and management. Procoagulant state should be actively investigated. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of therapy for acute non-cirrhotic PVT, with supporting evidence for its use in cirrhotic population as well. Chronic PVT (EHPVO) on the other hand requires the management of portal hypertension as such and with role for anticoagulation in the setting of underlying prothrombotic state, however data is awaited in those with no underlying prothrombotic states. TIPS and liver transplant may be feasible even in the setting of PVT however proper selection of candidates and type of surgery is warranted. Thrombolysis and thrombectomy have some role. TARE is a new modality for management of HCC with portal vein invasion. PMID:25941431

  7. [Deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. (United States)

    Sandoval-Chagoya, Gloria Alejandra; Laniado-Laborín, Rafael


    Background: despite the proven effectiveness of preventive therapy for deep vein thrombosis, a significant proportion of patients at risk for thromboembolism do not receive prophylaxis during hospitalization. Our objective was to determine the adherence to thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines in a general hospital as a quality control strategy. Methods: a random audit of clinical charts was conducted at the Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico, to determine the degree of adherence to deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis guidelines. The instrument used was the Caprini's checklist for thrombosis risk assessment in adult patients. Results: the sample included 300 patient charts; 182 (60.7 %) were surgical patients and 118 were medical patients. Forty six patients (15.3 %) received deep vein thrombosis pharmacologic prophylaxis; 27.1 % of medical patients received deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis versus 8.3 % of surgical patients (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: our results show that adherence to DVT prophylaxis at our hospital is extremely low. Only 15.3 % of our patients at risk received treatment, and even patients with very high risk received treatment in less than 25 % of the cases. We have implemented strategies to increase compliance with clinical guidelines.

  8. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of CVYV and the disease it causes....

  9. Squash vein yellowing virus (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of SqVYV and the disease it causes....

  10. What Causes Varicose Veins? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  11. Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses the risk for deep vein thrombosis in long-distance travelers and ways to minimize that risk.  Created: 4/5/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/5/2012.

  12. Portal Vein Thrombosis: Recent Advance. (United States)

    Qi, Xingshun


    Portal vein thrombosis is a life-threatening vascular disorder of the liver. In this chapter, I will review the recent advance regarding the epidemiology, etiology, management, and prognosis of portal vein thrombosis.

  13. Ethanol embolization of arteriovenous malformations: results and complications of 33 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Yong Hwan; Do, Young Soo; Shin, Sung Wook; Liu, Wei Chiang; Cho, Jae Min; Lee, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Boong; Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook [School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To assess the effectiveness of ethanol embolization for the treatment of arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and the complications, if any, arising. Thirty-three patients with AVMs underwent 145 staged sessions of ethanol embolization. AVMs were located in an upper extremity (n=14), a lower extremity (n=10), the pelvis (n=7), the thorax (n=1), or the abdomen (n=1). Eighty-five transcatheter embolizations and 60 direct percutaneous puncture embolizations were performed, and seven patients underwent additional coil embolization of the dilated outflow vein. The therapeutic effectiveness of embolization was evaluated in terms of the extent to which an AVM was obliterated between baseline and the final angiogram. Complications were classified as minor or major. In 13 patients (39%), AVMs were totally obliterated. In eight patients (24%), more than 75% were obliterated; in three (9%), the proportion was 50-75%; and in four (12%), less than 50%. Five patients (15%), were not treated. The reasons for failure were the difficulty of approaching the nidus due to previous surgical ligation or coil embolization of the feeding artery, the subcutaneous location of an AVM, post-procedural infection, and massive bleeding during the follow-up period. Twenty-one minor complications such as focal skin necrosis or transient nerve palsy developed during 145 sessions of (an incidence of 14%), but these were relieved by conservative treatment. The five major complications arising (3%) were cerebral infarction, urinary tract infection, acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis, permanent median nerve palsy, and infection. Ethanol embolization by direct percutaneous puncture or using a transcatheter technique is an effective approach to the treatment of an AVM. However, to overcome the considerable number of complications, arising, further investigation is required.

  14. Case of vascular air embolism during holmium laser enucleation of the prostate. (United States)

    Kato, Takuma; Sugimoto, Mikio; Matsuoka, Yuki; Sakura, Yuma; Hayashida, Yushi; Hirama, Hiromi; Tsunemori, Hiroyuki; Ueda, Nobufumi; Uemura, Naoya; Miyawaki, Yuki; Shirakami, Gotaro; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki


    Vascular air embolism is a rare complication during transurethral surgery. A case of air embolism during holmium laser enucleation of the prostate in a 76-year-old man is presented. During the step of morcellation, the patient's blood pressure suddenly oscillated up and down, and end-tidal CO2 and arterial saturation decreased. Transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography showed air collection in the right atrium. It was also discovered that incorrect assembly of the tube from the morcellator caused rapid entrainment of air into the vein. Computed tomography and abdominal X-ray showed niveau formation in the femoral vein and air collection in the pelvic retroperitoneal space. The patient recovered with careful observation and was discharged 7 days after the operation with no sequelae. This report is presented to remind urologists of this unusual complication that can occur during holmium laser enucleation of the prostate procedures. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  15. Pulmonary embolism; Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudarski, Sonja; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ., Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin


    Pulmonary embolism (PE) requires a quick diagnostic algorithm, as the untreated disease has a high mortality and morbidity. Crucial for the diagnostic assessment chosen is the initial clinical likelihood of PE and the individual risk profile of the patient. The overall goal is to diagnose or rule out PE as quickly and safely as possible or to initiate timely treatment if necessary. CT angiography of the pulmonary arteries (CTPA) with multi-slice CT scanner systems presents the actual diagnostic reference standard. With CTPA further important diagnoses can be made, like presence of right ventricular dysfunction. There are different scan and contrast application protocols that can be applied in order to gain diagnostic examinations with sufficient contrast material enhancement in the pulmonary arteries while avoiding all kinds of artifacts. This review article is meant to be a practical guide to examine patients with suspected PE according to the actual guidelines.

  16. Pulmonary Embolism in Children (United States)

    Zaidi, Ahmar Urooj; Hutchins, Kelley K.; Rajpurkar, Madhvi


    Pulmonary embolism (PE) in the pediatric population is relatively rare when compared to adults; however, the incidence is increasing and accurate and timely diagnosis is critical. A high clinical index of suspicion is warranted as PE often goes unrecognized among children leading to misdiagnosis and potentially increased morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of children with PE are lacking and current practices are extrapolated from adult data. Treatment options include thrombolysis and anticoagulation with heparins and oral vitamin K antagonists, with newer direct oral anticoagulants currently in clinical trials. Long-term sequelae of PE, although studied in adults, are vastly unknown among children and adolescents. Additional research is needed in order to provide pediatric focused care for patients with acute PE. PMID:28848725

  17. Mesenteric Air Embolism Following Enteroscopic Small Bowel Tattooing Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Chen


    Full Text Available Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE is a revolutionary procedure in which the entire small bowel can be visualized endoscopically. DBE has the advantage of both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in the setting of small bowel neoplasms and vascular malformations. We present a unique case of a 76-year-old female who underwent small bowel DBE tattoo marking of a distal small bowel tumor complicated by development of severe abdominal pain postprocedure secondary to bowel air embolism into the mesenteric veins. Mesenteric air can be seen after other endoscopic procedures such as biopsy, mucosal clip placement and polypectomy, or following a colonoscopy. Mesenteric air embolism following small bowel tattooing procedure has not been previously reported in the literature. Mesenteric air when present may be attributed to mesenteric ischemia and can subject the patient to unnecessary surgical intervention if misdiagnosed. Thus, this report holds significance for the radiologist as computed tomography (CT findings of mesenteric air embolism must be evaluated in the context of appropriate clinical history before treatment decisions are made.

  18. Mesenteric air embolism following enteroscopic small bowel tattooing procedure. (United States)

    Chen, Natalie; Lamba, Ramit; Lee, John; Lall, Chandana


    Double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is a revolutionary procedure in which the entire small bowel can be visualized endoscopically. DBE has the advantage of both diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities in the setting of small bowel neoplasms and vascular malformations. We present a unique case of a 76-year-old female who underwent small bowel DBE tattoo marking of a distal small bowel tumor complicated by development of severe abdominal pain postprocedure secondary to bowel air embolism into the mesenteric veins. Mesenteric air can be seen after other endoscopic procedures such as biopsy, mucosal clip placement and polypectomy, or following a colonoscopy. Mesenteric air embolism following small bowel tattooing procedure has not been previously reported in the literature. Mesenteric air when present may be attributed to mesenteric ischemia and can subject the patient to unnecessary surgical intervention if misdiagnosed. Thus, this report holds significance for the radiologist as computed tomography (CT) findings of mesenteric air embolism must be evaluated in the context of appropriate clinical history before treatment decisions are made.

  19. Embolization of severe arterioportal shunts in the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma : safety and influence on patient survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Deok Hee; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Song, Ho Young; Kim, Gab Choul; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Sung, Kyu Bo [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the safety and the influence of embolization of severe arterioportal shunts, and the effect of the procedure on the survival rate of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma combined with portal vein tumor thrombosis. This study involved a total of 54 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in whom hepatic arteriography revealed severe arterioportal shunt. From among this total, 34 patients (embolization group) underwent chemoinfusion after shunt embolization, while 19 (control group) underwent chemoinfusion only. The embolic materials included PVA particles and /or Gelfoam pieces. The frequency of postem-bolization symptoms (Chi-squared test) and changes in laboratory values (paired t-test) were compared between the two groups, and shunt improvement was also evaluated. Patient survival was tested using the Kaplan-Meier method. Fever and RUQ pain were more frequent in the embolization group (p<0.001). The complications of embolization included severe postembolization syndrome (n=1), acute hepatic failure (n=2), hepatic infarction (n=1), and sepsis (n=1). There were no significant changes in laboratory values. Among the 28 patients (24 of embolization group and four of control group) who underwent follow-up angiography, arterioportal shunt became less severe or disappeared in ten of the embolization group. For the embolization and control groups, the mean survival interval was 29.5{+-}5.4 weeks and 10.3{+-}3.1 weeks (p=0.0002), respectively. The best results were seen in the PVA particle group (p=0.01). The embolization of severe arterioportal shunts is relatively safe and increases patient survival rate.

  20. Percutaneous transhepatic venous embolization of pulmonary artery aneurysm in Hughes-Stovin syndrome

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    Kim, Kyung Ah; Kim, Man Deuk; Oh, Do Yun; Park, Pil Won [Bundang CHA General Hospital, Pochon CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)


    Hughes-Stovin syndrome is an extremely rare entity. We present a case of a 42-year-old man, who developed deep vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis, repeated internal bleeding and pulmonary artery aneurysms (PAAs). The patient presented with massive hemoptysis and with PAAs of a 2.5 cm maximum diameter. We describe the successful percutaneous transhepatic venous embolization of the PAAs due to occluded common vascular pathways to the pulmonary artery.

  1. Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy - Varicose Veins (United States)

    Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy - Varicose Veins Varicose veins are enlarged veins you may see on your legs. They can itch, ... Healthy Roads Media project www. healthyroadsmedia. org English - Concerns and Discomforts of Pregnancy (Varicose Veins) Last reviewed 2012

  2. Evaluation of Azygous Vein Aneurysm Using Integrated PET/MRI

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    Seo, Hyo Jung; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Young Tae; Park, Young Sik; Cheon, Gi Jeong [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A previously healthy, non-smoking, 72-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with abnormal chest X-ray and chest discomfort. A 3.5-cm, well-defined, right paratracheal mass was revealed on non-contrast chest computed tomography (CT), which was suspected to be an azygous vein aneurysm, lymph adenopathy or neurogenic tumor. Whole-body integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) (Biograph mMR; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was performed for the differential diagnosis. A homogenously enhancing mass connected with the azygous vein was well visualized in a post-contrast volumetric interpolated gradient echo (VIBE) sequence. Additionally, the PET showed minimal {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax], 1.83), similar to that of the great vessels, with no filling defect to suggest thromboembolism and no significant FDG uptake to suggest active thrombo-embolism or malignancy. The imaging findings in integrated PET/MRI were useful to characterize azygous vein aneurysm. The patient had a video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to relieve the symptom of chest pain. A congenital etiology of azygous vein aneurysm was confirmed by pathology.

  3. Gastrointestinal bleeding caused by extrahepatic arterioportal fistula associated with portal vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Nie, Ling; Luo, Xue-Feng; Li, Xiao


    An extrahepatic arterioportal fistula (APF) involving the gastroduodenal artery and superior mesenteric vein is rare and mostly results from iatrogenic injuries. The clinical symptoms associated with APFs may include abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or even congestive heart failure. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with chronic abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to APF and portal vein thrombosis. The endovascular embolization of APF was accomplished successfully, and symptoms of portal hypertension resolved immediately after intervention. Unfortunately, the patient did not respond well to anticoagulation therapy with warfarin. Therefore, the patient underwent implantation of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and the complications of portal hypertension resolved. In conclusion, the embolization of APF is technically feasible and effective and can be considered the first-choice therapy in selected patients.

  4. [Clinical analysis of 12 patients with pediatric antiphospholipid syndrome with pulmonary embolism]. (United States)

    Ma, J R; Song, H M; Xiao, J; Tang, X Y; He, Y Y; Wei, M


    Objective: To identify the clinical and immunological characteristics of pediatric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) patients with pulmonary embolism. Method: Among 47 pediatric APS patients from Peking Union Medical College Hospital during the year of 2000 to 2015, 12 patients were diagnosed of pulmonary embolism, who were investigated and compared with APS patients without pulmonary embolism. Result: Twelve patients (among whom 6 cases were primary and the other 6 were secondary APS)had pulmonary embolism and all of them were non-shock type, which was the first presenting manifestation in 6 of them.Eight cases were misdiagnosed as infection, while 3 cases were missed.Among patients with pulmonary embolism, 10 patients suffered from deep vein thrombosis at the same time, mainly in lower extremities.2 cases had thrombotic recurrence, which happened only in primary APS patients, because of irregular monitoring of International Normalized Ratio, or not taking aspirin after quitting warfarin.Positive anticardiolipin (ACL) and lupus anticoagulant (LA) were found in 10 and 9 patients respectively.Four primary APS patients had positive anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA). During follow-up of 3-100 months (median 23 months) of primary APS, no one had evolved manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus.Primary APS was more often seen in males (M∶F 5∶1 vs. 0∶6) and the patients were much younger ((15±1) vs. (17±0) years old) than those with secondary APS.Besides that, no statistically significant difference was seen between primary and secondary APS (P all>0.05). Compared with APS patients without pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension was more common in patients suffered from pulmonary embolism (3/12 vs. 0, PPulmonary embolism can be the first symptom in pediatric APS patients and all of them are non-shock type, which tends to be misdiagnosed or missed. A majority of them suffer from deep vein thrombosis in the lower extremities.Rethrombosis takes place when the

  5. Symptoms, location and prognosis of pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    García-Sanz, M T; Pena-Álvarez, C; López-Landeiro, P; Bermo-Domínguez, A; Fontúrbel, T; González-Barcala, F J


    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common disease with variable symptoms and high overall mortality. The clinical relevance of the extent of PE is still debatable, and the role of anticoagulation in patients with subsegmental involvement has been contested. Our objective is to describe the clinical details of patients with PE in our hospital and to analyze their prognosis based on the extent of the disease. Retrospective study of 313 patients diagnosed with PE by chest computed tomography (CT) scan at the Hospital Complex of Pontevedra in Spain for six years. Predictors of mortality were determined by multivariate analysis. Women accounted for 56% of patients, and patient median age was 70 years (interquartile range 53-78 years). Subsegmental PE accounted for 7% of all cases; these patients were younger and had lower comorbidity; they reported chest pain more often, performed better in blood gas analysis and none of them had proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Patients with subsegmental PE had a higher survival rate. Factors independently associated with mortality were cancer diagnosis and higher comorbidity. Patients with subsegmental PE clinically differ from those with more proximal PE. Underlying diseases have more influence on the prognosis than the extent of the disease. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. The superior ophthalmic vein approach for the treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas: our first experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.


    Full Text Available Complex cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF are still a technical challenge to neurovascular team. The most commonly performed treatment consists in endovascular embolization of the lesion through an arterial or venous approach. Not always these conventional routes are feasible, requiring alternative routes. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman with a complex indirect (Barrow D carotid cavernous sinus fistula treated by two interventional sessions that imposing a retrograde direct transvenous approach via the superior ophthalmic vein.

  7. Facial palsy after embolization of dural arteriovenous fistula: A case report and literature review. (United States)

    Gatto, Luana Antunes Maranha; Saurin, Fernando; Koppe, Gelson Luis; Demartini, Zeferino


    Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVF) are unusual intracranial vascular malformations consisting of anomalous connections between meningeal arteries and dural sinuses or the veins that pass through them. They have variable clinical presentation and prognosis, which depend on their location and venous hemodynamics. Treatment is based on the closure of the abnormal connections, which is usually conducted via arterial and/or transvenous endovascular techniques. We present a male patient who complained of headaches and left-sided pulsatile tinnitus due to DAVF from the external carotid artery branches draining directly into the ipsilateral sigmoid sinus. Embolization with Onyx® was successful, obtaining angiographic occlusion and symptom remission. However, on postoperative day 4, the patient presented with left facial palsy and spontaneous regression. Although embolization is an effective and safe procedure, complications may occur. Reflux of the embolic agent to the vasa nervorum of the cranial nerve may lead to ischemic neuropathy. Here, we reported a case of embolized DAVF presenting with a postoperative peripheral facial palsy where the two embolized pedicles were branches of the middle meningeal and occipital arteries involved in the vascularization of the extratemporal segment of the facial nerve. We discuss the etiopathogenic, anatomical, and pathophysiological aspects of this complication.

  8. Venous air embolism related to the use of central catheters revisited: with emphasis on dialysis catheters (United States)

    Kwaan, Hau C; Ing, Todd S


    Abstract Venous air embolism is a dreaded condition particularly relevant to the field of nephrology. In the face of a favourable, air-to-blood pressure gradient and an abnormal communication between the atmosphere and the veins, air entrance into the circulation is common and can bring about venous air embolism. These air emboli can migrate to different areas through three major routes: pulmonary circulation, paradoxical embolism and retrograde ascension to the cerebral venous system. The frequent undesirable outcome of this disease entity, despite timely and aggressive treatment, signifies the importance of understanding the underlying pathophysiological mechanism and of the implementation of various preventive measures. The not-that-uncommon occurrence of venous air embolism, often precipitated by improper patient positioning during cervical catheter procedures, suggests that awareness of this procedure-related complication among health care workers is not universal. This review aims to update the pathophysiology of venous air embolism and to emphasize the importance of observing the necessary precautionary measures during central catheter use in hopes of eliminating this unfortunate but easily avoidable mishap in nephrology practice. PMID:29225809

  9. Pregnancy after uterine arterial embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. Bonduki


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pregnancy outcomes, complications and neonatal outcomes in women who had previously undergone uterine arterial embolization. METHODS: A retrospective study of 187 patients treated with uterine arterial embolization for symptomatic uterine fibroids between 2005-2008 was performed. Uterine arterial embolization was performed using polyvinyl alcohol particles (500-900 mm in diameter. Pregnancies were identified using screening questionnaires and the study database. RESULTS: There were 15 spontaneous pregnancies. Of these, 12.5% were miscarriages (n = 2, and 87.5% were successful live births (n = 14. The gestation time for the pregnancies with successful live births ranged from 36 to 39.2 weeks. The mean time between embolization and conception was 23.8 months (range, 5-54. One of the pregnancies resulted in twins. The newborn weights (n = 14 ranged from 2.260 to 3.605 kg (mean, 3.072 kg. One (7.1% was considered to have a low birth weight (2.260 kg. There were two cases of placenta accreta (12.5%, treated with hysterectomy in one case [6.3%], one case of premature rupture of the membranes (PRM (6.3%, and one case of preeclampsia (6.3%. All of the patients were delivered via Cesarean section. CONCLUSION: In this study, there was an increased risk of Cesarean delivery. There were no other major obstetric risks, suggesting that pregnancy after uterine arterial embolization is possible without significant morbidity or mortality.

  10. Endovenous laser ablation is an effective treatment for great saphenous vein incompetence in teenagers. (United States)

    Terlecki, Piotr; Przywara, Stanislaw; Iłżecki, Marek; Terlecki, Karol; Kawecki, Piotr; Zubilewicz, Tomasz


    The current knowledge of chronic venous disease in teenagers and its treatment is very limited. The aim of the study is to present our experience and the available literature data on the treatment of varicose veins in teenagers with endovenous laser ablation of the great saphenous vein. Five patients, aged 15-17 years, were qualified for surgery, based on typical signs and symptoms of chronic venous disease. Minimally invasive treatment with endovenous laser ablation of the great saphenous vein was applied. The technical success of surgery was achieved in all patients. Over a 2-year follow-up we did not observe any case of recanalisation of the great saphenous vein, recurrence of varicose veins, or serious complications, such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. One patient presented with resolving of post-operative bruising, and two cases of local numbness were transient. Endovenous laser ablation of the great saphenous vein in the treatment of chronic venous disease in teenagers is effective and safe. The method provides excellent cosmetic effects, very short recovery time and high levels of patient satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The diagnostic pathway embolism: from the Emergency Department to the Internal Medicine Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilia Maria Pizzini


    Full Text Available The diagnostic pathway of pulmonary embolism, both in the Emergency Department and in the Medical Unit, is not a standardized one. Pulmonary embolism, often but not always complicating surgery, malignancies, different medical diseases, sometimes but not often associated with a deep vein thrombosis, is not infrequently a sudden onset life-threatening and rapidly fatal clinical condition. Most of the deaths due to pulmonary embolism occur at presentation or during the first days after admission; it is therefore of vital importance that pulmonary embolism should promptly be diagnosed and treated in order to avoid unexpected deaths; a correct risk stratification should also be made for choosing the most appropriate therapeutic options. We review the tools we dispose of for a correct clinical assessment, the existing risk scores, the advantages and limits of available diagnostic instruments. As for clinical presentation we remind the great variability of pulmonary embolism signs and symptoms and underline the importance of obtaining clinical probability scores before making requests for further diagnostic tests, in particular for pulmonary computer tomography; the Wells score is the only in-hospital validated one, but unfortunately is still largely underused. We describe our experience in two different periods of time and clinical settings in the initial evaluation of a suspected pulmonary embolism; in the first one we availed ourselves of a computerized support based on Wells score, in the second one we did not. Analysing the results we obtained in terms of diagnostic yield in these two periods, we observed that the computerized support system significantly improved our pulmonary embolism diagnostic accuracy.

  12. Reflex anuria after renal tumor embolization. (United States)

    Kervancioglu, Selim; Sirikci, Akif; Erbagci, Ahmet


    We report a case of reflex anuria after transarterial embolization of a renal tumor. Anuria developed immediately after embolization and resolved 74 hr following the procedure. We postulate that reflux anuria in our case was related to mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, or both, as these are stimulated by the occluded blood vessels, ischemia, and edema of the normal renal tissue of an embolized kidney.

  13. Titanium greenfield inferior vena cava filter; effectiveness of percutaneous placement for prevention of pulmonary embolism

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    Jeong, Bong Gak; Hahn, Seong Tai; Jung, Jung Im; Lee, Sang Hoon; Koh, Ki Young; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous placement of a Greenfield titanium filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) for the prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Twelve patients with DVT underwent percutaneous Greenfield titanium filter placement. The indications included recurrent pulmonary embolism or failed anticoagulation therapy in six patients, extensive PE in three, and prophylaxis for high risk of PE in the remaining three. In all cases the filter was positioned after confirming the anatomy, patency, and presence of thrombosis of the IVC and renal veins by inferior vena cavography. Long-term follow-up study involved clinical evaluation, plain radiography, Doppler ultrasonography and CT scanning. Filter placement [infrarenal in ten patients (83%) and suprarenal in two (17%)] was technically successful in all cases (100%). The venous approach involved the right femoral vein in eight patients (67%) and the right internal jugular vein in four (33%). Complications included overlapping of the filter legs in three patients (25%), and misplacement in one (8%). After filter placement, no further PE developed. In all of five patients followed up for two years, the IVC maintained patency without evidence of caval perforation or occlusion. In patients with DVT, percutaneous placement of a Greenfield titanium filter is a safe and effective method for the prevention of PE.

  14. Transjugular Endovascular Recanalization of Splenic Vein in Patients with Regional Portal Hypertension Complicated by Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Xuefeng; Nie, Ling; Wang, Zhu; Tsauo, Jiaywei; Tang, Chengwei; Li, Xiao, E-mail: [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Gastroenterology (China)


    PurposeRegional portal hypertension (RPH) is an uncommon clinical syndrome resulting from splenic vein stenosis/occlusion, which may cause gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from the esophagogastric varices. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein in patients with GI bleeding secondary to RPH.MethodsFrom December 2008 to May 2011, 11 patients who were diagnosed with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and had undergone transjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein were reviewed retrospectively. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed splenic vein stenosis in six cases and splenic vein occlusion in five. Etiology of RPH was chronic pancreatitis (n = 7), acute pancreatitis with pancreatic pseudocyst (n = 2), pancreatic injury (n = 1), and isolated pancreatic tuberculosis (n = 1).ResultsTechnical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients via the transjugular approach, including six patients with splenic vein stenosis and two patients with splenic vein occlusion. Two patients underwent splenic vein venoplasty only, whereas four patients underwent bare stents deployment and two covered stents. Splenic vein pressure gradient (SPG) was reduced from 21.5 ± 7.3 to 2.9 ± 1.4 mmHg after the procedure (P < 0.01). For the remaining three patients who had technical failures, splenic artery embolization and subsequent splenectomy was performed. During a median follow-up time of 17.5 (range, 3–34) months, no recurrence of GI bleeding was observed.ConclusionsTransjugular endovascular recanalization of splenic vein is a safe and effective therapeutic option in patients with RPH complicated by GI bleeding and is not associated with an increased risk of procedure-related complications.

  15. Deep Vein Thrombosis in Intensive Care. (United States)

    Boddi, Maria; Peris, Adriano


    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a severe complication in critically ill patients generally affected by multiorgan disfunction associated with immobilization also prolonged.Nowadays, VTE prophylaxis is included in the requirements of hospital accreditation and evaluation of the maintenance of standards of quality of care. ICU patients are characterized by a dynamic day-to-day variation both of thromboembolic that bleeding risk and DVT incidence in presence of thromboprophylaxis ranges between 5 and 15 %.Patient-centered methods for the assessment of both thrombotic and bleeding risk are recommended because pre-existent factors to ICU admission, diagnosis, emerging syndromes, invasive procedures and pharmacological treatments daily induce important changes in clinical condition.General consensus currently establishes use of heparin in pharmacological prophylaxis at the time of admission to the ICU and the temporary suspension of heparin in patients with active bleeding or severe (pneumatic compression was reported but no general consensus was reached about its use at the best. Much work has to be done but ICU remain the last frontier for VTE prophylaxis.

  16. Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Trauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Toker


    Full Text Available Deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE are known collectively as venous thromboembolism (VTE. Venous thromboembolic events are common and potentially life-threatening complications following trauma with an incidence of\t5 to 63%. DVT prophylaxis is essential in the management of trauma patients. Currently, the optimal VTE prophylaxis strategy for trauma patients is unknown. Traditionally, pelvic and lower extremity fractures, head injury, and prolonged immobilization have been considered risk factors for VTE; however it is unclear which combination of risk factors defines a high-risk group. Modalities available for trauma patient thromboprophylaxis are classified into pharmacologic anticoagulation, mechanical prophylaxis, and inferior vena cava (IVC filters. The available pharmacologic agents include low-dose heparin (LDH, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH, and factor Xa inhibitors. Mechanical prophylaxis methods include graduated compression stockings (GCSs, pneumatic compression devices (PCDs, and A-V foot pumps. IVCs are traditionally used in high risk patients in whom pharmacological prophylaxis is contraindicated. Both EAST and ACCP guidelines recommend primary use of LMWHs in trauma patients; however there are still controversies regarding the definitive VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients. Large randomized prospective clinical studies would be required to provide level I evidence to define the optimal VTE prophylaxis in trauma patients.

  17. Development of Thrombus in a Systemic Vein after Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimatsu, Rika; Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Okuda, Kotaro; Hashiba, Mitsuoki [Fukuchiyama City Hospital, Kyoto (Japan)


    To retrospectively evaluate the frequency and risk factors for developing thrombus in a systemic vein such as the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the iliac vein, in which a balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) catheter was indwelled. Forty-nine patients who underwent B-RTO for gastric varices were included in this study. The B-RTO procedure was performed from the right femoral vein, and the B-RTO catheter was retained overnight in all patients. Pre- and post-procedural CT scans were retrospectively compared in order to evaluate the development of thrombus in the systemic vein in which the catheter was indwelled. Additionally, several variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for thrombus in a systemic vein. In all 49 patients (100%), B-RTO was technically successful, and in 46 patients (94%), complete thrombosis of the gastric varices was achieved. In 6 patients (12%), thrombus developed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the right common-external iliac vein. All thrombi lay longitudinally on the right side of the inferior vena cava or the right iliac vein. One of the aforementioned 6 patients required anticoagulation therapy. No symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism were observed. Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio and the addition of 5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol, on the second day, were related to the development of thrombus. Development of a thrombus in a systemic vein such as the inferior vena cava or iliac vein, caused by indwelling of the B-RTO catheter, is relatively frequent. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of pulmonary embolism due to iliocaval thrombosis.

  18. Treatment of caval vein thrombosis associated with renal tumors. (United States)

    Jiménez-Romero, Carlos; Conde, María; de la Rosa, Federico; Manrique, Alejandro; Calvo, Jorge; Caso, Óscar; Muñoz, Carlos; Marcacuzco, Alberto; Justo, Iago


    Renal carcinoma represents 3% of all solid tumors and is associated with renal or inferior caval vein (IVC) thrombosis between 2-10% of patients, extending to right atrial in 1% of cases. This is a retrospective study that comprises 5 patients who underwent nephrectomy and thrombectomy by laparotomy because of renal tumor with IVC thrombosis level iii. Four patients were males and one was female, and the mean age was 57,2 years (range: 32-72). Most important clinical findings were hematuria, weight loss, weakness, anorexia, and pulmonary embolism. Diagnostic confirmation was performed by CT scanner. Metastatic disease was diagnosed before surgery in 3 patients. Suprahepatic caval vein and hepatic hilium (Pringle's maneouver) were clamped in 4 patients, and ligation of infrarrenal caval vein was carry out in one patient. Five patients developed mild complications (Clavien I/II). No patient died and the mean hospital stay was 8,6 days. All patients were treated with chemotherapy, and 3 died because distant metastasis, but 2 are alive, without recurrence, at 5 and 60 months, respectively. Nephrectomy and thrombectomy in renal tumors with caval thrombosis can be curative in absence of metastasis or, at less, can increase survival or quality of live. Then these patients must be treated in liver transplant units because major surgical and anesthesiologic expertise. Adjuvant treatment with tyrosin kinase inhibitors must be validate in the future with wider experiences. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Radionuclide Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Søren; Madsen, Poul Henning


    Diagnostic imaging plays an integral role in the diagnostic workup of suspected pulmonary embolism, and several modalities have been employed over the years. In recent years, the choice has been narrowed to either computer tomographic or radionuclide based methods, i.e. computer tomographic...

  20. [Is it necessary to place a surgical clamp early in the spermatic cord during testicular examination via inguinal approach?]. (United States)

    Gueglio, G; Bergero, M; Treiyer, S; Cristallo, C; Isola, M; Damia, O


    The presence of tumor cells in the spermatic cord was evaluated in patients undergoing inguinal testis study in order to assure if the placement of a clamp in it was necessary to avoid tumor dissemination. Inguinal testis studies were performed over a two year period in 38 patients diagnosed of testicular mass. The presence of tumor cells in blood vessels or lymph nodes of the cord was evaluated in all of the patients. Testicular tumors were found in 28 patients (20 seminoma, 5 mixed tumor and 3 embryonal) with an average age of 42 (range 21-82) years. There were T1N0M0 21; T1N1M0 3; T2N0M0 2 and T2N1M0 2 cases, respectively. Independently of the stage and tumor lineage, tumor cells in the cord vessels were not observed in any of the cases through the pathology study. In our causistics, it seems that the surgical act consisting in the placement of a clamp early in the cord lacks a scientific foundation. However, this study does not make it possible to state that not performing this maneuver during the surgical procedure is oncologically safe. Thus, a precedent is established to perform studies with a larger number of patients that will make it possible to corroborate this observation. This would result in less traumatic and safer surgical techniques that would allow conserving the testis and its functionality. Copyright © 2011 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein

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    Lemos Gustavo C.


    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma of the renal vein is a rare tumor of complex diagnosis. We presented a case of renal vein leiomyosarcoma detected in a routine study. The primary treatment was complete surgical removal of the mass. In cases where surgical removal is not possible the prognosis is poor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant spread.

  2. Deep vein thrombosis of the left leg: a case of May-Thurner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiten Desai


    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman presented with gradually worsening shortness of breath associated with dull left leg pain over 5 days. She denied any recent travel, recent surgeries or immobilization. CT pulmonary angiography and CT venography revealed multiple bilateral pulmonary emboli and extensive left pelvic and left lower extremity deep vein thromboses. Contrast-enhanced CT showed that the right common iliac artery crossed the left common iliac vein and compressed it externally, indicative of May–Thurner syndrome. Catheter-directed thrombolysis of the left lower extremity was performed and heparin infusion was started. The patient also underwent left iliac vein balloon angioplasty with stenting and infra-renal inferior vena cava filter placement via the jugular approach to prevent further embolization.

  3. Anchor coil technique for arteriovenous fistula embolization. A technical note. (United States)

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Ezura, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Yoshihisa; Yagi, Takashi; Yoshioka, Hideyuki; Fukumoto, Yuichiro; Horikoshi, Toru; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki


    We describe a case of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) successfully treated by coil embolization with an anchor coil inserted in the varix to facilitate dense packing at the shunting site. AVF of the left anterior choroidal artery (AChoA) draining into the ipsilateral basal vein of Rosenthal was incidentally found in a newborn female. A single detachable coil was inserted as an anchor into the varix adjacent to the shunt, and the microcatheter was pulled back to the shunting point. Three more detachable coils were delivered at the shunting point without migration under the support of the anchor coil, and the AVF was successfully obliterated with preservation of AChoA blood flow. The anchor coil technique can reduce the risk of coil migration and the number of coils required.

  4. Evaluation of Effectiveness of Embolization in Pelvic Congestion Syndrome with the New Vascular Occlusion Device (ArtVentive EOS™): Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyra, Krzysztof, E-mail: [Medical University of Lublin, Department of Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology (Poland); Woźniak, Sławomir, E-mail: [Medical University of Lublin, III Gynecology Clinic (Poland); Drelich-Zbroja, Anna, E-mail:; Wolski, Andrzej, E-mail:; Jargiełło, Tomasz, E-mail: [Medical University of Lublin, Department of Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology (Poland)


    PurposeThis study aimed to collect confirmatory data in support of the safety and efficiency of the ArtVentive EOS™ for the treatment of the pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS). This study was based on the OCCLUDE 1 Study Protocol approved by the Local Ethics Committee.Materials and MethodsA prospective study carried out in June and July 2014 included 12 women aged 21–48 years (mean 31 years) scheduled for PCS embolization using the ArtVentive EOS™. The inclusion criteria were clinical symptoms of PCS documented by transvaginal Doppler ultrasound and pelvic MRI. The pelvic pain was assessed by VAS score from 0 to 10 (0 represents lack of pain and 10 unbearable pain). A decrease in pelvic pain intensity based on the VAS was considered a clinical success.ResultsSuccessful embolization procedures with ArtVentive EOS™ were performed in 11 out of 12 patients. Nine patients underwent unilateral embolization of the left ovarian vein, and two had bilateral embolization of the ovarian veins. Complete ovarian vein occlusion confirmed by post deployment venography was achieved in all 11 patients. Procedures lasted from 19 to 45 min (average 28 min). Pain intensity decrease was observed in all 11 patients—a decrease of 5.6 points—from 7.3 pre-procedure to 1.6 post-embolization (standard deviation: 0.67). In one case, the left ovarian vein was injured by guide wire manipulation with contrast extravasation—not clinically significant.ConclusionsThe use of ArtVentive EOS™ for occlusion of the ovarian veins in PCS patients is safe and effective.

  5. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Upper Gastrointestinal Nonvariceal Hemorrhage: Is Empiric Embolization Warranted?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayeh, Elnasif; Fidelman, Nicholas, E-mail:; Gordon, Roy L.; LaBerge, Jeanne M.; Kerlan, Robert K. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology (United States); Klimov, Alexander; Bloom, Allan I. [Hadassah Hospital, Department of Radiology (Israel)


    Purpose: To determine whether transcatheter arterial embolization performed in the setting of active gastric or duodenal nonvariceal hemorrhage is efficacious when the bleeding source cannot be identified angiographically. Methods: Records of 115 adult patients who underwent visceral angiography for endoscopically documented gastric (50 patients) or duodenal (65 patients) nonvariceal hemorrhage were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to whether angiographic evidence of arterial hemorrhage was present and whether embolization was performed (group 1 = no abnormality, no embolization; group 2 = no abnormality, embolization performed [empiric embolization]; and group 3 = abnormality present, embolization performed). Thirty-day rates and duration of primary hemostasis and survival were compared.ResultsFor patients with gastric sources of hemorrhage, the rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after embolization was greater when embolization was performed in the setting of a documented angiographic abnormality than when empiric embolization was performed (67% vs. 42%). The rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after angiography was greater for patients with duodenal bleeding who either underwent empiric embolization (60%) or embolization in the setting of angiographically documented arterial hemorrhage (58%) compared with patients who only underwent diagnostic angiogram (33%). Patients with duodenal hemorrhage who underwent embolization were less likely to require additional invasive procedures to control rebleeding (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Empiric arterial embolization may be advantageous in patients with a duodenal source of hemorrhage but not in patients with gastric hemorrhage.

  6. Suspected Pulmonary Embolism during Hickman Catheterization in a Child: What Else Should Be Considered besides Pulmonary Embolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haemi Lee


    Full Text Available A 16-month-old girl with acute lymphoblastic leukemia expired during Hickman catheter insertion. She had undergone chemoport insertion of the left subclavian vein six months earlier and received five cycles of chemotherapy. Due to malfunction of the chemoport and the consideration of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, insertion of a Hickmann catheter on the right side and removal of the malfunctioning chemoport were planned under general anesthesia. The surgery was uneventful during catheter insertion, but the patient experienced the sudden onset of pulseless electrical activity just after saline was flushed through the newly inserted catheter. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was commenced aggressively, but the patient was refractory. Migration of a thrombus generated by the previous central catheter to the pulmonary circulation was suspected, resulting in a pulmonary embolism.

  7. Pulmonary embolism in congenital bleeding disorders: intriguing discrepancies among different clotting factors deficiencies. (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Cosi, Elisabetta; Tasinato, Valentina; Peroni, Edoardo; Girolami, Bruno; Lombardi, Anna Maria


    Pulmonary embolism is a complication of deep vein thrombosis. It occurs in the population with a normal clotting mechanism, but it may also occur in patients with congenital bleeding conditions. Here, we report on all cases of pulmonary embolism in congenital hemorrhagic disorders. All reported cases of pulmonary embolism in congenital coagulation disorders have been gathered by a time-unlimited PubMed search. Cross-checking of the references listed at the end of the single papers was carried out to avoid omissions. Seventy-two patients had an objectively demonstrated pulmonary embolism. The event occurred in patients with fibrinogen, factor V, factor VIII (FVII), FVIII, FIX, and FXI deficiency, and in those with von Willebrand's disease. No embolism was reported in FII, factor X, and FXIII deficiency. Thirty were women and 28 were men, whereas in the remaining 14 cases, sex was not reported. Age varied from 6 to 81 years (mean age 34.3 years). The management varied from only supportive to the administration of unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and anti-vitamin K medications, accompanied by adequate replacement therapy. Evolution was fair or good in the majority of cases, but there were 10 fatalities. Risk factors were present in 61 patients. The most frequent of these were replacement therapy (35 cases), surgery (34), and old age (13). Some patients had more than one risk factor. Eleven patients had no risk factors. There are discrepancies in the prevalence of pulmonary embolism among different clotting disorders. The conditions most frequently affected are FVII deficiency and fibrinogen defects. The significance of the findings is discussed.

  8. A case of renal vein branch injury identified by multidetector computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Maruhashi


    Full Text Available A 39-year-old male fell from a forklift and was urgently transported to our hospital. His vital signs were stable at the initial visit. Contrast imaging computed tomography (CT showed extravasation (Ev of contrast medium emigrating outside of the renal capsule and hematoma around the right kidney, and he was diagnosed with traumatic right renal injury, Grade IV laceration [American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification]. When imaging the inferior renal artery branch extremity perfusing the area where Ev was found in the following blood vessel contrast imaging, obvious Ev was not found in the arterial phase; however, massively spreading Ev was found in the area adjacent to the renal laceration in the venous phase after taking a contrast image of the renal parenchyma. Thus, he was diagnosed with a renal vein branch injury. The transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE was performed to the area, resulting in the disappearance of Ev.The effectiveness of TAE for renal injury has been established; however, it is only performed for arterial hemorrhage. TAE for venous injury has not previously been considered because a tamponade is supposedly effective for hemostasis of venous hemorrhage due to the anatomy surrounding Gerota's fasciae. This is an extremely rare case in which only venous injury was identified, without obvious arterial hemorrhage. Gerota's fasciae were broken and hemostasis treatment was required. Because the renal artery is the end artery, the venous hemorrhage was controlled with arterial embolization.In our case, renal vein branch injury was identified on CT and hemorrhage was terminated using TAE for the renal artery branch. TAE can be used as a non-operative management for the successful treatment of renal vein branch injury. Keywords: Non-operative management, Renal vein branch injury, Transcatheter arterial embolization, Venous hemorrhage

  9. Dynamics of uranium vein mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrosyan, R.V. (Ministerstvo Geologii SSR, Moscow)


    The formation of uraniun vein deposits and the essence of consanguinity of the mineralization and wall metasomatites are considered. The formation of uranium mineralization is analysed from the positions of Korzhinsky D. S. : the formation of metasomatite aureole and associated vein ores take place as a result of the development of one solution flow while the formation of mineral vein associations occurs on the background of continuous filtration of the solution during metasomato is due to a repeated (pulse) half-opening of fractures and their filling with a part of filtrating solution. The analysis of the available information on the example of two different uranium manifestations permits to reveal certain relations both in the character of wall rock alterations and between the metasomatosis and the formation of ore minerals in veins. The conclusion is made that spatial-time correlations of vein formations with wall metasomatites attest that the pulse formation of ores in veinlets occurs on the background and in interrelation with a consecutive precipitation of components in the aureole volume. The analysis of element migration dynamics in wall aureole carried out from the positions of the Korzhinsky hypothesis of the advance wave of acid components that takes into account the interaction of continuous and pulse mechanisms of solution movement permits to avoid contradictions when interpreting the processes of wall rock alterations and vein ore-forming, and permits to make a common scheme of vein ore-genesis.

  10. Varicose Vein Treatment (Endovenous Ablation of Varicose Veins) (United States)

    ... surgery. Most of the veins treated are effectively invisible even to ultrasound 12 months after the procedure. ... understanding of the possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed ...

  11. Traumatic indirect carotid cavernous fistulas: angioarchitectures and results of transarterial embolization by liquid adhesives in 11 patients. (United States)

    Luo, Chao-Bao; Teng, Michael Mu-Huo; Chang, Feng-Chi; Chang, Cheng-Yang


    The angioarchitectures of traumatic indirect CCFs and the effectiveness and safety of transarterial liquid adhesive embolization for these fistulas remain to be evaluated. A total of 276 consecutive patients with traumatic craniofacial arteriovenous fistula were referred for embolization in the past 15 years. Eleven had traumatic indirect CCFs and were managed with transarterial liquid adhesive embolization. This group was composed of 8 men and 3 women ranging from 15 to 46 years of age. The most frequently observed symptoms were neuro-ophthalmic, followed by bruit and headache. All lesions were single fistula and fed exclusively by meningeal artery. The accessory meningeal artery was involved most often (n = 7), followed by the middle meningeal artery (n = 4). Venous drains were the ophthalmic vein (n = 11) and/or inferior petrous sinus (n = 8). No cortical vein drainage was observed. Liquid adhesives (60%) were used to obliterate all fistulas; 2 patients were also treated with detachable coils. All fistulas were totally occluded with resolutive fistula-related symptoms. Asymptomatic migration of liquid adhesives into the nearby arterial branch was observed in 1 patient. One patient had partial ocular choroidal infarction. No recurrent or residual fistula was found upon clinical follow-up. Angioarchitecture and treatment of traumatic indirect CCFs differed from the spontaneous type of fistulas. By transarterial liquid adhesive embolization, treatment of all fistulas was safe, with effective occlusion and associated low peri-procedural risk. This procedure may be considered as the primary treatment for these traumatic fistulas.

  12. An Unexpectedly High Rate of Thrombophilia Disorders in Patients with Superficial Vein Thrombosis of the Lower Extremities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobreira, Marcone Lima; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Mattos


    BACKGROUND: Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a common venous condition. Recent studies have shown that SVT is associated with high frequency of thromboembolic complications: from 22-37% for deep venous thrombosis and up to 33% for pulmonary embolism. Our goal was to assess the prevalence...... deficiency, presence of lupus anticoagulant, as well as anticardiolipin antibody titers. Patients aged less than 18 years, with confirmed deep vein thrombosis, and pregnant women were excluded. RESULTS: 95.5% were Caucasian, and 62.1% were female gender. Age ranged from 21-88 years. Molecular testing showed...

  13. Pulmonary embolism due to compression of the inferior vena cava by a hepatic hemangioma. (United States)

    Paolillo, V; Sicuro, M; Nejrotti, A; Rizzetto, M; Casaccia, M


    We describe a 35-year-old man who had a pulmonary embolism with thrombosis of the inferior vena cava, apparently resulting from compression by a hepatic hemangioma. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was confirmed by pulmonary angiography; however, the hemangioma was detected only incidentally, as a hyperechoic mass, during an echocardiogram for intracardiac thrombosis. Abdominal sonography, computed tomography, celiac angiography, technetium 99m-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy, and ultrasound-guided liver biopsy all assisted in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangioma and its compression of the inferior vena cava. Because of the multisegmental and perihilar involvement of the tumor, surgery was not performed. For dissolution of the clots, the patient was given thrombolytic therapy followed by heparin administration. He was then placed on long-term warfarin therapy and is well after 5 years; the size of the hemangioma is unchanged. Cases of pulmonary embolism due to diseases of the upper abdominal organs are rare and probably underestimated. This case stresses the need for a systematic investigation of the abdomen when a pulmonary embolism is present without evidence of deep vein thrombosis. Images PMID:8508068

  14. Pulmonary embolism and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, P.; Planchon, B.; Faucal, P. de; Touze, M.D.; Dupas, B.


    Risks related to pulmonary embolism require use of diagnostic procedures with good sensitivity, and the potential complications of effective anticoagulant therapy require procedures with good specificity. Clinical signs are not more accurate for diagnosis of pulmonary than are ECG, blood gas and chest X ray examinations. Perfusion-ventilation scintigraphy has good diagnostic accuracy approaching that of pulmonary angiography which remains the gold standard. Since pulmonary embolism is usually a complication of deep venous thrombosis, distal clot detection should be associated with lung explorations. Plethysmography, ultrasonography, doppler studies and scintigraphy of the lower limbs could provide data supplementing those of contrast venography. The value and role of these examinations are analyzed and discussed in terms of different clinical situations.

  15. Pulmonary Embolism in Ischemic Stroke. (United States)

    Eswaradass, Prasanna Venkatesan; Dey, Sadanand; Singh, Dilip; Hill, Michael D


    Silent pulmonary embolism (PE) may be associated with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We identified 10 patients from 3,132 unique patients (3,431 CT scans). We retrospectively examined CT angiogram of patients with AIS to determine the frequency of concurrent PE in AIS. The period prevalence of PE was 0.32. Seven patients had concurrent PE, whereas three had PE diagnosed 2 days after their AIS presentation. We suspected paradoxical embolism via patent foramen ovale as the cause of stroke in three patients and thrombophilia in four patients. Seven patients had poor outcome including four deaths. CT angiogram stroke protocol images from aortic arch to vertex allows visualization of upper pulmonary arteries and PE detection in AIS.

  16. Patient management of pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilworth, D.L.; Donovan, B.C.; Morrison, R.; Ryan, K.; Reagan, K.; Goldhaber, S.Z.


    This is the first article in a four-part continuing education series addressing patient care and the clinical management of disease. This series is not directed at nuclear medicine procedures themselves, but focuses on topics related to patients referred for nuclear medicine studies. After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1) discuss the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism; and 2) discuss conventional versus thrombolytic approaches to therapy.

  17. Distensión abdominal y edemas por quiste del cordón espermático Abdomina distention and edema due to spermatic cord cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Keller


    Full Text Available La distensión abdominal es un síntoma común, siendo en general la presentación inicial de enfermedades sistémicas o desórdenes gastrointestinales. Otras causas son infrecuentes. Los quistes del cordón espermático son poco frecuentes, pero aún más su ubicación intraabdominal, su tamaño habitual es insuficiente para producir distensión. El paciente presentado en este caso es un varón con criptorquidia bilateral admitido por distensión abdominal, interpretada inicialmente como síndrome ascítico edematoso. La ecografía interpretó la distensión como ascitis tabicada, y la tomografía computada como debida a un gran quiste. En la exploración quirúrgica se diagnosticó un quiste gigante del cordón espermático de ubicación abdominal.Abdominal distention is a frequent symptom, being often the initial presentation of systemic diseases or gastrointestinal disorders. Other causes are uncommon. Spermatic cord cysts are infrequent, abdominal location is even rarer, and the size of the cysts is usually not enough to produce abdominal distention. In our case a man with bilateral cryptorchidism was admitted with abdominal distention and edema of the lower extremities initially interpreted as ascitic-edematous syndrome. Ultrasonography interpreted abdominal distention as septate ascites, computed tomography as a giant cyst. Exploratory surgery showed a giant spermatic cord cyst in the left spermatic cord.

  18. Intrahepatic arterioportal fistulae: role of transcatheter embolization. (United States)

    Tarazov, P G


    Management of 26 arterioportal fistulae (APFs) is reported. Among 13 hepatoma-induced fistulae (group A), conservative treatment was ineffective in 8 patients, and arterial embolization alleviated portal hypertension in the other 5. Of 10 iatrogenic APFs (group B), the 3 largest were successfully embolized, the remaining lesions resolved spontaneously. Three spontaneous nonmalignant APFs (group C) were embolized. Excellent results were obtained in 2 patients, and the other died of severe postembolization hepatic failure. Because long-standing APFs may cause severe portal hypertension with consequent variceal bleeding they should be treated. Arterial embolization is indicated in most patients.

  19. [Torsion of spermatic cord: can we trust a previous orchidopexy? A case report with loss of a single testis with medico-legal issue]. (United States)

    Van Glabeke, E; Ferhi, K; Maloum, C


    The authors report the case of a patient aged of 27 years who presented in the past a testicular torsion with loss of the ipsilateral testis and fixation of the contralateral one. Ten years later, he presented with pain on the remaining testis, which evolved to necrosis, and led to a second orchidectomy. In retrospective, it appears that the assumption that the testis had been adequately fixed ten years earlier led to the loss of the remaining testis. We thus recommend an urgent surgical exploration when facing a suspicion of spermatic cord torsion, regardless of previous history of orchidopexy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A Vein Map Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fuentes


    Full Text Available There is increasing demand world-wide, from government agencies and the private sector for cutting-edge biometric security technology that is difficult to breach but userfriendly at the same time. Some of the older tools, such as fingerprint, retina and iris scanning, and facial recognition software have all been found to have flaws and often viewed negatively because of many cultural and hygienic issues associated with them. Comparatively, mapping veins as a human barcode, a new technology, has many advantages over older technologies. Specifically, reproducing a three-dimensional model of a human vein system is impossible to replicate. Vein map technology is distinctive because of its state-of-the-art sensors are only able to recognize vein patterns if hemoglobin is actively flowing through the person

  1. [Extremly high frequency of infantil pulmonary thrombo-embolism (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Brass, K


    Among 5 875 children with a lifetime between 24 hours to 14 years, autopsiated during period 1951-1970, were found 115 cases of naked eye pulmonary thrombo-embolism. 96 cases occurred in children with a lifetime between 24 hours and 4 years. This extremly high frequency is caused by an unusually high number of thrombosis in renal veins and craneal sinuses, following severe diarrhetic diseases with deshydratation and haemoconcentration. Severity and frequency of this enterocolitis of different aetiology, affecting especially children of poor people, are favoured by the climatic, sanitarious and socio-economical conditions of Valencia. Surprisingly, literature do not mention comparables observations about infantil pulmonary thrombo-embolism, observed in territories of similar structure.

  2. Pulmonary Embolism Masquerading as High Altitude Pulmonary Edema at High Altitude. (United States)

    Pandey, Prativa; Lohani, Benu; Murphy, Holly


    Pandey, Prativa, Benu Lohani, and Holly Murphy. Pulmonary embolism masquerading as high altitude pulmonary edema at high altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 17:353-358, 2016.-Pulmonary embolism (PE) at high altitude is a rare entity that can masquerade as or occur in conjunction with high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) and can complicate the diagnosis and management. When HAPE cases do not improve rapidly with descent, other diagnoses, including PE, ought to be considered. From 2013 to 2015, we identified eight cases of PE among 303 patients with initial diagnosis of HAPE. Upon further evaluation, five had deep vein thrombosis (DVT). One woman had a contraceptive ring and seven patients had no known thrombotic risks. PE can coexist with or mimic HAPE and should be considered in patients presenting with shortness of breath from high altitude regardless of thrombotic risk.

  3. Ovarian protection by selective coil embolization of a uteroovarian anastomosis before uterine fibroid embolization: a report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Im, Han Hyeok [Soonchunhyang University, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yun Woo; Goo, Dong Erk [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)


    Premature menopause can be developed as a result of undesired nontarget ovary embolization during the performance of uterine fibroid embolization. The etiology of varian failure after uterine fibroid embolization is not yet clearly defined, but one of the leading possibilities is nontarget embolization of the varies. We report here on two cases in which superselective coil embolization of distal uterine artery collateral pathways to the ovary was performed during uterine fibroid embolization.

  4. Portal Vein Thrombosis in non cirrhotic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Spaander (Manon)


    textabstractExtrahepatic portal vein thrombosis (EPVT) is the most common cause of portal hypertension in non- cirrhotic patients. EPVT has been defined as an obstruction of the extrahepatic portal vein with or without involvement of the intrahepatic portal veins. Although the portal vein accounts

  5. Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformations: An Ultrasonographic Incidental Finding—A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stephan


    Full Text Available Background. The Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM is a rare congenital, cerebral, arteriovenous deformity. Good cross-discipline cooperation is in demand because of associated complications and high mortality. The recognition of the optimal therapeutic window is useful to allow proper management. Case Report. We report on the successful treatment of a 2-week-old, healthy girl with a VGAM, which came across in the context of the newborn ultrasonographic screening. After interdisciplinary discussion, 2 embolizations of the VGAM followed without complications—the first in the age of 6 months and the second at 12 months of life. Before and after the intervention, the patient had an age-appropriate development without neurological deficits. Conclusion. The endovascular transarterial embolization is described as the treatment of choice. Time and method of intervention depend on clinical signs of the patient. In our case the patient was asymptomatic. So the arteriovenous abnormality was an incidental finding by ultrasound. Because of the natural history of the disease, and the potential severe neurocognitive consequences at long-term followup if left untreated, it was decided to embolize the lesion. Thanks to embolization with glue, good therapeutical and clinical results could be obtained with normal neurological development.

  6. Mechanical Thrombectomy of Iliac Vein Thrombosis in a Pig Model Using the Rotarex and Aspirex Catheters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minko, P., E-mail:; Bücker, A. [University Hospital Homburg/Saar, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Laschke, M.; Menger, M. [University Hospital Homburg/Saar, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Surgery (Germany); Bohle, R. [University Hospital Homburg/Saar, Department of Pathology (Germany); Katoh, M. [University Hospital Homburg/Saar, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)


    PurposeTo investigate the efficacy and safety of mechanical thrombectomy for iliac vein thrombosis using Rotarex and Aspirex catheters in a pig model.Materials and MethodsIliac vein thrombosis was induced in six pigs by means of an occlusion-balloon catheter and thrombin injection. The presence of thrombi was verified by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and computed tomography (CT). Thrombectomy was performed using 6F and 8F Rotarex and 6F, 8F, and 10F Aspirex catheters (Straub Medical AG, Wangs, Switzerland). After intervention, DSA and CT were repeated to evaluate the efficacy of mechanical thrombectomy and to exclude local complications. In addition, pulmonary CT was performed to rule out pulmonary embolism. Finally, all pigs were killed, and iliac veins were dissected to perform macroscopic and histological examination.ResultsThrombus induction was successfully achieved in all animals as verified by DSA and CT. Subsequent thrombectomy lead to incomplete recanalization of the iliac veins with residual thrombi in all cases. However, the use of the 6F and 8F Rotarex catheters caused vessel perforation and retroperitoneal hemorrhage in all cases. Application of the Aspirex device caused one small transmural perforation in a vessel treated with a 10F Aspirex catheter, and this was only seen microscopically. Pulmonary embolism was detected in one animal treated with the Rotarex catheters, whereas no pulmonary emboli were seen in animals treated with the Aspirex catheters.ConclusionThe Aspirex catheter allowed subtotal and safe recanalization of iliac vein thrombosis. In contrast, the use of the Rotarex catheter caused macroscopically obvious vessel perforations in all cases.

  7. Multielectrode Pulmonary Vein Ablation Catheter (PVAC(®)): current data on results and risks. (United States)

    Mönnig, Gerold; Eckardt, Lars


    Electrical isolation of pulmonary veins is the cornerstone of catheter ablation for patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation. However, uncertainty surrounds the choice of energy source in pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Various alternative techniques such as the Pulmonary Vein Ablation Catheter (PVAC(®), Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) have been developed to facilitate PVI. This over-the-wire multielectrode catheter is delivering duty-cycled bipolar and unipolar radiofrequency (RF) energy at relatively low power.PVI with this "one-shot" PVACatheter can shorten the procedure duration and lower fluoroscopy time compared to irrigated RF. It enables mapping and ablation with the same array, but fails to show signals during RF energy delivery. The effectiveness of PVAC is comparable to other technologies in randomized studies. The overall complication rate of PVAC PVI is comparable to irrigated RF and possibly slightly higher for cryoballoon PVI. Special attention has to be paid to an effective anticoagulation throughout the ablation procedure, avoidance of embolic events and pulmonary venous stenosis.The novel catheter design of the PVAC Gold(®) array may improve safety by reducing embolic events through avoidance of electrode 1-to-10 interaction and by better tissue contact due to the 20° forward tilt. Although clinical data with this new array are lacking so far, the PVAC system has been shown to be a promising tool for PVI. However, prospective studies especially with the novel array are required to determine its true role for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in the future.

  8. Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for bleeding hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV cirrhosis: a safety strategy. (United States)

    Levi Sandri, Giovanni Battista; Vennarecci, Giovanni; Lepiane, Pasquale; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria


    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) spontaneous tumor rupture varies between 3% and 26%. For resectable HCC ruptures, emergency hepatectomy or staged hepatectomy after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) are life-saving procedures, and efficient therapeutic methods. We report a multimodal therapy including TAE, associating liver partition and portal vein ligation (ALPPS) and immunoglobuline infusion for a huge bleeding HCC with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) cirrhosis. ALPPS first step began with an abdominal toilette due to the massive hemoperitoneum and a portal vein incision at the bifurcation of the right and left portal veins was performed. A freely floating left part of the thrombus was extracted from the left portal vein in order to restore the left portal vein. The right portal vein with complete thrombosis was closed. Liver partition was then performed. The second step was performed without complications. A HCC Edmondson grade 4 (pT3b) and a cirrhotic liver parenchyma were described. Postoperative ascites decompensation was treated and patient was discharged in postoperative day 21. The reported triple strategy allowed us to prolong patient live. A multimodal therapy including TAE, ALPPS and immunoglobuline is a good option for a life treatment in case of huge bleeding hepatocellular carcinoma with PVTT in HBV cirrhosis.

  9. New onset S wave in pulmonary embolism: revisited (something old and something new) (United States)

    Gupta, Prabha Nini; Pillai, Siju B; Ahmad, Sajan Z; Babu, Shifas M


    We report a case of a young man who had a new onset S wave in lead 1 in his ECG with typical symptoms of acute onset of dyspoena 2 months after an episode of deep vein thrombosis, S wave disappeared 6 days after thrombolysis. We report this case as the clinical course was very typical plus we have reviewed the literature regarding diagnosis and risk stratification of pulmonary embolism for the student, or the casualty medical officer. PMID:24275333

  10. Animal models of cerebral arterial gas embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Robert P.; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Hulst, Robert A.


    Cerebral arterial gas embolism is a dreaded complication of diving and invasive medical procedures. Many different animal models have been used in research on cerebral arterial gas embolism. This review provides an overview of the most important characteristics of these animal models. The properties

  11. [Parietal tuberculosis complicated by pulmonary embolism]. (United States)

    Bopaka, Regis Gothard; Bemba, Presley Lee Esthel; Janah, Hind; Okombi, Franck Hardain Okemba; Jabri, Hasna; Khattabi, Wiam El; Afif, Hicham


    Tuberculosis is a frequent infectious disease in developing countries. It can affect the lung or spread to other parts of the body. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis poses a major diagnostic problem. We report the case of a patient with pulmonary embolism revealing parietal tuberculosis. This study emphasizes the importance of etiologic assessment in patients with pulmonary embolism.

  12. Postoperative Acute Pulmonary Embolism Following Pulmonary Resections (United States)

    Shonyela, Felix Samuel; Liu, Bo; Jiao, Jia


    Postoperative acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections is highly fatal complication. Many literatures have documented cancer to be the highest risk factor for acute pulmonary embolism after pulmonary resections. Early diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism is highly recommended and computed tomographic pulmonary angiography is the gold standard in diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulants and thrombolytic therapy have shown a great success in treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. Surgical therapies (embolectomy and inferior vena cava filter replacement) proved to be lifesaving but many literatures favored medical therapy as the first choice. Prophylaxis pre and post operation is highly recommended, because there were statistical significant results in different studies which supported the use of prophylaxis in prevention of acute pulmonary embolism. Having reviewed satisfactory number of literatures, it is suggested that thoroughly preoperative assessment of patient conditions, determining their risk factors complicating to pulmonary embolism and the use of appropriate prophylaxis measures are the key options to the successful minimization or eradication of acute pulmonary embolism after lung resections. PMID:26354232

  13. Pulmonary embolism : diagnostic management and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, Frederikus Albertus


    This thesis describes the diagnostic management, short term prognosis and long term complications of pulmonary embolism. We have validated a newly derived clinical decision rule, the revised Geneva score, for predicting the pre-test probability of having acute pulmonary embolism. This rule can be

  14. Transarterial embolization of acute intercostal artery bleeding

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    Bae, Jae Ik; Park, Auh Whan; Lee, Seon Joo [Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Gi Young; Yoon, Hyun Ki [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Chang Jin [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Tae Beom [Donga University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hwan [Kyimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    To report our experiences of transarterial embolization for acute intercostal artery bleeding. A retrospectively analysis of the causes, clinical manifestations, angiographic findings and transarterial embolization technique in 8 patients with acute intercostal artery bleeding, with a review of the anatomical basis. The causes of intercostal artery bleeding were iatrogenic and traumatic in 88 and 12% of cases, respectively. Active bleeding from the collateral intercostal or posterior intercostal arteries was angiographically demonstrated in 75 and 25% of cases, respectively. Transarterial embolization successfully achieved hemostasis in all cases. However, two patient with hypovolemic shock expired due to a massive hemothorax, despite successful transarterial embolization. Intercostal access should be performed through the middle of the intercostal space to avoid injury to the collateral intercostal artery. Transarterial embolization is an effective method for the control of intercostal artery bleeding.

  15. Gypsum veins in Triassic Moenkopi mudrocks of southern Utah: Analogs to calcium sulfate veins on Mars (United States)

    Young, B. W.; Chan, M. A.


    Well-exposed gypsum veins in the Triassic Moenkopi formation in southern Utah, USA, are similar to veins at Endeavour and Gale Craters on Mars. Both Moenkopi and Mars veins are hydrated calcium sulfate, have fibrous textures, and crosscut other diagenetic features. Moenkopi veins are stratigraphically localized with strontium and sulfur isotope ratios similar to primary Moenkopi sulfate beds and are thus interpreted to be sourced from within the unit. Endeavour veins seem to be distributed by lithology and may have a local source. Gale veins cut across multiple lithologies and appear to be sourced from another stratigraphic interval. Evaluation of vein network geometries indicates that horizontal Moenkopi veins are longer and thicker than vertical veins. Moenkopi veins are also generally oriented with the modern stress field, so are interpreted to have formed in the latest stages of exhumation. Endeavour veins appear to be generally vertical and oriented parallel to the margins of Cape York and are interpreted to have formed in response to topographic collapse of the crater rim. Gale horizontal veins appear to be slightly more continuous than vertical veins and may have formed during exhumation. Abrupt changes in orientation, complex crosscutting relationships, and fibrous (antitaxial) texture in Moenkopi and Mars veins suggest emplacement via hydraulic fracture at low temperatures. Moenkopi and Mars veins are interpreted as late-stage diagenetic features that have experienced little alteration since emplacement. Moenkopi veins are useful terrestrial analogs for Mars veins because vein geometry, texture, and chemistry record information about crustal deformation and vein emplacement.

  16. Simplified diagnostic management of suspected pulmonary embolism (the YEARS study): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study. (United States)

    van der Hulle, Tom; Cheung, Whitney Y; Kooij, Stephanie; Beenen, Ludo F M; van Bemmel, Thomas; van Es, Josien; Faber, Laura M; Hazelaar, Germa M; Heringhaus, Christian; Hofstee, Herman; Hovens, Marcel M C; Kaasjager, Karin A H; van Klink, Rick C J; Kruip, Marieke J H A; Loeffen, Rinske F; Mairuhu, Albert T A; Middeldorp, Saskia; Nijkeuter, Mathilde; van der Pol, Liselotte M; Schol-Gelok, Suzanne; Ten Wolde, Marije; Klok, Frederikus A; Huisman, Menno V


    Validated diagnostic algorithms in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism are often not used correctly or only benefit subgroups of patients, leading to overuse of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The YEARS clinical decision rule that incorporates differential D-dimer cutoff values at presentation, has been developed to be fast, to be compatible with clinical practice, and to reduce the number of CTPA investigations in all age groups. We aimed to prospectively evaluate this novel and simplified diagnostic algorithm for suspected acute pulmonary embolism. We did a prospective, multicentre, cohort study in 12 hospitals in the Netherlands, including consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism between Oct 5, 2013, to July 9, 2015. Patients were managed by simultaneous assessment of the YEARS clinical decision rule, consisting of three items (clinical signs of deep vein thrombosis, haemoptysis, and whether pulmonary embolism is the most likely diagnosis), and D-dimer concentrations. In patients without YEARS items and D-dimer less than 1000 ng/mL, or in patients with one or more YEARS items and D-dimer less than 500 ng/mL, pulmonary embolism was considered excluded. All other patients had CTPA. The primary outcome was the number of independently adjudicated events of venous thromboembolism during 3 months of follow-up after pulmonary embolism was excluded, and the secondary outcome was the number of required CTPA compared with the Wells' diagnostic algorithm. For the primary outcome regarding the safety of the diagnostic strategy, we used a per-protocol approach. For the secondary outcome regarding the efficiency of the diagnostic strategy, we used an intention-to-diagnose approach. This trial is registered with the Netherlands Trial Registry, number NTR4193. 3616 consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism were screened, of whom 151 (4%) were excluded. The remaining 3465 patients were assessed of whom 456 (13%) were

  17. Efficacy of local dexmedetomidine add-on for spermatic cord block anesthesia in patients undergoing intrascrotal surgeries: randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial

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    Hetta DF


    Full Text Available Diab Fuad Hetta,1 Emad E Kamal,2 Ali M Mahran,2 Doaa G Ahmed,1 Abdelraheem Elawamy,3 Abdelraouf MS Abdelraouf3 1Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, South Egypt Cancer Institute, 2Department of Dermatology and Andrology, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Study objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding dexmedetomidine (DEX to bupivacaine on the quality of spermatic cord block anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. Design: This is a randomized, double-blind study. Setting: This study was performed in an educational and research hospital. Patients: One hundred twenty adult males were scheduled for intrascrotal surgeries. Interventions: Patients were divided into two groups: group B received 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% for spermatic cord block and intravenous 50 µg of DEX and group BD received 10 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% added to 50 µg of DEX (9.5 mL bupivacaine 0. 25% + 0.5 mL [50 µg] DEX for spermatic cord block, and for masking purposes, the patients received isotonic saline intravenously. Measurements: Time to first analgesic request, analgesic consumption, and visual analog scale (VAS pain score in the first 24 hours postoperatively were assessed. Main results: Time to first rescue analgesic was significantly delayed in group BD in comparison with group B, median (interquartile range, 7 (6–12 hours versus 6 (5–7 hours, (p=0.000, the mean cumulative morphine consumption (mg in the first postoperative 24 hours was significantly lower in group BD compared with group B, 8.13±4.45 versus 12.7±3.79, with a mean difference (95% CI of −4.57 (−6.06 to −3.07 (p=0.000; also, there was a significant reduction of VAS pain score in group BD in comparison with group B at all measured time points, VAS 2 hours (1.28±0.9 vs 1.92±0.8, VAS 6 hours (2.62±1.5 vs 3.93±1.2, VAS 12 hours (2.40±1.1 vs 3.57±0.65, VAS 24 hours (1.90±0

  18. Spontaneous Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report

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    Mustafa Serinken


    Full Text Available Internal jugular vein thrombosis (IJVT is an elusive vascular disease that is rarely seen, with potentially lethal complications such as sepsis and pulmonary embolism. Spontaneous IJVT is considered when no apparent predisposing cause of thrombosis is present. A previously healthy, 31-year-old woman presented to the university-based emergency department because of painless swelling in the right anterior side of her neck. Physical examination revealed a painless, soft and immobile mass in the right anterior side of her neck beneath the sternocleidomastoid muscle, without hyperemia or local heat. On ultrasonographic examination, a hyperechogenic mass was visualized around the thoracic entrance of the right internal jugular vein, which was suggestive of a thrombus. The patient was administered intravenous antibiotic and low-molecular-weight heparin followed by oral coumadin as anticoagulant therapy. Her complaints were relieved within 5 days. She was completely well after 6 months. Venous thrombosis generally results from impaired blood flow locally or systemically that leads to activation of coagulation. Primary care physicians should sustain a high index of suspicion in patients who present with undiagnosed swelling in the neck, or other signs and symptoms attributed to IJVT.

  19. [Surgical treatment of acute deep leg and pelvic vein trombosis]. (United States)

    Gall, F; Husfeldt, K J


    In the last 3 years 93 cases of iliofermoral trombosis were treated by surgery. We prefer the method used by Brunner, but under general anaesthesia and using a Bentley-Autotransfusion-System (ATS). The average age of our patients was 55 years (age ranged between 17 and 87 years). No lethal pulmonary embolism was observed. 2, 1 percent of the patients died following apoplex or acute heart failure. Of 67 patients who were operated on 6 months ago or more 70 percent have no further complaints, 28 percent still have some residual edema and only 2 patients have a severe postthrombotic syndrome. 50 percent of 40 control-phlebograms demonstrated patency of all veins. 20 percent had short segmentary occlusions with definite signs of recanalisation, while in 27 percent of the cases occlusions of the lower leg and thigh were found, the iliac veins being free. Only 2 postoperative phlebograms showed a complete iliofemoral venous occlusion. Our results prove, that the operative thrombectomy is a successful method, with which the main complications of the iliofemoral thrombosis-pulmonary embolisation and postthrombotic syndrome-can difinitely be reduced. Also because of better long term results, the operative therapy of acute ilofemoral thrombosis should be generally prefered instead of conservative treatment.

  20. Iliac vein stenosis is an underdiagnosed cause of pelvic venous insufficiency. (United States)

    Santoshi, Ratnam K N; Lakhanpal, Sanjiv; Satwah, Vinay; Lakhanpal, Gaurav; Malone, Michael; Pappas, Peter J


    Reflux in the ovarian veins, with or without an obstructive venous outflow component, is reported to be the primary cause of pelvic venous insufficiency (PVI). The degree to which venous outflow obstruction plays a role in PVI is currently ill-defined. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 227 women with PVI who presented to the Center for Vascular Medicine from January 2012 to September 2015. Assessments and interventions consisted of an evaluation for other causes of chronic pelvic pain by a gynecologist; preintervention and postintervention visual analog scale (VAS) pain score; complete venous duplex ultrasound examination; and Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology classification. All patients underwent diagnostic venography of their pelvic and left ovarian veins as well as intravascular ultrasound of their iliac veins. Patients were treated in one of six ways: ovarian vein embolization (OVE) alone (chemical ± coils), OVE with staged iliac vein stenting, OVE with simultaneous iliac vein stenting, iliac vein stenting alone, OVE with venoplasty, and venoplasty alone. Of the 227 women treated, the average age and number of pregnancies was 46.4 ± 10.4 years and 3.36 ± 1.99, respectively. Treatment distribution was the following: OVE, n = 39; OVE with staged stenting, n = 94; OVE with simultaneous stenting, n = 33; stenting alone, n = 50; OVE with venoplasty, n = 8; and venoplasty alone, n = 3. Seven patients in the OVE and stenting groups (staged) and one patient in the OVE + venoplasty group required a second embolization of the left ovarian vein. Eighty percent (181/227) of patients demonstrated an iliac stenosis >50% by intravascular ultrasound. Average VAS scores for the entire cohort before and after intervention were 8.45 ± 1.11 and 1.86 ± 1.61 (P ≤ .001). In the staged group, only 9 of 94 patients reported a decrease in the VAS score with OVE alone. VAS score decreased from 8.6 ± 0.89 before OVE to 7.97 ± 2.10 after OVE

  1. Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement (United States)

    Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin


    An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

  2. Outcome of surgical embolectomy in patients with massive pulmonary embolism with and without cardiopulmonary resuscitation (United States)

    Ghaffari, Samad; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Safaei, Naser; Mohammadi, Kamran; Ranjbar, Abdolmohammad; Ghodratizadeh, Sahar


    Introduction Pulmonary embolism is a challenging critical cardiovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality. Surgical embolectomy has favorable results in patients with massive pulmonary embolism. Aim To study the outcome of embolectomy in patients with massive pulmonary embolism. Material and methods In this single-center, retrospective study, 36 patients including 14 male and 22 female patients with a mean age of 50.80 ±18.89 years with acute pulmonary embolism who underwent surgical pulmonary embolectomy from January 2011 to January 2016 were included. The medical records of all patients were reviewed for demographic and preoperative data and postoperative outcomes. Results Common risk factors for acute PE were major surgery within 3 months and deep vein thrombosis. The most common presenting symptoms of patients were dyspnea, followed by chest pain and syncope. Mean duration of hospitalization was 14.76 ±8.69 days and mean operation duration was 4.47 ±1.54 h. Mean time from admission to embolectomy was 6.58 ±1.13 h. Ten (27.8%) patients died during the operation including 3 cases with cardiopulmonary resuscitation prior to surgery and 2 cases with severe cardiogenic shock. Patients who survived were followed for 6 months. The mortality rate during follow-up was 15.4%; all 4 patients died during follow-up period due to metastatic cancer. No pulmonary embolism recurrance were seen. Conclusions Although surgical embolectomy mostly was done for high risk patients, it had good in-hospital and excellent mid-term outcomes. PMID:29354176

  3. The model of pulmonary embolism caused by autologous thrombus in rabbits

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    Yu-Jiao Ding


    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a model of pulmonary embolism in rabbits by using autologous thrombosis of rabbit ear vein, to study the method of establishing acute pulmonary embolism by using autologous thrombus and to explore the diagnostic value of oxygen partial pressure in acute pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into normal group (n=5, 7 h group, 24h group, 1 week after model establishment Group. The arterial blood gas analysis was performed on the carotid arteries of rabbits at 7 h, 24 h and 1 W after modeling. Results: Normal group oxygen partial pressure (93.15 ± 2.26 mmHg, 7 h group oxygen partial pressure (81.98 ± 1.94 mmHg, 24 h group oxygen partial pressure (84.55 ± 2.18 mmHg, 1 W group oxygen partial pressure (92.66 ± 1.92 mmHg. Normal group oxygen partial pressure and 7 h group, 24 h group oxygen partial pressure, P value was less than 0.05 and less than 0.01, indicating that the difference was statistically significant. Normal group oxygen partial pressure and 1 week group oxygen partial pressure, P value greater than 0.05, indicating that the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The oxygen partial pressure was reduced at 7 h after the establishment of the acute pulmonary embolism model and failed to return to normal within 24 h. After 1 week, the embolus began to dissolve, the respiratory and circulatory system was reestablished, and the oxygen partial pressure gradually Return to normal level. Indicating that there is a positive correlation between oxygen partial pressure and acute pulmonary embolism.

  4. Symptoms, location and prognosis of pulmonary embolism

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    M.T. García-Sanz


    Full Text Available Background and objective: Pulmonary embolism (PE is a common disease with variable symptoms and high overall mortality. The clinical relevance of the extent of PE is still debatable, and the role of anticoagulation in patients with subsegmental involvement has been contested. Our objective is to describe the clinical details of patients with PE in our hospital and to analyze their prognosis based on the extent of the disease. Materials and methods: Retrospective study of 313 patients diagnosed with PE by chest computed tomography (CT scan at the Hospital Complex of Pontevedra in Spain for six years. Predictors of mortality were determined by multivariate analysis. Results: Women accounted for 56% of patients, and patient median age was 70 years (interquartile range 53–78 years. Subsegmental PE accounted for 7% of all cases; these patients were younger and had lower comorbidity; they reported chest pain more often, performed better in blood gas analysis and none of them had proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Patients with subsegmental PE had a higher survival rate. Factors independently associated with mortality were cancer diagnosis and higher comorbidity. Conclusions: Patients with subsegmental PE clinically differ from those with more proximal PE. Underlying diseases have more influence on the prognosis than the extent of the disease. Resumo: Contexto e objectivo: A embolia pulmonar (PE é uma doença comum com sintomas variáveis e uma elevada taxa de mortalidade global. A relevância clínica da extensão da PE é ainda fonte de debate, e o papel da anticoagulação em pacientes com envolvimento de sub-segmentos foi contestado. O nosso objectivo é descrever os dados clínicos de doentes com PE no nosso hospital e analisar o seu prognóstico, com base na extensão da doença. Materiais e métodos: Estudo retrospectivo de 313 doentes, diagnosticados com PE, através de uma tomografia computadorizada de t

  5. Recurrent varicoceles: causes and treatment using angiography and magnification assisted subinguinal varicocelectomy. (United States)

    Moon, Kyung Hyun; Cho, Suk Ju; Kim, Kun Suk; Park, Seonghun; Park, Sungchan


    To investigate the causes of varicocele recurrence and assess the use of embolization and subinguinal varicocelectomy in its treatment in patients with angiography and subinguinal varicocelectomy. The present study involved 15 patients with recurrent varicoceles. The mean patient age was 21.2 years (range: 12-42 years). Preoperative angiography was performed in 11 patients. Embolization was used in patients with patent internal spermatic veins (ISVs). Patients without patent ISVs or preoperative angiography underwent magnification-assisted subinguinal varicocelectomy which included testicular retrieval and ligation of all collateral veins except arteries and deferential veins. Seven among 11 patients (64%) which had preoperative angiography had patent ISVs and underwent embolization and 8 patients underwent subinguinal varicocelectomy. Of those 8 patients, 6 had dilated ISVs and external spermatic veins (ESVs), one had dilated ISVs and gubernacular veins, and one had dilated ISVs, ESVs and gubernacular veins. No patient experienced recurrence or testis atrophy. Patent ISVs or collateral veins may be the cause of recurrence after varicocelectomy. Angiographic embolization was successful in 64% of recurrent varicoceles patients with patent ISVs. However, microscope-assisted subinguinal varicocelectomy may be the best overall treatment for patients with recurrent varicoceles.

  6. Outpatient management of pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Roy, P-M; Moumneh, T; Penaloza, A; Sanchez, O


    Despite clear potential benefits of outpatient care, most patients suffering from pulmonary embolism (PE) are currently hospitalized due to the fear of possible adverse events. Nevertheless, some teams have increased or envisage to increase outpatient treatment or early discharge. We performed a narrative systematic review of studies published on this topic. We identified three meta-analyses and 23 studies, which involved 3671 patients managed at home (n=3036) or discharged early (n=535). Two main different approaches were applied to select patients eligible for outpatient in recent prospective studies, one based on a list of pragmatic criteria as the HESTIA rule, the other adding severity criteria (i.e. risk of death) as the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Criteria (PESI) or simplified PESI. In all these studies, a specific follow-up was performed for patients managed at home involving a dedicated team. The overall early (i.e. between 1 to 3 months) complication rate was low, Outpatient management appears to be feasible and safe for many patients with PE. In the coming years, outpatient treatment may be considered as the first line management for hemodynamically stable PE patients, subject to the respect of simple eligibility criteria and on the condition that a specific procedure for outpatient care is developed in advance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interventional Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism. (United States)

    Dudzinski, David M; Giri, Jay; Rosenfield, Kenneth


    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious and prevalent cause of vascular disease. Nevertheless, optimal treatment for many phenotypes of PE remains uncertain. Treating PE requires appropriate risk stratification as a first step. For the highest-risk PE, presenting as shock or arrest, emergent systemic thrombolysis or embolectomy is reasonable, while for low-risk PE, anticoagulation alone is often chosen. Normotensive patients with PE but with indicia of right heart dysfunction (by biomarkers or imaging) constitute an intermediate-risk group for whom there is controversy on therapeutic strategy. Some intermediate-risk patients with PE may require urgent stabilization, and ≈10% will decompensate hemodynamically and suffer high mortality, though identifying these specific patients remains challenging. Systemic thrombolysis is a consideration, but its risks of major and intracranial hemorrhages rival overall harms from intermediate PE. Multiple hybrid pharmacomechanical approaches have been devised to capture the benefits of thrombolysis while reducing its risks, but there is limited aggregate clinical experience with such novel interventional strategies. One method to counteract uncertainty and generate a consensus multidisciplinary prognostic and therapeutic plan is through a Pulmonary Embolism Response Team, which combines expertise from interventional cardiology, interventional radiology, cardiac surgery, cardiac imaging, and critical care. Such a team can help determine which intervention-catheter-directed fibrinolysis, ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis, percutaneous mechanical thrombus fragmentation, or percutaneous or surgical embolectomy-is best suited to a particular patient. This article reviews these various modalities and the background for each. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Immunohistochemistry comparing endoscopic vein harvesting vs. open vein harvesting on saphenous vein endothelium. (United States)

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Nezafati, Pouya; Amoueian, Sakineh; Attaranzadeh, Armin; Rahimi, Hamid Reza


    The present study attempts to compare the immunohistochemistry (IHC) of von Willebrand factor (vWf) , endothelial cadherin, Caveolin and endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) in VasoView Endoscopic Vein Harvesting (EVH) versus traditional Open Vein Harvesting (OVH) techniques for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) Surgery performed in Javad al Aemeh Hospital of Mashhad, Iran in 2013,. Forty-seven patients were scheduled for CABG (30 EVH and 17 OVH) among whom patients with relatively same gender and similar age were selected. Three separate two cm vein samples were harvested from each patient's saphenous vein. Each portion was collected from distal, middle and proximal zones of the saphenous vein. The tissues were deparaffinized, and antigen retrieval was done using EZ-retriever followed by an immunohistochemistry evaluation with vWf, e-cadherin, Caveolin and eNOS. In addition, demographic questioner as of Lipid profile, FBS, BMI, and cardiovascular risk factors were collected. Data analyses, including parametric and nonparametric tests were undertaken using the SPSS 16 software. A P value  0.05). Qualitative report of vWf, e-cadherin, Caveolin and eNOS reveals no significant difference between the EVH and OVH (P > 0.05). This study indicates that VasoView EVH technique causes no endothelial damage in comparison with OVH. This study could be a molecular confirmation for the innocuous of EVH technique.


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    Benedito Dias de Oliveira Filho


    nas condições de nutrição adequadas, a sazonalidade não interfere na fertilidade dos caprinos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caprino; produção espermática; reprodução.

    The trial was conduced at the Goiás Federal University (Goiás, Brazil from January to December 1989. Four 12 to 18 month-old animals of gray race were kept in fenced area with Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Nutrition was supplemented by protein and energetic concentrate in order to supply nutrition requirement according to NRC. Seasons were determined by variations on minimal temperature, pluvial precipitation and relative humidity. The four seasons were: A (January, February and March, B (April, May and June, C (July, August and September and D (October, November and December. Semen was collected by eletroejaculation and evaluated for volume, motility, concentration and morphology. Volume values for the four seasons were 0.91, 1.04, 1.07 and 0.96 ml respectively, with no significant difference between seasons (P=0.05. Spermatic concentration showed for seasons A, B, C and D the following values, respectively: 1,201.5, 1,018.2, 1,161.2 and 1,015.5 million/ml, with no significant difference. Motility was 80.25, 63.5, 76.6 and 73.75% for seasons A, B, C and D, being the average percentage 0.5, 0.5, 0.12 and 1.23, respectively. Results showed that the season with higher relative humidity was more harmful to ovine spermatogenesis and under suitable nutrition, seasonal change does not interfere on ovine fertility.

    KEY-WORDS: Goat; spermatic production; reproduction.

  10. Pulmonary Artery Cement Embolism after a Vertebroplasty

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    Anas Nooh


    Full Text Available Background Context. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure most commonly used for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Although it is relatively safe, complications have been reported over time. Among those complications, massive cement pulmonary embolism is considered a rare complication. Here we report a case of massive diffuse cement pulmonary embolism following percutaneous vertebroplasty for a vertebral compression fracture. Study Design. Case report. Methods. This is a 70-year-old female who underwent vertebroplasty for T11 and T12 vertebral compression fracture. Results. CT-scan revealed an incidental finding of cement embolism in the pulmonary trunk and both pulmonary arteries. Since the patient was asymptomatic, she was monitored closely and she did not need any intervention. Conclusion. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure used for treatment of vertebral compression fracture. Despite the low rate of complications, a pulmonary cement embolism can occur. The consequences of cement embolism range widely from being asymptomatic to embolism that can cause paralysis, radiculopathy, or a fatal pulmonary embolism.

  11. Extrahepatic Portal Vein Obstruction and Portal Vein Thrombosis in Special Situations: Need for a New Classification (United States)

    Wani, Zeeshan A.; Bhat, Riyaz A.; Bhadoria, Ajeet S.; Maiwall, Rakhi


    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is a vascular disorder of liver, which results in obstruction and cavernomatous transformation of portal vein with or without the involvement of intrahepatic portal vein, splenic vein, or superior mesenteric vein. Portal vein obstruction due to chronic liver disease, neoplasm, or postsurgery is a separate entity and is not the same as extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. Patients with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction are generally young and belong mostly to Asian countries. It is therefore very important to define portal vein thrombosis as acute or chronic from management point of view. Portal vein thrombosis in certain situations such as liver transplant and postsurgical/liver transplant period is an evolving area and needs extensive research. There is a need for a new classification, which includes all areas of the entity. In the current review, the most recent literature of extrahepatic portal vein obstruction is reviewed and summarized. PMID:26021771

  12. Transcatheter embolization of a congenital intrahepatic arterioportal venous malformation: A case report

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    Sing, T.M.Y.S.; Wong, K.P.; Young, N. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Radiaology; Le, S.D.V. [Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound


    Congenital intrahepatic arterioportal venous malformations (APVM) are uncommon lesions. A congenital intrahepatic APVM found incidentally in a 51 -year-old man during pre-operative aortography for an abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported here. This was successfully treated by transcatheter embolization of the involved hepatic artery prior to surgical repair of the aortic aneurysm. A 51-year-old smoker was admitted for pre-operative aortography of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Liver function tests showed a mildly elevated alkaline phosphatase. There was no previous history of liver disease or trauma. Aortography demonstrated a large infra-renal AAA measuring 10 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length. The coeliac axis was noted to be grossly dilated with tortuous veins seen to the right side of the lower thoracic spine on delayed images. Coeliac angiography revealed a dilated intrahepatic vascular abnormality in the left lobe of the liver with late opacification of the portal vein. Contrast abdominal CT demonstrated the AAA and the dilated coeliac axis feeding a large vascular malformation in the lateral aspect of the left lobe of the liver. The arterial inflow was via the left hepatic artery and a large vein was seen leading into the left portal vein. Endoscopy showed no oesophageal varices. (authors). 11 refs., 7 figs.

  13. Blind endovascular catheterization and direct access of an occluded superior ophthalmic vein for treatment of carotid cavernous fistula (United States)

    Alaraj, Ali; Kim, Bobby; Oh, Gerald; Aletich, Victor


    We describe a case of an elderly patient who presented with right-sided ophthalmoplegia, proptosis, chemosis, and increased intraocular pressure. An angiogram showed feeding vessels from the bilateral internal and external carotid arteries. Our initial attempt to blindly probe the inferior petrosal sinus was unsuccessful. This was followed by a right anterior orbitotomy exposing the superior ophthalmic vein which was directly cannulated with an 18 gauge angiocatheter. However, a proximal third of the superior ophthalmic vein within the orbit which was thrombosed was probed blindly. The thrombosed vein was cannulated with a microcatheter to obtain coil embolization of the carotid cavernous fistula. The implications of the procedure are discussed, given that, to our knowledge, such an endeavor has never been performed. PMID:23761619

  14. The serpentine mitral valve and cerebral embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker James


    Full Text Available Abstract Valvular strands, well-delineated filiform masses, attached to cardiac valve edges are associated with cerebral embolism and stroke. Strokes, caused by emboli from valvular strands, tend to occur among younger persons. In this case report a valvular strand, giving a peculiar serpentine appearance to the mitral valve is described. This mitral valvular strand was the only explanation for an episode of cerebral embolism, presenting with a transient right sided hemiparesis. It is proposed that a randomized study involving combined treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel is warranted in young patients with valvular strands, presenting with a first episode of cerebral embolism.

  15. Management of massive and nonmassive pulmonary embolism (United States)

    Sekhri, Vishal; Mehta, Nimeshkumar; Rawat, Naveen; Lehrman, Stuart G.


    Massive pulmonary embolism (PE) is characterized by systemic hypotension (defined as a systolic arterial pressure pulmonary embolism has a high mortality rate despite advances in diagnosis and therapy. A subgroup of patients with nonmassive PE who are hemodynamically stable but with right ventricular (RV) dysfunction or hypokinesis confirmed by echocardiography is classified as submassive PE. Their prognosis is different from that of others with non-massive PE and normal RV function. This article attempts to review the evidence-based risk stratification, diagnosis, initial stabilization, and management of massive and nonmassive pulmonary embolism. PMID:23319967

  16. Clinical Presentation of Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Survey of 800 Cases (United States)

    Miniati, Massimo; Cenci, Caterina; Monti, Simonetta; Poli, Daniela


    Background Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially fatal disease that is still underdiagnosed. The objective of our study was to reappraise the clinical presentation of PE with emphasis on the identification of the symptoms and signs that prompt the patients to seek medical attention. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 800 patients with PE from two different clinical settings: 440 were recruited in Pisa (Italy) as part of the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis (PISAPED); 360 were diagnosed with and treated for PE in seven hospitals of central Tuscany, and evaluated at the Atherothrombotic Disorders Unit, Firenze (Italy), shortly after hospital discharge. We interviewed the patients directly using a standardized, self-administered questionnaire originally utilized in the PISAPED. The two samples differed significantly as regards age, proportion of outpatients, prevalence of unprovoked PE, and of active cancer. Sudden onset dyspnea was the most frequent symptom in both samples (81 and 78%), followed by chest pain (56 and 39%), fainting or syncope (26 and 22%), and hemoptysis (7 and 5%). At least one of the above symptoms was reported by 756 (94%) of 800 patients. Isolated symptoms and signs of deep vein thrombosis occurred in 3% of the cases. Only 7 (1%) of 800 patients had no symptoms before PE was diagnosed. Conclusions/Significance Most patients with PE feature at least one of four symptoms which, in decreasing order of frequency, are sudden onset dyspnea, chest pain, fainting (or syncope), and hemoptysis. The occurrence of such symptoms, if not explained otherwise, should alert the clinicians to consider PE in differential diagnosis, and order the appropriate objective test. PMID:22383978

  17. How Are Varicose Veins Diagnosed? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  18. How Are Varicose Veins Treated? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  19. Preoperative ultrasound mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Niels; Schroeder, T


    A prospective series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. Sixteen (17%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first week postoperatively. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discove......A prospective series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. Sixteen (17%) bypass procedures thrombosed within the first week postoperatively. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter...

  20. Preoperative mapping of the saphenous vein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Sillesen, H; Nielsen, Tina G


    A consecutive series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discovered. It was significantly correlated with higher postoperative ankle-brachial pres......A consecutive series of 92 patients had their greater saphenous vein assessed with duplex ultrasound scanning prior to planned infrainguinal bypass procedures. A naturally occurring optimal vein diameter was discovered. It was significantly correlated with higher postoperative ankle...

  1. Idiopathic pulmonary embolism in a case of severe family ANKRD26 thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Guison


    Full Text Available Venous thrombosis affecting thrombocytopenic patients is challenging. We report the case of a thrombocytopenic woman affected by deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism leading to the discovery of a heterozygous mutation in the gene encoding ankyrin repeat domain 26 (ANKRD26 associated with a heterozygous factor V (FV Leiden mutation. This woman was diagnosed with left lower-limb deep vein thrombosis complicated by pulmonary embolism. Severe thrombocytopenia was observed. The genetic study evidenced a heterozygous FV Leiden mutation. Molecular study sequencing was performed after learning that her family had a history of thrombocytopenia. Previously described heterozygous mutation c-127C>A in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR of the ANKRD26 gene was detected in the patient, her aunt, and her grandmother. ANKRD26-related thrombocytopenia and thrombosis are rare. This is, to our knowledge, the first case reported in the medical literature. This mutation should be screened in patients with a family history of thrombocytopenia.

  2. Transcatheter arterial embolization of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma : effectiveness and long-term follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Eai Hong; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Cha, Sung Ho; Chung, Tae Woong; Kim, Yn Hyeon; Kim, Byoung Jin; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Medical School


    To evaluate the effectiveness of emergent transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) in the treatment of bleeding from ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) and long-term follow-up. Technical and clinical success was up to 100%. Mesoportography showed the presence of portal vein thrombosis in nine patients and its absence in 11. In 15 patients, three weeks of follow-up by CT showed lipiodol uptake by the mass and the disappearance of highly attenuated peritoneal fluid. Within one week of embolization, four of the 20 patients died of sepsis, shock, and hepatic failure, and within one month of this procedure, one died of renal failure. Three-month, six-month, and one-year survival rate was 11%, while in 11%, while in 11 patients not suffering from this condition, the rate was 70%: the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). As the first choice of treatment for patients with hemoperitoneum from ruptured HCC, emergent TAE is an effective, life-saving therapeutic procedure: in these patients, portal vein thrombosis may be a factor influencing risk and prognosis. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Residual pulmonary embolism as a predictor for recurrence after a first unprovoked episode: Results from the REVERSE cohort study. (United States)

    Wan, Tony; Rodger, Marc; Zeng, Wanzhen; Robin, Philippe; Righini, Marc; Kovacs, Michael J; Tan, Melanie; Carrier, Marc; Kahn, Susan R; Wells, Philip S; Anderson, David R; Chagnon, Isabelle; Solymoss, Susan; Crowther, Mark; White, Richard H; Vickars, Linda; Bazarjani, Sadri; Le Gal, Grégoire


    The optimal duration of oral anticoagulant therapy after a first, unprovoked venous thromboembolism is controversial due to tightly balanced risks and benefits of indefinite anticoagulation. Risk stratification tools may assist in decision making. We sought to determine the relationship between residual pulmonary embolism assessed by baseline ventilation-perfusion scan after completion of 5-7months of oral anticoagulant therapy and the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients with the first episode of unprovoked pulmonary embolism. We conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study of participants with a first, unprovoked venous thromboembolism enrolled after the completion of 5-7months of oral anticoagulation therapy. The participants completed a mean 18-month follow-up. Participants with pulmonary embolism had baseline ventilation-perfusion scan before discontinuation of oral anticoagulant therapy and the percentage of vascular obstruction on baseline ventilation-perfusion scan was determined. During follow-up after discontinuation of oral anticoagulant therapy, all episodes of suspected recurrent venous thromboembolism were independently adjudicated with reference to baseline imaging. During follow-up, 24 of 239 (10.0%) participants with an index event of isolated pulmonary embolism or pulmonary embolism associated with deep vein thrombosis and central assessment of percentage of vascular obstruction on baseline ventilation-perfusion scan had confirmed recurrent venous thromboembolism. As compared to participants with no residual pulmonary embolism on baseline ventilation-perfusion scan, the hazard ratio for recurrent venous thromboembolism was 2.0 (95% CI 0.5-7.3) for participants with percentage of vascular obstruction of 0.1%-4.9%, 2.1 (95% CI 0.5-7.8) for participants with percentage vascular obstruction of 5.0%-9.9% and 5.3 (95% CI 1.8-15.4) for participants with percentage vascular obstruction greater than or equal to 10%. Residual pulmonary

  4. Cephalic veins in coronary artery bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, P; Jakobsen, Erik; Lerbjerg, G


    Various alternative conduits for aortocoronary bypass grafting have been suggested when the saphenous vein quality is inadequate. During a 10-year period we have used the cephalic vein in 39 patients. Eighteen entered an angiographic follow-up study. A total of 31 arm vein grafts were used with 43...... bypass operations....

  5. Subsegmental pulmonary embolism: A narrative review. (United States)

    Peiman, Soheil; Abbasi, Mehrshad; Allameh, Seyed Farshad; Asadi Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Safavi, Enayat


    Through the introduction of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for diagnosis of the pulmonary embolism (PE), the high sensitivity of this diagnostic tool led to detecting peripheral filling defects as small as 2-3mm, termed as subsegmental pulmonary embolism (SSPE). However, despite these substantial increases in diagnosis of small pulmonary embolism, there are minimal changes in mortality. Moreover, SSPE patients generally are hemodynamically stable with mild clinical presentation, lower serum level of biomarkers, lower incidence of associated proximal DVTs and less frequent echocardiographic changes compared to the patients with emboli located in more central pulmonary arteries. However, the pros and cons of anticoagulant therapy versus non-treating, monitoring protocol and exact long term outcome of these patients are still unclear. In this article we review existing evidence and provide an overview of what is known about the diagnosis and management of subsegmental pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy after embolization therapy for uterine arteriovenous malformation. (United States)

    Delotte, Jérôme; Chevallier, Patrick; Benoit, Bernard; Castillon, Jean-Michel; Bongain, André


    To describe childbearing prognosis following embolization therapy for uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Case report and review. University hospital. Thirteen patients, including our case, who underwent pregnancy after embolization therapy for arteriovenous malformation. Two successive embolization procedures. Childbearing prognosis following embolization therapy for uterine AVM. Bilateral embolization was performed in seven patients. In four cases, including ours, two successive embolization procedures were required to treat the uterine AVM. The longest delay between embolization and pregnancy was 5 years and the shortest was six weeks. Two patients presented with postpartum hemorrhage which was treated medically. One neonate required resuscitation after delivery in the context of Listeria infection. Conservative management of uterine AVMs using embolization therapy is being increasingly developed. New embolization agents and hyperselective technical procedures aim at reducing morbidity related to such treatments and preserving reproductive capacity in women of childbearing age.

  7. Pulmonary Cement Embolism following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümran Toru


    Full Text Available Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimal invasive procedure that is applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. During vertebroplasty, the leakage of bone cement outside the vertebral body leads to pulmonary cement embolism, which is a serious complication of this procedure. Here we report a 48-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea after percutaneous vertebroplasty and diagnosed as pulmonary cement embolism.

  8. Mortality and Embolic Potential of Cardiac Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ribeiro Dias


    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac tumors are rare, mostly benign with high embolic potential. Objectives: To correlate the histological type of cardiac masses with their embolic potential, implantation site and long term follow up in patients undergoing surgery. Methods: Between January 1986 and December 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 185 consecutive patients who underwent excision of intracardiac mass (119 females, mean age 48±20 years. In 145 patients, the left atrium was the origin site. 72% were asymptomatic and prior embolization was often observed (19.8%. The diagnosis was established by echocardiography, magnetic resonance and histological examination. Results: Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. Myxoma was the most common (72.6%, followed by fibromas (6.9%, thrombi (6.4% and sarcomas (6.4%. Ranging from 0.6cm to 15cm (mean 4.6 ± 2.5cm 37 (19.8% patients had prior embolization, stroke 10.2%, coronary 4.8%, peripheral 4.3% 5.4% of hospital death, with a predominance of malignant tumors (40% p < 0.0001. The histological type was a predictor of mortality (rhabdomyomas and sarcomas p = 0.002 and embolic event (sarcoma, lipoma and fibroelastoma p = 0.006, but not recurrence. Tumor size, atrial fibrillation, cavity and valve impairment were not associated with the embolic event. During follow-up (mean 80±63 months, there were 2 deaths (1.1% and two recurrences 1 and 11 years after the operation, to the same cavity. Conclusion: Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. The histological type was predictor of death and preoperative embolic event, while the implantation site carries no relation with mortality or to embolic event.

  9. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism (United States)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.


    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  10. Acute pulmonary embolism in young: Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Rana


    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism remains a disease which needs high clinical suspicion to prevent mortality and morbidity. More so in young healthy individuals, suspicion is very low as compared to old age individuals with multiple co-morbid conditions. Pulmonary embolism carries high mortality if not suspected and treatment initiated as early as possible. There are two case reports of young male individuals who presented as acute onset of breathlessness and later diagnosed and treated as a case of pulmonary thromboembolism.

  11. Mortality and Embolic Potential of Cardiac Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro, E-mail:; Fernandes, Fábio; Ramires, Félix José Alvarez; Mady, Charles; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva; Jatene, Fábio Biscegli [Instituto do Coração (InCor) do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Cardiac tumors are rare, mostly benign with high embolic potential. To correlate the histological type of cardiac masses with their embolic potential, implantation site and long term follow up in patients undergoing surgery. Between January 1986 and December 2011, we retrospectively analyzed 185 consecutive patients who underwent excision of intracardiac mass (119 females, mean age 48±20 years). In 145 patients, the left atrium was the origin site. 72% were asymptomatic and prior embolization was often observed (19.8%). The diagnosis was established by echocardiography, magnetic resonance and histological examination. Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. Myxoma was the most common (72.6%), followed by fibromas (6.9%), thrombi (6.4%) and sarcomas (6.4%). Ranging from 0.6cm to 15cm (mean 4.6 ± 2.5cm) 37 (19.8%) patients had prior embolization, stroke 10.2%, coronary 4.8%, peripheral 4.3% 5.4% of hospital death, with a predominance of malignant tumors (40% p < 0.0001). The histological type was a predictor of mortality (rhabdomyomas and sarcomas p = 0.002) and embolic event (sarcoma, lipoma and fibroelastoma p = 0.006), but not recurrence. Tumor size, atrial fibrillation, cavity and valve impairment were not associated with the embolic event. During follow-up (mean 80±63 months), there were 2 deaths (1.1%) and two recurrences 1 and 11 years after the operation, to the same cavity. Most tumors were located in the left side of the heart. The histological type was predictor of death and preoperative embolic event, while the implantation site carries no relation with mortality or to embolic event.

  12. Outcome of tunneled infusion catheters inserted via the right internal jugular vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo; Choo, Sung Wook; Yoo, Wi Kang; Choo, In Wook [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hyung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To assess the outcome of tunneled central venous catheter placement via the right internal jugular vein. Between June 2001 and May 2002, 670 consecutive Hickman catheters were placed in 654 patients via the right internal jugular vein. The procedural complications arising and follow-up data obtained from May to July 2002 were evaluated. The technical success rate for catheter placement was 99.9% (669/670). Procedural complications were limited to eight cases (1.2%), including three pneumothoraces, one early migration of the catheter, one clinically unimportant air embolism, one catheter injury, one catheter kinking and one primary malpositioning in the azygos vein. Catheter dwelling time ranged from 1 to 407 (mean 107.1) days. During the follow-up period, 416 catheter were removed for various reasons: treatment had ended (n=334), patients declined treatment or their drug regimen was changed (n=16), late complications arose (n=53), or other circumstances intervened (n=13). Late complications included 44 cases of catheter-related infection (6.6%), five of catheter migration (0.7%), two of catheter occlusion (0.3%), one of thrombophlebitis (0.15%), and one of catheter-related right atrial thrombosis (0.15%). Only one instance of symptomatic venous thrombosis or stenosis was noted, namely the one case of thrombophlebitis. Because the incidence of subsequent symptomatic venous thrombosis or stenosis is lower, the preferred route for tunneled central venous catheter placement is the right internal jugular vein.

  13. Imaging and radiological interventions in extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction. (United States)

    Pargewar, Sudheer S; Desai, Saloni N; Rajesh, S; Singh, Vaibhav P; Arora, Ankur; Mukund, Amar


    Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is a primary vascular condition characterized by chronic long standing blockage and cavernous transformation of portal vein with or without additional involvement of intrahepatic branches, splenic or superior mesenteric vein. Patients generally present in childhood with multiple episodes of variceal bleed and EHPVO is the predominant cause of paediatric portal hypertension (PHT) in developing countries. It is a pre-hepatic type of PHT in which liver functions and morphology are preserved till late. Characteristic imaging findings include multiple parabiliary venous collaterals which form to bypass the obstructed portal vein with resultant changes in biliary tree termed portal biliopathy or portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. Ultrasound with Doppler, computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiography and magnetic resonance portovenography are non-invasive techniques which can provide a comprehensive analysis of degree and extent of EHPVO, collaterals and bile duct abnormalities. These can also be used to assess in surgical planning as well screening for shunt patency in post-operative patients. The multitude of changes and complications seen in EHPVO can be addressed by various radiological interventional procedures. The myriad of symptoms arising secondary to vascular, biliary, visceral and neurocognitive changes in EHPVO can be managed by various radiological interventions like transjugular intra-hepatic portosystemic shunt, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, partial splenic embolization, balloon occluded retrograde obliteration of portosystemic shunt (PSS) and revision of PSS.

  14. A case of severe uterine arteriovenous malformation treated with danazol followed by a transarterial embolization of unilateral uterine and ovarian arteries


    Hiroyuki Yazawa; Syu Soeda; Tsuyoshi Hiraiwa; Masayo Takaiwa; Keiya Fujimori


    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by abrupt and profuse uterine bleeding from abnormal connections between arteries and veins in the myometrium. It is commonly associated with prior pregnancy or uterine trauma. We present a case of severe uterine AVM treated with danazol and transarterial embolization (TAE). A 38-year-old patient with a history of two abortions and a myomectomy was referred to our hospital for intermittent massi...

  15. An unexpected case of venous and pulmonary thrombo-embolism in a patient treated with thalidomide for refractory erythema nodosum leprosum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamara Ratnayake


    Full Text Available Abstract Recent literature reports an increased incidence of venous thrombosis following thalidomide use in the treatment of diseases with disease-related thrombotic risks such as malignancy, as well as concomitant use with chemotherapy and/or systemic corticosteroids. We report a case of deep vein thrombosis (DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE following thalidomide use in a patient with erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL reaction who was concurrently treated with prednisolone, as well as a review of relevant literature.

  16. Partial splenic embolization versus splenectomy for the management of hypersplenism in cirrhotic patients. (United States)

    Amin, Mahmoud A; el-Gendy, Mohamed M; Dawoud, Ibrahim E; Shoma, Ashraf; Negm, Ahmed M; Amer, Talal A


    Hypersplenism occurs in patients with chronic liver disease, and splenectomy is the definitive treatment. However, the operation may be hazardous in patients with poor liver function. In recent years, partial splenic embolization (PSE) has been widely used in patients with hypersplenism and cirrhosis. This study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of PSE compared to splenectomy in the management of hypersplenism in cirrhotic patients. This study comprised 40 patients with hypersplenism secondary to cirrhosis. They were divided into two groups, each including 20 patients. The first group of patients were treated by PSE using polyvinyl alcohol particles to achieve embolization of at least 50% of the distal branches of the splenic artery. Postembolization arteriography and computed tomography were performed to document the extent of devascularization. Patients in the second group were treated by splenectomy with or without devascularization and left gastric ligation according to the presence or absence of esophageal varices. There was marked improvement in platelet and leukocytic counts in both groups, and the counts remained at appropriate levels during the follow-up period. All patients in the first group had problems related to postembolization syndrome that abated by the first week. One patient in the first group died from myocardial infarction. No deaths occurred in the second group. Asymptomatic portal vein thrombosis developed in one patient in the first group that was treated with anticoagulation, and another patient developed splenic abscess treated by splenectomy with a good outcome. In the second group, three patients developed portal vein thrombosis, one of them being readmitted 4 months postoperatively with mesenteric vascular occlusion; that patient underwent a resection anastomosis with good outcome. Partial splenic embolization is an effective therapeutic modality for the treatment of hypersplenism secondary to chronic liver disease. It is

  17. Cardiovascular parameters to assess the severity of acute pulmonary embolism with computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dian-Jiang Zhao; Da-Qing Ma; Wen He; Jian-Jun Wang; Yan Xu; Chun-Shuang Guan (Dept. of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical Univ., Beijing (China)), e-mail:


    Background: Computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has been established as a first-line test in the acute pulmonary embolism (APE) diagnostic algorithm, but the assessment of the severity of APE by this method remains to be explored. Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and severity in patients with APE without underlying cardiopulmonary disease using helical computed tomography (CT). Material and Methods: Seventy-three patients (35 men and 38 women) were divided into two groups according to the clinical findings: severe APE (n=22) and non-severe APE (n=51). Pulmonary artery CT obstruction index was calculated according to the location and degree of clots in the pulmonary arteries. Cardiovascular parameters including RV short axis and left ventricular (LV) short axis, RV short axis to LV short axis (RV/LV) ratio, main pulmonary artery, azygous vein, and superior vena cava diameters were measured. Leftward bowing of the interventricular septum, reflux of contrast medium into the inferior vena cava and azygous vein, and bronchial artery dilatation were also recorded. The results were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test, x2 test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az). Results: CT obstruction index in patients with severe APE (median 43%) was higher than that of patients with non-severe APE (median 20%). Comparison of cardiovascular parameters between patients with severe and non-severe pulmonary embolism showed significant differences in RV short axis, LV short axis, RV/LV ratio, RV wall thickness, main pulmonary artery diameter, azygous vein diameter, leftward bowing of the interventricular septum, and bronchial artery dilatation. The correlation between CT obstruction indexes and cardiovascular parameters was significant. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was highest between RV/LV ratio and CT obstruction index. Az values were

  18. Ipsilateral testicular necrosis and atrophy after 1,080-degree torsion of the spermatic cord in rats Necrose e atrofia do testículo ipsilateral após torção de 1080 graus do cordão espermático em ratos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frederico Ramalho Romero; Regina Paula Xavier Gomes; Fernando Lorenzini; Thomas Rolf Erdmann; Renato Tambara Filho


    ...), or detorsion of the spermatic cord and observation for 60 days (groups DT1, DT2, and DT4), before they were evaluated for the presence of testicular necrosis/atrophy. RESULTS: Only one rat (5.5...

  19. Unusual termination of the right testicular vein | Woldeyes | Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The testicular veins are formed by the veins emerging from the testis and epididymis forming the pampiniform venous plexus. The right testicular vein drains into inferior vena cava and the left testicular vein to the left renal vein. Testicular veins display a great variability with regard to their number, course and sites of ...

  20. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparisons of transarterial oily chemoembolization and simple embolization with gelfoam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Young Min; Ym, Young Soo [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Ym, Seong Hee [Namwon Medical Center, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Kweon, Keun Sang [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)


    To compare the safety and effectiveness of transarterial oily chemoembolization (TOCE) and transarterial embolization (TAE) with gelfoam in cases of ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to describe the most important prognostic factors involved in emergency embolization. Forty-two consecutive patients with spontaneously ruptured HCC underwent emergency TOCE (n=3D22) or TGE (n=3D20). In the TOCE group, Lipiodol (3-10 cc), Adriamycin (20-50 mg), and Mitomycin (2-10 mg) were used, and these were followed by blockade of the hepatic arterial flow with gelatin sponge particles. In the TAE group, patients underwent only gelfoam embolization. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, survival time from the time of embolization was estimated, and to analyze prognostic factors, Cox's proportional hazard regression model was used. Successful hemostasis was achieved in 41 patients (97.6%). Mean survival time was 201 and 246 days in the TOCE and TAE group, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant (p greater than 0.05). Five of the TOCE group (22.7%) and three of the TAE group (15.0%) died of hepatic failure. Analysis of the prognostic factors showed that portal vein involvement by the tumor was the most important factor influencing survival. Although TOCE and TAE effectively controlled hemorrhaging from a ruptured HCC, the procedures involve a high risk of hepatic failure. Their goal should, therefore, be solely to achieve hemostasis, and thus decrease parenchymal injury. (author)

  1. Cognitive and functional status after vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation endovascular occlusion. (United States)

    Ellis, Jason A; Orr, Lauren; Ii, Paul C McCormick; Anderson, Richard Ce; Feldstein, Neil A; Meyers, Philip M


    To study the clinical outcomes of treating vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM), we assessed our patient cohort using standardized cognitive and functional measures. A retrospective review of patients with VGAM treated by a single practitioner between 2003 and 2009 was performed for this study. In addition to routine clinical assessment, all patients were evaluated for cognitive and functional impairment using validated measures including the Neurobehavioral Rating Scale-Revised, the Bicêtre outcome score, and the Barthel index. Five patients underwent combined transarterial and transvenous embolization of their VGAM during the study period. VGAMs were classified based on angioarchitecture as either choroidal (1/5) or mural (4/5) according to the classification scheme of Lasjaunias. In total, 13 embolization procedures were performed consisting of 1 to 3 treatment stages per patient. Complete or near complete occlusion was achieved in 4 patients, while subtotal occlusion was achieved in 1 patient. During follow-up (median 62.6 mo), all patients were either unchanged or cognitively and neurologically intact. VGAM can be safely and effectively treated by staged transarterial and transvenous embolization. Using this strategy, excellent long-term cognitive and functional outcomes can be achieved.

  2. Myocardial infarction, symptomatic third degree atrioventricular block and pulmonary embolism caused by thalidomide: a case report. (United States)

    Zhang, Shengyu; Yang, Jing; Jin, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Shuyang


    Thalidomide has been reported to cause numerous thromboembolic events. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are more common. It can also cause bradycardia and even total atrioventricular block. Rarely, it causes coronary artery spasm and even myocardial infarction. But almost simultaneous onset of myocardial infarction, third degree atrioventricular block and pulmonary embolism in one patient has not been reported so far. A 53-year old man presented because of chest pain, nausea and then syncope for several minutes. Previous medical history included neurodermitis for which thalidomide was given and hypercholesterolemia with simvastatin taking. The patient didn't exhibit any other established risk factors for coronary artery disease. Electrocardiography showed sinus rhythm with third degree atrioventricular block and complete right bundle branch block, and precordial leads ST segment elevation. The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome was suspected, but further coronary angiography demonstrated no flow-limiting lesions in coronary arteries, and temporary pacemaker was implanted. After admission, low SpO2 and elevated D-dimer level was mentioned. Further computed tomography pulmonary angiography revealed pulmonary embolism. Thalidomide was thought to be the cause of hypercoagulability and coronary spasm, so it was ceased immediately. Therapeutic low molecule weight heparin was initiated and then switched to warfarin with appropriate INR, and nifedipine was described for coronary spasm. The patient's symptoms completely relived and SpO2 recovered, and atrioventricular block had disappeared during hospitalization with pacemaker removed. This is the very first case in which myocardial infarction, third degree atrioventricular block and pulmonary embolism almost simultaneously developed. We should be ware that anti-thrombotic prophylaxis, which needs further investigation for optimal drug and dosage, may be beneficial in thalidomide therapy. And it is also

  3. Pulmonary embolism in patients with transvenous cardiac implantable electronic device leads. (United States)

    Noheria, Amit; Ponamgi, Shiva P; Desimone, Christopher V; Vaidya, Vaibhav R; Aakre, Christopher A; Ebrille, Elisa; Hu, Tiffany; Hodge, David O; Slusser, Joshua P; Ammash, Naser M; Bruce, Charles J; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Friedman, Paul A; Asirvatham, Samuel J


    Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are commonly associated with transvenous lead-related thrombi that can cause pulmonary embolism (PE). We retrospectively evaluated all patients with transvenous CIED leads implanted at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1 January 2000, and 25 October 2010. Pulmonary embolism outcomes during follow-up were screened using diagnosis codes and confirmed with imaging study reports. Of 5646 CIED patients (age 67.3 ± 16.3 years, 64% men, mean follow-up 4.69 years) 88 developed PE (1.6%), incidence 3.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.68-4.07] per 1000 person-years [men: 3.04 (95% CI 2.29-3.96) per 1000 person-years; women: 3.81 (95% CI 2.72-5.20) per 1000 person-years]. Other than transvenous CIED lead(s), 84% had another established risk factor for PE such as deep vein thrombosis (28%), recent surgery (27%), malignancy (25%), or prior history of venous thromboembolism (15%). At the time of PE, 22% had been hospitalized for ≥ 48 h, and 59% had been hospitalized in the preceding 30 days. Pulmonary embolism occurred in 22% despite being on systemic anticoagulation therapy. Out of 88 patients with PE, 45 subsequently died, mortality rate 93 (95% CI 67-123) per 1000 person-years (hazard ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.7, P < 0.0001). Though lead-related thrombus is commonly seen in patients with transvenous CIED leads, clinical PE occurs with a low incidence. It is possible that embolism of lead thrombus is uncommon or emboli are too small to cause consequential pulmonary infarction. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email:


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Elykomov


    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the possible factors of thrombogenic risk and ways of its prevention in patients with von Willebrand disease.Case description. Patient X., 42 years old, who suffers from von Willebrand disease type 3 with 5-years of age. Asked on reception to the traumatologist in the polyclinic of the Regional Hospital with pain in the left hip joint. Recommended planned operative treatment in the Altai Regional Clinical Hospital. Preoperative preparation included the infusion of concentrate of von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor VIII. Operation – cement total arthroplasty of the left hip joint. In the postoperative period analgesic treatment, elastic compression of the lower extremities, iron supplements, also conducted infusion of concentrate of von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor VIII for 20 days and thromboprophylactic with dabigatran. On the 3rd day after the operation the patient revealed deep vein thrombosis of the femoral segment (floating clot.Results. The patient was operated for emergency indications in the Department of endovascular surgery – installation of venous cava filter “Volan”. Dabigatran is cancelled, appointed clexane for 3 months. In our clinical example the patient lacked risk factors of pulmonary embolism as obesity, age, smoking, prolonged immobilization, estrogen therapy. Overdose of factor VIII were not observed – the level of factor did not exceed 135 % on transfusions. At the same time, the patient was found polymorphisms in the genes ITGA2, FGB, MTHFR, MTR – heterozygote, MTRR – mutant homozygote, which may indicate the genetic factors of thrombogenic risk. Also a significant risk factor was massive surgical intervention (total hip replacement. Despite preventive measures (elastic compression, thromboprophylactic dabigatran, early activation we cannot to avoid thrombotic complications.Conclusion. This article presents a case demonstrating a thrombotic complication in patients

  5. The role of nuclear medicine in pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Galli, G; Giordano, A


    Nuclear medicine procedures and mainly perfusion lung scanning (often associated with ventilation lung scanning), after thirty years still play a major role in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. International study groups with accurate statistical methods have shown their efficacy in the diagnosis and follow-up, in reducing the clinical uncertainty, in directing the therapy and in lowering health care costs. The major limitation of nuclear medicine procedures lies in the high percentage of patients for whom intermediate or indeterminate probability is reported. However this percentage is steadily decreasing based on: patient clinical preselection; improved procedures and especially an extensive use of D-SPET with a three-head gamma camera; the combination with other advanced diagnostic imaging procedures (HRCT, fast-CT, MRI); suitable diagnostic algorithms for nuclear medicine procedures which should consider laboratory data (D-dimer, TAT) and the study of deep vein thrombosis; the use of artificial intelligence; the introduction of radiopharmaceuticals which enable direct scanning of the intravasal embolus (as P180 polypeptide) in combination with perfusion scanning which shows the hemodynamic alterations.

  6. Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Stratification, and Natural History of Pulmonary Embolism. (United States)

    Giordano, Nicholas J; Jansson, Paul S; Young, Michael N; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Kabrhel, Christopher


    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common and potentially fatal form of venous thromboembolism that can be challenging to diagnose and manage. PE occurs when there is obstruction of the pulmonary vasculature and is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. A combination of acquired and inherited factors may contribute to the development of this disease and should be considered, since they have implications for both susceptibility to PE and treatment. Patients with suspected PE should be evaluated efficiently to diagnose and administer therapy as soon as possible, but the presentation of PE is variable and nonspecific so diagnosis is challenging. PE can range from small, asymptomatic blood clots to large emboli that can occlude the pulmonary arteries causing sudden cardiovascular collapse and death. Thus, risk stratification is critical to both the prognosis and management of acute PE. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, and natural history of PE and deep vein thrombosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Clinical outcomes of symptomatic arterioportal fistulas after transcatheter arterial embolization. (United States)

    Hirakawa, Masakazu; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Honda, Hiroshi


    To evaluate the complications and clinical outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for symptoms related to severe arterioportal fistulas (APFs). Six patients (3 males, 3 females; mean age, 63.8 years; age range, 60-71 years) with chronic liver disease and severe APFs due to percutaneous intrahepatic treatment (n = 5) and portal vein (PV) tumor thrombosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 1) underwent TAE for symptoms related to severe APFs [refractory ascites (n = 4), hemorrhoidal hemorrhage (n = 1), and hepatic encephalopathy (n = 1)]. Control of symptoms related to APFs and complications were evaluated during the follow-up period (range, 4-57 mo). In all patients, celiac angiography revealed immediate retrograde visualization of the main PV before TAE, indicating severe APF. Selective TAE for the hepatic arteries was performed using metallic coils (MC, n = 4) and both MCs and n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n = 2). Three patients underwent repeated TAEs for residual APFs and ascites. Four patients developed PV thrombosis after TAE. During the follow-up period after TAE, APF obliteration and symptomatic improvement were obtained in all patients. Although TAE for severe APFs may sometimes be complicated by PV thrombosis, TAE can be an effective treatment to improve clinical symptoms related to severe APFs.

  8. CT Pulmonary Angiography and Suspected Acute Pulmonary Embolism

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    Enden, T.; Kloew, N.E. [Ullevaal Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Cardiovascular Radiology


    Purpose: To evaluate the use and quality of CT pulmonary angiography in our department, and to relate the findings to clinical parameters and diagnoses. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of 324 consecutive patients referred to CT pulmonary angiography with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). From the medical records we registered clinical parameters, blood gases, D-dimer, risk factors and the results of other relevant imaging studies. Results: 55 patients (17%) had PE detected on CT. 39 had bilateral PE, and 8 patients had isolated peripheral PE. 87% of the examinations showing PE had satisfactory filling of contrast material including the segmental pulmonary arteries, and 60% of the subsegmental arteries. D-dimer test was performed in 209 patients, 85% were positive. A negative D-dimer ruled out PE detected at CT. Dyspnea and concurrent symptoms or detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), contraceptive pills and former venous thromboembolism (VTE) were associated with PE. The presence of only one clinical parameter indicated a negative PE diagnosis (p < 0.017), whereas two or more suggested a positive PE diagnosis (p < 0.002). CT also detected various ancillary findings such as consolidation, pleural effusion, nodule or tumor in nearly half of the patients; however, there was no association with the PE diagnosis. Conclusion: The quality of CT pulmonary angiography was satisfactory as a first-line imaging of PE. CT also showed additional pathology of importance in the chest. Our study confirmed that a negative D-dimer ruled out clinically suspected VTE.

  9. Venous air embolism in consecutive balloon kyphoplasties visualised on CT imaging

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    Tins, Bernhard J.; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N.; Lalam, Radhesh; Haddaway, Mike [Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)


    We noted a large amount of intravenous gas during balloon kyphoplasty on CT imaging. Formal assessment to understand the extent, possible causes and implications was undertaken. Ten consecutive cases of balloon kyphoplasty were performed under general anaesthesia in the prone position, on a single vertebral level using a two-step technique under combined fluoroscopic and CT guidance. CT of the affected vertebra was performed before, after, and intermittently during the procedure. In 2 cases delayed CT was carried out in the supine position. Gas was seen on CT imaging, but not on conventional fluoroscopy. The gas is most likely to be air introduced during the procedure and was seen in the epidural and paravertebral venous plexus, posterior intercostal veins, renal veins, IVC and azygos vein. The average measured volume of gas seen on the post-procedure CT imaging was 1.07 mL, range 0.16-3.97 mL. There was no correlation of the measured amount of gas to the procedure duration or location, the use of a curette or the injected cement volume. Delayed CT in the supine position no longer showed air in the local venous system. Balloon kyphoplasty is associated with the fluoroscopically invisible introduction of air into the vertebral and paravertebral veins and deep systemic veins and is likely to be much more extensive than identified on CT imaging. There is potential for serious air embolism in kyphoplasty and if there is a sudden deterioration in patient condition during the procedure the possibility of this complication needs to be considered. (orig.)

  10. New aspects of paradoxical embolism. (United States)

    Lehmeyer, S; Lindhoff-Last, E


    Paradoxical emboli have their origin in the low-pressure venous system and can cause ischemic stroke or peripheral arterial embolism through a cardiac or pulmonary shunt. In most cases, a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is found. About 20 % of the population has a patent foramen ovale. This review gives insight into publications concerning the association between the presence of a patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke; the association of PFO, coagulation disorders and stroke; and recurrence rates of stroke in patients with PFO. Diagnostic features are discussed, as are the different therapy modalities, taking existing national and international guidelines into account. Also, our own recommendations are given. In addition some new information on the potential improvement of migraine after PFO closure is discussed. It is widely accepted that the optimal therapy for the prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with PFO and cryptogenic stroke has not yet been found. Randomized, controlled clinical studies are ongoing in the United States and will give even more insight and answer open questions in the future.

  11. Dermatomyositis masquerading as pulmonary embolism

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    Mroz RM


    Full Text Available Abstract A 61-year-old Caucasian was admitted to Department of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland for progressive muscle weakness and weight loss. Eighteen months prior to admission, the patient had been diagnosed with pulmonary embolism. At that point he was started on Enoxaparin QD. Past medical history was unremarkable. In the interim, the patient developed fever, myalgia and progressive dyspnea. Physical examination on admission revealed a rash on his upper torso and back, and the extensor surfaces of all four extremities. Laboratory values included CPK 8229, MB fraction 219, LDH 981. Chest X-ray and CT scan revealed bilateral patchy consolidations and ground-glass opacities. EMG was consistent with myositis. The patient was started on solumedrol 40 mg i.v., b.i.d., and then switched to prednisone 40 mg b.i.d. His symptoms and muscle strength improved remarkably. The patient was discharged with prednisone with an outpatient follow up.

  12. Nontraumatic Fat Embolism Found Following Maternal Death after Cesarean Delivery

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    Tabitha Schrufer-Poland


    Full Text Available Introduction - Fat embolism is a rare form of nonthrombotic embolization. Limited literature exists regarding the diagnosis of fat embolism during the perinatal period. We present the first case of maternal death that resulted from nontraumatic fat embolization following Cesarean delivery. Case Description - A 29-year-old gravida 1 with a complex medical and surgical history underwent a primary Cesarean delivery at term. On postoperative day 2 the patient was found to be unresponsive. Despite resuscitative efforts, the patient succumbed. Autopsy findings were remarkable for diffuse pulmonary fat emboli. Furthermore, there was no histological evidence of either amniotic fluid embolism or thromboembolism. The primary cause of death was attributed to nontraumatic fat embolization. Discussion - Multiple risk factors may have contributed to the development of nontraumatic fat embolization in our patient. Obstetricians should maintain a high level of suspicion for nontraumatic fat embolization in cases of maternal respiratory decompression and sudden maternal mortality.

  13. Characteristics of abdominal vein thrombosis in children and adults (United States)

    Landi, Daniel; Beckman, Michele G.; Shah, Nirmish R.; Bockenstedt, Paula; Grant, Althea M.; Heit, John A.; Key, Nigel S.; Kulkarni, Roshni; Manco-Johnson, Marilyn; Moll, Stephan; Philipp, Claire S.; Andersen, Judith C.; Ortel, Thomas L.


    Summary The demographic and clinical characteristics of adults and children with lower extremity deep-vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism (LE DVT/PE) may differ from those with abdominal vein thrombosis (abdominal VT). Abdominal VT can be a presenting sign of an underlying prothrombotic state, and its presence in the setting of known disease might have prognostic implications different from LE DVT/PE. This study describes clinical presentations of abdominal VT compared to LE DVT/PE in adults and children. We analysed prospectively-collected data from consecutive consenting patients enrolled in one of seven Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded Thrombosis and Hemostasis Network Centers from August 2003 to April 2011 to compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of adults and children with abdominal VT. Both adults and children with abdominal VT tended to be younger and have a lower body mass index (BMI) than those with LE DVT/PE. Of patients with abdominal VT, children were more likely to have inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis than adults. For adults with venous thromboembolism (VTE), relatively more women had abdominal VT than LE DVT/PE, while the proportions with LE DVT/PE and abdominal VT by sex were similar in children. Children with abdominal VT were more likely to have diagnosed inherited thrombophilia, while trauma was more common in children with LE DVT/PE. In conclusion, both children and adults with abdominal VT were younger with a lower BMI than those with LE DVT/PE. Significant differences exist between children and adults in respect to abdominal VT compared to LE DVT/PE. PMID:23407670

  14. Uterine artery embolization to treat uterine fibroids

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    Machan, L.; Martin, M. [Univ. of British Columbia Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    The first reported application of uterine artery embolization, in 1979, was to treat life-threatening hemorrhage after a failed hysterectomy. Since then, uterine artery embolization has been used very successfully to control acute or delayed post-partum hemorrhage, post-surgical hemorrhage and hemorrhage from ectopic pregnancy, to treat uterine arteriovenous malformations and as prophylaxis before high-risk surgery, such as cesarean delivery in women with placenta previa. In contrast to these proven but underutilized applications, uterine embolization for fibroids has, in a short time, achieved significant notice in the lay press and is being widely offered. Ravina and colleagues, first reported uterine fibroid shrinkage after embolization for the treatment of acute bleeding. Since then, his group has performed over 100 procedures with up to a 6-year follow-up. The cumulative clinical success rate for the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding due to fibroids is reported to be approximately 85% and for treatment of pain or pressure symptoms, about 75%. Six-month follow-up sonography reveals an average reduction of fibroid size of approximately 40%. However, to date, no studies have compared patients who undergo embolization with a nontreatment cohort or with surgical intervention. (author)

  15. [Anticoagulation after an acute pulmonary embolism]. (United States)

    Le Mao, Raphael; Tromeur, Cécile; Couturaud, Francis

    In order to determine the optimal duration of anticoagulation after an acute pulmonary embolism, the benefit risk balance needs to be analysed based on the risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism in the absence of anticoagulation and the risk of bleeding while on anticoagulant therapy. Such evaluation take in account the frequency and the severity of the risks; clinical variables appear more informative to predict recurrent venous thromboembolism than biochemical or morphological variables. Three major results are now available: (1) the minimal duration of anticoagulation for pulmonary embolism is 3 months; (2) after pulmonary embolism that was provoked by a major transient risk factor, the risk of recurrence is low and does not justify to prolong anticoagulation beyond 6 months; and (3), in patients with an unprovoked pulmonary embolism (high risk of recurrence), the prolongation of anticoagulation up to 1 or 2 years as compared to 3 or 6 months is not associated with a long term reduction in the risk of recurrence and, consequently, these patients should be treated either during 3 to 6 months or indefinitely. This last observation has two major implications: first, to identify, among patients with unprovoked pulmonary embolism, those who have a low risk of recurrence and who do not require indefinite anticoagulation; and second, in those who are eligible for indefinite anticoagulation, to reduce the risk of bleeding. If direct oral anticoagulant therapies are promising, however, additional clinical trials are needed to help physician for the daily practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Uterine artery embolization for adenomyosis without fibroids

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    Kim, M.D. E-mail:; Won, J.W.; Lee, D.Y.; Ahn, C.-S


    AIM: To evaluate the potential usefulness of transcatheter uterine artery embolization as a treatment for symptomatic adenomyosis in patients without uterine fibroids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Uterine artery embolization using polyvinyl alcohol particles sized 250-710 mm was performed in 43 patients (mean; 40.3 years, range; 31-52 years) with dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, or bulk-related symptoms (pelvic heaviness, urinary frequency) due to adenomyosis without fibroids. All patients underwent pre-procedural and 3.5 months (range 1-8 months) follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast enhancement. Clinical symptoms were also assessed at the time of MRI before and after embolization. RESULTS: Significant improvement of dysmenorrhoea (95.2%) and menorrhagia (95.0%) was reported in most patients. Contrast-enhanced MRI revealed non-enhancing areas suggesting coagulation necrosis of adenomyosis in 31 patients (72.1%), decreased size without necrosis in 11 patients (25.6%), and no change in one patient (2.3%). The mean volume reduction of the uteri after uterine artery embolization was 32.5% (from 321.7{+-}142.9 to 216.7{+-}130.1 cm{sup 3}). CONCLUSION: Transcatheter uterine artery embolization is an effective therapy for the treatment of symptomatic pure adenomyosis, and may be a valuable alternative to hysterectomy.

  17. Current perspectives on preoperative diagnosis and surgical management of portal vein thrombosis in patients requiring liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Kai


    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT are common contraindications for liver transplantation. While portal vein embolization has shown remarkable success in managing both contraindications, hepatocellular carcinoma-a frequent cause of PVTT-remains an absolute contraindication for liver transplantation. Therefore, it is not only crucial to diagnose PVT or PVTT preoperatively but also to determine the underlying etiology of the complication. This article summarizes the known etiologies and the various classification and grading systems of PVT, as well as the features and benefits of the established preoperative diagnostic methods for PVT and PVTT, including color Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging, digital subtraction angiography, and positron emission tomography-CT. Finally, the various management procedures available for treatment of PVT, including venous thrombectomy, vein bypass/interposition grafting, vein arterialization, cavoportal hemitransposition, and liver/small bowel co-transplantation, are discussed along with published results of patient outcome and limitations yet to be overcome. Obtaining a comprehensive evaluation and accurate preoperative diagnosis of the portal venous system, and having an understanding of the various surgical approaches for managing PVT, will promote the chances of successful patient outcome.

  18. Venous interruption for pulmonary embolism: the illustrative case of Richard M. Nixon. (United States)

    Barker, W F; Hickman, E B; Harper, J A; Lungren, J


    This politically prominent patient was seen in consultation on October 26, 1974 because of chronic venous thrombosis and a recent pulmonary embolism. His problems had begun in 1965 when he developed venous thrombosis in the left leg after a length trip by air. His treatment had been sporadic and his compliance with treatment less than satisfactory. Because of detailed phlebography demonstrating (1) no clots in the veins of the right leg, (2) extensive loose lying clot filling the superficial, deep, and external iliac veins on the left, and (3) because of prior difficulties with patient compliance unilateral interruption of the left external iliac vein above the top of the clot was proposed. Despite some postoperative complications, the patient made a full recovery and lived 19 years on warfarin therapy before death from unrelated causes. He suffered no significant edema or other postphlebitic symptoms in the affected leg. The history of the use of venous interruption under these circumstances is reviewed to justify the operation that was performed.

  19. Paradoxical cerebral air embolism; Embolismo gaseosos paradojico cerebral

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    Lopez-Negrete, L.; Garcia-Lozano, J.; Sanchez, J. L.; Sala, J. [Hospital Valle del Nalon. Riano.Langreo (Spain)


    We present a fatal case of intracranial air embolism produced by the passage of intravenous air to the arteries owing to the existence of a patent foremen ovale associated with pulmonary hypertension, which permitted a right-left shunt (paradoxical embolism). The pathophysiological mechanisms of pneumcephalus and paradoxical embolism are discussed and the pertinent literature is reviewed. (Author) 6 refs.

  20. The clinical course of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, E. J.; Kuijer, P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Brandjes, D. P.; Bossuyt, P. M.; ten Cate, J. W.


    BACKGROUND: The outcome of patients with suspected pulmonary embolism is known to a limited extent only. OBJECTIVE: To address this limited knowledge in a cohort in whom pulmonary embolism was proved or ruled out. METHODS: Consecutive patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism underwent

  1. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads


    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu; Elnur Alizade; Abdurrahman Naser; Akin İzgi


    Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  2. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

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    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu


    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  3. Normal hepatic vein patterns on ultrasound

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    Kim, Hae Jin; Chae, Yoo Soon; Park, Hea Yeoung; Park, Bok Hwan; Kim, Yang Sook [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Understanding of the anatomy of the hepatic vein is important in manipulation for transplantation of the liver, hepatectomy and the treatment of hepatic trauma with avulsion of the hepatic vein. Demonstrated of the inferior right hepatic vein (IRHV) is also important; in some cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, thrombus can be seen in the IRHV; in primary Budd-Chiari syndrome, the IRHV is main draining vein; during hepatectomy, the postero-inferior segment of the right lobe and draining IRHV can be preserved. For some 10 months ultrasound examination was done in a total of 124 patients with normal liver function with special emphasis on the hepatic vein, their branches, and the IRHV, and analysed in terms of branching pattern and relative size of the hepatic vein and the detection rate of the IRHV.

  4. The Doppler-guided transfalcine venous approach in selected cases of vein of Galen malformations. (United States)

    Benes, L; Wakat, J-P; Jüttner, J; Riegel, T; Krischek, B; Bertalanffy, H; Bien, S


    This investigation was performed to evaluate the specific procedural issues and indications of a surgically assisted Doppler-guided endovascular transfalcine venous approach for the treatment of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) in critically ill neonates. Two neonates out of a clinical series of 15 children (8 males and 7 females) with vein of Galen malformations were treated by our neurovascular team, using a combined surgically assisted endovascular transfalcine approach. In the biplanar angiography room a radiographically guided craniotomy (1.5 cm) was placed over the cranial projection of the falciforme sinus. After craniotomy the orthograd flow of the falciforme sinus was identified by Doppler ultrasonography. The sinus was punctured by an i. v. cannula with injection port and was sutured to the skin. A microcatheter was maneuvered over a guide into the malformation under fluoroscopic control. For embolization Guglielmi electrolytically detachable platinum coils were placed into the malformation as an embolic agent. Neurological examination records, available MR images, computed tomographic scans, pre- and postembolization angiograms and follow-up data were analyzed. In both individuals the malformation was classified as VGAM. The follow-up was 6 and 7 months, respectively. No technique associated morbidity or mortality occurred in the present series. At discharge both selected neonates were in stable condition and the flow in the VGAMs could be significantly reduced by a combination of approaches including the venous transfalcine approach. Meanwhile, 6 months after birth one neonate died due to a deterioration of the pulmonary hypertension. Endovascular treatment is presently the most efficient strategy to allow neonates and infants survive the early manifestation of vein of Galen malformations and probably render a normal neurological development. Consequently, a combination of approaches in selected cases including the Doppler guided venous

  5. [Changes in mitochondrial membrane potentials and its exponential relation with phosphatidylserine translocation in the plasma membrane as markers in the initial events of apoptosis: evaluation in different spermatic fractions]. (United States)

    Barroso Villa, Gerardo; Karchmer Krivitzky, Samuel; Castelazo Morales, Ernesto; Carballo Mondragón, Esperanza; Kably Ambe, Alberto


    To determine the integrity of the plasmatic membrane through phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation in two spermatic fractions and their correlation with the spermatic mitochondrial membrane potential. The analysis of both spermatic fractions was carried out through a discontinuous gradient separation with Percoli, in order to obtain two samples with high and low mobility (90-40%). Twelve patients were recruited for the initial evaluation of seminal parameters. Mitochondrial membrane integrity was determined using a second antibody (Mitosensor), and was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy, evaluating an average of 200 cells. A 450-490 nm excitation filter was used for this analysis. Cytoplasmatic assessment was carried out by anexine V bonding to PS, in order to determine the initial events of cellular death. Non parameter tests were used in order to determine the differences between mitochondrial potentials and plasmatic membrane processes. Linear correlation tests were used for the anexine V and Mitosensor ratios. Due to the study's design, some differences were observed regarding the displacement parameters and the presence of apoptosis, both, in the plasmatic membrane and in mitochondrial membrane potentials. A positive correlation between both, mitochondrial and cytoplasmic membrane functions was also found. This is the first study performing a comparative analysis between mitochondrial membrane function and cytoplasmatic PS expression as early cellular death markers. The male infertility population is probably associated with an increase in this kind of apoptosis processes.

  6. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

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    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail:; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail:; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail:; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)


    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  7. The Diagnosis of Acute Pulmonary Embolism

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    Ebtesam Islam


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the most current literature on the diagnosis of pulmonary thromboembolism.  The epidemiology and symptomology of this disorder, including common symptoms such as fever, chest pain, dyspnea, edema, and syncope, are reviewed.  The utility of basic and easily available testing, such as electrocardiography and chest radiography, is evaluated. The literature on determining the pretest probability of venous thromboembolism with scoring systems, such as the Wells Score, the Geneva Scoring System, and the Pulmonary Embolism Rule Out Criteria, is appraised.  As the evaluation of pulmonary embolism has evolved, multiple imaging techniques has been developed and studied.  Ultrasonography, computed tomography with angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, ventilation perfusion lung scanning, and SPECT ventilation-perfusion lung imaging are discussed.  In conclusion, the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism remains complicated.  Clinical suspicion and stratification should guide a diagnostic strategy for the comprehensive evaluation and diagnosis of patients with this disorder.

  8. Paradoxical embolism: Experiences from a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Liang Zhang


    Full Text Available Objective: To present our treatment experiences and the follow-up data of patients with paradoxical embolism (PDE. Methods: The clinical characteristics, management, and follow-up data of all included patients who were diagnosed with PDE at Fuwai Hospital from January 1994 to October 2015 were recorded. Results: Twelve patients were included; all had a pulmonary embolism, and 8 had deep venous thrombosis. The artery embolisms involved the cerebral artery (7 patients, renal artery (2 patients, mesentery artery (2 patients, popliteal artery (1 patient, descending aorta thrombus (1 patient, and thrombus-straddled patent foramen ovale (PFO (1 patient. PFO was found in 3 cases. One patient underwent thrombectomy and PFO closure; Six patients received thrombolysis; and 3 patients were implanted with a vena cava filter. Long-term anticoagulation with warfarin was recommended for each patient. One patient died from ventricular fibrillation despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Eleven patients were discharged with improvements. No late mortality occurred in 8 patients with a complete follow-up of 10.6–17.7 years. One had a recurrent deep venous thrombosis. No patient had a recurrent pulmonary or arterial embolism. Two patients changed their treatment from warfarin to aspirin; others remained on warfarin. Only 1 case had an occasional gum bleeding. Conclusions: PDE treatment including thrombolysis, anticoagulation, and embolectomy should be individualized. We recommend long-term anticoagulation therapy to prevent the recurrence of PDE, especially to those with an intracardiac communication or persistent risk factors for re-thrombosis. Keywords: Paradoxical embolism, Pulmonary embolism, Deep venous thrombosis, Patent foramen ovale

  9. Embolism of high energy firearm projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Álvarez Soler


    Full Text Available The embolism of a projectile is very rare and out of the normal context, so the cor-oner in front of a wound projectile firearm must make a very judicious and careful analysis to recover the projectile and/or its fragments. This case presents evidence how modern military high-velocity weapons have a high kinetic energy which is transferred to body tissues, so including their fragments and parts of the projectile can cause serious injury and embolism, requiring a great effort scientific and in-terdisciplinary to give technical support to justice.

  10. Pulmonary Embolism with Vertebral Augmentation Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju


    Full Text Available With the prevalence of an aging American population on the rise, osteoporotic vertebral fractures are becoming a common occurrence, resulting in an increase in vertebral augmentation procedures and associated complications such as cement leakage, vertebral compressions, and pulmonary embolism. We describe a patient who presented with respiratory distress three years following kyphoplasty of the lumbar vertebra. Computed tomography (CT angiogram of the chest confirmed the presence of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA cement in the lung fields and pulmonary vessels. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature identifying effective management strategies for the treatment of vertebroplasty-associated pulmonary embolism.

  11. Fat embolism syndrome: history, definition, epidemiology. (United States)

    Talbot, Max; Schemitsch, Emil H


    The first clinical case of fat embolism was described over 100 years ago and significant progress has been made in the understanding of this condition since then. Gurd's criteria, consisting of major and minor clinical features, is the most commonly used diagnostic tool in the literature. Due to the lack of a gold standard for diagnosis, clinical criteria cannot be validated. It is now recognized that although fat embolization occurs in the majority of patients with long bone fractures, clinical signs and symptoms occur only in 1-10% of patients with fractures.

  12. Local thrombolysis in renal artery embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmann, P.; Hoerl, W.H.; Hohnloser, S.


    Thrombo-embolic occlusions of the renal arteries are usually a result of co-existing cardiac disease, in most cases cardiac arrhythmias or ischaemic heart disease. Similar findings have been observed in mesenteric infarction and embolism into the lower extremities. The duration of ischeamia determines the prognosis. Surgical intervention has been the mainstay of previous therapy. However, the application of local thrombolysis, which is an extension of the diagnostic catheter studies, provides an alternative form of treatment. As in the case of peripheral artery disease, the choice of treatment can only be made in consultation with the surgeon. This report presents experience with the use of local thrombolysis of renal artery emboli.

  13. [Management of mesenteric ischemia and mesenteric vein thrombosis]. (United States)

    Hoffmann, M; Keck, T


    Acute mesenteric ischemia is secondary to acute embolic disease or thrombosis of the superior mesenteric artery. Further pathologies that manifest themselves with the same clinical presentation are thrombosis of the superior mesenteric vein and non-occlusive disease. The patients are admitted to the emergency room with an acute abdomen. Most patients are more than 70 years old. Known risk factors for mesenteric ischemia are cardiac diseases as atrial fibrillation, aneurysms of the aorta and the visceral arteries, occlusive arterial diseases, tumorigenic compression of the vessel and several diseases that result in a reduction of the flow and intravascular volume in the superior mesenteric artery. The golden standard in the diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia is CT-angiography of the abdominal vessels with 3 D reconstruction. The therapy is different and dependent from the underlying pathology. A statistically significantly elevated mortality of more than 95% is associated with a delay of surgical or interventional therapy of more than 12 hours after the initial symptoms and non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. Because of the advanced age of the patients and the co-morbidities a non-surgical interventional re-canalisation of the superior mesenteric vessels is recommended. A laparotomy is necessary in all patients with peritonitis and/or bowel necrosis or perforation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. [Disseminated arterial occlusions revealing bilateral venous thrombosis with paradoxical embolisms]. (United States)

    Elsendoorn, A; Desport, E; Vialle, R; Frat, J-P; Bridoux, F; Touchard, G


    Paradoxical embolism is a diagnosis of exclusion. Clinical triad associates deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, arterial embolism, and intracardiac communication with right-to-left shunt. The intracardiac communication is generally related to a patent foramen ovale (PFO). We report a 75-year-old patient, who presented with bilateral deep venous thrombosis of the legs, complicated by massive pulmonary embolism and paradoxical embolisms through a PFO. This resulted in cerebral, mesenteric, splenic and bilateral kidney infarctions. A promptly initiated anticoagulant treatment allowed a favourable outcome.

  15. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism (United States)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Chowdhury, Shahryar M.; Fox, Mary A.; Lu, Guang Ming


    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. PMID:25846076

  16. Cardiac Arrest Caused by Multiple Recurrent Pulmonary Embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjartan Eskjaer Hannig


    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism is a common condition with a high mortality. We describe a previously healthy 68-year-old male who suffered three pulmonary embolisms during a short period of time, including two embolisms while on anticoagulant treatment. This paper illustrates three important points. (1 The importance of optimal anticoagulant treatment in the prevention of pulmonary embolism reoccurrence. (2 The benefit of immediate accessibility to echocardiography in the handling of haemodynamically unstable patients with an unknown underlying cause. (3 Thrombolytic treatment should always be considered and may be life-saving in patients with cardiac arrest suspected to be caused by pulmonary embolism.

  17. Multidetector computed tomography pulmonary angiography in childhood acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Chowdhury, Shahryar M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pediatrics, Charleston, SC (United States); Fox, Mary A. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)


    Pulmonary embolism is a life-threatening condition affecting people of all ages. Multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography has improved the imaging of pulmonary embolism in both adults and children and is now regarded as the routine modality for detection of pulmonary embolism. Advanced CT pulmonary angiography techniques developed in recent years, such as dual-energy CT, have been applied as a one-stop modality for pulmonary embolism diagnosis in children, as they can simultaneously provide anatomical and functional information. We discuss CT pulmonary angiography techniques, common and uncommon findings of pulmonary embolism in both conventional and dual-energy CT pulmonary angiography, and radiation dose considerations. (orig.)

  18. Shock Veins as Recorders of Shock Pressures in Chondrites: Pressure Histories from Thin vs. Thick Veins (United States)

    Xie, Z.; Sharp, T.; Decarli, P.


    High-pressure minerals are generally found within or adjacent to shock-induced melt veins and melt pockets in highly shocked chondrites. The minerals that crystallize in the melt veins and pockets and the distribution of these minerals provide a record of crystallization and quench histories that can be used to constrain shock pressure and pulse duration. Most previous investigations have focused on relatively thick veins (>100 μ m in width) because they tend to contain high-pressure minerals that are observable using petrography or scanning electron microscopy. However, the mineralogy of thin shock veins can provide additional constraints on the pressure history of shocked meteorites. Because shock veins cool predominantly by conduction to the surrounding matrix, rather than by adiabatic decompression, the timing of shock-vein crystallization depends strongly on vein thickness and position within the veins. Therefore, the thinnest melt veins, which solidify within tens of nanoseconds after melting, provide a brief crystallization history at the time of formation whereas thicker veins provide a longer history that may reflect crystallization during decompression. If thin veins form during compression or early in the shock pulse, they will likely record the equilibrium shock pressure or the peak pressure. The goal of this study is to characterize the mineralogy of thin melt veins and to compare the results to those of thicker veins in the same samples. We have investigated three L chondrites that contain a wide range of melt vein sizes. These include Tenham (several μ m to 600 μ m in width), Roy (10 μ m to 150 μ m in width) and Umbarger (35 μ m to 300 μ m in width). Thick veins in these samples have been previously investigated using FESEM and TEM, resulting in crystallization pressures of approximately 25, 20 and 18 GPa for Tenham, Roy and Umbarger, respectively. Thin veins from these samples were investigated using TEM. Three thin veins in Tenham show three

  19. Internal Jugular and Subclavian Vein Thrombosis in a Case of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Moriwaki


    Full Text Available Central venous catheter insertion and cancer represent some of the important predisposing factors for deep venous thrombosis (DVT. DVT usually develops in the lower extremities, and venous thrombosis of the upper extremities is uncommon. Early diagnosis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis are of importance, because it is a precursor of complications such as pulmonary embolism and postthrombotic syndrome. A 47-year-old woman visited our department with painful swelling on the left side of her neck. Initial examination revealed swelling of the region extending from the left neck to the shoulder without any redness of the overlying skin. Laboratory tests showed a white blood cell count of 5,800/mm3 and an elevated serum C-reactive protein of 4.51 mg/dL. Computed tomography (CT of the neck revealed a vascular filling defect in the left internal jugular vein to left subclavian vein region, with the venous lumina completely occluded with dense soft tissue. On the basis of the findings, we made the diagnosis of thrombosis of the left internal jugular and left subclavian veins. The patient was begun on treatment with oral rivaroxaban, but the left shoulder pain worsened. She was then admitted to the hospital and treated by balloon thrombectomy and thrombolytic therapy, which led to improvement of the left subclavian venous occlusion. Histopathologic examination of the removed thrombus revealed adenocarcinoma cells, indicating hematogenous dissemination of malignant cells.

  20. Placement of central venous access via subclavian vein under fluoroscopic guidance with intravenous contrast injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook; Do, Young Soo; Kim, Seung Hoon; Yoh, Kyu Tong; Ro, Duk Woo; Kim, Bo Kyung [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Hickman catheter placement via the subclavian vein under fluoroscopic guidance with intravenous contrast injection. During an eleven-month period, 187 Hickman catheters were percutaneously placed in 167 consecutive patients in an interventional radiology suite. Subclavian venous puncture was made with injection of contrast medium into the peripheral venous line. After subclavian venous access had been obtained, a subcutaneous tunnel was created using a peel-away sheath or a tunneler. The Hickman catheters were inserted through a peel-away sheath, the distal tip of which was as the junction of the right atrium and the superior vena cava. One hundred and eighty-six Hickman catheters were successfully placed ; the one failure was due to anatomical tortuosity of the vein (0.53%). Complications included one case of subclavian vein occlusion (0.53%) ; three of line occlusion by thrombus (1.6%) ; one of oozing at the suture site (0.53%) ; six of infection or inflammation (3.2%) ; eight of natural removal (4.2%) ; one case of air embolism (0.53%) and two of malposition (0.1%). Major complications such as pneumothorax or arterial puncture leading to mediastinal hemorrhage did not, however, occur. The authors concluded that radiologic Hickman catheter placement offers advantages over traditional approaches in terms of safety, convenience, and time and cost savings.

  1. The diagnostic management of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis: A review of the literature. (United States)

    Kraaijpoel, Noémie; van Es, Nick; Porreca, Ettore; Büller, Harry R; Di Nisio, Marcello


    Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) accounts for 4% to 10% of all cases of deep vein thrombosis. UEDVT may present with localized pain, erythema, and swelling of the arm, but may also be detected incidentally by diagnostic imaging tests performed for other reasons. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is crucial to prevent pulmonary embolism and long-term complications as the post-thrombotic syndrome of the arm. Unlike the diagnostic management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities, which is well established, the work-up of patients with clinically suspected UEDVT remains uncertain with limited evidence from studies of small size and poor methodological quality. Currently, only one prospective study evaluated the use of an algorithm, similar to the one used for DVT of the lower extremities, for the diagnostic workup of clinically suspected UEDVT. The algorithm combined clinical probability assessment, D-dimer testing and ultrasonography and appeared to safely and effectively exclude UEDVT. However, before recommending its use in routine clinical practice, external validation of this strategy and improvements of the efficiency are needed, especially in high-risk subgroups in whom the performance of the algorithm appeared to be suboptimal, such as hospitalized or cancer patients. In this review, we critically assess the accuracy and efficacy of current diagnostic tools and provide clinical guidance for the diagnostic management of clinically suspected UEDVT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation; Anatomical Surface Markings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a female patient scheduled for skin grafting of chronic Burulli ulcers who had a history of difficult peripheral vein cannulation. She had undergone numerous central venous cannulations and unsuccessful peripheral vein cut-downs in the past. On two separate occasions she had central venous ...

  3. Generating and analyzing synthetic finger vein images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillerström, Fieke; Kumar, Ajay; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.


    Abstract: The finger-vein biometric offers higher degree of security, personal privacy and strong anti-spoofing capabilities than most other biometric modalities employed today. Emerging privacy concerns with the database acquisition and lack of availability of large scale finger-vein database have

  4. Arterial embolization in patients with renal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S W; Berg, J; Brynitz, S


    The literature concerning embolization of the renal artery in patients with renal cell carcinoma is reviewed. Based on this review it is concluded that the method is useful in this patient group as it will facilitate the surgical procedure if nephrectomy is performed afterwards. Used...

  5. Acute Thrombo-embolic Renal Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Zhou


    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted for acute onset of right lower abdominal pain. She was taking anticoagulant medication regularly for rheumatic valvular disease and atrial fibrillation. Physical examination revealed no obvious abdominal or flank tenderness. Right thrombo-embolic renal infarction was diagnosed after performing computed tomography angiography (CTA.

  6. Neural hypernetwork approach for pulmonary embolism diagnosis. (United States)

    Rucco, Matteo; Sousa-Rodrigues, David; Merelli, Emanuela; Johnson, Jeffrey H; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Nitti, Cinzia; Salvi, Aldo


    Hypernetworks are based on topological simplicial complexes and generalize the concept of two-body relation to many-body relation. Furthermore, Hypernetworks provide a significant generalization of network theory, enabling the integration of relational structure, logic and analytic dynamics. A pulmonary embolism is a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches, frequently fatal. Our study uses data on 28 diagnostic features of 1427 people considered to be at risk of pulmonary embolism enrolled in the Department of Internal and Subintensive Medicine of an Italian National Hospital "Ospedali Riuniti di Ancona". Patients arrived in the department after a first screening executed by the emergency room. The resulting neural hypernetwork correctly recognized 94% of those developing pulmonary embolism. This is better than previous results obtained with other methods (statistical selection of features, partial least squares regression, topological data analysis in a metric space). In this work we successfully derived a new integrative approach for the analysis of partial and incomplete datasets that is based on Q-analysis with machine learning. The new approach, called Neural Hypernetwork, has been applied to a case study of pulmonary embolism diagnosis. The novelty of this method is that it does not use clinical parameters extracted by imaging analysis.

  7. Coagulopathy in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehnert, Per; Johansson, Pär I; Ostrowski, Sisse R


    Whole blood coagulation and markers of endothelial damage were studied in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE), and evaluated in relation to PE severity. Twenty-five patients were enrolled prospectively each having viscoelastical analysis of whole blood done using thrombelastography (TEG...

  8. SPECT/CT and pulmonary embolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte


    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is diagnosed either by ventilation/perfusion (V/P) scintigraphy or pulmonary CT angiography (CTPA). In recent years both techniques have improved. Many nuclear medicine centres have adopted the single photon emission CT (SPECT) technique as opposed to the planar...

  9. Fertility after uterine artery embolization of fibroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, K; Hrobjartsson, A; Korsholm, M


    PURPOSE: The impact of uterine artery embolization (UAE) for the purpose of diminishing the effect of uterine fibroids on fertility is unclear. We have investigated the reported rates of pregnancy and miscarriage after treatment of uterine fibroids with UAE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched...

  10. Ethanol embolotherapy of high-flow auricular arteriovenous malformations with electrolytically detachable coil-assisted dominant outflow vein occlusion. (United States)

    Wang, D; Su, L; Han, Y; Fan, X


    High-flow arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) with a dominant outflow vein (DOV) remain difficult for ethanol embolotherapy, but improved technology and experience of detachable coils allows for the treatment of some of these AVMs with satisfactory results. A single-center experience and evaluation of technical and clinical safety, and effectiveness of electrolytically detachable coil (EDC)-assisted DOV occlusion for ethanol embolization of high-flow auricular AVMs, which has some advantages over conventional coils because of its controlled deployment, reposition, and removal is reported. From November 2010 to June 2013, 40 consecutive patients with auricular AVMs underwent staged ethanol embolizations, of which nine patients' auricular AVMs with a DOV who had undergone ethanol embolization of high-flow auricular AVMs in combination with EDCs-assisted DOV occlusion were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical follow-up (range, 5-29 months; mean, 15.1 months) was completed in all patients, and results from imaging follow-up (range, 7-25 months; mean, 14.7 months) were available from the last treatment session in six patients. Therapeutic outcomes were determined by evaluating the clinical outcome of symptoms and signs, as well as the degree of devascularization at follow-up arteriography. Twenty-eight ethanol embolizations and nine EDC-assisted DOV occlusions were performed in nine patients. Seventeen EDCs were used in nine patients. Five (55.6%) of the nine patients were cured, and four (44.4%) had partial palliation. One minor complication occurred in one of the nine patients. Transient hemoglobinuria occurred in six of nine patients in a total nine of the 28 procedures. There were no major complications. Ethanol embolization has the potential for cure in the management of high-flow auricular AVMs with the aid of occlusion DOV by EDCs with acceptable risk of minor and major complications. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier

  11. Chronic Iliac Vein Occlusion and Painful Nonhealing Ulcer Induced by High Venous Pressures from an Arteriovenous Malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Link


    Full Text Available Chronic femoral vein compression (May-Thurner Syndrome is a known rare cause of deep venous thrombosis. Subsequent angiogenesis and the development of arteriovenous malformation (AVM in the setting of chronic venous thrombosis is by itself a rare and poorly understood phenomenon. We report a case in which elevated venous pressures resulting from such compression appear to have resulted in the development of a pelvic arteriovenous malformation, which was further complicated by chronic, nonhealing painful lower extremity ulcers, and the development of extensive subcutaneous venous collaterals. Following successful embolization of the pelvic AVM and ablation of veins under the ulcers with laser and sclerotherapy, the patient's ulcers healed and she became pain-free.

  12. Percutaneous unilateral biliary metallic stent placement in patients with malignant obstruction of the biliary hila and contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Rak Chae; Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Jong Woo; Ko, Gi Young [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To investigate the outcomes of percutaneous unilateral metallic stent placement in patients with a malignant obstruction of the biliary hila and a contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion. Sixty patients with a malignant hilar obstruction and unilobar portal vein steno-occlusion caused by tumor invasion or preoperative portal vein embolization were enrolled in this retrospective study from October 2010 to October 2013. All patients were treated with percutaneous placement of a biliary metallic stent, including expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered stents in 27 patients and uncovered stents in 33 patients. A total of 70 stents were successfully placed in 60 patients. Procedural-related minor complications, including self-limiting hemobilia (n = 2) and cholangitis (n = 4) occurred in six (10%) patients. Acute cholecystitis occurred in two patients. Successful internal drainage was achieved in 54 (90%) of the 60 patients. According to a Kaplan-Meier analysis, median survival time was 210 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 135-284 days), and median stent patency time was 133 days (95% CI, 94-171 days). No significant difference in stent patency was observed between covered and uncovered stents (p = 0.646). Stent dysfunction occurred in 16 (29.6%) of 54 patients after a mean of 159 days (range, 65-321 days). Unilateral placement of ePTFE-covered and uncovered stents in the hepatic lobe with a patent portal vein is a safe and effective method for palliative treatment of patients with a contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion caused by an advanced hilar malignancy or portal vein embolization. No significant difference in stent patency was detected between covered and uncovered metallic stents.

  13. [Reno-caval thrombosis complicated by massive pulmonary embolism. Diagnostic and therapeutic problems]. (United States)

    Soyer, R; Brunet, A; Guiton, T; Redonnet, M; Letac, B


    The authors report on a case of thrombosis of vena cava and renal vein associated with a nephrotic syndrome and complicated by a massive pulmonary embolism. Under emergency conditions, it was impossible to diagnose preoperatively a renal tumor, which is the most common cause of renal and vena caval obstruction or a thrombosis of the vena cava. Surgical treatment was carried out only because there were no arteriographic signs of renal neoplasm, and because thrombolytic treatment was contra indicated in a patient with greatly reduced vital capacity. Embolectomy was performed under cardiopulmonary by pass. The patient made a good recovery. Results of routine cardiac and pulmonary tests were normal after two months. Embolectomy must always be associated with as interruption of the vena cava, whose different forms are discussed. Partial interruptions using a De Weese clamp seems to be better tolerated than ligation.

  14. High-flow priapism in a 12-year-old boy: Treatment with superselective embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Mossadeq


    Full Text Available Priapism is caused by an imbalance between penile blood inflow and outflow. There are two types of priapism: low-flow priapism due to venous occlusion and high-flow priapism due to uncontrolled arterial flow to the veins. High-flow priapism most frequently occurs as a result of penile trauma in which the intercavernosal artery disruption causes an arteriocavernosal fistula. It is rarely encountered in the pediatric and prepubertal population. Clinically, it manifests as a painless, prolonged erection after perineal trauma. Treatment ranges from expectant management to open surgical exploration with vessel ligation. We report the successful treatment of high-flow priapism in a 12-year-old prepubertal boy with superselective embolization.

  15. Giant tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula treated by a combination of trans-arterial embolization and surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türker Karanci


    Full Text Available Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae are uncommon lesions but can be life-threatening. A 34-year-old male presented with intractable headache, seizures, and visual disturbance. Three-dimensional computed tomography (CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a right tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula supplied by both internal and external carotid systems and draining into a giant venous ampula. Transarterial embolization of the external carotid feeders with Onyx (TM, ev3, Irvine, CA was carried out. Postembolization angiography revealed persistence of a portion of the fistula supplied by the temporo-occipital branch of right middle cerebral artery. The patient underwent right temporo-occipital craniotomy, division of the feeders and resection of the entire fistula and coagulation of the leptomeningeal arterialized veins. Complete elimination of the fistula was demonstrated by angiography. Postoperative recovery was uneventful; the patient did not develop any fresh neurologic deficits. We review the relevant literature and discuss the rationale for managing these lesions.

  16. Congenital anomalous/aberrant systemic artery to pulmonary venous fistula: Closure with vascular plugs & coil embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Jariwala


    Full Text Available A 7-month-old girl with failure to thrive, who, on clinical and diagnostic evaluation [echocardiography & CT angiography] to rule out congenital heart disease, revealed a rare vascular anomaly called systemic artery to pulmonary venous fistula. In our case, there was dual abnormal supply to the entire left lung as1 anomalous supply by normal systemic artery [internal mammary artery]2 and an aberrant feeder vessel from the abdominal aorta. Left Lung had normal bronchial connections and normal pulmonary vasculature. The fistula drained through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium leading to ‘left–left shunt’. Percutaneous intervention in two stages was performed using Amplatzer vascular plugs and coil embolization to close them successfully. The patient gained significant weight in follow up with other normal developmental and mental milestones.

  17. Evaluation of apoptosis in varicose vein disease complicated by superficial vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Filis, Konstantinos; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Dalainas, Ilias; Galyfos, George; Karanikola, Evridiki; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Tsioufis, Constantinos; Sigala, Fragiska


    The factors contributing to superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) in patients with varicose vein disease are unclear. Differences in vein wall apoptotic activity could be associated with the pathogenesis of SVT. The aim of the study is to address the role of the programmed cell death in the vein wall by comparing varicose veins with history of SVT to uncomplicated varicose veins. Vein segments from the proximal part of the great saphenous vein (GSV), the distal part of the vein and from a varicose tributary, from 16 patients with varicose vein disease and one episode of SVT, were evaluated for the immunohistochemical expression of pro-apoptotic (Bax, p53, Caspase 3, BCL-6, BCL-xs), anti-apoptotic (BCL-xl and BCL-2) and proliferation (Ki-67) markers. The results of this study were compared to the results from the evaluation of 19 patients suffering from uncomplicated varicose vein disease and 10 healthy GSVs as controls. Overall, there was increased apoptosis in the distal part of GSV compared to the proximal part documented by increased expression of Bax (p SVT showed significant differences among the three different anatomic locations. In the proximal GSV, only BCL-xs was higher in patients with SVT (p = 0.029). In the tributaries, Bax, BCL-xl and Ki-67 were higher in patients with SVT (p SVT shows increased pro-apoptotic activity compared to uncomplicated disease and normal veins. Whether increased vein wall cell apoptosis is a causative factor for SVT in varicose veins disease or a repairing mechanism of the thrombosis itself needs further research.

  18. Oral direct thrombin inhibitors or oral factor Xa inhibitors for the treatment of pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; Kesteven, Patrick; McCaslin, James E


    Pulmonary embolism is a potentially life-threatening condition in which a clot can travel from the deep veins, most commonly in the leg, up to the lungs. Previously, a pulmonary embolism was treated with the anticoagulants heparin and vitamin K antagonists. Recently, however, two forms of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been developed: oral direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) and oral factor Xa inhibitors. The new drugs have characteristics that may be favourable over conventional treatment, including oral administration, a predictable effect, lack of frequent monitoring or re-dosing and few known drug interactions. To date, no Cochrane review has measured the effectiveness and safety of these drugs in the long-term treatment (minimum duration of three months) of pulmonary embolism. To assess the effectiveness of oral DTIs and oral factor Xa inhibitors for the long-term treatment of pulmonary embolism. The Cochrane Vascular Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched January 2015) and the Cochrane Register of Studies (last searched January 2015). Clinical trials databases were also searched for details of ongoing or unpublished studies. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles retrieved by electronic searches for additional citations. We included randomised controlled trials in which patients with a pulmonary embolism confirmed by standard imaging techniques were allocated to receive an oral DTI or an oral factor Xa inhibitor for the long-term (minimum duration three months) treatment of pulmonary embolism. Two review authors (LR, JM) independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias in the trials. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion with the third author (PK). We used meta-analyses when we considered heterogeneity low. The two primary outcomes were recurrent venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism. Other outcomes included all-cause mortality and major bleeding. We calculated all outcomes

  19. An injectable shear-thinning biomaterial for endovascular embolization. (United States)

    Avery, Reginald K; Albadawi, Hassan; Akbari, Mohsen; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Duggan, Michael J; Sahani, Dushyant V; Olsen, Bradley D; Khademhosseini, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi


    Improved endovascular embolization of vascular conditions can generate better patient outcomes and minimize the need for repeat procedures. However, many embolic materials, such as metallic coils or liquid embolic agents, are associated with limitations and complications such as breakthrough bleeding, coil migration, coil compaction, recanalization, adhesion of the catheter to the embolic agent, or toxicity. Here, we engineered a shear-thinning biomaterial (STB), a nanocomposite hydrogel containing gelatin and silicate nanoplatelets, to function as an embolic agent for endovascular embolization procedures. STBs are injectable through clinical catheters and needles and have hemostatic activity comparable to metallic coils, the current gold standard. In addition, STBs withstand physiological pressures without fragmentation or displacement in elastomeric channels in vitro and in explant vessels ex vivo. In vitro experiments also indicated that STB embolization did not rely on intrinsic thrombosis as coils did for occlusion, suggesting that the biomaterial may be suitable for use in patients on anticoagulation therapy or those with coagulopathy. Using computed tomography imaging, the biomaterial was shown to fully occlude murine and porcine vasculature in vivo and remain at the site of injection without fragmentation or nontarget embolization. Given the advantages of rapid delivery, in vivo stability, and independent occlusion that does not rely on intrinsic thrombosis, STBs offer an alternative gel-based embolic agent with translational potential for endovascular embolization. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. An Onyx tunnel: reconstructive transvenous balloon-assisted Onyx embolization for dural arteriovenous fistula of the transverse-sigmoid sinus. (United States)

    Kerolus, Mena G; Chung, Joonho; Munich, Stephen A; Matsuda, Yoshikazu; Okada, Hideo; Lopes, Demetrius K


    Transvenous embolization is an effective method for treating dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) of the transverse-sigmoid sinus (TSS). However, in cases of complicated DAVFs, it is difficult to preserve the patency of the dural sinus. The authors describe the technical details of a new reconstructive technique using transvenous balloon-assisted Onyx embolization as another treatment option in a patient with an extensive and complex DAVF of the left TSS. A microcatheter and compliant balloon catheter were navigated into the left internal jugular vein and placed at the distal end of the DAVF in the transverse sinus. The microcatheter was placed between the vessel wall of the TSS and the balloon. After the balloon was fully inflated, Onyx-18 was injected at the periphery of the balloon in a slow, controlled, progressive, stepwise manner; the balloon and microcatheter were simultaneously withdrawn toward the sigmoid sinus, with Onyx encompassing the entirety of the complex DAVF. The Onyx refluxed into multiple arterial feeders in a distal-to-proximal step-by-step manner, ultimately resulting in an Onyx tunnel. The final angiography study revealed complete obliteration of the DAVF and patency of the TSS. The Onyx tunnel, or reconstructive transvenous balloon-assisted Onyx embolization technique, may be an effective treatment option for large, complex DAVFs of the TSS. This technique may provide another option to facilitate the complete obliteration of the DAVF while preserving the functional sinus.

  1. Massive pulmonary embolism: the predisposing and complicating factors, its current diagnostic approaches and critical importance of early diagnostic physical exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip A. Konecny


    Full Text Available Massive pulmonary embolism (MPE often leads to circulation collapse, a form of shock. The process is set off by thrombus or multiple thrombi dislodgement followed by a rapid perfusion insufficiency of pulmonary arterial system. Patients experience severe hypotension with diastolic and systolic failure with an acute tricuspid regurgitation. On many occasions, release of an obstruction is unattainable and death is occurring frequently within one hour of presentation. A key reported source of MPE is its occurrence as a complication of deep vein thrombosis (DVT. While long-term immobilization and surgery are both directly associated with MPE, others such as previous DVT, malignancy, infectious lung and heart diseases, family thrombophilia, lower limb paralysis and pregnancy have to be considered as risk factors mainly due to its silent nature. Predisposing and complicating risks should be addressed by an early diagnostic physical exam. The clinician might offer a wide variety of diagnostic approaches, combining techniques into algorithms to better deal with the embolism severity. Multiple patient life-style changes and decisions to adhere to the proposed plan should be built up on patient-physician team effort. KEY WORDS: Massive pulmonary embolism, predisposing factors, current diagnostic approaches.

  2. A case of Multiple Unilateral Pulmonary arteriovenous Malformation Relapse: Efficacy of embolization treatment

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    Masiello Rossella


    Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous Malformations (PAVMs are a rare vascular alteration characterized by abnormal communications between the pulmonary arteries and veins resulting in an extracardiac right-to-left (R-L shunt. The majority of PAVMs are associated with an autosomal dominant vascular disorder also known as Osler-Weber- Rendu Syndrome. PAVMs appearance can be both single and multiple. Clinical manifestations include hypoxemia, dyspnea cyanosis, hemoptysis and cerebrovascular ischemic events or abscesses. We report a case of an 18 year old female with severe respiratory failure caused by a relapse of multiple unilateral pulmonary arterovenous fistula. Symptoms at admission include dyspnea, cyanosis and clubbing. The patient underwent pulmonary angio-TC scan, brain CT and echocardiography. The thoracic angio-CT scan showed the presence of PAVMs of RUL and RLL; a marked increase of right bronchial artery caliber and its branches with an aneurismatic dilatation was also observed. The patient underwent percutaneous transcatheter embolization using Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV; a relevant clinical and functional improvement was subsequently recorded. Embolization is effective in the treatment of relapsing PAVMS.

  3. Management of intra-operative acute pulmonary embolism during general anesthesia: a case report. (United States)

    Mao, Yuanyuan; Wen, Shuai; Chen, Gezi; Zhang, Wei; Ai, Yanqiu; Yuan, Jingjing


    Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) can be life-threatening. Early detection is even more difficult for patients under general anesthesia as common symptoms are not available and the pathophysiological course of intra-operative APE is influenced by procedures of surgery and anesthesia, which makes patients under general anesthesia a distinctive group. We report a case of APE during orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia. A 64-year-old female with atrial fibrillation and surgical history of varicosity underwent total right hip replacement surgery under general anesthesia. No arterial or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was found prior to the surgery, but APE still occurred intraoperatively. The sudden decrease in PETCO2 and increase in PaCO2 combined other clues raised the suspect of APE, which is further evidenced by transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE). Multidisciplinary consultation was started immediately. After discussion with the consultation team and communication with patient's family members, anticoagulation therapy was started and IVC filter was placed to prevent PE recurrence. The patient went through the operation and discharged uneventfully 30 days later. Pulmonary embolism is a rare and potentially high-risk perioperative situation, with a difficult diagnosis when occurs under anesthesia. The separation phenomenon of decrease in PETCO2 and increase in PaCO2 might be a useful and suggestive sign, enabling prompt management and therefore improving the prognosis.

  4. Portal vein gas in emergency surgery

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    Mahmood Hind


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Portal vein gas is an ominous radiological sign, which indicates a serious gastrointestinal problem in the majority of patients. Many causes have been identified and the most important was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular accident. The presentation of patients is varied and the diagnosis of the underlying problem depends mainly on the radiological findings and clinical signs. The aim of this article is to show the clinical importance of portal vein gas and its management in emergency surgery. Methods A computerised search was made of the Medline for publications discussing portal vein gas through March 2008. Sixty articles were identified and selected for this review because of their relevance. These articles cover a period from 1975–2008. Results Two hundreds and seventy-five patients with gas in the portal venous system were reported. The commonest cause for portal vein gas was bowel ischemia and mesenteric vascular pathology (61.44%. This was followed by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (16.26%, obstruction and dilatation (9.03%, sepsis (6.6%, iatrogenic injury and trauma (3.01% and cancer (1.8%. Idiopathic portal vein gas was also reported (1.8%. Conclusion Portal vein gas is a diagnostic sign, which indicates a serious intra-abdominal pathology requiring emergency surgery in the majority of patients. Portal vein gas due to simple and benign cause can be treated conservatively. Correlation between clinical and diagnostic findings is important to set the management plan.

  5. The strong but nonspecific relationship between 18F-FDG uptake in the lower-extremity veins and venous thromboembolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Hongyun June; Hess, Søren; Rubello, Domenico


    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) can present as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or acute pulmonary embolism (PE). In fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT, F-FDG activity along the deep veins of the lower extremities (LE) is often observed and, unless it is associated with focal intense activity......-FDG uptake visualized in the LE was scored as the number of positive LE veins and the extent of the radiotracer uptake. The time intervals between the VTE event and the F-FDG-PET scan(s) were recorded. The time intervals between the most remote and the closest F-FDG-PET before a VTE event averaged 79......±101 and 49±82 days, respectively, and the closest and the most remote F-FDG-PET after the VTE event averaged 58±50 and 122±124 days. The extent of uptake in the LE veins averaged 7±2 for the patients with an acute DVT on LE duplex and 5±3 for those with negative or chronic DVT on LE duplex (P...

  6. Valsalva and gravitational variability of the internal jugular vein and common femoral vein: Ultrasound assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddy, P. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)]. E-mail:; Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Ramesh, N. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Buckley, O. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); O' Brien, J. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Colville, J. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, The Adelaide and Meath Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)


    Purpose: Central venous cannulation via the common femoral vein is an important starting point for many interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for cannulation of the femoral vein and to compare these with the relative changes in the internal jugular vein. Methods: High-resolution 2D ultrasound was utilised to determine variability of the calibre of the femoral and internal jugular veins in 10 healthy subjects. Venous diameter was assessed during the Valsalva manoeuvre and in different degrees of the Trendelenburg position. Results: The Valsalva manoeuvre significantly increased the size of the femoral and internal jugular veins. There was a relatively greater increase in femoral vein diameter when compared with the internal jugular vein of 40 and 29%, respectively. Changes in body inclination (Trendelenburg position) did not significantly alter the luminal diameter of the femoral vein. However, it significantly increased internal jugular vein diameter. Conclusions: Femoral vein cannulation is augmented by the Valsalva manoeuvre but not significantly altered by the gravitational position of the subject.

  7. Efficacy and safety of rotating pigtail catheter: lower extremity deep vein thrombosis of may-thurner syndrome

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    Kim, Yoon Kyung; Kang, Byung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gang, Sung Gown [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mechanical fragmentation of iliofemoral deep vein thromboses (DVTs) with a rotating pigtail catheter followed by aspiration thrombectomy. Ten patients (eight females, two males, 56.8 +/- 21.37 years) with iliofemoral DVT underwent treatment for a total of ten affected limbs. Approximately 5-10 min after infusing 400,000-700,000 IU urokinase (UK) into the thrombosed deep veins, the thromboses were fragmented by the mechanical action of the rotating pigtail catheter tip. Following their fragmentation, the fragmented thromboses were aspirated. After completion of the above procedure, a stent was inserted if iliac vein stenosis was demonstrated. We evaluated the total procedure time, volume of thrombolytic agent (urokinase), valvular injury, symptom-free time interval and success rate (primary patency rate). In all 10 patients, the iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis was successfully fragmented and aspirated using the combination method of a rotating pigtail catheter and aspiration thrombectomy (clinical and technical success rate, 100%). The thromboses were declotted by means of a rotating pigtail catheter with an average treatment time of 5.7 minutes. The average duration of the total intervention was 108 min. The mean primary patency was approximately 4 months with no recurrence. The total UK dose was 890,000 IU on average. There were no major complications, such as pulmonary embolism or cerebral hemorrhage, while performing the thrombus-fragmentation procedure using the rotating pigtail catheter. The combination method of a rotating pigtail catheter and aspiration thrombectomy for the treatment of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis was found to be rapid, safe and effective for accomplishing recanalization in all cases without complication. Therefore, this procedure constitutes a potential treatment option in patients presenting with iliofemoral vein thrombosis.

  8. Uterine artery embolization for cervical ectopic pregnancy

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    Qiao Zhou, MD


    Full Text Available A 36-year-old woman with 3 prior C-sections is diagnosed with a caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy. Despite receiving intramuscular and transvaginal methotrexate injection 2 months before presentation, the beta human chorionic gonadotropin was recorded to be 73 mIU/mL at the time of encounter. The patient complained of vaginal bleeding with a significant drop in hematocrit from 40% to 33%. Transvaginal ultrasound confirmed retroplacental hemorrhage and because of the patient's desire to retain fertility, interventional radiology was consulted to perform an uterine artery embolization. The uterine artery embolization was successful in achieving hemostasis and resulted in a decrease of betaHCG to 46 on postprocedure day 1 to <1 mIU/mL by postoperative week 3.

  9. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Massive Pulmonary Embolism. (United States)

    Dolmatova, Elena V; Moazzami, Kasra; Cocke, Thomas P; Elmann, Elie; Vaidya, Pranay; Ng, Arthur F; Satya, Kumar; Narayan, Rajeev L

    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has been suggested for cardiopulmonary support in patients with massive pulmonary embolism (PE) refractory to other treatment or as bridging to embolectomy. The survival benefit from ECMO in patients with massive PE remains unclear. Here, we describe 5 cases in which ECMO was used as cardiopulmonary support following massive near-fatal pulmonary embolism. The overall mortality in patients with massive PE that received ECMO support was 40%. Death occurred secondary to ECMO-related complication in one case and due to inability to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion despite ECMO support in the second case. ECMO can be considered as a treatment modality for patients with massive PE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical Treatment of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism. (United States)

    Beckerman, Ziv; Bolotin, Gil


    Massive pulmonary embolism (MPE) is a life-threatening condition. The management of MPE has changed over the course of the last few years. Since the emergence of thrombolytic therapy, only a few patients remain amenable for surgical treatment. Currently, surgical embolectomy is advised only in very specific indications. This chapter will review the background, history, indications, surgical technique and results of surgical pulmonary embolectomy in patients with MPE.

  11. Pediatric Pulmonary Embolism: Diagnostic and Management Challenges. (United States)

    Lilje, Christian; Chauhan, Aman; Turner, Jason P; Carson, Thomas H; Velez, Maria C; Arcement, Christopher; Caspi, Joseph


    A rare case of massive pulmonary embolism is presented in an oligosymptomatic teenager with predisposing factors. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography supported by three-dimensional reconstruction was diagnostic. The embolus qualified as massive by conventional anatomical guidelines, but as low risk by more recent functional criteria. Functional assessment has complemented morphologic assessment for risk stratification in adult patients. Such evidence is scarce in pediatrics. The patient underwent surgical embolectomy, followed by prophylactic anticoagulation, without further events. Diagnostic and management challenges are discussed.

  12. Prospective analysis of endoscopic vein harvesting. (United States)

    Patel, A N; Hebeler, R F; Hamman, B L; Hunnicutt, C; Williams, M; Liu, L; Wood, R E


    Utilization of bridging vein harvesting (BVH) of saphenous vein grafts (SVG) for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) results in large wounds with great potential for pain and infection. Endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) may significantly reduce the morbidity associated with SVG harvesting. A prospective database of 200 matched patients receiving EVH and BVH was compared. The patients all underwent CABG done over a period of 4 months (April to August 2000). Patients were excluded if they had prior vein harvesting. The EVH and BVH group included 100 patients each with similar demographics. The patients in the EVH group had significantly fewer wound complications, mean days to ambulation, and total length of stay (P BVH in patients undergoing CABG.

  13. Leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein. (United States)

    El Khoury, M; Mesurolle, B; Trassard, M; Cherel, P; Talma, V; Hagay, C


    Peripheral vascular leiomyosarcomas are rare. A case of leiomyosarcoma of the great saphenous vein diagnosed pre-surgically by MRI and fine-needle aspiration is presented. Characteristics of the tumour and imaging features are discussed.

  14. Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari) (United States)

    ... MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari) URL of this page: // ...

  15. Carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

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    Amir Abu Zikry


    Full Text Available Bariatric restrictive and malabsorptive operations are being carried out in most countries laparoscopically. Carbon dioxide or gas embolism has never been reported in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. We report a case of carbon dioxide embolism during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG in a young super obese female patient. Early diagnosis and successful management of this complication are discussed. An 18-year-old super obese female patient with enlarged fatty liver underwent LSG under general anesthesia. During initial intra-peritoneal insufflation with CO 2 at high flows through upper left quadrant of the abdomen, she had precipitous fall of end-tidal CO 2 and SaO 2 % accompanied with tachycardia. Early suspicion led to stoppage of further insufflation. Clinical parameters were stabilized after almost 30 min, while the blood gas analysis was restored to normal levels after 1 h. The area of gas entrainment on the damaged liver was recognized by the surgeon and sealed and the surgery was successfully carried out uneventfully. Like any other laparoscopic surgery, carbon dioxide embolism can occur during bariatric laparoscopic surgery also. Caution should be exercised when Veress needle is inserted through upper left quadrant of the abdomen in patients with enlarged liver. A high degree of suspicion and prompt collaboration between the surgeon and anesthetist can lead to complete recovery from this potentially fatal complication.

  16. Risk factors for embolism in cardiac myxoma: a retrospective analysis. (United States)

    He, Deng-Ke; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Liang, Yin; Ye, Shi-Xing; Wang, Chong; Kang, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Nong


    Myxomas are the most common primary heart tumors and are closely associated with embolic events. Cardiac myxomas typically arise from the interatrial septum at the border of the fossa ovalis in the left atrium. Any other location is considered atypical. Embolism, one of the complications of myxoma, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for embolism in patients with cardiac myxoma. In this retrospective study, a cohort of 162 patients with cardiac myxomas was surgically treated between January 1998 and June 2014 at 3 cardiac centers in China. Preoperative data, including platelet count, sex, age, and the tumor (size, location, surface, and attachment), were compared between embolic and non-embolic groups of patients. No significant differences in vascular risk factors were seen between the 2 groups. However, the percentage of higher platelet count (>300 × 10(9)/L) and mean platelet volume in the embolic group were significantly higher than in the non-embolic group (P=0.0356, and 0.0113, respectively). Irregular surface and atypical location of the myxomas were also independently associated with increased risk of embolic complications. Tumor location, macroscopic appearance, mean platelet volume, and high platelet count are strong risk factors for embolic events in patients with cardiac myxomas.

  17. Acute tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization

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    Jason T. Salsamendi


    Full Text Available Preoperative splenic artery embolization for massive splenomegaly has been shown to reduce intraoperative hemorrhage during splenectomy. We describe a case of tumor lysis syndrome after proximal splenic artery embolization in a patient with advanced mantle cell lymphoma and splenic involvement. The patient presented initially with hyperkalemia two days after embolization that worsened during splenectomy. He was stabilized, but developed laboratory tumor lysis syndrome with renal failure and expired. High clinical suspicion of tumor lysis syndrome in this setting is advised. Treatment must be started early to avoid serious renal injury and death. Lastly, same day splenectomy and embolization should be considered to decrease the likelihood of developing tumor lysis syndrome.

  18. Embolization of Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas Using PHIL Liquid Embolic Agent in 26 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamin, S; Chew, H S; Chavda, S


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The introduction of liquid embolic agents has revolutionized endovascular approach to cranial vascular malformations. The aim of the study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of Precipitating Hydrophobic Injectable Liquid (PHIL), a new nonadhesive liquid...... embolic agent, in the treatment of patients with cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas. The primary end point was the rate of complete occlusion of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Secondary end points included the incidence of adverse events and clinical status at 3-month follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: This was a retrospective multicenter study. Twenty-six consecutive patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (de novo or previously treated) treated by injection of PHIL only or with PHIL in combination with other embolization products (such as Onyx or detachable coils) were included in the study. Recruitment started...

  19. Primary leiomyosarcoma of the innominate vein. (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Miraldi, Fabio; Mazzesi, Giuseppe; D'urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Bezzi, Marcello


    Primary venous leiomyosarcoma is rare. We report the case of a primary leiomyosarcoma of the left innominate vein, with neoplastic thrombus extending into the left jugular and subclavian veins. The tumor was curatively resected en bloc with anterior mediastinal and laterocervical lymphatics, through a median sternotomy prolonged into left cervicotomy. Primary venous sarcomas may be associated with prolonged survival in individual cases, with curative resection recommended as the standard treatment, in the absence of distant spread.

  20. CT in thrombosed dilated posterior epidural vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammatter, S.; Schnyder, P.; Preux, J. de


    The authors report a case of thrombosis of the distal end of an enlarged right posterior epidural vein. The patient had a markedly narrow lumbar canal due to L5 spondylolisthesis. The dilated vein and the thrombosis were displayed by computed tomography but remained unrecognized until surgery. Pathogenesis of this condition is discussed. A review of the English, French and German literature revealed no prior radiological reports of a similar condition.

  1. Retrotracheal aberrant left brachiocephalic vein: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigit, Adalet E.; Haliloglu, Mithat; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay; Ariyurek, Macit O. [Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey)


    We present a child with double aberrant left brachiocephalic vein (ALBCV) that was an incidental finding on CT. The anterior and thin branch was above the aortic arch and behind the truncus brachiocephalicus and drained into the superior vena cava (SVC). The posterior and thick branch of the ALBCV coursed posterior to the trachea and oesophagus and joined with the azygos vein before draining into the SVC. To our knowledge, retrotracheal ALBCV has not been previously described. (orig.)

  2. Efficacy of varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great safenous vein

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    Bernardo Cunha Senra Barros

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of varicose veins with preservation of the great saphenous vein. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 15 female patients between 25 and 55 years of age with clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic (CEAP classification 2, 3 and 4. The patients underwent surgical treatment of primary varicose veins with great saphenous vein (GSV preservation. Doppler ultrasonography exams were carried out in the first and third months postoperatively. The form of clinical severity of venous disease, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS was completed before and after surgery. We excluded patients with history of deep vein thrombosis, smoking or postoperatively use of elastic stockings or phlebotonics. RESULTS: All patients had improved VCSS (p <0.001 and reduction in the diameter of the great saphenous vein (p <0.001. There was a relationship between VCSS and the GSV caliber, as well as with preoperative CEAP. There was improvement in CEAP class in nine patients when compared with the preoperative period (p <0.001. CONCLUSION: The varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great saphenous vein had beneficial effects to the GSV itself, with decreasing caliber, and to the symptoms when the vein had maximum caliber of 7.5 mm, correlating directly with the CEAP. The decrease in GSV caliber, even without complete abolition of reflux, leads to clinical improvement by decreasing the reflux volume.

  3. [Clinical efficacy and safety of thrombolytic treatment with reteplase in patients with intermediate-risk acute pulmonary embolism]. (United States)

    Zhao, H G; Wang, S X; Lu, Z N; Yan, X X; Lyu, Z C; Peng, F H; Wu, Y; Gao, X; Hua, L; Jing, Z C; Xu, X Q


    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic treatment with reteplase in patients with intermediate-risk acute pulmonary embolism. Methods: Ten consecutive patients with intermediate-risk acute pulmonary embolism who received thrombolytic treatment with reteplase at Thrombosis and Vascular Medicine Center, Fuwai Hospital from March to November in 2016 were included.Vital signs, right ventricular diameter, systolic pulmonary artery pressure, and biochemical markers were assessed before and after thrombolytic therapy with reteplase, and bleeding complications were also observed during 3 months follow up. Results: (1) For the efficacy outcomes: at 48 hours after thrombolytic treatment with reteplase, echocardiography-derived diameter of right ventricular was significant reduced from (27.9±3.8) mm to (24.8±2.6) mm (P=0.03), systolic pulmonary artery pressure decreased from (63.9±21.6) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) to (34.4±19.8) mmHg (P=0.02). Heart rate and breathing rate were also decreased significantly (both Ppulmonary embolism or deep-vein thrombosis during the 3 months follow-up. (2) For the safety outcomes: a thrombolytic relevant hemoptysis (about 70 ml) occurred in 1 patient, and was controlled by PCC therapy.No other clinically relevant events were observed during thrombolytic treatment. Eight patients were followed more than 3 months, there was no major bleeding complication or death during the follow up period. Conclusion: Treatment of intermediate-risk acute pulmonary embolism with reteplase is effective and safe and there are no obvious side effects.

  4. Postpartum Hemorrhage Treated with Gelfoam Slurry Embolization Using the Superselective Technique: Immediate Results and 1-Month MRI Follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, Olivier, E-mail: [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris - Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, Interventional Radiology Department (France); Bats, Anne-Sophie [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris - Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, Gynecologic and Oncologic Surgery Department (France); Primio, Massimiliano Di; Palomera-Ricco, Ana [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris - Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, Interventional Radiology Department (France); Pinot de Villechenon, Gabrielle [Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Faculte de Medecine - Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris - Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France, Anesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care Unit (France); and others


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of superselective embolization of the uterine arteries in a postpartum hemorrhage. Between November 2004 and January 2011, a total of 44 consecutive women (median {+-} standard deviation age 34 {+-} 3 years, range 23-41 years) were referred to our institution for postpartum intractable hemorrhage management. All patients were embolized with a microcatheter that was placed deep into the uterine arteries upstream of the cervical arteries. The embolic agent was a mixture of contrast medium and 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm pieces of gelfoam (Gelita-Spon) modified into a gelatin emulsion as follows: rapid mixing through a three-way stopcock with two 2.5-ml syringes. A 1-ml syringe was used for injection. One month after embolization, all patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examination. Technical and clinical success was obtained in all cases. Thirty-five patients experienced bleeding related to poor retraction of the uterus, 7 patients because of a tear of the cervix and 2 because of a vaginal hematoma. Pre- and postembolization red blood cell transfusions were (mean {+-} standard deviation [SD]) 6 {+-} 1.2 (range 3-8) U and 2 {+-} 0.7 (range 2-4) U, respectively. One-month magnetic resonance imaging follow-up revealed no sign of ischemic myometrium or necrosis, and no instances of uterine rupture and no pelvic vein thrombosis. Incidental findings included two small intramyometrial hematic collections. All uterine arteries were patent via magnetic resonance angiography. Seventeen patients had concomitant fibroids, all of which appeared hypovascular. This technique permits good, safe clinical results with no marked damage to the uterine arteries or the uterus itself.

  5. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  6. Conservative hemodynamic surgery for varicose veins. (United States)

    Criado, Enrique; Luján, Salvador; Izquierdo, Luis; Puras, Enrique; Gutierrez, Miguel; Fontcuberta, Juan


    Conservative hemodynamic surgery for varicose veins is a minimally invasive, nonablative technique that preserves the saphenous vein and helps avoid excision of varicosities. It represents a physiologic approach to the surgical treatment of varicose veins based on knowledge of the underlying venous pathophysiology gained through detailed duplex scanning. A change in venous hemodynamics is attained through fragmentation of the blood column by interruption of the refluxing saphenous trunks, closure of the origin of the refluxing varicose branches, and preservation of the communicating veins that drain the incompetent varicose veins into the deep venous system. After surgery, varicose veins regress through a reduction in hydrostatic pressure and efficient emptying of the superficial system by the musculo-venous pump. Obvious advantages of this technique are that it is done in an ambulatory setting, minimizes the risk of surgical complications, and permits a rapid return to full activity. The long-term hemodynamic improvement and recurrence rate of this technique remain to be established. Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company

  7. Upper limb amputation due to a brachial arterial embolism associated with a superior mesenteric arterial embolism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Tsuyoshi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute mesenteric ischemia due to an embolism of the superior mesenteric artery is associated with a high mortality rate. Over 20 percent of acute mesenteric embolism cases consist of multiple emboli, and the long-term prognosis depends on the incidence of subsequent embolic events at other sites. The incidence of emboli in the upper extremity associated with a superior mesenteric arterial embolism has rarely been described. The signs and symptoms of ischemic change in the upper limb can be masked by other circumstances, such as postoperative conditions or complications. In these cases, a late presentation or delayed diagnosis and treatment can result in limb loss. Case presentation We present a rare case of a 67-year-old Japanese woman with atrial fibrillation who developed an embolic occlusion of the brachial artery associated with a superior mesenteric arterial embolism. She developed gangrene in her right hand, which had progressed to the point that amputation was necessary by the time the gastrointestinal surgeon had consulted the Department of Orthopedic Surgery. The brachial arterial embolism diagnosis was delayed by the severe abdominal symptoms and shock conditions that followed the emergency enterectomy, resulting in amputation of the upper limb despite anticoagulation therapy. In this case, multiple infarctions of the spleen were also observed, indicating a shower embolism. Conclusions When treating a superior mesenteric arterial embolism in a patient with atrial fibrillation, the possibility of recurrent or multiple arterial thromboembolic events should be considered, even after the procedure is completed.

  8. Thromboxane mediation of cardiopulmonary effects of embolism. (United States)

    Utsonomiya, T; Krausz, M M; Levine, L; Shepro, D; Hechtman, H B


    Humoral factors released from platelets during pulmonary embolism may be the cause of several attendant cardiopulmonary abnormalities. This study examines the role of thromboxanes (Tx) after experimental embolism induced with 0.5 g/kg autologous clot in four groups of five dogs: (a) untreated embolized controls; (b) pretreatment with the Tx synthetase inhibitor, imidazole 25 mg/kg . h i.v., starting 30 min before embolization; (c) pretreatment with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, 5 mg/kg, 12 h per os and 1 mg/kg, 1 h i.v. before the experiment; (d) treatment with prostacyclin (PGI(2)) 100 etag/kg . min i.v. for 1 h, 1 h after embolization. Within 30 min, embolization led to increases of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), the stable hydrolysis product of PGI(2), from 0.11+/-0.08 etag/ml (mean+/-SD) to 0.33+/-0.10 etag/ml (P etag/ml to 0.38+/-0.06 etag/ml (P < 0.001). Increases were observed in total dead space (V(D)/V(T)) from 0.46+/-0.03 to 0.61+/-0.08 (P < 0.025, physiologic shunting (Q(S)/Q(T)) from 16+/-4% to 38+/-9% (P < 0.01), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) from 2.27+/-0.59 mm Hg.min/liter to 9.21+/-1.90 mm Hg.min/liter (P < 0.005) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure from 14+/-6 mm Hg to 34+/-1 mm Hg (P < 0.001). Cardiac index (CI) fell from 139+/-11 ml/kg.min to 95+/-17 ml/kg.min in 4 h (P < 0.025). Imidazole pretreatment prevented a rise of TxB(2), but not 6-keto-PGF(1alpha); indomethacin blocked both. Both agents maintained V(D)/V(T) at base line and limited increases in Q(S)/Q(T) and PVR. CI was higher after imidazole pretreatment compared with controls (P < 0.025). Indomethacin led to intermediate levels of CI. PGI(2) lowered TxB(2) (P < 0.025), V(D)/V(T) (P < 0.025), Q(S)/Q(T) (P < 0.025) and PVR (P < 0.05) within 30 min. During PGI(2) infusion, CI was higher than controls. Concentrations of TxB(2) correlated with V(D)/V(T), r = 0.79 and Q(S)/Q(T), r = 0.69 (P < 0.001). Treatment of three dogs with the imidazole derivative ketoconazole, 10 mg/kg IV, 30

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of superficial vein thrombosis. (United States)

    Bauersachs, R M


    Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a common disease, characterized by an inflammatory-thrombotic process in a superficial vein. Typical clinical findings are pain and a warm, tender, reddish cord along the vein. Until recently, no reliable epidemiological data were available. The incidence is estimated to be higher than that of deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) (1/1000). SVT shares many risk factors with DVT, but affects twice as many women than men and frequently occurs in varicose veins. Clinically, SVT extension is commonly underestimated, and patients may have asymptomatic DVT. Therefore, ultrasound assessment and exclusion of DVT is essential. Risk factors for concomitant DVT are recent hospitalization, immobilization, autoimmune disorders, age > 75 years, prior VTE, cancer and SVT in non-varicose veins. Even though most patients with isolated SVT (without concomitant DVT or PE) are commonly treated with anticoagulation for a median of 15 days, about 8% experience symptomatic thromboembolic complications within three months. Risk factors for occurrence of complications are male gender, history of VTE, cancer, SVT in a non-varicose vein or SVT involving the sapheno-femoral junction (SFJ). As evidence supporting treatment of isolated SVT was sparse and of poor quality, the large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled CALISTO trial was initiated assessing the effect of fondaparinux on symptomatic outcomes in isolated SVT. This study showed that, compared with placebo, 2.5 mg fondaparinux given for 45 days reduced the risk of symptomatic thromboembolic complications by 85% without increasing bleeding. Based on CALISTO and other observational studies, evidence-based recommendations can be made for the majority of SVT patients. Further studies can now be performed in higher risk patients to address unresolved issues.

  10. Corrosion cast study of the canine hepatic veins. (United States)

    Uršič, M; Vrecl, M; Fazarinc, G


    This study presents a detailed description of the distribution, diameters and drainage patterns of hepatic veins on the basis of the corrosion cast analysis in 18 dogs. We classified the hepatic veins in three main groups: the right hepatic veins of the caudate process and right lateral liver lobe, the middle hepatic veins of the right medial and quadrate lobes and the left hepatic veins of both left liver lobes and the papillary process. The corrosion cast study showed that the number of the veins in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and most anatomical textbooks is underestimated. The number of various-sized hepatic veins of the right liver division ranged from 3 to 5 and included 1 to 4 veins from the caudate process and 2 to 4 veins from the right lateral liver lobe. Generally, in all corrosion casts, one middle-sized vein from the right part of the right medial lobe, which emptied separately in the caudal vena cava, was established. The other vein was a large-sized vein from the remainder of the central division, which frequently joined the common left hepatic vein from the left liver lobes. The common left hepatic vein was the largest of all the aforementioned hepatic veins.

  11. A novel method for the angiographic estimation of the percentage of spleen volume embolized during partial splenic embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Ming-Ching; Chuang, Ming-Tsung [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Xi-Zhang [Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Hong-Ming; Chen, Shu-Yuan [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Yi-Sheng, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cheng-Kung University Hospital, No. 138 Sheng Li Road, Tainan 704, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of estimating the volume of spleen embolized in partial splenic embolization (PSE) by measuring the diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. Materials and methods: A total of 43 liver cirrhosis patients (mean age, 62.19 ± 9.65 years) with thrombocytopenia were included. Among these, 24 patients underwent a follow-up CT scan which showed a correlation between angiographic estimation and measured embolized splenic volume. Estimated splenic embolization volume was calculated by a method based on diameters of the splenic artery and its branches. The diameters of each of the splenic arteries and branches were measured via 2D angiographic images. Embolization was performed with gelatin sponges. Patients underwent follow-up with serial measurement of blood counts and liver function tests. The actual volume of embolized spleen was determined by computed tomography (CT) measuring the volumes of embolized and non-embolized spleen two months after PSE. Results: PSE was performed without immediate major complications. The mean WBC count significantly increased from 3.81 ± 1.69 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} before PSE to 8.56 ± 3.14 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} at 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). Mean platelet count significantly increased from 62.00 ± 22.62 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} before PSE to 95.40 ± 46.29 × 10{sup 3}/mm{sup 3} 1 week after PSE (P < 0.001). The measured embolization ratio was positively correlated with estimated embolization ratio (Spearman's rho [ρ] = 0.687, P < 0.001). The mean difference between the actual embolization ratio and the estimated embolization ratio was 16.16 ± 8.96%. Conclusions: The method provides a simple method to quantitatively estimate embolized splenic volume with a correlation of measured embolization ratio to estimated embolization ratio of Spearman's ρ = 0.687.

  12. [Massive pulmonary embolism. When medical treatment is not enough]. (United States)

    Gerardin, B; Glorion, M; Rodriguez, A; Garcia, C; Stephan, F; Fabre, D; Mercier, O; Brenot, P; Fadel, E


    Emergency bedside veno-arterious ECMO implantation can be the only saving gesture in the suspicion of acute massive pulmonary embolism leading to haemodynamic failure, even before CT-scan imaging. Once the massive pulmonary embolism is confirmed it is possible to undergo surgical or percutaneous pulmonary thrombectomy, when thrombolytic therapy is contraindicated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  13. Atrial Fibrillation in Embolic Stroke: Anticoagulant Therapy at UNTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The decision to commence anticoagulation in a patient with embolic stroke and atrial fibrillation (AF) is often a difficult one for many clinicians. The result can have significant impact on the patient. This study was therefore undertaken to review the use of anticoagulation in embolic stroke in the setting of atrial ...

  14. Prognostic factors in bronchial arterial embolization for hemoptysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Yoon, Yup; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Lim, Joo Won; Sung, Dong Wook [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To find the rebleeding factors in bronchial arterial embolization for treatment of hemoptysis, a retrospective study was performed. Medical records, angiographic findings and embolic materials of 35 patients who had undertaken arterial embolization for control of hemoptysis were reviewed. The period of follow-up for rebleeding was from 3 to 32 months after arterial embolization. We investigated the angiographic findings of extravasation, neovascularity, intervascular shunt, aneurysm and periarterial diffusion. Neovascularity was classified as mild(numerable neovascularity) and severe(innumerable). Rebleeding occurred in 15(43%) among 35 cases. Only two of 11 cases with no past episode of hemoptysis showed recurrence, while 9 of 15 cases who had more than three episodes did. Severe neovascularity were seen in 11 of 15 recurred cases, but seven of 20 non- recurred cases showed severe neovascularity. More than three angiographic findings representing hemoptysis were seen on 11(73%) among recurred 15 cases and seven(35%) among non- recurred 20 cases. The lesion was supplied by more than two different arteries on 8(54%) of the recurred cases, but only three(15%) of the non- recurred cases. Six of seven cases persistent neovascularity after arterial embolization were recurred. The history of repeated hemoptysis, severe neovascularity, variable angiographic findings, and post-embolization persistency of neovascularity were the factors related with the rebleeding after arterial embolization for hemoptysis. Careful and active arterial embolization are required on these conditions.

  15. Incidence of Pleural Effusion in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism (United States)

    Liu, Min; Cui, Ai; Zhai, Zhen-Guo; Guo, Xiao-Juan; Li, Man; Teng, Lei-Lei; Xu, Li-Li; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Zhen; Shi, Huan-Zhong


    Background: No data on the incidence of pleural effusion (PE) in Chinese patients with pulmonary embolism are available to date. The aim of the current study was to investigate the frequency of PE in a Chinese population of patients with pulmonary embolism. Methods: This was a retrospective observational single-center study. All data of computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) performed over 6-year period on adult patients with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism were analyzed. Results: From January 2008 until December 2013, PE was identified in 423 of 3141 patients (13.5%) with clinically suspected pulmonary embolism who underwent CTPA. The incidence of PE in patients with pulmonary embolism (19.9%) was significantly higher than in those without embolism (9.4%) (P pulmonary embolism patients were small to moderate and were unilateral. The locations of emboli and the numbers of arteries involved, CT pulmonary obstruction index, and parenchymal abnormalities at CT were not associated with the development of PE. Conclusions: PEs are present in about one fifth of a Chinese population of patients with pulmonary embolism, which are usually small, unilateral, and unsuitable for diagnostic thoracentesis. PMID:25881595


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Makharynska


    Full Text Available Massive pulmonary thromboembolism is presented in this article on example of clinical case. Clinical investigation, prognosis evaluation tools, diagnosis and acute phase treatment along with prevention of recurrent episode of pulmonary embolism presented. Observed and described clinical case of pulmonary embolism in older patient, when patient was mistakenly diagnosed in emergency department as acute coronary syndrome patient.

  17. Fat embolism syndrome: a review of the literature | Mustapha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fat embolism syndrome is a serious manifestation of fat embolism phenomenon characterized clinically by triad of dyspnoea, petechiae and mental confusion and usually follows long bone fractures. Its classic presentation consists of an asymptomatic interval followed by pulmonary and neurologic manifestations combined ...

  18. Fatal Fat Embolism In Traumatized Patients: An Experience From ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to highlight the problems of fat embolism in our environment. METHOD: All the patients who had fat embolism in the author's practice from 1988 – 2001 at our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Ihiala and Holy Cross Hospital, Nnewi, were reviewed. Information on age, sex, occupation, cause of injury, ...

  19. Acute Neurological Symptoms During Hypobaric Exposure: Consider Cerebral Air Embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Robert P.; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Hulst, Robert A.


    WEENINK RP, HOLLMANN MW, VAN HULST RA. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:1084-91. Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and

  20. Selective embolization in the treatment of intractable epistaxis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Juul; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse; Nepper-Rasmussen, Jørgen


    CONCLUSIONS: In skilled hands, selective embolization is a safe procedure and represents an effective treatment for prolonged epistaxis. Embolization therapy can be repeated if necessary. OBJECTIVE: Severe posterior epistaxis is a common clinical problem in an ENT department and controlling the b...

  1. 21 CFR 868.2025 - Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic air embolism monitor. 868.2025 Section 868.2025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... monitor. (a) Identification. An ultrasonic air embolism monitor is a device used to detect air bubbles in...

  2. An unusual case of repeated venous air embolism during awake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their experience of managing an unusual case of repeated VAE during both sides of burr-hole and electrode insertion in awake bilateral DBS surgery. Keywords: awake craniotomy, burr hole, deep brain stimulation, neurosurgery, venous air embolism. Introduction. Venous air embolism (VAE) is the entrainment of air from a.

  3. Influence of Syringe Volume on Foam Stability in Sclerotherapy for Varicose Vein Treatment. (United States)

    Bai, Taoping; Jiang, Wentao; Fan, Yubo


    Despite the popularity of sclerotherapy for treating varicose veins, it still exhibits various problems, such as pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis, phlebitis, and visual disorders. To investigate syringe volume influence on foam stability, obtain the foam decay rule, and provide a reference for clinics. Five types of syringes are used to prepare foam at room temperature with various liquid-gas ratios. Foam decay process experiments were performed 5 times and recorded by video. The stability indices used include drainage time, half-life, bubble diameter, bubble surface density, and drainage rate. The 30 and 2-mL syringes, respectively, recorded the highest and lowest drainage speeds. Foam drainage time and half-life, differences varied between 15 and 70 seconds, and 20 and 100 seconds, respectively. Foam bubble diameters were distributed over 0.1 to 2.0 mm with roughly 200 to 700 bubbles per square centimeter. Increased syringe volume causes the bubble diameter to increase. Thus, foam dispersion increases and foam half-life decreases; hence, foam becomes unstable. It is, thus, better to use a small syringe several times to prepare foam in clinics using segmented injections.

  4. Endovascular Treatment of Left Iliofemoral Deep Vein Thrombosis Using Urokinase Thrombolysis and Adjunctive Aspiration Thrombectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Do Yun; Won, Jong Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the efficacy of adjunctive aspiration thrombectomy for the treatment of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT). 24 patients (9 males and 15 females; mean age, 53 years), treated by aspiration thrombectomy were enrolled in this study. The day after undergoing urokinase (UK) thrombolysis, any residual thrombus over a long segment was treated by aspiration thrombectomy using a 12 Fr long sheath. Residual short-segment (< 10 cm) iliac vein thrombus and/or stenosis were treated with a stent. The evaluation of venous patency was conducted by color Doppler ultrasonography, venography and/or computed tomography. The technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 92%, respectively. Twenty-three patients were treated by UK thrombolysis and iliac stent. The overall patency rate at 1, 2 and 3 years was 85%, 82% and 81%, respectively. Over the course of the follow-up period, occlusion was observed in 4 cases (1 acute and 3 chronic cases). Periprocedural complication occurred in 4 cases (17%) in the form of a minimal hematoma or pain on the puncture site as well as a case of pulmonary embolism at one month after treatment. The adjunctive aspiration thrombectomy with conventional thrombolysis and stent placement can be an effective and safe method in the treatment of left iliofemoral DVT

  5. Complex carotid cavernous sinus fistulas Barrow type D: endovascular treatment via the ophthalmic vein, imaging control with standardized MRI, long-term results; Interdisziplinaere Embolisation spontaner Karotis-Cavernosus-Fisteln Typ D nach Barrow ueber die Vena ophthalmica: klinische Langzeitergebnisse und kernspintomografische Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes (Germany); Muecke, I. [Klinik fuer Augenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes (Germany)


    Purpose: Since feeding arteries from both the internal and external carotid artery are common, cavernous fistulas of Barrow type D are difficult to treat. Embolization using the transarterial approach is considered to be the standard therapy. However, it is often impossible to embolize feeders from the internal carotid artery. The transorbital approach after anterior orbitotomy through the ophthalmic vein is an alternative in this complex situation. The following reports our experience with three female patients who underwent transvenous embolization. Procedural success was documented using standardized MRI and clinical reevaluation. Materials and Methods: Three female patients between 57 and 78 years of age were diagnosed with carotid cavernous fistulas by conventional angiogram. All patients were suffering from exophthalmus and visual impairment. Two patients showed secondary glaucoma and diplopia. In one patient we performed a technically successful transarterial embolization using particles, but no relevant improvement of the patient's condition was seen. Transfemoral transvenous access via the sinus petrosus was not possible in any patient. All patients were then embolized via the ophthalmic vein using GDC detachable coils. All patients were clinically reevaluated by an ophthalmologist. Also a standardized MRI was performed for documentation. Follow-up was performed for the first patient for 32 months, for the second patient for 34 months and for the third patient for 50 months. Results: Transvenous embolization was technically successful in all three cases. Clinical symptoms disappeared rapidly. Postprocedural MRI showed a symmetric diameter of the ophthalmic vein. Venous congestion of the orbit caused by fatty tissue edema regressed completely. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography showed normal arterial vessels without evidence of fistula. (orig.)

  6. Myocardial Infarction as a Complication of Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbé, Hugo, E-mail: [Université Laval, Department of Medicine (Canada); Bordeleau, Simon [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada); Drouin, Christine [Université Laval, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (Canada); Archambault, Patrick [Université Laval, Department of Emergency Medicine (Canada)


    Bronchial artery embolization is now a common treatment for massive pulmonary hemoptysis if flexible bronchoscopy at the bedside failed to control the bleeding. Complications of this technique range from benign chest pain to devastating neurological impairments. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who developed an ST elevation myocardial infarction during bronchial artery embolization, presumably because of coronary embolism by injected particles. In this patient who had no previously known coronary artery disease, we retrospectively found a communication between the left bronchial artery and the circumflex coronary artery. This fistula was not visible on the initial angiographic view and likely opened because of the hemodynamic changes resulting from the embolization. This case advocates for careful search for bronchial-to-coronary arterial fistulas and the need for repeated angiographic views during embolization procedures.

  7. Medical Management of Pulmonary Embolism: Beyond Anticoagulation. (United States)

    Hsu, Nancy; Wang, Tisha; Friedman, Oren; Barjaktarevic, Igor


    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common medical condition that carries significant morbidity and mortality. Although diagnosis, anticoagulation, and interventional clot-burden reduction strategies represent the focus of clinical research and care in PE, appropriate risk stratification and supportive care are crucial to ensure good outcomes. In this chapter, we will discuss the medical management of PE from the time of presentation to discharge, focusing on the critical care of acute right ventricular failure, anticoagulation of special patient populations, and appropriate follow-up testing after acute PE. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Interventional radiology treatment for pulmonary embolism (United States)

    De Gregorio, Miguel A; Guirola, Jose A; Lahuerta, Celia; Serrano, Carolina; Figueredo, Ana L; Kuo, William T


    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an illness that has a potentially life-threatening condition that affects a large percentage of the global population. VTE with pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third leading cause of death after myocardial infarction and stroke. In the first three months after an acute PE, there is an estimated 15% mortality among submassive PE, and 68% mortality in massive PE. Current guidelines suggest fibrinolytic therapy regarding the clinical severity, however some studies suggest a more aggressive treatment approach. This review will summarize the available endovascular treatments and the different techniques with its indications and outcomes. PMID:28794825

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of acute pulmonary embolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Christian; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [University Hospital Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim-University of Heidelberg, Department of Clinical Radiology, Mannheim (Germany); Ley, Sebastian; Kauczor, H.U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Reiser, Maximilian F. [University Hospitals Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)


    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a very common and potentially life-threatening disease. In comparison with CT, the clinical relevance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of PE is low. Nevertheless, as there are some potential advantages of MRI over CT (e.g. radiation free method, better safety profile of MR contrast media, capability of functional imaging). In certain patient, groups MRI might therefore be considered as a valuable alternative in the assessment of suspected PE. This article reviews the relevant MRI techniques for the evaluation of PE and gives an overview of the current literature for contrast-enhanced MR angiography of PE. (orig.)

  10. Pelvic artery embolization in gynecological bleeding; Beckenarterienembolisationen bei gynaekologischen Blutungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausegger, K.A.; Schreyer, H.; Bodhal, H. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie Graz Univ., Graz (Austria)


    The most common reasons for gynecological bleeding are pregnancy-related disorders, fibroids of the uterus, and gynecological malignances. Transarterial embolization is an effective treatment modality for gynecological bleeding regardless of its etiology. Depending on the underlying disease, a different technique of embolization is applied. In postpartal bleeding a temporary effect of embolization is desired, therefore gelatine sponge is used as embolizing agent. In fibroids and malignant tumors the effect should permanent, therefore PVA particles are used. Regardless the etiology, the technical and clinical success of transarterial embolization is at least 90%. In nearly every patient a post-embolization syndrome can be observed, represented by local pain and fever. This post-embolization syndrome usually does not last longer than 3 days. If embolization is performed with meticulous attention to angiographic technique and handling of embolic material, ischemic damage of adjacent organs is rarely observed. Transarterial embolization should be an integrative modality in the treatment of gynecological bleeding. (orig.) [German] Gynaekologische Blutungen koennen schwangerschaftsbedingt sein, oder durch Myome oder maligne Tumore hervorgerufen werden. In allen Faellen ist die Transkatheterembolisation ein effektives therapeutisches Verfahren. Die angewandte Embolisationstechnik haengt von der Aetiologie der Blutung ab. Bei schwangerschaftsbedingten Blutungen ist ein temporaerer Embolisationseffekt erwuenscht, die Embolisation erfolgt daher mit Spongostan. Bei Myomen und Malignomen wird ein permanenter Embolisationseffekt durch die Verwendung von PVA-Partikeln angestrebt. Der technische und klinische Erfolg der Embolisation liegt unabhaengig von der Aetiologie der Blutungen ueber 90%. In der Regel wird bei Embolisationen von Myomen und Malignomen ein Postembolisationssyndrom mit Schmerzen und Fieber beobachtet. Diese Symptome bilden sich jedoch meist innerhalb von 2

  11. The anatomy of the cardiac veins in mice (United States)

    Ciszek, Bogdan; Skubiszewska, Daria; Ratajska, Anna


    Although the cardiac coronary system in mice has been the studied in detail by many research laboratories, knowledge of the cardiac veins remains poor. This is because of the difficulty in marking the venous system with a technique that would allow visualization of these large vessels with thin walls. Here we present the visualization of the coronary venous system by perfusion of latex dye through the right caudal vein. Latex injected intravenously does not penetrate into the capillary system. Murine cardiac veins consist of several principal branches (with large diameters), the distal parts of which are located in the subepicardium. We have described the major branches of the left atrial veins, the vein of the left ventricle, the caudal veins, the vein of the right ventricle and the conal veins forming the conal venous circle or the prepulmonary conal venous arch running around the conus of the right ventricle. The venous system of the heart drains the blood to the coronary sinus (the left cranial caval vein) to the right atrium or to the right cranial caval vein. Systemic veins such as the left cranial caval, the right cranial caval and the caudal vein open to the right atrium. Knowledge of cardiac vein location may help to elucidate abnormal vein patterns in certain genetic malformations. PMID:17553104

  12. Factors that could influence the severity of post-traumatic lung fat embolism - a prospective histological study -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Slobodan


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Each fracture of long or pelvic bones as well as large contusions of subcutaneous fat tissue cause releasing of fat globules that rapidly penetrate into circulation through the ruptured veins of the injured tissue, and reach the lung circulation [1,2]. During the first phase, fat emboli block the functional lung circulation by their mechanical effect in capillaries producing so called isolated post-traumatic lung fat embolism [3]. The surface layer of a fat embolus, which is practically in liquid state, behaves as a membrane of very high density, i.e., as it is under high pressure which obstruct the blood stream [4] that is finally stopped at the level of lung blood vessels with diameter of approximately 20 µ [5].This pathophysiological mechanism produces cor pulmonale acutum, with poor pathological findings [8]. Nowadays, the post-mortem diagnosis of lung fat embolism is based on microscopical examination of tissue specimens, usually prepared with special histological staining (Sudan III [9]. The grading of fat embolism according to Sevitt's criteria is generally accepted [10]. Taking of slices from apicoventral areas of the lungs has been recommended [11]. With longer outliving period, the total number of fat emboli in the lung circulation gradually decreases, due to their disintegration and resorption. It has been stated that fat globules completely disappear about 4-6 weeks after injury, and that they should not be searched for microscopically in this post-traumatic phase [11]. OBJECTIVES The aim of our work was to determine whether the age of injured, their gender, total severity of trauma, outliving period, and hypovole-mic shock that develops after injuring, may induce development of more severe forms of post-traumatic lung fat embolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective histological study was performed on the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Belgrade. The analyzed sample consisted of individuals

  13. Superficial vein thrombosis with hemorrhagic cerebral infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-wei CONG


    Full Text Available Background Cerebral superficial vein thrombosis was rare and often misdiagnosed or missed for its various etiological factors, and complicated and nonspecific clinical manifestations. This paper reported one case of superficial vein thrombosis in right fronto-parietal lobe with hemorrhagic infarction. The anatomy of superficial vein, pathophysiological points, diagnosis and treatment of superficial vein thrombosis were reviewed to help to reduce missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Methods and Results A 18-year-old male patient had suffered from progressive headache for 4 years and weakness of left limbs for 2 d. Head MRI showed circular space-occupying lesion in right fronto-parietal lobe. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV examination showed the front two-thirds of the superior sagittal sinus was not clear. The lesions were removed and decompressive craniectomy was conducted, showing the brain tissue was pale, partly yellow or dark red, and superficial venous engorgement. Histological observation showed pial superficial vein thrombosis and subpial encephalomalacia, and multifocal hemorrhage of cerebral cortex and local parenchymal hemorrhage. A large number of "grid cells" and vascular "cuff" phenomenan were visible in surrounding tissue, and the parenchymal blood vessel proliferation was obvious. Left hand activity of the patient was obviously limited after the operation. Conclusions Clinical diagnosis of superficial vein thrombosis with hemorrhagic infarction is difficult, and brain imaging and serological examination can provide certain help. Much attention should be paid to the multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment to reduce misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis, and gather clinical experience. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.007

  14. Nonthrombotic Pulmonary Artery Embolism: Imaging Findings and Review of the Literature. (United States)

    Unal, Emre; Balci, Sinan; Atceken, Zeynep; Akpinar, Erhan; Ariyurek, Orhan Macit


    The purpose of this article is to emphasize the imaging findings encountered in the setting of nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism. Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism refers to a spectrum of clinical and radiologic disorders caused by embolization of the pulmonary artery vasculature by various cell types, microorganism, and foreign bodies. Awareness of the imaging and clinical features of the nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism may facilitate prompt diagnosis.

  15. Transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma invading the portal veins: therapeutic effects and prognostic factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uraki, Junji; Yamakado, Koichiro E-mail:; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Takeda, Kan


    Purpose: This retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the portal veins and to identify prognostic factors. Materials and methods: Sixty-one patients underwent chemoembolization. The HCC had invaded the main portal vein in 23 patients, a first-order branch in 25 patients and a second-order branch in 13 patients. The hepatic arteries feeding the tumors were embolized with gelatin sponge after a mixture of iodized oil and anticancer drugs was injected via these vessels. Tumor response was evaluated by measuring tumor sizes on CT images. A reduction in maximum diameter of 25% or more was considered to indicate response to chemoembolization. Significant prognostic factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Tumor size was reduced by 25% or more in 26 patients (43%). The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 42, 11 and 3%, respectively, with mean survival of 15 months in all patients. In the univariate analysis, the following six variables were significantly associated with prognosis: (i) tumor response; (ii) ascites; (iii) accumulation of iodized oil in tumor thrombi; (iv) in main tumors; (v) Okuda classification; and (vi) tumor size. In the multivariate analysis, the first three of these factors showed significantly independent values for patient prognosis. Conclusion: Chemoembolization appears to be an effective treatment for HCCs invading the portal venous system. The prognostic factors identified here are expected to be helpful in classifying patients with HCCs invading the portal veins and should serve as useful guidelines for chemoembolization in clinical practice.

  16. Image Quality Enhancement Using the Direction and Thickness of Vein Lines for Finger-Vein Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Ho Park


    Full Text Available On the basis of the increased emphasis placed on the protection of privacy, biometric recognition systems using physical or behavioural characteristics such as fingerprints, facial characteristics, iris and finger-vein patterns or the voice have been introduced in applications including door access control, personal certification, Internet banking and ATM machines. Among these, finger-vein recognition is advantageous in that it involves the use of inexpensive and small devices that are difficult to counterfeit. In general, finger-vein recognition systems capture images by using near infrared (NIR illumination in conjunction with a camera. However, such systems can face operational difficulties, since the scattering of light from the skin can make capturing a clear image difficult. To solve this problem, we proposed new image quality enhancement method that measures the direction and thickness of vein lines. This effort represents novel research in four respects. First, since vein lines are detected in input images based on eight directional profiles of a grey image instead of binarized images, the detection error owing to the non-uniform illumination of the finger area can be reduced. Second, our method adaptively determines a Gabor filter for the optimal direction and width on the basis of the estimated direction and thickness of a detected vein line. Third, by applying this optimized Gabor filter, a clear vein image can be obtained. Finally, the further processing of the morphological operation is applied in the Gabor filtered image and the resulting image is combined with the original one, through which finger-vein image of a higher quality is obtained. Experimental results from application of our proposed image enhancement method show that the equal error rate (EER of finger-vein recognition decreases to approximately 0.4% in the case of a local binary pattern-based recognition and to approximately 0.3% in the case of a wavelet transform

  17. A porcine in-vivo model of acute pulmonary embolism. (United States)

    Schultz, Jacob; Andersen, Asger; Gade, Inger Lise; Ringgaard, Steffen; Kjaergaard, Benedict; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens Erik


    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common cardiovascular cause of death after acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Patients are, however, often under-treated due to the risks associated with systemic thrombolysis and surgical embolectomy. Novel pharmacological and catheter-based treatment strategies show promise, but the data supporting their use in patients are sparse. We therefore aimed to develop an in vivo model of acute PE enabling controlled evaluations of efficacy and safety of novel therapies. Danish Landrace pigs (n = 8) were anaesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Two pre-formed autologous PEs (PE1, PE2, 20 × 1 cm) were administered consecutively via the right external jugular vein. The intact nature and central location were visualized in situ by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hemodynamic and biochemical responses were evaluated at baseline (BL) and after each PE by invasive pressure measurements, MRI, plus arterial and venous blood analysis. Pulmonary arterial pressure increased after administration of the PEs (BL: 16.3 ± 1.2, PE1: 27.6 ± 2.9, PE2: 31.6 ± 3.1 mmHg, BL vs. PE1: P = 0.0027, PE1 vs. PE2: P = 0.22). Animals showed signs of right ventricular strain evident by increased end systolic volume (BL: 60.9 ± 5.1, PE1: 83.3 ± 5.0, PE2: 99.4 ± 6.5 mL, BL vs. PE1: P = 0.0005, PE1 vs. PE2: P = 0.0045) and increased plasma levels of Troponin T. Ejection fraction decreased (BL: 58.9 ± 2.4, PE1: 46.4 ± 2.9, PE2: 37.3 ± 3.5%, BL vs. PE1: p = 0.0008, PE1 vs. PE2: P = 0.009) with a compensatory increase in heart rate preserving cardiac output and systemic blood pressure. The hemodynamic and biochemical responses were comparable to that of patients suffering from intermediate-high-risk PE. This porcine model mirrors the anatomical and physiologic changes seen in human patients with intermediate-high-risk PE, and may enable testing of future therapies

  18. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus]. (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J


    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute pulmoner embolism mimicking acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Avcı Demir


    Full Text Available Clinical and electocardiographic (ECG features in pulmonary embolism (PE lack of specificity and may mimic an acute coronary syndrom (ACS. We here report a case of a 56-year-old woman presenting with chest pain secondary to pulmonary artery embolism which was initially diagnosed as ACS due to electrocardiographic changes and raised troponin. PE presenting with negative T-wave inversion can mimic ACS and misdirect the diagnostic approach. Simultaneous T-wave inversions in anterior and inferior leads are important clues suggesting PE. Most common ECG findings in PE are anteroseptal T-wave inversion/ST-elevation or depression along with complete or incomplete right bundle branch block, sinus tachycardia, low QRS-complex voltage, an S1Q3T3 pattern, and right axis deviation. The reasons for the ECG changes that seem like ischemia are sudden RV strain, hypoxemia and the release of catecholamines. So we have to be aware that PE can present as acute coronary syndrome with ECG changes preoccupy ischemia

  20. Intraventricular hemorrhage after dural fistula embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Chaves Gonçalves Rodrigues de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Dural arteriovenous fistulas are anomalous shunts between dural arterial and venous channels whose nidus is located between the dural leaflets. For those circumstances when invasive treatment is mandatory, endovascular techniques have grown to become the mainstay of practice, choice attributable to their reported safety and effectiveness. We describe the unique and rare case of a dural arteriovenous fistula treated by transarterial embolization and complicated by an intraventricular hemorrhage. We aim to emphasize some central aspects of the perioperative management of these patients in order to help improving the future approach of similar cases. Case report: A 59-year-old woman with a previously diagnosed Cognard Type IV dural arteriovenous fistula presented for transarterial embolization, performed outside the operating room, under total intravenous anesthesia. The procedure underwent without complications and the intraoperative angiography revealed complete obliteration of the fistula. In the early postoperative period, the patient presented with clinical signs of raised intracranial pressure attributable to a later diagnosed intraventricular hemorrhage, which conditioned placement of a ventricular drain, admission to an intensive care unit, cerebral vasospasm and a prolonged hospital stay. Throughout the perioperative period, there were no changes in the cerebral brain oximetry. The patient was discharged without neurological sequelae. Conclusion: Intraventricular hemorrhage may be a serious complication after the endovascular treatment of dural arteriovenous fistula. A close postoperative surveillance and monitoring allow an early diagnosis and treatment which increases the odds for an improved outcome.

  1. Clinical Significance of the Soleal Vein and Related Drainage Veins, in Calf Vein Thrombosis in Autopsy Cases with Massive Pulmonary Thromboembolism (United States)

    Kageyama, Norimasa


    Objective: To clarify the histopathological characteristics of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) resulting in lethal pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). Subjects and Methods: We investigated 100 autopsy cases of PE from limb DVT. The distribution and chronology of DVT in each deep venous segment were examined. Venous segments were classified into three groups: iliofemoral vein, popliteal vein and calf vein (CV). The CV was subdivided into two subgroups, drainage veins of the soleal vein (SV) and non drainage veins of SV. Results: Eighty-nine patients had bilateral limb DVTs. CV was involved in all limbs with DVT with isolated calf DVTs were seen in 47% of patients. Fresh and organized thrombi were detected in 84% of patients. SV showed the highest incidence of DVTs in eight venous segments. The incidence of DVT gradually decreased according to the drainage route of the central SV. Proximal tips of fresh thrombi were mainly located in the popliteal vein and tibioperoneal trunk, occurring in these locations in 63% of limbs. Conclusions: SV is considered to be the primary site of DVT; the DVT then propagated to proximal veins through the drainage veins. Lethal thromboemboli would occur at proximal veins as a result of proximal propagation from calf DVTs. PMID:27087868

  2. Portal-to-right portal vein bypass for extrahepatic portal vein obstruction. (United States)

    Long, Li; Jinshan, Zhang; Zhen, Chen; Qi, Li; Ning, Dong; Mei, Diao; Wei, Cheng


    Rex shunt (mesenteric-to-left portal vein bypass) is considered a more physiologically rational treatment for EHPVO than other portosystemic systemic shunts in children. However, about 13.6% of children with EHPVO do not have usable left portal veins and up to 28.1%. Rex operations in children are not successful. Hence, a Rex shunt in these children was impossible. This study reports a novel approach by portal-to-right portal vein bypass for treatment of children with failed Rex shunts. Eight children (age 6.1years, range 3.5-8.9years) who underwent Rex shunts developed recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and hypersplenism 13months (11-30months) postoperatively. After ultrasound confirmation of blocked shunt, they underwent exploration. Three patients were found to have right portal vein agenesis. Five patients (62.5%) were found to have the patent right portal vein, with the diameter of 3-6mm. Four patients underwent bypass between the main portal vein in the hepatoduodenal ligament and the right portal vein by interposing an inferior mesenteric vein autograft, whereas the remaining patient underwent a bypass using ileal mesenteric vein autograft. The operations took 2.3h (1.9-3.5h). The estimated blood loss was 50ml (30-80ml), with no complication. The portal venous pressure dropped from 34.6cmH2O (28-45 cmH2O) before the bypass to 19.6cmH2O (14-24cmH2O) after the bypass. The 5 patients were followed up for 10.2months (4-17months) and the post-operative ultrasound and CT angiography confirmed the patency of all the grafts and disappearance of the portal venous cavernova in all five patients. The portal-to-right portal vein bypass technique is feasible and safe for treatment of children with EHPVO who have had failed Rex shunts. Our preliminary result indicates that this technique extends the success of Rex shunt from left portal vein to right portal vein and open a new indication of physiological shunt for some of the children who not only have had failed Rex

  3. An unusual case: right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein and distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin


    Full Text Available A 32-years old woman presented to the emergency room of Bozok University Research Hospital with right renal colic. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT showed compression of the proximal ureter by the right ovarian vein and compression of the right distal ureter by the right external iliac vein. To the best of our knowledge, right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein together with distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein have not been reported in the literature. Ovarian vein and external iliac vein compression should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency room with renal colic or low back pain and a dilated collecting system.

  4. Acquire uterine vascular malformation: Clinical outcome of transarterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Chae Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Gangneung Asan Hospital, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Boo; Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Yong Jae; Lee, Jae Myung; Lee, Woong Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate clinical outcomes of transarterial embolization of bilateral uterine arteries (UAE) in patients with acquired uterine vascular malformation (UVM). This retrospective study was performed on the medical records of all 19 patients who underwent transarterial embolization of bilateral UAE for the treatment of symptomatic UVMs from January 2003 to June 2011. Embolization was performed via the unilateral femoral artery approach with a catheter and angiographic techniques. Clinical success was defined as definitive resolution of abnormal vaginal bleeding. Post-procedural complications included all adverse events related to the embolization procedure. A total of 20 procedures were performed in 19 patients. One patient required repeat embolization because of incomplete embolization related to prominent high flow malformation. Clinically, in all patients, bleeding was controlled immediately after embolization. No complications occurred in all patients during the follow up period. In all patients who underwent successful UAE, menstrual cycles were normally restored within 1-2 months. Normal pregnancy with term delivery was observed in two of the 19 cases. Transarterial bilateral UAE is a safe and effective treatment in patients with vaginal bleeding caused by acquired UVM, and it allows the possibility of future pregnancy.

  5. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Massive Hemoptysis: a Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fani


    Full Text Available   Introduction: To assess the efficacy and safety of bronchial artery embolization in the treatment of massive hemoptysis.   Materials and Methods: A retrospective study on 46 patients (26 males and 20 females who were referred to the Razavi Hospital from April 2009 to May 2012 with massive hemoptysis and had bronchial artery embolization procedures. General characteristics of the patients including age, gender, etiology, and thorax computed tomograms, findings of bronchial angiographic, results of the embolization, complications related to bronchial artery embolization and clinical outcome during follow-up were reviewed. Results: The etiology included previous pulmonary tuberculosis in 20 cases, previous tuberculosis with bronchiectasis in 16 cases, bronchiectasis in 6 cases, and active pulmonary tuberculosis in one case. No identifiable causes could be detected in three patients. Moreover, massive hemoptysis was successfully and immediately controlled following the embolization procedure in all patients. One patient developed recurrent hemoptysis during one month following the procedure and was treated by re-embolization. No major procedure–related complication such as bronchial infarction was identified However none of the patientsexperienced neurological complications. Conclusion: Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective means of controlling massive hemoptysis and should be regarded as the first-line treatment for this condition.

  6. Spontaneous occlusion of cerebral arteriovenous malformation following partial embolization with Onyx. (United States)

    Nas, Omer Fatih; Ozturk, Kerem; Gokalp, Gokhan; Hakyemez, Bahattin


    Management options for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are surgery, radiosurgery, and endovascular embolization. The aim of partial embolization in endovascular treatment is to make total resection possible. However, increased risk of bleeding in partial embolization creates some controversies about treatment options. Spontaneous total occlusion of cerebral AVMs following partial obliteration with embolization agents is a rarely seen condition. We present a case with an AVM vanishing from right posterior cerebral artery which spontaneously occluded following partial embolization with Onyx liquid agent.

  7. Evaluation of a Bioabsorbable Self-Expandable Vein Stent-Base Made of Poly(L-lactide) In Vitro and In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Calve, Sarah; Yang, Shuo


    Purpose  This study was designed to evaluate performance and tissue response to a self-expandable bioabsorbable vein stent-base cut from a tube with enhanced stiffness and strength in vitro and in vivo. Methods  A diamond-shaped stent-base was cut from a sequential biaxially strained poly...... connecting points. Fragments of the caudal stent-base stayed in the vein wall indicating sufficient tissue coverage to avoid embolization of the fractured stent pieces, whereas fragments from the cranial device remaining were few. Neointima formation was confirmed histologically at 2 and 3½ weeks. Conclusion......(L-lactide) (PLLA) tube for optimized performance. The performance of the stent-base was evaluated in a finite element analysis model, and validation was attempted in vitro through a cyclic flat-plate compression and radial force measurement. The performance of the stent-base was tested in vivo using 3 sheep with 2...

  8. Association between portal vein pressure drop gradient after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and clinical prognosis

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    XU Zhengguo


    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the association between portal vein pressure drop gradient in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension treated by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS and clinical prognosis, as well as the ideal range of portal vein pressure drop. MethodsA total of 58 patients who underwent TIPS in Xinqiao Hospital of Third Military Medical University from November 2013 to December 2015 were enrolled. All the patients underwent TIPS and embolization of the gastric coronary vein and the short gastric veins, and the change intervals of portal vein pressure gradient were monitored. The follow-up time ranged from 3 days to 2 years, and the association of portal vein pressure drop gradient with postoperative liver function, splenic function, rebleeding rate, hepatic encephalopathy, and portal hypertensive gastrointestinal diseases was analyzed. The paired t-test was used for comparison of parameters before and after treatment. ResultsThe patients had a significant reduction in liver function on day 3 after surgery. At 2 month after surgery, the levels of TBil was rised and had significant changes[(49.81±27.82μmol/L vs (31.64±17.67 μmol/L,t=5.372,P<0.001]. At 6 months after surgery, red blood cell count and platelet count had no significant changes,but,white blood cell count was reduced[(3.79±1.37)×109/L vs (4.57±2.24×109/L,t=2.835,P=0.006]. There was a 23% reduction in portal vein pressure after surgery (from 30.62±3.56 mmHg before surgery to 21.21±2.90 mmHg after surgery, t=23.318,P<0.001. All the patients had varying degrees of relief of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with portal vein hypertension, such as abdominal distension, poor appetite, and diarrhea. Of all patients, none experienced in-stent restenosis or occlusion and 13 experienced hepatic encephalopathy after surgery, which tended to occur at the time when postoperative portal vein pressure was reduced to 14.7-25.7 mmHg, i

  9. Viabilidade espermática do sêmen de piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus resfriado a 4°C Spermatic viability of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus semen cooled at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Solis Murgas


    of spermatic immobility and of its conditions to conserve semen characteristics as spermatic motility rate and duration. Satisfactory results were found until at 144 hours of cooling for this specie. The mean spermatic motility in the in natura state was 94 ± 5.48% with mean duration of 55.6 ± 32.25 seconds (s. For diluted semen, motility and duration means were 76.00 ± 1.86% and 56.6 ± 6.54 s, 77.00 ± 1.86% and 54.6 ± 6.54 s, and 74.33 ± 1.86% and 75.0 ± 6.54 s, respectivaly, for diluents D1, D2 and D3, in this order. Significant differences were not observed among diluents and they showed similar effects in at different times. At 0 and 72 h of analysis showed higher spermatic motilities than that ones at 144 h, but durations of spermatic motility did not show differences in these times. The semen mean spermatic concentration was 8.21 ± 2.26 X 10(9 sptz/mL. Some samples showed spermatic motility before semen activation (fore-activation principally after 96 hours of cooling. Thus, BTS medium diluent may be recommended for fish semen conservation, since its osmolarity is elevated.

  10. Portal vein aneurysm and portal biliopathy. (United States)

    Kurtcehajic, Admir; Vele, Esved; Hujdurovic, Ahmed


    Highlight Kurtcehajic and colleagues present a rare case of congenital portal vein aneurysm (PVA) with biliopathy. Symptoms associated with PVA occur in less than 10% of cases. Imaging modalities showed the PVA partially compressing the common and right hepatic ducts. Conservative treatment markedly lowered bilirubin levels and relieved the abdominal pain. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  11. Portal vein thrombosis complicating appendicitis | Ayantunde | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appendicitis is still the most common acute surgical abdomen all over the world and its complications may be grave. We report an adult case of acute appendicitis complicated by Portal Vein Thrombosis (PVT) and ascending portomesenteric phlebitis treated successfully with antibiotics and anticoagulation with no residual ...

  12. vein thrombosis in elective hip replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the decision tree and these costs, the cost of the various modalities of prophylaxis was then detennined. Results. The probability, detennined by the forum, of developing a deep-vein thrombosis (DYD when no prophylaxis is used was 0.5, with a mortality rate of 2.1 %. The cost of this decision was R875. No prophylaxis ...

  13. Endovascular vein harvest: systemic carbon dioxide absorption. (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew M; Schwartz, Carl S; Bert, Arthur; Hurlburt, Peter; Gough, Jeffrey; Stearns, Gary; Singh, Arun K


    Endovascular vein harvest (EDVH) requires CO(2) insufflation to expand the subcutaneous space, allowing visualization and dissection of the saphenous vein. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of CO(2) absorption during EDVH. Prospective observational study. Single tertiary care hospital. Sixty patients (30 EDVH and 30 open-vein harvest) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Hemodynamic, procedural, and laboratory data were collected prior to (baseline), during, and at it the conclusion (final) of vein harvesting. Data were also collected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Data were compared by using t tests, analysis of variance, and correlation statistics when needed. There were significant increases in arterial CO(2) (PaCO(2), 35%) and decreases in pH (1.35%) during EDVH. These were associated with increases in heart rate, mean blood pressure, and cardiac output. Within the EDVH group, greater elevations (>10 mmHg) in PaCO2 were more likely during difficult harvest procedures, and these patients exhibited greater increase in heart rate. Elevated CO(2) persisted during CPB, requiring higher systemic gas flows and greater use of phenylephrine to maintain desired hemodynamics. EDVH was associated with systemic absorption of CO(2). Greater absorption was more likely in difficult procedures and was associated with greater hemodynamic changes requiring medical therapy.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    less rigid erections and are currently re- sponding to oral measures and lCl. Penile numbness occurred in four patients with dorsal plaques, and it was self limiting within six months. We encountered no complaint of penile shortening or impo- tence. Conclusion The saphenous vein presents a reasonable alternative grafting ...

  15. Combined central retinalartery and vein occlusion complicating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orbital Cellulitis is a dreaded ophthalmologic disease. Itmay destroy vision and the eye andmay even become life threatening. Often visual loss is the result of exposure and subsequent destruction of ocular tissue commonly the cornea and the uvea. We report a case of combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion ...

  16. Preduodenal portal vein: A potential laparoscopic cholecystectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations of biliary anatomy are well described. Those of most relevance to the operative surgeon are the variations of the extrahepatic ducts and their relationships to the right hepatic artery and its branches. We describe another even rarer congenital anomaly of a preduodenal portal vein. Its embryological derivation and ...

  17. Retinal Vein Occlusion in Benin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neovascularization). A diagnosis of CRVO was made in the presence of generalized, scattered hemorrhages consisting of dot, blot, or flame shaped hemorrhages located in the superficial or deep layers of the retina, retinal edema, venous dilatation, and areas of occluded veins. BRVO or HRVO was characterized by retinal ...

  18. Portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Köckritz, Leona; De Gottardi, Andrea; Trebicka, Jonel


    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis and possible severe complications such as mesenteric ischemia are rare, but can be life-threatening. However, different aspects of clinical relevance, diagnosis and management of PVT are still areas of uncertainty...

  19. Who Is at Risk for Varicose Veins? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  20. How Can Varicose Veins Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... Examples of these factors include family history, older age, gender, pregnancy, overweight or obesity , lack of movement, and leg trauma. Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical procedures. The goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms, prevent complications, and improve ...

  1. Small saphenous vein: where does reflux go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gustavo Rossi


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anatomy of small saphenous vein (SSV is very variable because of its complex embryological origin. SSV incompetence often causes reflux that goes to the perforating veins, sometimes not respecting the anatomical course. OBJECTIVE: To analyze differences in reflux direction and reentry in the SSV. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study, 60 lower limbs with SSV incompetence of 43 patients were assessed using a color Doppler ultrasound protocol. RESULTS: Reentry variations were grouped into four types and subtypes. Percentage results were: Type A, perforating veins on the medial side = 25/60 cases (41.66%; subtypes: Cockett, Sherman, paratibial and vertex; Type B, lateral malleolus and perforating veins on the lateral side (fibular 17-26 cm = 15/60 cases (25%; subtypes: fibular and malleolus; Type C, two branches = 19/60 cases (31.66%; subtypes: gastrocnemius and Cockett, gastrocnemius and malleolus, and/or fibular, Cockett and malleolus, Cockett-vertex and fibular; Type D, reflux in the superficial system = 1/60 cases (1.66%. CONCLUSION: On most of the lower limbs assessed, reflux did not follow the classical anatomic course. Our findings demonstrated a high degree of variation in reflux/reentry, but no SSV anatomical variations. Reflux seems to, either look for the most accessible anatomical connection for reentry or be originated in the distal area and then reach the SSV.

  2. Percutaneous portal vein access and transhepatic tract hemostasis. (United States)

    Saad, Wael E A; Madoff, David C


    Percutaneous portal vein interventions require minimally invasive access to the portal venous system. Common approaches to the portal vein include transjugular hepatic vein to portal vein access and direct transhepatic portal vein access. A major concern of the transhepatic route is the risk of postprocedural bleeding, which is increased when patients are anticoagulated or receiving pharmaceutical thrombolytic therapy. Thus percutaneous portal vein access and subsequent closure are important technical parts of percutaneous portal vein procedures. At present, various techniques have been used for either portal access or subsequent transhepatic tract closure and hemostasis. Regardless of the method used, meticulous technique is required to achieve the overall safety and effectiveness of portal venous procedures. This article reviews the various techniques of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein access and the various closure and hemostatic methods used to reduce the risk of postprocedural bleeding.

  3. Incidental retroaortic left innominate vein in adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Semionov, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Retro-aortic left innominate vein is a rare vascular abnormality, usually associated with congenital heart disease. Here we report a case of isolated retro-aortic left innominate vein in an adult female.

  4. Amniotic fluid embolism and isolated coagulopathy: atypical presentation of amniotic fluid embolism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Awad, I T


    A 41-year-old multigravida presented at 32 weeks of gestation with polyhydramnios and an anencephalic fetus. Abnormal bleeding as a result of disseminated intravascular coagulation complicated an emergency Caesarean section for severe abdominal pain thought to be due to uterine rupture. Massive transfusion with blood products was necessary and the abdomen packed to control bleeding. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where she made a slow but complete recovery. Amniotic fluid embolism with atypical presentation of isolated coagulopathy is the likely diagnosis in this case. The case serves to demonstrate that amniotic fluid embolism may present with symptoms and signs other than the classical pattern of dyspnoea, cyanosis and hypotension.

  5. Renoduodenal Fistula After Transcatheter Embolization of Renal Angiomyolipoma

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    Sheth, Rahul A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Feldman, Adam S. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery (United States); Walker, T. Gregory, E-mail: [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States)


    Transcatheter embolization of renal angiomyolipomas is a routinely performed, nephron-sparing procedure with a favorable safety profile. Complications from this procedure are typically minor in severity, with postembolization syndrome the most common minor complication. Abscess formation is a recognized but uncommon major complication of this procedure and is presumably due to superinfection of the infarcted tissue after arterial embolization. In this case report, we describe the formation of a renoduodenal fistula after embolization of an angiomyolipoma, complicated by intracranial abscess formation and requiring multiple percutaneous drainage procedures and eventual partial nephrectomy.

  6. Postcoital Hemorrhage of a Recurrent Seminal Vesicle Cyst Requiring Embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Royston


    Full Text Available Herein is a case of a 23-year-old man with recurrence of a seminal vesicle cyst after percutaneous drainage and laparoscopic excision complicated by hemorrhage requiring embolization. He presented to the emergency department for pain after ejaculation. Computed tomographic scan of his pelvis revealed extravasation of contrast near his cyst and pelvic fluid collection suspicious for a hematoma. The patient had steadily decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. An interventional radiologist performed an embolization of the left seminal vesicle cystic arteries. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values improved and he was discharged. Hemorrhage resolved with embolization procedure and pain dissipated over the course of follow up care.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Rozanov


    Full Text Available Pulmonary embolism in breast cancer is one of the causes of major deterioration of health status of the patients. Pulmonary artery occlusion is most often a  consequence of venous thromboembolism; this condition is referred to as "pulmonary thromboembolism". Significantly less common cause of occlusion of the pulmonary artery branches can be embolism by a  cluster of tumor cells, accompanied by development of pulmonary tumor thrombotic microangiopathy. This paper reviews data on the etiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary embolism in breast cancer, and approaches to its prevention and treatment.

  8. Anterior mediastinal paraganglioma: A case for preoperative embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir Murtaza


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraganglioma is a rare but highly vascular tumor of the anterior mediastinum. Surgical resection is a challenge owing to the close proximity to vital structures including the heart, trachea and great vessels. Preoperative embolization has been reported once to facilitate surgical treatment. Case presentation We report a case of anterior mediastinal paraganglioma that was embolized preoperatively, and was resected without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass and without major bleeding complications. Conclusion We make a case to further the role of preoperative embolization in the treatment of mediastinal paragangliomas.

  9. Family history of venous thromboembolism predicts the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism in the emergency department. (United States)

    Kelly, Christopher; Agy, Chad; Carlson, Margaret; Steenblik, Jacob; Bledsoe, Joseph; Hartsell, Stephen; Madsen, Troy


    Pulmonary embolism (PE) clinical decision rules do not consider a patient's family history of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We evaluated whether a family history of VTE predicts acute PE in the emergency department (ED). Over a 5.5-year study period, we enrolled a prospective convenience sample of patients presenting to an academic emergency department with chest pain and/or shortness of breath. We defined a family history of VTE as a first-degree relative with previous PE or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We noted outcomes of testing during the patient's ED stay, including the diagnosis of acute PE by either computed tomography (CT) or ventilation/perfusion (VQ) scan. Of the 3024 study patients, 19.4% reported a family history of VTE and 1.9% were diagnosed with an acute PE during the ED visit. Patients with a family history of VTE were more likely to be diagnosed with a PE: 3.2% vs. 1.6% (p = 0.009). 82.3% of patients were Pulmonary Embolism Rule-out Criteria (PERC) positive, and among PERC-positive patients, those with a family history of VTE were more likely to be diagnosed with a PE: 3.6% vs. 1.9% (p = 0.016). Of patients who underwent testing for PE (33.7%), patients with a family history of VTE were more likely to be diagnosed with a PE: 9.4% vs. 4.9% (p = 0.032). Patients with a self-reported family history of VTE in a first-degree relative are more likely to be diagnosed with an acute PE in the ED, even among those patients considered to have a higher likelihood of PE. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Evaluation of a liquid embolization agent (Onyx) for transcatheter embolization for renal vascular lesions

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    Rennert, Janine; Herold, T.; Schreyer, A.G.; Jung, E.M.; Mueller-Wille, R.; Zorger, N. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Klinikum der Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Banas, B.; Feuerbach, S. [Medizinische Klinik, Nephrologie, Univ. Regensburg (Germany); Lenhart, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Sozialstiftung Bamberg (Germany)


    Purpose: to evaluate the therapeutic outcome after endovascular treatment of renal vascular lesions using the liquid embolization agent, Onyx. Materials and methods: between 2004 and 2008 nine patients with renal vascular lesions were treated with transcatheter arterial embolization using Onyx. The renal vascular lesions consisted of 4 AV-fistulas, a pseudoaneurysm, bleeding from a single subsegmental artery, diffuse parenchymal bleeding after trauma, septic embolizations and multiple aneurysms in endocarditis. All patients underwent selective angiography of the renal artery. A dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-compatible microcatheter was used and Onyx was injected. The technical and clinical success rate, examination time and procedure-related complications were documented. Results: the overall technical and clinical success rate was 100%. One patient had to be treated twice due to recurrent bleeding after an accidental puncture with a drainage catheter. No loss of viable renal tissue occurred in 4 cases. In 4 patients mild to moderate parenchyma loss was noted. In one patient having diffuse renal bleeding, occlusion of the main renal artery was performed. No procedure-related complications were noted. The mean examination time was 16.17 min when treating with Onyx alone and 60 min when using a combination of Onyx and coils. Within an average follow-up period of 21 months, no recurrent renal bleeding or recurrent AV-fistulas occurred. Conclusion: Onyx is an effective embolization agent for the treatment of renal vascular lesions. It allows controlled and quick application with low complication rates and a short examination time as a standalone agent or in combination with coils. (orig.)

  11. Embolization of a giant pediatric, posttraumatic, skull base internal carotid artery aneurysm with a liquid embolic agent. (United States)

    Reig, Adam S; Simon, Scott; Mericle, Robert A


    Many treatments for posttraumatic, skull base aneurysms have been described. Eight months after an all-terrain-vehicle accident, this 12-year-old girl presented with right-side Horner syndrome caused by a 33 x 19-mm internal carotid artery aneurysm at the C-1 level. We chose to treat the aneurysm with a new liquid embolic agent for wide-necked, side-wall aneurysms (Onyx HD 500). We felt this treatment would result in less morbidity than surgery and was less likely to occlude the parent artery than placement of a covered stent, especially in a smaller artery in a pediatric patient. Liquid embolic agents also appear to be associated with a lower chance of recanalization and lower cost compared with stent-assisted coil embolization. After the patient was treated with loading doses of aspirin, clopidogrel bisulfate, and heparin, 99% of the aneurysm was embolized with 9 cc of the liquid embolic agent. There were no complications, and the patient remained neurologically stable. Follow-up angiography revealed durable aneurysm occlusion after 1 year. The cost of Onyx was less than the cost of coils required for coil embolization of similarly sized intracranial aneurysms at our institution. Liquid embolic agents can provide a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective approach to treatment of select giant, posttraumatic, skull base aneurysms in pediatric patients.

  12. Evaluation of left renal vein entrapment using multidetector computed tomography

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    Poyraz, Ahmet K.; Onur, Mehmet R. [Dept. of Radiology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey)], e-mail:; Firdolas, Fatih [Dept. of Urology, Firat Univ. School of Medicine, Elazig (Turkey); Kocakoc, Ercan [Dept. of Radiology, Bezmialem Vakif Univ., School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Background: Nutcracker syndrome, also called left renal vein entrapment syndrome, is a cause of non-glomerular hematuria with difficulties in diagnosis. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a powerful tool to prevent unnecessary diagnostic procedures. Purpose: To retrospectively determine the prevalence of nutcracker phenomenon and nutcracker syndrome seen in MDCT in consecutive patients. Material and Methods: The institutional review board approved the study and waived the requirement for informed consent. Abdominal contrast-enhanced MDCT scans were reviewed from 1000 consecutive patients. MDCT scan assessment included renal vein diameter measurements and evaluation for the presence of anterior or posterior left renal vein entrapment. Electronic medical records and urine analysis reports of patients with left renal vein entrapment were reviewed. Student's t test was used to assess differences in renal vein diameter in patients with left renal vein entrapment. Results: Left renal vein entrapment was observed in 10.9% (109), retroaortic left renal vein in 6.5% (65), entrapment of left renal vein between superior mesenteric artery and aorta in 4.1% (41), and circumaortic left renal vein in 0.3% (3) of patients. Mean diameters of right (8.8 {+-} 1.9 mm) and unentrapped left (8.9 {+-} 1.8 mm) renal veins were not significantly different (P = 0.1). The mean diameter of anterior entrapped left renal veins (10.3 {+-} 2 mm) was significantly greater (P = 0.04) than contralateral renal veins (8.6 {+-} 2.1 mm) in their widest portion. In 8.8% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment, urine analysis showed isomorphic hematuria or proteinuria with no other known cause. Varicocele and pelvic congestion were seen in 5.5% of patients with the left renal vein entrapment. Conclusion: Left renal vein entrapment is not a rare entity and renal nutcracker phenomenon might be underdiagnosed.

  13. Vein visualization: patient characteristic factors and efficacy of a new infrared vein finder technology. (United States)

    Chiao, F B; Resta-Flarer, F; Lesser, J; Ng, J; Ganz, A; Pino-Luey, D; Bennett, H; Perkins, C; Witek, B


    We investigated the patient characteristic factors that correlate with identification of i.v. cannulation sites with normal eyesight. We evaluated a new infrared vein finding (VF) technology device in identifying i.v. cannulation sites. Each subject underwent two observations: one using the conventional method (CM) of normal, unassisted eyesight and the other with the infrared VF device, VueTek's Veinsite™ (VF). A power analysis for moderate effect size (β=0.95) required 54 samples for within-subject differences. Patient characteristic profiles were obtained from 384 subjects (768 observations). Our sample population exhibited an overall average of 5.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.4-6.2] veins using CM. As a whole, CM vein visualization were less effective among obese [4.5 (95% CI 3.8-5.3)], African-American [4.6 (95% CI 3.6-5.5 veins)], and Asian [5.1 (95% CI 4.1-6.0)] subjects. Next, the VF technology identified an average of 9.1 (95% CI 8.6-9.5) possible cannulation sites compared with CM [average of 5.8 (95% CI 5.4-6.2)]. Seventy-six obese subjects had an average of 4.5 (95% CI 3.8-5.3) and 8.2 (95% CI 7.4-9.1) veins viewable by CM and VF, respectively. In dark skin subjects, 9.1 (95% CI 8.3-9.9) veins were visible by VF compared with 5.4 (95% CI 4.8-6.0) with CM. African-American or Asian ethnicity, and obesity were associated with decreased vein visibility. The visibility of veins eligible for cannulation increased for all subgroups using a new infrared device.

  14. Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein presenting as deep vein thrombosis

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    Young-Kyun Kim


    Full Text Available Adventitial cystic disease of the common femoral vein is a rare condition. We herein report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with painless swelling in her left lower leg that resembled deep vein thrombosis. She underwent femoral exploration and excision of the cystic wall. The presentation, investigation, treatment, and pathology of this condition are discussed with a literature review.

  15. Efficacy of varicose vein surgery with preservation of the great safenous vein. (United States)

    Barros, Bernardo Cunha Senra; Araujo, Antonio Luiz de; Magalhães, Carlos Eduardo Virgini; Barros, Raimundo Luiz Senra; Fiorelli, Stenio Karlos Alvim; Gatts, Raphaella Ferreira


    To evaluate the efficacy of surgical treatment of varicose veins with preservation of the great saphenous vein. We conducted a prospective study of 15 female patients between 25 and 55 years of age with clinical, etiologic, anatomic and pathophysiologic (CEAP) classification 2, 3 and 4. The patients underwent surgical treatment of primary varicose veins with great saphenous vein (GSV) preservation. Doppler ultrasonography exams were carried out in the first and third months postoperatively. The form of clinical severity of venous disease, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) was completed before and after surgery. We excluded patients with history of deep vein thrombosis, smoking or postoperatively use of elastic stockings or phlebotonics. All patients had improved VCSS (p caliber, as well as with preoperative CEAP. There was improvement in CEAP class in nine patients when compared with the preoperative period (p caliber, and to the symptoms when the vein had maximum caliber of 7.5 mm, correlating directly with the CEAP. The decrease in GSV caliber, even without complete abolition of reflux, leads to clinical improvement by decreasing the reflux volume.

  16. Portal vein thrombosis after reconstruction in 270 consecutive patients with portal vein resections in hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) surgery. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masaru; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Ohtuka, Masayuki; Kato, Atsushi; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Katsunori; Takayashiki, Tsukasa; Kuboki, Satoshi; Takano, Shigetsugu; Suzuki, Daisuke; Higashihara, Taku


    This study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence of portal vein thrombosis after portal vein reconstruction. The portal veins were repaired with venorrhaphy, end-to-end, patch graft, and segmental graft in consecutive 270 patients undergoing hepato-pancreto-biliary (HPB) surgery. Portal vein thrombosis was encountered in 20 of 163 of end-to-end, 2 of 56 of venorrhaphy, and 2 of 5 of patch graft groups, as compared with 0 of 46 of segmental graft group (p Portal vein thrombosis occurred more frequently after hepatectomy than after pancreatectomy (p portal vein blood flow was more sufficiently achieved in the early re-operation within 3 days after surgery than in the late re-operation over 5 days after surgery (p portal vein reconstruction. The revision surgery for portal vein thrombosis should be performed within 3 days after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Successful treatment of postoperative massive pulmonary embolism with paradoxal arterial embolism through extracorporeal life support and thrombolysis. (United States)

    Grapatsas, Konstantinos; Leivaditis, Vasileios; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Tsilogianni, Zoi; Kotoulas, Sotirios; Kotoulas, Christophoros; Koletsis, Efstratios; Iliadis, Ilias Stylianos; Spiliotopoulos, Konstantinos; Trakada, Georgia; Veletza, Lemonia; Kallianos, Anastasios; Tsiouda, Theodora; Kosmidis, Christoforos; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Huang, Haidong; Haussmann, Rainer; Haussmann, Erich; Dahm, Manfred


    Pulmonary embolism is a common clinical entity related to high mortality. About 200,000 to 300,000 patients die every year due to pulmonary embolism. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of a patient who on the second postoperative day after undergoing thromboembolectomy of the left femoral artery, manifested a massive pulmonary embolism. Due to cardiorespiratory collapse a combined treatment via extracorporeal life support (ECLS) and parallel catheter thrombolysis was decided and performed. By cardiorespiratory improvement and final stabilization the patient was successfully weaned from ECLS and the system was successfully removed. After a reasonable postoperative time the patient was dismissed in good overall condition.

  18. Embolization of a traumatic uterine arteriovenous malformation. (United States)

    Castillo, Monette S; Borge, Marc A; Pierce, Kenneth L


    Uterine arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare but potentially life-threatening source of bleeding. A high index of suspicion and accurate diagnosis of the condition in a timely manor are essential because instrumentation that is often used for other sources of uterine bleeding can lead to massive hemorrhage. Although angiography remains the gold standard for diagnosis, ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the modalities of choice for the evaluation of a suspected AVM. US and MRI cannot only accurately define a uterine AVM, but they also have the ability to assess the extent of pelvic involvement noninvasively. The definitive treatment of uterine AVM is hysterectomy. However, most women diagnosed with the condition are of childbearing age. Transcatheter uterine artery embolization offers a safe and effective alternative to surgery, with the major advantage of retaining childbearing capacity.

  19. [Parma Stroke Data Bank: embolic stroke]. (United States)

    Tonelli, C; Catamo, A; Finzi, G; Mombelloni, A; Rossetti, A; Silvestrini, C; Ponari, O


    Cerebral infarction is one of the three main causes of death in most countries. It is very frequent and, since it is more often disabiliting rather than fatal, it is of high social impact. The correct classification of patients and the accurate diagnostic definition of the various subtypes of stroke is of great prognostic and therapeutic importance since cerebral infarction is not a single entity. In this study we report our findings concerning 244 patients with embolic infarction recorded in the Parma Stroke Data Bank hospital register. Clinical features were studied (risk factors, symptomatology of the onset, degree of severity within 3 days of the onset, post-stroke complications) as were instruments readings (TAC) and evolution (outcome, mortality, personal performance and environmental integration, both 4 weeks after the clinical onset and after one year).

  20. Cutaneous embolism of an atrial myxoma. (United States)

    Rodríguez Bandera, Ana Isabel; Stewart, Nicholas Charles; Uribe, Pablo; Minocha, Rashi; Choi, James Young Joon


    Cardiac myxoma often presents with heterogeneous symptoms and signs and represents a challenging diagnosis. The cutaneous manifestations, if present, are often transient and non-specific and the clinician must possess a high degree of suspicion to secure the diagnosis. We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with a 6-month history of intermittent, painful, violaceous, non-blanching macules on the thumb and fingertips of the left hand and right ankle. A cutaneous embolic phenomenon was suspected and an urgent echocardiogram demonstrated an atrial mass, with subsequent histopathology confirming the clinical suspicion of atrial myxoma. Early diagnosis and excision of the tumour avoided serious complications. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.